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Sample records for accompanying orbital grease

  1. NEW RADIATION RESISTANT GREASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DasGupta, Sharda; Slobodian, J.T.

    1962-11-20

    New radiation resistant greases were prepared from commercially available greases by carrying out radioinduced reactions with styrene. The radiation tolerances of the products were 250-1000 fold more than the starting materials and any product of similar properties now available. The various properties of the new products initially and after exposure to large radiation doses were in no case inferior to the original greases and in some respects improvements were observed. Radiation tolerance of commercial greases could be enhanced by the addition of polystyrene to form a physical mixture rather than copolymers. The reaction mechanisms involved at all stages were studied using infrared spectroscopic techniques. (P.C.H.)

  2. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  3. Sterile subperiosteal fluid collections accompanying orbital wall infarction in sickle-cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckfeldt, Rachel M; Shah, Ankoor S

    2014-10-01

    Infarction of the orbital wall is an uncommon manifestation of sickle cell disease (SCD) that may mimic an infectious process. We report a patient with two separate orbital infarctions with different presenting symptoms involving different bones. Radiologic-guided sampling of a periosteal fluid collection in the first episode showed likely sterile inflammatory exudates. This case highlights the range of findings in orbital wall infarction in SCD as well as helpful clinical and imaging entities that may differentiate infarction from infection, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate management. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Urban Waste Grease Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1999-03-17

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban waste grease resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Two major categories (yellow grease feedstock collected from restaurants by rendering companies; and grease trap wastes from restaurants, which can either be pumped into tank trucks for disposal or flow through municipal sewage systems into wastewater treatment plants) were considered in this study.

  5. Suburban queer: reading Grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgstrom, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how nontraditional representations of gender can complicate received social norms, and it examines, in particular, how pre-adolescent suburban youth reconfigure social codes within popular film in order to identify positive queer aesthetics. While several studies have documented the function of classic and mainstream film in the tradition of queer reading, there has been comparatively less analysis devoted to the ways that filmic representations themselves might contribute to theoretical debates regarding sexual identity. As a case in point, this essay analyzes the 1978 musical Grease in order to suggest ways that critics might navigate between strict social constructionist and essentialist theories of sexual identity in order to identify avenues for queer identification within non-queer contexts.

  6. Early Stage Graves' Disease is Uniformly Accompanied by Orbital Immune Activity even in Patients who Fail to Develop Orbithopathy during Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Eszter; Bodor, Miklós; Galuska, László; Paragh, György; Erdei, Annamária; Gazdag, Annamária; Ujhelyi, Bernadett; Berényi, Ervin; Katkó, Mónika; Gazsó, Andrea; Nagy, Endre V

    2018-01-31

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is a complication of Graves' disease (GD), the development of which cannot be predicted at the time of diagnosis of GD. Our aims were (i) to test if orbital 99m Tc-labelled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid single-photon emission computer tomography (DTPA SPECT) can predict development of GO later during the course of the disease and (ii) to study whether orbital immune activity can be detected in GD patients who do not develop GO during follow-up. Fifty-four orbits of 27 patients with newly diagnosed GD were entered into the case-control study. Individuals showing signs of GO at enrolment were excluded. During the two-year follow-up, eye signs were recorded every 3 months. Orbital DTPA uptakes on SPECT images were measured when entering the study and at the end of the follow-up period, or when clinical signs of GO developed, whichever occurred first. During the follow-up, 6 patients (22%) were diagnosed with GO. There was no significant difference between the initial DTPA uptakes of the patients with or without later developing GO (10.45±1.72 MBq/cm 3 vs. 9.18±1.18 MBq/cm 3 respectively). However, the DTPA uptakes of both GD groups (ie. with and without GO) were higher than that of the control group (7.45±1.36 MBq/cm 3 , p<0.05). We have shown that GD is accompanied by moderate orbital immune activity in GD patients without GO, irrespective of later development of GO. Why this orbital autoimmunity remains subclinical in the majority of the cases, and progresses into clinically detectable GO in others, remains unclear. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Effects of Hydrocarbon-Based Grease on Rapid Prototype Material Used for Grease Retention Shrouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Valco, Daniel J.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon-based greases on specific rapid prototype (RP) materials used to fabricate grease retention shrouds (GRS) were explored in this study. Grease retention shrouds are being considered as a way to maintain adequate grease lubrication at the gear mesh in a prototype research transmission system. Due to their design and manufacturing flexibility, rapid prototype materials were chosen for the grease retention shrouds. In order to gain a better understanding of the short and long term effects grease pose on RP materials, research was conducted on the interaction of hydrocarbon-based grease with RP materials. The materials used in this study were durable polyamide (nylon), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and WaterClear 10120. Testing was conducted using Mobilgrease 28 and Syn-Tech 3913G grease (gear coupling grease). These greases were selected due to their regular use with mechanical components. To investigate the effect that grease has on RP materials, the following methods were used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), interference profilometer measurements, digital camera imaging, physical shape measurement, and visual observations. To record the changes in the RP materials due to contact with the grease, data was taken before and after the grease application. Results showed that the WaterClear 10120 RP material provided the best resistance to grease penetration as compared to nylon and ABS RP materials. The manufacturing process, and thus resulting surface conditions of the RP material, played a key role in the grease penetration properties and resilience of these materials.

  8. 7 CFR 2902.31 - Greases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applies are: (i) Food grade greases. Lubricants that are designed for use on food-processing equipment as... parts and equipment in locations in which there is exposure of the lubricated part to food. (ii... are designed for use on railroad tracks or heavy crane tracks. (iv) Truck greases. Lubricants that are...

  9. Field Demonstration for Biodegradable Military Multipurpose Grease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhee, In-Sik

    2001-01-01

    Soils and ground water at many military facilities throughout the United States have been contaminated with petroleum based products, such as engine oils, greases, hydraulic fluids, and fuels, often...

  10. Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang

    2008-01-01

    This is the first book of the satellite era which describes orbit theory with analytical solutions of the second order with respect to all possible disturbances. Based on such theory, the algorithms of orbits determination are completely revolutionized.

  11. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, Gregory [DuPont; Wong, Arnold [DuPont; Meth, Jeffery [DuPont

    2018-02-12

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees C to 125 degrees C. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  12. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, Gregory S. [DuPont Experimental Station; Wong, Arnold [DuPont Experimental Station; Meth, Jeffery S. [DuPont Experimental Station

    2017-07-27

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees Celcius to 125 degrees Celcius. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  13. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, G. S. [DuPont Experimental Station; Wong, A. [DuPont Experimental Station; Meth, J. S. [DuPont Experimental Station

    2017-08-03

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees Celcius to 125 degrees Celcius. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  14. Orbital

    OpenAIRE

    Yourshaw, Matthew Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Orbital is a virtual reality gaming experience designed to explore the use of traditional narrative structure to enhance immersion in virtual reality. The story structure of Orbital was developed based on the developmental steps of 'The Hero's Journey,' a narrative pattern identified by Joseph Campbell. Using this standard narrative pattern, Orbital is capable of immersing the player quickly and completely for the entirety of play time. MFA

  15. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  16. 7 CFR 2902.24 - Graffiti and grease removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Graffiti and grease removers. 2902.24 Section 2902.24... Items § 2902.24 Graffiti and grease removers. (a) Definition. Industrial solvent products formulated to..., in accordance with this part, will give a procurement preference for qualifying graffiti and grease...

  17. Occupational contact dermatitis from a grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedman, Cecilia; Isaksson, Marléne; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2004-03-01

    Contact allergy to grease is rare and often not even suspected. We investigated such a case in which the detected allergen was the stabilizer in the grease, which is rarely found as an allergen. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used in a novel way and helped detect the allergen. Patch testing with our standard series, a metal-working series, the different substances individually, the grease in serial dilution and extracts of personal objects, the TLC plate. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was also used. Test results indicated contact allergy to grease containing N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine and contact allergy to Disperse Orange 1, N-cyclohexyl-N'-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, and N,N'-diphenyl-4-phenylenediamine. N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine was the main cause of the patient's dermatitis. This case report underlines the importance of testing the patient's own products and also underlines the benefit of using TLC strips for patch testing and of visiting the workplace to get correct information about exposure conditions.

  18. Orbital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert M.

    2003-06-01

    ORBITAL requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime Plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL).

