WorldWideScience

Sample records for accompanying orbital grease

  1. Lubrication greases for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubricating greases are essential components of many machines used in nuclear power plants. Where these machines are subject to radiation the life of the grease will be reduced due to deterioration of the components of the grease. According to the chemical nature of the grease used a greater or lesser resistance to radiation will be observed. Tests and techniques to evaluate the performance of greases before and after irradiation are described. The results of these tests show that conventional premium greases will resist comparatively low levels of irradiation, whilst greases formulated from correctly selected components can tolerate quite high levels of radiation permitting the machines they lubricate to attain their designed service lives

  2. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  3. Sterile subperiosteal fluid collections accompanying orbital wall infarction in sickle-cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckfeldt, Rachel M; Shah, Ankoor S

    2014-10-01

    Infarction of the orbital wall is an uncommon manifestation of sickle cell disease (SCD) that may mimic an infectious process. We report a patient with two separate orbital infarctions with different presenting symptoms involving different bones. Radiologic-guided sampling of a periosteal fluid collection in the first episode showed likely sterile inflammatory exudates. This case highlights the range of findings in orbital wall infarction in SCD as well as helpful clinical and imaging entities that may differentiate infarction from infection, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate management.

  4. Environmentally adjusted oil and grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the intention of maintaining healthy environment in our rivers Vattenfall in 1988 initiated a project called 'Environmentally friendly oils'. The goal was to find oils for bearings and hydraulic systems that would cause less negative environmental effects and still maintain a good technical function. Based on the results of the project it is recommended, for both economical and environmental reasons, to change to synthetic oil in bearings and to hydraulic oil made of white oil in regulating systems. The change may be carried out in connection to other work on the system in question. Special care is recommended when cleaning the system from old oil and dirt. In order to maintain the high quality of the oil, also during manufacturing and assembling, one should follow the recommendations outlined in the report. In bearings where used grease leaks into the river, a grease made of white oil should be used. The quality of the rubber sealings must be adapted to the oil used, in order to secure a good function. In order to bring down the number of products and to create an open market some additional changes is necessary in the specifications of oil. Further research regarding oil and sealing is planned. (3 refs.)

  5. 7 CFR 2902.31 - Greases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applies are: (i) Food grade greases. Lubricants that are designed for use on food-processing equipment as... parts and equipment in locations in which there is exposure of the lubricated part to food. (ii... are designed for use on railroad tracks or heavy crane tracks. (iv) Truck greases. Lubricants that...

  6. Biobased greases: soap structure and composition effects on tribological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review containing 58 references on bio-based grease. Bio-based grease use is limited but a successful part of the lubricant market and will likely grow considerably due to economic, environmental and legislative factors. There is not one formulation of grease or grease thickener that will be suc...

  7. Preparation of hyperthermal lithium complex grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Da-heng; FENG Hao; SUN Xiao-ya

    2005-01-01

    Using 12-hydroxystearate, nonan-edioic acid and lithium hydroxide as thickener, refined mineral oil and synthetic oil as base oil, along with some structure improver, antioxidant and anti-wear extreme pressure additive, lithium complex grease was developed. The dropping point of the grease is 331℃, friction factor is 0.025-0.026 under 1.0kN, especially above 220℃, its friction factor is 2/3 of those of urea-based greases and other high temperature greases. At the same time, it has good waterproof, anti-oxidation effect and anti-corrosion properties. The results of the field experiment proves that its working temperature is higher than 600℃, and it has reasonable working life in 800℃.

  8. Psychosocial Accompaniment

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Watkins

    2015-01-01

    This essay advocates for a paradigm shift in psychology toward the activity and ethics of accompaniment. Accompaniment requires a reorientation of the subjectivity, interpersonal practices, and critical understanding of the accompanier so that (s)he can stand alongside others who desire listening, witnessing, advocacy, space to develop critical inquiry and research, and joint imagination and action to address desired and needed changes. The idea of “accompaniment” emerged in liberation theolo...

  9. The Development and Application of Automotive CVJ Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Ming; Ouyang Qiu

    2006-01-01

    The development trend of the CVJ (constant velocity joint) greases is briefly introduced in this paper. Based on the evaluation of various base stocks, thickeners and additives, the formulation and manufacture of the long-life CVJ grease is finalized. Bench tests and vehicle performance evaluation tests tive CVJ. This grease features an outstanding low and high temperature performance, extreme pressure,anti-corrosion and anti-rust properties equivalent to those of similar overseas greases. Compared with the traditional MoS2 containing lithium based CVJ grease, the performance of the new grease is much better.

  10. STUDIES OF GREASE SLUDGE AND LABORATORY ANALYSES OF WATER SEPARATED FROM GREASE SLUDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ojalammi, Risto

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to make analysis for water separated from grease sludge. Lassila Tikanoja Oyj (L&T) is collecting grease sludge, also called fat oil and grease (FOG), from interceptors of restaurants and hospitals and transporting it to further treatment to biogas facility. Distances are long and transportation costs are very high because of small loads. L&T is aiming to decrease the expenses, hence they built a separation tank as a temporary storage. In the separation tan...

  11. Influence of grease formulation on thrust bearings power loss

    OpenAIRE

    Cousseau, Tiago; Graça, Beatriz M.; Campos, A.; Seabra, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The minimization of the power loss and the use of the biodegradable greases have attracting considerable attention. To compare the energetic performance of biodegradable lubricant greases, power loss tests were performed on a modified four-ball machine. A correlation between the grease formulation and rheology was established with its energetic performance

  12. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  13. Orbiting.

    OpenAIRE

    Halford, Sarah Juliette

    2013-01-01

    I always knew I was from another planet. Earth was my home, yes, I liked hamburgers and roller coasters, but there was still an orbit in me that seemed out of place. My imaginative orbit felt like it didn't to spin the "normal" way. As a performer I spent more time alienating myself and judging how different I felt, rather than owning the creative space I lived in and applying it to my craft. My past three years at UC San Diego have been the perfect atmosphere for my artist self. I have been ...

  14. Probe and Sensors Development for Level Measurement of Fats, Oils and Grease in Grease Boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, José; Sousa, André; Reis, Arsénio; Filipe, Vitor; Barroso, João

    2016-01-01

    The wide spread of food outlets has become an environmental and sanitation infrastructure problem, due to Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG). A grease box is used at the industrials facilities to collect the FOG, in a specific time window, while its quality is good for recycling (e.g., biodiesel) and it is economically valuable. After this period, it will be disposed at a cost. For the proper management of the grease boxes, it is necessary to know the quantity of FOG inside the boxes, which is a major problem, as the boxes are sealed and permanently filled with water. The lack of homogeneity of the FOG renders it not detectable by current probes for level detection in liquids. In this article, the design, development and testing of a set of probes for FOG level measurement, based on the principles used in sensors for the detection of liquids inside containers, is described. The most suitable probe, based on the capacitance principle, together with the necessary hardware and software modules for data acquisition and transmission, was developed and tested. After the development phase, the probe was integrated on a metropolitan system for FOG collection and grease box management in partnership with a grease box management company. PMID:27649204

  15. 7 CFR 2902.24 - Graffiti and grease removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... remove automotive, industrial, or kitchen soils and oils, including grease, paint, and other coatings, from hard surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have...

  16. Third cranial nerve palsy (ptosis, diplopia accompanied by orbital swelling: case report of unusual clinical presentation of giant cell arteritis associated with polymyalgia rheumatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prassede Bravi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionGiant cell arteritis (GCA is the most common systemic vasculitis in older individuals, characterized by granulomatosus inflammation of the wall of large and medium-sized arteries. The wide spectrum of arterial sites involved leads to ischemia of different organs resulting in a wide range of clinical signs and symptoms. Temporal artery is commonly involved (temporal arteritis. Unusual patterns of presentation, such as extraocular motility disorders and orbital swelling, may be early and transient manifestations of GCA and precede the permanent visual loss due to ischemic optic neuropathy.Case reportWe describe a patient with uncommon manifestations of GCA consisting of transient recurrent diplopia, ptosis, orbital swelling together with more typical clinical features of the disease such as musculoskeletal manifestations (polymyalgia rheumatica and facial pain: all signs and symptoms promptly resolved under corticosteroid therapy without relapse.Conclusions A high level of suspicion of GCA in individuals over the age of 50 years is needed to prevent the development of severe complications. Clinicians should be aware of uncommon manifestations of the disease such as head–neck swelling and ophthalmoplegia: management guidelines have stated that prompt administration of adequate dose of corticosteroids as soon as ocular manifestations of GCA are noted may almost totally prevent blindness.

  17. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  18. Shifts in microbial communities in bioaugmented grease interceptors removing fat, oil, and grease (FOG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; So, Mark Jason; de Los Reyes, Francis L

    2016-08-01

    To understand the effect of daily bioaugmentation in full-scale grease interceptors (GIs), we compared the microbial communities occurring in two full-scale GIs during bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented cycles. The changes in microbial communities were determined using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene clone library construction. Differences in the microbial community structure between control and bioaugmented cycles were observed in all cases, although the dominant terminal restriction fragments in the biological product were not detected. The addition of bioaugmentation products and changes in the GI microbial ecology were related to differences in GI performance. Understanding the shifts due to bioaugmentation will result in more informed assessments of the benefits of bioadditives on FOG removal in GIs as well as the effects on downstream sewer lines.

  19. Producing biodiesel from yellow greases with high free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrani Mahacine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a diesel replacement fuel that is manufactured from vegetable oils recycled cooking greases and oils or animal fats. Biodiesel offers many advantages because it is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and suitable for sensitive environments. It can also be used in most diesel equipments with no or only minor modifications. These yellow greases contain great quantities of free fatty acids which form soaps in the presence of alkaline catalyst. Pretreatments of the raw material with acid catalysts are necessary to avoid the soap formation. The transesterification of yellow greases is supplemented in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The greatest production of biodiesel corresponds to molar flows of 4.985 kmol.hr-1 of methyl oleate, and 4.658 kmol.hr-1 of methyl butyrate.

  20. Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.X.; Westerberg, L.G.; Höglund, E.; Lugt, P.M.; Baart, P.

    2014-01-01

    Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant for the prediction of grease distribution for optimum lubrication and for the migration of wear and contaminant particles. In this study,

  1. Quantifying fat, oil, and grease deposit formation kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits formed in sanitary sewers are calcium-based saponified solids that are responsible for a significant number of nationwide sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) across United States. In the current study, the kinetics of lab-based saponified solids were determined to un...

  2. Consistency-dependent optical properties of lubricating grease studied by terahertz spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Lu; Miao Qing; Zhang Cun-Lin; Zhou Qing-Li; Zhao Kun; Shi Yu-Lei; Zhao Dong-Mei; Zhao Song-Qing; Zhao Hui; Bao Ri-Ma; Zhu Shou-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties of four kinds of lubricating greases (urea, lithium, extreme pressure lithium, molybdenum disulfide lithium greases) with different NLGL (National Lubricant Grease Institute of America) numbers were investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Greases with different NLGL grades have unique spectral features in the terahertz range. Comparison of the experimental data with predictions based on Lorentz-Lorenz theory exhibited that the refractive indices of each kind of lubricating grease were dependent on the their consistency. In addition,molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a libricant additive shows strong absorption from 0.2 to 1.4 THz, leading to higher absorption of MoS2-1ithium grease than that of lithium grease.

  3. Thermal Grease Evaluation for ATLAS Upgrade Micro-Strip Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Clark, A; Ferrère, D; Pernecker, S; Perrin, E; Streit, KP; Weber, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS upgrade detector foreseen at the phase 2 upgrade of LHC requires a complete new inner detector using silicon pixel and strip detectors. For both technologies, a specific mechanical and thermal design is required. Such a design may use soft thermal interfaces such as grease between the various parts. One foreseeable use would be between the cooling pipe and the thermal block allowing the strip modules to be decoupled from the mechanical and cooling structure. This note describes the technique used and the results obtained when characterizing a few grease samples. The results have been compared with thermal FEA simulations. A thermal conductivity measurement for each sample could be extracted from the measurements, with a systematic uncertainty of less than 6%. Some samples were irradiated to the expected fluence at sLHC and their resulting thermal conductivity compared with the non-irradiated samples.

  4. REMOVAL OF OIL AND GREASE FROM AN OIL REFINERY EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Naseri

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research performed during 1993-1994, the effluent of Behran Oil Refmery, in south of Tehran, which produces different types of industrial oil and greases, was studied and 3 methods of gravity separation, coagulation and flocculation and dissolved air flotation were investigated. In the first phase of the survey, the quality and quantity of the effluent were determined. This showed an average daily flow rate of 302 m3, pH 9.03, and average concentration of 314.84, 3330, 200, 1726 and 34.5 mg/l, respectively for oil, COD, SS, TS and furfural. In the second phase, the efficiency of abovementioned treatment methods were as follows: Applying gravity separation with the detention time of 180 mm, removal percentages for COD, SS and greases were 30.3%, 52.5% and 49.6%, respectively. Applying coagulation and flocculation following gravity separation different coagulants (alum, lime and ferric chloride were used and their treatment efficiencies were evaluated. Lime showed the highest efficiency of 64% and 85.4%, for grease and COD removal, respectively in pH 11. Dissolved air flotation (DAF, which was conducted in the pressure of 3 bars, showed average removal percentages of 9l.96% and 79.17%, for the oil and COD, respectively. So, this system may be chosen as the most efficient one in oil and grease removal producing an effluent which may be fed to a biological treatment unit to remove other pollutants such as ROD and COD.

  5. The potential of restaurant trap grease as biodiesel feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichart Hasuntree

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using restaurant trap grease as feedstock in the production of biodiesel via acid catalyzed esterificationis explored in this study. Sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst for the esterification reaction of free fatty acid (FFA andmethanol. The FFA levels of restaurant trap greases were reduced from 60.38±2.22 mg KOH/g to 11.60±1.60 mgKOH/g whenconditions for biodiesel production are as follow: methanol-to-FFA ratio of 5:1, 5 wt.% H2SO4, and a reaction temperature at60°C with a reaction time of 60 min. During the acid-catalyzed esterification, the percentage of methyl esters resulting fromconversion of FFA in the obtained product was 83.59±1.51% based on the result of 1H NMR analysis. Data obtained from the23 full factorial designs revealed that methanol-to-FFA ratio term had the most significant effect on the percentage of methylesters, followed by the H2SO4 concentration. Conversely, reaction time between 1 and 3 hours had no significant effect on theesterification of trap greases.

  6. PERFECTION OF COMPRESSORS OF HIGH AND AVERAGE PRODUCTIVITY WITH GREASING AND WITHOUT GREASING FOR COMPRESSION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Ворошилов, И. В.; Барко, А. В.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide are finds the wide application in three kinds: liquid high and low pressure, dry ice. For its manufacture in such kind it is necessary to use the piston compressors with three or four steps of compression. Dry condensation are applied to improvement of quality made carbon dioxide in compressors in vapors of cylinder–piston and rod–gasket. Mechanisms of compressors’ movement have system of greasing with limited oil supply. Compressors are created for work with the increased numb...

  7. Case study of the effectiveness of passive grease trap for management on domestic kitchen waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Juffrizal, K.; Mustapha, F.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Household waste, generally known as trash or garbage is mostly includes food wastes, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes that are coming from domestic household. Grease waste such as oil and fats can contaminate water and also clot on pipes provoking blockages. Thus, waste water from kitchen sink need a proper way of filtration. Grease trap developed in this paper is viable in trapping the grease residue. The experiments have been conducted in controlled environment and the objectives are to investigate the effectiveness of grease trap by proving the existence of retention time and the expected ratio of collected water and oil during experiment process using a prototype model.

  8. Effective viscosity of grease ice in linearized gravity waves

    CERN Document Server

    de Carolis, G; Pignagnoli, L; Carolis, Giacomo de; Olla, Piero; Pignagnoli, Luca

    2004-01-01

    Grease ice is an agglomeration of disc-shaped ice crystals, named frazil ice, which forms in turbulent waters of the Polar Oceans and in rivers as well. It has been recognized that the properties of grease ice to damp surface gravity waves could be explained in terms of the effective viscosity of the ice slurry. This paper is devoted to the study of the dynamics of a suspension of disc-shaped particles in a gravity wave field. For dilute suspensions,depending on the strength and frequency of the external wave flow, two orientation regimes of the particles are predicted: a preferential orientation regime with the particles rotating in coherent fashion with the wave field, and a random orientation regime in which the particles oscillate around their initial orientation while diffusing under the effect of Brownian motion. For both motion regimes, the effective viscosity has been derived as a function of the wave frequency, wave amplitude and aspect ratio of the particles. Model predictions have been validated ag...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and...

  10. Accelerated Testing of UH-60 Viscous Bearings for Degraded Grease Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Brian; Hood, Adrian; Krantz, Timothy; Klemmer, Marko

    2015-01-01

    An accelerated aging investigation of critical aviation bearings lubricated with MIL-PRF- 81322 grease was conducted to derive an understanding of the mechanisms of grease degradation and loss of lubrication over time. The current study focuses on UH-60 Black Hawk viscous damper bearings supporting the tail rotor driveshaft, which were subjected to more than 5800 hours of testing in a heated environment to accelerate the deterioration of the grease. The mechanism of grease degradation is a reduction in the oil/thickener ratio rather than the expected chemical degradation of grease constituents. Over the course of testing, vibration and temperature monitoring of bearings was conducted and trends for failing bearings are presented.

  11. Comparative Studies on Low Noise Greases Operating under High Temperature Oxidation Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Chunhua; Mi Hongying; Feng Qiang; Wu Baojie

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation induction time (OIT) testing by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to evaluate the oxidation resistance of lubricating greases. Under the high temperature condition, bearing noise was detected when grease passed the initial stable stage of oxidation. The chemical and physical structure of grease samples before and after high tem-perature oxidation were also analyzed by FT-IR spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), then the effects of oxidation at high temperature on bearing noise were investigated. It is found out that for lithium greases, oxidation of base oil and thickener is the main reason responsible for the increasing bearing noise. As regards the polyurea greases, the change of ifber microstructure at high temperature is the main reason for the increasing bearing noise.

  12. μPIV measurement of grease velocity profiles in channels with two different types of flow restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.X.; Hoglund, E.; Westerberg, L.G.; Green, T.M.; Lundstrom, T.S.; Lugt, P.M.; Baart, P.

    2012-01-01

    Grease is commonly used to lubricate various machine components such as rolling bearings and seals. In this paper the flow of lubricating grease passing restrictions is described. Such flow occurs in rolling bearings during relubrication events where the grease is flowing in the transverse (axial) d

  13. Study on Preparation and Properties of Grease Based on Ultraifne Bentonite Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Guo Xiaochuan; Jiang Mingjun; He Yan

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility for preparation of ultraifne bentonite powder by different milling methods was studied. And the comparison of comprehensive performance between ultraifne bentonite grease and traditional bentonite grease was also investigated. The results indicated that the statistic Z-average size of ultraifne bentonite prepared by sand milling was 250 nm with a narrow size distribution and the lattice structure of ultraifne bentonite maintained good character despite a slight distortion occasioned. The mechanical stability, colloid stability, antiwear ability and friction-reducing property of ultraifne bentonite grease were superior to the traditional one.

  14. Radioisotope studies on the paradox in dispersion and agglomeration of sewage greases discharged from ocean outfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been undertaken in the ocean off Sydney, Australia to monitor the movement and the dispersion of sewage solids. These solids were labelled with a radioisotope, gold-198 prior to ocean discharge. The labelled material was followed at sea using submersible scintillation detectors. Lateral and vertical dispersion coefficients were determined. The experiments showed that under some conditions the labelled sewage grease dispersed and under others the grease agglomerated. This variation is explained in terms of non-conservative processes

  15. AN ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSING STRATEGY FOR IMPROVING TRIBOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF AISI 316 STAINLESS STEEL UNDER GREASE LUBRICATION

    OpenAIRE

    JIAOJUAN ZOU; MAOLIN LI; NAIMING LIN; XIANGYU ZHANG; LIN QIN; BIN TANG

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the tribological performance of AISI 316 stainless steel (316 SS) under grease lubrication, electrochemical processing was conducted on it to obtain a rough (surface texturing-like) surface by making use of the high sensitivity of austenitic stainless steel to pitting corrosion in Cl--rich environment. Numerous corrosion pits or micro-ditches acted as micro-reservoirs on the obtained surface. While the grease could offer consistent lubrication, and then improve the tribolo...

  16. Oil, grease and used petroleum oil management and environmental economic issues

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Pawlak; T. Rauckyte; A. Oloyede

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper undertakes to answer the question of how used petroleum oil and grease enter groundwater or to the drain becoming both environmental and economic problems to utility companies.Design/methodology/approach: Laboratory methodology was based on modern instrumentation validated further with experimental investigation. Petroleum-contaminated soil samples were analyzed for oil and grease (O/G) content, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and volatile aromatic compounds: benzene, ...

  17. Grease Cowboy Fever; or, the making of Johnny T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, K

    2002-01-01

    Through a mix of theory, memoir and performance narrative, this chapter examines the making of drag persona Johnny T. as part of a king movement where the dominant cultural paradigm of gender is reconsidered and remastered. As seen in Grease, Saturday Night Fever and Urban Cowboy, pop culture icon John Travolta's particular blend of 50s greaser, faggy 70s disco, and 80s country masculinities are shown to be prime drag king conditions, particularly for a dyke who came of age during the 70s Travolta fever. While drawing from personal experience as a king, current trends in the king movement, and gender theory, this essay calls into question the lines between performing masculinity on and off the stage, inviting us to see both the work and play, the parody and realness, the struggle and liberation that make up the transgressive world of drag kinging and gender variance. Drawing upon gender theorists Judith Butler and Judith Halberstam, gender is exposed as a social construction both produced and performed, and as such, drag kinging is framed as an arena where gender is reconfigured.

  18. Design and application on experimental platform for high-speed bearing with grease lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental platform for high-speed grease is an important tool for research and development of high-speed motorized spindle with grease lubrication. In this article, the experimental platform for high-speed grease is designed and manufactured which consists of the drive system, the test portion, the loading system, the lubrication system, the control system, and so on. In the meantime, the high-speed angular contact ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 as the research object are tested and contrasted in the grease lubrication and oil mist lubrication. The experimental platform performance is validated by contrast experiment, and the high-speed lubricated bearing performance is also studied especially in the relationship among the rotating speed,load and temperature rise. The results show that the experimental platform works steadily, accurate, and reliable in the experimental testing. And the grease lubrication ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 can be used in high-speed motorized spindle in the circular water cooling conditions when the rotating speed is lower than 40,000 r/min or the DN value (the value of the bearing diameter times the rotating speed is lower than the 1.44 × 106 mm r/min. Grease lubrication instead of oil mist lubrication under high-speed rotating will simplify the structure design of the high-speed motorized spindle and reduce the pollution to the environment.

  19. A solvent-free approach to extract the lipid fraction from sewer grease for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qingshi; Wang, Jingjing; Lu, Mingming; Brougham, Andrew; Lu, Ting

    2016-08-01

    Fats, oils and greases (FOG) are the number one cause of sewer pipe blockage and have been mostly disposed of as a waste until recently. This study investigated a low cost and environmentally friendly approach to extract the lipid fraction (fatty acids and glycerides for biodiesel production) from sewer grease (SG), i.e., FOGs obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The lipid fraction of the sewer grease was primarily in the form of free fatty acid (FFA), at 20.7wt%. An innovative solvent-free extraction approach was developed using waste cooking oil (WCO) to overcome the challenges of emulsion, impurities and high moisture content of the sewer grease. A 95% extraction yield of sewer grease was achieved under the optimum operating condition of 3.2:1 WCO-SG ratio (wt/wt), 70°C and 240min. In addition, the reusability of the WCO was also investigated. WCO can be used two to three times for sewer grease extraction with more than 90% extraction efficiency. PMID:27256783

  20. Quantifying fat, oil, and grease deposit formation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J

    2016-01-01

    Fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits formed in sanitary sewers are calcium-based saponified solids that are responsible for a significant number of nationwide sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) across United States. In the current study, the kinetics of lab-based saponified solids were determined to understand the kinetics of FOG deposit formation in sewers for two types of fat (Canola and Beef Tallow) and two types of calcium sources (calcium chloride and calcium sulfate) under three pH (7 ± 0.5, 10 ± 0.5, and ≈14) and two temperature conditions (22 ± 0.5 and 45 ± 0.5 °C). The results of this study displayed quick reactions of a fraction of fats with calcium ions to form calcium based saponified solids. Results further showed that increased palmitic fatty acid content in source fats, the magnitude of the pH, and temperature significantly affect the FOG deposit formation and saponification rates. The experimental data of the kinetics were compared with two empirical models: a) Cotte saponification model and b) Foubert crystallization model and a mass-action based mechanistic model that included alkali driven hydrolysis of triglycerides. Results showed that the mass action based mechanistic model was able to predict changes in the rate of formation of saponified solids under the different experimental conditions compared to both empirical models. The mass-action based saponification model also revealed that the hydrolysis of Beef Tallow was slower compared to liquid Canola fat resulting in smaller quantities of saponified solids. This mechanistic saponification model, with its ability to track the saponified solids chemical precursors, may provide an initial framework to predict the spatial formation of FOG deposits in municipal sewers using system wide sewer collection modeling software.

  1. The Field-Dependent Rheological Properties of Magnetorheological Grease Based on Carbonyl-Iron-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, N.; Mazlan, S. A.; Ubaidillah; Choi, Seung-Bok; Nordin, M. F. M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents dynamic viscoelastic properties of magnetorheological (MR) grease under variation of magnetic fields and magnetic particle fractions. The tests to discern the field-dependent properties are undertaken using both rotational and oscillatory shear rheometers. As a first step, the MR grease is developed by dispersing the carbonyl iron (CI) particles into grease medium with a mechanical stirrer. Experimental data are obtained by changing the magnetic field from 0 to 0.7 T at room temperature of 25 °C. It is found that a strong Payne effect limits the linear viscoelastic region of MR grease at strains above 0.1%. The results exhibit a high dynamic yield stress which is equivalent to Bingham plastic rheological model, and show relatively good MR effect at high shear rate of 2000 s‑1. In addition, high dispersion of the magnetic particles and good thermal properties are proven. The results presented in this work directly indicate that MR grease is a smart material candidate that could be widely applicable to various fields including vibration control.

  2. An Electrochemical Processing Strategy for Improving Tribological Performance of Aisi 316 Stainless Steel Under Grease Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jiaojuan; Li, Maolin; Lin, Naiming; Zhang, Xiangyu; Qin, Lin; Tang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve the tribological performance of AISI 316 stainless steel (316 SS) under grease lubrication, electrochemical processing was conducted on it to obtain a rough (surface texturing-like) surface by making use of the high sensitivity of austenitic stainless steel to pitting corrosion in Cl--rich environment. Numerous corrosion pits or micro-ditches acted as micro-reservoirs on the obtained surface. While the grease could offer consistent lubrication, and then improve the tribological performance of 316 SS. Tribological behaviors of raw 316 SS and the treated sample were measured using a reciprocating type tribometer sliding against GCr15 steel counterpart under dry and grease lubrication conditions. The results showed that the mass losses of the two samples were in the same order of magnitude, and the raw sample exhibited lower friction coefficient in dry sliding. When the tests were conducted under grease lubrication condition, the friction coefficients and mass losses of the treated sample were far lower than those of the raw 316 SS. The tribological performance of 316 SS under grease lubrication was drastically improved after electrochemical processing.

  3. Influence of Base Oil Polarity on the Transient Shear Flow of Biodegradable Lubricating Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fiedler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to elucidate the physical mechanisms influencing the transient flow behavior of lubricating greases based on biogenic oleochemicals from a polarity point of view. This includes the mutually interacting influence of base oil polarity and thickening agents on the rheologically-measured mechanical structural degradation in transient shear flow. Due to the high temperature dependence of Keesom forces in the background of polar-active bond mechanisms, the analysis of the transient flow response as a function of temperature allows to attribute the observed influences to differences in base oil polarity. In general, clay-thickened greases show a greater tendency to be rheologically influenced by base oil polarities than soap-thickened lubricating greases.

  4. Performance of High-Speed Grease Lubricated Hybrid Ceramic Ball Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀娟; 王黎钦; 古乐

    2004-01-01

    To simplify the lubricating system for high-speed bearings and improve its reliability, grease lubricated high-speed hybrid ceramic bearings were theoretically and experimentally researched.Bearings with an outer race of 62 mm and eleven 9.525-mm balls were investigated.Traction coefficient and flash temperature between the bearing races and the balls were calculated and the results show that the traction coefficient of Si3N4 hybrid ceramic bearings is 74% that of the steel AISI 440B ones at 30 000 r/min and 1750 N, and the flash temperature of the hybrid bearings is 49% that of steel ones.Simulating the high-speed bearing rotational conditions, the grease lubricated hybrid ceramic ball bearings were tested and the results show that the power consumption of hybrid ceramic bearing lubricated by grease D at 24 000 r/min and axial load 1750 N is 80% that of steel ones.

  5. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  6. Design of the GLARE tool. A grease lubrication apparatus for research and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GLARE: Grease Lubrication Apparatus for Research and Education was designed as a fourth year thesis project with the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT). The purpose of the apparatus is to train Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) staff to properly lubricate bearings with grease and to help detect early equipment failures. Proper re-lubrication is critical to the nuclear industry as equipment may be inaccessible for long periods of time. A secondary purpose for the tool is for UOIT research and undergraduate laboratories.This abstract provides an overview of the project and its application to the nuclear industry. (author)

  7. Estimation of modes frictions and greasing in bearing axial hanging of locomotives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Аstаkhоv

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dependence is considered between the size of relative diametral gap and descriptions of work of the motor-axial bearing on the different rates of movement of diesel engine: by the type of the mode of greasing, thickness lubricating layer, by the coefficient of friction and intensity of wear.

  8. Effects of Atomic Oxygen and Grease on Outgassing and Adhesion of Silicone Elastomers for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of silicone elastomers for seals used in docking and habitat systems for future space exploration vehicles is being conducted at NASA. For certain missions, NASA is considering androgynous docking systems where two vehicles each having a seal would be required to: dock for a period of time, seal effectively, and then separate with minimum push-off forces for undocking. Silicone materials are generally chosen for their wide operating temperatures and low leakage rates. However silicone materials are often sticky and usually exhibit considerable adhesion when mated against metals and silicone surfaces. This paper investigates the adhesion unit pressure for a space rated silicone material (S0383-70) for either seal-on-seal (SoS) or seal-on-aluminum (SoAl) operation modes in the following conditions: as-received, after ground-based atomic-oxygen (AO) pre-treatment, after application of a thin coating of a space-qualified grease (Braycote 601EF), and after a combination of AO pre-treatment and grease coating. In order of descending adhesion reduction, the AO treatment reduced seal adhesion the most, followed by the AO plus grease pre-treatment, followed by the grease treatment. The effects of various treatments on silicone (S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401) outgassing properties were also investigated. The leading adhesion AO pretreatment reduction led to a slight decrease in outgassing for the S0383-70 material and virtually no change in ELA-SA-401 outgassing.

  9. On the normal stress effect in grease-lubricated bearing seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, P.; Lugt, P.M.; Prakash, B.

    2014-01-01

    The film formation in lip seals, due to the non-Newtonian rheology of the lubricant, has been a topic of speculation. Earlier work suggests that normal stresses in grease would be favorable for the film buildup between the seal lip and shaft or bearing ring. In the current article, we evaluate this

  10. Rheological Properties of Extreme Pressure Greases Measured Using a Process Control Rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, Julie; Smith, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    A new process control rheometer (PCR) designed for use in industrial process flows has been used to measure the rheological properties of three extreme-pressure greases. The rheometer is a robust yet sensitive instrument designed to operate in an industrial processing environment in either in...

  11. 9 CFR 316.15 - Marking outside containers of inedible grease, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... grease, etc. 316.15 Section 316.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... letters not less than 2 inches high, while on tank cars and tank trucks the letters shall be not less than 4 inches high. (b) Inspected rendered animal fat which is intended not to be used for human food...

  12. Removal of Oil and Grease as Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPC in Wastewater Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alade Abass O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater characteristics, which depend on wastewater source, are increasingly becoming more toxic in recent times. The concentrations of oil and grease in wastewater streams have been observed to increase in wastewater stream with increasing adverse effects on the ecology. This results from the increasing use of oil and grease in high-demanded oil-processed foods, establishment and expansion of oil mills and refineries worldwide, as well as indiscriminate discharge of oil and grease into the water drains, domestically and industrially. This study reports the applications, efficiencies and challenges of the wastewater treatment techniques currently employed in the removal of oil and grease from the industrial wastewater and municipal water stream. The results shows that the concentrations of oil and grease injected into the ecosystem are of higher environmental impact and this needs to be given the desired attention. The desired development for effective removal of oil and grease as emerging pollutants of concern (EPC in wastewater stream are thus proposed. ABSTRAK: Ciri-ciri air sisa, bergantung kepada punca air sisa tersebut, menjadi semakin toksik akhir-akhir ini. Kepekatan minyak dan gris dalam air sisa anak sungai dilihat makin bertambah dalam air sisa anak sungai dengan bertambahnya kesan negatif ke atas ekologi. Ini disebabkan oleh peningkatan penggunaan minyak dan gris dalam makanan berproses yang tinggi permintaannya, penubuhan dan perkembangan kilang pertroleum dan loji penapisan di seluruh dunia. Minyak dan gris juga dibuang sewenang-wenangnya ke dalam parit air, dari kalangan domestik dan industry. Kajian ini membentangkan tentang aplikasi, keberkesanan dan teknik cabaran rawatan air buangan yang kini digunakan dalam pembuangan minyak dan gris dari air sisa industry dan air sungai perbandaran. Keputusan menunjukkan kepekatan minyak dan gris yang wujud dibuang ke dalam ekosistem mempunyai impak yang lebih tinggi terhadap persekitaran

  13. Orbital maneuvers and space rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.

    2015-12-01

    Several possibilities of launching a space vehicle from the orbital station are considered and compared. Orbital maneuvers discussed in the paper can be useful in designing a trajectory for a specific space mission. The relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on examples of spacecraft rendezvous with the space station that stays in a circular orbit around the Earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by an accompanying simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on fundamental laws of physics and conservation laws. Material is appropriate for engineers and other personnel involved in space exploration, undergraduate and graduate students studying classical physics and orbital mechanics.

  14. Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source.

  15. Interaction of Chloroprene and Nitrile- Butadiene Rubber with Lubricating Greases and Base Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The present communication addresses compatibility of two synthetic rubber types, chloroprene and nitrilebutadiene ones, with a number of base oils of petroleum origin and lubricating greases produced thereof. Four base oils,including three naphthenic products with varying degrees of refining and one paraffinic product,were compared with each other in terms of their effect on the rubbers. Degenerative changes occurring in the rubbers on contact with the oils and greases were studied using accelerated ageing tests. Alterations in rubber parameters, such as hardness, weight and glass transition temperature, caused by interaction with oil were monitored. The main physicochemical mechanisms standing behind the changes observed in the rubber properties were found to be (i) migration of plasticizer from rubber into the oil phase, (ii) absorption of oil by rubber,and (iii) oxidation of rubber. An increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) of rubber aged in a base oil or grease was considered as an indirect indication that the plasticizer had migrated out of rubber;the plasticizer accumulation in the oil phase being directly confirmed by gas chromatography. In order to suppress the plasticizer migration, oil additivation with dioctyl adipate (DOA), a common plasticizer used in rubber formulations, was attempted. However, the BOA-additivated oils, while reducing plasticizer migration, were found to cause more swelling than the original oils in the case of chloroprene rubber. As an alternative, replacement of BOA by an alkylated aryl phosphate in nitrile- butadiene rubber formulations was considered, but it did not solve the problem either.The results of this study suggest conclusively that the type of rubber, the plasticizer, and the base oil are all the crucial parameters that should be considered when matching rubber with oil in real- life applications. Interaction of rubber with base oils and with greases produced thereof is largely controlled by (i) solvency of the

  16. Electrical pitting of grease-lubricated rolling and sliding bearings: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical pitting of grease-lubricated rolling and sliding bearings were tested. Subsequently, various conclusive findings arose from the tests. The various tests included testing for: typical wear modes and mechanisms, wear debris morphology, the results of various experiments, the results relating to experiments undertaken at temperatures and the typical bearing worn surfaces. Using different techniques, this study methodically assessed the effects of electrical currents and mechanical parameters combined with grease-lubricated rolling and sliding bearings. The grease-lubricated bearings were tested using the AC field. Typical characteristics or morphologies of electrical pitting wear particles were observed. In addition, the electrical pitting wear regimes, which corresponded to the respective physical responses, such as bearing housing temperatures, worn surfaces and the morphology of wear debris were anticipated. Thus, from the experiments undertaken, different wear regimes were revealed. These were dependant on the test parameters. Each stage produced wear particles, which were supported the belief that morphology had taken place at each stage.

  17. Characterisation of FOGs in grease trap waste from the processing of chickens in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitayapat, Nuttakan; Chitprasert, Pakamon

    2014-06-01

    Industrial firms that kill and process chickens generate wastewater that contains fat, oil, and grease (FOG). The FOGs are located in the fatty waste that is collected by floatation in grease traps. Chemical and physical characterisation of FOGs would provide useful information that would help in the development of methods designed to decrease the extent of pollution caused by disposal of the waste and to utilise commercially some of its lipid constituents. Employing these methods would enhance the profitability and competitive potential of these commercial organisations. Samples of grease trap waste from 14 firms in central Thailand have been examined. Due to the very different schemes of waste management employed by these firms, the physical appearance of their fatty wastes showed considerable variation. The chemical and physical properties of the FOGs present in these wastes showed considerable variation also. Large amounts of free fatty acids (10-70% as oleic acid) were detected in most of the 14 wastes and palmitic, cis-9-oleic, cis,cis-9,12-linoleic, stearic, and palmitoleic acids were the predominant species of free and esterified acids. Most of the FOGs were solid at temperatures below 40 °C. Many of them contained traces of heavy metals (Cu and Pb) and some contained traces of the pesticides dimethoate and cypermethrin. The content of these potentially hazardous substances would have to be considered very carefully before discarding the fatty wastes and during the development of methods designed to isolate their potentially profitable lipid constituents. PMID:24095036

  18. Oil, grease and used petroleum oil management and environmental economic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pawlak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper undertakes to answer the question of how used petroleum oil and grease enter groundwater or to the drain becoming both environmental and economic problems to utility companies.Design/methodology/approach: Laboratory methodology was based on modern instrumentation validated further with experimental investigation. Petroleum-contaminated soil samples were analyzed for oil and grease (O/G content, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, and volatile aromatic compounds: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX and naphthalene. Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS was used to analyse BTEX and naphthalene analytes.Findings: The results show that total petroleum hydrocarbon fraction (TPH accounted for oil and grease (O/G and the ratio of [TPH]/[O/G] ranged from 12% to 50%. The results of volatile organic fraction (BTEX accounted for only a small part of total TPH and the ratio of [BTEX]/[TPH] ranged below 1%. The concentration of four samples for TPH test exceeded the regulatory limit of 500 ppm for hydrocarbons. The gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID method appear to offer the best basis for standard TPH test in soil and groundwater verification of site cleanup.Research limitations/implications: In the future it will be possible to apply the procedures to other more complicated cases e.g. used oil containing more than 1000 ppm total halogens, which is regulated as hazardous waste.Practical implications: Promising directions for adaptation of appropriate pre-treatment standard processes for recycling programs, pollution prevention and reduction of maintenance cost.Originality/value: The gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID methods appear to offer the best hope for standard TPH test in soil and groundwater verification of site cleanup. Implementation of management standards and a permit policy for O/G and used oil generators will be issued to each facility.

  19. A novel application of Egyptian oil shale as a filler in the production of lithium lubricating grease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Wakeel, M. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Geology Department; Al Adly, R. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst., Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-12-15

    This article reports on the preparation and characterization of six formulations of grease based on soybean soapstock and aromatic extracts using oil shale as a filler. The oil shale that occurs within the Quseir-Safaga district is subjected to a detailed petrography, size distribution, mineralogy, and chemical studies. The total extracted hydrocarbon content, using an organic solvent, is analyzed for molecular weight by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The physicochemical properties of the aromatic extracts are determined. The processing conditions following the blending are optimized to produce the appropriate lithium soap structure, as well as dispersion of the filler. The work also includes a study of the competitive effectiveness of different grades of aromatic extracts and also various percentages of oil shale, along with an evaluation of their effects on the properties of formulated lubricating greases. The prepared greases are assessed in accordance with National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) and Egyptian Standard (ES). It is concluded that the above-mentioned ingredients can be used for the preparation of lithium greases. (author)

  20. Orbital pseudotumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS) Images Skull anatomy References Goodlick TA, Kay MD, Glaser JS, Tse DT, Chang WJ. Orbital disease and neuro-ophthalmology. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane’s ...

  1. Greasing Palms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, multinational companies have been disclosed to have been involved in bribery scandals in China on numerous occasions. In 2004, Lucent from the United States was disclosed in a bribery scandal

  2. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  3. Development and evaluation of emulsifying systems of the material grease from Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Dourado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oils and butter of seed from Brazilian biodiversity are extending the range of innovative products for cosmetics development. They have a fat potential similar to skin composition, leading to the improved performance of these product. Aims: Improve the emulsions spreadability through prior screening of grease composition and studying the viscosity, and the emulsions accelerated stability. Methods: Emulsions were formulated using oils from semiarid plants from Bahia: Syagrus coronate, Pachira retusa, and Pachira aquatica, so as to compare them with oils already standard in the production of cosmetics. Spreadability and stability tests were made comparing the results. The same criteria were used with Amazon seed butter: Virola surinamensis, Butyrospermum parkii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Theobroma cacao and Theobroma grandiflorum. For the emulsions screening and performance, a system was developed for oil/ butter, following tests of accelerated stability, viscosity, and spreadability. Results: The combined system of spreadability was optimized using screening. Emollients containing oleic and palmitic acids, and light chain fatty acids obtained good spreadability. The oil emulsion containing Pachira retusa and Virola surinamensis butter had a higher viscosity. Conclusions: With high content of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic or the light chain fatty acids obtain an appropriated appearance, texture, and spreadability for cosmetic use. Thus, oils with a low fatty acid content may be combined with butter that have a high fatty acid content and vice-versa. Analyzing and strategically combining grease composition, one can optimize the performance of cosmetic formulations.

  4. Biodiesel Production from Waste Edible Oils and Grease Containing Free Fatty Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Fenghong; Guo Pingmei; Huang Qingde

    2005-01-01

    Till now, most part of the biodiesel is produced from the refined vegetable oils using methanol as feedstock in the presence of an alkali catalyst. However, large amount of waste edible oils and grease are available. The difficulty with alkali-catalyzed esterification of these oils is that they often contain large amount of free fatty acids (FFA), polymers and decomposition products. These free fatty acids can quickly react with the alkali catalyst to produce soaps that inhibit the separation of the ester and glycerine. An esterification and transesterification process is developed to convert the high FFA oil to its monoesters. The first step, the acidcatalyzed esterification with glycerine and these FFA reduces the FFA content of the oil and grease to less than3%, and then an azeotropic distillation solvent is used to remove the water. The major factors affecting the conversion efficiency of the process such as glycerol to free fatty acid molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction temperature and reaction duration are analyzed. The second step, alkali-catalyzed transesterification process converts the products of the first step to its monoesters and glycerol, and then the glycerol is recycled for utilization in the first step. Technical indicators of the biodiesel product can meet the ASTM 6751 standard.

  5. Research on anti-contact fatigue performance of grease containing nano SbSbS4 particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; SONG Bao-yu; QU Jian-jun; LIU Wei-min

    2005-01-01

    Effects of nano SbSbS4particles on contact fatigue life of a steel ball were evaluated on a self-made ball-rod contact fatigue tester. The anti-fatigue mechanisms of SbSbS4 additive were analyzed by means of SEM and EDAX. It was shown that, when the grease contained SbSbS4, contact fatigue life was improved compared with that of base grease. Nanoparticle absorption action, nanoparticle infiltration action, and extreme pressure and anti-friction performance, explained why SbSbS4 increased the contact fatigue life of the steel ball tested.

  6. Orbital Ordering Induced by Direct Coulomb Repulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yuan-Yie; ZHANG Yu-Heng

    2011-01-01

    We consider the covalence characters of the 3d electron with the eg orbital freedoms and put forward a new mechanism of the orbital ordering (OO) based on the direct coulomb repulsion in this article. The results show that the orbital-orbital interaction (OO-I) between the adjacent ions in 180-degree configuration is dominated by the superexchange energy accompanied by a weak orbital-spin coupling, and the OO-I in 90-degree configuration is monitored by the oxygen on-site coulomb repulsion. The ferro-OO is the stable ground state for the one-dimensional chain in the case of the 90-degree configuration.

  7. Biodegradation of waste greases and biochemical properties of a novel lipase from Pseudomonas synxantha PS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xianghai; Chen, Siqi; Yang, Hong; Wang, Wei; Lin, Lin; Shen, Yaling; Wei, Wei; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2016-07-01

    A lipase-producing bacterial strain was isolated from oil-well-produced water in Shengli oilfield (Shandong province, China) and was identified as Pseudomonas synxantha by 16S rDNA sequence analysis (named Pseudomonas synxantha PS1). Strain PS1 showed a maximum lipase activity of 10.8 U/mL after culturing for 48 h at 30 °C, with lactose (4 g/L) as carbon source, tryptone (8 g/L) as nitrogen source, olive oil (0.5%, v/v) as inductor, and the initial pH 8.0. Meanwhile, the lipase gene from P. synxantha PS1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 with the vector pET28a. The novel gene (lipPS1) has an open reading frame of 1425 bp and encodes a 474 aa lipase (LipPS1) sharing the most identity (87%) with the lipase in Pseudomonas fluorescens. LipPS1 preferably acted on substrates with a long chain (C10-C18) of fatty acids. The optimum pH and temperature of the recombinant enzyme were 8.0 and 40 °C, respectively, towards the optimum substrate p-nitrophenyl palmitate. The LipPS1 showed remarkable stability under alkaline conditions and was stable at pH 7.0-10.0 (retaining more than 60% activity). From the organic solvents tests, the lipase was activated by 15% (v/v) methanol (112%), 15% ethanol (127%), and 15% n-butyl alcohol (116%). LipPS1 presented strong biodegradability of waste grease; 93% of waste grease was hydrolyzed into fatty acid after 12 h at 30 °C. This is the first report of the lipase activity and lipase gene obtained from P. synxantha (including wild strain and recombinant strain) and of the recombinant LipPS1 with the detailed enzymatic properties. Also a preliminary study of the biodegradability of waste greases shows the potential value in industry applications. PMID:27321682

  8. Pesticides and oil and grease in selected streams and lakes in northeastern Louisiana, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Benton D.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-month study was begun in April 2001 to determine the concentrations of pesticides or oil and grease in selected stream reaches and lakes within the Ouachita, Tensas, and Black River Basins in northeastern Louisiana. During April through September 2001, six monthly water samples for analysis of pesticides were collected from 22 sites: 17 sites were on 11 streams, and 5 sites were on 5 lakes. During Apirl through July 2001, four monthly samples for analysis of oil and grease were collected from 5 sites: 4 sites were on three streams, and 1 site was on a lake. A total of 131 water samples were analyzed for 17 pesticides (15 insecticides and 2 herbicides). The following classes of pesticides, as classified from the Pesticide Analysis (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 6 Laboratory), are reported: organochlorine, nitrogen-phosphorus, and carbamate. The 8 pesticides detected in samples, in decreasing frequency, were as follow: atrazine, molinate, methyl parathion, 4,4'-DDT, carbofuran, diazinon, toxaphene, and 4,4'DDE. Organochlorine pesticides (insecticides) represented the majority (12 out of 17) of the pesticides analyzed. Of those 12 organochlorine pesticides, only 3 (4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, and toxaphene) were detected in the 131 samples. Of the organochlorine pesticides, 4,4'-DDT was detected most frequently (in 11 percent of the samples), and concentrations ranged from 1.22 to 4.70 ng/L (nanograms per liter). Nitrogen-phosphorus pesticides were the most frequently detected and abundant pesticides. Of all the pesticides analyzed, atrazine and molinate (nitrogen-phosphorus herbicides) were the pesticides most frequently detected (in 93 and 21 percent of the samples), had the highest and most wide-ranging concentrations (10.8 to 15,100 ng/L and 10.0 to 11,600 ng/L), and were most widely distributed throughout the study area. Carbofuran, a carbamate insecticide, was detected at 8 of the 22 pesticide data-collection sites and in 9.2 percent of the 131 samples

  9. Pre-treatment of high oil and grease pet food industrial wastewaters using immobilized lipase hydrolyzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastewaters generating from pet food industries contain high concentration of oil and grease (O and G), which is difficult to treat through conventional biological treatment systems. In this study, the hydrolysis of O and G originating from pet food industrial wastewater was evaluated. Candida rugosa lipase was immobilized in calcium alginate beads and applied in the hydrolysis experiment. Results showed that approximately 50% of the O and G was hydrolyzed due to the enzyme activity. A significant increment in COD and VFA production was also observed. The immobilized lipase activity was confirmed with p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP) before and after O and G hydrolysis. During the 3-day experiment, approximately 65% of the beads were recovered and after the hydrolysis, approximately 70% of the enzyme activity remained in the beads. This study shows the potential of immobilized lipase as a pre-treatment step in biological treatment of pet food manufacturing wastewater

  10. Simultaneous removal of oil and grease, and heavy metals from artificial bilge water using electro-coagulation/flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Guillermo J; La Motta, Enrique J

    2014-11-01

    US and international regulations pertaining to the control of bilge water discharges from ships have concentrated their attention to the levels of oil and grease rather than to the heavy metal concentrations. The consensus is that any discharge of bilge water (and oily water emulsion within 12 nautical miles from the nearest land cannot exceed 15 parts per million (ppm). Since there is no specific regulation for metal pollutants under the bilge water section, reference standards regulating heavy metal concentrations are taken from the ambient water quality criteria to protect aquatic life. The research herein presented discusses electro-coagulation (EC) as a method to treat bilge water, with a focus on oily emulsions and heavy metals (copper, nickel and zinc) removal efficiency. Experiments were run using a continuous flow reactor, manufactured by Ecolotron, Inc., and a synthetic emulsion as artificial bilge water. The synthetic emulsion contained 5000 mg/L of oil and grease, 5 mg/L of copper, 1.5 mg/L of nickel, and 2.5 mg/l of zinc. The experimental results demonstrate that EC is very efficient in removing oil and grease. For oil and grease removal, the best treatment and cost efficiency was obtained when using a combination of carbon steel and aluminum electrodes, at a detention time less than one minute, a flow rate of 1 L/min and 0.6 A/cm(2) of current density. The final effluent oil and grease concentration, before filtration, was always less than 10 mg/L. For heavy metal removal, the combination of aluminum and carbon steel electrodes, flow rate of 1 L/min, effluent recycling, and 7.5 amps produced 99% zinc removal efficiency. Copper and nickel are harder to remove, and a removal efficiency of 70% was achieved.

  11. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  12. Mechanism of Friction and Wear in MoS2 and ZDDP/F-PTFE Greases under Spectrum Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay D. Bagi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different greases formulated using MoS2 and a combination of ZDDP and functionalized PTFE (F-PTFE were examined under spectrum loading conditions where loads, frequency, and duration of the steps were treated as variables. Combination of ZDDP and F-PTFE were synergistic resulting in a significant reduction in the wear and friction under spectrum loading condition. Decreasing the time step during the ramp up and ramp down cycles resulted in larger wear for the grease containing MoS2 particles in comparison to ZDDP/F-PTFE in grease. The tribofilm formed on the surface was analyzed using various characterization techniques like SEM, EDS, and Stereo Optical Microscopy. Tribofilms from MoS2 additives had extensive amounts of abrasive and adhesive wear and showed the formation of MoS2 on the surface on the other hand the tribofilms from ZDDP/F-PTFE had smaller amounts of severe wear and exhibited patchy tribofilms of Zn-phosphates as well as sulfides of Zn and Fe.

  13. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases and cosmetics formulations, drug delivery vehicle and waste water treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasmukh A Patel; Rajesh S Somani; Hari C Bajaj; Raksh V Jasra

    2006-04-01

    An overview of nanoclays or organically modified layered silicates (organoclays) is presented with emphasis placed on the use of nanoclays as the reinforcement phase in polymer matrices for preparation of polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites, rheological modifier for paints, inks and greases, drug delivery vehicle for controlled release of therapeutic agents, and nanoclays for industrial waste water as well as potable water treatment to make further step into green environment. A little amount of nanoclay can alter the entire properties of polymers, paints, inks and greases to a great extent by dispersing 1nm thick layered silicate throughout the matrices. The flexibility of interlayer spacing of layered silicates accommodates therapeutic agents which can later on be released to damaged cell. Because the release of drugs in drug-intercalated layered materials is controllable, these new materials have a great potential as a delivery host in the pharmaceutical field. The problem of clean water can be solved by treating industrial and municipal waste water with organoclays in combination with other sorbents like activated carbon and alum. Organoclays have proven to be superior to any other water treatment technology in applications where the water to be treated contains substantial amounts of oil and grease or humic acid.

  14. Life-Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel Produced from Grease Trap Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hums, Megan E; Cairncross, Richard A; Spatari, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Grease trap waste (GTW) is a low-quality waste material with variable lipid content that is an untapped resource for producing biodiesel. Compared to conventional biodiesel feedstocks, GTW requires different and additional processing steps for biodiesel production due to its heterogeneous composition, high acidity, and high sulfur content. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used to quantify greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy demand, and criteria air pollutant emissions for the GTW-biodiesel process, in which the sensitivity to lipid concentration in GTW is analyzed using Monte Carlo simulation. The life-cycle environmental performance of GTW-biodiesel is compared to that of current GTW disposal, the soybean-biodiesel process, and low-sulfur diesel (LSD). The disposal of the water and solid wastes produced from separating lipids from GTW has a high contribution to the environmental impacts; however, the impacts of these processed wastes are part of the current disposal practice for GTW and could be excluded with consequential LCA system boundaries. At lipid concentrations greater than 10%, most of the environmental metrics studied are lower than those of LSD and comparable to soybean biodiesel. PMID:26811919

  15. Fat, oil and grease waste from municipal wastewater: characterization, activation and sustainable conversion into biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Carlo; Pagano, Michele; Lopez, Antonio; Mininni, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) recovered by the oil/water separator of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled, characterized, activated and converted into biofuel. Free acids (50-55%) and fatty soaps (26-32%) not only composed the main components, but they were also easily separable from the starting waste. The respective free fatty acid profiles were gas-chromatographically evaluated, interestingly verifying that free acids had a different profile (mainly oleic acid) with respect to the soapy fraction (saturated fatty acids were dominant). The inorganic composition was also determined for soaps, confirming that calcium is the most commonly present metal. The chemical activation of this fatty waste was made possible by converting the starting soaps into the respective free fatty acids by using formic acid as activator, coproducing the relevant formates. The activated fatty matter was then converted into biofuel through direct esterification under very mild conditions (345 K, atmospheric pressure) and obtaining thermodynamic conversion in less than 2 h. The process was easily scaled up, isolating at the end pure biodiesel (purity > 96%) through distillation under vacuum, providing a final product conformed to commercial purposes.

  16. Analysis of grease contamination influence on the internal radial clearance of ball bearings by thermographic inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković Žarko Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing ball bearings service life is its internal radial clearance. However, this parameter is also very complex because it depends on applied radial load and ball bearings dimensions, surface finish and manufacturing materials. Thermal condition of ball bearings also significantly affects internal radial clearance. Despite many researches performed in order to find out relevant facts about different aspects of ball bearings thermal behaviour, only few of them are dealing with the real working conditions, where high concentration of solid contaminant particles is present. That’s why the main goal of research presented in this paper was to establish statistically significant correlation between ball bearings temperatures, their working time and concentration of contaminant particles in their grease. Because of especially difficult working conditions, the typical conveyor idlers bearings were selected as representative test samples and appropriate solid particles from open pit coal mines were used as artificial contaminants. Applied experimental methodology included thermographic inspection, as well as usage of custom designed test rig for ball bearings service life testing. Finally, by obtained experimental data processing in advanced software, statistically significant mathematical correlation between mentioned bearings characteristics was determined and applied in commonly used internal radial clearance equation. That is the most important contribution of performed research - the new equation and methodology for ball bearings internal clearance determination which could be used for eventual improvement of existing bearings service life equations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35029 i br. TR14033

  17. REMOVAL OF OIL AND GREASE FROM THE WASTEWATER OF RAILROAD REPAIR SHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Johari

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research have been to determine the wastewater quality of a typical railroad repair workshop and to find a way to reduce the concentrations of present contaminants especially oil and grease. The mean concentrations of oil, COD and SS in the wastewater studied were 287.69, 775.85 and 28723, respectively with average daily discharge to be 30-35 m3. Three successive treatment processes were used and the results showed the first stage was gravity flotation with 90 minutes retention time. Removal efficiencies achieved for COD, SS and oil were determined 43%, 49.4% and 55.5% respectively. The second stage of treatment was coagulation either lime or ferric chloride could be used for this purpose at PHs of 9 and 6. COD and oil removals by lime treatment were 76.6% and 84.4%. The final stage of treatment was DAF at 3 atmospheric pressure, by which 92.5%, 89.5%, 89.92% and 88% removals were achieved for oil, SS and COD, respectively.

  18. Isolation of Bacterial Strain for Biodegradation of Fats, Oil and Grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposition is one of the major problems that harm the environment and cause dissatisfaction for human. Uncontrolled and un-pre-treated FOG removal from the kitchen could lead to its accumulation in the piping system. Problems include the interference of fat with the aerobic microorganisms that are responsible in treating the wastewater by reducing oxygen transfer rates and for anaerobic microorganisms; their efficiency could also be reduced due to the reduction of the transport of soluble substrates to the bacterial biomass. Biodegradation could be one of the effective means to treat FOG. The main objective of this study is to isolate bacterial strains from the FOG waste and identify the strains that are capable in biodegrading FOG waste. FOG sample was collected from a sewer manhole. Enrichment technique was applied, followed by isolation of bacterial strains to determine which strain is able to degrade the FOG deposition. Some morphology for the bacterial strain was done to determine its characteristics. (author)

  19. 钛基润滑脂的制备工艺研究%Study on Preparation of Titanium Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭婉晴; 郭小川; 宋辉; 王晶

    2015-01-01

    以钛酸四异丙酯、硬脂酸和极性溶剂为原料制备钛基润滑脂,考察基础油和有机酸种类、配比和工艺对钛基脂性能的影响。结果表明:不同种类的有机酸对成脂影响很大,钛皂对不同基础油的稠化能力也不同;以硬脂酸为有机酸、石蜡基油为基础油,最高炼制温度为180~200℃,冷却方式为慢冷时,制得的钛基脂的综合性能较好,其滴点约280℃,远高于一般单皂基润滑脂。红外光谱分析结果表明,该制备工艺形成了钛皂,同时避免了残酸问题。%Titanium greases were prepared by using titanium isopropoxide, organic acid and polar solvent as raw mate⁃rials� The effects of the type of organic acids and base oils, the composition and the process condition on the properties of titanium greases were discussed� The results show that organic acids have large influence on the preparation of titanium greases, and the thickening ability is different for titanium soap on different base oils� By using stearic acid as organic acid and paraffine base oil as base oil, and selecting the highest refining temperature of 180 to 200 ℃ and the slow cooling method, the prepared grease has good comprehensive properties, its drop point is about 280℃, which is higher than the general greases thickened by other single soaps� The infrared spectrum analysis result shows that the titanium soap is formed by using this process, and the problem of residual acid is avoid.

  20. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁科; 侯自新

    2001-01-01

    Vogan conjectured that the parabolic induction of orbit data is independent of the choice of the parabolic subgroup. In this paper we first give the parabolic induction of orbit covers, whose relationship with geometric orbit datum is also induced. Hence we show a geometric interpretation of orbit data and finally prove the conjugation for geometric orbit datum using geometric method.

  1. Novice Collaboration in Solo and Accompaniment Improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    -accompaniment relationship. Results of interaction data and video analysis show that 1) teams related to each other through their experience with verbal conversation, 2) users searched for harmonic relations and 3) were able to establish rhythmical grounding. The paper concludes with some design guidelines for future solo...

  2. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  3. Inflammation of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis Treatment Medical Dictionary Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James ... Introduction to Eye Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors ...

  4. Brane orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A., E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.nl [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Marrani, Alessio, E-mail: Alessio.Marrani@cern.ch [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Riccioni, Fabio, E-mail: Fabio.Riccioni@roma1.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    We complete the classification of half-supersymmetric branes in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory in terms of representations of the T-duality group. As a by-product we derive a last wrapping rule for the space-filling branes. We find examples of T-duality representations of branes in lower dimensions, suggested by supergravity, of which none of the component branes follow from the reduction of any brane in ten-dimensional IIA/IIB string theory. We discuss the constraints on the charges of half-supersymmetric branes, determining the corresponding T-duality and U-duality orbits.

  5. Novice Collaboration in Solo and Accompaniment Improvisation

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how non-musicians engaged in a solo-accompaniment music improvisation relationship. Seven user teams interacted with two electronic music instruments integrated in two pen tablets. One instrument was a melody instrument and the other a chord instru-ment. The study was done in order to understand how future shared electronic music instruments can be de-signed to encourage non-musicians to engage in social action through music improvisation. A combination of quantitative...

  6. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz Bilir; Erkan Gokce; Banu Ozturk; Faik Alev Deresoy; Ruken Yuksekkaya; Emel Yaman

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity...

  7. Use of evolutionary operation (EVOP) factorial design technique to develop a bioprocess using grease waste as a substrate for lipase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Katiyar, Nitin; Ingle, Priyanka; Negi, Sangeeta

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a bioprocess using EVOP-factorial design technique employing grease waste as a substrate for the production of lipase. A newly isolated fungal strain of Penicillium chrysogenum was explored for the fermentation process. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was carried out using grease waste and Czapek-dox medium, supplemented with wheat bran. The yield of lipase was 38 U/ml when SSF was carried out at 32 °C for 8 days and grease:wheat bran:Czapek-dox media in 1:1:2 (w/w/v). Different physicochemical parameters affecting the production of lipase were optimized through evolutionary operation (EVOP) factorial design technique and after optimization yield was enhanced up to 46 U/ml at 30 °C, pH 7.0 with 1:1:2 (w/w/v) grease waste:wheat bran:Czapek-dox media. Industrial grease waste has never been reported before for the production of industrially important lipase enzyme. PMID:21292479

  8. Preliminary experimental research to detect grease stain of petroleum pipeline by sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma-ray transmission method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Shi Heng

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on the detection of grease stain for petroleum pipeline in Karamay oil-field of Xinjiang is carried out by gamma-ray transmission method. Experimental provision consists of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma radiator and NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The response of grease stain thickness of petroleum pipeline in Karamay oil-field is ln(N sub 0 /N)=0.00548 d-0.0046, and the response of paraffin thickness is ln(N sub 0 /N)=0.00522d-0.0126. The result of experiment indicates that the response of grease stain thickness is more sensitive than the response of paraffin thickness

  9. Solutions manual to accompany Nonlinear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Bazaraa, Mokhtar S; Shetty, C M

    2014-01-01

    As the Solutions Manual, this book is meant to accompany the main title, Nonlinear Programming: Theory and Algorithms, Third Edition. This book presents recent developments of key topics in nonlinear programming (NLP) using a logical and self-contained format. The volume is divided into three sections: convex analysis, optimality conditions, and dual computational techniques. Precise statements of algortihms are given along with convergence analysis. Each chapter contains detailed numerical examples, graphical illustrations, and numerous exercises to aid readers in understanding the concepts a

  10. Solutions manual to accompany Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Solutions Manual to Accompany Fundamentals of Calculus the text that encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the core book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and Functions The Derivative Using the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic

  11. Severe Hypoglycemia Accompanied with Thyroid Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nakatani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 32-year-old Japanese women with severe hypoglycemia accompanied with thyroid crisis. She complained of dyspnea, general fatigue, and leg edema. She was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism with congestive heart failure and liver dysfunction. Soon after admission, sudden cardiopulmonary arrest occurred. She was then transferred to the intensive care unit. Her serum glucose level was 7 mg/dl. Intravenous glucose, hydrocortisone, diuretics, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF saved her. We considered that hypoglycemia occurred due to heart failure and liver dysfunction due to thyroid crisis.

  12. Treating wastewater with high oil and grease content using an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR). Filtration and cleaning assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, V; Ramos, C; Cabezas, J L

    2012-01-01

    An Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) pilot plant was studied to improve certain operational conditions of AnMBRs that treat high oil and grease wastewaters discharged from a snacks factory. A comparison of its performance and behavior was made with an upflow anaerobic reactor throughout the first eight weeks of its operation. Raw snack food wastewater was characterized by oil and grease concentrations of up to 6,000 mg/l, with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) concentrations of up to 22,000 and 10,300 mg/l, respectively. The AnMBR achieved COD removal efficiencies of 97% at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.1 kg COD/m(3) d. The filtration flux, and the suction, backwash and relaxation times for each cycle were all varied: an 11 min filtration time involving 10 s pre-relaxation, 20 s backwash and 70 s post-relaxation was finally selected. The filtration flux for long-term operation was between 6.5 and 8.0 l/m(2) h. The study also tested physical cleaning strategies such as intensive backwashing cycles and extended relaxation mode, and different chemical cleaning methods, such as chemically enhanced backwash on air and chemical cleaning by immersion. PMID:22546801

  13. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  14. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). → Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. → FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. → Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VSadded when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH4 and CO2 content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  15. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  16. Grease waste and sewage sludge co-digestion enhancement by thermal hydrolysis: batch and fed-batch assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, R; Nielfa, A; Pérez, A; Bouchy, L; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2014-01-01

    Grease waste (GW) is an adequate substrate for sewage sludge co-digestion since, coming from a waste water treatment plant, it has a high methane potential (489 NmLCH(4)/gVSin); however, no synergistic effect takes place when co-digesting with 52%VS grease. Conversely, thermal hydrolysis (TH) improves the anaerobic digestion of GW (43% higher kinetics) and biological sludge (29% more methane potential). Therefore, the application of TH to a co-digestion process was further studied. First, biochemical methane potential tests showed that the best configuration to implement the TH to the co-digestion process is pretreating the biological sludge alone, providing a 7.5% higher methane production (398 NmLCH(4)/gVSin), 20% faster kinetics and no lag-phase. Its implementation in a fed-batch operation resulted in considerable methane production (363 NmLCH(4)/gVSin) and TH improved the rheology and dewaterability properties of the digestate. This leads to important economical savings when combined with co-digestion, reducing final waste management costs and showing interesting potential for full-scale application. PMID:24804667

  17. Wastewater transformations and fertilizer value when co-digesting differing ratios of swine manure and used cooking grease in low-cost digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, Stephanie [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, 1445 Animal Sci./Ag. Eng. Bldg., College Park, MD 20742-2315 (United States); Martin, Jay F. [Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, 590 Woody Hayes Drive, Columbus, OH 43210-1057 (United States); Botero, Raul Botero; Nogueira da Silva, Tatiana; Dias da Silva, Ederson [EARTH University, Apartado Postal 4442 - 1000, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2010-12-15

    A nine-month co-digestion investigation was conducted in Costa Rica to optimize animal wastewater treatment, renewable energy production, and fertilizer creation using 12 Taiwanese-model, plug-flow digesters (250 L each) constructed of tubular polyethylene and PVC piping, operating without mechanical or heating components. The experiment tested three replications of four treatment groups: the control (T0), which contained only swine manure, and T2.5, T5, and T10, which contained 2.5%, 5%, and 10% used cooking grease (by volume) combined with swine manure. T2.5 had the greatest methane production (45 L d{sup -1}), a 124% increase from the control. No adverse effects were observed from co-digesting 2.5% grease in terms of organic matter removal, pathogen reduction, grease removal, and pH. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced 94.7% to 1.96 g L{sup -1}, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were reduced 99.2 and 97.1%, respectively, and grease removal was 99.9%. The average effluent pH (7.05) and alkalinity in T2.5 was within the optimal range for methanogens and increased significantly during the nine-month experiment, likely due to adaptation of the methanogenic organisms to the influent grease concentrations. Total nitrogen concentration decreased 34.0%, and NH{sub 4}-N increased 97.1% during digestion in T2.5, with no significant differences between T2.5 and T0. There was less phosphorus reduction with co-digestion, with 181 mg g{sup -1} of total phosphorus (TP) in T2.5 and only 90.6 mg g{sup -1} of TP in T0, resulting in lower N:P ratios in the grease treatment groups due to the greater concentration of phosphorus in the effluent. (author)

  18. LED用低热阻硅脂的制备%Preparation of Silicone Grease with Low Thermal Resistance for LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞文键; 陈思斌; 宋立芝; 王兵; 曾智麟

    2014-01-01

    A low thermal resistance grease for LEDs was prepared by mixing hybrid filler with appropriate sizes of AlN/Al2O3 particles as the hybrid thermal conductive fillers and methyl pheny silicone fluid. The hy-brid filler was pre-treated with self-made siloxane oligomers via solution intercalation. Effects of filler’s types, particle sizes and types and content of surface treatment agent on the thermal conductive and viscosity of sili-cone grease were investigated. The thermal conductivity of the thermally conductive silicone grease was charac-terized with LED lamp as an actual platform. Results show that the thermal conductivity and viscosity of ther-mal conductivity silicone grease keeps good balance at a total filler mass fraction of 90 . 9 % with a mass ratio of aluminum nitride(particle size of 5 μm)and alumina(particle size of 1 μm)of 2. 8:1. 0. 5% of siloxane oligomer has good treatment on the surface of mixing fillers of aluminum nitride and alumina. The viscosity of 10# silicone grease(25 ℃)is 174 Pa·s,with 1. 94 ℃/W of thermal resistance and 4. 31 W/m·K of thermal conductivity.%选用合适粒径的氮化铝和氧化铝为混杂导热填料、使用自制的硅烷低聚物为表面处理剂,以溶液插层法对混杂导热填料进行表面改性;然后与甲基苯基硅油混合制备了LED用低热阻导热硅脂。研究了导热填料的种类、粒径、表面处理剂种类及用量对导热硅脂的热导率和黏度的影响。采用LED灯作为实际测试平台表征了导热硅脂的导热性能。结果表明,当填料总质量分数为90.9%,粒径为5μm的氮化铝与粒径为1μm的氧化铝作混合填料且质量比为2.8:1时,导热硅脂的热导率和黏度有较好的平衡;使用填料质量0.5%的硅烷低聚物对氮化铝和氧化铝混合填料进行表面处理有较好的处理效果;自制10号硅脂样品的黏度(25℃)为174 Pa·s,热阻为1.94℃/W,热导率为4.31 W/m·K。

  19. Updates in Orbital Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nila; F.Moeloek

    1993-01-01

    Orbital anatomy, the clinical features of orbital tumors, the recent development of the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors were described. The incidence of orbital tumors in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in the past years were introduced. The principle of management of orbital tumors and their prognosis were discussed.

  20. Small Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L; Ferrara, S; Marrani, A; Rubens, W

    2012-01-01

    We study both the "large" and "small" U-duality charge orbits of extremal black holes appearing in D = 5 and D = 4 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds. We exploit a formalism based on cubic Jordan algebras and their associated Freudenthal triple systems, in order to derive the minimal charge representatives, their stabilizers and the associated "moduli spaces". After recalling N = 8 maximal supergravity, we consider N = 2 and N = 4 theories coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets, as well as N = 2 magic, STU, ST^2 and T^3 models. While the STU model may be considered as part of the general N = 2 sequence, albeit with an additional triality symmetry, the ST^2 and T^3 models demand a separate treatment, since their representative Jordan algebras are Euclidean or only admit non-zero elements of rank 3, respectively. Finally, we also consider minimally coupled N = 2, matter coupled N = 3, and "pure" N = 5 theories.

  1. Tumefactive Brain Demyelination Accompanying MADSAM Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefik Evren Erdener

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor (MADSAM neuropathy is characterized by asymmetric multifocal motor and sensory loss and conduction blocks in peripheral nerves. Peripheral demyelinating diseases may be accompanied by demyelination in central nervous system (CNS. In this report, a MADSAM patient with a solitary tumefactive demyelinating lesion in brain is presented. Neuroimaging due to a visual field defect revealed a right parietooccipital lesion, which was initially misdiagnosed as a tumor. Pathological examination showed that it was demyelinating in nature. Peripheral nervous symptoms of the patient developed two years later and she was then diagnosed with MADSAM. There was prominent clinical and electrophysiological response to steroid treatment. Tumefactive brain involvement was not previously reported for MADSAM neuropathy, although it was documented in a single case with typical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP. CNS involvement should therefore be considered in MADSAM patients.

  2. Melatonin production accompanies arousal from daily torpor in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yellon, Steven M; Zucker, Irving

    2003-01-01

    Arousal from deep hibernation is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel concentrations in species that undergo much shallower, shorter duration episodes of daily torpor. Serum Mel concentrations were determined during arousal from both natural daily torpor and torpor induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatment (2,500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]); blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of anesthetized Siberian hamsters. For animals kept in darkness during torpor, Mel concentrations were highest during early arousal when thermogenesis is maximal, and they decreased as body temperature increased during arousal and returned to baseline once euthermia was reestablished. In hamsters kept in the light during the torpor bout, Mel concentrations were elevated above basal values during arousal, but the response was significantly blunted in comparison with values recorded in darkness. Increased Mel concentrations were detected in hamsters only during arousal from torpor (either natural or 2-DG induced) and were not simply a result of the drug treatment; hamsters that remained euthermic or manifested mild hypothermia after drug treatment maintained basal Mel concentrations. We propose that increased Mel production may reflect enhanced sympathetic activation associated with intense thermogenesis during arousal from torpor rather than an adjustment of the circadian rhythm of Mel secretion.

  3. Idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Hsuan; D. Selva; A.A. McNab; T.J. Sullivan; P. Saeed; B.A. O'Donnell

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To perform a multicenter review of the clinical features and treatment of 31 patients with idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation. Methods: We included all patients with histologically confirmed idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation from 5 regional orbital centers. We reviewed th

  4. 复合铝基润滑脂的制备与性能研究%Study on the Preparation and Properties of Aluminum Complex Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永刚; 董霞; 何娟

    2012-01-01

    以矿物油MVI600和轻脱油为基础油,利用硬脂酸和苯甲酸与异丙醇铝或三异丙醇三氧铝反应制备复合铝基润滑脂,探讨了基础油、硬脂酸、异丙醇铝或三异丙醇三氧铝、苯甲酸等组成及制备工艺对复合铝基润滑脂性能的影响,并通过组成和工艺条件的优化制备出性能优良的复合铝基润滑脂。其润滑脂具有良好的抗水性、胶体安定性、高温性和防锈性。%Taking mineral oil MVI600 and light deasphalted oil as base oil,aluminum complex grease was produced by stearic acid and benzoic acid reacting with aluminum isopropoxide or three isopropyl alcohol aluminum trioxide.Effects of the compositions of base oil,stearic acid,aluminum isopropoxide or three isopropyl alcohol aluminum trioxide,and benzoic acid on properties of aluminum complex grease were discussed.And the high-performance aluminum complex grease was obtained by optimizing technological conditions.The lubricating grease has good water resistance,colloidal stability,high temperature resistance and rust resistance.

  5. The indigenisation of Lubriplate 630-2 and development of Servo-Nuclease-2 grease for the fuelling machine of pressurised heavy water power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new grease of NLGI-2 consistency was developed for application in nuclear environments. The evaluation consisted of both static tests employing a cobalt-60 γ-ray source and dynamic tests carried out on specially designed rigs in Fuelling Machine Vaults of RAPS. (auth.)

  6. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease waste: Effect of long chain fatty acids in the methane yield and its dewatering properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermophilic anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and grease waste (GW) doubles methane yield. • High GW doses in the influent leads to instability and LCFA accumulation in the effluent. • GW addition promotes acetoclastic activity whilst worsening the hydrogenothrophic activity. • The mesophilic codigestion with GW performs better than the thermophilic one. - Abstract: Thermophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge with three different doses of trapped grease waste (GW) from the pre-treatment of a WWTP has been assessed in a CSTR bench-scale reactor. After adding 12% and 27% of grease waste (on COD basis), the organic loading rate increased from 2.2 to 2.3 and 2.8 kgCOD m−3 d−1 respectively, and the methane yield increased 1.2 and 2.2 times. Further GW increase (37% on COD basis) resulted in an unstable methane yield and in long chain fatty acids (LCFA) accumulation. Although this inestability, the presence of volatile fatty acids in the effluent was negligible, showing good adaptation to fats of the thermophilic biomass. Nevertheless, the presence of LCFA in the effluent worsens its dewatering properties. Specific methanogenic activity tests showed that the addition of grease waste ameliorates the acetoclastic activity in detriment of the hydrogenotrophic activity, and suggests that the tolerance to LCFA can be further enhanced by slowly increasing the addition of lipid-rich materials

  7. Buyuan Yishou Grease Treat Consumptive Disease 65 Cases%补元益寿膏治疗虚劳65例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴瑞霞; 高上林; 赵美云; 白小林; 汪德芬; 杨国春; 商军科; 杨敏生; 雷雯; 季艳丹

    2013-01-01

      [目的]探讨补元益寿膏对虚劳的治疗作用。[方法]对65例符合虚劳中医诊断的人群给予口服补元益寿膏10g/次,2次/d,共服1个月并对服膏前及治疗1疗程后进行疗效及安全性观察。[结果]补元益寿膏对慢性疲劳综合征(chronic fatigue syndrome,CFS)、亚健康人群和老年体虚者虚劳证的临床表现:倦怠乏力、疲劳、面色萎黄、头晕眼花、心悸、腰膝酸软、性欲减退、畏寒肢冷、五心烦热、失眠等有明显的改善作用,总有效率达90.98%,各主要症状治疗前后症状积分比较,经统计学处理差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。[结论]补元益寿膏治疗CFS、亚健康人群和老年体虚者的虚劳安全有效,体现了中医治未病、养生保健和健康调养相结合之学术思想,可调节机体阴阳平衡,强身健体,提高虚劳人群的生活质量。%  [Objective]To discuss the treatment of Buyuan Yishou Grease on consumptive disease. [Method] Administer the grease to 65 cases of consump-tive disease oral y10g/time,2times/d,1m for 1 course;and make observation on cure effect and safety before and after medication. [Result] The grease had good relieve to the clinical demonstrations of chronic fatigue syndrome, sub-health people and senile deficient people: lassitude and weak, fatigue,sal ow complexion, feeling dizzy, palpitation,sore and weak waist and knees, sexual hypoactivity, chil y and cold limbs, dysphoria in chest palms-soles and insom-nia, the total effective rate was 90.98%, the main symptoms had marked statistical meaning in comparing the integral before and after treatment. [Conclu-sion] Buyuan Yishou Grease treating such diseases above was effective and safe, embodying the academic thought of TCM treating pre-disease, fit-keep-ing and healthcare combining with recuperating oneself, which could regulate human balance of Yin and Yang, strengthen the physique and improve defi-cient peoples

  8. 聚脲润滑脂稠化剂结构与其性能的关系%The Relationships of Thickener Structures and Properties of Polyurea Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵改青; 张遂心; 王晓波; 刘维民

    2012-01-01

    以脂肪胺、芳香胺、脂环胺的不同组合和异氰酸酯为稠化剂,在不同的工艺条件下制备一系列的聚脲润滑脂;利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对润滑脂皂纤维微观结构进行表征;探讨不同的稠化剂组成、不同制备工艺对聚脲润滑脂的微观结构和性能的影响.结果表明:单纯均匀颗粒状稠化剂比纤维与颗粒状复合的稠化剂所制备的聚脲脂具有更优的性能;纤维结构以单根形式存在为主的聚脲润滑脂性能优于纤维结构为多根纤维聚集为一股,各股之间交织的聚脲润滑脂.%Using aliphatic amines, aromatic amines and alicyclic amines in different combinations and isocyanate as thickeners, a series of polyurea greases were prepared with different process conditions. The soap fiber microstructure of the grease was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of different thickener composition and the preparation process on microstructure and properties of the polyurea grease were researched. The results show that polyurea grease with simple uniformly granular thickeners has better performance than that with fiber and paniculate composite thickeners. Polyurea grease with fibrous structure mainly in the form of single fiber is superior to that with fiber structure in the form of the aggregated bunch of fibers interwoven between each other.

  9. Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Devin L.; Burbey, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of groundwater can generate land subsidence by causing the compaction of susceptible aquifer systems, typically unconsolidated alluvial or basin-fill aquifer systems comprising aquifers and aquitards. Various ground-based and remotely sensed methods are used to measure and map subsidence. Many areas of subsidence caused by groundwater pumping have been identified and monitored, and corrective measures to slow or halt subsidence have been devised. Two principal means are used to mitigate subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal—reduction of groundwater withdrawal, and artificial recharge. Analysis and simulation of aquifer-system compaction follow from the basic relations between head, stress, compressibility, and groundwater flow and are addressed primarily using two approaches—one based on conventional groundwater flow theory and one based on linear poroelasticity theory. Research and development to improve the assessment and analysis of aquifer-system compaction, the accompanying subsidence and potential ground ruptures are needed in the topic areas of the hydromechanical behavior of aquitards, the role of horizontal deformation, the application of differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry, and the regional-scale simulation of coupled groundwater flow and aquifer-system deformation to support resource management and hazard mitigation measures.

  10. Auroral pulsations and accompanying VLF emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Tagirov

    Full Text Available Results of simultaneous TV observations of pulsating auroral patches and ELF-VLF-emissions in the morning sector carried out in Sodankylä (Finland on February 15, 1991 are presented. Auroral pulsating activity was typical having pulsating patches with characteristic periods of about 7 s. Narrow-band hiss emissions and chorus elements at intervals of 0.3–0.4 s formed the main ELF-VLF activity in the frequency range 1.0–2.5 kHz at the same time. The analysis of auroral images with time resolution of 0.04 s allowed perfectly separate analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the auroral luminosity. Mutual correspondence between the behaviour of the luminous auroral patches and the appearance of ELF noise type hiss emissions and VLF chorus trains was found in two intervals chosen for analysis. While the hiss emissions were associated with the appearance of luminosity inside a limited area close to the zenith, the structured VLF emissions were accompanied by rapid motion of luminosity inside the area. The spatial dimension of the pulsating area was about 45–50 km and luminosity propagated inside it with velocity of about 10–12 kms. We discuss a new approach to explain the 5–15 s auroral pulsation based on the theory of flowing cyclotron maser and relaxation characteristics of ionosphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  11. 16 CFR 1500.125 - Labeling requirements for accompanying literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. 1500.125 Section 1500.125 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... REGULATIONS § 1500.125 Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. When any accompanying...

  12. Observation of lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical insertion of lithium into zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium was electrochemically inserted into zinc from the mixed solution of ethylene carbonate and methyl ethyl carbonate containing 1 M LiClO4, and the lithium isotope effect accompanying the insertion was investigated. The x value of LixZn after the electrolysis ranged from 0.013 to 0.139. The single-stage separation factor, S, ranged from 1.005 to 1.023 with the lighter isotope, 6Li, being preferentially fractionated into the zinc phase. The present results on lithium isotope effect qualitatively agreed with calculated results based on the molecular orbital theory. (author)

  13. On the orbital and internal evolution of cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Iannuzzi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Galaxies inhabiting a cluster environment experience significant evolution in their orbital motions throughout time; this is accompanied by changes in the anisotropy parameter, measuring the relative importance of radial and tangential motions for a given class of objects. Along with orbital changes, galaxies in clusters are well known to undergo severe alteration in their hot/cold gas content and star formation properties. Understanding the link between the changes in the internal properties of galaxies and their orbital motion is of crucial importance in the study of galaxy evolution, as it could unveil the primary mechanism responsible for its environmental dependence. Do the changes in the internal properties happen in parallel with those in the orbital motion? Or are the orbital features at the time of infall what determines the fate of the member galaxies? Alternatively: are the properties of galaxies at a given time related to the coeval orbital anisotropy or are they better related to the anisotropy a...

  14. Effect of Wire Rope Grease Composition on Its Water Resistance%钢丝绳脂组成对抗水性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 王越

    2015-01-01

    The effects of different viscosity of base oils,primary thickeners,auxiliary thickeners,content of adhesives on the performance of water resistance of the steel wire rope greases were studied by using the determination method of grease resistant to water spray.The results indicate that the water resistance of the steel wire rope grease is significantly improved with the increasing of base oil viscosity,especially when the viscosity is in 25~56 mm2/s.Polypropylene is better than Poly Ethylene as the primary thickener in terms of improving the water resistance.As an auxiliary thickener of the steel wire rope greases,the more the number of microcrystalline wax additives,the better the resistance to water is,but this effect will be tended to flatten when the microcrystalline wax content is more than 4%. Along with increasing in the number of grease ad⁃hesive polyisobutylene(PIB)or olefin copolymer(OCP)in proportion,the water resistance of steel wire rope grease is im⁃proved.But when the percentage of grease adhesive is more than 5%,the water resistance becomes worse.Polyisobutylene (PIB)is better than olefin copolymer(OCP)in improving the water resistance of the steel wire rope grease.%应用润滑脂抗水喷雾性测定方法,研究基础油黏度、主稠化剂及辅助稠化剂、黏附剂添加量对钢丝绳脂抗水性能的影响。结果表明:随着基础油黏度的增加,钢丝绳脂的抗水性能有明显改善,尤其是黏度为25~56 mm2/s时改善效果最显著;聚丙烯类主稠化剂在改善钢丝绳脂的抗水性能方面优于聚乙烯类;随着辅助稠化剂微晶蜡添加量的增加,钢丝绳脂抗水性能提高,但微晶蜡质量分数大于4%抗水性能改善效果趋于平缓;随着黏附剂聚异丁烯( PIB)、烯烃共聚物( OCP )添加量的增加,钢丝绳脂抗水性能提高,但黏附剂质量分数大于5%时会导致抗水性能变差;聚异丁烯(PIB)对钢丝绳脂抗水性能

  15. Influences of Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO) from Grease Trap as Binder on Rheological and Solvent Extraction Behavior in SS316L Metal Injection Molding

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim; Azriszul Mohd Amin; Rosli Asmawi; Najwa Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with rheological and solvent extraction behavior of stainless steel 316L feedstocks using Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO) from grease traps as binder components along with Polypropylene (PP) copolymer as a backbone binder. Optimal binder formulation and effect of solvent extraction variables on green compacts are being analyzed. Four binder formulations based on volumetric ratio/weight fraction between PP and RWFO being mixed with 60% volumetric powder loading of SS31...