  19. Inflation and unemployment revisited: Grease vs. sand

    OpenAIRE

    Erica L. Groshen; Schweitzer, Mark E

    1998-01-01

    As inflation rates in the United States decline, analysts are asking if there are economic reasons to hold the rates at levels above zero. Previous studies of whether inflation "greases the wheels" of the labor market ignore inflation's potential for disrupting wage patterns in the same market. This paper outlines an institutionally-based model of wage-setting that allows the benefits of inflation (downward wage flexibility) to be separated from disruptive uncertainty about inflation rate (un...

  20. Probe and Sensors Development for Level Measurement of Fats, Oils and Grease in Grease Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Faria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread of food outlets has become an environmental and sanitation infrastructure problem, due to Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG. A grease box is used at the industrials facilities to collect the FOG, in a specific time window, while its quality is good for recycling (e.g., biodiesel and it is economically valuable. After this period, it will be disposed at a cost. For the proper management of the grease boxes, it is necessary to know the quantity of FOG inside the boxes, which is a major problem, as the boxes are sealed and permanently filled with water. The lack of homogeneity of the FOG renders it not detectable by current probes for level detection in liquids. In this article, the design, development and testing of a set of probes for FOG level measurement, based on the principles used in sensors for the detection of liquids inside containers, is described. The most suitable probe, based on the capacitance principle, together with the necessary hardware and software modules for data acquisition and transmission, was developed and tested. After the development phase, the probe was integrated on a metropolitan system for FOG collection and grease box management in partnership with a grease box management company.

  1. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  2. Third cranial nerve palsy (ptosis, diplopia accompanied by orbital swelling: case report of unusual clinical presentation of giant cell arteritis associated with polymyalgia rheumatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prassede Bravi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionGiant cell arteritis (GCA is the most common systemic vasculitis in older individuals, characterized by granulomatosus inflammation of the wall of large and medium-sized arteries. The wide spectrum of arterial sites involved leads to ischemia of different organs resulting in a wide range of clinical signs and symptoms. Temporal artery is commonly involved (temporal arteritis. Unusual patterns of presentation, such as extraocular motility disorders and orbital swelling, may be early and transient manifestations of GCA and precede the permanent visual loss due to ischemic optic neuropathy.Case reportWe describe a patient with uncommon manifestations of GCA consisting of transient recurrent diplopia, ptosis, orbital swelling together with more typical clinical features of the disease such as musculoskeletal manifestations (polymyalgia rheumatica and facial pain: all signs and symptoms promptly resolved under corticosteroid therapy without relapse.Conclusions A high level of suspicion of GCA in individuals over the age of 50 years is needed to prevent the development of severe complications. Clinicians should be aware of uncommon manifestations of the disease such as head–neck swelling and ophthalmoplegia: management guidelines have stated that prompt administration of adequate dose of corticosteroids as soon as ocular manifestations of GCA are noted may almost totally prevent blindness.

  3. Bacillus anthracis spore decontamination in food grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, Kingsley K; Santiago-Mateo, Kristina; Shields, Michael J; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain spores were analyzed for their resistance against five disinfectants: commercial sodium hypochlorite, Spor-Klenz Ready-to-Use Cold Sterilant, accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP), Virkon, and surface decontamination foam (SDF). The aim of this study was to find an effective disinfectant that would reduce the viability of B. anthracis Sterne spores at ≥6 log in the presence of variables such as animal grease and fat, stainless steel, and temperature (room temperature and 4 °C). SDF and 10% sodium hypochlorite consistently reduced the growth of viable B. anthracis Sterne spores after 5 min in the presence of stainless steel at room temperature. It took at least 10 min of contact time for AHP to consistently reduce spore growth by ≥6 log, while it took at least 20 min for 5% bleach and Spor-Klenz to consistently inactivate ≥6 log spores in the presence of stainless steel at room temperature. AHP was the only disinfectant that reduced the viability of B. anthracis Sterne spores at ≥6 log in the presence of stainless steel and animal grease, both at room temperature and 4 °C after 24 h of contact time.

  4. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites, rheological modifier for paints, inks and greases, drug delivery vehicle ... perties of polymers, paints, inks and greases to a great extent by dispersing 1nm thick layered silicate ..... morillonite nanoparticles and (b) rate of desorption of buformin from the buformin hydrochloride and.

  5. Greased Lightning (GL-10) Flight Testing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, William J.; McSwain, Robert G.; Beaton, Brian F.; Klassman, David W.; Theodore, Colin R.

    2017-01-01

    Greased Lightning (GL-10) is an aircraft configuration that combines the characteristics of a cruise efficient airplane with the ability to perform vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL). This aircraft has been designed, fabricated and flight tested at the small unmanned aerial system (UAS) scale. This technical memorandum will document the procedures and findings of the flight test experiments. The GL-10 design utilized two key technologies to enable this unique aircraft design; namely, distributed electric propulsion (DEP) and inexpensive closed loop controllers. These technologies enabled the flight of this inherently unstable aircraft. Overall it has been determined thru flight test that a design that leverages these new technologies can yield a useful VTOL cruise efficient aircraft.

  6. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  7. Benzoxazole and Benzothiazole Antirust Greases. Work Unit Directive (WUD) 51

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christian, John

    1980-01-01

    ...) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thickeners. Testing has shown that one percent concentrations of the additives in the grease formulations provide inhibition against rusting of ferrous metal components under conditions of high humidity...

  8. Future greases in the future; Schmierfettkonzepte fuer die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minis, Karl-Josef [FUCHS EUROPE SCHMIERSTOFFE GMBH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The ongoing discussions concerning the reduced consumption of fossil fuels and subsequent reduction of carbon dioxide emissions finally reached the lubricating manufacturers who are now forced to raise the efficiency of industrial and automotive components. This presentation will show how lubricating manufacturers achieve higher efficiency with longterm available raw material. Besides optimizing the tribological system the lubricating manufacturer is challenged by the shortage, or even loss of existing raw materials. Furthermore, the selection of raw materials is limited by new legistations like, i.e. REACH, the European Directive on End-of-Life Vehicles, GHS (Global Health and Safety), etc. Examples with vehicle components will show how modern greases meet these new requirements. Focus will be set on dramatically higher needs, caused by increasing drive train's electrification, although car manufacturers have not yet decided on which systems they are actually going to bring on the market. However, it has already become obvious that requirements for greases concerning noise behaviour, comfort, pressure, acceleration and friction reduction become more and more important. The situation of the greases' key raw materials will be described the lubricating manufacturer is going to meet this situation. Besides the development of new greases the possibility of reactivating ''forgotten'' and formerly used greases will be examined. Here, focus must be set on appropriate thickener types. Due to the dramatic raw material situation and future increasing demands lubricating greases become more and more a basic machine element to fulfil complex requirements. (orig.)

  9. Removing Fats, Oils and Greases from Grease Trap by Hybrid AOPs (Ozonation and Sonication)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Michal Piotr; Satoh, Saburoh; Yamabe, Chobei; Ihara, Satoshi; Nieda, Masanori

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrical energy for the environmental applications using AOPs (advanced oxidation processes) combined with ozonation and sonication to remove the FOG (fats, oils and greases) from wastewater of the sewage system. This study focused on FOG removal from a grease trap using the hybrid AOPs. Fatty acids (linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids) were used as representative standards of FOG. The studies were conducted experimentally in a glass reactor under various operational conditions. The oxidation efficiency using the combination of the ozonation and sonication was determined by the KI dosimetry method and the calorimetry method. Fatty acids concentration were measured by GC/MS. The local reaction field of the high temperature and high pressure, so-called hot spot, was generated by the quasi-adiabatic collapse of bubbles produced in the water under sonication, which is called cavitation phenomenon. Mixing the ozone bubbles into the water under acoustic cavitation, the formation of OH radicals increased. The mechanical effect of acoustic cavitation such as microstreaming and shock waves have an influence on the probability of reactions of ozone and radicals with fatty acids.

  10. San Francisco Biofuel Program: Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolis, Domènec [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Martis, Mary [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jones, Bonnie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Miot, Alex [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ving, Karri [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sierra, Natalie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Niobi, Morayo [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas.