  16. ASC Champ Orbit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite.......This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite....

  17. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  18. Evaluating and modeling biogas production from municipal fat, oil, and grease and synthetic kitchen waste in anaerobic co-digestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce C

    2011-10-01

    The feasibility of using synthetic kitchen waste (KW) and fat, oil, and grease (FOG) as co-substrates in the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated using two series of biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Ranges of ideal substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio were determined for the FOG (0.25-0.75) and KW (0.80-1.26) as single substrates in the first experiment. The second experiment, which estimated the methane production performances of FOG and KW as co-substrates for WAS co-digestion, was conducted based on the optimal parameters selected from the results of the first experiment. Results indicated that co-digestions with FOG and KW enhanced methane production from 117±2.02 mL/gTVS (with only WAS) to 418±13.7 mL/gTVS and 324±4.11 mL/gTVS, respectively. FOG exhibited more biogas production than KW as co-substrate. Non-linear regression results showed that co-substrate addition shortened the lag phases of organic biodegradation from 81.8 (with only WAS) to 28.3 h with FOG and 3.90 h with KW.

  19. A Survey on the Removal Efficiency of Fat, Oil and Grease in Shiraz Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Fat, oil and grease (FOG in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP caused many problems. Objectives This study aimed to determine the removal efficiency of FOG in Shiraz MWWTP. Materials and Methods The removal efficiencies of FOG in the MWWTP were studied from June 2011 to September 2011 in Shiraz (Iran. The influent and effluent wastewater samples were collected in a volume of one liter (4 samples per week and analyzed according to the standard methods. Samples are transferred to the laboratory immediately. The concentration of FOG was determined using the solvent extraction and separating funnel and then compared with the effluent standards. To analyze the data, SPSS (version 11.5, Chi-square test and t test were used. Results The results showed that the FOG amount in input raw sewage in the MWWTP from June 2011 to September 2011 was around 25.5 mg/L and the amount in treated wastewater was about 8.1 mg/L. The FOG removal efficiency in this refinery was about 70% and met the environmental standards for the discharge (less than 10 mg/L (P < 0.05. Conclusions The effluent can be discharged to surface waters or used for irrigation. In order to the FOG concentration met the effluent standards, it is very crucial to control the entrance of industrial wastewater to the municipal wastewater collection networks. Otherwise, the MWWTP should be upgraded and the special techniques used to reduce FOG.

  20. Improved biogas production from food waste by co-digestion with de-oiled grease trap waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Jie; Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Li, Yu-You; Xu, Kai-Qin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of co-digesting food waste (FW) and de-oiled grease trap waste (GTW) to improve the biogas production. A lab-scale mesophilic digester (MD), a temperature-phased anaerobic digester (TPAD) and a TPAD with recycling (TPAD-R) were synchronously operated under mono-digestion (FW) and co-digestion (FW+de-oiled GTW). Co-digestion increased the biogas yield by 19% in the MD and TPAD-R, with a biogas yield of 0.60L/g VS added. Specific methanogenic activity in the TPAD-R was much higher than that in the MD. In addition to methane, hydrogen at a yield of approximately 1mol/mol hexose was produced in the TPAD-R. Alkalinity was consumed more in the co-digestion than in mono-digestion. Co-digestion resulted in more lipid accumulation in each digester. The MD favored the degradation of lipid and conversion of long-chain fatty acids more than the TPAD and TPAD-R. PMID:26679046

  1. Analysis on Failure of Hub Bearing Greases at Altiplano Area%高原地区车辆轮毂轴承润滑脂流失失效原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米红英; 陈德友; 郭小川; 刘庆廉; 吴宝杰

    2011-01-01

    The failure of hub bearing grease were analysised by calculating the quantity of grease running off from the hub bearing was? Researching the rheological parameters of the grease, calculating the temperature field of hub bearing using imitating system. Laboratory examination was carried out, the hub bearing field tests were carried out on the plateau freight truck, the test methods of grease' s performance characteristics were studied. It was brought forward that it is effective to cope with the grease running off by improving the lubricating grease's elastic modulus, apparent viscosity and yield shear stresses.%通过轮毂轴承润滑脂流失理论计算及流变学研究、轮毂轴承温度场模拟仿真,分析了车辆轮毂轴承润滑脂流失失效原因,进行了实验室验证试验、行车验证试验及轮毂轴承润滑脂使用性能评定方法研究,提出了解决车辆轮毂轴承润滑脂流失失效的方法.

  2. Orbit Software Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

  3. Preparation and Properties of Aluminum Complex Grease%复合铝基润滑脂的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明俊; 郭小川; 熊晓龙

    2011-01-01

    复合铝基润滑脂是一种性能优良的多效润滑脂,尤其是泵送性能良好,适合于集中润滑系统,在冶金等行业获得广泛应用.考察了组成、工艺和添加剂对复合铝基润滑脂性能的影响,复合铝皂对环烷基油的稠化能力优于对石蜡基油的稠化能力,增大基础油黏度有利于改善润滑脂的性能,采用异丙醇铝三聚物比采用异丙醇铝制备复合铝基脂的工艺可靠、产品性能稳定,通过配方和工艺条件优化制备出的复合铝基润滑脂具有良好的性能:高滴点,良好的胶体安定性、机械安定性、氧化安定性,良好的抗水性、抗腐蚀性、抗磨性.%Aluminum complex grease is a kind of multifunction grease. It is suited to central lubrication system for which has good pump ability. It has been used extensively in metallurgy area. The effect of composition, condition and additives on the properties of aluminum complex grease has been discussed. The thickening ability of aluminum complex soap in paraffin oil is superior to that of aluminum complex soap in naphthene oil. Increasing viscosity of base oil can improve the properties of aluminum complex grease. The method of trioxyaluminum tri-isopropylate is superior to that of aluminum isopropylate, because the technology is stable and the property is good. By optimization of composition and condition, the high performance aluminum complex grease has been prepared. It possesses high dropping point, good colloidal stability, shear stability, oxidation stability, water resistance property, anti-corrosion and anti-wear property.

  4. Painless orbital myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul T Chakor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital inflammation is the third most common orbital disease, following Graves orbitopathy and lymphoproliferative diseases. We present a 11 year old girl with 15 days history of painless diplopia. There was no history of fluctuation of symptoms, drooping of eye lids or diminished vision. She had near total restricted extra-ocular movements and mild proptosis of the right eye. There was no conjunctival injection, chemosis, or bulb pain. There was no eyelid retraction or lid lag. Rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable.Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was raised with eosinophilia. Antinuclear antibodies were positive. Liver, renal and thyroid functions were normal. Antithyroid, double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid and acetylcholine receptor antibodies were negative. Repetitive nerve stimulation was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the orbit was typical of orbital myositis. The patient responded to oral steroids. Orbital myositis can present as painless diplopia. MRI of orbit is diagnostic in orbital myositis.

  5. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No litter or manure, fodder or other aliment, nor any equipment such as boxes, buckets, ropes,...

  6. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  7. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93.409 Section 93.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying...

  8. Harmonizing Melody with Meta-Structure of Piano Accompaniment Figure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Feng; Kui Chen; Xiang-Bin Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a meta-structure of piano accompaniment figure (meta-structure for short) is proposed to harmonize a melodic piece of music so as to construct a multi-voice music.Here we approach melody harmonization with piano accompaniment as a machine learning task in a probabilistic framework.A series of piano accompaniment figures are collected from the massive existing sample scores and converted into a set of meta-structure.After the procedure of samples training,a model is formulated to generate a proper piano accompaniment figure for a harmonizing unit in the context.This model is flexible in harmonizing a melody with piano accompaniment.The experimental results are evaluated and discussed.

  9. Herpes zoster laryngitis accompanied by Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Joo, Young Eun; Lim, Sang Chul

    2013-01-01

    The most common presentation of herpes zoster in the head and neck region is called Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS), which rarely accompanies multiple cranial neuropathy. Herpes zoster also involves the mucous membrane of the tongue, palate, pharynx, and larynx. Herpes zoster infection of the larynx accompanied by Ramsay Hunt syndrome with cranial polyneuropathy is extremely rare, with only few reported cases in the literature. At the time of this report, a review of the medical literature disclosed 4 reported cases of herpes zoster laryngitis accompanied by Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Herein, we present 2 additional cases and report the clinical outcome of cranial polyneuropathy with a review of the literature.

  10. Preseptal and Orbital Cellulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Akçay; Gamze Dereli Can; Nurullah Çağıl

    2014-01-01

    Preseptal cellulitis (PC) is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC) is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites) or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epid...

  11. Orbital inflammation: Corticosteroids first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagi Glass, Lora R; Freitag, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Orbital inflammation is common, and may affect all ages and both genders. By combining a thorough history and physical examination, targeted ancillary laboratory testing and imaging, a presumptive diagnosis can often be made. Nearly all orbital inflammatory pathology can be empirically treated with corticosteroids, thus obviating the need for histopathologic diagnosis prior to initiation of therapy. In addition, corticosteroids may be effective in treating concurrent systemic disease. Unless orbital inflammation responds atypically or incompletely, patients can be spared biopsy.

  12. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asy...

  13. Pictorial essay: Orbital tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis of the orbit is rare, even in places where tuberculosis is endemic. The disease may involve soft tissue, the lacrimal gland, or the periosteum or bones of the orbital wall. Intracranial extension, in the form of extradural abscess, and infratemporal fossa extension has been described. This pictorial essay illustrates the imaging findings of nine histopathologically confirmed cases of orbital tuberculosis. All these patients responded to antituberculous treatment

  14. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M Al-Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  15. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Ke(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Vogan, D. , Dixmier algebras, sheets and representation theory (in Actes du colloque en I' honneur de Jacques Dixmier),Progress in Math. 92, Boston: Birkhauser Verlag, 1990, 333-397.[2]McGovern, W., Dixmier Algebras and Orbit Method, Operator Algebras, Unitary Representations and Invariant Theory,Boston: Birkhauser, 1990, 397-416.[3]Liang, K. , Parabolic inductions of nilpotent geometric orbit datum, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese) , 1996, 41 (23):2116-2118.[4]Vogan, D., Representations of Real Reductive Lie Groups, Boston-Basel-Stuttgart: Birkhauser, 1981.[5]Lustig, G., Spaltenstein, N., Induced unipotent class, J. London Math. Soc., 1997, 19. 41-52.[6]Collingwood, D. H. , McGovern, W. M. , Nilpotent Orbits in Semisimple Lie Algebras, New York: Van Nostremt Reinhold,1993.

  16. Definition of Relative Orbit Elements of Spacecraft Formation Flying for Purpose of Orbit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yelun

    Much efforts have been made to the research concerning the dynamical characteristics of spacecraft formation flying, several articles have been published including the authors' IAC papers IAF-98-A.2.06, IAA-99-IAA.11.1.09, IAA-01-IAA.11.4.08. The problem can be deduced to the issue of relative orbit motion of one satellite called accompany satellite around another called reference or central satellite, the latter being supposed to move in circular or near-circular orbit and to have equal semimajor axis as the former. It has been shown that the trajectory of relative motion is an ellipse constantly fixed to the orbital frame of the central satellite. It is known that the relative motion is completely determined by initial state of relative motion x0, y0, z0, vx0, vy0, vz0 (called parameter set 1). On the other hand the relative motion is caused by difference in eccentricity vectors and by non-coplanarity vector and influenced by the angle btw. the two vectors (called parameter set 2). Now the authors try to define relative orbit elements determining all geometrical and kinematical properties of the relative motion and having clear physical meaning similar to traditional orbit elements. Based on deep study of the dynamical characteristics we decide to define the elements as follows: (1) semimajor axis of the ellipse of relative trajectory; (2 and 3) elevation and azimuth angles of the normal determining the orientation of the relative motion plane wrt the reference orbit frame; (4) argument of latitude at epoch (initial instant) of reference satellite and (5) phase angle of the accompany satellite at epoch. These are minimum-required and independent elements. All others are secondary (or derived) parameters. For example, aspect ratio, i.e., ratio of major axis to minor axis, describing the shape of relative trajectory, is determined by elements 2 and 3, because of the inherent property that the projection of relative trajectory on reference orbit plane must be a 2

  17. Family of Orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time. All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet. Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  18. Critical thinking of student nurses during clinical accompaniment

    OpenAIRE

    BY Uys; SM Meyer

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-rela...

  19. Correlation between thyroid function and nodular goiter accompanied with gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihong Ma; Qinjiang Liu; Xiaofeng Hou

    2014-01-01

    The-purpose-of-the-study-wass-to-explore-the-correlation-between-thyroid-function-and-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone.-Methods:We-col-ected-120-cases-about-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-and-128-cases-about-nodular-goiter-and-establish-50-healthy-control-groups.-Detected-t-level-of-hyrotropic-hormone-(TSH),-total-tri-o-dothyronine-(TT3),-total-thyroxine-in-the-peripheral-venous-blood-of-these-cases-in-the-three-groups-by-using-electrochemilu-minescence-immunoassay,-measure-level-of-total-cholesterol-(TC),-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-(HDL-C),-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-(LDL-C)-and-total-bile-acid-(TBA)-levels-by-using-enzymic-method,-and-observed-the-changes-of-thyroid-function-and-blood-lipid-among-the-three-groups.-Results:The-serum-TT3-level-in-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-group-and-the-nodular-goiter-group-was-significantly-lower-than-that-in-control-group-(P0.05).-Accordingly,-TC-and-LDL-C-level-in-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-group-was-significantly-higher-than-that-in-nodular-goiter-and-control-group-(P0.05).-The-HDL-C-level-in-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-group-and-control-group-was-higher-than-that-in-simple-nodular-goiter-group-(P<0.01).-Conclusion:The-originating-etiologic-factor-of-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-may-be-related-to-that-the-decreased-TT3-induced-sub-clinical-hypothyroidism.

  20. 高效路面油污清洗剂的研制%Development of road grease cleaning agent with high decontamination efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文; 蔡卫权; 李玉军; 涂文辉

    2013-01-01

    A new weakly alkaline road grease cleaning agent with high decontamination efficiency was developed by choosing appropriate surfactants, auxiliary solvent and alkaline auxiliaries via analysis of the composition, properties and forming process of the road surface grease. Based on orthogonal experiment, the best ingredients and their percentage contents of AES 6%, LAS 1%, APG 4%, AEO-9 1%, mandarin oil 1.5%, triethanolamine 4% and trisodium citrate 3% were determined b further experiments of performance optimization, and its decontamination rate could reach 99.8% at dry temperature of 150℃. Comparison study of the cleaning performance between commercial multipurpose cleaning agent "Mr Muscle" for kitchen and the as-prepared road grease cleaning agent showed that the latter cleaning agent had higher comprehensive decontamination capacity, and also broad application prospect in the field of thick road grease cleaning.%通过对美食街路面油污组成、性质及形成过程进行分析,选择合适的表面活性剂、辅助溶剂和碱性助剂等原料成功地复配成弱碱性高效路面油污清洗剂.在正交实验的基础上,对所选配方进行性能优化实验,确定最佳实验配方组成分别为脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚硫酸钠6%、直链烷基苯磺酸钠1%、烷基糖苷4%、脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚1%、桔子油1.5%、三乙醇胺4%和柠檬酸三钠3%,在150℃的干燥温度下其去污力可达99.8%.与市售厨房多用清洗剂“威猛先生”清洗性能的对比研究表明,该清洗剂的综合去污能力更强,在路面稠油垢清洗领域显示出广阔的应用前景.

  1. Microbial community adaptation influences long-chain fatty acid conversion during anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease with municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziels, Ryan M; Karlsson, Anna; Beck, David A C; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Bjorn, Annika; Stensel, H David; Svensson, Bo H

    2016-10-15

    Codigesting fats, oils, and greases with municipal wastewater sludge can greatly improve biomethane recovery at wastewater treatment facilities. Process loading rates of fats, oils, and greases have been previously tested with little knowledge of the digester microbial community structure, and high transient fat loadings have led to long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation and digester upsets. This study utilized recently-developed quantitative PCR assays for syntrophic LCFA-degrading bacteria along with 16S amplicon sequencing to relate changes in microbial community structure to LCFA accumulation during transient loading increases to an anaerobic codigester receiving waste restaurant oil and municipal wastewater sludge. The 16S rRNA gene concentration of the syntrophic β-oxidizing genus Syntrophomonas increased to ∼15% of the Bacteria community in the codigester, but stayed below 3% in the control digester that was fed only wastewater sludge. Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were the dominant methanogenic genera enriched in the codigester, and together comprised over 80% of the Archaea community by the end of the experimental period. Constrained ordination showed that changes in the codigester Bacteria and Archaea community structures were related to measures of digester performance. Notably, the effluent LCFA concentration in the codigester was positively correlated to the specific loading rate of waste oil normalized to the Syntrophomonas 16S rRNA concentration. Specific loading rates of 0-1.5 × 10(-12) g VS oil/16S gene copies-day resulted in LCFA concentrations below 30 mg/g TS, whereas LCFA accumulated up to 104 mg/g TS at higher transient loading rates. Based on the community-dependent loading limitations found, enhanced biomethane production from high loadings of fats, oils and greases can be achieved by promoting a higher biomass of slow-growing syntrophic consortia, such as with longer digester solids retention times. This work also

  2. GPS Satellites Orbits: Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Danilo Damasceno Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of perturbations due to resonant geopotential harmonics on the semimajor axis of GPS satellites are analyzed. For some GPS satellites, secular perturbations of about 4 m/day can be obtained by numerical integration of the Lagrange planetary equations considering in the disturbing potential the main secular resonant coefficients. Amplitudes for long-period terms due to resonant coefficients are also exhibited for some hypothetical satellites orbiting in the neighborhood of the GPS satellites orbits. The results are important to perform orbital maneuvers of GPS satellites such that they stay in their nominal orbits. Also, for the GPS satellites that are not active, the long-period effects due to the resonance must be taken into account in the surveillance of the orbital evolutions of such debris.

  3. Wanted: elbow grease

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    In Divonne-les-Bains, an association founded by former CERN personnel is restoring the oldest hydroelectric plant in France. The adventure started more than ten years ago, and now you’re invited to take part…   View of the benzole-powered thermic engine from 1907. Georges Leskens, a spritely 85-year-old, is president of the Divonnelectro association. Georges, a former electrical engineer at CERN, now has a new goal: to bring the Moulin David hydroelectric plant in Divonne-les-Bains, which he found in a derelict state in 2001, back to life. “When I entered the plant for the first time, I found several remarkable period machines… and the extent of the damage,” recalls Georges. “Among other things, the town used the building for storing salt and grit for the roads... so I don’t need to tell you what state the mechanisms were in!” Aware of the historical value of the site (see box), Georges convinced the D...

  4. Just Greasing the Wheels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    despite its fundamentally conflictual nature. At least, this is how diplomats have portrayed their profession for hundreds of years. However,the focus of this contribution is how diplomacy in general is seen as mediating among states, peoples and ideas — and why this is an incomplete view. This short...... contribution is therefore concerned with the way in which scholarly understandings of diplomacy as the mediation of estrangement raise — but also evade — questions of power and responsibility....

  5. Imaging of orbital disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Mary Beth; Curtin, Hugh David

    2016-01-01

    Diseases of the orbit can be categorized in many ways, but in this chapter we shall group them according to etiology. Inflammatory diseases of the orbits may be infectious or noninfectious. Of the infections, orbital cellulitis is the most common and typically arises as a complication of acute sinusitis. Of the noninfectious, inflammatory conditions, thyroid orbitopathy is the most common and results in enlargement of the extraocular muscles and proliferation of the orbital fat. Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome is another cause of inflammation in the orbit, which may mimic thyroid orbitopathy or even neoplasm, but typically presents with pain. Masses in the orbit may be benign or malignant and the differential diagnosis primarily depends on the location of the mass lesion, and on the age of the patient. Lacrimal gland tumors may be lymphomas or epithelial lesions of salivary origin. Extraocular muscle tumors may represent lymphoma or metastases. Tumors of the intraconal fat are often benign, typically hemangiomas or schwannomas. Finally, globe tumors may be retinoblastomas (in children), or choroidal melanomas or metastases in adults. PMID:27432687

  6. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  7. Electron vortex orbits and merger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure electron plasma columns are contained inside hollow conducting cylinders in an axial magnetic field. In the 2D ExB drift approximation, an electron column is a vortex evolving in (r,θ) according to the Euler equation. First the center-of-mass orbits of two vortices sufficiently well-separated to be stable to merger are characterized. Equilibria are observed in which the vortices orbit about the center of the cylinder, with either oscillations about stable equilibria or exponential divergence away from unstable equilibria. The equilibrium positions, oscillation frequencies, and instability rates for these spatially extended vortices agree well with the predictions of point vortex theory, apparently because surface waves and shape distortions do not couple significantly to the center-of-mass motion. Next, the merger of two vortices with unequal radii is quantified. Merger is accompanied by the formation of filamentary arms, and results ultimately in an axisymmetric central core surrounded by a lower density halo. The self-energy of the merged core is found to be roughly the sum of the self-energy of the merging vortices. The fraction of the total circulation entrained into the core varies from 70% to 90% as the ratio of the initial vortex radii is varied from 1:1 to 2:1. The point-like vortex dynamics and the circulation loss with merger are both consistent with the open-quote open-quote punctuated Hamiltonian close-quote close-quote models of decaying turbulence. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  9. Helioseismology with Solar Orbiter

    OpenAIRE

    Löptien, Björn; Birch, Aaron C.; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper; Appourchaux, Thierry; Rodríguez, Julián Blanco; Cally, Paul S.; Dominguez-Tagle, Carlos; Gandorfer, Achim; Hill, Frank; Hirzberger, Johann; Scherrer, Philip H.; Solanki, Sami K.

    2014-01-01

    The Solar Orbiter mission, to be launched in July 2017, will carry a suite of remote sensing and in-situ instruments, including the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). PHI will deliver high-cadence images of the Sun in intensity and Doppler velocity suitable for carrying out novel helioseismic studies. The orbit of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft will reach a solar latitude of up to 21 deg (up to 34 deg by the end of the extended mission) and thus will enable the first local helioseismol...

  10. Study on the Processing Technology of Complex Lithium Grease in Laboratory%复合锂基润滑脂实验室制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于唯; 董元虎; 贾文; 樊龙飞

    2013-01-01

      研究实验室制备复合锂基润滑脂的加工工艺,采用单因素变化试验,分析一步法制备复合锂基润滑脂时料浓度、搅拌方式、搅拌速度、温度控制对成脂效果的影响.结果表明,在制作复合锂基润滑脂时,皂化反应前先加1/3~2/3的基础油来溶解脂肪酸,再徐徐加入氢氧化锂溶液进行皂化反应;待脂肪酸反应完全后,加入低分子二元反应完全后升温、脱水,加入剩余基础油进行高温炼制,然后冷却得到复合锂基润滑脂.制作复合锂基润滑脂的皂化应、复合反应、脱水反应、高温炼制阶段,需控制温度分别为110,110,160,220℃,控制反应时间分别为90,60,30,5 min,控制搅拌速度分别为80,80,30~60,30 r/min.%The processing technology of complex lithium grease made in laboratory was studied,and the single factor ex-periment was made to analyze the influence of reactant concentration,agitation modes,stirring speed and temperature con-trol on making lithium base grease of one-step method. Result shows that,during making lithium complex grease,first by using one-third to two-thirds of base oil to dissolve the fatty acid before saponification,the lithium hydroxide monohydrate is put all in the kettle once and slowly for saponiication. After the completion of the fatty acid’s reaction,the low molecule dimeric dibasic acid is put in. After acid completed reaction,heating to dehydrate,the remaining base oil is added in for high-temperature refining,and then cooled to get complex lithium grease. During the processes of saponification reaction, complex reaction,dehydration reaction,high-temperature refining of the grease,the control temperature needed respectively is 110,110,160 and 220℃;the control refining time needed is 90,60,30 and 5 min;and the control stirring speed respec-tively is 80,80,30 to 60 and 30 r/min.

  11. Envelopes of Cometary Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović, Ž.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss cometary orbits from the standpoint of Nonstandard (Leibnitz analysis, a relatively new branch of mathematics. In particular, we consider parabolic cometary paths. It appears that, in a sense, every parabola is an ellipse.

  12. Altimetry, Orbits and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, O. L.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of the orbit error and its effect on the sea surface heights calculated with satellite altimetry are explained. The elementary concepts of celestial mechanics required to follow a general discussion of the problem are included. Consideration of errors in the orbits of satellites with precisely repeating ground tracks (SEASAT, TOPEX, ERS-1, POSEIDON, amongst past and future altimeter satellites) are detailed. The theoretical conclusions are illustrated with the numerical results of computer simulations. The nature of the errors in this type of orbits is such that this error can be filtered out by using height differences along repeating (overlapping) passes. This makes them particularly valuable for the study and monitoring of changes in the sea surface, such as tides. Elements of tidal theory, showing how these principles can be combined with those pertinent to the orbit error to make direct maps of the tides using altimetry are presented.

  13. Partonic orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Shahveh, Abolfazl

    2013-04-01

    Ji's decomposition of nucleon spin is used and the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluon are calculated. We have utilized the so called valon model description of the nucleon in the next to leading order. It is found that the average orbital angular momentum of quarks is positive, but small, whereas that of gluon is negative and large. Individual quark flavor contributions are also calculated. Some regularities on the total angular momentum of the quarks and gluon are observed.

  14. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  15. Antisymmetric Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Klimyk

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, properties of antisymmetric orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Antisymmetric orbit functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ are antisymmetrized exponential functions. Antisymmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. These functions are closely related to irreducible characters of a compact semisimple Lie group $G$ of rank $n$. Up to a sign, values of antisymmetric orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain $F$ of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space $E_n$. Antisymmetric orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in $E_n$, vanishing on the boundary of the fundamental domain $F$. Antisymmetric orbit functions determine a so-called antisymmetrized Fourier transform which is closely related to expansions of central functions in characters of irreducible representations of the group $G$. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of $F$ (the discrete antisymmetric orbit function transform. Symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential, sine and cosine discrete transforms are given.

  16. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  17. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Tomoya; Nishijima, Haruo; Haga, Rie; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Ueno, Tatsuya; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2015-10-15

    We report a case of idiopathic cerebral hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. No other identifiable cause of pachymeningitis was detected. Corticosteroid therapy was effective for both diseases. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is closely related to autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. This case supports the hypothesis that hypertrophic pachymeningitis can be a rare comorbidity of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

  18. Bias in Examination Test Banks that Accompany Cost Accounting Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clute, Ronald C.; McGrail, George R.

    1989-01-01

    Eight text banks that accompany cost accounting textbooks were evaluated for the presence of bias in the distribution of correct responses. All but one were found to have considerable bias, and three of eight were found to have significant choice bias. (SK)

  19. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  20. Critical thinking of student nurses during clinical accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BY Uys

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts ‘critical thinking’ and ‘facilitation’ were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.

  1. Accompanied driving in The Netherlands : who do participate and why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Wijlhuizen, G.J. & Craen, S. de

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a six year accompanied driving experiment started in the Netherlands. This questionnaire study investigated which youngsters (intend to) participate and why, with the purpose of assessing whether there is a potential self-selection bias that can be relevant for the oncoming evaluation of it

  2. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  3. E-Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Patera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We review and further develop the theory of $E$-orbit functions. They are functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ obtained from the multivariate exponential function by symmetrization by means of an even part $W_{e}$ of a Weyl group $W$, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. They are closely related to symmetric and antisymmetric orbit functions which are received from exponential functions by symmetrization and antisymmetrization procedure by means of a Weyl group $W$. The $E$-orbit functions, determined by integral parameters, are invariant withrespect to even part $W^{aff}_{e}$ of the affine Weyl group corresponding to $W$. The $E$-orbit functions determine a symmetrized Fourier transform, where these functions serve as a kernel of the transform. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of the fundamental domain $F^{e}$ of the group $W^{aff}_{e}$ (the discrete $E$-orbit function transform.

  4. Orbital spacecraft resupply technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Tracey, T. R.; Bailey, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    The resupplying of orbital spacecraft using the Space Shuttle, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, Orbital Transfer Vehicle or a depot supply at a Space Station is studied. The governing factor in fluid resupply designs is the system size with respect to fluid resupply quantities. Spacecraft propellant management for tankage via diaphragm or surface tension configurations is examined. The capabilities, operation, and application of adiabatic ullage compression, ullage exchange, vent/fill/repressurize, and drain/vent/no-vent fill/repressurize, which are proposed transfer methods for spacecraft utilizing tankage configurations, are described. Selection of the appropriate resupply method is dependent on the spacecraft design features. Hydrazine adiabatic compression/detonation, liquid-free vapor venting to prevent freezing, and a method for no-vent liquid filling are analyzed. Various procedures for accurate measurements of propellant mass in low gravity are evaluated; a system of flowmeters with a PVT system was selected as the pressurant solubility and quantity gaging technique. Monopropellant and bipropellant orbital spacecraft consumable resupply system tanks which resupply 3000 lb of hydrazine and 7000 lb of MMH/NTO to spacecraft on orbit are presented.

  5. Helioseismology with Solar Orbiter

    CERN Document Server

    Löptien, Björn; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper; Appourchaux, Thierry; Rodríguez, Julián Blanco; Cally, Paul S; Dominguez-Tagle, Carlos; Gandorfer, Achim; Hill, Frank; Hirzberger, Johann; Scherrer, Philip H; Solanki, Sami K

    2014-01-01

    The Solar Orbiter mission, to be launched in July 2017, will carry a suite of remote sensing and in-situ instruments, including the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). PHI will deliver high-cadence images of the Sun in intensity and Doppler velocity suitable for carrying out novel helioseismic studies. The orbit of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft will reach a solar latitude of up to 21 deg (up to 34 deg by the end of the extended mission) and thus will enable the first local helioseismology studies of the polar regions. Here we consider an array of science objectives to be addressed by helioseismology within the baseline telemetry allocation (51 Gbit per orbit, current baseline) and within the science observing windows (baseline 3 x 10 days per orbit). A particularly important objective is the measurement of large-scale flows at high latitudes (rotation and meridional flow), which are largely unknown but play an important role in flux transport dynamos. The full range of Earth-Sun-spacecraft angles provi...

  6. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular ...

  7. Deceleration Orbit Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, M.

    1991-04-26

    During the accelerator studies period of 12/90-1/91 much study time was dedicated to improving the E760 deceleration ramps. 4 general goals were in mind: (1) Reduce the relative orbit deviations from the nominal reference orbit as much as possible. This reduces the potential error in the orbit length calculation - which is the primary source of error in the beam energy calculation. (2) Maximize the transverse apertures. This minimizes beam loss during deceleration and during accidental beam blow-ups. (3) Measure and correct lattice parameters. Knowledge of {gamma}{sub T}, {eta}, Q{sub h}, Q{sub v}, and the dispersion in the straight sections allows for a more accurate energy calculation and reliable SYNCH calculations. (4) Minimize the coupling. This allows one to discern between horizontal and vertical tunes.

  8. Periodic orbits and TDHF phase space structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Yukio; Iwasawa, Kazuo [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Physics; Tsukuma, Hidehiko; Sakata, Fumihiko

    1998-03-01

    The collective motion of atomic nuclei is closely coupled with the motion of nucleons, therefore, it is nonlinear, and the contents of the motion change largely with the increase of its amplitude. As the framework which describes the collective motion accompanied by the change of internal structure, time-dependent Hurtley Fock (TDHF) method is suitable. At present, the authors try to make the method for studying the large region structure in quantum system by utilizing the features of the TDHF phase space. The studies made so far are briefed. In this report, the correspondence of the large region patterns appearing in the band structure chart of three-level model with the periodic orbit group in the TDHF phase space is described. The Husimi function is made, and it possesses the information on the form of respective corresponding intrinsic state. The method of making the band structure chart is explained. There are three kinds of the tendency in the intrinsic state group. The E-T charts are made for the band structure charts to quantitatively express the large region tendency. The E-T chart and the T{sub r}-T chart are drawn for a selected characteristic orbit group. It became to be known that the large region properties of the quantum intrinsic state group of three-level model can be forecast by examining the properties of the periodic orbit group in the TDHF phase space. (K.I.)

  9. Influence of Composition of Complex Lithium-based Lubricant Grease on the Microstructure%润滑脂组成对复合锂基润滑脂微观结构影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晖; 陈晓南; 陈哲; 纪红兵

    2011-01-01

    lithium-based grease was characterized by using high resolution SEM.and the effects of different thickener, viscosity of base oil and additives on the performance of the grease from the microstructure were analyzed. The results show that soap-fiber length, thickness and three-dimensional structure determine the extent of the colloidal properties of grease. In the same thickener agent content( 12% ) ,three-dimensional structure of soap fiber of sebacic acid-hydroxy stearic acid grease is more compact than that of the boric acid-hydroxy stearic acid grease, three components of salicylic acid-based grease forms no soap fiber structure but with highest dropping point. The grease prepared by high viscosity base oil shows loose soap fiber structure compared with low viscosity base oil. Additive does not affect the size and shape of the soap fibers in the case of low content.%使用高分辨SEM观察锂基润滑脂的微观结构,对不同稠化剂、基础油黏度、添加剂对润滑脂的性能影响从微观结构的角度进行解释.结果表明,皂纤维的长度、粗细和缠绕程度形成的三维结构决定了润滑脂的胶体性能.在同等稠化剂含量下(质量分数12%),二组分癸羟型皂纤维三维结构比二组分硼羟型更为致密,三组分水杨酸型没有形成皂纤维结构,但滴点最高;高黏度基础油制备的润滑脂的皂纤维结构较低黏度基础油制备的润滑脂皂纤维结构疏松.在较少的含量情况下,添加剂的加入不影响皂纤维的大小和形状.

  10. 基于石蜡基油的锂基润滑脂流变性研究%STUDY ON RHEOLOGY OF LITHIUM LUCRICATING GREASE PREPARED FROM PARAFFIN-CASE MINERAL LUCE CASE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维贵; 郭小川; 蒋明俊; 郭婉晴

    2014-01-01

    以12-羟基硬脂酸锂皂稠化剂和矿物润滑基础油制备了锂基润滑脂。考察了基础油黏度、稠化剂含量及温度对锂基润滑脂的触变性、储存模量、应变幅度和表观黏度等流变学参数的影响,并对其影响机理进行了探讨。结果表明:基础油黏度增大,屈服应力先增大后减小,而表观黏度增大,400SN 的锂基润滑脂结构恢复最慢;皂含量增加,锂基润滑脂的屈服应力和表观黏度增大,结构恢复变慢;锂基润滑脂具有线性黏弹区,超过其屈服应力后,出现明显的剪切变稀,达到流动点,表现出黏性流体性质。%In order to study the rheological properties of lithium lubricating grease systematically, the lithium lubricating greases were prepared using 1 2-hydroxy stearic acid lithium soap thickener and mineral lubricating base oil.The influence of base oil viscosity,thickening agent dosage and tempera-ture on the thixotropy of lithium base grease,storage modulus,strain amplitude,the apparent viscosi-ty,and the corresponding mechanisms were examined.The results show that with increase of soap con-tent in lithium lubricating grease,the apparent viscosity increases while the yield stress shows the tend-ency of lowered after first increase.The 400SN lithium grease is the slowest one to restore its original structure,and that the yield stress and apparent viscosity increase with the soap dosage increasing, while the structure recovery rate decreases.Lithium grease possesses a linear sticky play area.Beyond the yield stress,the shear thinning appears.At the flow pour point,the grease shows its viscous flow properties.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF OVERBASED CALCIUM SULFONATE FOR SYNTHETIC GREASE%合成润滑脂用高碱值磺酸钙的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘依农

    2012-01-01

    以5种烷基苯磺酸A,B,C,D,E为原料合成高碱值磺酸钙,并进一步合成润滑脂.结果发现,由C、D合成的磺酸钙转化成的润滑脂性能较好.设计正交试验,考察C、D合成磺酸钙时促进剂、助促进剂、水、二氧化碳等因素的影响,得到优化的工艺条件.在50 L反应器中进行中型放大试验,得到合格产品.其中以C为原料的磺酸钙碱值为396.1 mgKOH/g,100℃运动黏度为134.28mm2/s,以D为原料的磺酸钙碱值为391.6mgKOH/g,100℃运动黏度为92.27mm2/s,二者的碳酸钙均为无定形结构.以上两种磺酸钙进行润滑脂中型试验时发现,磺酸钙转化为润滑脂的时间短、成脂性好,润滑脂高温性能及抗水性能好,其它性能均满足产品指标要求.%5 types of alkyl benzene sulfonic acids (A,B,C,D,E) were used to synthesize overbased sulfonates which were further to be used to prepare sulfonate grease. Test results indicated that sulfon-ate grease samples prepared by calucium sulfonates Ca-C and Ca-D (from sulfonic acids C and D, respectively) exhibited better performance as compared with the others. Orthogonal experiments were designed to investigate the influence of promoter amount, co-promoter, water and carbon dioxide on the properties of calucium sulfonates, and to obtain the optimum preparation conditions. Based on these results, overbased sulfonates Ca-C and Ca-D were prepared in 50 L pilot plant reactor, the TBN of prepared Ca-C and Ca-D was 396. 1 mgKOH/g and 391. 6 mgKOH/g, respectively; their 100℃ kinetic viscosities were 134. 28 mm2/s and 92. 27 mm2/s, respectively, and both having amorphous carbonate. Finally, two sulfonate grease products were prepared by calucium sulfonates Ca-C and Ca-D in pilot plant scale, it was observed that the conversion of calucium sulfonates Ca-C/Ca-D to synthetic grease could be completed in short time. The qualities of these two products met the requirements of relative product specifications, and they exhibited

  12. Accompaniment needs of nursing students related to the dying patient

    OpenAIRE

    D van Rooyen; Laing, R.; WJ Kotzé

    2005-01-01

    Nurse educators are responsible for accompanying students towards becoming capable, competent professional nurses who are a credit to themselves, their patients, colleagues and profession. Student nurses need, therefore, to be taught to render comprehensive nursing care to patients in all stages of their lives, including when they are dying. Being confronted with human suffering and death is challenging and traumatic. Those exposed to such events on a daily basis need to have a solid foundati...

  13. Visual Messages Accompanied by Music: Preschool Children’s Interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Dogani, Konstantina; Constandinidou-Semoglou, Ourania

    2016-01-01

    Within current visual culture children are continuously exposed to varieties of visual messages accompanied by music which could contribute towards their aesthetic development. However, the interaction between music and image is not always as simple as in animation where music has direct relationship to the visual message to be easily interpreted by the preschool child. Taking a semiotic approach the current paper investigates preschool child’s reception of a more sophisticated interaction be...

  14. The Raven,a Loner’s Psychological Accompanier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商滔

    2015-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe’s The Raven is well-known to the world for its detailed psychological descriptions in the author’s eyes of this essay.Whereas,the Raven is the only one accompanie and the best listener listening to Poe’s psychological cry for his lover.The author will try to present the scene of the sadness from Poe by employing Carl G.Jung’s theories about consciousness and unconsciousness.

  15. The Raven,a Loner’s Psychological Accompanier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商滔

    2015-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe’s The Raven is well-known to the world for its detailed psychological descriptions in the author’s eyes of this essay.Whereas,the Raven is the only one accompanier and the best listener listening to Poe’s psychological cry for his lover.The author will try to present the scene of the sadness from Poe by employing Carl G.Jung’s theories about consciousness and unconsciousness.

  16. The neutron 'thunder' accompanying the extensive air shower

    OpenAIRE

    Erlykin, A. D.

    2007-01-01

    Simulations show that neutrons are the most abundant component among extensive air shower hadrons. However, multiple neutrons which appear with long delays in neutron monitors nearby the EAS core ('neutron thunder') are mostly not the neutrons of the shower, but have a secondary origin. The bulk of them is produced by high energy EAS hadrons hitting the monitors. The delays are due to the termalization and diffusion of neutrons in the moderator and reflector of the monitor accompanied by the ...

  17. Adult-Onset Acquired Partial Lipodystrophy Accompanied by Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Muto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipodystrophy is a group of metabolic disorders, possibly caused by autoimmune disease. In this report, we describe a case of adult-onset acquired partial lipodystrophy accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis without a family history. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed dense infiltration of IL-27-producing cells as well as MMP-7- and MMP-28-expressing cells, both of which have been reported to facilitate the development of autoimmune disease. Our present case might suggest possible mechanisms for acquired partial lipodystrophy.

  18. A case of peribiliary cysts accompanying bile duct carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fumihiko Miura; Tadahiro Takada; Hodaka Amano; Masahiro Yoshida; Takahiro Isaka; Naoyuki Toyota; Keita Wada; Kenji Takagi; Kenichiro Karo

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of peribiliary cysts accompaying bile duct carcinoma is presented. A 54-year-old man was diagnosed as having lower bile duct carcinoma and peribiliary cysts by diagnostic imaging. He underwent pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. As for the peribiliary cysts, a course of observation was taken.Over surgery due to misdiagnosis of patients with biliary malignancy accompanied by peribiliary cysts should be avoided.

  19. Orbital radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbital abnormalities can be evaluated by dynamic scintigraphy (radionuclide angiography) and static scintigraphy (radionuclide ''scanning''). The use of en face positioning improves the visualization of orbital details. Lesions can be detected and localized most accurately if multiple tracers are used for these studies. Abnormalities can be characterized by the recognition of various angiographic flow patterns, of distinct static distribution patterns, and of differences in the accumulation of multiple radiopharmaceuticals. The results of scintigraphic examination using technetium 99m sodium pertechnetate, mercury 197 chlormerodrin, and gallium 67 citrate in a series of 57 patients are reported. (U.S.)

  20. Real-time implementation of an interactive jazz accompaniment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nikhil

    Modern computational algorithms and digital signal processing (DSP) are able to combine with human performers without forced or predetermined structure in order to create dynamic and real-time accompaniment systems. With modern computing power and intelligent algorithm layout and design, it is possible to achieve more detailed auditory analysis of live music. Using this information, computer code can follow and predict how a human's musical performance evolves, and use this to react in a musical manner. This project builds a real-time accompaniment system to perform together with live musicians, with a focus on live jazz performance and improvisation. The system utilizes a new polyphonic pitch detector and embeds it in an Ableton Live system - combined with Max for Live - to perform elements of audio analysis, generation, and triggering. The system also relies on tension curves and information rate calculations from the Creative Artificially Intuitive and Reasoning Agent (CAIRA) system to help understand and predict human improvisation. These metrics are vital to the core system and allow for extrapolated audio analysis. The system is able to react dynamically to a human performer, and can successfully accompany the human as an entire rhythm section.

  1. Accompaniment needs of nursing students related to the dying patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Van Rooyen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurse educators are responsible for accompanying students towards becoming capable, competent professional nurses who are a credit to themselves, their patients, colleagues and profession. Student nurses need, therefore, to be taught to render comprehensive nursing care to patients in all stages of their lives, including when they are dying. Being confronted with human suffering and death is challenging and traumatic. Those exposed to such events on a daily basis need to have a solid foundation of self preservation to see past the pain of suffering and to bring light and hope to those in need. A young student nurse will only experience positive growth and development in these circumstances if she is also cared for and guided with understanding. The researcher utilized a qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design based on the phenomenological approach to enquiry. The following question was asked at the beginning of each unstructured phenomenological interview: “How was if for you to care for a dying or deceased patient?” The central theme identified that student nurses experience turmoil in their different relationships in their accompaniment of the dying patient. Guidelines based on the central theme and sub-themes that emerged from raw data, as well as literature, are offered as strategies to promote/enhance optimal accompaniment of student nurses caring for the dying patient.