  11. Research on a lubricating grease print process for cylindrical cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, XianYan; Tan, XiaoYan

    2017-09-01

    In vehicle braking system and clutch system of transmission, there is always a kind of cylindrical component dose reciprocating motion. The main working method is the reciprocating motion between the rubber sealing parts and cylindrical parts, the main factor affects the service life of the product is the lubricating performance of the moving parts. So the lubricating performance between cylinders and rubber sealing rings is particularly important, same as the quality of the grease applies on the surface of the surface of cylinder. Traditional method of manually applying grease has some defects such as applying unevenly, applying tools like brush and cloth easily falls off and affect the cleanness of products, contact skin easily cause allergy, waste grease due to the uncontrollable of grease quantity using in applying, low efficiency of manual operation. An automatic, quantitative and high pressure applying equipment is introduced in this document to replace the traditional manually applying method, which can guarantee the applying quality of the grease which are painted on the surface of cylinder and bring economic benefits to the company.

  12. Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation (LITE). Post-Test Grease Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Martinez, James E.; Devivar, Rodrigo V.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a mechanism of the International Space Station (ISS) that orients the solar power generating arrays toward the sun as the ISS orbits our planet. The orientation with the sun must be maintained to fully charge the ISS batteries and maintain all the other ISS electrical systems operating properly. In 2007, just a few months after full deployment, the starboard SARJ developed anomalies that warranted a full investigation including ISS Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The EVA uncovered unexpected debris that was due to degradation of a nitride layer on the SARJ bearing race. ISS personnel identified the failure root-cause and applied an aerospace grease to lubricate the area associated with the anomaly. The corrective action allowed the starboard SARJ to continue operating within the specified engineering parameters. The SARJ LITE (Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation) program was initiated by NASA, Lockheed Martin, and Boeing to simulate the operation of the ISS SARJ for an extended time. The hardware was designed to test and evaluate the exact material components used aboard the ISS SARJ, but in a controlled area where engineers could continuously monitor the performance. After running the SARJ LITE test for an equivalent of 36+ years of continuous use, the test was opened to evaluate the metallography and lubrication. We have sampled the SARJ LITE rollers and plate to fully assess the grease used for lubrication. Chemical and thermal analysis of these samples has generated information that has allowed us to assess the location, migration, and current condition of the grease. The collective information will be key toward understanding and circumventing any performance deviations involving the ISS SARJ in the years to come.

  13. Characterization of Tribological Properties of Greases for Industrial Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Castaños

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper grease selection is essential for the electrical industry to minimize friction and wear between the components of circuit breakers under mechanical contact. In this investigation, the tribological properties of commercially available greases for industrial circuit breakers were evaluated. Three tribological tests were performed: the ITeE-PIB Polish Method for testing lubricants under scuffing conditions (extreme pressure, EP, a four-ball test under ASTM D 2266 (anti-wear, AW, and a ball-on-disk test based on ASTM G-99. The worn materials were characterized with an optical 3D profilometer measurement system and a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Additionally, selected greases with the best tribological performance were tested on a testing bench intended for circuit breakers, according to electrical safety standards, which validated the results obtained in the laboratory.

  14. Film Thickness and Friction Relationship in Grease Lubricated Rough Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonçalves

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the film generation and the coefficient of friction in grease lubricated contacts was investigated. Ball-on-disc tests were performed under different operating conditions: entrainment speed, lubricant temperature and surface roughness. The tests were performed with fully formulated greases and their base oils. The greases were formulated with different thickener types and also different base oils natures and viscosities. Film thickness measurements were performed in ball-on-glass disc tests, and Stribeck curves were measured in ball-on-steel disc tests with discs of different roughness. The role of the thickener and the base oil nature/viscosity on the film thickness and coefficient of friction was addressed and the greases’ performance was compared based on their formulation.

  15. A study of the use of bio-based technologies (lubricant and grease) in rail applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the project was to study the efficacy of using bio-based lubricant and grease technologies in railroad applications : (locomotives and maintenance of way equipment). Several commercially available rail curve greases were identified a...

  16. 7 CFR 32.400 - Samples of grease mohair grades; method of obtaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples of grease mohair grades; method of obtaining... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.400 Samples of grease mohair grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of the...

  17. The Impact of Water on the Yield Stress and Startup Torque of Lubricating Greases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyriac, F.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Bosman, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Water is one of the most common contaminants in grease lubrication. There are numerous applications where bearings are susceptible to water ingresses such as in the steel, food, and pulp and paper industries. A grease can absorb water to different degrees depending upon the type of grease. The

  18. The Impact of Water on the Yield Stress and Startup Torque of Lubricating Greases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyriac, F.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Bosman, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Water is one of the most common contaminants in grease lubrication. There are numerous applications where bearings are susceptible to water ingresses such as in the steel, food, and pulp and paper industries. A grease can absorb water to different degrees depending upon the type of grease. The

  19. Longitudinal profiles of total hydrocarbon, oil and grease and trace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total hydrocarbon content (THC), oil and grease and trace metal concentrations in surface waters of Qua Iboe River in South-eastern Nigeria were studied for three years in relation to increasing oil activity and urbanization in the drainage basin. Levels of THC varied significantly (P < 0.01) between the stations and were ...

  20. Grease Inhibits Stress-Corrosion Cracking In Bearing Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Robert F.; Mcvey, Scott E.

    1991-01-01

    Coating with suitable grease found to inhibit stress-corrosion cracking in bore of inner race of ball-bearing assembly operating in liquid oxygen. Protects bore and its corner radii from corrosion-initiating and -accelerating substances like moisture and contaminants, which enter during assembly. Operating life extended at low cost, and involves very little extra assembly time.

  1. Detection of Elemental Composition of Lubricating Grease Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Dhiman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of lubricating soft grease used in rail engines are studied using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS technique. LIBS spectra of fresh, partially used and fully used grease samples are recorded using time-gated ICCD spectrometer for verification of compositional degradation of the used grease. LIBS spectra of grease samples are analyzed by comparing with emission spectra of elements published by NIST standard database. Many spectral lines of impurity elements like Fe, Cu, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ni, S, Zn, Si, Pb, Ti, Ca and Al present in the grease in ppm or ppb level in trace level concentrations are observed in excess in the used grease mainly due to wear and tear. On the other hand in fresh grease, spectral lines of Ca, Al and Na are observed predominantly.

  2. Effect of carbonyl iron particles composition on the physical characteristics of MR grease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad, Norzilawati, E-mail: mnorzilawati@gmail.com; Mazlan, Saiful Amri, E-mail: amri.kl@utm.my [Vehicle System Engineering, Malaysia – Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra (Jalan Semarak), Kuala Lumpur, 54000 (Malaysia); Ubaidillah, E-mail: ubaidillah@uns.ac.id [Vehicle System Engineering, Malaysia – Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra (Jalan Semarak), Kuala Lumpur, 54000 (Malaysia); Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Kentingan, Surakarta, 57126, Central Java, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Magnetorheological (MR) grease is an extension of the study of magnetorheological materials. The MR grease can help to reduce the particles sedimentation problem occurred in the MR fluids. Within this study, an effort has been taken to investigate the effect of different weight compositions of carbonyl iron particles on the physical and chemical characteristics of the MR grease under off-state condition (no magnetic field). The MR grease is prepared by mixing carbonyl iron particles having a size range of 1 to 10 µm with commercial NPC Highrex HD-3 grease. Characterizations of MR grease are investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and rheometer. The dependency of carbonyl iron particles weight towards the magnetic properties of MR grease and other characterizations are investigated.

  3. Correlation between System Entropy and Structural Changes in Lubricating Grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Kuhn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lubricating greases are colloid disperse systems consisting of a base oil and a thickener (additional additives. The lubricant is modeled as a tribological system, and the reaction of a fluid friction stress is investigated. The energetic situation of the volume element is analyzed and the system entropy described. The description of the structural degradation and the used entropy was realized with the help of rheometer tests.

  4. Effect of Thickener Particle Geometry and Concentration on the Grease EHL Film Thickness at Medium Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Cyriac, F.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Bosman, Rob; Padberg, Clemens J.; Venner, Cornelis H.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to understand the parameters influencing the grease film thickness in a rolling elastohydrodynamically lubricated contact under fully flooded conditions at medium speeds. Film thickness measurements were taken under pure rolling for six commercial greases and their bled oils. The grease film thickness was found to be higher than corresponding bled oil, suggesting the presence of thickener in the contact. No rheological properties (characterized by steady and dynamic ...

  5. Case study of the effectiveness of passive grease trap for management on domestic kitchen waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Juffrizal, K.; Mustapha, F.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Household waste, generally known as trash or garbage is mostly includes food wastes, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes that are coming from domestic household. Grease waste such as oil and fats can contaminate water and also clot on pipes provoking blockages. Thus, waste water from kitchen sink need a proper way of filtration. Grease trap developed in this paper is viable in trapping the grease residue. The experiments have been conducted in controlled environment and the objectives are to investigate the effectiveness of grease trap by proving the existence of retention time and the expected ratio of collected water and oil during experiment process using a prototype model.

  6. Performance and Analysis of Perfluoropolyalkyl Ether Grease Used on Space Shuttle Actuators--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2013-01-01

    Actuators used on the United States space shuttle fleet are lubricated with unspecified amounts of Braycote 601 (Castrol Braycote) grease consisting of a perfluoropolyalkyl ether (PFPAE) base oil thickened with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filler. Each shuttle has four body flap actuators (BFAs) (two on each wing) on a common segmented shaft and four rudder speed brake (RSB) actuators. The actuators were designed to operate for 10 years and 100 flights without periodic relubrication. Visible inspection of two partially disassembled RSB actuators in continuous use for 19 years raised concerns over possible grease degradation due to discoloration of the grease on several places on the surfaces of the gears. Inspection revealed fretting, micropitting, wear and corrosion of the bearings and gears. A small amount of oil dripped from the disassembled actuators. Whereas new grease is beige in appearance, the discolored grease consisted of both grey and reddish colors. Grease samples taken from the actuators together with representative off-the-shelf new and unused grease samples were analyzed by gravimetry for oil content; by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) for metals content; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for base oil decomposition; and by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for determination of the molecular weight distributions of the grease oil. The Braycote 601 grease was stable after 19 years of continuous use in the sealed RSB actuators and was fit for its intended purpose. There were no significant chemical differences between the used grease samples and new and unused samples. Base oil separation was not significant within the sealed actuators. No corrosive effect in the form of iron fluoride was detected. The grey color of grease samples was due to metallic iron. The red color was due to oxidation of the metallic wear particles from the gears and the bearings comprising the actuators.

  7. The influence of bearing grease composition on friction in rolling/sliding concentrated contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laurentis, N.; Kadiric, A.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Cann, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents new results examining the relationship between bearing grease composition and rolling-sliding friction in lubricated contacts. Friction coefficient and lubricating film thickness of a series of commercially available bearing greases and their bled oils were measured in laboratory

  8. On the film thickness of grease-lubricated contacts at low speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cen, H.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Morales-Espejel, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the thickener to the thickness of the lubricating film in grease-lubricated contacts is investigated. Four different types of greases were tested in a ball/spherical roller-on-disc machine, where the film thickness was measured using the interferometry method, varying the

  9. Film thickness of mechanically worked lubricating grease at very low speeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cen, H.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Morales-Espejel, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Several different types of commercially available greases, aged in a roll stability tester, have been tested in a ball-on-disc machine where the film thickness was measured using the interferometry method. The grease film thickness at very low speed is thicker than the base oil film thickness due to

  10. Effect of Thickener Particle Geometry and Concentration on the Grease EHL Film Thickness at Medium Speeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyriac, F.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Bosman, Rob; Padberg, Clemens J.; Venner, Cornelis H.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to understand the parameters influencing the grease film thickness in a rolling elastohydrodynamically lubricated contact under fully flooded conditions at medium speeds. Film thickness measurements were taken under pure rolling for six commercial greases and their bled

  11. Effect of microstructure and rheology on the grease EHL film thickness at medium speeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyriac, F.; Lugt, P. M.; Bosman, R.; Padberg, C. J.; Venner, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the parameters influencing the film thickness of six greases in a rolling elastohydrodynamically lubricated contact under fully flooded conditions are analyzed. The grease film thickness was found to be higher than their corresponding bled oil suggesting the presence of thickener in

  12. Substitution of Wax and Grease Cleaners With Biodegradable Solvents: Phase 1. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    136-R INGREDIENT --- SODIUM SILICATE, TERASODIUM, PROPHOSPHATE, SODIUM DODECY ENE SULFONATE APPLICATION -- OIL, GREASE METALS -------- AI,BRASS,Cu,Ni,Ni...PETROLEUM NAPTHA,2-BUTOXYETHANOL, DODECYL BENZENE , SULFO ACID,POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE,CYCLOHEXANOL APPLICATION -- GREASE, OIL, CARBON METALS -------- ALL... SODIUM HYDROXIDE CAUSTIC SODA APPLICATION -- CARBON REMOVER METALS -------- NONE SPECIFIED SUGGESTED CONCENTRATIONS TEMPERATURE °F 4 OZ/GAL 180 4 OZ

  13. Seismic response reduction of a three-story building by an MR grease damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Tomoki; Morishita, Shin

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes an application of magneto- rheological (MR) grease dampers as seismic dampers for a three-story steel structure. MR fluid is widely known as a smart material with rheological properties that can be varied by magnetic field strength. This material has been applied to various types of devices, such as dampers, clutches, and engine mounts. However, the ferromagnetic particles dispersed in MR fluid settle out of the suspension after a certain interval because of the density difference between the particles and their carrier fluid. To overcome this defect, we developed a new type of controllable working fluid using grease as the carrier of magnetic particles. MR grease was introduced into a cylindrical damper, and the seismic performance of the damper was subsequently studied via numerical analysis. The analysis results of the MR grease damper were compared with those of other seismic dampers. We confirmed that the MR grease damper is an effective seismic damper.

  14. Oil and Grease Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using New Utility Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Abd El-Gawad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to investigate oil and grease pollution that may pollute fresh water and influence aquatic environment. Then removal of oil and grease from manufacturing wastewater befall essential but common techniques not enough. Enzyme and adsorption units representing major developed new laboratory were selected to assess the water quality and humiliation prospective of oil and grease from wastewater. Several components and environmental variables that were dissolved oxygen, bacteriology measure, flow rate and adsorption material amount studied to assess the removal performance of oil and grease. The results elucidated significant variations among different tests which influenced microbial necessary role of oxidation declining develop biological treatment process reached to 72%. The study stressed out natural material (zeolite that enhanced organic reduction under optimal conditions. These conditions were closer spacing and high length of adsorbing unit that led to increase oil and grease contact period with adsorbent and added to increase performance removal reached to 99%.

  15. BAURAN PEMASARAN PRODUK BARU PELUMAS FOOD GRADE GREASE BERBAHAN DaSAR MINYAK SAWIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Maksum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grease with food grade specification is essentially required on food processing production activities.  The purpose of this study is to develop a new product marketing mix for food grade grease, i.e 1 product priority, 2 pricing priority, 3 distribution priority and 4 advertising priority. This Research was conducted in Sub District Purbalingga and Padamara, Purbalingga regency with respondent SMEs food processing. Analysis of the determination of marketing mix that includes product, price, advertising and distribution using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Sampling was purposive random sampling method with a population of 64 SMEs so drawn sample of 20 respondents. Result of the study showed the marketing mix priority which were: (1 advertising priority for the new food grade grease product with an ads that could attract the attention of consumers in order to made the consumers interested, tried, and bought the new food grade lubricating grease products. (2 Price priority for the new food grade grease products which was by determining the moderate prices to compete the competitors' prices while still maintained a high quality. (3 Product priority for new food grade grease product which was producing a qualified product which could withstand the wear of the engine, green colour of the product, a 350 g size packs with a rectangular shape packaging labels. (4 Distribution priority for the new food grade grease product which was a short distribution channels through mobile vendors so that the consumers were able to save costs, and got the product fast and easily

  16. Steady flow and viscoelastic properties of lubricating grease containing various thickener concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, S K; Luckham, P F; Tadros, Th F

    2004-06-01

    The flow and viscoelastic properties of a lubricating grease formed from a thickener composed of lithium hydroxystearate and a high-boiling-point mineral oil were investigated as a function of thickener concentration. The flow properties of grease were measured using continuous shear rheometry, while the viscoelastic properties were measured using oscillatory shear measurements. The flow properties show that grease is a shear-thinning fluid with a yield stress that increases with thickener concentration. At concentrations of lithium hydroxystearate greater than 5% by volume, the storage modulus, G', was found to be greater than the loss modulus, G", with both moduli increasing with increasing thickener concentration, below this critical concentration G" was greater than G'. Slip at the wall of the measuring platens was a major problem encountered during the rheological measurement of grease, this is hardly surprising, and greases are designed to slip in their lubricating functions. Therefore the measuring platens were roughened by sandblasting and significantly higher yield values were recorded with the roughened geometries. Creep experiments were also performed. In the creep test, yield stresses of greases could be obtained. Zero shear viscosity was also calculated from the creep experiment and as a result viscosities over nine orders of magnitude were obtained. The power law index of the scaling law of the elastic modulus and yield stress with increasing volume fraction was found to be 4.7+/-0.2 suggesting that the flocculation of the particles that compose the grease is likely to be of the chemically limited aggregation variety.