  2. Intrinsic Spin and Orbital-Angular-Momentum Hall Effect

    OpenAIRE

    S. Zhang; Yang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    A generalized definition of intrinsic and extrinsic transport coefficients is introduced. We show that transport coefficients from the intrinsic origin are solely determined by local electronic structure, and thus the intrinsic spin Hall effect is not a transport phenomenon. The intrinsic spin Hall current is always accompanied by an equal but opposite intrinsic orbital-angular-momentum Hall current. We prove that the intrinsic spin Hall effect does not induce a spin accumulation at the edge ...

  3. Rehabilitation of an Orbital Defect: A Simplified Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Muddugangadhar, B C; Sonika, Radhika; Chheda, Pratik S; Garg, Ashu

    2015-01-01

    Loss of tissue, whether congenital or traumatic or resulting from malignancy or radical surgery, is accompanied by esthetic and psychologic effects. This loss is more pronounced when the affected part is the eye and all orbital contents, resulting in gross mutilation. Success in maxillofacial prosthetics depends on the full cognizance of the principles that underlie facial harmony, color matching, anchorage and retention, weight bearing and leverage, durability and strength of materials used,...

  4. Sedna Orbit Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  5. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  6. [Orbital decompression for Graves' ophthalmopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulétreau, P; Breton, P; Freidel, M

    2005-04-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy is a complex orbital condition with a controversial pathogenesis. It is the clinical expression of a discordance between the inextensible orbit and hypertrophic muscular and fatty elements within the orbit responding to immunological stimulation. The relationship between the orbital and its content can be improved by surgical expansion which increases the useful volume of the orbit. This procedure can be combined with lipectomy to decrease the volume of the orbital contents. We briefly recall the history of surgical decompression techniques and present our experience with Graves' ophthalmopathy patients.

  7. Local orbitals by minimizing powers of the orbital variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Kristensen, Kasper;

    2011-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a set of local orthonormal Hartree–Fock (HF) molecular orbitals can be obtained for both the occupied and virtual orbital spaces by minimizing powers of the orbital variance using the trust-region algorithm. For a power exponent equal to one, the Boys localization function...... is obtained. For increasing power exponents, the penalty for delocalized orbitals is increased and smaller maximum orbital spreads are encountered. Calculations on superbenzene, C60, and a fragment of the titin protein show that for a power exponent equal to one, delocalized outlier orbitals may be...... encountered. These disappear when the exponent is larger than one. For a small penalty, the occupied orbitals are more local than the virtual ones. When the penalty is increased, the locality of the occupied and virtual orbitals becomes similar. In fact, when increasing the cardinal number for Dunning...

  8. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Toprak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  9. Orbit correction algorithm for SSRF fast orbit feedback system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming; YIN Chongxian; LIU Dekang

    2009-01-01

    A fast orbit feedback system is designed at SSRF to suppress beam orbit disturbance within sub-micron in the bandwidth up to 100 Hz.The SVD (Singular value decomposition) algorithm is applied to calculate the inverse response matrix in global orbit correction.The number of singular eigenvalues will influence orbit noise suppression and corrector strengths.The method to choose singular eigenvalue rejection threshold is studied in this paper,and the simulation and experiment results are also presented.

  10. Marfan Syndrome Accompanied by Pituitary Adenomas: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi HUANG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS is a dominant inherited connective tissue disease. It has variable clinical manifestations and affects a number of systems, such as the cardiovascular system, eyes, skeletal, lung, skin etc. Fibrillin-1(FBN1)gene mutations are found in approximately 90% patients. The abnormal proteins originated from the mutant gene play a dominant negative effect on normal proteins or change their susceptibility of protease, which leads to the change of connective tissue. This paper reports the clinical data of a patient with Marfan syndrome accompanied by pituitary adenomas and reviews related literatures at home and abroad, to explore its pathogenesis.

  11. Study guide to accompany computers data and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1985-01-01

    Study Guide to Accompany Computer and Data Processing provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of computers and computer technology. This book presents the key benefits of using computers.Organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. This text then introduces computer hardware and describes the processor. Other chapters describe how microprocessors are made and describe the physical operation of computers. This book discusses as w

  12. Test bank to accompany Computers data and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1980-01-01

    Test Bank to Accompany Computers and Data Processing provides a variety of questions from which instructors can easily custom tailor exams appropriate for their particular courses. This book contains over 4000 short-answer questions that span the full range of topics for introductory computing course.This book is organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters. This text provides a very large number of questions so that instructors can produce different exam testing essentially the same topics in succeeding semesters. Three types of questions are included in this book, including multiple ch

  13. Bronchial Sparganosis mansoni accompanied by abnormal hyperplasia diagnosed by bronchoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jing; HE Zhi-yi; LIU Guang-nan; ZHANG Jian-quan; DENG Jing-min; LI Mei-hua; ZHONG Xiao-ning

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary sparganosis mansoni is rare in humans and bronchial sparganosis mansoni has not been reported.We reported a patient with a soft-tissue mass in the right hilum area on a chest computed tomography (CT) scan that was suspected of being lung cancer.Bronchoscopy identified sparganum larvae.Bronchial sparganosis mansoni accompanied by abnormal hyperplasia was diagnosed by histopathology.We introduced our experience and reviewed the clinical characteristics of three pulmonary sparganosis mansoni cases and three pleural cavity sparganosis mansoni cases that have been reoorted.

  14. Solutions manual to accompany finite mathematics models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    A solutions manual to accompany Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications In order to emphasize the main concepts of each chapter, Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications features plentiful pedagogical elements throughout such as special exercises, end notes, hints, select solutions, biographies of key mathematicians, boxed key principles, a glossary of important terms and topics, and an overview of use of technology. The book encourages the modeling of linear programs and their solutions and uses common computer software programs such as LINDO. In addition to extensive chapters on pr

  15. Mucocele Accompanied by a Traumatic Neuroma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafari Ashkavandi Z.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucocele and traumatic neuroma are two lesions related to the traumatic events; however there is only one reported case in which these two entities were perceived simultaneously. The current study reported a 21-year-old man who complained of painless recurrent swelling, accompanied by paresthesia on his left lower labial mucosa. He had a previous history of similar lesion and had been treated with surgery and cauterization last year. The primary clinical impression was a recurrent mucocele. Microscopic surveys displayed a traumatic neuroma in the vicinity of a mucocele which seems to be arising from the previous surgical treatment.

  16. Instructor's manual to accompany calculus with analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yong

    1978-01-01

    Instructor's Manual to Accompany Calculus with Analytic Geometry is an instructor's manual on calculus with analytic geometry. It contains answers to even-numbered exercises and solutions of selected even- and odd-numbered exercises. Comments on selected exercises are included.Comprised of 18 chapters, this book first presents answers and solutions to exercises relating to functions and graphs. The next chapter is about derivatives and covers topics ranging from the slope problem to limits, sums and products, and quotients and square roots, along with limits and continuity. Subsequent chapters

  17. Measurement of orbital volume after enucleation and orbital implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lukats

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article reports experience relating to the measurement of orbital volume by means of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and Cranioviewer program software in patients who have undergone enucleation and orbital implantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CBCT scans were made in 30 cases, 10 of which were later excluded because of various technical problems. The study group therefore consisted of 20 patients (8 men and 12 women. The longest follow-up time was 7 years, and the shortest was 1 year. In all 20 cases, the orbital volume was measured with Cranioviewer orbital program software. Slices were made in the ventrodorsal direction at 4.8 mm intervals in the frontal plane, in both bony orbits (both that containing the orbital implant and the healthy one. Similar measurements were made in 20 patients with various dental problems. CBCT scans were recorded for the facial region of the skull, containing the orbital region. The Cranioviewer program can colour the area of the slices red, and it automatically measures the area in mm. RESULTS: In 5 of the 20 cases, the first 4 or all 5 slices revealed that the volume of the operated orbit was significantly smaller than that of the healthy orbit, in 12 cases only from 1 to 3 of the slices indicated such a significant difference, and in 3 cases no differences were observed between the orbits. In the control group of patients with various dental problems, there was no significant difference between the two healthy orbits. The accuracy of the volume measurements was assessed statistically by means of the paired samples t-test. SUMMARY: To date, no appropriate method is avaliable for exact measurement of the bony orbital volume, which would be of particular importance in orbital injury reconstruction. However, the use of CBCT scans and Cranioviewer orbital program software appears to offer a reliable method for the measurement of changes in orbital volume.

  18. Value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in community nursing science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebin Arries

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical community health facilities where undergraduate students are placed for their practical work in community nursing science are dynamic and have undergone major transformation over the past few years. In the clinical field, community nurses and undergraduate students are representative of the different races and language and ethnic groups in the South African population, with each group espousing different value systems. Both parties – students and community nurses – report that, due to these differences, value conflicts are experienced during clinical accompaniment and that this has negative effects on clinical learning in community nursing science.

    The goal of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of students with regard to value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in the community nursing environment. An exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Interactions between community nurses and students during clinical accompaniment were explored for value sensitivity by means of video recordings,participant observation and focus group interviews. Data were collected by means of video recordings, participant observation and focus group interviews. The data were analysed and coded by the researcher and the external coder, using an inductive descriptive method to identify important segments of the regularity of behaviour. The focus group interviews were transcribed, analysed and coded by the researcher and the external coder, using Tesch’s steps of analysis (Creswell 1994:155–156.Lincoln and Guba’s criteria (1985:290 for trustworthiness were applied to the study.

    The general findings indicate that clinical accompaniment in community nursing is not value sensitive and, as a result, guidelines for value-sensitive clinical accompaniment need to be developed for undergraduate students in the community nursing environment. The following values (values for which guidelines need to be developed were

  19. Behavior of Water Jet Accompanied with Air Suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hironobu; Ishido, Tsutomu; Ihara, Akio

    In order to atomize a liquid, the authors have investigated the behavior of air-water jets. In a series of experiments, we have discovered a strange phenomenon that the water jet accompanied with air suction from the free surface has made a periodic radial splash of water drop. The purpose of the present paper is to clear out the origin of this phenomenon and the behavior of water jet accompanied with air suction. The behavior of water jet has been photographed by a digital camera aided with a flashlight and high-speed video camera. Those experiments enable us to find the origin of a periodic radial splash due to a formation of single air bubble at the flow separation region inside the nozzle and due to explosive expansion of the bubble after injected in the free space. In order to analyze the radial splash of water, we have conducted the equation of spherical liquid membrane. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the experimental results and good agreement has been obtained in radial expansion velocity.

  20. Treatment of lingual traumatic ulcer accompanied with fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sella Sella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a common form of ulceration occured in oral cavity caused by mechanical trauma, either acute or chronic, resulting in loss of the entire epithelium. Traumatic ulcer often occurs in children that are usually found on buccal mucosa, labial mucosa of upper and lower lip, lateral tongue, and a variety of areas that may be bitten. To properly diagnose the ulcer, dentists should evaluate the history and clinical description in detail. If the lesion is allegedly accompanied by other infections, such as fungal, bacterial or viral infections, microbiological or serological tests will be required. One of the initial therapy given for fungal infection is nystatin which aimed to support the recovery and repair processes of epithelial tissue in traumatic ulcer case. Purpose: This case report is aimed to emphasize the importance of microbiological examination in suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. Case: A 12-year-old girl came to the clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia on June 9, 2011 accompanied with her mother. The patient who had a history of geographic tongue came with complaints of injury found in the middle of the tongue. The main diagnosis was ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection based on the results of swab examination. Case management: This traumatic ulcer case was treated with Dental Health Education, oral prophylaxis, as well as prescribing and usage instructions of nystatin. The recovery and repair processes of mucosal epithelium of the tongue then occured after the use of nystatin. Conclusion: It can be concluded that microbiological examination is important to diagnose suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. The appropriate treatment such as nystatin can be given for traumatic fungal infection.Latar belakang: Ulkus traumatic merupakan bentuk umum dari ulserasi rongga mulut yang terjadi akibat trauma

  1. 19 CFR 133.24 - Restrictions on articles accompanying importer and mail importations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on articles accompanying importer and... accompanying importer and mail importations. (a) Detention. Articles accompanying an importer and mail... given in the following manner: (1) Articles accompanying importer. When the articles are carried...

  2. Experimental Study on Full Life-cycle Performance of Magnetic Greases in Sea-water%海水环境下磁脂性能的全生命周期试验研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳; 张秋翔; 李双喜; 蔡纪宁

    2015-01-01

    利用磁脂密封试验台,研究在海水环境中磁脂从初始状态到稳定运转直至失效的全生命周期的性能变化。采用电镜和差热反应等方法对分散剂、磁性包覆颗粒以及载液的酸值和分油进行分析,研究磁脂的变化过程,得到其变化规律和磁脂失效的判据。结果表明:磁脂的结块硬化是引起磁脂失效的主要原因;磁脂发生结块硬化时,载液的分油加剧,载液承载作用减弱,出现磁性包覆颗粒分散稀疏带并呈现扩展趋势,但磁性颗粒没有发生氧化反应,分散剂形态仍保持良好。%The change of full life⁃cycle performances of magnetic greases from the initial state to the steady state until the dead end in sea⁃water was investigated by using the magnetic grease seal test bed.By analyzing the dispersant,magnetic coated particles, and the value and oil separation of loading fluid by the methods of SEM,TEM and differential thermal a⁃nalysis,the change process of magnetic greases was researched to find out the law of change of magnetic greases and the criterion of faults prediction of the magnetic greases. The results show that cross⁃linking hardening is the main reason to lead to the invalidation of magnetic greases.When the cross⁃linking hardening happens,the oil separation of loading fluid is increased and the carrying capacity is weakened, magnetic coated particles disperse sparsely and trend to diffusion. But there is no occurrence of oxidation reactions in magnetic particles,and the shape of dispersants is remained in good condi⁃tion.

  3. Chaos Behaviour of Molecular Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Tang; SUN Fu-Yan; SHEN Shu-Lan

    2007-01-01

    Based on H(u)ckel's molecular orbit theory,the chaos and;bifurcation behaviour of a molecular orbit modelled by a nonlinear dynamic system is studied.The relationship between molecular orbit and its energy level in the nonlinear dynamic system is obtained.

  4. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Akçay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal cellulitis (PC is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epidermidis, Haempphilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and S. pyogenes. The method for the diagnosis of OS and PS is computed tomography. Using effective antibiotics is a mainstay for the treatment of PC and OC. There is an agreement that surgical drainage should be performed in cases of complete ophthalmoplegia or significant visual impairment or large abscesses formation. This infections are also at a greater risk of acute visual loss, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, cerebritis, endophthalmitis, and brain abscess in children. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to control the infection. Diagnosis, treatment, management and complications of PC and OC are summarized in this manuscript. J MicrobiolInfect Dis 2014; 4(3: 123-127

  5. Orbit-orbit interaction and photonic orbital Hall effect in reflection of a light beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the orbit—orbit interaction when a paraxial beam with intrinsic orbital angular momentum (IOAM) reflects at an air—glass interface. The orbital-dependent splitting of the beam intensity distribution arises due to the interaction between IOAM and extrinsic orbital angular momentum (EOAM). In addition, we find that the beam centroid shows an orbital-dependent rotation when seen along the propagation axis. However, the motion of the beam centroid related to the orbit—orbit interaction undergoes a straight line trajectory with a small angle inclining from the propagation axis. Similar to a previously developed spin-dependent splitting in the photonic spin Hall effect, the orbital-dependent splitting could lead to the photonic orbital Hall effect

  6. Characterization of simple orbit graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Tomanová; Jaulin, C; A. Faisant; A. Bretto

    2010-01-01

    Let G be a (finite) group and let S be a non-empty subset ofG. The vertex set of the orbit graph O(G,S) is the collection, over all s Î S, of orbits of left translations induced by s. If u and v are distinct vertices (each representing an orbit of some s and t from S), then for any gÎ G appearing in both orbits there is an edge colored g inO(G,S) joining u and v. Orbit graphs are an important special case of "G-graphs" introduced by Bretto and Faisant in Math. Slovaca 55 (2005). In this pape...

  7. Intracranial hypotension accompanied by trauma. A prospective study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the clinical characteristics of definite and non-definite diagnosis groups in intracranial hypotension accompanied by trauma (IHAT), we undertook investigations of registered patients (n=23) prospectively. The results revealed the following features of IHAT: definite diagnosis group, 4 cases; they had long periods from injury to onset (5.5±5.7 days), but these were markedly shorter than in the non-definite group; 75% of definite cases showed typical postural headache; 75% of definite cases showed dural enhancement on Gd-MRI; all 4 cases had confirmed cerebrospinal fluid (CFS) leakage based on imaging diagnosis with cervical lesions in 2 cases and cervical-thoracic lesions in 2 cases; and 6) good recovery was achieved in them by conservative therapy and blood patch, with a cure rate of 100%. These findings suggest that confirmed CFS leakage is indispensable for reaching definite diagnosis of IHAT. (author)

  8. Thermal expansion accompanying the glass-liquid transition and crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Q. Jiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the linear thermal expansion behaviors of a Zr-based (Vitreloy 1 bulk metallic glass in its as-cast, annealed and crystallized states. Accompanying the glass-liquid transition, the as-cast Vitreloy 1 shows a continuous decrease in the thermal expansivity, whereas the annealed glass shows a sudden increase. The crystallized Vitreloy 1 exhibits an almost unchanged thermal expansivity prior to its melting. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the nucleation of crystalline phases can induce a significant thermal shrinkage of the supercooled liquid, but with the growth of these nuclei, the thermal expansion again dominates. These results are explained in the framework of the potential energy landscape, advocating that the configurational and vibrational contributions to the thermal expansion of the glass depend on both, structure and temperature.

  9. [Differential radiodiagnosis of odontogenic mandibular osteomyelitis accompanied by trigeminal neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonskaia, N S; Zorina, I S

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the results of radiation examination in 43 patients with clinical manifestations of mandibular osteomyelitis. In 13 of them, the disease was accompanied by trigeminal neuropathy. The radiation semiotics of the changes occurring in the mandibular bone and its adjacent soft tissues in different phases of osteomyelitis is described. Comparative analysis of orthopantomograms and the images obtained by multislice spiral computed tomography has revealed the advantage of the latter in identifying insignificant changes in bone tissue and damages to the mandibular canal. Ultrasound study is of more informative value in detecting soft tissue changes in this area. High-technology radiodiagnostic techniques play a leading role in the differentiation of odontogenic and non-odontogenic trigeminal neuropathies.

  10. Redox transformation of uranium accompanying microbial iron reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrends, T.; Van Cappellen, P. [Department of Earth Sciences - Geochemistry, Faculty of Geosciences, University of Utrecht, P.O. box 80021, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Dissimilatory iron reduction results in the accumulation of Fe(II). This accumulation of Fe(II) can result in the formation of secondary iron minerals such as siderite or magnetite. In our research we focused on the role of microbial induced magnetite formation on the mobility of U(VI). In particular, we investigated the transformation of nano-particulate hematite into magnetite in incubation experiments with the facultative anaerobic bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens. It turned out that addition of bicarbonate was required for inducing magnetite formation while no significant magnetite formation was found in experiments without bicarbonate amendment. Formation of biogenic magnetite was accompanied by fixation of U(VI) at the solid phase. Sequential extractions indicated that the fixation of U(VI) was accompanied by the reduction of U(VI) into U(IV). In control experiments it was observed that addition of bicarbonate slowed down direct enzymatic reduction of U(VI) by the bacteria. Also the surface-catalyzed reduction of U(VI) by Fe(II) as described by [1] was inhibited by bicarbonate addition. These observations led us to the conclusion that formation of aqueous uranyl carbonate complexes interfere with direct microbial reduction of U(VI) and the abiotic, surface-catalyzed reduction of U(VI) by Fe(II). This implies that fixation of uranium by biogenic magnetite formation might be important for immobilizing uranium in sub-oxic environments in which aqueous uranyl-carbonate complexes dominate the speciation of dissolved uranium [2]. [1] Liger E., Charlet L., and Van Cappellen P. (1999) Surface catalysis of uranium (VI) reduction by iron(II). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63, 2939-2955; [2] Behrends T. and Van Cappellen P. (2005) Competition between enzymatic and abiotic reduction of uranium(VI) under iron reducing conditions. Chemical Geology (accepted). (authors)

  11. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP. The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan to use a nonlinear filtering method for immediate orbit tasks requires more precise satellite orbit state parameters in a short time. Although the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF method is widely used, its linear approximation of the drawbacks in dealing with nonlinear problems was especially evident, without compromising Kalman filter (unscented Kalman Filter, UKF. As a new nonlinear estimation method, it is measured at the estimated measurements on more and more applications. This paper will be the first study on UKF microsatellites in LEO orbit in real time, trying to explore the real-time precision orbit determination techniques. Through the preliminary simulation results, they show that, based on orbit mission requirements and conditions using UKF, they can satisfy the positioning accuracy and compute two indicators.

  12. Galactic Habitable Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Mao, S.; Kawata, D.

    2014-03-01

    The fossil record shows that the Earth has experienced several mass extinctions over the past 500 million years1, and it has been suggested that there is a periodicity in extinction events on timescales of tens1 and/or hundreds of millions of years. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of the mass extinctions, including the suggestion that the Earth's ozone layer may have been destroyed by intense radiation from a nearby supernovae2- 3, exposing the Earth's surface to damaging UV radiation. Recent observations of cores taken from the ocean floor revealed atoms of a very rare isotope of iron (60Fe) believed to have arrived on Earth around 2 million years ago as fallout from a nearby supernovae4. Astronomical evidence for that past supernovae was recently found in the debris of a young cluster of massive stars5, by tracing its past orbit, putting it at the right place at the right time to explain the mild extinction event. Here we report new high-resolution (both in space and time) N-body chemodynamical simulations (carried out with our novel code GCD+6) of the evolution of a model Milky Way Galaxy, tracing the orbit of èsun-like' stars over a 500 million year period, checking the proximity to supernovae throughout the history of the orbit and comparing the times when this occurs with past mass extinctions on Earth. We additionally explain the important effects of the spiral arm pattern, radial migration of stars and Galactic chemistry on habitability.

  13. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Generalized parton distributions provide information on the distribution of quarks in impact parameter space. For transversely polarized nucleons, these impact parameter distributions are transversely distorted and this deviation from axial symmetry leads on average to a net transverse force from the spectators on the active quark in a DIS experiment. This force when acting along the whole trajectory of the active quark leads to transverse single-spin asymmetries. For a longitudinally polarized nucleon target, the transverse force implies a torque acting on the quark orbital angular momentum (OAM). The resulting change in OAM as the quark leaves the target equals the difference between the Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAMs.

  14. 由扩散泵硅油高沸物制备高温润滑脂的性能%Property of High Temperature Grease with High-boiling Components of Diffusion Pump Silicone Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸国建; 郑乾亮; 沈志晨; 惠逸磷

    2015-01-01

    Two silicone high temperature greases were prepared with high-boiling components of diffusion pump silicone oil as the base oil, and metal fatty acid soap as the thickener. Experiments show that both the physical and chemical indicators of the greases are good. The high-boiling components can be thickened by metal fatty acid soap, among which the silicone grease in which a single lithium-based soap with fatty acids can be used at a temperature not higher than 120℃. The silicone high-temperature lubricant grease of lithium soap with a fatty acid complex can be used below 200℃, temperature up to 250℃ for short-term use.%以制扩散泵用硅油的高沸物为基础油、脂肪酸锂单皂或脂脂酸锂复合皂为稠化剂,制备出2种有机硅高温润滑脂。测试表明,两种润滑脂的理化指标都不错。脂肪酸金属皂能够稠化高沸物,其中用脂肪酸锂基单皂制备的有机硅润滑脂能在温度不高于120℃条件下使用;而用脂肪酸复合锂皂制备的有机硅高温润滑脂可在200℃以下使用,短期使用温度可达250℃。

  15. Counter-Orbitals: Another Class of Co-Orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    2012-10-01

    Co-orbital companions share the same orbital period and semi-major axis about a primary (star or planet). Heretofore there have been three recognized classes of co-orbitals: (1) Trojans librate in tadpole-shaped orbits about the equilateral Lagrange points L4 and L5, 60 degrees ahead of or behind the secondary (planet or satellite). (2) Horse-shoe companions librate about both L4 and L5, as well as the L3 Lagrange point diametrically opposite the secondary. (3) ``Quasi-satellites'' appear to be in distant retrograde orbits about the secondary, but actually are in prograde orbits about the primary with the same period as the secondary. Quasi-satellite orbits lie outside the secondary's Hill sphere, and enclose both L1 and L2, and sometimes L4 and L5 as well. In addition, some asteroids and comets are found in hybrid orbits which alternate among the above three classes, or combine some of their features. New research now reveals a fourth class of co-orbitals, which does not appear to be known before, and may be called ``counter-orbitals''. Imagine reversing the inertial velocity of a distant quasi-satellite. Then it remains in orbit about the primary, with the same period, semi-major axis, eccentricity, and orbital plane, although retrograde. But instead of remaining relatively close to the secondary, now it passes the secondary twice per orbit, near periapsis and apoapsis. The attractive impulses at these conjunctions tend to stabilize this arrangement. Numerical simulations of the general three-body problem verify that counter-orbitals can persist for over 10,000 orbits, with small vertical excursions, but a wide range of eccentricities and mass ratios. For example, Charon can maintain counter-orbital companions at least up to 3 percent of its own mass, in eccentric orbits extending from about 7050 km out to 41700 km from the center of Pluto. This may present a collision hazard to the New Horizons spacecraft.

  16. 新型复合锂钙基润滑脂的研制与性能分析%Preparation and Properties Analysis of New Lithium/Calcium Complex Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连惠; 王晓

    2013-01-01

    对新型的复合锂钙基润滑脂的生产工艺过程和产品性能进行了分析,结果表明,采用氢氧化锂油相悬浮液作为锂源,相比传统的单水氢氧化锂在生产复合锂钙基润滑脂的过程中,皂化时间短、稠化剂用量少、生产效率高而且环保节能;新型的复合锂钙基润滑脂与传统复合锂钙基润滑脂相比,具有更高的氧化安定性、更细腻的外观和更优异的性能.%New lithium/calcium complex grease was prepared from oil suspension of lithium hydrate instead of lithium hydroxide monohydrate.The preparation process of the new lithium/calcium complex grease was optimized,and found that the process with oil suspension of lithium hydrate as lithium source shows advantages of short saponification time,less thickener consumption,energy conservative and environmental friendly.As compared with the grease from lithium hydroxide monohydrate,this product has better oxidation stability,more smooth appearance and excellent properties.

  17. Dual-fuel production from restaurant grease trap waste: bio-fuel oil extraction and anaerobic methane production from the post-extracted residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Maeda, Kouji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Xu, Kaiqin

    2014-10-01

    An effective way for restaurant grease trap waste (GTW) treatment to generate fuel oil and methane by the combination of physiological and biological processes was investigated. The heat-driven extraction could provide a high purity oil equivalent to an A-grade fuel oil of Japanese industrial standard with 81-93 wt% of extraction efficiency. A post-extracted residue was treated as an anaerobic digestion feedstock, and however, an inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) was still a barrier for high-rate digestion. From the semi-continuous experiment fed with the residual sludge as a single substrate, it can be concluded that the continuous addition of calcium into the reactor contributed to reducing LCFA inhibition, resulting in the long-term stable operation over one year. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor performed well with 70-80% of COD reduction and methane productivity under an organic loading rate up to 5.3g-COD/L/d.

  18. Tribological characteristics of bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) as an antiwear additive in polyalkylene glycol and polyurea grease for significantly improved lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lili; Wu, Xinhu; Zhao, Gaiqing; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    A new antiwear additive of Bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BAFDP) was synthesized and characterized. The tribological behaviors of the additive for polyalkylene glycol (PAG) and polyurea grease (PG) application in steel/steel contacts were evaluated on an Optimol SRV-IV oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at elevated temperature. The results revealed that BAFDP could drastically reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs in both PAG and also in PG at 100 °C. The tribological properties of BAFDP are superior to the normally used zinc dialkyldithiophosphate-based additive package (ZDDP) in PAG and PG. Moreover, BAFDP as additive for PAG and PG displays relatively significant tribological properties in temperature-ramp tests by performing well at 50-300 °C, indicating the excellent high temperature friction reduction and anti-wear capacity of BAFDP. XPS results showed that boundary lubrication films composed of Fe(OH)O, Fe3O4, FePO4, FeF2, FeF3, compounds containing the Psbnd O bonds, nitrogen oxide, and so forth, were formed on the worn surface, which contributed to excellent friction reduction and antiwear performance.

  19. A full-scale UASB reactor for treatment of pig and cattle slaughterhouse wastewater with a high oil and grease content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. S. Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of an 800m³ full-scale UASB reactor in treating meat-packing plant and slaughterhouse effluents containing high concentrations of oil and grease (O&G (413-645 mg/L, resulting in a COD/O&G ratio of 26-32%. Those macromolecules were considered responsible for the unbalance of the system resulting in a total washout of the biomass. The removal of O&G from the influent using a physicochemical system (coagulation-flocculation improved the physical characteristics of the anaerobic sludge, controlling the biomass washout. Reactor performance was significantly improved when the COD/O&G ratio influent was maintained in the 10%. The COD and O&G removal rates obtained after implantation of the physicochemical system were 70-92% and 27-58%, respectively. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA of the biomass shows towards a tendency stabilisation and adaptation to the substrate influent. Pretreatment of the influent allowed the maximum organic load to be increased (1.46 to 2.43 Kg COD/m³.d and improved the quality of the effluent.

  20. Bioremediation of waste cooking oil using a novel lipase produced by Penicillium chrysogenum SNP5 grown in solid medium containing waste grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mathur, Anisha; Singh, Varsha; Nandy, Suchismita; Khare, Sunil Kumar; Negi, Sangeeta

    2012-09-01

    The aim of present work was to bioremediate the waste cooking oil using a novel lipase produced in solid medium containing waste grease and wheat bran by Penicillium chrysogenum. Enzyme extracted with phosphate buffer was purified 10.6 and 26.28-fold after 90% ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, respectively. The partial characterization of enzyme revealed its K(m) and V(max) value for p-nitrophenolpamitate as 0.4mM and 47.61 U/ml, respectively. The relative molecular mass of lipase was 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by zymogram. Purified lipase was most stable at 40°C and at 8.0 pH. Lipase activity was enhanced by metal ions such as Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+) and non-ionic surfactant TritonX-100, while suppressed in the presence of SDS. Crude lipase was applied on cooking oil waste and the acid value was 26.92 mg/g. This showed that the enzyme could be employed for the bioremediation of used cooking oil. PMID:22770974

  1. Characterization of extracellular polymeric substances and microbial diversity in anaerobic co-digestion reactor treated sewage sludge with fat, oil, grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao-Hui; Xu, Rui; Zheng, Yue; Chen, Ting; Zhao, Li-Jun; Li, Min

    2016-07-01

    Performance of co-digesters, treated of sewage sludge (SS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG), were conducted semi-continuously in two mesophilic reactors over 180days. Compared with SS mono-digestion, biogas production and TS removal efficiency of co-digestion were significantly enhanced up to 35% and 26% by adding upper limit FOG (60% on VS). Enhancement in co-digestion performance was also stimulated by the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which was increased 40% in both loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) than that of mono-digester. Based on high-throughput sequencing (HTS), analysis of microbial 16S rRNA gene comprehensively revealed the dynamic change of microbial community. Results showed that both bacterial and archaeal undergone an apparent succession with FOG addition, and large amount of consortium like Methanosaeta and N09 were involved in the process. Redundancy analysis showed the acetoclastic genera Methanosaeta distinctly related with biogas production and EPS degradation. PMID:27099941

  2. Effects of choice white grease or poultry fat on growth performance, carcass leanness, and meat quality characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J J; Smith, J W; Unruh, J A; Goodband, R D; O'Quinn, P R; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L

    2001-06-01

    Eighty-four crossbred gilts were used to evaluate the effects of dietary choice white grease (CWG) or poultry fat (PF) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and quality characteristics of longissimus muscle (LM), belly, and bacon of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs (initially 60 kg) were fed a control diet with no added fat or diets containing 2, 4, or 6% CWG or PF. Diets were fed from 60 to 110 kg and contained 2.26 g lysine/Mcal ME. Data were analyzed as a 2 x 3 factorial plus a control with main effects of fat source (CWG and PF) and fat level (2, 4, and 6%). Pigs fed the control diet, 2% fat, and 4% fat had greater (P 0.05) were observed for ADG, dressing percentage, leaf fat weight, LM pH, backfat depth, LM area, percentage lean, LM visual evaluation, LM waterholding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation of the LM and bacon, fat color and firmness measurements, or bacon processing characteristics. Adding dietary fat improved G/F and altered the fatty acid profiles of the LM and bacon, but differences in growth rate, carcass characteristics, and quality and sensory characteristics of the LM and bacon were minimal. Dietary additions of up to 6% CWG or PF can be made with little effect on quality of pork LM, belly, or bacon.

  3. Dual-fuel production from restaurant grease trap waste: bio-fuel oil extraction and anaerobic methane production from the post-extracted residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Maeda, Kouji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Xu, Kaiqin

    2014-10-01

    An effective way for restaurant grease trap waste (GTW) treatment to generate fuel oil and methane by the combination of physiological and biological processes was investigated. The heat-driven extraction could provide a high purity oil equivalent to an A-grade fuel oil of Japanese industrial standard with 81-93 wt% of extraction efficiency. A post-extracted residue was treated as an anaerobic digestion feedstock, and however, an inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) was still a barrier for high-rate digestion. From the semi-continuous experiment fed with the residual sludge as a single substrate, it can be concluded that the continuous addition of calcium into the reactor contributed to reducing LCFA inhibition, resulting in the long-term stable operation over one year. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor performed well with 70-80% of COD reduction and methane productivity under an organic loading rate up to 5.3g-COD/L/d. PMID:25043346

  4. Characterization of extracellular polymeric substances and microbial diversity in anaerobic co-digestion reactor treated sewage sludge with fat, oil, grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao-Hui; Xu, Rui; Zheng, Yue; Chen, Ting; Zhao, Li-Jun; Li, Min

    2016-07-01

    Performance of co-digesters, treated of sewage sludge (SS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG), were conducted semi-continuously in two mesophilic reactors over 180days. Compared with SS mono-digestion, biogas production and TS removal efficiency of co-digestion were significantly enhanced up to 35% and 26% by adding upper limit FOG (60% on VS). Enhancement in co-digestion performance was also stimulated by the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which was increased 40% in both loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) than that of mono-digester. Based on high-throughput sequencing (HTS), analysis of microbial 16S rRNA gene comprehensively revealed the dynamic change of microbial community. Results showed that both bacterial and archaeal undergone an apparent succession with FOG addition, and large amount of consortium like Methanosaeta and N09 were involved in the process. Redundancy analysis showed the acetoclastic genera Methanosaeta distinctly related with biogas production and EPS degradation.

  5. Orbit selection for a Mars geoscience/climatology orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of recent work to provide orbit design and selection criteria for a close, nearly polar, nearly circular orbit of Mars. The main aspects of the work are the evaluation of atmospheric drag for altitude selection, the orbit evolution for variations in periapsis altitude, and the interactions of those factors with the science objectives of the MGCO mission. A dynamic model of the Mars atmosphere is available from parallel efforts and the latest estimates of the upper atmospheric density and its time history are incorporated into the analysis to provide a final orbit that satisfies planetary quarantine requirements.

  6. Soundtracks to Accompany Visualizations of Nuclear Pasta Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear pasta is a substance found in neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae, arising at the extreme densities near nuclear saturation, when the attractive nuclear and repulsive coulomb forces mold the dense sea of protons and neutrons into shapes such as spheres, tubes, and slabs, which somewhat resemble different types of pasta. The structures are analyzed using molecular dynamical simulations for different proton fractions, temperatures, densities, and number of nucleons. The system is stressed by stretching it, squeezing it, or subjecting it to some outside force. In order to obtain a more complete representation of how the nuclear pasta responds, sound tracks were produced to accompany videos of stretching simulations. The audio tracks were made by assuming sound waves are produced from changes in the nucleon density. This density was calculated within a small region at frequent time intervals during the run. The resulting sound track was then synced with a video of the run in order to emphasize the development of the system as the pasta moves and breaks. Nuclear pasta is a substance found in neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae, arising at the extreme densities near nuclear saturation, when the attractive nuclear and repulsive coulomb forces mold the dense sea of protons and neutrons into shapes such as spheres, tubes, and slabs, which somewhat resemble different types of pasta. The structures are analyzed using molecular dynamical simulations for different proton fractions, temperatures, densities, and number of nucleons. The system is stressed by stretching it, squeezing it, or subjecting it to some outside force. In order to obtain a more complete representation of how the nuclear pasta responds, sound tracks were produced to accompany videos of stretching simulations. The audio tracks were made by assuming sound waves are produced from changes in the nucleon density. This density was calculated within a small region at frequent time intervals

  7. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masami Minagawa; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2006-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) is generally poor if left untreated: a median survival time of 2.7-4.0 mo has been reported. Furthermore, while transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been shown to be safe in selected patients, the median survival time with this treatment is still only 3.8-9.5 mo. Systemic single-agent chemotherapy for HCC with PVTT has failed to improve the prognosis, and the response rates have been less than 20%. While regional chemotherapy with low-dose cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil or interferon and 5-fluorouracil via hepatic arterial infusion has increased the response rate, the median survival time has not exceeded 12 (range 4.5-11.8) mo.Combined treatment consisting of radiation for PVTT and TACE for liver tumor has achieved a high response rate, but the median survival rates have still been only 3.8-10.7 mo. With hepatic resection as monotherapy,the 5-year survival rate and median survival time were reportedly 4%-28.5% and 6-14 mo. The most promising results were reported for combined treatments consisting of hepatectomy and TACE, chemotherapy, or internal radiation. The reported 5-year survival rates and median survival times were 42% and 31 mo for TACE followed by hepatectomy; 36.3% and 22.1 mo for hepatectomy followed by hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; and 56% for chemotherapy or internal radiation followed by hepatectomy.

  8. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  9. Radio rebrightening of the GRB afterglow by the accompanying supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol Duran, R.; Giannios, D.

    2015-12-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet powers the afterglow emission by shocking the surrounding medium, and radio afterglow can now be routinely observed to almost a year after the explosion. Long-duration GRBs are accompanied by supernovae (SNe) that typically contain much more energy than the GRB jet. Here we consider the fact that the SN blast wave will also produce its own afterglow (supernova remnant emission), which will peak at much later time (since it is non-relativistic), when the SN blast wave transitions from a coasting phase to a decelerating Sedov-Taylor phase. We predict that this component will peak generally a few tens of years after the explosion and it will outshine the GRB powered afterglow well-before its peak emission. In the case of GRB 030329, where the external density is constrained by the ˜10-year coverage of the radio GRB afterglow, the radio emission is predicted to start rising over the next decade and to continue to increase for the following decades up to a level of ˜ mJy. Detection of the SN-powered radio emission will greatly advance our knowledge of particle acceleration in ˜0.1c shocks.

  10. Radio rebrightening of the GRB afterglow by the accompanying supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, Rodolfo Barniol

    2015-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet powers the afterglow emission by shocking the surrounding medium, and radio afterglow can now be routinely observed to almost a year after the explosion. Long-duration GRBs are accompanied by supernovae (SNe) that typically contain much more energy than the GRB jet. Here we consider the fact that the SN blast wave will also produce its own afterglow, which will peak at much later time (since it is non-relativistic), when the SN blast wave transitions from a coasting phase to a decelerating Sedov-Taylor phase. We predict that this component will peak generally a few tens of years after the explosion and it will outshine the GRB powered afterglow well-before its peak emission. In the case of GRB 030329, where the external density is constrained by the $\\sim 10$-year coverage of the radio GRB afterglow, the radio emission is predicted to start rising over the next decade and to continue to increase for the following decades up to a level of $\\sim 0.5$ mJy. Detection of the SN-powere...

  11. The neutron 'thunder' accompanying the extensive air shower

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, A D

    2007-01-01

    Simulations show that neutrons are the most abundant component among extensive air shower hadrons. However, multiple neutrons which appear with long delays in neutron monitors nearby the EAS core ('neutron thunder') are mostly not the neutrons of the shower, but have a secondary origin. The bulk of them is produced by high energy EAS hadrons hitting the monitors. The delays are due to the termalization and diffusion of neutrons in the moderator and reflector of the monitor accompanied by the production of secondary gamma-quanta. This conclusion raises the important problem of the interaction of EAS with the ground, the stuff of the detectors and their environment since they have often hydrogen containing materials like polyethilene in neutron monitors. Such interaction can give an additional contribution to the signal in the EAS detectors. It can be particularly important for the signals from scintillator or water tank detectors at km-long distances from the EAS core where neutrons of the shower become the do...

  12. The neutron 'thunder' accompanying the extensive air shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlykin, A. D.

    2007-03-01

    Simulations show that neutrons are the most abundant component among extensive air shower (EAS) hadrons. However, multiple neutrons which appear with long delays in neutron monitors nearby the EAS core (neutron thunder) are mostly not the neutrons of the shower, but have a secondary origin. The bulk of them is produced by high energy EAS hadrons hitting the monitors. The delays are due to the thermalization and diffusion of neutrons in the moderator and reflector of the monitor accompanied by the production of secondary gamma quanta. This conclusion raises the important problem of the interaction of EAS with the ground, the stuff of the detectors and their environment since they have often hydrogen-containing materials like polyethilene in neutron monitors. Such interaction can give an additional contribution to the signal in the EAS detectors. It can be particularly important for the signals from scintillator or water tank detectors at kilometre-long distances from the EAS core, where neutrons of the shower become the dominant component after a few microseconds behind the EAS front.

  13. Heat transfer enhancement accompanying Leidenfrost state suppression at ultrahigh temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Arjang; Wurz, Jillian; Bahadur, Vaibhav

    2014-10-14

    The well-known Leidenfrost effect is the formation of a vapor layer between a liquid and an underlying hot surface. This insulating vapor layer severely degrades heat transfer and results in surface dryout. We measure the heat transfer enhancement and dryout prevention benefits accompanying electrostatic suppression of the Leidenfrost state. Interfacial electric fields in the vapor layer can attract liquid toward the surface and promote wetting. This principle can suppress dryout even at ultrahigh temperatures exceeding 500 °C, which is more than 8 times the Leidenfrost superheat for organic solvents. Robust Leidenfrost state suppression is observed for a variety of liquids, ranging from low electrical conductivity organic solvents to electrically conducting salt solutions. Elimination of the vapor layer increases heat dissipation capacity by more than 1 order of magnitude. Heat removal capacities exceeding 500 W/cm(2) are measured, which is 5 times the critical heat flux (CHF) of water on common engineering surfaces. Furthermore, the heat transfer rate can be electrically controlled by the applied voltage. The underlying science is explained via a multiphysics analytical model which captures the coupled electrostatic-fluid-thermal transport phenomena underlying electrostatic Leidenfrost state suppression. Overall, this work uncovers the physics underlying dryout prevention and demonstrates electrically tunable boiling heat transfer with ultralow power consumption.