  17. Some azine and azole derivatives as antioxidant additives for lithium lubricating grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. Fikry

    2013-06-01

    The structure of these compounds has been confirmed using elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. On the other hand, lithium lubricating grease was prepared and evaluated according to the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI and Egyptian Standard (ES. The antioxidant compounds were tested for the prepared grease with concentration 0.1 wt.%. The efficiency of these compounds has been determined using total acid number. It was found that the prepared lithium grease resists oxidation reaction in the presence of these compounds. A correlation between the chemical structure of these compounds and their efficiency as antioxidants additives was discussed. Data showed that the efficiency of these compounds as antioxidants decreases in the order: compound I > compound II > compound III.

  18. Tribochemistry and EP Activity Assessment of Mo-S Complexes in Lithium-Base Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarunendr Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The blends of bis(1,5-diaryl-2,4-dithiomalonamidodioxomolybdenum(VI complexes in lithium-base grease are evaluated for their extreme pressure activity in a “four-ball test” using 12.7 mm diameter alloy steel ball specimen. The additive, bis(1,5-di-p-methoxyphenyl-2,4-dithiomalonamidodioxomolybdenum(VI and bis(1,5-di-p-chloro-phenyl-2,4-dithiomalonamidodioxomolybdenum(VI exhibited lower values of wear-scar diameter at higher load and higher values of weld load, flash temperature parameter, and pressure wear index as compared with lithium-base grease without additives. The greases fortified with the developed additives prevent rusting and corrosion of bearings while grease containing no additives did not pass these tests as per the standard tests. These greases have also better oxidation protection as compared to the grease that has no additive. The topography and tribochemistry of the wear-scar surface are carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy techniques, respectively.

  19. Three dimensional (3D percolation network structure: Key to form stable carbon nano grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Younes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano grease is found to be stable and homogeneous (wherein carbon nanotubes act as sole thickeners and oil is polyalphaolefin (PAO. This is a good indication that three dimensional (3D percolation network structures among carbon nanotubes (single wall and multi wall play a crucial role in stabilization. To better understand this assumption and provide further evidence, some additional carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanofiber (CNF, graphene, fullerene (C60, Ni-coated single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT, are selected to make the grease. Unfortunately, CNF, graphene, fullerene (C60 and Ni-coated SWNT do not form stable greases as nanotubes do. In addition, SWNTs were mixed with CNF and Ni-coated SWNT respectively to see if stable grease could be formed. The results indicate that the CNF/SWNT did not form the stable grease, while Ni-coated SWNT/SWNT did. Inter molecular Van der Waals forces could reasonably explain these experimental results. Appropriate tube size (nanotube and nanofiber, stereo structure (nanotube, graphene and fullerene, surface energy (nanotube and Ni-coated nanotube are critical factors that determine if Van der Waals forces could take effect or not. The scientific merit of this paper is that we understand in what manner stable greases are formed and what kinds of carbon materials are appropriate for acting as sole thickener.

  20. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  1. Removal of oil and grease from automobile garage wastewater using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, A. M.; Harinarayanan Nampoothiri, M. G.; Soloman, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Wastewater from automobile garages and workshops is an important contributor to the water pollution. Oil and grease is one of the major content of wastewater from vehicle garages. Wastewater from a public transport depot at Thrissur district in Kerala, India was collected for the study. A batch reactor has been devised to assess the efficacy of electrocoagulation in removing oil and grease from the wastewater. Aluminium and iron were tested as the anode material with stainless steel as cathode. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various operating parameters such as current density, pH, time and salt concentration on oil and grease removal. The results shown that aluminium is superior to iron in removing the oil and grease from the wastewater. The reactor with aluminium as anode was able to remove 90.8 % of the oil and grease at a current density of 0.6 A/dm2 in 15 minutes. The calculated specific energy consumption is also less for aluminium in comparison with iron.

  2. Grease Aging Effects on Film Formation under Fully-Flooded and Starved Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Cousseau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several film thickness measurements were performed with three fresh and aged lubricating greases, their base and bled oils under a wide range of operating conditions using a ball-on-disc test rig with optical interferometry. The analysis of the film thickness measurements is in agreement with the observations of several authors and adds some important aspects regarding separate film properties in EHL contacts. At full film lubrication and moderate to high speeds, the bled oil showed a similar behavior of its lubricating greases. At fully-flooded condition, low speeds and thin films, it was observed that the thickener lumps play a major role on film formation, overcoming the bled oil effects. A relationship between thickener type and film formation was evidenced. The same trends were observed under starved lubrication, where the thickener type that contributes the most to locally increase the film thickness follows the order of PP > Ca > Li. The aging process of the greases was shown to change their rheological response in different manners—softening or hardening—depending on the grease formulation. Grease aging increased the film thickness under fully-flooded and starved lubrication, regardless of the level of degradation.

  3. Influence of Base Oil Polarity on the Transient Shear Flow of Biodegradable Lubricating Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fiedler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to elucidate the physical mechanisms influencing the transient flow behavior of lubricating greases based on biogenic oleochemicals from a polarity point of view. This includes the mutually interacting influence of base oil polarity and thickening agents on the rheologically-measured mechanical structural degradation in transient shear flow. Due to the high temperature dependence of Keesom forces in the background of polar-active bond mechanisms, the analysis of the transient flow response as a function of temperature allows to attribute the observed influences to differences in base oil polarity. In general, clay-thickened greases show a greater tendency to be rheologically influenced by base oil polarities than soap-thickened lubricating greases.

  4. Rheological Behavior of Carbon Nanotubes as an Additive on Lithium Grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behaviors of carbon nanotubes (CNTs as an additive on lithium grease at different concentrations were examined under various settings of shear rate, shear stress, and apparent viscosity. The results indicated that the optimum content of the CNTs was 2%. These experimental investigations were evaluated with a Brookfield Programmable Rheometer DV-III ULTRA. The results indicated that the shear, stress and apparent viscosity increase with the increase of CNTs concentration. The microstructure of CNTs and lithium grease was examined by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results indicated that the microscopic structure of the lithium grease presents a more regular and homogeneous network structure, with long fibers, which confirms the rheological stability.

  5. Tribological Stress of Lubricating Greases in the Light of System Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Kuhn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lubricating greases show a structural degradation due to friction stress. The shear process dissipates energy. This results in a breakdown of the thickener structure, heat and entropy generation. Tribo-systems are energy driven systems. The stressed lubricating grease is modeled as a subsystem and presents an open thermodynamic system. Investigations were made to obtain more information about the correlation of system entropy and structural degradation of a lubricating grease. Experimental studies were done to estimate the role in terms of entropy transport for the open system. The degradation-entropy theorem was applied with the help of an empirical model to describe the correlation between degradation process and entropy production for the special case of a closed and stationary system.

  6. Brown and black grease suitability for incorporation into feeds and suitability for biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paula Marie L

    2012-04-01

    Waste grease lipids used in animal feeds have been the cause of food recalls in Europe, where such materials were incorporated into animal feedstuffs. This resulted in unwanted residues in human food. The composition of such lipid sources has been lacking. Seventeen composite trap grease and isolated brown grease samples were analyzed. Analytes included nutrients, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Analytes were selected for relevance to wastewater treatment and resource reuse potential. Moisture averaged 89.4% and the pH was 3.8. The 5-day biological oxygen demand was 32,531 mg/liter, solids were 7.5%, and fats, oil, and grease were 48,970 mg/liter. Non-polychlorinated biphenyl volatile organic compounds were surveyed. In the 17 grease samples, 14 contained an average of 102.5 μg/liter chloroform; 11 samples contained acetone, averaging 369 μg/liter; 9 samples contained 2-butanone, with an average of 484 μg/liter; and 8 contained an average of 710 μg/liter methylene chloride and toluene at 311 μg/liter. The mean concentration of copper in 17 composite samples ranged from 15 to 239 mg/liter, iron averaged 314 mg/liter, lead means ranged from 2.5 to 24 mg/liter, and magnesium averaged 975 mg/liter. It is hypothesized that food preparation facility cleaning and chlorinated cleaning-disinfection agents combined with the organics in the low-pH environment of the traps produce potentially carcinogenic compounds. It is recommended that these waste grease materials be used as a feedstock for biofuel.