  14. Two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis. Case 1 was a 53-year-old woman, who had a history of undergoing radiation therapy for a uterine cervical cancer 11 years before. She was seen at the hospital because of constipation and pointed out a IIa-like lesion on the rectum by colonoscopy. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. The surgical specimen showed the IIa-like lesion on the rectum. Pathological findings revealed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of p53 showed positive cells in atrophic glands. Case 2 was a 62-year-old woman complaining of diarrhea. There was a previous history of receiving radiation therapy for a uterine cancer 20 years before. Colonoscopy showed a Borrmann type 2 cancer on the rectum. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. Histological findings revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma invading to the propria muscle. The features of radiation colitis were observed around the cancer in the two cases which provided a clue to diagnose the lesions with radiation-induced cancer. (author)

  15. Change of local social economy accompanying location of power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of environment assessment is urgently developed to make various development plans appropriate. It is desirable to grasp synthetically direct and indirect influences to society, since various development activities are deeply related to whole local societies. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has performed research to develop the method of synthesizing environment assessment, and this is the interim report on the development of the method for forecasting and evaluating the social influence accompanying the location of power stations. As the first approach, the development of the model to forecast the influence of location was started, using the econometric method. In this paper, the works of composing the pilot model, which was made to examine the possibility of model development, are summarized. The fundamental framework of model composition and the theoretical model for each power source and each locality were examined, and the works of making the proving models related to three points based on the theoretical model were carried out. As the result of this work of pilot model composition, the prospect of developing the econometric model for forecasting social environmental influence was obtained, and the works of developing the more versatile master model are advanced at present. (Kako, I.)

  16. Change of local social economy accompanying location of power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Yasuo; Saito, Kannosuke (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1982-05-01

    The method of environment assessment is urgently developed to make various development plans appropriate. It is desirable to grasp synthetically direct and indirect influences to society, since various development activities are deeply related to whole local societies. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has performed research to develop the method of synthesizing environment assessment, and this is the interim report on the development of the method for forecasting and evaluating the social influence accompanying the location of power stations. As the first approach, the development of the model to forecast the influence of location was started, using the econometric method. In this paper, the works of composing the pilot model, which was made to examine the possibility of model development, are summarized. The fundamental framework of model composition and the theoretical model for each power source and each locality were examined, and the works of making the proving models related to three points based on the theoretical model were carried out. As the result of this work of pilot model composition, the prospect of developing the econometric model for forecasting social environmental influence was obtained, and the works of developing the more versatile master model are advanced at present.

  17. Non-infectious orbital vasculitides

    OpenAIRE

    Perumal, B; Black, E H; Levin, F; Servat, J J

    2012-01-01

    Non-infectious vasculitides comprise a large number of diseases. Many of these diseases can cause inflammation within the orbit and a clinical presentation, which mimics numerous other processes. Orbital disease can often be the initial presentation of a systemic process and early diagnosis can help prevent long-term, potentially fatal consequences. The evaluation and treatment of non-infectious orbital vasculitides are often complicated and require a thorough understanding of the disease and...

  18. Orbital State Uncertainty Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, J.; Poore, A. B.

    2012-09-01

    Fundamental to the success of the space situational awareness (SSA) mission is the rigorous inclusion of uncertainty in the space surveillance network. The *proper characterization of uncertainty* in the orbital state of a space object is a common requirement to many SSA functions including tracking and data association, resolution of uncorrelated tracks (UCTs), conjunction analysis and probability of collision, sensor resource management, and anomaly detection. While tracking environments, such as air and missile defense, make extensive use of Gaussian and local linearity assumptions within algorithms for uncertainty management, space surveillance is inherently different due to long time gaps between updates, high misdetection rates, nonlinear and non-conservative dynamics, and non-Gaussian phenomena. The latter implies that "covariance realism" is not always sufficient. SSA also requires "uncertainty realism"; the proper characterization of both the state and covariance and all non-zero higher-order cumulants. In other words, a proper characterization of a space object's full state *probability density function (PDF)* is required. In order to provide a more statistically rigorous treatment of uncertainty in the space surveillance tracking environment and to better support the aforementioned SSA functions, a new class of multivariate PDFs are formulated which more accurately characterize the uncertainty of a space object's state or orbit. The new distribution contains a parameter set controlling the higher-order cumulants which gives the level sets a distinctive "banana" or "boomerang" shape and degenerates to a Gaussian in a suitable limit. Using the new class of PDFs within the general Bayesian nonlinear filter, the resulting filter prediction step (i.e., uncertainty propagation) is shown to have the *same computational cost as the traditional unscented Kalman filter* with the former able to maintain a proper characterization of the uncertainty for up to *ten

  19. Orbital Metastases from Breast Cancer: Retrospective Analysis at an Academic Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Tiffany M; Tebit, Emaculate V; El Sayed, Ali; Smolkin, Mark E; Dillon, Patrick M

    2016-07-01

    Orbital metastases from breast cancer (BC) are rare, but often debilitating. BC accounts for nearly half of metastases to the orbit. Orbital metastases may be discovered years after the initial diagnosis of BC, and are rare at initial presentation. A search of the institutional data base at an academic cancer center identified BC patients who developed or presented with orbital metastases from 2000 to 2013. Baseline characteristics, treatment modalities, survival and treatment responses were collected from the electronic medical record. There were 20 patients identified with orbital metastases (0.7% of all BC cases). The median age at diagnosis of BC was 49 years; 80% had estrogen positive disease. The interval between the initial diagnosis of BC and the presentation of orbital metastases was 8.5 years (0-19 years). Orbital disease was the initial presentation of BC in two cases. Three patients developed bilateral orbital metastases and seven had accompanying brain metastases. The most common presentation was decreased vision (55%), followed by diplopia (25%). The median survival after orbital metastases was 24 months. Thirteen patients (65%) received local radiation therapy. Of those radiated, 90% reported improvement of orbital symptoms. Other treatments included intraocular bevacizumab, surgery, and systemic therapy. Orbital metastases tend to occur in estrogen receptor positive disease and are often found years after BC onset. Orbital metastases may be associated with the development of brain metastases. Radiotherapy is the preferred local therapy and had high symptom control in this cohort. Oncologists should be aware of the signs of orbital metastases and the treatment options. PMID:27143519

  20. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B

    2013-01-01

    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  1. Orbital angular momentum microlaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.

  2. Orbital angular momentum microlaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-29

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes. PMID:27471299

  3. Orbit Determination Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Berry, Kevin; Gregpru. Late; Speckman, Keith; Hur-Diaz, Sun; Surka, Derek; Gaylor, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The Orbit Determination Toolbox is an orbit determination (OD) analysis tool based on MATLAB and Java that provides a flexible way to do early mission analysis. The toolbox is primarily intended for advanced mission analysis such as might be performed in concept exploration, proposal, early design phase, or rapid design center environments. The emphasis is on flexibility, but it has enough fidelity to produce credible results. Insight into all flight dynamics source code is provided. MATLAB is the primary user interface and is used for piecing together measurement and dynamic models. The Java Astrodynamics Toolbox is used as an engine for things that might be slow or inefficient in MATLAB, such as high-fidelity trajectory propagation, lunar and planetary ephemeris look-ups, precession, nutation, polar motion calculations, ephemeris file parsing, and the like. The primary analysis functions are sequential filter/smoother and batch least-squares commands that incorporate Monte-Carlo data simulation, linear covariance analysis, measurement processing, and plotting capabilities at the generic level. These functions have a user interface that is based on that of the MATLAB ODE suite. To perform a specific analysis, users write MATLAB functions that implement truth and design system models. The user provides his or her models as inputs to the filter commands. The software provides a capability to publish and subscribe to a software bus that is compliant with the NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) standards, to exchange data with other flight dynamics tools to simplify the flight dynamics design cycle. Using the publish and subscribe approach allows for analysts in a rapid design center environment to seamlessly incorporate changes in spacecraft and mission design into navigation analysis and vice versa.

  4. 烃基改性硅油润滑脂的制备及性能研究%Study on Preparation and Properties of Lubricating Grease with Alkyl Modified Silicone Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸国建

    2013-01-01

    The alkyl-modified silicone oil was prepared by hydrosilation between the hydrogen silicone oil and liner α-olefin; Then, alkyl-modified silicone oil lubricating grease was obtained by saponification of silicone oil and 12-alkyl stearic acid. Effects of side chains of modified silicone oil on the lubricating greases were studied, and the lubrication of alkyl-modified silicone oil and methyl silicone oil was compared. Result showed that as carbon atoms on the side chain increased, wear diameter and friction of alkyl-modified silicone oil decreased , when carbon atoms on the side chain above 6, wear diameter and friction of alkyl-modified silicone oil was the least, but the wear resistant greatly improved. When carbon atoms on the side chain above 8, wear diameter and friction of alkyl-modified silicone oil was little changed, while its lubrication had no evident change. At the closed viscosity, oil film strength of alkyl-modified silicone oil lubricating grease was stronger than that of methyl silicone oil lubricating grease, and better lubrication. Refractive index of alkyl-modified silicone oil was higher than that of methyl silicone oil, more like mineral oil, fat or organics, therefore it had better compatibility and transparancy with them. Oil film strength of alkyl-modified silicone oil lubricating grease was stronger than that of methyl silicone oil lubricating grease, its weld load nearly kept the same. That is to say, alkyl-modified silicone oil could improve the oil film strength of lubricating grease, but could not improve its weld load.%将含氢硅油与线性α-烯烃进行硅氢加成反应,制得烃基改性硅油;再将其与12-羟基硬脂酸进行皂化反应,制备出烃基改性硅油润滑脂.研究了烃基改性硅油侧链烃基碳数对润滑脂润滑性的影响,对比了烃基改性硅油和甲基硅油的润滑性能及其润滑脂的润滑性能.结果表明,随着侧链烃基碳原子数的增加,烃基改性硅油的磨损直径

  5. Developing the Sufficiency Perception Scale in the Area of Accompaniment with Piano for Candidate Music Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    PİJİ, Duygu

    2013-01-01

    The music teacher’s accompanying the songs by piano in music education at schoolappears to be important regarding the development of melody, rhythm and harmony feelingsof the students. The music teacher candidates receive their knowledge and skill in the areaof piano accompaniment through the Accompaniment lesson within the Music TeachingLicense Program. In this research, with the purpose of defining the perception of sufficiencyregarding the accompaniment levels of music teacher candidates a...

  6. New orbit correction method uniting global and local orbit corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Takaki, H.; Sakai, H.; Satoh, M.; Harada, K.; Kamiya, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A new orbit correction method, called the eigenvector method with constraints (EVC), is proposed and formulated to unite global and local orbit corrections for ring accelerators, especially synchrotron radiation(SR) sources. The EVC can exactly correct the beam positions at arbitrarily selected ring positions such as light source points, simultaneously reducing closed orbit distortion (COD) around the whole ring. Computer simulations clearly demonstrate these features of the EVC for both cases of the Super-SOR light source and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) that have typical structures of high-brilliance SR sources. In addition, the effects of errors in beam position monitor (BPM) reading and steering magnet setting on the orbit correction are analytically expressed and also compared with the computer simulations. Simulation results show that the EVC is very effective and useful for orbit correction and beam position stabilization in SR sources.

  7. PyORBIT: A Python Shell For ORBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ORBIT is code developed at SNS to simulate beam dynamics in accumulation rings and synchrotrons. The code is structured as a collection of external C++ modules for SuperCode, a high level interpreter shell developed at LLNL in the early 1990s. SuperCode is no longer actively supported and there has for some time been interest in replacing it by a modern scripting language, while preserving the feel of the original ORBIT program. In this paper, we describe a new version of ORBIT where the role of SuperCode is assumed by Python, a free, well-documented and widely supported object-oriented scripting language. We also compare PyORBIT to ORBIT from the standpoint of features, performance and future expandability

  8. Orbital Chondroma: A rare mesenchymal tumor of orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi S Kabra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While relatively common in the skeletal system, cartilaginous tumors are rarely seen originating from the orbit. Here, we report a rare case of an orbital chondroma. A 27-year-old male patient presented with a painless hard mass in the superonasal quadrant (SNQ of left orbit since 3 months. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity of both eyes was 20/20, with normal anterior and posterior segment with full movements of eyeballs and normal intraocular pressure. Computerized tomography scan revealed well defined soft tissue density lesion in SNQ of left orbit. Patient was operated for anteromedial orbitotomy under general anesthesia. Mass was excised intact and sent for histopathological examination (HPE. HPE report showed lobular aggregates of benign cartilaginous cells with mild atypia suggesting of benign cartilaginous tumor - chondroma. Very few cases of orbital chondroma have been reported in literature so far.

  9. Orbital Fluctuations and Orbital Flipping in RVO3 Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.-Q.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Ren, Y.; Cheng, J. G.; Chang, S.; Zarestky, J.; Garlea, O.; Liobet, A.; Zhou, H. D.; Sui, Y.; Su, W. H.; McQueeney, R. J.

    2007-11-01

    The effect of the average R-site ionic radius ⟨IR⟩ and variance on the orbital and magnetic order in R3+-doped YVO3 was studied in Y1-xLaxVO3 and Y1-x(La0.2337Lu0.7663)xVO3 with fixed ⟨IR⟩. The orbital flipping temperature TCG increases nonlinearly with increasing R-site variance, indicating that the V-O-V bond angle is not the primary driving force stabilizing the C-type orbitally ordered phase. The suppressed thermal conductivity in the G-type orbitally ordered phase signals some remaining orbital randomness that is enhanced by t2 and et hybridization in T1g3 site symmetry.

  10. Hemiplegic peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Okuma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man experienced double vision around January, 2010, followed by weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. Articulation disorders and loss of hearing in his left ear developed, and he was admitted to our hospital on February 14, 2010. Physical examination was normal, and neurological examination showed clear consciousness with no impairment of cognitive function, but with articulation disorders. Olfactory sensation was reduced. Left ptosis and left gaze palsy, complete left facial palsy, perceptive deafness of the left ear, and muscle weakness of the left trapezius muscle were observed. Paresis in the left upper and lower extremities was graded 4/5 through manual muscle testing. Sensory system evaluation revealed complete left-side palsy, including the face. Deep tendon reflexes were slightly diminished equally on both sides; no pathologic reflex was seen. No abnormality of the brain parenchyma, cerebral nerves or cervicothoracolumbar region was found on brain magnetic resonance imaging. On electroencephalogram, alpha waves in the main frequency band of 8 to 9 Hz were recorded, indicating normal findings. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT scan showed reduced blood flow in the right inner frontal lobe and both occipital lobes. Nerve biopsy (left sural nerve showed reduction of nerve density by 30%, with demyelination. The patient also showed manifestations of multiple cranial nerve disorder, i.e., of the trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. Whole-body examination was negative. Finally, based on ischemic brain SPECT images, spinal fluid findings and nerve biopsy results, peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy was diagnosed.

  11. Ideal Systems and Connecting Orbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-xiang Yu; Zuo-huan Zheng; Fan-nu Hu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,we study a class of dynamical systems in R nideal systems and give an existence criterion of quasi-connecting orbits for such systems.Also,an existence criterion of connecting orbits for general systems is given.

  12. [Enophthalmos in an orbital tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Bianca; Szabo, I; Nicula, Cristina; Popescu, Livia Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Enophtalmus is an unusual sign of the orbital tumors often represented by proptosis. One patient with enophtalmus and intraorbital tumor and aplasy is presented. The treatment of choice of orbital tumor is complete surgical excision and careful follow-up. Considering the more aggressive course followed by recurrent tumor, correct diagnosis and management is essential.

  13. Influences of Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from Grease Trap as Binder on Rheological and Solvent Extraction Behavior in SS316L Metal Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with rheological and solvent extraction behavior of stainless steel 316L feedstocks using Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from grease traps as binder components along with Polypropylene (PP copolymer as a backbone binder. Optimal binder formulation and effect of solvent extraction variables on green compacts are being analyzed. Four binder formulations based on volumetric ratio/weight fraction between PP and RWFO being mixed with 60% volumetric powder loading of SS316L powder each as feedstock. The rheological analysis are based on viscosity, shear rate, temperature, activation energy, flow behavior index, and moldability index. The optimal feedstock formulation will be injected to form green compact to undergo the solvent extraction process. Solvent extraction variables are based on solvent temperature which are 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C with different organic solvents of n-hexane and n-heptane. Analysis of the weight loss percentage and diffusion coefficient is done on the green compact during the solvent extraction process. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC is used to confirm the extraction of the RWFO in green compacts. It is found that all binder fractions exhibit pseudoplastic behavior or shear thinning where the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. After considering the factors that affect the rheological characteristic of the binder formulation, feedstock with binder formulation of 20/20 volumetric ratio between PP and RWFO rise as the optimal binder. It is found that the n-hexane solvent requires less time for extracting the RWFO at the temperature of 60 °C as proved by its diffusion coefficient.

  14. Measuring Scars of Periodic Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenon of periodic orbit scarring of eigenstates of classically chaotic systems is attracting increasing attention. Scarring is one of the most important ``corrections'' to the ideal random eigenstates suggested by random matrix theory. This paper discusses measures of scars and in so doing also tries to clarify the concepts and effects of eigenfunction scarring. We propose a new, universal scar measure which takes into account an entire periodic orbit and the linearized dynamics in its vicinity. This measure is tuned to pick out those structures which are induced in quantum eigenstates by unstable periodic orbits and their manifolds. It gives enhanced scarring strength as measured by eigenstate overlaps and inverse participation ratios, especially for longer orbits. We also discuss off-resonance scars which appear naturally on either side of an unstable periodic orbit.

  15. Kimura's disease accompanied by mediastinal lymphadenopathy misdiagnosed as lung cancer: Case report and review of literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi SUN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To further investigate the diagnostic pitfalls of Kimura's disease(KD. Methods  We report one case of Kimura's disease accompanied with mediastinal lymphadenopathy admitted to General Hospital of Chinese PLA in the year 2010. After searching on PubMed and Chinese Medical Journal Searching Engines(Wanfang data base,Cqvip data base,we have found literatures reporting another 3 cases of Kimura's disease with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Plus the one we presented, all four patients' clinical data were collected and analyzed thereafter. Up-to-date advancement on KD's diagnosis and therapy would also be reviewed. Results  Our case, a 61-year-old male, was initially misdiagnosed as lung cancer with mediastinal metastasis in 2008, but histopathology had confirmed only eosinophil infiltration in enlarged mediasinal lymph nodes, no malignant cells were identified. In the year 2010, he complained bilateral orbital masses, one of which was surgically removed, and was later confirmed as Kimura's disease by histopathology. Clinical features of 4 patients, including our case and the other 3 retrieved in literatures, were available, 2 of whom were misdiagnosed as lung cancer while the other 2 as lymphoma in the beginning. All the 4 patients were responsive to steroid therapy. Conclusions  Kimura's disease could be associated with mediastinal lymphadenopathy which may confuse the physicians in diagnosing. Newly developed minimal invasive approaches such as endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA are helpful for the differential diagnosis.

  16. Research on the dry intrusion accompanying the low vortex precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; XiuPing; WU; GuoXiong; ZHAO; BingKe; YU; YuBin; YANG; GuiMing

    2007-01-01

    By employing the 6.7μm satellite vapor cloud images and NCEP/NCAR 1°×1° reanalysis datasets, the characteristics and mechanism of the dry intrusion, as well as its impacts on the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front are explored in this paper. It is found that the formation,development and maintenance of the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front are closely related to the evolution of the dry intrusion. The dry intrusion is characterized by high potential vorticity (PV), low humidity and cold air. The dry intrusion exhibits as an obvious dark zone on vapor cloud images, an area in which atmospheric relative humidity is lower than 60%. However, the features of the dry intrusion on the vapor images are clearer than that of the humidity field, for the former is the digital vapor cloud images with high temporal and spatial resolution, and it can be used to explore the finer characteristics of the development, evolution and supplement of the intrusion during the development of the low vortex. The dry intrusion impacts accompanying the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front come from all levels of the troposphere, with the strongest intrusion located at the upper troposphere. The dry and cold air intrudes the vicinity of the low vortex from the upper isentropic surface to the lower one, slanting east-ward from lower to higher level. The low vortex precipitation region is usually situated in front of the dry intrusion where the relative humidity gradient is higher. The research also reveals that the mechanism of the dry intrusion is that the high potential vorticity descends from the upper troposphere to the lower level, therefore, the dry intrusion can be used as an important index of the high PV forcing. To the west of the low vortex precipitation, the upper level northerlies descend across the isentropic surface, then the dry cold advection can trigger the instable development in the midlow troposphere. The dry intru-sion enhances the low vortex

  17. Hydrogenoid orbitals revisited: From Slater orbitals to Coulomb Sturmians

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Danilo Calderini; Simonetta Cavalli; Cecilia Coletti; Gaia Grossi; Vincenzo Qquilanti

    2012-01-01

    The simple connection between the Slater orbitals, venerable in quantum chemistry, and the Coulomb Sturmian orbitals, more recently employed in atomic and molecular physics, is pointed out explicitly in view of the renewed interest in both as basis sets in applied quantum mechanics. Research in Slater orbitals mainly concerns multicentre, many-body integrals, whereas that on Sturmians exploits their orthonormality and completeness with no need of continuum states. An account of recent progress is outlined, also with reference to relationships between the two basis sets, and with the momentum space and hyperspherical harmonics representations.

  18. Orbit Determination System for Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisha, Yossi; Shyldkrot, Haim; Hankin, Maxim

    2007-01-01

    The IAI/MBT Precise Orbit Determination system for Low Earth Orbit satellites is presented. The system is based on GPS pesudorange and carrier phase measurements and implements the Reduced Dynamics method. The GPS measurements model, the dynamic model, and the least squares orbit determination are discussed. Results are shown for data from the CHAMP satellite and for simulated data from the ROKAR GPS receiver. In both cases the one sigma 3D position and velocity accuracy is about 0.2 m and 0.5 mm/sec respectively.

  19. CODIMENSION 3 BIFURCATIONS OF HOMOCLINIC ORBITS WITH ORBIT FLIPS AND INCLINATION FLIPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI SHULIANG; ZHU DEMING

    2004-01-01

    The homoclinic bifurcations in four dimensional vector fields are investigated by setting up a local coordinates near the homoclinic orbit. This homoclinic orbit is nonprincipal in the meanings that its positive semi-orbit takes orbit flip and its unstable foliation takes inclination flip. The existence, nonexistence, uniqueness and coexistence of the 1-homoclinic orbit and the 1-periodic orbit are studied. The existence of the twofold periodic orbit and three-fold periodic orbit are also obtained.

  20. SPHERES Mars Orbiting Sample Return External Orbiting Capture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission scenario utilizes a small Orbiting Sample (OS) satellite, launched from the surface of Mars, which will rendezvous with an...

  1. Cluster headache after orbital exenteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, S; Sörös, P; Brilla, R; Gerding, H; Husstedt, I W

    1997-10-01

    A 37-year-old man developed an ipsilateral headache which fulfilled the criteria for cluster headache after orbital extenteration because of a traumatic lesion of the bulb. The headache could be treated successfully by drugs usually applied in the therapy of cluster headache. Six similar cases of cluster headache after orbital exenteration could be identified in the literature suggesting that the eye itself is not necessarily part of the pathogenesis of cluster headache. We hypothesize that orbital exenteration can cause cluster headache by lesions of sympathetic structures. Possibly, these mechanisms are similar to those of sympathetic reflex dystrophy (Sudeck-Leriche syndrome) causing pain of the limbs. PMID:9350391

  2. Iterative diagonalization for orbital optimization in natural orbital functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris, M; Ugalde, J M

    2009-10-01

    A challenging task in natural orbital functional theory is to find an efficient procedure for doing orbital optimization. Procedures based on diagonalization techniques have confirmed its practical value since the resulting orbitals are automatically orthogonal. In this work, a new procedure is introduced, which yields the natural orbitals by iterative diagonalization of a Hermitian matrix F. The off-diagonal elements of the latter are determined explicitly from the hermiticity of the matrix of the Lagrange multipliers. An expression for diagonal elements is absent so a generalized Fockian is undefined in the conventional sense, nevertheless, they may be determined from an aufbau principle. Thus, the diagonal elements are obtained iteratively considering as starting values those coming from a single diagonalization of the matrix of the Lagrange multipliers calculated with the Hartree-Fock orbitals after the occupation numbers have been optimized. The method has been tested on the G2/97 set of molecules for the Piris natural orbital functional. To help the convergence, we have implemented a variable scaling factor which avoids large values of the off-diagonal elements of F. The elapsed times of the computations required by the proposed procedure are compared with a full sequential quadratic programming optimization, so that the efficiency of the method presented here is demonstrated. PMID:19219918

  3. 基于聚-α烯烃油的锂基润滑脂流变性%Rheological of Lithium Lubricating Grease Based on Poly-αOlefins Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维贵; 郭小川; 蒋明俊; 郭婉晴

    2014-01-01

    为系统研究锂基润滑脂的流变性能,以12-羟基硬脂酸锂皂为稠化剂和聚-α烯烃(PAO)油为基础油制备了锂基润滑脂。考察了稠化剂含量、基础油黏度和温度对锂基润滑脂的触变性、储存模量、损耗模量、表观黏度和应变幅度等流变参数的影响,并对其影响机理进行了探讨。实验表明:锂基润滑脂是屈服性假塑性流体,在很小应变范围内以可恢复的弹性变形为主导,达到其屈服应力后,具有明显的剪切变稀现象;达到其流动点后,表现出黏性流体性质。%In order to study the rheological properties of lithium base grease in a systematic way, lithium lubricating grease is prepared with 12-hydroxy stearic acid lithium soap as the thickener and poly-αolefins(PAO)synthetic oil as base oil. The influ-ence factors such as the content of the thickener, base oil viscosity and temperature on the rheological parameters concerning thixot-ropy, storage modulus, loss modulus, apparent viscosity and strain amplitude are studied and the mechanism is also discussed. Ex-perimental results show that the lithium lubricating grease is yield pseudoplastic fluid, which is highly elastic and can restore elastic deformation at very small strain range, has obvious shear thinning phenomenon after reaching the yield stress, and is highly viscous when it reached its yield point.

  4. 基于PGNAA法检测输油管道油垢厚度的初步实验研究%Preliminary Experiment on Measure the Grease Stain Thickness with PGNAA Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小强; 艾尔肯·阿不列木; 赵经武; 马加一; 李长园

    2011-01-01

    为改进石油输送过程中的油垢检测方法,应用PGNAA(瞬发γ射线中子活化分析)法对管道同一横截面处不同探测角度时不同石蜡(模拟油垢)厚度进行γ光子计数,研究发现γ光子计数响应与探测角度有很大关系.探测角度为135°时线性相关系数的平方和测量精度都是最佳,达到0.9986和0.906mm.本工作对PGNAA法检测油垢厚度选择最佳的探测角度提供了实验基础.%In order to improve the measurement method of grease stain thickness in oil pipeline, we use PGNAA (prompt gamma neutron activation analysis) method, and count (Υ) photon for the same crosssectional area of oil pipeline with different thickness of paraffin (simulating grease ). We found that the (Υ) photon counting response was related to detection angle . The value of square of coefficient of linear and measuring accuracy was best with angle of detection was 135° The value was 0.9986 and 0.906mm. This work provided a experimental basis to detect grease stain thickness for choosing the best angle of detection with PGNAA method .

  5. 茂金属聚α烯烃制备的复合锂基润滑脂摩擦学性能研究%TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF METALLOCENE POLY ALPHA-OLEFINS LITHIUM COMPLEX GREASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓颖; 夏延秋

    2016-01-01

    Using metallocene poly alpha-olefins (mPAO)and poly α-olefin (PAO40)as base oils, and complex lithium soap as thickener,a kind of lithium complex greases were prepared. The high-speed reciprocating friction and wear testing machine was used to investigate the effect of molybdenum disulfide,molybdenum dithiocarbamates,zinc silicate additives and their mixtures on the friction and wear properties of complex lithium grease on steel-steel friction pair. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)and energy spectrum analysis (EDS)were employed to analyze the worn surfaces. The tribologi-cal properties of the composites are significantly improved with addition of 5% molybdenum dithiocar-bamate,2% molybdenum disulfide or 4% zinc silicate in the lithium grease. The lithium grease using mPAO as base oil has better tribological properties compared to poly α-olefin as base oil.%分别以茂金属聚α烯烃(mPAO)和聚α烯烃(PAO40)为基础油、复合锂皂为稠化剂制备复合锂基润滑脂,采用高速往复摩擦磨损试验机考察 MoDTC,MoS2,ZnSiO4添加剂及其复配剂对复合锂基脂摩擦磨损性能的影响,用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和能谱分析仪(EDS)对钢球摩擦副磨斑形貌进行观察和分析。结果表明:在 mPAO 基础脂中分别加入5%MoDTC,2%MoS2,4%ZnSiO4,或1%MoS2+2%ZnSiO4时制备的复合锂基润滑脂具有良好的减摩抗磨性能。

  6. Formation around planetary displaced orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Sheng-ping; LI Jun-feng; BAOYIN He-xi

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates the relative motion around the planetary displaced orbit. Several kinds of displaced orbits for geocentric and martian cases were discussed. First, the relative motion was linearized around the displaced orbits. Then, two seminatural control laws were investigated for each kind of orbit and the stable regions were obtained for each case. One of the two control laws is the passive control law that is very attractive for engineering practice. However, the two control laws are not very suitable for the Martian mission. Another special semi-natural control law is designed based on the requirement of the Martian mission. The results show that large stable regions exist for the control law.

  7. Orbital entanglement in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawski, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The basic concepts of orbital entanglement and its application to chemistry are briefly reviewed. The calculation of orbital entanglement measures from correlated wavefunctions is discussed in terms of reduced $n$-particle density matrices. Possible simplifications in their evaluation are highlighted in case of seniority-zero wavefunctions. Specifically, orbital entanglement allows us to dissect electron correlation effects in its strong and weak contributions, to determine bond orders, to assess the quality and stability of active space calculations, to monitor chemical reactions, and to identify points along the reaction coordinate where electronic wavefunctions change drastically. Thus, orbital entanglement represents a useful and intuitive tool to interpret complex electronic wavefunctions and to facilitate a qualitative understanding of electronic structure and how it changes in chemical processes.

  8. Reduced domestic satellite orbit spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, G. L.

    The demand for services provided by communications satellites in geostationary orbit is growing, and problems arise with respect to the required increase in capacity. One approach for providing such an increase involves the employment of more satellites operating at smaller orbital spacings. The present investigation is concerned with the results of technical studies conducted by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to determine the feasibility of reducing orbital spacings between U.S. 'domestic fixed satellites' (domsats). Attention is given to details regarding the usable orbital arc, an adjacent satellite interference model, antenna sidelobe patterns, a single entry analysis, a 4/6 GHz aggregate analysis, results for the 4/6 GHz bands, results for the 12/14 GHz bands, data services, voice services, video reception, and high power spot beams.

  9. Orbits in a logarithmic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooverman, R. H.

    2014-04-15

    The characteristics of charged particle orbits in the logarithmic electrostatic potential field surrounding a straight conducting wire at a fixed potential are investigated. The equations of motion of an electron in a logarithmic potential are derived, the limiting cases are considered, and the results of numerical integration of the equations of motion are presented along with sketches of a few representative orbits. (C.E.S.)

  10. Orbital lymphoma: Role of radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav B; Sharma S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature for clinical presentation, treatment, outcome and complications of using radiotherapy for the treatment of orbital lymphoma. For this, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched through January 2007 for published data on primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL) of the orbit. The search was conducted in all document types, using the following terms "Non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma, MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue) an...

  11. Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, Frédéric; Mand, Harjaspreet; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of \\textit{two glued hollow axicons}, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarisation into a linearly polarised input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming be...

  12. Orbit Prediction Tool for Different Classes of Space Debris Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, Edwin; Wytrzyszczak, Iwona; Golembiewska, Justyna; Klinkrad, Heiner

    There are two aspects of the orbital evolution of space debris: the long-term evolution and the short-term prediction of individual object orbits. In the case of the long-term evolution (years or tens of years time span) general characteristics (e.g. total number of objects, spa-tial distribution and density) of a future space environment are predicted with the use of a relatively simple theory of motion for statistical analysis of future orbits of a large number of objects -a cloud of particles". In the short-term orbital evolution of space debris objects, as considered in this paper, future positions and velocities of individual objects are calculated for a few days or a few weeks time span. A much more sophisticated theory of satellite motion is applied in this case. The paper presents the orbital prediction tool that uses an analytical and semi-analytical theories of satellite motion. The force model includes all important perturbing factors: geopotential effects with arbitrary degree and order spherical harmonic coefficients taken into account, luni-solar attractions, solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. The analytical theory of motion is of the second order and is not sensitive to singularities for small eccentricities and small inclinations. A new algorithm for the transformation between mean and osculating elements for the second order theory is applied. Predicted positions of a satel-lite on a given level of accuracy are calculated only with the use of terms that essentially influence on predicted satellite orbit, all other terms are omitted. The number of terms in for-mulas for perturbations, and thus complexity of the theory, depends on the defined level of accuracy and the type of orbit. In practice, we create a dynamical model for a given class of satellite orbit. Geopotential and luni-solar perturbations are calculated in the two following steps. In the first step, values of secular terms and all amplitudes of periodic terms are calculated

  13. Microbiological profile of orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Suneetha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of the culture and sensitivity pattern is necessary, for the institution of appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy in orbital abscess. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe culture and sensitivity patterns of specimens from the orbit and surrounding structures. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively the medical records of 56 cases of orbital abscess were reviewed. Results: Cultures were positive in 38/56 (68.8% orbital specimens and the organisms included Staphylococcus aureus 18, Streptococci 7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3, 2 each of Enterobactersp, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter sp. and 1 each of Actinomyces israelii, Diptheroids, Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Citrobacter freundii, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. Four had polymicrobial infection. Culture of purulent nasal discharge, swabs taken from foci of infection on the face, and blood cultures were done in 26/56, and positive cultures were obtained in 16/26 (61.5% specimens. In 12 patients, there was a concurrence in the organism cultured from the orbit and from cultures from other sites. Gram-negative organisms were associated with increased ocular morbidity. Conclusion: Gram-positive cocci, especially S. aureus are the most common organisms isolated from orbital abscesses. Infections by Gram-negative organisms were associated with more complications. Empirical intravenous antibiotic therapy should have a broad spectrum of activity effective against a wide range of Staphylococcal organisms and Gram-negative bacilli.

  14. Five Special Types of Orbits Around Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaodong; Ma, Xingrui; 10.2514/1.48706

    2011-01-01

    The abstract is additional with repect to the paper published in JGCD. Ordinary Earth satellites are usually placed into five categories of special orbits: sun-synchronous orbits, orbits at the critical inclination, frozen orbits, repeating ground track orbits, and geostationary orbits. This paper investigates their counterparts around Mars and examines the basic nature of these orbits, which are of special interest for missions conducted around Mars, including Mars reconnaissance. Mars' gravity field is much more complicated, with relatively smaller J2, compared to Earth's, which makes the behaviors of these Martian orbits different from those of Earth. Analytical formulations and numerical simulations are used to analyze these Martian orbits and compare them with their Earth counterparts. First, mean element theory is employed to describe variations of orbital elements and give the constraint conditions for achieving these special orbits. Then, numerical verifications based on the PSODE algorithm (particle ...

  15. Orbital, subconjunctival, and subcutaneous emphysema after an orbital floor fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ababneh OH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Osama H Ababneh Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Jordan and Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan Abstract: A 16-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with the complaint of a sudden, painful left eye and proptosis after an episode of sneezing. A few hours earlier, he had sustained a blunt trauma to the left orbit as the result of a fistfight. The initial examination showed subcutaneous and subconjunctival emphysema. Visual acuity in the left eye was 20/30 (0.67, the pupils were reactive with no relative afferent pupillary defect, and there were mild limitations in levoduction and supraduction. A slit-lamp examination showed normal anterior and posterior segments with an intraocular pressure of 26 mmHg. An orbital computed tomography scan showed orbital, subconjunctival, and subcutaneous emphysema associated with a small fracture of the orbital floor. Following conservative management with broad-spectrum oral antibiotics, a topical antiglaucoma drug, and lubricating eye drops, the patient improved dramatically within one week. Keywords: emphysema, orbital fracture, trauma

  16. Orbital emphysema: nose blowing leading to a blown orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, M Saad

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman with a painful swelling around the right eye few hours after blowing her nose, presented to the accident and emergency department. There was no associated history of facial trauma. Examination revealed a grossly swollen right eye and palpable subcutaneous emphysema. The patient's visual acuity and eye movements were normal. A CT scan of the orbit confirmed orbital emphysema secondary to a fracture of the floor of the orbit into the maxillary sinus, as a result of increased intranasal pressure during nose blowing. The patient was admitted and managed conservatively with antibiotics. She made a full recovery with complete resolution of all her symptoms. A nasal bone fracture was also seen on CT scan and even though the patient could not recall any history of facial trauma, it was an incidental finding. PMID:26516251

  17. On-orbit low gravity cryogenic scientific investigations using the COLD-SAT Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) Satellite is an experimental spacecraft designed to investigate the systems and technologies required for an efficient, effective, and reliable management of cryogenic fluids in reduced-gravity space environment. This paper defines the technology needs and the accompanying experimental three-month baseline mission of the COLD-SAT Satellite; describes the experiment subsystems, major features, and rationale for satisfying primary and secondary experimental requirements, using LH2 as the test fluid; and presents the conceptual design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft subsystems which support the on-orbit experiment.

  18. SF6断路器中润滑脂过量引起的分解产物分析%Analysis of Decomposition Products by Grease Overdose in SF6 Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨韧; 吴水锋; 汪金星; 菅永峰; 陈江韩; 孙志恒; 修士新

    2013-01-01

    An abnormal level of CO gas was detected in a 126 kV SF6 circuit breaker when it was beingtested.According to the analysis,potential fault has occurred in this circuit breaker.After chemical analysis and experimental research on the source of the CO gas,we disintegrated the circuit breaker in order to check it.Finally we come to conclusion that the fault was caused by the excessive scribbling of lubricating grease.The paper analyses the lubricating grease's influence on the operating characteristics of circuit breaker and the decomposition products of SF6.%对SF6电气设备检测时发现某126 kV断路器CO气体组分体积分数异常,根据分析,该断路器存在潜伏性故障.通过化学分析以及实验研究对可能产生CO的来源进行了分析,并对断路器进行解体检查,最终判断该断路器潜伏性故障产生的原因为润滑脂过量.笔者通过化学反应机理分析了润滑脂涂敷过量对断路器运行特性及SF6气体分解组分的影响.

  19. Theory of electronic and spin-orbit proximity effects in graphene on Cu(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tobias; Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    We study orbital and spin-orbit proximity effects in graphene adsorbed to the Cu(111) surface by means of density functional theory (DFT). The proximity effects are caused mainly by the hybridization of graphene π and copper d orbitals. Our electronic structure calculations agree well with the experimentally observed features. We carry out a graphene-Cu(111) distance dependent study to obtain proximity orbital and spin-orbit coupling parameters, by fitting the DFT results to a robust low energy model Hamiltonian. We find a strong distance dependence of the Rashba and intrinsic proximity induced spin-orbit coupling parameters, which are in the meV and hundreds of μ eV range, respectively, for experimentally relevant distances. The Dirac spectrum of graphene also exhibits a proximity orbital gap, of about 20 meV. Furthermore, we find a band inversion within the graphene states accompanied by a reordering of spin and pseudospin states, when graphene is pressed towards copper.

  20. Equinoctial orbit elements - Application to artificial satellite orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefola, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The matrizant of the two-body problem is developed in terms of elements that are free from singularities for zero eccentricities and zero- and ninety-degree inclinations. Retrograde equinoctial elements eliminate the singularity for inclinations near 180 degrees, with only minor changes in the expressions for the matrizant. The 'single-averaged' variation-of-parameters equations for these elements are developed for third-body, oblateness, and drag effects. Higher order terms are included in the expansions for the third-body and oblateness potential. A computer program that uses these equations to predict orbital evolution is described. Numerical results are given for a near-circular orbit.

  1. First Spacecraft Orbit of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    After a 7.9-billion-kilometer flight since its launch on 3 August 2004—which included flybys of Earth, Venus, and Mercury—NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered a planned, highly elliptical orbit around the closest planet to our Sun on 17 March. Engineers in the mission operations center at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) in Laurel, Md., which manages the mission for NASA, received radiometric signals indicating a successful orbit insertion at 9:10 P.M. local time. "Tonight we will have orbited the fifth planet in the solar system. This is a major accomplishment," Ed Weiler, NASA assistant administrator for the Science Mission Directorate, said at a 17 March public forum at JHU/APL, noting that spacecraft have previously entered orbit around several other planets. "You only go into orbit for the first time around Mercury once in human history, and that is what was accomplished tonight."

  2. 锂盐型电力复合脂的导电性和摩擦学性能%Electrical Conductivities and Tribological Properties of Lithium Salts Conductive Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛翔宇; 夏延秋; 冯欣; 宋玉旺; 樊小强

    2015-01-01

    以三种锂盐:四氟硼酸锂(LiBF4)、六氟磷酸锂(LiPF6)和双三氟甲烷磺酰亚胺锂(LiNTf2)作为锂基润滑脂导电剂制得了三种电力复合脂。分别采用 DDSJ-308A型电导率仪,GEST-121型体积表面电阻率测试仪和HLY-200A型回路电阻测试仪对电力复合脂的导电性进行了测试。并采用Optimol SRV-I型振荡往复摩擦磨损试验机对电力复合脂在室温下的摩擦学性能进行了测试。结果表明,三种锂盐可以提高润滑脂的导电性,还可以改善润滑脂的摩擦学性能。利用Micro-XAM3D 轮廓扫描仪测量了磨痕体积,采用扫描电子显微镜和PHI-5702型多功能X射线光电子能谱仪对磨损表面进行了表征和分析。分析结果表明,在摩擦过程中形成了包含吸附膜和化学反应膜的边界膜,使得减摩抗磨性能得到了改善。%Three kinds of conductive grease are prepared by adding three lithium salts, including lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) and lithium bis (trifluoromethane sulfonamide) (LiNTf2) in lithium grease. The electrical conductive properties of the prepared conductive greases are evaluated by using a DDSJ-308A conductivity meter, a GEST-121 volume surface resistance tester and a HLY-200A circuit resistance tester, respectively. And the tribological behaviors of three kinds of lithium salts are investigated by an Optimol SRV-I oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at room temperature (RT). The results demonstrate that the addition of lithium salts can enhance the lithium grease conductivity and also dramatically improve the tribological properties of lithium grease, the wear volumes are valued by Micro-XAM3D noncontact surface mapping profiler, wear surface are characterized and analyzed based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) and PHI-5702 multifunctional X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). The results indicate the improvement of tribological properties

  3. 39 CFR 320.7 - Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels... advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals. (a) The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and § 310.2(b) (1) through (6) of this chapter is suspended on all post routes for advertisements...

  4. Music Listening Preferences in Early Life: Infants' Responses to Accompanied versus Unaccompanied Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Sundara, Megha

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated infant listening preferences for two versions of an unfamiliar Chinese children's song: unaccompanied (i.e., voice only) and accompanied (i.e., voice and instrumental accompaniment). Three groups of 5-, 8- and 11-month-old infants were tested using the Headturn Preference Procedure. A general linear model analysis of…

  5. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of...

  6. 7 CFR 319.37-12 - Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles... Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-12 Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles. A restricted article for importation into the United States shall not...