  7. Rheological Properties of Extreme Pressure Greases Measured Using a Process Control Rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, Julie; Smith, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    A new process control rheometer (PCR) designed for use in industrial process flows has been used to measure the rheological properties of three extreme-pressure greases. The rheometer is a robust yet sensitive instrument designed to operate in an industrial processing environment in either in......-line or on-line configurations. The PCR was able to measure the rheological properties including the elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and complex viscosity of the greases which in an industrial flow application could be used as variables in a feedback system to control the process and the quality...

  8. Orbital maneuvers and space rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.

    2015-12-01

    Several possibilities of launching a space vehicle from the orbital station are considered and compared. Orbital maneuvers discussed in the paper can be useful in designing a trajectory for a specific space mission. The relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on examples of spacecraft rendezvous with the space station that stays in a circular orbit around the Earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by an accompanying simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on fundamental laws of physics and conservation laws. Material is appropriate for engineers and other personnel involved in space exploration, undergraduate and graduate students studying classical physics and orbital mechanics.

  9. On a new method to determine the yield stress in lubricating grease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyriac, F.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Bosman, Rob

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study using both a controlled stress and a controlled strain rheometer has been undertaken to characterize lubricating grease in shear, creep, stress relaxation, and oscillatory flow, with a main focus on determining the yield stress. The yield stress was examined using a cone–plate

  10. Technique for evaluating antiwear properties of lubricant grease for GN and GNU drill bits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubarev, A.S.; Butovets, V.V.; Dyachenko, Yu.P.; Krasnokutskaya, M.Ye.; Nedbaylyuk, P.Ye.; Oparin, V.A.; Yeremenko, V.F.

    1982-01-01

    A technique has been developed for determining under laboratory conditions the antiwear characteristics for lubricant grease used for drill bit supports models GN and GNU. A satisfactory coincidence of test results of lubricants USsA and Uniol-1 has been derived using the given technique, as well as satisfactory results for the drill bits operating in industrial conditions.

  11. Effects of Atomic Oxygen and Grease on Outgassing and Adhesion of Silicone Elastomers for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of silicone elastomers for seals used in docking and habitat systems for future space exploration vehicles is being conducted at NASA. For certain missions, NASA is considering androgynous docking systems where two vehicles each having a seal would be required to: dock for a period of time, seal effectively, and then separate with minimum push-off forces for undocking. Silicone materials are generally chosen for their wide operating temperatures and low leakage rates. However silicone materials are often sticky and usually exhibit considerable adhesion when mated against metals and silicone surfaces. This paper investigates the adhesion unit pressure for a space rated silicone material (S0383-70) for either seal-on-seal (SoS) or seal-on-aluminum (SoAl) operation modes in the following conditions: as-received, after ground-based atomic-oxygen (AO) pre-treatment, after application of a thin coating of a space-qualified grease (Braycote 601EF), and after a combination of AO pre-treatment and grease coating. In order of descending adhesion reduction, the AO treatment reduced seal adhesion the most, followed by the AO plus grease pre-treatment, followed by the grease treatment. The effects of various treatments on silicone (S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401) outgassing properties were also investigated. The leading adhesion AO pretreatment reduction led to a slight decrease in outgassing for the S0383-70 material and virtually no change in ELA-SA-401 outgassing.

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and... SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.6-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101...

  13. Free fatty acids degradation in grease trap purification using ozone bubbling and sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotr Kwiatkowski, Michal; Satoh, Saburoh; Fukuda, Shogo; Yamabe, Chobei; Ihara, Satoshi; Nieda, Masanori

    2013-02-01

    The oil and fat were treated at first by only ozone bubbling and it was confirmed that the collection efficiency of them became 98.4% when the aeration was used. It showed that the aeration method in a grease trap cleared the standard value of 90% and there was no worry on the oil and fat outflow from a grease trap. The characteristics of sonication process were studied for free fatty acids degradation. The free saturated fatty acids are the most hard-degradable compounds of the fats, oils and greases (FOGs) in the grease trap. The influence of various parameters such as immersion level of an ultrasound probe in the liquid and bubbling of various gases (Ar, O2, air, O3) on the sonochemical and energy efficiency of the sonication process was investigated. The most effective degradation treatment method for saturated free fatty acids was the combination of sonication and low flow rate argon bubbling. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  14. Hydrocarbon fuels from brown grease: Moving from the research laboratory toward an industrial process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Lawrence M.; Strothers, Joel; Pinnock, Travis; Hilaire, Dickens Saint; Bacolod, Beatrice; Cai, Zhuo Biao; Sim, Yoke-Leng

    2017-04-01

    Brown grease is a generic term for the oily solids and semi-solids that accumulate in the sewer system and in sewage treatment plants. It has previously been shown that brown grease undergoes pyrolysis to form a homologous series of alkanes and 1-alkenes between 7 and 17 carbon atoms, with smaller amounts of higher hydrocarbons and ketones up to about 30 carbon atoms. The initial study was performed in batch mode on a scale of up to 50 grams of starting material. However, continuous processes are usually more efficient for large scale production of fuels and commodity chemicals. This work describes the research and development of a continuous process. The first step was to determine the required reactor temperature. Brown grease consists largely of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and they react at different rates, and produce different products and intermediates. Intermediates include ketones, alcohols, and aldehydes, and Fe(III) ion catalyzes at least some of the reactions. By monitoring the pyrolysis of brown grease, its individual components, and intermediates, it was determined that a reactor temperature of at least 340 °C is required. A small scale (1 L) continuous stirred tank reactor was built and its performance is described.

  15. 9 CFR 316.15 - Marking outside containers of inedible grease, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... grease, etc. 316.15 Section 316.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... letters not less than 2 inches high, while on tank cars and tank trucks the letters shall be not less than 4 inches high. (b) Inspected rendered animal fat which is intended not to be used for human food may...

  16. Laboratory study of initial sea-ice growth: properties of grease ice and nilas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Naumann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate initial sea-ice growth in an ice-tank study by freezing an NaCl solution of about 29 g kg−1 in three different setups: grease ice grew in experiments with waves and in experiments with a current and wind, while nilas formed in a quiescent experimental setup. In this paper we focus on the differences in bulk salinity, solid fraction and thickness between these two ice types.

    The bulk salinity of the grease-ice layer in our experiments remained almost constant until the ice began to consolidate. In contrast, the initial bulk-salinity evolution of the nilas is well described by a linear decrease of about 2.1 g kg−1 h−1 independent of air temperature. This rapid decrease can be qualitatively understood by considering a Rayleigh number that became maximum while the nilas was still less than 1 cm thick.

    Comparing three different methods to measure solid fraction in grease ice based on (a salt conservation, (b mass conservation and (c energy conservation, we find that the method based on salt conservation does not give reliable results if the salinity of the interstitial water is approximated as being equal to the salinity of the underlying water. Instead the increase in salinity of the interstitial water during grease-ice formation must be taken into account. In our experiments, the solid fraction of grease ice was relatively constant with values of 0.25, whereas it increased to values as high as 0.50 as soon as the grease ice consolidated at its surface. In contrast, the solid fraction of the nilas increased continuously in the first hours of ice formation and reached an average value of 0.55 after 4.5 h.

    The spatially averaged ice thickness was twice as large in the first 24 h of ice formation in the setup with a current and wind compared to the other two setups, since the wind kept parts of the water surface ice free and therefore allowed for a higher heat loss from

  17. Experimental Comparison of the Behavior between Base Oil and Grease Starvation Based on Inlet Film Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kostal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the experimental study of an elastohydrodynamic contact under conditions of insufficient lubricant supply. Starvation level of this type of the contact may be experimentally determined based on the position of the meniscus, but this way can't determine all levels of starvation. Consequent development in the field of tribology achieved theoretical model that can determine all levels of starvation by dependency on the thickness of the lubricant film entering the contact, but it is difficult for experimental verification. The main goal of this work is an experimental study and description of the behavior of the elastohydrodynamic contact with controlled thickness of the lubricant film at the contact input. Contact was lubricated by the base oil and the grease and compared. Results were surprising because the only differences between oil and grease were observed for more viscous lubricants at thicker film layer entering to the contact.