  7. Artists-accompanied urban regeneration: Insights and lessons from Utrecht and Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zebracki, M.M.; Smulders, L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban regeneration in Dutch cities is increasingly accompanied by the cultural sector in general and by artists in particular. This paper presents comparative case studies on current artists-accompanied urban regeneration initiated by housing corporations in Utrecht and Rotterdam. On the basis of di

  8. Propiedades fisicoquímicas y tribológicas de una grasa grafitada de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio//Physicochemical and tribological properties of graphite grease based on Jatrophacurcas L oil and lithium soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano‐Chitue de Assunção‐Nascimento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las grasas lubricantes son consideradas una dispersión coloidal de un espesante en un fluido lubricante. Los aceites vegetales son ampliamente usados en muchas formulaciones de grasas. En este trabajo se determinaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas y tribológicas de una grasa lubricante fabricada con aceite vegetal de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio (JC1G5. Alfa tocoferol acetato y grafito fueron usados como aditivos antioxidante y de extrema presión respectivamente. La grasa JC1G5 mostró un color negro, una temperatura de goteo de 140 oC, apropiadas propiedades de corrosión al cobre y un grado de consistencia NLGI Grado1. El efecto de la lubricación de la grasa JC1G5 fue probado, empleando una máquina de cuatro bolas y un tribómetro timken. Los resultados indican que la grasa JC1G5 posee propiedades tribológicas comparables con una grasa mineral de jabón de litio.Palabras claves: grasa, jatropha curcas L, jabón de litio, propiedades fisicoquímicas, propiedades tribológicas.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractLubricating greases are considered as colloidal dispersions of a thickener in a lubricating fluid. The vegetable oils are widely used in many formulations of greases. In this paper were determined the physicochemical and tribological properties of graphite grease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetableoil and lithium soap (JC1G5. Alpha tocofherol acetate and graphite were used as antioxidant and extreme pressure additives respectively. The grease JC1G5 showed a black color, a dropping point of 140 oC, appropriate magnitude of copper corrosion and consistency NLGI Grade 1. Lubrication performance of the grease JC1G5 was tested using the 4-ball wear tester and timken tribometer tester. Results indicate that the grease JC1G5 has tribological properties comparable to that of mineral oil base lithium grease.Key words: grease, jatrophacurcas L, lithium soap, physicochemical

  9. Computerised tomography of the orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwar Inder

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Computerised Tomography has revolutionised the approach to many problems, especially orbital diseases. It is a simple, safe, non-invasive diagnostic examination done on an out patient. Computerised Tomography not only shows the presence of a lesion but also shows the extent of the disease and its relationship to other intraorbital and adjacent structures. With coronal scans, relationship of orbital disease to the optic nerve and extraocular muscles can be well demonstrated. However it must be remembered that Computerised Tomography is not a microscope to give histopathological diagnosis but we can often draw a conclusion of the nature of the disease by Computerised′ Tomography appearances and clinical details. Now Computerised Tomography has become the primary investigation of choice in evaluating orbital disease.

  10. Gravity Probe B orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestople, P.; Ndili, A.; Hanuschak, G.; Parkinson, B. W.; Small, H.

    2015-11-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite was equipped with a pair of redundant Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers used to provide navigation solutions for real-time and post-processed orbit determination (OD), as well as to establish the relation between vehicle time and coordinated universal time. The receivers performed better than the real-time position requirement of 100 m rms per axis. Post-processed solutions indicated an rms position error of 2.5 m and an rms velocity error of 2.2 mm s-1. Satellite laser ranging measurements provided independent verification of the GPS-derived GP-B orbit. We discuss the modifications and performance of the Trimble Advance Navigation System Vector III GPS receivers. We describe the GP-B precision orbit and detail the OD methodology, including ephemeris errors and the laser ranging measurements.

  11. Orbital Evolution of 4179 Toutatis

    CERN Document Server

    Siregar, Suryadi

    2013-01-01

    Asteroid 1934 CT;1989 AC, well known as 4179 Toutatis, is an Apollo and Mars-crosser asteroid with a chaotic orbit produced by a 3:1 resonance with Jupiter and a 1:4 resonance with the Earth, and frequent close approaches to the Earth. It is listed as a potential hazardous object (PHA). The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of 4179 Toutatis to be ejected from the Solar System. This paper presents an orbital evolution of 4179 Toutatis in time interval of ~300 kyr. Investigation of its orbital evolution is conducted by using the Mercury subroutine package, where the gravitational perturbations of eight major planets in the Solar System are considered. Over very short time scales (~300 kyr) relative to the Solar System life time (~10 Gyr), the asteroid 4179 Toutatis gave an example of chaotic motion that can cause asteroid to move outward and may be followed by escaping from the Solar System.

  12. Shuttle Orbiter tethered subsatellite for exploring and tapping space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, P. M.; Williamson, P. R.; Oyama, K. I.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the possibilities for studies in space plasma physics offered by a subsatellite mechanically tethered above the Space Shuttle Orbiter by a long conducting wire. The proposed experiment, designated the Shuttle Electrodynamic Tether Systems (SETS) is based on the concept of collecting electrons at the subsatellite and ejecting them from the Orbiter, made possible by the emf generated by the motion of the tether across geomagnetic field lines. The power generated in this manner can be used both for practical purposes within the Orbiter and for the creation of large-amplitude plasma and electromagnetic waves within the surrounding plasma. For a conducting spherical subsatellite 30 m in diameter with a 10-km tether drawing 1 A, calculations show that emfs on the order of 1000-2000 V and energy dissipation of as much as 10,000 W can be obtained, accompanied by the generation of two regions of net electric charge in the ionosphere. Scientific studies considered for SETS include the measurement of MHD waves artificially generated in the ionosphere, the investigation of current-driven plasma instabilities, VLF wave generation and the simulation of electrodynamics associated with the motion of celestial bodies through plasma.

  13. Using Mean Orbit Period in Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Maneuver Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Kun J.; Menon, Premkumar R.; Wagner, Sean V.; Williams, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has provided communication relays for a number of Mars spacecraft. In 2016 MRO is expected to support a relay for NASA's Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) spacecraft. In addition, support may be needed by another mission, ESA's ExoMars EDL Demonstrator Module's (EDM), only 21 days after the InSight coverage. The close proximity of these two events presents a unique challenge to a conventional orbit synchronization maneuver where one deterministic maneuver is executed prior to each relay. Since the two events are close together and the difference in required phasing between InSight and EDM may be up to half an orbit (yielding a large execution error), the downtrack timing error can increase rapidly at the EDM encounter. Thus, a new maneuver strategy that does not require a deterministic maneuver in-between the two events (with only a small statistical cleanup) is proposed in the paper. This proposed strategy rests heavily on the stability of the mean orbital period. The ability to search and set the specified mean period is fundamental in the proposed maneuver design as well as in understanding the scope of the problem. The proposed strategy is explained and its result is used to understand and solve the problem in the flight operations environment.

  14. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  15. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  16. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  17. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  18. Precise GPS orbits for geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become, in recent years, the main space-based system for surveying and navigation in many military, commercial, cadastral, mapping, and scientific applications. Better receivers, interferometric techniques (DGPS), and advances in post-processing methods have made possible to position fixed or moving receivers with sub-decimeter accuracies in a global reference frame. Improved methods for obtaining the orbits of the GPS satellites have played a major role in these achievements; this paper gives a personal view of the main developments in GPS orbit determination.

  19. Energy and the Elliptical Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Bill

    2009-03-01

    In the January 2007 issue of The Physics Teacher, Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an elliptical orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and important. This paper presents an exercise which uses an energy/angular momentum conservation model for elliptical orbits. This exercise can be done easily by an individual student and on regular notebook-sized paper.

  20. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here. PMID:25768747

  1. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  2. Development and applications of an orbital insertion surface for the space shuttle orbiter/tug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, A. W.; Brandon, P. D.

    1973-01-01

    The concept of a space shuttle orbit/tug orbital insertion surface is developed. Practical applications in the area of ascent targeting, on-orbit rendezvous targeting, payloads/OMS propellant off-loading, and mission analysis are identified.

  3. NATO: In-orbit experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capulli, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of the NATO-111-A and NATO 111-B satellite battery is reported. The electrical power subsystem is briefly described. The electrical characteristics and the reconditioning experience of the batteries is cited. The in-orbit experience is compared with results of preflight accelerated life tests.

  4. Optimal Reorientation Of Spacecraft Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelnokov Yuriy Nikolaevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimal reorientation of the spacecraft orbit is considered. For solving the problem we used quaternion equations of motion written in rotating coordinate system. The use of quaternion variables makes this consideration more efficient. The problem of optimal control is solved on the basis of the maximum principle. An example of numerical solution of the problem is given.

  5. Energy and the Elliptical Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Bill

    2009-01-01

    In the January 2007 issue of "The Physics Teacher," Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an elliptical orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and…

  6. THREE PLANETS ORBITING WOLF 1061

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D. J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Tinney, C. G.; Bentley, J. S.; Zhao, Jinglin, E-mail: duncan.wright@unsw.edu.au [Department of Astronomy and Australian Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-02-01

    We use archival HARPS spectra to detect three planets orbiting the M3 dwarf Wolf 1061 (GJ 628). We detect a 1.36 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with an orbital period P = 4.888 days (Wolf 1061b), a 4.25 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 17.867 days (Wolf 1061c), and a likely 5.21 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 67.274 days (Wolf 1061d). All of the planets are of sufficiently low mass that they may be rocky in nature. The 17.867 day planet falls within the habitable zone for Wolf 1061 and the 67.274 day planet falls just outside the outer boundary of the habitable zone. There are no signs of activity observed in the bisector spans, cross-correlation FWHMs, calcium H and K indices, NaD indices, or Hα indices near the planetary periods. We use custom methods to generate a cross-correlation template tailored to the star. The resulting velocities do not suffer the strong annual variation observed in the HARPS DRS velocities. This differential technique should deliver better exploitation of the archival HARPS data for the detection of planets at extremely low amplitudes.

  7. DOT strategies versus orbiter strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope is a high-resolution solar imager coming on-line at La Palma. The definition of the DOT science niche, strategies, and requirements resemble Solar Orbiter considerations and deliberations. I discuss the latter in the light of the former, and claim that multi-line observation

  8. Three planets orbiting Wolf 1061

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, D J; Tinney, C G; Bentley, J S; Zhao, Jinglin

    2015-01-01

    We use archival HARPS spectra to detect three planets orbiting the M3 dwarf Wolf1061 (GJ 628). We detect a 1.36 Mearth minimum-mass planet with an orbital period P = 4.888d (Wolf1061b), a 4.25 Mearth minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 17.867d (Wolf1061c), and a likely 5.21 Mearth minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 67.274d (Wolf1061d). All of the planets are of sufficiently low mass that they may be rocky in nature. The 17.867d planet falls within the habitable zone for Wolf 1061 and the 67.274d planet falls just outside the outer boundary of the habitable zone. There are no signs of activity observed in the bisector spans, cross-correlation full-width-half-maxima, Calcium H & K indices, NaD indices, or H-alpha indices near the planetary periods. We use custom methods to generate a cross-correlation template tailored to the star. The resulting velocities do not suffer the strong annual variation observed in the HARPS DRS velocities. This differential technique should deliver better exploi...

  9. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob;

    2010-01-01

    the research taking place in the biology laboratory. This should promote contribu-tions to the grid, and thereby mediate the appropriation of the grid technology. GridOrbit visualizes the activity in the grid, shows information about the different active projects, and supports a messaging functionality where...

  10. Non-infectious orbital vasculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, B; Black, E H; Levin, F; Servat, J J

    2012-05-01

    Non-infectious vasculitides comprise a large number of diseases. Many of these diseases can cause inflammation within the orbit and a clinical presentation, which mimics numerous other processes. Orbital disease can often be the initial presentation of a systemic process and early diagnosis can help prevent long-term, potentially fatal consequences. The evaluation and treatment of non-infectious orbital vasculitides are often complicated and require a thorough understanding of the disease and underlying systemic associations. The long-term prognosis visually and systemically must be weighed against the risks and benefits of the treatment regimen. A large variety of corticosteroid formulations currently exist and are the mainstay of initial treatment. Traditional steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents are also an important arsenal against these vasculitides. Recently, a new class of drugs called biologics, which target the various mediators of the inflammation cascade, may potentially provide more effective and less toxic treatment. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on non-infectious orbital vasculitides. PMID:22361845

  11. Visual recovery in orbital vasculitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bagegni, A; Lyness, R W; Johnston, P B; Douglas, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman with polyarteritis nodosa and chronic renal failure developed sudden loss of vision which was associated with orbital vasculitis. Treatment with cyclophosphamide produced rapid improvement in vision, which has been preserved with maintenance doses of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone.

  12. Orbital abscess: Management and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Suneetha

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To discuss the diagnosis, management and outcome of various types of orbital abscess. Methods: The medical records of 13 patients diagnosed and treated for orbital abscess were reviewed. The sources of infection included: paranasal sinusitis (n = 5, odontogenic origin of infection (n = 4, one each, temporal fossa abscess, palatal abscess, furuncle on the nose, and secondary to retrobulbar injection of steroid. Computed tomographic scans revealed the presence of an abscess in all 13 cases. Associated findings on CT scan included: sinus disease (n = 8, cavernous sinus thrombosis (n = 2 and subdural empyema (n = 2. All patients were treated with intensive, multiple, intravenous antibiotics and early surgical drainage. Results: Purulent material collected surgically from the orbit cultured Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3, two each Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter species and one each β-haemolytic Streptococci, Citrobacter frundi and Enterobacter. Final visual acuity was good in 6 patients (6/12 - 6/6 and no light perception in 6 others. Visual acuity could not be recorded in the infant. The other complications were intracranial abscess (n = 4, cavernous sinus thrombosis (n = 2 and restricted ocular motility (n = 1. Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is necessary, along with early institution of appropriate diagnostic imaging, and aggressive medical and surgical treatment for a favourable outcome in cases of orbital abscess.

  13. Orbital lymphoma: Role of radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review the literature for clinical presentation, treatment, outcome and complications of using radiotherapy for the treatment of orbital lymphoma. For this, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched through January 2007 for published data on primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL of the orbit. The search was conducted in all document types, using the following terms "Non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma, MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue and orbit". Data extracted were based on age, sex, therapeutic methods and outcome of treatment. When full articles were not available, abstracts were used as a source of information. Only those articles whose abstracts or full text were available in English were included in table. The review of reports of NHL of the orbit, in general, served as a source of information about its clinical behavior, treatment and overall prognosis. Fifty-six publications were identified, including six in languages other than English. There was no randomized trial. All the studies were retrospective. The studies were heterogeneous in patient number (3 to 112, histology, disease stage (IE to IV, radiotherapy doses used (4 to 53.8Gy, local control rates (65 to 100%, distant relapse rates (0 to 67%, from low grade to high grade and five-year survival rates (33 to 100%. Three of the studies with a good number of patients also demonstrated clinical benefit with radiotherapy in terms of superior efficacy or less toxicity. Available data support the acceptance of radiotherapy as a standard therapeutic option in patients with low to intermediate grade orbital lymphoma. Toxicity of radiotherapy is mild if delivered precisely.

  14. Nighttime mesospheric hydroxyl enhancements during SEP events and accompanying geomagnetic storms: Ionization rate modeling and Aura satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Wissing, J. M.; Wang, S.; Kallenrode, M.-B.; Zank, G. P.

    2016-07-01

    We quantify the effects of combined precipitating solar protons and magnetospheric electrons on nighttime odd hydrogen density enhancements during two solar energetic particle (SEP) events accompanied by strong geomagnetic storms. We perform detailed modeling of ionization rates for 7-17 November 2004 and 20-30 August 2005 intervals with improved version 1.6 of the Atmospheric Ionization Module Osnabrück model. Particle measurements from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites and Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites are sorted and combined in 2 h intervals to create realistic particle precipitation maps that are used as the modeling input. We show that modeled atmospheric ionization rates and estimated peak odd hydrogen (primarily hydroxyl) production from 0.001 hPa to 0.1 hPa atmospheric pressure levels during these intervals are consistent with enhancements in nighttime averaged zonal odd hydrogen densities derived from newly reprocessed and improved data set of Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on board Aura satellite. We show that both precipitating SEPs and magnetospheric electrons contribute to mesospheric ionization and their relative contributions change throughout the intervals. Our event-based modeling results underline the importance of the combined ionization sources for odd hydrogen chemistry in the middle atmosphere.

  15. Structural anomalies and the orbital ground state in FeCr2S4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurkan, V.; Zaharko, O.; Schrettle, F.; Kant, Ch.; Deisenhofer, J.; Krug von Nidda, H.-A.; Felea, V.; Lemmens, P.; Groza, J. R.; Quach, D. V.; Gozzo, F.; Loidl, A.

    2010-05-01

    We report on high-resolution x-ray synchrotron powder-diffraction, magnetic-susceptibility, sound-velocity, thermal-expansion, and heat-capacity studies of the stoichiometric spinel FeCr2S4 . We provide clear experimental evidence of a structural anomaly which accompanies an orbital-order transition at low temperatures due to a static cooperative Jahn-Teller effect. At 9 K, magnetic susceptibility, ultrasound velocity, and specific heat reveal pronounced anomalies that correlate with a volume contraction as evidenced by thermal-expansion data. The analysis of the low-temperature heat capacity using a mean-field model with a temperature-dependent gap yields a gap value of about 18 K and is interpreted as the splitting of the electronic ground state of Fe2+ by a cooperative Jahn-Teller effect. This value is close to the splitting of the ground state due to spin-orbit coupling for isolated Fe2+ ions in an insulating matrix, indicating that Jahn-Teller and spin-orbit coupling are competing energy scales in this system. We argue that due to this competition, the spin-reorientation transition at around 60 K marks the onset of short-range orbital ordering accompanied by a clear broadening of Bragg reflections, an enhanced volume contraction compared to usual anharmonic behavior, and a softening of the lattice observed in the ultrasound measurements.

  16. Christoph Rothmann's discourse on the comet of 1585 an edition and translation with accompanying essays

    CERN Document Server

    Granada, Miguel A; Jardine, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Christoph Rothmann's Discourse on the Comet of 1585 offers the first edition of the Latin treatise after it was published in 1619. It is accompanied by an English translation and a full introduction and commentary.

  17. The rehybridization of electronic orbitals in carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Yu; Peng Jing-Cui; Wang Hui; Peng Zhi-Hua

    2008-01-01

    Rehybridization of electronic orbitals in carbon nanotubes contains tilting angles of π orbital, electrons wavefunc-tions of π orbital and σ orbital, degrees of hybridization, etc. In this paper, we have obtained analytical formulas of tilting angle of π orbital relative to tube surface, electrons wavefunctions of π orbital and σ orbital, degrees of hybridization, separately, as well as the numerical results.

  18. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultekin Gulbahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity.

  19. 稠化剂含量对磁流变脂流变行为的影响∗%The effect of soap content on the rheology of mineral oil-based magnetorheological grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志德; 晏华; 王雪梅; 杨健健; 郭骏骏

    2015-01-01

    Magnetorheological(MR)greases contained equal carbonyl iron weight percentage (30%)have been specially formulated with a range of lithium soap weight fraction from 3% to 7%.The effect that thickening a-gent concentration exerts on yield stress,storage modulus,damping factor and MR effect of MR grease were investigated by a parallel-plate MR rheometer (Paar Physica 302 and MRD 70 ).The results show that MR grease indicates pseudoplastic behavior with yield stress.The yield stress has a power law relationship with magnetic field strength.The maximum exponential value can be got as the thickening agent concentration is ap-propriate.A parameter for evaluating the MR effect,cross-linked structure strength and stability of MR grease has been provided.The density of physical entanglements or the strength of microstructural network can be al-tered by changing the concentration of thickening agent.And the MR effect will be modified,the controlled range of storage modulus under magnetic field will be magnified by adj usting the thickening agent concentration.%稠化剂含量是决定磁流变脂骨架结构强度的重要因素,对磁流变脂的实际应用具有较大的影响。实验制备了羰基铁粉质量百分数含量为30%、不同稠化剂含量的5种磁流变脂,考察了不同稠化剂含量对磁流变脂屈服应力、储能模量、损耗模量及磁流变效应的影响。结果表明,磁流变脂表现出剪切稀化的假塑性流体特征,不同稠化剂含量磁流变脂的屈服应力与磁场强度呈现出幂律关系,在适宜稠化剂含量时,幂律指数达到最佳值。提出评价磁流变脂的磁流变效应、交联结构体系强度和稳定性的参数指标,通过调节稠化剂的含量可改变非磁性骨架结构的密度,优化磁性部分对磁流变脂结构强度的贡献,改善磁流变脂的磁流变效应,拓宽磁流变脂的储能模量在磁场下的可控范围。

  20. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  1. Stable Bound Orbits around Black Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Takamori, Yohsuke, E-mail: igata@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2011-09-22

    We study stable bound orbits of a free particle around a black ring. Unlike the higher-dimensional black hole case, we find that there exist stable bound orbits in toroidal spiral shape near the ring axis and stable circular orbits on the axis. In addition, radii of stable bound orbits can be infinitely large if the ring thickness is less than a critical value.

  2. Topological Orbital Angular Momentum Hall Current

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jiangping

    2005-01-01

    We show that there is a fundamental difference between spin Hall current and orbital angular momentum Hall current in Rashba- Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling systems. The orbital angular momentum Hall current has a pure topological contribution which is originated from the existence of magnetic flux in momentum space while there is no such topological nature for the spin Hall current. Moreover, we show that the orbital Hall conductance is always larger than the spin Hall conductance in the pr...

  3. Understanding pediatric bacterial preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Mithra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric preseptal and orbital cellulitis are infectious disorders that result in periorbital inflammation. Preseptal cellulitis is often associated with breaches in the skin barrier whereas orbital cellulitis is commonly associated with paranasal sinusitis. Orbital cellulitis may be associated with subperiosteal abscess. It is important to distinguish between preseptal from orbital cellulitis. Clinical examination and diagnostic imaging are useful in determining appropriate management. Patients are usually treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and surgery when indicated.

  4. The Mercury dual orbiter mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mercury Orbiter (MeO) will carry out a full range of particles, fields, and planetary imaging science at Mercury. Present mission plans call for a launch in 1999 with a flight time of about 4.5 years. By means of multiple Venus and Mercury gravitational assists, the mission can be accomplished with present U.S. launch vehicles and a very large payload can be placed in orbit around Mercury. The dual-spacecraft concept will permit outstanding scientific study of solar cosmic rays and the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere from 0.3 AU to 1.0 AU. Modest enhancements to the planned magnetospheric instruments and utilization of onboard solar instruments will permit unique investigation of solar particle acceleration and transport with the MeO spacecraft

  5. Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Frédéric; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of \\textit{two glued hollow axicons}, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarisation into a linearly polarised input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming beam's polarisation, and by conservation of total angular momentum thereby generates a well-defined value of OAM. Our device is broadband, since the phase shift due to total internal reflection is nearly independent of wavelength. We verify the broad-band behaviour by measuring the conversion efficiency of the device for three different wavelengths corresponding to the RGB colours, red, green and blue. An average conversion efficiency of $95\\%$ for these three different wavelengths is observed. %, which confirms its wavelen...

  6. SILEX in-orbit performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Gilles; Chorvalli, Vincent

    2004-06-01

    PASTEL embarked on-board SPOT4, French LEO earth observation satellite, and OPALE mounted on-board ARTEMIS, European GEO telecommunication satellite are the key components of SILEX (Semi-conductor Inter-satellite Link Experiment) system. Launched in March 1998, PASTEL terminal was first verified via star tracking. Then, first SILEX optical communication was successfully performed in December 2001 with ARTEMIS at 31000 km. Following 12 months ARTEMIS orbit rising, SILEX commissioning phase was successfully achieved in spring 2003. Today, more than hundred successful optical communications have been achieved. On 1st of October 2003, the SILEX optical link was declared fully operational by the European and French space agencies. After a recall of SILEX architecture, design and on-ground verification, this paper reports on in-orbit results.

  7. Lunar Orbiter: Moon and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    The worlds first view of the Earth taken by a spacecraft from the vicinity of the Moon. The photo was transmitted to Earth by the United States Lunar Orbiter I and recieved at the NASA tracking station at Robledo de Chavela near Madrid, Spain. This crescent of the Earth was photographed August 23 at 16:35 GMT when the spacecraft was on its 16th orbit and just about to pass behind the Moon. This is the view the astronauts will have when they come around the backside of the Moon and face the Earth. The Earth is shown on the left of the photo with the U.S. east coast in the upper left, southern Europe toward the dark or night side of the Earth, and Antartica at the bottom of the Earth crescent. The surface of the Moon is shown on the right side of the photograph.

  8. Of Orbits, Conics, and Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hugh

    2005-02-01

    In the half-dozen or so years leading up to the publication of the Principia, Isaac Newton observed the comets of 1680 and 1682 and wrestled with the extent to which his law of gravitation could be applied. In time, he would see the connections between the four possible orbits of a satellite (circular, elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic) and the four curves produced by the careful carving of a cone. But if we look a little further into the conic sections, we find some interesting connections among the natural orbit of a satellite, ancient mathematics, and the roots of familiar words. Illuminating these connections for introductory physics students may help them to better understand the role of language and mathematics in the descriptions of science.

  9. HOMOCLINIC ORBITS FOR LAGRANGIAN SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUSHAOPING

    1996-01-01

    The existence of at least two homoclinic orbits for Lagrangian system(LS) is proved, where the Lagrangian L(t,x,y)=1/2∑aij(x)yiyi-V(t1x),in which the potential V(t,x)is globally surperquadratic in x and T-periodic in t. The Concentration-Compactness Lemma and Minimax argument are used to prove the existences.

  10. Geological exploration from orbital altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, Peter C.; Fischer, William A.; Lyon, Ronald J. P.

    1965-01-01

    The National Aeronautics & Space Administration is planning geologic exploration from orbiting spacecraft. For that purpose it is evaluating new and refined exploration tools, often called remote sensors, including devices that are sensitive to force fields, such as gravity gradient systems, and devices that record the reflection or emission of electromagnetic energy. Both passive electromagnetic sensors (those that rely on natural sources of illumination, such as the Sun) and active electromagnetic sensors (which use an artificial source of illumination) are being considered.

  11. Mars Orbiting Plasma Surveyor (MOPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, Stas; André, Mats; Blomberg, Lars; Lundin, Rickard; Marklund, Göran; Rathsman, Peter; von Schéele, Fredrik; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Mars Orbiting Plasma Surveyor (MOPS) is a microsatellite mission focused on studies of the near -Mars environment and the planet - solar wind interaction. The recent findings by the ESA Mars Express mission further highlighted the complexity of the processes taking place at the planet resulting from the solar wind interaction that strongly affect the planet's atmosphere. However, despite many previous Martian missions carrying different types of space plasma experiments, a comprehensive inves...

  12. Orbits in the H2O molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efstathiou, K; Contopoulos, G

    2001-01-01

    We study the forms of the orbits in a symmetric configuration of a realistic model of the H2O molecule with particular emphasis on the periodic orbits. We use an appropriate Poincare surface of section (PSS) and study the distribution of the orbits on this PSS for various energies. We find both orde

  13. Atomic Orbitals for the New Millennium

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J M

    1999-01-01

    This very short article introduces a set of nested atomic orbitals, called MCAS, to replace the current s, p, d, and f orbitals. The simplest orbital is a tetrahedrally directed, four lobed, mono-orbital instead of the spherical s orbital. All the other orbitals, no matter what their energy (shell) level is, are nested with this one. All the electrons have the same spin and only one electron is allotted to each orbital. Electron spin pairing is accomplished through opposing orbitals instead of actual electron spin reversal. Orbital energy level is maintained by nuclear propulsion through perigee kick. Orbitals hybridize as Aufbau proceeds, in contrast to the inflexible, current building model. The inert gases have completely uniform electronic shells that contain only one orbital type per shell. Since outer completed shells have only one type of orbital, all eight outer electrons are identical rather than being of two types as occurs in the current model; hence, Lewis' electron-dot octet. Hydrogen should resi...

  14. Information Measures for Statistical Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiku, Alinda K.

    2013-01-01

    The current Situational Space Awareness (SSA) is faced with a huge task of tracking the increasing number of space objects. The tracking of space objects requires frequent and accurate monitoring for orbit maintenance and collision avoidance using methods for statistical orbit determination. Statistical orbit determination enables us to obtain…

  15. BLOCKING SUN WITH ORBITING BALLOONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chul Park [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Kor ea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea)

    2008-09-30

    Sun's radiation power reaching Earth's surface can be reduced by letting large balloons circle the Earth in orbits at approximately 1000 km altitude. These balloons, made of plastic films 1 mm in thickness, of a diameter of approximately 46 km, will weigh about 10,000 tons each. A balloon will consist of one hundred of 100 ton pieces. They are transported to the orbit piece by piece, and are assembled there into the spherical shape. They are kept inflated with the vapor pressure of potassium and the electrostatic forces. The inclination angles of these balloons with respect to the solar ecliptic plane can be varied from zero to 90 degrees, although efficiency is highest with the zero degree inclination. If zero degree inclination is chosen, twenty-three of these will reduce the average sun's radiation by 0.01%. In the 1000 km orbits, which are stable and are populated only by space debris, these balloons will serve also to remove the debris.

  16. Orbital Volumetry in Graves' Orbitopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Bakri, Moug; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Thomsen, Carsten;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We wanted to investigate the relative significance of fat and muscle enlargement in the development of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) in Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Methods. Preoperative coronal CT scans of 13 patients with and without DON who subsequently underwent orbital decompression...... were retrospectively analyzed. Thirteen patients imaged for unilateral orbital fractures served as controls. Results. The retrobulbar muscle volume was 2.1 ± 0.5 cm(3) (mean ± SD) in controls, 4.3 ± 1.5 cm(3) in GO without DON, and 4.7 ± 1.7 cm(3) in GO with DON. The retrobulbar fat volume was 5.4 ± 1.......6 cm(3) in controls, 8.7 ± 8.0 cm(3) in GO without DON, and 9.4 ± 3.1 cm(3) in GO with DON. The muscle and fat volumes were higher in patients with GO than in controls (P < 0.001), but the volumes in orbits with and without DON were not significantly different. The volume of the optic nerve were...

  17. Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    埃斯米·德普雷(Esme Deprez)

    2010-01-01

    根据明特尔国际集团(Mintel International Group)的调查统计,2009年口香糖、薄荷糖及口气清新产品的市场总值为18亿美元,其中无糖口香糖占据近2/3。美国箭牌公司(Wm.Wrigley Jr.Co.)1944年推出口香糖产品,该公司于2008年被玛氏公司(Mars)收购。Orbit口香糖的特点是硬脆外壳、外包装以及高价位。根据明特尔公司的数据,该领导品牌2009年的销售额接近2.06亿美元。

  18. A Survey of Research on Service-Spacecraft Orbit Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; ZHANG Jian-xin; ZHANG Qiang; WEI Xiao-peng

    2013-01-01

    On-orbit service spacecraft orbit problem has been addressed for decades. The research of on-orbit service spacecraft orbit can be roughly divided into orbit design and orbit optimization. The paper mainly focuses on the orbit design problem. We simply summarize of the previous works, and point out the main content of the on-orbit service spacecraft orbit design. We classify current on-orbit service spacecraft orbit design problem into parking-orbit design, maneuvering-orbit design and servicing-orbit design. Then, we give a detail description of the three specific orbits, and put forward our own ideas on the existed achievements. The paper will provide a meaningful reference for the on-orbit service spacecraft orbital design research.

  19. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  20. The orbital record in stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alfred G.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital signals are being discovered in pre-Pleistocene sediments. Due to their hierarchical nature these cycle patterns are complex, and the imprecision of geochronology generally makes the assignment of stratigraphic cycles to specific orbital cycles uncertain, but in sequences such as the limnic Newark Group under study by Olsen and pelagic Cretaceous sequence worked on by our Italo-American group the relative frequencies yield a definitive match to the Milankovitch hierarchy. Due to the multiple ways in which climate impinges on depositional systems, the orbital signals are recorded in a multiplicity of parameters, and affect different sedimentary facies in different ways. In platform carbonates, for example, the chief effect is via sea-level variations (possibly tied to fluctuating ice volume), resulting in cycles of emergence and submergence. In limnic systems it finds its most dramatic expression in alternations of lake and playa conditions. Biogenic pelagic oozes such as chalks and the limestones derived from them display variations in the carbonate supplied by planktonic organisms such as coccolithophores and foraminifera, and also record variations in the aeration of bottom waters. Whereas early studies of stratigraphic cyclicity relied mainly on bedding variations visible in the field, present studies are supplementing these with instrumental scans of geochemical, paleontological, and geophysical parameters which yield quantitative curves amenable to time-series analysis; such analysis is, however, limited by problems of distorted time-scales. My own work has been largely concentrated on pelagic systems. In these, the sensitivity of pelagic organisms to climatic-oceanic changes, combined with the sensitivity of botton life to changes in oxygen availability (commonly much more restricted in the Past than now) has left cyclic patterns related to orbital forcing. These systems are further attractive because (1) they tend to offer depositional continuity

  1. Circular orbits on a warped spandex fabric

    CERN Document Server

    Middleton, Chad A

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of circular-like orbits made by a marble rolling on a warped spandex fabric. We show that the mass of the fabric interior to the orbital path influences the motion of the marble in a nontrivial way, and can even dominate the orbital characteristics. We also compare a Kepler-like expression for such orbits to similar expressions for orbits about a spherically-symmetric massive object in the presence of a constant vacuum energy, as described by general relativity.

  2. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, M.; Loken, G.; Horton, J.; Lukens, W.; Scott, W.; Baughman, J.; Bauch, T.

    An overview of the United States Space Shuttle Orbiter APU, which provides power to the Orbiter vehicle hydraulic system, is presented. Three complete APU systems, each with its own separate fuel system, supply power to three dedicated hydraulic systems. These in turn provide power to all Orbiter vehicle critical flight functions including launch, orbit, reentry, and landing. The basic APU logic diagram is presented. The APU includes a hydrazine-powered turbine that drives a hydraulic pump and various accessories through a high-speed gearbox. The APU also features a sophisticated thermal management system designed to ensure safe and reliable operation in the various launch, orbit, reentry, and landing environments.

  3. Analysing weak orbital signals in Gaia data

    CERN Document Server

    Lucy, L B

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous orbits are found when minimum-chi^{2} estimation is applied to synthetic Gaia data for weak orbital signals - i.e., orbits whose astrometric signatures are comparable to the single-scan measurement error (Pourbaix 2002). These orbits are nearly parabolic, edge-on, and their major axes align with the line-of-sight to the observer. Such orbits violate the Copernican principle (CPr) and as such could be rejected. However, the preferred alternative is to develop a statistical technique that incorporates the CPr as a fundamental postulate. This can be achieved in the context of Bayesian estimation by defining a Copernican prior. With this development, Pourbaix's anomalous orbits no longer arise. Instead, orbits with a somewhat higher chi^{2} but which do not violate the CPr are selected. Other areas of astronomy where the investigator must analyse data from 'imperfect experiments' might similarly benefit from appropriately- defined Copernican priors.

  4. Planetary Satellite Orbiters: Applications for the Moon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paulo dos Santos Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-altitude, near-polar orbits are very desirable as science orbits for missions to planetary satellites, such as the Earth's Moon. In this paper, we present an analytical theory with numerical simulations to study the orbital motion of lunar low-altitude artificial satellite. We consider the problem of an artificial satellite perturbed by the nonuniform distribution of the mass of the Moon (J2–J5, J7, and C22. The conditions to get frozen orbits are presented. Using an approach that considers the single-averaged problem, we found families of periodic orbits for the problem of an orbiter travelling around the Moon, where frozen orbits valid for long periods of time are found. A comparison between the models for the zonal and tesseral harmonics coefficients is presented.

  5. Kalman Orbit Optimized Loop Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lawrence E.; Meehan, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    Under certain conditions of low signal power and/or high noise, there is insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR) to close tracking loops with individual signals on orbiting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In addition, the processing power available from flight computers is not great enough to implement a conventional ultra-tight coupling tracking loop. This work provides a method to track GNSS signals at very low SNR without the penalty of requiring very high processor throughput to calculate the loop parameters. The Kalman Orbit-Optimized Loop (KOOL) tracking approach constitutes a filter with a dynamic model and using the aggregate of information from all tracked GNSS signals to close the tracking loop for each signal. For applications where there is not a good dynamic model, such as very low orbits where atmospheric drag models may not be adequate to achieve the required accuracy, aiding from an IMU (inertial measurement unit) or other sensor will be added. The KOOL approach is based on research JPL has done to allow signal recovery from weak and scintillating signals observed during the use of GPS signals for limb sounding of the Earth s atmosphere. That approach uses the onboard PVT (position, velocity, time) solution to generate predictions for the range, range rate, and acceleration of the low-SNR signal. The low- SNR signal data are captured by a directed open loop. KOOL builds on the previous open loop tracking by including feedback and observable generation from the weak-signal channels so that the MSR receiver will continue to track and provide PVT, range, and Doppler data, even when all channels have low SNR.

  6. Optimum orbit and control of reflux ratio in the batch distillation; Bacchi joryu ni okeru kanryuhi no saiteki kido to seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Jun; Susuzki, Mutsumi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    1999-06-05

    In the batch distillation, optimum orbit of reflux ratio exists under evaluation function of utility cost minimum and product quantity maximum. Enormous repeat calculation was necessary in order to calculate such optimum orbit by maximum principle. In this paper, calculation method which corrects initial value of the Hamilton accompanying function is proposed. Optimum orbit is calculated by this calculation method and advance on recent computer in the real time, and there is it, and it would be able to control the reflux ratio. And, it is also possible reflux ratio optimum state variable control table beforehand. These control method become an operation which is truly optimum for evaluation function. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Calibration effects on orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, G. A.; Winn, F. B.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Yip, K. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of charged particle and tropospheric calibrations on the orbit determination (OD) process are analyzed. The calibration process consisted of correcting the Doppler observables for the media effects. Calibrated and uncalibrated Doppler data sets were used to obtain OD results for past missions as well as Mariner Mars 1971. Comparisons of these Doppler reductions show the significance of the calibrations. For the MM'71 mission, the media calibrations proved themselves effective in diminishing the overall B-plane error and reducing the Doppler residual signatures.

  8. Interactive Orbit Control in MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in steering algorithms have made it possible to accurately control electron beam position in storage rings, implement fast and slow feedback systems, and in some cases detect hardware errors. In practice, however, the program operator would like to reduce the overhead of selecting variables and constraints and to easily view the data. To simplify the process, we constructed an interactive orbit control program in MATLAB [1]. The program modules are easily adapted to new algorithms or beam lines. This paper describes the program functionality and architecture

  9. Pedagogical guidelines for educational accompaniment for grieving to adults with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo RODRÍGUEZ HERRERO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is needed a foundation and some orientations to act in loss and grief situations with adults with intellectual disabilities. In this article, through a relevant literature review, we based the educational accompaniment as a pedagogic methodology of support with three principal elements: a The conception of grief from its formative potential, b The prevention of disorders associated to grief complications, c The pedagogic intervention preferably from the tutorship or from the actuation of educators or professionals near to intellectual disabilities people. The educational accompaniment model is a proposal that can be placed on humanist models of grief since it considers both the characteristics of the grieving process and the formative possibilities of its elaboration. The article’s conclusions present some of the benefits of the educational accompaniment for adults with intellectual disabilities.

  10. Prepositions in Use: Prepositions of Standard, Prepositions of Possession and Prepositions of Accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji Masned AlQbailat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research paper attempted at investigating the use of prepositions of standard, prepositions of possession and prepositions of accompaniment by some Jordanian learners of English. A total of 53 Jordanian English Majors participated in the study from the department of English language at Princess Alia University College. In collecting the needed data for the purpose of the study, the researchers employed fifteen items of a multiple choice test. The results of the study showed that Jordanian learners of English encountered moderate difficulty in learning the three aforesaid usages of prepositions. This difficulty is ascribed mainly to first language interference more than intralingual interference. It was also found that prepositions of standard are the most difficult to learn by the participants, followed by prepositions of accompaniment and prepositions of possession respectively.      Keywords: First language Interference, Intralingual Interference, Prepositions of Standard, Prepositions of Accompaniment, Prepositions of Possession

  11. Moderating Effect of Accompaniment on the Relationship Between Online Perceived Quality and Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozha Erragcha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to highlight the impact of the mediating effect of the perceived value on the influence of perceived quality of the purchase-site on the buying intention, Moreover; our goal is to study the moderating effect of accompaniment on the relationship between the perceived quality on perceived value web site. The data-gathering was carried out through an experimentation conducted an online-trading site for a laptop purchase. The findings reveal that the perceived quality partially influence the perceived value. The latter exerts a positive effect upon the buying intention. Accompaniment moderates the relationship between the perceived quality and the perceived value.

  12. Totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for early gastric cancer accompanied by huge hiatal hernia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Chie; Yajima, Kazuhito; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Oohinata, Ryouki; Yuu, Ken; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Amaki, Misato; Nakano, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    2016-02-01

    We herein present a case in which we used a totally laparoscopic approach for early gastric cancer accompanied by a huge hiatal hernia. An 80-year-old Japanese woman was referred with a chief complaint of dysphagia. A clinical diagnosis of early gastric cancer, T1b (SM) N0M0, stage IA, accompanied by hiatal hernia, was made. Distal gastrectomy with D1 plus lymphadenectomy was carried out. After the gastrectomy, the hernial sac was excised and the hernial orifice was closed. Reconstruction using the Roux-en-Y method was selected. The postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged on postoperative day 10.

  13. Aligned spins: orbital elements, decaying orbits, and last stable circular orbit to high post-Newtonian orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the quasi-Keplerian parameterization for the case that spins and orbital angular momentum in a compact binary system are aligned or anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum vector is extended to 3PN point-mass, next-to-next-to-leading order spin–orbit, next-to-next-to-leading order spin(1)–spin(2) and next-to-leading order spin-squared dynamics in the conservative regime. In a further step, we use the expressions for the radiative multipole moments with spin to leading order linear and quadratic in both spins to compute radiation losses of the orbital binding energy and angular momentum. Orbital averaged expressions for the decay of energy and eccentricity are provided. An expression for the last stable circular orbit is given in terms of the angular velocity-type variable x. (paper)

  14. IMPLANTATION OF AN IRANIAN MADE HYDROXYAPATITE IN RABIT"S ORBIT: DOES IT WORK EFFECTIVELY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H FESHARAKI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Good results of foreign made Hydroxyapatite in human orbit, expensive American and Europian made hydroxyapatites, the possibility to make this material from coral by hydrothermal method and good source of coral in Persian Gulf made us start this study. Methods. The left eye of 21 male rabits weighing 200-270 grams were enucleated and implanted by 14mm coralline spheres being covered by preserved rabits sclera (11 with pure coral and 10 with Iranian made hydroxyapatite. The implants were removed for pathologic study after an average time of 79.4 days of clinical evaluation. The type of coral was acropora and the hydrothermal Ion exchange form carbonate to phosphate was performed in chemistry department of Isfahan University. Results. No evidence of extrusion was seen in implants. Exposure phenomena was seen 55 and 12 percent in coralline and hydroxyapatite implantation, respectively (P < 0.05. Tissue inflammation was detect 89 and 25 percent of coralline and hydroxyapatite implantation, respectively (P < 0.05. Discussion. The tissue tolerance of rabits orbit to Iranian made hydroxyapatite was almost fair and it"s use in human"s orbit could probably be tried safely. Orbital implantation of natural coral in rabits" orbit is accompanied by moderate to sever tissue inflammatory response and tissue necrosis, creating more clinical complications.