  18. Highly conductive ionic liquids toward high-performance space-lubricating greases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Liping

    2014-08-27

    Although ionic liquids (ILs) as a class of promising materials have a wide range of applications due to the excellent properties, their potential as space lubricants has been not systematically explored. Here two kinds of conductive alkyl imidazolium ILs greases were prepared using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (LB106) and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) amide (L-F106) as base oil and the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as thickener, with multiple-alkylated cyclopentane grease (MACs) as a comparison. Their chemical composition and tribological properties were investigated in detail under simulated space environment which is composed of high vacuum, high temperature and irradiation. Results show that the high conductive ILs greases not only possess good adaptive abilities to space environment and thermal stability but also provide excellent friction reducing and antiwear behaviors as well as high load carrying capacities. The unique physicochemical properties are attributed to a combination of special anions and cations, the excellent tribological properties are strongly dependent on a boundary protective film on the rubbing surfaces.

  19. Vibration Control by a Shear Type Semi-active Damper Using Magnetorheological Grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Toshihiko; Misaki, Hirotaka

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes semi-active vibration control by a controllable damper with high reliability and wide dynamic range using magnetorheological (MR) grease. Some types of cylindrical controllable dampers based on pressure difference between chambers in the dampers using “MR fluid”, whose rheological properties can be varied by applying a magnetic field, have been reported as a semi-active device. However, there are some challenging issues of them. One is to improve dispersion stability. The particles dispersed in MR fluid would make sedimentation after a period. Another is to expand dynamic range. Since cylindrical dampers require sealing elements because of pressure difference in the dampers, the dynamic range between the maximum and minimum damping force according to a magnetic field is reduced. In this study, a controllable damper using the MR effect was proposed and its performance was experimentally verified to improve the dispersion stability by using “MR grease”, which includes grease as the carrier of magnetic particles, and to expand the dynamic range by adopting a shear type structure not requiring sealing elements. Furthermore, semiactive vibration control experiments by the MR grease damper using a simple algorithm based on the skyhook damper scheme were conducted and its performance was investigated.

  20. [Orbital cellulitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriaux, F; Rysanek, B; Babin, E; Cattoir, V

    2012-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is uncommon in ophthalmologic practice. The majority of cases arise from direct spread of sinus infection or eyelid infection. Clinically, orbital cellulitis is divided into two forms: the preseptal form, anterior to the orbital septum, and the retroseptal form, posterior to the orbital septum. Management and prognosis differ widely between the two types. The retroseptal form or "true" orbital cellulitis is a severe disease with potentially disastrous consequences for vision and survival. Clinical examination and urgent CT scanning are indispensable for correct diagnosis, evaluation of severity, surgical planning and antibiotic selection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Recycled and Virgin HDPEs as Bleed Inhibitors and Their Rheological Influences on Lubricating Greases Thickened with PP and mPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Dixena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP thickened lubricating grease exhibits high oil bleed tendency at low temperatures, which makes it a promising candidate for low temperature applications. At elevated temperatures, PP thickened lubricating grease exhibits excessive oil bleeding, which limits its use at high temperatures. Excessive oil bleed adversely affects the lubricating performance of the PP thickened grease. The present work is focused on the study of the oil bleed tendency of PP and Maleated Polypropylene (mPP thickened greases at various temperatures by incorporating virgin and recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE into the thickener system. Grease containing various percentages of PP and mPP thickeners were prepared and modified with different percentages of virgin and recycled HDPE. Polymers were characterized through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC techniques. The oil bleed performance of these greases was evaluated by the conical sieve method (ASTM D 6184 at various temperatures. Storage (G′ and loss modulus (G″ of greases was determined by rheometry at 25 °C. Incorporation of HDPE and recycled HDPE in PP thickened grease decreased oil bleeding compared to the base grease.

  2. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the articles...

  3. Development and evaluation of emulsifying systems of the material grease from Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Dourado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oils and butter of seed from Brazilian biodiversity are extending the range of innovative products for cosmetics development. They have a fat potential similar to skin composition, leading to the improved performance of these product. Aims: Improve the emulsions spreadability through prior screening of grease composition and studying the viscosity, and the emulsions accelerated stability. Methods: Emulsions were formulated using oils from semiarid plants from Bahia: Syagrus coronate, Pachira retusa, and Pachira aquatica, so as to compare them with oils already standard in the production of cosmetics. Spreadability and stability tests were made comparing the results. The same criteria were used with Amazon seed butter: Virola surinamensis, Butyrospermum parkii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Theobroma cacao and Theobroma grandiflorum. For the emulsions screening and performance, a system was developed for oil/ butter, following tests of accelerated stability, viscosity, and spreadability. Results: The combined system of spreadability was optimized using screening. Emollients containing oleic and palmitic acids, and light chain fatty acids obtained good spreadability. The oil emulsion containing Pachira retusa and Virola surinamensis butter had a higher viscosity. Conclusions: With high content of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic or the light chain fatty acids obtain an appropriated appearance, texture, and spreadability for cosmetic use. Thus, oils with a low fatty acid content may be combined with butter that have a high fatty acid content and vice-versa. Analyzing and strategically combining grease composition, one can optimize the performance of cosmetic formulations.

  4. ORBITAL, CELLULITIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of paranasal sinusitis as a cause of orbital cellulitis and to identify the commonest sinus(es) involved in our setting. Methods: A retrospective review of the case notes of 47 patients with orbital cellulitis admitted into the ophthalmic ward of the University College ...

  5. Orbital velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Modestino, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    The trajectory and the orbital velocity are determined for an object moving in a gravitational system, in terms of fundamental and independent variables. In particular, considering a path on equipotential line, the elliptical orbit is naturally traced, verifying evidently the keplerian laws. The case of the planets of the solar system is presented.

  6. Investigation of pitting load-carrying capacity of case carburized gears with grease lubrication; Untersuchung der Gruebchentragfaehigkeit einsatzgehaerteter Zahnradpaarungen bei Schmierung mit Getriebefetten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochmann, Michael; Michaelis, Klaus; Hoehn, Bernd-Robert

    2009-07-15

    In this research project the influence of flow greases NLGI 00 on the pitting load-carrying capacity of case carburized gears is systematically investigated. In the range of limited life and infinite life the pitting life time and the pitting load-carrying capacity of gear greases in NLGI 00 on the basis of a base oil of ISO VG 680 is lower than that of the respective base oil in the test method C-PT/8.3/90. This is caused by the unfavourable heat dissipation and the higher bulk temperature of the test gears with grease lubrication. In the test method C-PT/5.5/90 with reduced circumferential speed gear grease in NLGI 00 and its base oil ISO VG 680 show comparable bulk temperatures and pitting life times. In the range of limited life the pitting life time of gear greases in NLGI 00 correlates with the kinematic viscosity of the base oil. But in the range of infinite life the base oil viscosity of gear greases in NLGI 00 influences the pitting load-carrying capacity only slightly. For gear greases in NLGI 00 a good comparability can be stated for the experimental and the calculated pitting load-carrying capacity with the calculation according to Knauer if appropriate friction coefficients, e.g. measured values are used. In the range of boundary friction and high lubricant temperatures the thickener of gear greases in NLGI 00 decreases the friction in comparison to the base oil. (orig.)

  7. Investigation of thermal and electrical stabilities of a GdBCO coil using grease as an insulation material for practical superconducting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D H; Kim, K L; Kim, Y G; Park, Y J; Kim, W J; Kim, S H; Lee, H G

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the effects of thermal grease on the electrical and thermal characteristics of GdBCO pancake coils, observed through charge-discharge, sudden discharge, over-current, and thermal quench testing. In charge-discharge and sudden discharge tests, a coil using thermal grease as an insulation material demonstrated faster charging/discharging rates compared to a coil without turn-to-turn insulation. In the case of over-current tests, the coil using thermal grease exhibited the highest electrical stability. Furthermore, thermal quench testing showed the coil employing thermal grease to possess superior thermal characteristics, with rapid cooling and low temperature rise. Overall, the use of thermal grease as an insulation material may be a potential solution to the problems observed with the existing insulation materials, possessing fast charging/discharging rates with superior thermal and electrical stabilities.