  15. Degenerate Orbit Flip Homoclinic Bifurcations with Higher Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Chao WU; Jian Hua SUN

    2006-01-01

    Bifurcations of a degenerate homoclinic orbit with orbit flip in high dimensional system are existence and uniqueness of 1-homoclinic orbit and 1-periodic orbit are given. Also considered is the existence of 2-homoclinic orbit and 2-periodic orbit. In additon, the corresponding bifurcation surfaces are given.

  16. LLOFX earth orbit to lunar orbit delta V estimation program user and technical documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The LLOFX computer program calculates in-plane trajectories from an Earth-orbiting space station to Lunar orbit in such a way that the journey requires only two delta V burns (one to leave Earth circular orbit and one to circularize into Lunar orbit). The program requires the user to supply the Space Station altitude and Lunar orbit altitude (in km above the surface), and the desired time of flight for the transfer (in hours). It then determines and displays the trans-Lunar injection (TLI) delta V required to achieve the transfer, the Lunar orbit insertion (LOI) delta V required to circularize the orbit around the Moon, the actual time of flight, and whether the transfer orbit is elliptical or hyperbolic. Return information is also displayed. Finally, a plot of the transfer orbit is displayed.

  17. Orbital Debris Observations with WFCAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, R.; Mann, B.; Read, M.; Kerr, T.; Irwin, M.; Cross, N.; Bold, M.,; Varricatt, W.; Madsen, G.

    2014-09-01

    The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope has been operating for 35 years on the summit of Mauna Kea as a premier Infrared astronomical facility. In its 35th year the telescope has been turned over to a new operating group consisting of University of Arizona, University of Hawaii and the LM Advanced Technology Center. UKIRT will continue its astronomical mission with a portion of observing time dedicated to orbital debris and Near Earth Object detection and characterization. During the past 10 years the UKIRT Wide Field CAMera (WFCAM) has been performing large area astronomical surveys in the J, H and K bands. The data for these surveys have been reduced by the Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit in Cambridge, England and archived by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland. During January and February of 2014 the Wide Field CAMera (WFCAM) was used to scan through the geostationary satellite belt detecting operational satellites as well as nearby debris. Accurate photometric and astrometric parameters have been developed by CASU for each of the detections and all data has been archived by WFAU. This paper will present the January and February results of the orbital debris surveys with WFCAM.

  18. Kepler's Constant and WDS Orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Siregar, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work are to find a Kepler's constant by using polynomial regression of the angular separation \\rho = \\rho(t) and the position angle \\theta = \\theta(t). The Kepler's constant obtained is used to derive the element of orbit. As a case study the angular separation and the position angle of the WDS 00063 +5826 and the WDS 04403-5857 were investigated. For calculating the element of orbit the Thiele-Innes van den Bos method is used. The rough data of the angular separation \\rho(t) and the position angle \\theta(t) are taken from the US Naval Observatory, Washington. This work also presents the masses and absolute bolometric magnitudes of each star.These stars include into the main-sequence stars with the spectral class G5V for WDS04403-5857and the type of spectrum G3V for WDS 00063+5826. The life time of the primary star and the secondary star of WDS 04403-5857 nearly equal to 20 Gyr. The life time of the primary star and the secondary star of WDS 00063+5826 are 20 Gyr and 19 Gyr, respectively.

  19. Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of two glued hollow axicons, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarization into a linearly polarized input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming beam's polarization, and by conservation of total angular momentum thereby generates a well-defined value of OAM. Our device is broadband, since the phase shift due to total internal reflection is nearly independent of wavelength. We verify the broad-band behaviour by measuring the conversion efficiency of the device for three different wavelengths corresponding to the RGB colours, red, green and blue. An average conversion efficiency of 95% for these three different wavelengths is observed. This device may find applications in imaging from micro- to astronomical systems where a white vortex beam is needed. (paper)

  20. Endoscopic management of orbital apex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, D S; Lau, D P

    1997-01-01

    Lesions of the orbital apex often present a diagnostic dilemma. Clinical assessment and imaging studies are helpful but a tissue biopsy is often required. The morbidity associated with transcranial approaches to the orbital apex may outweigh the benefits of obtaining a biopsy by these routes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of orbital apex lesions can be performed but there are disadvantages with this method. We describe a transnasal endoscopic technique to biopsy the orbital apex. The technique was used successfully to obtain a tissue diagnosis in six patients with orbital apex lesions. This enabled commencement of definitive treatment. There were no significant complications. The transnasal approach to the orbital apex using the endoscopes is reliable. Endoscopes provide excellent illumination, magnification, and a panoramic view of the operative field. PMID:9438058

  1. On Orbital Period Changes in Nova Outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Rebecca G; Schaefer, Bradley E

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism that produces an orbital period change during a nova outburst. When the ejected material carries away the specific angular momentum of the white dwarf, the orbital period increases. A magnetic field on the surface of the secondary star forces a fraction of the ejected material to corotate with the star, and hence the binary system. The ejected material thus takes angular momentum from the binary orbit and the orbital period decreases. We show that for sufficiently strong magnetic fields on the surface of the secondary star, the total change to the orbital period could even be negative during a nova outburst, contrary to previous expectations. Accurate determinations of pre- and post-outburst orbital periods of recurrent nova systems could test the new mechanism, in addition to providing meaningful constraints on otherwise difficult to measure physical quantities. We apply our mechanism to outbursts of the recurrent nova U Sco.

  2. Orbit Design and Simulation for Kufasat Nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Mohammed Chessab

    2015-12-01

    Orbit design for KufaSat Nano-satellites is presented. Polar orbit is selected for the KufaSat mission. The orbit was designed with an Inclination which enables the satellite to see every part of the earth. KufaSat has a payload for imaging purposes which require a large amount of power, so the orbit is determined to be sun synchronous in order to provide the power through solar panels. The KufaSat mission is designed for the low earth orbit. The six initial Keplerian Elements of KufaSat are calculated. The orbit design of KufaSat according to the calculated Keplerian elements has been simulated and analyzed by using MATLAB first and then by using General Mission Analysis Tool.

  3. A Qualitative Investigation into the Characteristics and Effects of Music Accompanying Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, David-Lee; Karageorghis, Costas I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the characteristics of music used to accompany physical exercise and investigate the effects of such music using a qualitative approach. This work underpins the further development of a theoretical structure that is still relatively new. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of…

  4. UNIQUENESS OF LIMIT CYCLE FOR A CLASS OF QUARTIC SYSTEM ACCOMPANYING WITH QUADRATIC SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we consider a class of quartic system,which is more general and realistic than the quartic accompanying system. Consequently,we obtain sufficient conditions concerning the uniqueness of limit cycle as well as some other in-depth conclusions.

  5. STUDY OF THE GAMMA EMISSION PROBABILITY ACCOMPANYING THE SPONTANEOUS FISSION OF CF-252

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLOEG, H; LAURENS, CR; BACELAR, JCS; BUDA, A; GAARDHOJE, JJ; VANTHOF, G; KALANTARNAYESTANAKI, N; VANDERWOUDE, A; ZELAZNY, Z

    1994-01-01

    A study of the gamma emission accompanying the spontaneous fission process of Cf-252 has been performed. The photon emission probability between 3 and 70 MeV and its angular dependence with respect to the fission direction were measured. These measurements were performed as a function of the mass as

  6. Tensions in Beginning Teachers' Professional Identity Development, Accompanying Feelings and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillen, Marieke; Beijaard, Douwe; Brok, Perry den

    2013-01-01

    This study examined tensions encountered by 182 beginning teachers during their professional identity development, the feelings that accompanied these tensions and the ways they tried to cope with these. Professional identity tensions stem from an unbalanced personal and professional side of (becoming) a teacher. Tensions that are often mentioned…

  7. Training shortens search times in children with visual impairment accompanied by nystagmus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning (PL) can improve near visual acuity (NVA) in 4-9 year old children with visual impairment (VI). However, the mechanisms underlying improved NVA are unknown. The present study compares feature search and oculomotor measures in 4-9 year old children with VI accompanied by nystagmus

  8. Light-particle multiplicity accompanying projectile breakup at 20 MeV/A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-solid-angle array has been used to determine the multiplicity of Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles accompanying projectile breakup into two fragments each with 5 ≤ Z ≤ 8. The charge balance obtained shows that projectile breakup is not associated with an unusual charge transfer to the target. 13 refs., 1 fig

  9. 75 FR 61489 - Renewal of Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of Doxycycline Hyclate Tablets Accompanied by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... provided at 73 FR 58242 (October 6, 2008). Dated: September 24, 2010. Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary. BILLING... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Renewal of Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of Doxycycline... use of doxycycline hyclate tablets accompanied by emergency use information subject to the terms...

  10. 30 CFR 250.223 - What mitigation measures information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What mitigation measures information must... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.223 What mitigation measures information must accompany the EP?...

  11. 30 CFR 250.254 - What mitigation measures information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What mitigation measures information must... Information Contents of Development and Production Plans (dpp) and Development Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.254 What mitigation measures information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? (a) If...

  12. 30 CFR 250.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... methodologies outlined in 40 CFR part 68. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the...

  13. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  14. Clinical accompaniment: the critical care nursing students’ experiences in a private hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tsele

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of clinical accompaniment of the student enrolled for the post-basic diploma in Medical and Surgical Nursing Science: Critical Care Nursing (General is an important dimension of the educational/learning programme. The clinical accompanist/mentor is responsible for ensuring the student’s compliance with the clinical outcomes of the programme in accordance with the requirements laid down by the Nursing Education Institution and the South African Nursing Council. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of the students enrolled for a post-basic diploma in Medical and Surgical Nursing Science: Critical Care Nursing (General, in relation to the clinical accompaniment in a private hospital in Gauteng. An exploratory, descriptive and phenomenological research design was utilised and individual interviews were conducted with the ten students in the research hospital. A content analysis was conducted and the results revealed both positive and negative experiences by the students in the internal and external worlds. The recommendations include the formulation of standards for clinical accompaniment of students. the evaluation of the quality of clinical accompaniment of students and empowerment of the organisation, clinical accompanists/mentors and clinicians.

  15. Handbook of Remedial or Developmental Activities to Accompany the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Drucilla, Comp.

    This handbook, intended to accompany the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, describes numerous remedial and developmental activities for perceptual motor and psychomotor skills. Observable classroom behaviors associated with various perceptual motor and psychomotor disabilities (visual-motor channel disability, auditory-vocal channel…

  16. Analysis on the environmental problems accompanying the high-speed urbanization of small towns in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The environmental problems accompanying the rapid urbanization of many small towns like Keqiao, SHaoxing County, and their countermeasures are presented. To settle these problems rationally as well as effectively will not only conduce to boost the environmental quality and life quality of cities, but also help to promote the development of regional economy and the realization of sustainable development.

  17. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  18. 76 FR 69738 - Revised 2011 Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and Accompanying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... COMMISSION Revised 2011 Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and Accompanying... Competition Bureau released the revised Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and...-interconnected VoIP filers subject to TRS contribution obligations must submit the FCC Form 499-A to...

  19. High Precision Orbit Determination of CHAMP Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qile; LIU Jingnan; GE Maorong

    2006-01-01

    The precision orbit determination of challenging minisatellite payload(CHAMP) satellite was done based on position and navigation data analyst(PANDA) software which is developed in Wuhan University, using the onboard GPS data of year 2002 from day 126 to 131. The orbit accuracy was assessed by analyzing the difference from GFZ post-processed science orbits (PSO), the GPS carrier and pseudo-range data residuals and the satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals.

  20. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the orbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH accounts for less than 1% of all orbital tumours. Though rare, orbital involvement in LCH is not uncommon. Most reports so far have been in Western literature. We report here a case of LCH of orbit with intracranial extension. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of single system multifocal LCH reported from India.

  1. The orbital evolution of planets in disks

    OpenAIRE

    Kley, Wilhelm

    2000-01-01

    The orbital parameters of the observed extrasolar planets differ strongly from those of our own solar system. The differences include planets with high masses, small semi-major axis and large eccentricities. We performed numerical computations of embedded planets in disks and follow their mass growth and orbital evolution over several thousand periods. We find that planets do migrate inwards on timescales of about $10^5$ years on nearly circular orbits, during which they may grow up to about ...

  2. Orbit determination by range-only data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, N.; Winn, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    The determination of satellite orbits for use in geodesy using range-only data has been examined. A recently developed recursive algorithm for rectification of the nominal orbit after processing each observation has been tested. It is shown that when a synchronous satellite is tracked simultaneously with a subsynchronous geodetic target satellite, the orbits of each may be readily determined by processing the range information. Random data errors and satellite perturbations are included in the examples presented.

  3. Orbital angular momentum and the parton model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliffe, P.G.

    1987-06-25

    The role of orbital angular momentum is discussed within the framework of the parton model. It is shown that a consistent interpretation of the Altarelli-Parisi equations governing the Q/sup 2/-evolution of helicity-weighted parton distributions necessitates the assumption that partons carry a large orbital angular momentum, contrary to popular belief. In developing the arguments presented, the Altarelli-Parisi formalism is extended to include orbital angular momentum dependence.

  4. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum in the Baryon

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiaotong

    2000-01-01

    Analytical and numerical results, for the orbital and spin content carried by different quark flavors in the baryons, are given in the chiral quark model with symmetry breaking. The reduction of the quark spin, due to the spin dilution in the chiral splitting processes, is transferred into the orbital motion of quarks and antiquarks. The orbital angular momentum for each quark flavor in the proton as a function of the partition factor $\\kappa$ and the chiral splitting probability $a$ is shown...

  5. Quantum formulation of fractional orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Götte, Jörg B; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Zambrini, Roberta; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    The quantum theory of rotation angles (S. M. Barnett and D. T. Pegg, Phys. Rev. A, 41, 3427-3425 (1990)) is generalised to non-integer values of the orbital angular momentum. This requires the introduction of an additional parameter, the orientation of a phase discontinuity associated with fractional values of the orbital angular momentum. We apply our formalism to the propagation of light modes with fractional orbital angular momentum in the paraxial and non-paraxial regime.

  6. Objects orbiting the Earth in deep resonance

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Sampaio; Wnuk, E.; de Moraes, R. Vilhena; S. S. Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of objects orbiting the Earth justifies the great attention and interest in the observation, spacecraft protection and collision avoidance. These studies involve different disturbances and resonances in the orbital motions of these objects distributed by the distinct altitudes. In this work, the TLE (Two-Line Elements) of the NORAD are studied observing the resonant period of the objects orbiting the Earth and the main resonance in the LEO region. The time behavior of th...

  7. Orbital Dispersion of Comet Encke's Meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klačka, Jozef; Pittich, Eduard M.

    1995-01-01

    The orbital evolution of model meteoroids ejected from the comet Encke has been investigated. The particles abandon the mother body with velocities 20 and 40 ms-1 perihelion within the interval of the past 10,000 years. Their 10,000 years old osculating orbits were numerically integrated forward, using a dynamical model of the solar system consisting of all planets. Forces from solar electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation effecting the particles are considered, too. Orbital dispersions of the model meteoroids are presented. The importance of nongravitational forces for a long-term orbital evolution of meteoroid streams is shown.

  8. NASA Orbiter Extended Nose Landing Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Steven R.; Jensen, Scott A.; Hansen, Christopher P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, development, test, and evaluation of a prototype Extended Nose Landing Gear (ENLG) for NASA's Space Shuttle orbiters. The ENLG is a proposed orbiter modification developed in-house at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) by a joint government/industry team. It increases the orbiter's nose landing gear (NLG) length, thereby changing the vehicle's angle of attack during rollout, which lowers the aerodynamic forces on the vehicle. This, in combination with a dynamic elevon change, will lower the loads on the orbiter's main landing gear (MLG). The extension is accomplished by adding a telescoping section to the current NLG strut that will be pneumatically extended during NLG deployment.

  9. Managing resonant trapped orbits in our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, James

    2016-08-01

    Galaxy modelling is greatly simplified by assuming the existence of a global system of angle-action coordinates. Unfortunately, global angle-action coordinates do not exist because some orbits become trapped by resonances, especially where the radial and vertical frequencies coincide. We show that in a realistic Galactic potential such trapping occurs only on thick-disc and halo orbits (speed relative to the guiding centre ≳ 80 km s-1). We explain how the Torus Mapper code (TM) behaves in regions of phase space in which orbits are resonantly trapped, and we extend TM so trapped orbits can be manipulated as easily as untrapped ones. The impact that the resonance has on the structure of velocity space depends on the weights assigned to trapped orbits. The impact is everywhere small if each trapped orbit is assigned the phase space density equal to the time average along the orbit of the DF for untrapped orbits. The impact could be significant with a different assignment of weights to trapped orbits.

  10. The fundamental group of the orbit space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattab Hawete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a subgroup of the group Homeo(X of homeomorphisms of a topological space X. Let G¯$\\bar G$ be the closure of G in Homeo(X. The class of an orbit O of G is the union of all orbits having the same closure as O. We denote by X/G˜$X/\\widetildeG$ the space of classes of orbits called the orbit class space. In this paper, we study the fundamental group of the spaces X/G, X/G¯$X/\\bar G$ and X/G˜$X/\\widetildeG$

  11. Orbital lymphoma: diagnostic approach and treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Eckardt, André M.; Lemound, Juliana; Rana, Majeed; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymphomas of the orbit and orbital adnexae are rare tumors, comprising only 1% of all non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The majority of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of the orbit are extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type. Because of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms, some diagnostic delay may occur. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic approach in orbital lymphomas and to analyze their treatment outcome. Methods In the period f...

  12. Primary orbital neuroblastoma in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzai Hasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is an undifferentiated malignant tumor of the primitive neuroblasts. Orbital neuroblastoma is typically a metastatic tumor. We describe a two-days-old girl, who presented with a large tumor in her left orbit. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor originated from the retrobulbar area, extending into the upper and lateral orbit. She was operated on the fifth day of life. A histopathologic diagnosis of neuroblastoma was made. Medical evaluation including chest roentgenogram, ultrasonography of the abdomen, whole body computerized tomogram and bone scintigraphy showed no evidence of systemic involvement or metastasis. Neuroblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neonatal orbital tumors.

  13. Impulsive orbit control for spacecraft around asteroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔祜涛; 崔平远; 栾恩杰

    2003-01-01

    An impulse feedback control law to change the mean orbit elements of spacecraft around asteroid is presented. First, the mean orbit elements are transferred to the osculating orbit elements at the burning time.Then, the feedback control law based on Gauss' s perturbation equations of motion is given. And the impulse control for targeting from the higher circulation orbit to the specified periapsis is developed. Finally, the numerical simulation is performed and the simulation results show that the presented impulse control law is effective.

  14. Managing resonant trapped orbits in our Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy modelling is greatly simplified by assuming the existence of a global system of angle-action coordinates. Unfortunately, global angle-action coordinates do not exist because some orbits become trapped by resonances, especially where the radial and vertical frequencies coincide. We show that in a realistic Galactic potential such trapping occurs only on thick-disc and halo orbits (speed relative to the guiding centre >~80 km/s). We explain how the Torus Mapper code (TM) behaves in regions of phase space in which orbits are resonantly trapped, and we extend TM so trapped orbits can be manipulated as easily as untrapped ones. The impact that the resonance has on the structure of velocity space depends on the weights assigned to trapped orbits. The impact is everywhere small if each trapped orbit is assigned the phase space density equal to the time average along the orbit of the DF for untrapped orbits. The impact could be significant with a different assignment of weights to trapped orbits.

  15. Orbit IMU alignment: Error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive accuracy analysis of orbit inertial measurement unit (IMU) alignments using the shuttle star trackers was completed and the results are presented. Monte Carlo techniques were used in a computer simulation of the IMU alignment hardware and software systems to: (1) determine the expected Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) manual mode IMU alignment accuracy; (2) investigate the accuracy of alignments in later shuttle flights when the automatic mode of star acquisition may be used; and (3) verify that an analytical model previously used for estimating the alignment error is a valid model. The analysis results do not differ significantly from expectations. The standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 alignments was determined to the 68 arc seconds per axis. This corresponds to a 99.7% probability that the magnitude of the total alignment error is less than 258 arc seconds.

  16. Phonons with orbital angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayub, M. K. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruizinga, Gerhard; Gustafson, Eric; Jefferson, David; Martin-Mur, Tomas; Mottinger, Neil; Pelletier, Fred; Ryne, Mark; Thompson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Orbit Determination (OD) met all requirements with considerable margin, MSL OD team developed spin signature removal tool and successfully used the tool during cruise, A novel approach was used for the MSL solar radiation pressure model and resulted in a very accurate model during the approach phase, The change in velocity for Attitude Control System (ACS) turns was successfully calibrated and with appropriate scale factor resulted in improved change in velocity prediction for future turns, All Trajectory Correction Maneuvers were successfully reconstructed and execution errors were well below the assumed pre-fight execution errors, The official OD solutions were statistically consistent throughout cruise and for OD solutions with different arc lengths as well, Only EPU-1 was sent to MSL. All other Entry Parameter Updates were waived, EPU-1 solution was only 200 m separated from final trajectory reconstruction in the B-plane

  18. Sentinel-2A: Orbit Modelling Improvements and their Impact on the Orbit Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Heike; Otten, Michiel; Fernández Sánchez, Jaime; Fernández Martín, Carlos; Féménias, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Sentinel-2A is the second satellite of the European Copernicus Programme. The satellite has been launched on 23rd June 2015 and it is operational since mid October 2015. This optical mission carries a GPS receiver for precise orbit determination. The Copernicus POD (Precise Orbit Determination) Service is in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary files for Sentinel-2A as well as for the Sentinel-1 and -3 missions. The accuracy requirements for the Sentinel-2A orbit products are not very stringent with 3 m in 3D (3 sigma) for the near real-time (NRT) orbit and 10 m in 2D (3 sigma) for the predicted orbit. The fulfilment of the orbit accuracy requirements is normally not an issue. The Copernicus POD Service aims, however, to provide the best possible orbits for all three Sentinel missions. Therefore, a sophisticated box-wing model is generated for the Sentinel-2 satellite as it is done for the other two missions as well. Additionally, the solar wing of the satellite is rewound during eclipse, which has to be modelled accordingly. The quality of the orbit prediction is dependent on the results of the orbit estimation performed before it. The values of the last estimation of each parameter is taken for the orbit propagation, i.e. estimating ten atmospheric drag coefficients per 24h, the value of the last coefficient is used as a fix parameter for the subsequent orbit prediction. The question is whether the prediction might be stabilised by, e.g. using an average value of all ten coefficients. This paper presents the status and the quality of the Sentinel-2 orbit determination in the operational environment of the Copernicus POD Service. The impact of the orbit model improvements on the NRT and predicted orbits is studied in detail. Changes in the orbit parametrization as well as in the settings for the orbit propagation are investigated. In addition, the impact of the quality of the input GPS orbit and clock product on the Sentinel-2A orbit

  19. Kalman Filter Implementation to Determine Orbit and Attitude of a Satellite in a Molniya Orbit

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Elizabeth Marie

    2014-01-01

    This thesis details the development and implementation of an attitude and orbit determining Kalman filter algorithm for a satellite in a Molniya orbit. To apply the Kalman Filter for orbit determination, the equations of motion of the two body problem were propagated using Cowell's formulation. Four types of perturbing forces were added to the propagated model in order to increase the accuracy of the orbit prediction. These four perturbing forces are Earth oblateness, atmospheric drag, lunar ...

  20. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Tom; MacLeod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2016-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  1. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: a human cadaver study: part II: navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Dubois; R. Schreurs; J. Jansen; T.J.J. Maal; H. Essig; P.J.J. Gooris; A.G. Becking

    2015-01-01

    Preformed orbital reconstruction plates are useful for treating orbital defects. However, intraoperative errors can lead to misplaced implants and poor outcomes. Navigation-assisted surgery may help optimize orbital reconstruction. We aimed to explore whether navigation-assisted surgery is more pred

  2. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: A human cadaver study. Part II: Navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, L.; Schreurs, R.; Jansen, J; Maal, T.J.J.; Essig, H.; Gooris, P.J.; Becking, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Preformed orbital reconstruction plates are useful for treating orbital defects. However, intraoperative errors can lead to misplaced implants and poor outcomes. Navigation-assisted surgery may help optimize orbital reconstruction. We aimed to explore whether navigation-assisted surgery is more pred

  3. The Homoclinic Orbits in Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengchengXU; BolingGUO; 等

    1998-01-01

    The persistence of Homoclinic orbits for perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger equation with five degree term under een periodic boundary conditions is considered.The exstences of the homoclinic orbits for the truncation equation is established by Melnikov's analysis and geometric singular perturbation theory.

  4. Spin-Orbit induced semiconductor spin guides

    OpenAIRE

    Valin-Rodriguez, Manuel; Puente, Antonio; Serra, Llorens

    2002-01-01

    The tunability of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling allows to build semiconductor heterostructures with space modulated coupling intensities. We show that a wire-shaped spin-orbit modulation in a quantum well can support propagating electronic states inside the wire only for a certain spin orientation and, therefore, it acts as an effective spin transmission guide for this particular spin orientation.

  5. Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced...

  6. Spin-Orbital Motion Symmetry and Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorova, A N; Fedorova, Antonina N.; Zeitlin, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    We present the applications of variational--wavelet approach to nonlinear (rational) model for spin-orbital motion: orbital dynamics and Thomas-BMT equations for classical spin vector. We represent the solution of this dynamical system in framework of periodical wavelets via variational approach and multiresolution.

  7. Nontraumatic orbital floor fracture after nose blowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Ranjit S; Shah, Akash D

    2016-03-01

    A 40-year-old woman with no history of trauma or prior surgery presented to the emergency department with headache and left eye pain after nose blowing. Noncontrast maxillofacial computed tomography examination revealed an orbital floor fracture that ultimately required surgical repair. There are nontraumatic causes of orbital blowout fractures, and imaging should be obtained irrespective of trauma history. PMID:26973725

  8. Three Temperate Neptunes Orbiting Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fulton, Benjamin J; Weiss, Lauren M; Sinukoff, Evan; Petigura, Erik A; Isaacson, Howard; Hirsch, Lea; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Henry, Gregory W; Grunblatt, Samuel K; Huber, Daniel; von Braun, Kaspar; Boyajian, Tabetha S; Kane, Stephen R; Wittrock, Justin; Horch, Elliott P; Ciardi, David R; Howell, Steve B; Wright, Jason T; Ford, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of three modestly-irradiated, roughly Neptune-mass planets orbiting three nearby Solar-type stars. HD 42618 b has a minimum mass of $15.4 \\pm 2.4$ M$_{\\oplus}$, a semi-major axis of 0.55 AU, an equilibrium temperature of 337 K, and is the first planet discovered to orbit the solar analogue host star, HD 42618. We also discover new planets orbiting the known exoplanet host stars HD 164922 and HD 143761 ($\\rho$ CrB). The new planet orbiting HD 164922 has a minimum mass of $12.9 \\pm 1.6$ M$_{\\oplus}$ and orbits interior to the previously known Jovian mass planet orbiting at 2.1 AU. HD 164922 c has a semi-major axis of 0.34 AU and an equilibrium temperature of 418 K. HD 143761 c orbits with a semi-major axis of 0.44 AU, has a minimum mass of $25 \\pm 2$ M$_{\\oplus}$, and is the warmest of the three new planets with an equilibrium temperature of 445 K. It orbits exterior to the previously known warm Jupiter in the system. A transit search using space-based CoRoT data and ground-based photom...

  9. An alternative method study for determining the content oils and greases derived from spectrophotometric; Estudo de um metodo alternativo para determinacao de oleos e graxas derivado do metodo espectrofotometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Leila Rose Benevides; Bezerra, Magna Angelica dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP, PRH-14; Melo, Josette Lourdes de Sousa; Melo, Henio Normando de Sousa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Gomes, Andrea Karla Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The determination of the Text of Oils and Greases (TOG) it can be done by several methods - gravimetrical or spectrophotometric. That work seeks to study a method alternative spectrophotometric, being compared this with the method used by Curbelo (2002). The modifications were: the reason solvent/sample, and the procedure in which the solvent the sample was mixed. For the method of Curbelo (2002) 100 mL of the sample was mixed to 10 chloroform mL and separated in separation funnel. In the proposed method, adapted denominated Chloroform, the reason was of 20 sample mL for 20 chloroform mL, being this mixture, after manual agitation, taken directly for centrifuge. The medium results were of 81,36 mg/L and 150,44 mg/L for the methods of the Chloroform and Adapted Chloroform, respectively. In spite of the medium values they present differences of almost 50%, it can be verified that the methods demonstrated certain uniformity when evaluated separately, being obtained a minimum deviation of 5,88%. With base in those preliminary results, it can be verified that the developed alternative method gets to remove more oil, mainly for more concentrated samples - exception done to the results of the pattern - and that the two methods present viability of substitution of the gravimetrical methods. (author)

  10. Effects of ultrasonic and thermo-chemical pre-treatments on methane production from fat, oil and grease (FOG) and synthetic kitchen waste (KW) in anaerobic co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce C

    2013-02-01

    The effects of ultrasonic and thermo-chemical pre-treatments on the methane production potential of anaerobic co-digestion with synthetic kitchen waste (KW) or fat, oil and grease (FOG) were investigated. Non-linear regressions were fitted to accurately assess and compare the methane production from co-digestion under the various pre-treatment conditions and to achieve representative simulations and predictions. Ultrasonic pre-treatment was not found to improve methane production effectively from either FOG co-digestion or KW co-digestions. Thermo-chemical pre-treatment could increase methane production yields from both FOG and KW co-digestions. COD solubilization was found to effectively represent the effects of pre-treatment. A comprehensive evaluation indicated that the thermo-chemical pre-treatments of pH=10, 55°C and pH=8, 55°C provided the best conditions to increase methane production from FOG and KW co-digestions, respectively. The most effective enhancement of biogas production (288±0.85mLCH(4)/g TVS) was achieved from thermo-chemically pre-treated FOG co-digestion, which was 9.9±1.5% higher than FOG co-digestion without thermo-chemical pre-treatment.

  11. Sclerosing Wegener's granulomatosis in the orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report three cases of sclerosing Wegener's granulomatosis in the orbit and to compare the histopathological morphology with those of other types of sclerosing orbital inflammation. METHODS: We analysed the clinical data along with histopathological specimens from orbital biopsies and...... from two enucleated eyes. RESULTS: All three patients had longstanding inflammation in the orbit and involvement of the paranasal sinuses. Proptosis, impaired ocular motility and reduced visual acuity dominated the clinical picture. All histopathological specimens featured granulomatous inflammation......, tissue necrosis, vasculitis and widespread dense fibrosis. In certain areas of all specimens the fibrous tissue was arranged in characteristic concentric, onionskin-like whorls of collagen around obliterated small blood vessels. CONCLUSIONS: Wegener's granulomatosis may lead to orbital fibrosis and...

  12. Continuation of Sets of Constrained Orbit Segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten; Chamoun, George Chaouki;

    Sets of constrained orbit segments of time continuous flows are collections of trajectories that represent a whole or parts of an invariant set. A non-trivial but simple example is a homoclinic orbit. A typical representation of this set consists of an equilibrium point of the flow and a trajectory...... that starts close and returns close to this fixed point within finite time. More complicated examples are hybrid periodic orbits of piecewise smooth systems or quasi-periodic invariant tori. Even though it is possible to define generalised two-point boundary value problems for computing sets of...... constrained orbit segments, this is very disadvantageous in practice. In this talk we will present an algorithm that allows the efficient continuation of sets of constrained orbit segments together with the solution of the full variational problem....

  13. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  14. Automated Selection of Active Orbital Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    One of the key challenges of quantum-chemical multi-configuration methods is the necessity to manually select orbitals for the active space. This selection requires both expertise and experience and can therefore impose severe limitations on the applicability of this most general class of ab initio methods. A poor choice of the active orbital space may yield even qualitatively wrong results. This is obviously a severe problem, especially for wave function methods that are designed to be systematically improvable. Here, we show how the iterative nature of the density matrix renormalization group combined with its capability to include up to about one hundred orbitals in the active space can be exploited for a systematic assessment and selection of active orbitals. These benefits allow us to implement an automated approach for active orbital space selection, which can turn multi-configuration models into black box approaches.

  15. Spin-orbit interactions between two baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Sachiko [Japan College of Social Work, Kiyose, Tokyo (Japan); Morimatsu, Osamu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tanashi Branch (KEK-Tanashi), Tanashi, Tokyo (Japan); Tani, Yoshihiro; Oka, Makoto [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2000-04-01

    The spin-orbit interactions in the quark cluster models are reviewed in this article. The observed spin-orbit force between two nucleons is strong, while that in the excited baryons or in the {lambda}N interaction is small. We try to sort out whether the quark cluster model can produce a spin-orbit force which explains these features simultaneously. Various works which include the spin-orbit force with different origins such as gluons, mesons, or coupling to other channels are compared to each other. The roles of the symmetric and anti-symmetric spin- orbit forces in the NN scattering phase shifts and in the YN low-energy cross sections and the phase shifts are investigated. (author)

  16. Orbital Motion During Gravitational Lensing Events

    CERN Document Server

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational lensing events provide unique opportunities to discover and study planetary systems and binaries. Here we build on previous work to explore the role that orbital motion can play in both identifying and learning more about multiple-mass systems that serve as gravitational lenses. We find that a significant fraction of planet-lens and binary-lens light curves are influenced by orbital motion. Furthermore, the effects of orbital motion extend the range of binaries for which lens multiplicity can be discovered and studied. Orbital motion will play an increasingly important role as observations with sensitive photometry, such as those made by the space missions Kepler, Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, (TESS), and WFIRST discover gravitational lensing events. Similarly, the excellent astrometric measurements made possible by GAIA will allow it to study the effects of orbital motion. Frequent observations, such as those made possible with the Korean Microlensing Telescope Network, KMTNet, will al...

  17. Radiation Treatment of Primary Orbital Lymphoid Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hyun Suk [Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-06-15

    Primary lymphoid tumors of orbit are rare. Sometimes they pose difficulty in differentiating malignant Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the orbit from benign lymphoid hyperplasia or pseudotumor of the orbit by growth characteristics and histologic examination of a biopsy specimen. Consequently, systemic work-up for staging of the disease before the initiation of treatment is essential. All lymphoid tumors of the orbit are radiosensitive and the response to radiotherapy is rapid and complete. Radiation dose for permanent control varies from 2,400 to 4,500rads in 2.5-4 weeks depending on extent and location of the disease. A case of localized lymphoma of the orbit was treated with radiotherapy. For the following 15 months, the patient was clinically free of disease without any evidence of side effects of radiation treatment.

  18. The statistical mechanics of planet orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The final "giant-impact" phase of terrestrial planet formation is believed to begin with a large number of planetary "embryos" on nearly circular, coplanar orbits. Mutual gravitational interactions gradually excite their eccentricities until their orbits cross and they collide and merge; through this process the number of surviving bodies declines until the system contains a small number of planets on well-separated, stable orbits. In this paper we explore a simple statistical model for the orbit distribution of planets formed by this process, based on the sheared-sheet approximation and the ansatz that the planets explore uniformly all of the stable region of phase space. The model provides analytic predictions for the distribution of eccentricities and semimajor axis differences, correlations between orbital elements of nearby planets, and the complete N-planet distribution function, in terms of a single parameter that is determined by the planetary masses. The predicted properties are generally consistent ...

  19. Primary orbital neuroblastoma with intraocular extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan Vallinayagam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is an undifferentiated malignancy of primitive neuroblasts. Neuroblastoma is among the most common solid tumors of childhood. Orbital neuroblastoma is typically a metastatic tumor. In this case report, we describe a 2-year-old child with a rapidly progressing orbital tumor. Computed tomography revealed an orbital mass lesion with extraocular and intraocular components. An incisional biopsy was done, and a histopathological examination showed features suggestive of neuroblastoma. Systemic workup including ultrasonography of the abdomen, chest roentgenogram, whole body computed tomography, and bone scintigraphy showed no evidence of systemic involvement. The diagnosis of primary orbital neuroblastoma was made, and the child was subjected to chemotherapy followed by rapid melting of the tumor. Neuroblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of childhood orbital tumors.

  20. Pitch-informed solo and accompaniment separation towards its use in music education applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Estefanía; Schuller, Gerald; Dittmar, Christian

    2014-12-01

    We present a system for the automatic separation of solo instruments and music accompaniment in polyphonic music recordings. Our approach is based on a pitch detection front-end and a tone-based spectral estimation. We assess the plausibility of using sound separation technologies to create practice material in a music education context. To better understand the sound separation quality requirements in music education, a listening test was conducted to determine the most perceptually relevant signal distortions that need to be improved. Results from the listening test show that solo and accompaniment tracks pose different quality requirements and should be optimized differently. We propose and evaluate algorithm modifications to better understand their effects on objective perceptual quality measures. Finally, we outline possible ways of optimizing our separation approach to better suit the requirements of music education applications.

  1. Prevalence of open angle glaucoma in accompanying first degree relatives of patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Vegini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of open angle glaucoma in first-degree relatives accompanying POAG patients during routine examination in a reference hospital. METHOD: First-degree relatives of primary open angle glaucoma patients who accompanied their relatives to the glaucoma service of a reference hospital were screened for glaucoma. RESULTS: One-hundred and one first-degree relatives were examined, of which 56.4% had never had their intraocular pressure measured. 10.9% had previously been diagnosed with glaucoma, and 5.9% were newly diagnosed during this study. CONCLUSIONS: The eye examination of first-degree relatives identified a significant percentage of individuals with glaucoma. Despite being first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients, 56.4% of the companions had never had their eye pressure measured, demonstrating a lack of awareness about this disease.

  2. Triple Peripheral Nerve Injury Accompanying to Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižlknur Can

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary injuries especially extremity fractures may be seen concurrently with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Peripheral nerve damages may accompany to these fractures and may be missed out, especially in acute stage. In this case report; damage of radial, ulnar and median nerves which was developed secondarily to distal humerus fracture that could not be detected in acute stage, in a patient who had motor vehicle accident (MVA. 29-year-old male patient was admitted with weakness in the right upper extremity. 9 months ago, he had traumatic brain injury because of MVA, and fracture of distal humerus was detected in follow-ups. Upon the suspect of the peripheral nerve injury, the diagnosis was confirmed with ENMG. The patient responded well to the rehabilitation program treatment. In a TBI patient, it must be kept in mind that there might be a secondary trauma and therefore peripheral nerve lesions may accompany to TBI.

  3. Grain growth and thermal stability accompanying recrystallization in undercooled Ni-3at.%Sn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z., E-mail: chenzheng1218@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China); Chen, Q.; Shen, C.J. [School of Material Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Liu, F. [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710016 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The grain growth and thermal stability after recrystallization in as-solidified highly undercooled Ni-3at.%Sn alloy melt were investigated. As for undercooled Ni-3at.%Sn alloy, a transition from dendritic to granular crystals occurred when ΔT≥ΔT{sup *}, which was induced by the plastic deformation of dendrites and subsequent recrystallization. On this basis, the subsequent grain growth and solute segregation accompanying recalescence were calculated by a recently proposed thermo-kinetic model, which showed close agreement with the experimental results. It is concluded that the grain growth process was interrelated to recalescence, solute trapping and solute segregation of Sn atoms captured by solute trapping, which was responsible for the reduction of grain boundary energy and improvement of thermal stability. - Highlights: • A transition from dendritic to granular crystals occurred when ΔT≥ΔT{sup *}. • The grain growth accompanying recalescence was calculated. • A close agreement with the experimental results was shown.

  4. Dramatic Switching of Magnetic Exchange in a Classic Transition Metal Oxide: Evidence for Orbital Ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin correlations in metallic and insulating phases of V2O3 and its derivatives are investigated using magnetic neutron scattering.Metallic samples have incommensurate spin correlations varying little with hole doping. Paramagnetic insulating samples have spin correlations only among near neighbors. The transition from either of these phases into the low temperature insulating antiferromagnetic phase is accompanied by an abrupt change of dynamic magnetic short range order. Our results support the idea that the transition into the antiferromagnetic insulator is also an orbital ordering transition. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Landau quantization, Rashba spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman splitting of two-dimensional heavy holes

    OpenAIRE

    Moskalenko, S. A.; Podlesny, I. V.; Dumanov, E. V.; Liberman, M. A.; Novikov, B. V.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the g-factor of the two-dimensional (2D) electrons and holes moving in the periodic crystal lattice potential with the perpendicular magnetic and electric fields is discussed. The Pauli equation describing the Landau quantization accompanied by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) and Zeeman splitting (ZS) for 2D heavy holes with nonparabolic dispersion law is solved exactly. The solutions have the form of the pairs of the Landau quantization levels due to the spinor-type wave ...

  6. The effect of mechanical lymph drainage accompanied with heat on lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Valente Flávia Mariana; Guerreiro Godoy Maria de Fátima; Pereira de Godoy José Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thermotherapy has been indicated by some researchers as a treatment for lymphedema. A study comparing temperatures demonstrated that a temperature of 40°C significantly increased the transportation of lymph compared to other temperatures assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible benefits of mechanical lymph drainage accompanied with heat in the treatment of lymphedema of the lower limbs. Methods: In a cross-over randomized study, the effect of heat on lymph ...

  7. The Stress and Vascular Catastrophes in Newborn Rats: Mechanisms Preceding and Accompanying the Brain Hemorrhages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Borisova, Ekaterina; Abakumov, Maxim; Gorin, Dmitry; Avramov, Latchezar; Fedosov, Ivan; Namykin, Anton; Abdurashitov, Arkady; Serov, Alexander; Pavlov, Alexey; Zinchenko, Ekaterina; Lychagov, Vlad; Navolokin, Nikita; Shirokov, Alexander; Maslyakova, Galina; Zhu, Dan; Luo, Qingming; Chekhonin, Vladimir; Tuchin, Valery; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the time-depended scenario of stress response cascade preceding and accompanying brain hemorrhages in newborn rats using an interdisciplinary approach based on: a morphological analysis of brain tissues, coherent-domain optical technologies for visualization of the cerebral blood flow, monitoring of the cerebral oxygenation and the deformability of red blood cells (RBCs). Using a model of stress-induced brain hemorrhages (sound stress, 120 dB, 370 Hz), we studied changes in neonatal brain 2, 4, 6, 8 h after stress (the pre-hemorrhage, latent period) and 24 h after stress (the post-hemorrhage period). We found that latent period of brain hemorrhages is accompanied by gradual pathological changes in systemic, metabolic, and cellular levels of stress. The incidence of brain hemorrhages is characterized by a progression of these changes and the irreversible cell death in the brain areas involved in higher mental functions. These processes are realized via a time-depended reduction of cerebral venous blood flow and oxygenation that was accompanied by an increase in RBCs deformability. The significant depletion of the molecular layer of the prefrontal cortex and the pyramidal neurons, which are crucial for associative learning and attention, is developed as a consequence of homeostasis imbalance. Thus, stress-induced processes preceding and accompanying brain hemorrhages in neonatal period contribute to serious injuries of the brain blood circulation, cerebral metabolic activity and structural elements of cognitive function. These results are an informative platform for further studies of mechanisms underlying stress-induced brain hemorrhages during the first days of life that will improve the future generation's health. PMID:27378933

  8. Multiple Fractures in Patient with Graves' Disease Accompanied by Isolated Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Hyon-Seung; Kim, Ji Min; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Younghak; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Koon Soon

    2016-01-01

    Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is known to decrease bone mineral density due to deficiency of sex steroid hormone. Graves' disease is also an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. However, IHH does not preclude the development of primary hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease, leading to more severe osteoporosis rapidly. Here, we describe the first case of 35-year-old Asian female patient with IHH accompanied by Graves' disease and osteoporosis-induced multiple fractures...

  9. A case of superior segmental optic hypoplasia accompanied by a glaucomatous optic neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ohguro, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Ikuyo Ohguro, Hiroshi OhguroDepartment of Ophthalmology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, JapanAbstract: This is the first case report of a bilateral superior segmental optic hypoplasia (SSOH) accompanied by a glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). A 47-year-old man incidentally diagnosed as having bilateral SSOH, simultaneously disclosed glaucomatous optic disc appearances, including enlargements of the cup of the optic nerve heads and a thinning of the infero-...

  10. Accompanying conditions in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and urticarial vasculitis: Results of a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgi Akarsu; Turna İlknur; Özlem Özbağçıvan; Emel Fetil

    2015-01-01

    Background and Design: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), the most common form of chronic urticaria, is characterized by spontaneous wheals and/or angioedema lasting longer than six weeks. Urticarial vasculitis (UV) is a small vessel vasculitis; but is also included in the various classification systems of chronic urticaria by some authors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of accompanying conditions, and to compare the demographic, clinical and laboratory features of patie...

  11. Clinical accompaniment: the critical care nursing students’ experiences in a private hospital

    OpenAIRE

    N. Tsele; Marie Muller

    2000-01-01

    The quality of clinical accompaniment of the student enrolled for the post-basic diploma in Medical and Surgical Nursing Science: Critical Care Nursing (General) is an important dimension of the educational/learning programme. The clinical accompanist/mentor is responsible for ensuring the student’s compliance with the clinical outcomes of the programme in accordance with the requirements laid down by the Nursing Education Institution and the South African Nursing Council. The purpose of this...

  12. Modified Latarjet Procedure for Patients with Glenoid Bone Defect Accompanied with Anterior Shoulder Instability.

    OpenAIRE

    Demirhan, Mehmet Selahattin; Atalar, Ata Can; Bilsel, Kerem; Eren, İlker; Çelik, Derya; Çil, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of coracoid bone block (modified Latarjet) procedure on clinical and functional results in cases with glenoid bone defect accompanied with anterior shoulder instability. Methods: The study included 35 patients (average age: 35 years; range: 20 to 58 years) with glenoid bone defect and recurrent dislocations treated with the modified Latarjet procedure. There were 12 sports injuries, 5 post-epileptic cases and 18 recurrent an...

  13. Recurrent dislocation of the patella accompanying hypotrochlea of the femur and malalignment of the patella

    OpenAIRE

    Horikawa, Akira; Kodama, Hiroyuki; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Yamada, Shin; Miyamoto, Seiya

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a rare case of recurrent dislocation of the patella which was accompanied with trochlear dysplasia and malalignment of the patella in a 15-year-old girl. She complained of hemoarthrosis and recurrent patellar dislocation in the early knee flexion phase. Plain radiography and computed tomography (CT) showed patellar malalignment (quadriceps angle 20°) and severe dysplasia of the trochlea of the femur (sulcus angle 170°). Surgery was performed, consisting of trochleop...

  14. A qualitative investigation into the characteristics and effects of music accompanying exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Priest, DL; Karageorghis, CI

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the characteristics of music used to accompany physical exercise and investigate the effects of such music using a qualitative approach. This work underpins the further development of a theoretical structure that is still relatively new. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of exercise participants (N = 13), seven males and six females, all with at least two years’ experience of exercising to music. An inductive content analy...

  15. The internal bremsstrahlung accompanying the β-dacay from 185W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal bremsstrahlung (IB) spectrum accompanying the β-decay from 185W radionuclide has been measured. The obtained spectrum was analyzed into its constituting gamma lines taking into account all the proper corrections. The analyzed spectrum was compared with those theoretically calculated. The experimental results for the IB probability were found to be in good agreement with theoretical calculations especially with the shape corrected modified KUB theory of Nilsson up to 357.7 keV. (author)

  16. Explanatory notes to accompany the Groundwater Vulnerability Index GIS for Moray Council

    OpenAIRE

    O Dochartaigh, B.E.

    2003-01-01

    These notes are designed to accompany the ArcView geographical information system (GIS) format groundwater vulnerability index map produced by the British Geological Survey (BGS) for Moray Council. The map is based on digital geological information for both bedrock and superficial (drift) deposits. It covers the whole of the Moray Council area plus a ‘buffer zone’ around the landward boundaries to account for peripheral data and allow for more meaningful interpretation. The ...

  17. Kimura's disease accompanied by mediastinal lymphadenopathy misdiagnosed as lung cancer: Case report and review of literatures

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xi; Bai, Li; Gao, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective  To further investigate the diagnostic pitfalls of Kimura's disease(KD). Methods  We report one case of Kimura's disease accompanied with mediastinal lymphadenopathy admitted to General Hospital of Chinese PLA in the year 2010. After searching on PubMed and Chinese Medical Journal Searching Engines(Wanfang data base,Cqvip data base),we have found literatures reporting another 3 cases of Kimura's disease with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Plus the one we presented, all four patients' ...

  18. Brain reward deficits accompany withdrawal (hangover) from acute ethanol in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schulteis, Gery; Liu, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Withdrawal from an acute bolus injection of ethanol produces affective or emotional signs that include anxiogenic-like behavior (Gauvin et al., 1992) and conditioned place aversion (Morse et al., 2000). The current study assessed whether brain reward deficits that accompany withdrawal from chronic ethanol dependence (Schulteis et al., 1995) are also observed upon withdrawal from acute intoxication. Rats were implanted with stimulating electrodes aimed at the medial forebrain bundle in the lat...

  19. INTEGRATED WASTE WATER TREATMENT ACCOMPANIED BY MINIMAL GENERATION OF EXCESSIVE ACTIVATED SLUDGE OR SEDIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makisha Nikolay Alekseevich

    2012-12-01

    ments held. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic processes helps provide the proper quality of integrated biological treatment. Chambers of the aeration reactor are also equipped with the polymer feed of various compositions. Sludge treatment that is also strongly needed was performed by means of aerobic stabilization accompanied by ejecting aeration. The experiment findings demonstrate its substantial effect in terms of both components, including sewage and sludge treatment.

  20. Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2014-09-22

    We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.

  1. Study of orbit stability in the SSRF storage ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Zhi-Min; LIU Gui-Min; HUANG Nan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, analysis of the beam orbit stability and conceptual study of the dynamic orbit feedback inthe SSRF storage ring are presented. It is shown that beam orbit position movement at the photon source points issmaller than the orbit stability requirements in horizontal plane, but exceeds the orbit stability requirements in verticalplane. A dynamic global orbit feedback system, which consists of 38 high-bandwidth air-coil correctors and 40high-precise BPMs, is proposed to suppress the vertical beam orbit position movement. Numerical simulations showthat this dynamic orbit feedback system can stabilize the vertical beam orbit position movement in the frequencyrange up to 100 Hz.

  2. Retrospective study of mechanical ventilation in treating multiple trauma accompanied with cranicvervbral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the importance of mechanic al ventilation (MV) in treating multiple trauma mainly accompanied with cerebral injury and improve the treatment level.   Methods: All 116 patients who suffered from multiple trauma acc ompanied with mainly cerebral injury were analyzed. Rank correlation and Chi-sq uare test were made between MV with GCS, ISS, and whether shock or not.   Results: The MV was correlated with GCS, ISS scores, and whethe r shock or not markedly. Furthermore, when GCS≤8, the ratio of MV was about 70% . When ISS≥35, the ratio of MV was about 85%.   Conclusions: During the treatment of multiple trauma accompanie d with cerebral injury, the principle of “early MV, early withdraw” and “indi vidualism” should be insisted on. For patients accompanied with shock, the opti mum PEEP is very important. Proper and active MV is of great importance and can improve the treatment level markedly.

  3. Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles W; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G; Pushin, Dmitry A

    2015-09-24

    The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a 'twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies. PMID:26399831

  4. Neutron Skins and Halo Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnard, J; Zuker, A P

    2016-01-01

    The strong dependence of Coulomb energies on nuclear radii makes it possible to extract the latter from calculations of the former. The resulting estimates of neutron skins indicate that two mechanisms are involved. The first one---isovector monopole polarizability---amounts to noting that when a particle is added to a system it drives the radii of neutrons and protons in different directions, tending to equalize the radii of both fluids independently of the neutron excess. This mechanism is well understood and the Duflo-Zuker (small) neutron skin values derived 14 years ago are consistent with recent measures and estimates. The alternative mechanism involves halo orbits whose huge sizes tend to make the neutron skins larger and have a subtle influence on the radial behavior of $sd$ and $pf$ shell nuclei. In particular, they account for the sudden rise in the isotope shifts of nuclei beyond $N=28$ and the near constancy of radii in the $A=40-56$ region. This mechanism, detected here for the first time, is not...

  5. [Physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: psychopathological investigation of 10 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported two schizophrenic patients with characteristic hallucinations consisting of auditory hallucinations accompanied by visual hallucinations of the speaker's face. The patient sees the face of the hallucinatory speaker in his/her mind and hears the voice talking inwardly. We termed these experiences physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations. In this report, we present 10 patients with schizophrenia showing physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations and evaluate the characteristics of these clinical symptoms. Moreover we consider what the symptoms mean for patients and the metabasis from structural aspects. Lastly, we consider how we can treat these patients living autistic lives with the symptoms. During physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations, the realistic face moves its mouth and talks to the patient expressively. In early onset cases, the faces of various real people appear talking about ordinary things while in late onset cases, the faces can be imaginary but are mainly real people talking about ordinary or delusional things. We suppose that these characteristics of the symptoms unify the schizophrenic world overwhelmed by "a force of non-sense" to "the sense field". "The force of non-sense" is a substantial power but cannot be reduced to the real meaning. And we suppose that not visual reality but the intensity of auditory hallucinations of the face brings about the overwhelming intensity of symptoms and the substantiality of this intensity depends on the states of excessive fullness of "the force of non-sense". With these symptoms patients see the narration of auditory hallucinations through the facial image and the content of auditory hallucinations is compressed into the movement of visual hallucinations of the speaker's face. The form of symptoms is realistic but the speaker's face and voice are beyond ordinary time and space. The symptoms are essentially different from ordinary perception. The visual

  6. Early Reconstruction of Orbital Roof Fractures:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Koo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Orbital roof fractures are frequently associated with a high energy impactto the craniofacial region, and displaced orbital roof fractures can cause ophthalmic andneurologic complications and occasionally require open surgical intervention. The purposeof this article was to investigate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of orbital rootfractures combined with neurologic injuries after early reconstruction.Methods Between January 2006 and December 2008, 45 patients with orbital roof fractureswere admitted; among them, 37 patients were treated conservatively and 8 patientsunderwent early surgical intervention for orbital roof fractures. The type of injuries thatcaused the fractures, patient characteristics, associated fractures, ocular and neurologicalinjuries, patient management, and treatment outcomes were investigated.Results The patients underwent frontal craniotomy and free bone fragment removal, theirorbital roofs were reconstructed with titanium micromesh, and associated fractures wererepaired. The mean follow up period was 11 months. There were no postoperative neurologicsequelae. Postoperative computed tomography scans showed anatomically reconstructedorbital roofs. Two of the five patients with traumatic optic neuropathy achieved full visualacuity recovery, one patient showed decreased visual acuity, and the other two patientscompletely lost their vision due to traumatic optic neuropathy. Preoperative ophthalmicsymptoms, such as proptosis, diplopia, upper eyelid ptosis, and enophthalmos were corrected.Conclusions Early recognition and treatment of orbital roof fractures can reduce intracranialand ocular complications. A coronal flap with frontal craniotomy and orbital roofreconstruction using titanium mesh provides a versatile method and provides good functionaland cosmetic results.

  7. Phenomena accompanying gradient-B drift injection of energetic ions into Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of vertically asymmetric toroidal-field ripple, in order to permit the gradient B-drift injection and subsequent capture of energetic ions, results in a new radial diffusion of banana orbits. The nearly mono-kinetic velocity distribution of gradient B-drifting ions in the outer plasma region represents a large source of free energy; and the nonambipolar inward drift of these ions modifies the radial electric field

  8. Small asteroid fragments in earth-crossing orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duha, J.; Afonso, G. B.

    2014-10-01

    The meteorite that fell in Chelyabinsk, Russia, naturally made many people think it could be a smaller companion of the Asteroid 2012 DA14, which passed close to Earth on that same day. Some asteroid specialists discarded this hypothesis for two main reasons: The meteorite was too far away from the asteroid, because the collision happened sixteen hours before the asteroid passed close to Earth. Moreover, it was not traveling, similarly to asteroid DA14, from south to north. However the possibility of the meteorite being a companion of the Asteroid 2012 DA14 cannot be completely discarded. The Asteroid 2012 DA14, with a diameter of 45 meters, is very small. It can be considered an asteroids fragment, which is usually accompanied by other smaller fragments, scattered in space, practically in the same orbit and possibly being separated from each other by long distances. Assuming that 2012 DA14 is not an isolated asteroid, but the biggest remaining fragment from a previous impact, we developed a model to study the dynamics of an asteroid fragment, similar to DA14, and its companions, the smaller fragments. This dynamically interesting encounter with planet Earth is addressed and the orbital changes that could explain the Chelyabinsk event are discussed. As a result we find that, there could be a collision of a meteorite before, during, or after the Asteroid 2012 DA14 passing by, the same way that happens with meteorite showers, which can last several days. Therefore, it would be very interesting to look for asteroid fragments also, close to the larger fragments, more easily found.

  9. Orbital optical lattices with bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, T.; Hippler, C.; Ewerbeck, A.; Hemmerich, A.

    2016-02-01

    This article provides a synopsis of our recent experimental work exploring Bose-Einstein condensation in metastable higher Bloch bands of optical lattices. Bipartite lattice geometries have allowed us to implement appropriate band structures, which meet three basic requirements: the existence of metastable excited states sufficiently protected from collisional band relaxation, a mechanism to excite the atoms initially prepared in the lowest band with moderate entropy increase, and the possibility of cross-dimensional tunneling dynamics, necessary to establish coherence along all lattice axes. A variety of bands can be selectively populated and a subsequent thermalization process leads to the formation of a condensate in the lowest energy state of the chosen band. As examples the 2nd, 4th and 7th bands in a bipartite square lattice are discussed. The geometry of the 2nd and 7th bands can be tuned such that two inequivalent energetically degenerate energy minima arise at the X ±-points at the edge of the 1st Brillouin zone. In this case even a small interaction energy is sufficient to lock the phase between the two condensation points such that a complex-valued chiral superfluid order parameter can emerge, which breaks time reversal symmetry. In the 4th band a condensate can be formed at the Γ-point in the center of the 1st Brillouin zone, which can be used to explore topologically protected band touching points. The new techniques to access orbital degrees of freedom in higher bands greatly extend the class of many-body scenarios that can be explored with bosons in optical lattices.

  10. NONGRAVITATIONAL EFFECT ON ORBITAL MOTIONS OF COMETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yu; Zhou Hongnan

    2000-01-01

    Since the concept of Nongravitational Force (hereafter NF) was first proposed a century and a half ago, different models of it have been suggested and being modified. Its effect on the orbital motions of comets has been studied. Especially, some researchers have attempted to draw some inclues of the physical nature of the cometary nucleus from the NF parameters. In this paper, we try to give a concise review about the different models of NF and their effects on orbit computation. And then, we will try to detect whether there is nongravitational effect on Comet Hale-Bopp's orbital motion using Style II NF model.

  11. The orbital evolution of planets in disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kley, W

    2000-01-01

    The orbital parameters of the observed extrasolar planets differ strongly from those of our own solar system. The differences include planets with high masses, small semi-major axis and large eccentricities. We performed numerical computations of embedded planets in disks and follow their mass growth and orbital evolution over several thousand periods. We find that planets do migrate inwards on timescales of about $10^5$ years on nearly circular orbits, during which they may grow up to about 5 Jupiter masses. The interaction of the disk with several planets may halt the migration process and lead to a system similar to the solar planetary system.

  12. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  13. Mutual Orbits of Transneptunian Multibody Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, William

    2014-08-01

    We propose to use LGS AO with NIRC2 during stellar appulses to measure relative astrometry of the large sample of transneptunian binaries for which mutual orbits remain unknown. Our long-term goal is to determine as many of their orbits as possible. These orbits provide a crucial constraint on dynamical conditions in outer parts of the protoplanetary nebula, as well as subsequent outer solar system history. They provide system masses and thus bulk densities, as well as enabling constraint of tidal dissipation parameters, scheduling of mutual event seasons, and revealing possible unresolved n>2 systems.

  14. Squeezed potato orbits in a magnetic well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that potato orbits in the near-axis region of a high beta tokamak are squeezed in a magnetic well. The squeezing factor is the same as that for the banana orbits derived in an earlier work [Phys. Plasmas 3, 2843 (1996)]. It depends on the energy of the particle. For high-energy particles, the size of the squeezed orbits is independent of their energy. This implies improved confinement for high-energy particles and for high beta tokamaks with advanced fuels

  15. Recolliding orbits in an intense laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Kamor, Adam; Chandre, Cristel; UZer, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    We show that a family of key periodic orbits drive the recollision process in a strong circulary polarized laser field. These orbits, coined recolliding periodic orbits, exist for a wide range of parameters and their relative influence changes as the laser and atomic parameters are varied. We find the necessary conditions for recollision-driven nonsequential double ionization to occur. The outlined mechanism is universal in that it applies equally well beyond atoms: The internal structure of the target species plays a minor role in the recollision process.

  16. Evolution towards equilibration in orbiting interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the evolution towards mass equilibration in 24Mg+16O orbiting interactions. 24Mg beams of energies between 75 and 115 MeV were used to bombard targets of 16O. Targetlike particles were detected at forward angles to determine the yields from orbiting interactions. The ratio of the orbiting yields of 12C and 16O exit channels rises continuously with energy from values below unity to above. The data are interpreted as demonstrating a strong entrance channel dependence at low energies, and an evolution towards mass equilibration with increasing energy

  17. Adiabatic chaos in the spin orbit problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benettin, Giancarlo; Guzzo, Massimiliano; Marini, Valerio

    2008-05-01

    We provide evidences that the angular momentum of a symmetric rigid body in a spin orbit resonance can perform large scale chaotic motions on time scales which increase polynomially with the inverse of the oblateness of the body. This kind of irregular precession appears as soon as the orbit of the center of mass is non-circular and the angular momentum of the body is far from the principal directions with minimum (maximum) moment of inertia. We also provide a quantitative explanation of these facts by using the theory of adiabatic invariants, and we provide numerical applications to the cases of the 1:1 and 1:2 spin orbit resonances.

  18. The orbital evolution of binary galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R.; Junqueira, S.

    2001-02-01

    We present the results of self-consistent numerical simulations performed to study the orbital circularization of binary galaxies. We have generalized a previous model (Junqueira & de Freitas Pacheco 1994) and confirmed partially their results. The orbital evolution of pairs of galaxies is faster when we consider interacting pairs with contacting ``live'' galaxy halos but the circularization time remains larger than the Hubble time. Besides, the time behavior of the orbits has changed in comparison with previous work because of tidal forces and dynamical friction acting on the halos.

  19. Cycler orbit between Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Dennis V.; Longuski, James M.; Aldrin, Buzz

    1993-01-01

    A periodic orbit between Earth and Mars has been discovered that, after launch, permits a space vehicle to cycle back and forth between the planets with moderate maneuvers at irregular intervals. A Space Station placed in this cycler orbit could provide a safe haven from radiation and comfortable living quarters for astronauts en route to Earth or Mars. The orbit is largely maintained by gravity assist from Earth. Numerical results from multiconic optimization software are presented for a 15-year period from 1995 through 2010.

  20. Diffusive chaos in navigation satellites orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Daquin, J; Tsiganis, K

    2016-01-01

    The navigation satellite constellations in medium-Earth orbit exist in a background of third-body secular resonances stemming from the perturbing gravitational effects of the Moon and the Sun. The resulting chaotic motions, emanating from the overlapping of neighboring resonant harmonics, induce especially strong perturbations on the orbital eccentricity, which can be transported to large values, thereby increasing the collision risk to the constellations and possibly leading to a proliferation of space debris. We show here that this transport is of a diffusive nature and we present representative diffusion maps that are useful in obtaining a global comprehension of the dynamical structure of the navigation satellite orbits.

  1. Impact of Male Partner Antenatal Accompaniment on Perinatal Health Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Carolina; Jennings, Larissa

    2015-09-01

    Encouraging male partners to accompany women to antenatal care (ANC) is an important first step in engaging men on maternal and newborn health. However, little is known regarding the impact of male partner antenatal accompaniment beyond HIV-related perinatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence on the influence of male accompaniment on non-HIV outcomes during pregnancy and into the postpartum period. Eligible studies were published in English from 2003 to 2013 and evaluated the effect of male antenatal accompaniment on perinatal health in a developing country. Four electronic databases and selected reference lists were searched. Out of 84 potential citations retrieved, seven publications were retained for the assessment of male antenatal accompaniment's influence using iterative thematic analysis. During pregnancy, male antenatal accompaniment positively impacted women's knowledge of danger signs, but did not affect birth preparedness, ANC utilization, or miscarriages. During labor and delivery, men's ANC presence was associated with increases in institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance, but with no effect for birth-related outcomes. During the early postnatal period, male antenatal accompaniment was associated with higher uptake of postnatal services, but with mixed effects on breastfeeding and newborn survival. Couples' increased communication on pregnancy care and men's subsequent motivation to ensure safe delivery may explain these observed benefits. Inadequate communication, late accompaniment, or partner type may explain the lack of influence on some outcomes. More efforts are needed to expand the implementation and evaluation of male involvement strategies to improve perinatal health. PMID:25656727

  2. Personality Pathology of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder without Accompanying Intellectual Impairment in Comparison to Adults with Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Sandra; Westphal, Linda; Ritter, Kathrin; Heuser, Isabella; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) without accompanying intellectual impairment from personality disorders is often challenging. Identifying personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD might facilitate diagnostic procedure. We recruited a sample of 59 adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual impairment, 62…

  3. 78 FR 66357 - Proposed Changes to FCC Form 499-A, FCC Form 499-Q, and Accompanying Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Internet at http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/leaving.cgi?from=leavingFR.html&log=linklog&to=http... COMMISSION Proposed Changes to FCC Form 499-A, FCC Form 499-Q, and Accompanying Instructions AGENCY: Federal... annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet, FCC Form 499-A (Form 499-A) and accompanying...

  4. 77 FR 74010 - Proposed Changes to FCC Form 499-A, FCC Form 499-Q, and Accompanying Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Changes to FCC Form 499-A, FCC Form 499-Q, and Accompanying Instructions AGENCY: Federal... Worksheet, FCC Form 499-A (Form 499-A) and accompanying instructions (Form 499-A Instructions) to be used in 2013 to report 2012 revenues, and the quarterly Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet, FCC Form...

  5. Accompanying conditions in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and urticarial vasculitis: Results of a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Akarsu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU, the most common form of chronic urticaria, is characterized by spontaneous wheals and/or angioedema lasting longer than six weeks. Urticarial vasculitis (UV is a small vessel vasculitis; but is also included in the various classification systems of chronic urticaria by some authors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of accompanying conditions, and to compare the demographic, clinical and laboratory features of patients with CSU and UV. Materials and Methods: In this study, the files of CSU (n=146 and UV (n=43 patients who had been hospitalized between January 2010-December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed in terms of demographic data, disease-specific history, accompanying diseases, medications and laboratory findings. Results: When comparing between the two groups for statistical differences, it was found that the frequencies of personal atopy and angioedema were significantly higher in patients with CSU; however, the patients with UV had significantly higher rates for female gender and the presence of systemic symptoms compared to those with CSU. It was determined that the mean values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, as well as the rates of antinuclear antibody positivity and hypocomplementemia were significantly higher in the UV group, compared with those in the CSU group. Accompanying factors were determined as infections, medications, autoimmune diseases and malignities in order of frequency in both CSU and UV groups, but only the frequency of autoimmune diseases was significantly higher in patients with UV group. Conclusion: Although various authors have reported that a large number (up to 40-60% of patients with UV may present only with wheals (clinically indistinguishable from CSU; we assumed that it would be more appropriate to be considered UV as a priority in patients especially who had systemic symptom, autoimmune disease

  6. Learning to sing with the accompaniment of the gusle in Serbia in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić-Mihajlović Danka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, learning to sing with the accompaniment of the gusle is reconsidered within the concept of the preservation of traditional folk music as an intangible cultural heritage, that is, as a specific form of music education. Having dealt with a traditional way of providing continuity in the practice of guslars` (i. e. gusle players - which is learning by observing and imitating more experienced family members or guslars from nearby surrounding - some crucial moments in the history of singing with the accompaniment of the gusle, which also influenced the process of transmitting this skill, are demonstrated. In recent times, singing with the accompaniment of the gusle has been mastered not only within family circles but also in associations of guslars, at private schools of music, and lately there has also been an opportunity to learn this skill at some state schools of music. Accordingly, interviews with the members of an Association of guslars association that is particularly distinguished by the fostering young guslars, and interviews with gusle teachers and pupils who attend schools of music were used as primary sources for this paper, together with the specific experience of the author as a president of the jury in a young guslars’ competition. Since the poetic content of the songs is primarily learnt from printed collections or audio recordings, future guslars in fact master the musical skills of playing and singing along the instrument, that is, the skill of the vocal interpretation of a chosen written poetic text. Concerning these, some programmes and methods are discussed, as well as their effects on young guslars’ competence, principally from the point of style and aesthetics. Attention is particularly drawn to flaws in the teaching concept of future gusle players at state schools of music. In conclusion, the necessity of applying ethnomusicological findings to activities concerning the preservation of an intangible cultural

  7. A typical case of hydrallantois accompanied by fetal monstrosity in a local ewe of Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Kumar Bhattacharyya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A full termed local ewe with the history of continuous straining with labored breathing for last 24 hours was presented. The animal was disinclined to move with tense and round abdomen which developed rapidly during last two weeks. Caesarean section revealed hydrallantois accompanied by multiple fetal congenital abnormalities. The ewe was under observation for four weeks. Metritis developed 12 days post-operation and was treated successfully. The ewe was found active on 25 days post-surgery with gain of extra 3 kg bodyweight.

  8. Solutions manual to accompany An introduction to numerical methods and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Epperson, James F

    2014-01-01

    A solutions manual to accompany An Introduction to Numerical Methods and Analysis, Second Edition An Introduction to Numerical Methods and Analysis, Second Edition reflects the latest trends in the field, includes new material and revised exercises, and offers a unique emphasis on applications. The author clearly explains how to both construct and evaluate approximations for accuracy and performance, which are key skills in a variety of fields. A wide range of higher-level methods and solutions, including new topics such as the roots of polynomials, sp

  9. Mice lacking desmocollin 1 show epidermal fragility accompanied by barrier defects and abnormal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidgey, M; Brakebusch, C; Gustafsson, E;

    2001-01-01

    epidermis because environmental insults are more stringent and wound healing is less rapid than in neonatal mice. This dermatitis is accompanied by localized hair loss associated with formation of utriculi and dermal cysts, denoting hair follicle degeneration. Possible resemblance of the lesions to human......The desmosomal cadherin desmocollin (Dsc)1 is expressed in upper epidermis where strong adhesion is required. To investigate its role in vivo, we have genetically engineered mice with a targeted disruption in the Dsc1 gene. Soon after birth, null mice exhibit flaky skin and a striking punctate...

  10. Solutions manual to accompany Statistics and probability with applications for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Bhisham C

    2013-01-01

    A solutions manual to accompany Statistics and Probability with Applications for Engineers and ScientistsUnique among books of this kind, Statistics and Probability with Applications for Engineers and Scientists covers descriptive statistics first, then goes on to discuss the fundamentals of probability theory. Along with case studies, examples, and real-world data sets, the book incorporates clear instructions on how to use the statistical packages Minitab® and Microsoft® Office Excel® to analyze various data sets. The book also features: Detailed discussions on sampling distributions, stati

  11. Reverse U-shaped horseshoe kidney accompanied by gibbus deformity and spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Erol; Demir, Mahmut; Konukoglu, Osman; Karakas, Ekrem

    2016-06-01

    Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is the most common fusion anomaly of kidneys. Diagnosis of horseshoe kidneys is made by the demonstration of an isthmus or band of renal tissue between the lower poles of the kidneys. Connection between the upper poles of the kidneys is extremely rare. Several types of skeletal anomalies can be seen concomitantly with HSK. In our present case, where the patient was a 3-year-old male, the connection of renal tissue was located between the upper poles of the kidneys. Furthermore, there was an accompanying spina bifida and Gibbus deformity secondary to anterior hypoplasia of the T10 vertebral body. PMID:27114084

  12. Neuroendocrine-immune and metabolic accompaniments of cholecystokinetic effects of balneotherapy on SPA Truskavets’

    OpenAIRE

    Marfiyan, O M; Korolyshyn, T A; Barylyak, L G; Kovbasnyuk, M M; Yavors’kyi, O V; Zukow, W; Popovych, I L

    2015-01-01

    Marfiyan O M, Korolyshyn T A, Barylyak L G, Kovbasnyuk M M, Yavors’kyi O V, Zukow W, Popovych I L. Neuroendocrine-immune and metabolic accompaniments of cholecystokinetic effects of balneotherapy on SPA Truskavets’. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(5):21-30. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.17307 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%285%29%3A21-30 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/556532 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.17307 For...

  13. Influence of Accompanying Anions on Potassium Retention and Leaching in Potato Growing Alluvial Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.SHARMA; K.N.SHARMA

    2013-01-01

    A column study was carried out to assess the influence of accompanying anions on potassium (K) leaching at potato growing sites with different soil textures (sandy loam and clay loam) in northwestern India.Potassium was applied in the top 15 cm layer of soil column at 30 and 60 mg K kg-1 through different sources having different accompanying anions (Cl-,SO42-,NO3-and H2PO4-).Maximum K was retained in the top 0-15 cm layer with a sharp decrease in K content occurring in 15-30 cm layer of the soil column.The trend was similar for both levels of applied K as well as frequency of leaching and soil type.The decrease of K content in soil column after four leaching events was maximum in case of Khanaura sandy loam,while only minor decrease was observed in Hundowal clay loam when K was applied at 60 mg K kg-1,indicating higher potential of clay rich soil to adsorb K.In general,the K leaching in presence of the accompanying anions followed the order of SO42-≤ H2PO42-< NO3-=Cl-.Highest 1 mol L-1 CH3COONH4-extractable K was retained when K was applied along with SO42-and H2PO4-anions,and the least was retained when accompanying anion was Cl-.The influence of anions was more pronounced in the light textured soil and at high amounts of K application.Higher levels of K application resulted in higher losses of K,especially in sandy loam soil as observed from the leachate concentration.Among the different K sources,the maximum amount of K leaching was noticed in the soil column amended with KCl.After four leachings,the maximum amount of K leached out was 6.40 mg L-1 in Hundowal clay loam and 9.29 mg L-1 in Khanaura sandy loam at 60 mg K kg-1 of soil application through KCl.These concentrations were lower than the recommended guideline of the World Health Organisation (12.00 mg L-1).

  14. Solutions manual to accompany Combinatorial reasoning an introduction to the art of counting

    CERN Document Server

    DeTemple, Duane

    2014-01-01

    This is a solutions manual to accompany Combinatorial Reasoning: An Introduction to the Art of CountingWritten by well-known scholars in the field, Combinatorial Reasoning: An Introduction to the Art of Counting introduces combinatorics alongside modern techniques, showcases the interdisciplinary aspects of the topic, and illustrates how to problem solve with a multitude of exercises throughout. The authors'' approach is very reader-friendly and avoids the ""scholarly tone"" found in many books on this topic.  

  15. Solutions manual to accompany Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W

    2014-01-01

    Solutions Manual to accompany Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective Written by well-known mathematical problem solvers, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective features up-to-date and applicable coverage of the wide spectrum of geometry and aids readers in learning the art of logical reasoning, modeling, and proof. With its reader-friendly approach, this undergraduate text features self-contained topical coverage and provides a large selection of solved exercises to aid in reader comprehension. Material in this text can be tailored for a one-, two-, or three-semester sequence.

  16. A Simple Huckel Molecular Orbital Plotter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan

    2013-01-01

    A program is described and presented to readily plot the molecular orbitals from a Huckel calculation. The main features of the program and the scope of its applicability are discussed through some example organic molecules. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. A new small satellite goes into orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On 5 November, 2008,a rocket launched the Chuangxin-1(02), a small satellite built by the Shanghai Engineering Center for MicroSatellite under the CAS Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, into its preset orbit.

  18. Counting Closed Orbits for the Dyck Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alsharari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prime orbit theorem and Mertens’ theorem are proved for a shift dynamical system of infinite type called the Dyck shift. Different and more direct methods are used in the proof without any complicated theoretical discussion.

  19. Prediction of tissue decompression in orbital surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Luboz, V; Ambard, D; Boutault, F; Payan, Y; Swider, P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: A method to predict the relationships between decompressed volume of orbital soft tissues, backward displacement of globe after osteotomy, and force exerted by the surgeon, was proposed to improve surgery planning in exophthalmia reduction. Design: A geometric model and a poroelastic finite element model were developed, based on Computed Tomography scan data. Background: The exophthalmia is characterised by a protrusion of the eyeball. Surgery consists in an osteotomy of the orbit walls to decompress the orbital content. A few clinical observations ruling on an almost linear relationship between globe backward displacement and tissue decompressed volume are described in the literature. Methods: Fast prediction of decompressed volume is derived from the geometric model: a sphere in interaction with a cone. Besides, a poroelastic Finite Element model involving morphology, material properties of orbital components and surgical gesture was implemented. Results: The geometric model provided a better dec...

  20. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  1. Jumping Jupiter can explain Mercury's orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Roig, Fernando; DeSouza, Sandro Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The orbit of Mercury has large values of eccentricity and inclination that cannot be easily explained if this planet formed on a circular and coplanar orbit. Here, we study the evolution of Mercury's orbit during the instability related to the migration of the giant planets in the framework of the jumping Jupiter model. We found that some instability models are able to produce the correct values of Mercury's eccentricity and inclination, provided that relativistic effects are included in the precession of Mercury's perihelion. The orbital excitation is driven by the fast change of the normal oscillation modes of the system corresponding to the perihelion precession of Jupiter (for the eccentricity), and the nodal regression of Uranus (for the inclination).

  2. Spontaneously reduced isolated orbital roof fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itinteang, Tinte; Lambe, Gerald Francis; MacKinnon, Craig; Agir, Hakan

    2012-07-01

    We report a case of a spontaneously reduced isolated orbital roof blow-in fracture with resolution of associated diplopia and blepharoptosis highlighting the need for a low threshold for reimaging this cohort of facial fracture patients. PMID:22801127

  3. Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    2015-01-01

    Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  4. Objects orbiting the Earth in deep resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Sampaio, J C; de Moraes, R Vilhena; Fernandes, S S

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of objects orbiting the Earth justifies the great attention and interest in the observation, spacecraft protection and collision avoidance. These studies involve different disturbances and resonances in the orbital motions of these objects distributed by the distinct altitudes. In this work, the TLE (Two-Line Elements) of the NORAD are studied observing the resonant period of the objects orbiting the Earth and the main resonance in the LEO region. The time behavior of the semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination of some space debris are studied. Possible irregular motions are observed by the frequency analysis and by the presence of different resonant angles describing the orbital dynamics of these objects.

  5. Orbit of an image under iterated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. L.; Mishra, S. N.; Jain, Sarika

    2011-03-01

    An orbital picture depicts the path of an object under semi-group of transformations. The concept initially given by Barnsley [3] has utmost importance in image compression, biological modeling and other areas of fractal geometry. In this paper, we introduce superior iterations to study the role of linear and nonlinear transformations on the orbit of an object. Various characteristics of the computed figures have been discussed to indicate the usefulness of study in mathematical analysis. Modified algorithms are given to compute the orbital picture and V-variable orbital picture. An algorithm to calculate the distance between images makes the study motivating. A brief discussion about the proof of the Cauchy sequence of images is also given.

  6. Graph-based Methods for Orbit Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagherjeiran, A; Kamath, C

    2005-09-29

    An important step in the quest for low-cost fusion power is the ability to perform and analyze experiments in prototype fusion reactors. One of the tasks in the analysis of experimental data is the classification of orbits in Poincare plots. These plots are generated by the particles in a fusion reactor as they move within the toroidal device. In this paper, we describe the use of graph-based methods to extract features from orbits. These features are then used to classify the orbits into several categories. Our results show that existing machine learning algorithms are successful in classifying orbits with few points, a situation which can arise in data from experiments.

  7. ORION: A Supersynchronous Transfer Orbit mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, I. M.; Baker, J. F.; Shurmer, I. M.

    1995-05-01

    ORION F1 was launched on 29th November 1994 on an Atlas IIA launch vehicle. It was designed, built and delivered in-orbit by Matra Marconi Space Systems Plc and was handed over to ORION Satellite Corporation on 20th January 1995 at its on-station longitude of 37.5 deg W. The mission differed significantly from that of any other geostationary communications satellite in that the Transfer Orbit apogee altitude of 123,507 km was over three times geosynchronous (GEO) altitude and one third of the way to the moon. The SuperSynchronous Transfer Orbit (SSTO) mission is significantly different from the standard Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO)mission in a number of ways. This paper discusses the essential features of the mission design through its evolution since 1987 and the details of the highly successful mission itself including a detailed account of the attitude determination achieved using the Galileo Earth and Sun Sensor (ESS).

  8. Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  9. NASA Orbital Debris Requirements and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Limitation of orbital debris accumulation is an international and national concern, reflectedin NASA debris limitation requirements. These requirements will be reviewed, along with some practices that can be employed to achieve the requirements.

  10. Cephalic Tetanus from Penetrating Orbital Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloïse Guyennet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a neurologic disorder caused by tetanospasmin, a protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of the disease causing trismus and dysfunction of cranial nerves. We report the case of a man who presented with facial trauma, complete ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, areactive mydriasis, and periorbital hematoma. An orbital CT revealed air bubbles in the right orbital apex. The patient was given a tetanus toxoid booster and antibiotherapy. After extraction of a wooden foreign body, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy, disorders of swallowing, contralateral III cranial nerve palsy, and trismus. Only one case of cephalic tetanus from penetrating orbital wound has been reported in literature 20 years ago. When a patient presents with an orbital wound with ophthalmoplegia and signs of anaerobic infection, cephalic tetanus should be ruled out.

  11. Orbital debris : cost impact on setting policy

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfner, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Systems Technology (Space Systems Operations As the exploration of space increases, the problems associated with orbital debris also increase. 0rbital debris continues to grow at a linear rate with an ever increasing possibility of a shift to an exponential rate. If this point is achieved, space travel will, at best, be extremely hazardous and at worst, unusable. When mitigating orbital debris, cost and policy issues must be addressed. Currently no policy exists that makes the mitigation o...

  12. Abnormal foreign body in the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Ramkumar

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of unusual intra orbital foreign body (split piece of bamboo stick entering the orbit through the medial canthus involving the caruncle and plica but otherwise sparing the anterior segment of the eye, but producing vitreous haemorrhages and oedema of the disc is reported The foreign body was removed and there was no diplopia or limitation of movement and vision improved to 6/24 without glasses.

  13. Infantile Maxillary Sinus Osteomyelitis Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan Krishnan; Nathan Ramamoorthy; Suresh Panchanathan; Balasundaram, Jothiramalingam S

    2014-01-01

    Periorbital soft tissue swelling may result due to primary orbital pathology or from adjacent facio-maxillary or sino-nasal inflammatory causes. Osteomyelitis of maxilla in the pediatric age group is a rare entity in this era of antibiotics. We present an 11-month-old female infant who was brought with peri-orbital selling and purulent nasal discharge. Computed Tomography showed erosions of the walls of maxillary sinus suggestive of osteomyelitis. Culture of sinus scraping showed Staphylococc...

  14. Orbital dermoid and epidermoid cysts: Case study

    OpenAIRE

    Veselinović Dragan; Krasić Dragan; Stefanović Ivan; Veselinović Aleksandar; Radovanović Zoran; Kostić Aleksandar; Cvetanović Marija

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the orbit belong to choristomas, tumours that originate from the aberrant primordial tissue. Clinically, they manifest as cystic movable formations mostly localized in the upper temporal quadrant of the orbit. They are described as both superficial and deep formations with most frequently slow intermittent growth. Apart from aesthetic effects, during their growth, dermoid and epidermoid cysts can cause disturbances in the eye motility, and i...

  15. Third-generation muffin–tin orbitals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O K Andersen; T Saha-Dasgupta; S Ezhov

    2003-01-01

    By the example of $sp^3$-bonded semiconductors, we illustrate what 3rd-generation muffin–tin orbitals (MTOs) are. We demonstrate that they can be downfolded to smaller and smaller basis sets: $sp^3d^{10}, sp^3$, and bond orbitals. For isolated bands, it is possible to generate Wannier functions a priori. Also for bands, which overlap other bands, Wannier-like MTOs can be generated a priori. Hence, MTOs have a unique capability for providing chemical understanding.

  16. How periodic orbit bifurcations drive multiphoton ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, S.; Chandre, C; Uzer, T.

    2006-01-01

    The multiphoton ionization of hydrogen by a strong bichromatic microwave field is a complex process prototypical for atomic control research. Periodic orbit analysis captures this complexity: Through the stability of periodic orbits we can match qualitatively the variation of experimental ionization rates with a control parameter, the relative phase between the two modes of the field. Moreover, an empirical formula reproduces quantum simulations to a high degree of accuracy. This quantitative...

  17. Orbital angular momentum in the nucleons

    OpenAIRE

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, it has been realized that the orbital angular momentum of partons inside the nucleon plays a major role. It contributes significantly to nucleon properties and is at the origin of many asymmetries observed in spin physics. It is therefore of paramount importance to determine this quantity if we want to understand the nucleon internal structure and experimental observables. This triggered numerous discussions and controversies about the proper definition of orbital angular ...

  18. Orbital angular momentum is dependent on polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chun-Fang

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the momentum density of free electromagnetic field splits into two parts. One has no contribution to the net momentum due to the transversality condition. The other yields all the momentum. The angular momentum that originates from the former part is spin, and the angular momentum that originates from the latter part is orbital angular momentum. Expressions for the spin and orbital angular momentum are given in terms of the electric vector in reciprocal space. The spin and or...

  19. Orbital angular momentum of partially coherent beams

    OpenAIRE

    Serna Galán, Julio; Movilla Serrano, Jesús María

    2001-01-01

    The definition of the orbital angular momentum established for coherent beams is extended to partially coherent beams, expressed in terms of two elements of the beam matrix. This extension is justified by use of the Mercer expansion of partially coherent fields. General Gauss-Schell-model fields are considered, and the relation between the twist; parameter and the orbital angular momentum is analyzed. © 2001 Optical Society of America.

  20. Pretzelosity TMD and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Lorce, Cédric; Pasquini, B.

    2015-01-01

    We study the connection between the quark orbital angular momentum and the pretzelosity transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution function. We discuss the origin of this relation in quark models, identifying as key ingredient for its validity the assumption of spherical symmetry for the nucleon in its rest frame. Finally we show that the individual quark contributions to the orbital angular momentum obtained from this relation can not be interpreted as the intrinsic contributions, but...