  8. The Hot Orbit: Orbital Cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.; Al-Rashed, Waleed; Arat, Yonca O.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon condition previously associated with severe complications. If untreated, orbital cellulitis can be potentially sight and life threatening. It can affect both adults and children but has a greater tendency to occur in the pediatric age group. The infection most commonly originates from sinuses, eyelids or face, retained foreign bodies, or distant soources by hematogenous spread. It is characterized by eyelid edema, erythema, chemosis, proptosis, blurred vision, fever, headache, and double vision. A history of upper respiratory tract infection prior to the onset is very common especially in children. In the era prior to antibiotics, vision loss from orbital cellulitis was a dreaded complication. Currently, imaging studies for detection of orbital abcess, the use of antibiotics and early drainage have mitigated visual morbidity significantly. The purpose of this review is to describe current investigative strategies and management options in the treatment of orbital cellulitis, establish their effectiveness and possible complications due to late intervention. PMID:22346113

  9. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  10. Foam formation in a downstream digester of a cascade running full-scale biogas plant: Influence of fat, oil and grease addition and abundance of the filamentous bacterium Microthrix parvicella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienen, T; Kleyböcker, A; Verstraete, W; Würdemann, H

    2014-02-01

    The microbial community composition in a full-scale biogas plant fed with sewage sludge and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was investigated over a 15-month period, including two foam formation events. Addition of FOG as a substrate in the biogas plant together with high abundances of Microthrix parvicella were found to promote foam formation in the downstream digester of a cascade of two biogas digesters. Genetic fingerprinting and quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated a higher abundance of M. parvicella in the digester, when the digestion process was accompanied by excessive foaming relative to the reference digesters without disturbance. The creation of foam depended on the introduced proportion of FOG and the abundance of M. parvicella. Furthermore, shifts in the abundance of M. parvicella in the biogas plant were observed within the 15-month monitoring period corresponding to its seasonal abundance in the sludge of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease for slaughterhouse wastewater using electrocoagulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Azwan, Azlyza Mohd; Zamri, Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    In this study electrocoagulation method is used to treat slaughterhouse wastewaters. The aim of this study is to determine the efficiency of electrocoagulation method for the removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease of slaughterhouse wastewaters. The factors of electrode types, and voltage applied during treatment are the study parameters. The types of electrode used are Aluminium (Al) grade 6082 and Iron (Fe) grade 1050. Meanwhile, the ranges of voltage applied are 2, 4, 6, 8 volts at a time interval of 10, 20 and 30 minutes respectively. The effect of these factors on the removal of fat oil and grease (FOG), colour and turbidity are analyzed. The results show maximum removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are recorded using Fe electrode at 8 V of applied voltage with 30 minutes of treatment time. The increase in treatment time of the cell will also increase the amount of hydrogen bubbles at the cathode which results in a greater upwards flux and a faster removal of FOG,, turbidity and colour. The removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are 98%, 92% and 91 % respectively. Meanwhile, by using Al electrodes in the same condition, the removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are 91%, 85% and 87 % respectively. Whereas by using Fe-Al as electrodes pairs, the removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are found to be at 90%, 87% and 76 % respectively. In this case, the Fe-Fe pair electrodes have been proven to provide better performance for FOG, colour and turbidity removals of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Therefore, it is feasible to be considered as an alternative method for wastewater treatment.

  12. Simultaneous removal of oil and grease, and heavy metals from artificial bilge water using electro-coagulation/flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Guillermo J; La Motta, Enrique J

    2014-11-01

    US and international regulations pertaining to the control of bilge water discharges from ships have concentrated their attention to the levels of oil and grease rather than to the heavy metal concentrations. The consensus is that any discharge of bilge water (and oily water emulsion within 12 nautical miles from the nearest land cannot exceed 15 parts per million (ppm). Since there is no specific regulation for metal pollutants under the bilge water section, reference standards regulating heavy metal concentrations are taken from the ambient water quality criteria to protect aquatic life. The research herein presented discusses electro-coagulation (EC) as a method to treat bilge water, with a focus on oily emulsions and heavy metals (copper, nickel and zinc) removal efficiency. Experiments were run using a continuous flow reactor, manufactured by Ecolotron, Inc., and a synthetic emulsion as artificial bilge water. The synthetic emulsion contained 5000 mg/L of oil and grease, 5 mg/L of copper, 1.5 mg/L of nickel, and 2.5 mg/l of zinc. The experimental results demonstrate that EC is very efficient in removing oil and grease. For oil and grease removal, the best treatment and cost efficiency was obtained when using a combination of carbon steel and aluminum electrodes, at a detention time less than one minute, a flow rate of 1 L/min and 0.6 A/cm(2) of current density. The final effluent oil and grease concentration, before filtration, was always less than 10 mg/L. For heavy metal removal, the combination of aluminum and carbon steel electrodes, flow rate of 1 L/min, effluent recycling, and 7.5 amps produced 99% zinc removal efficiency. Copper and nickel are harder to remove, and a removal efficiency of 70% was achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Model development and evaluation of methane potential from anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge and un-dewatered grease trap waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcinkaya, Sedat; Malina, Joseph F

    2015-06-01

    The performance of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with un-dewatered grease trap waste was assessed using modified biochemical methane potential tests under mesophilic conditions (35°C). Methane potentials, process inhibition and chemical behavior of the process were analyzed at different grease trap waste feed ratios on volatile solids basis. Nonlinear regression analyses of first order reaction and modified Gompertz equations were performed to assist in interpretation of the experimental results. Methane potential of un-dewatered grease trap waste was measured as 606 mL CH4/g VS(added), while methane potential of municipal wastewater sludge was only 223 mL CH4/g VS(added). The results indicated that anaerobic digestion of grease trap waste without dewatering yields less methane potential than concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste because of high wastewater content of un-dewatered grease trap waste. However, anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge and grease trap waste still yields over two times more methane potential and approximately 10% more volatile solids reduction than digestion of municipal wastewater sludge alone. The anaerobic co-digestion process inhibitions were reported at 70% and greater concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste additions on volatile solids basis in previous studies; however, no inhibition was observed at 100% un-dewatered grease trap waste digestion in the present study. These results indicate that anaerobic co-digestion of un-dewatered grease trap waste may reduce the inhibition risk compared to anaerobic co-digestion of concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste. In addition, a mathematical model was developed in this study for the first time to describe the relationship between grease trap waste feed ratio on volatile solids basis and resulting methane potential. Experimental data from the current study as well as previous biochemical methane potential studies were successfully fit to this

  14. Creating and Editing Video to Accompany Manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Shayna L; Porto, Dennis A; Ozog, David M; Council, M Laurin

    2016-02-01

    The use of video can enhance the learning experience by demonstrating procedural techniques that are difficult to relay in writing. Several peer-reviewed journals allow publication of videos alongside articles to complement the written text. The purpose of this article is to instruct the dermatologic surgeon on how to create and edit a video using a smartphone, to accompany a article. The authors describe simple tips to optimize surgical videography. The video that accompanies this article further demonstrates the techniques described. Creating a surgical video requires little experience or equipment and can be completed in a modest amount of time. Making and editing a video to accompany a article can be accomplished by following the simple recommendations in this article. In addition, the increased use of video in dermatologic surgery education can enhance the learning opportunity.

  15. Nevus depigmentosus accompanying nevus comedonicus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Çağlar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nevus comedonicus is a rare nevoid malformation, characterized by hyperkeratotic comedonal lesions scattered in several parts of the body. Skeletal abnormalities, central nervous system defects and ophtalmological pathologies can accompany the situation and in this condition, it is called nevus comedonicus syndrome. Herein, we present a twenty-eight-year old male patient diagnosed with nevus comedonicus with prepubertal segmentally located inflammatory nodules and comedones. The patient had a medical history of bone cyst and further investigation for nevus comedonicus syndrome revealed cerebral atrophy. Distinguishing property of our case was the accompanying nevus depigmentosus located on the same leg extending to the thigh.

  16. Mechanism of Friction and Wear in MoS2 and ZDDP/F-PTFE Greases under Spectrum Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay D. Bagi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different greases formulated using MoS2 and a combination of ZDDP and functionalized PTFE (F-PTFE were examined under spectrum loading conditions where loads, frequency, and duration of the steps were treated as variables. Combination of ZDDP and F-PTFE were synergistic resulting in a significant reduction in the wear and friction under spectrum loading condition. Decreasing the time step during the ramp up and ramp down cycles resulted in larger wear for the grease containing MoS2 particles in comparison to ZDDP/F-PTFE in grease. The tribofilm formed on the surface was analyzed using various characterization techniques like SEM, EDS, and Stereo Optical Microscopy. Tribofilms from MoS2 additives had extensive amounts of abrasive and adhesive wear and showed the formation of MoS2 on the surface on the other hand the tribofilms from ZDDP/F-PTFE had smaller amounts of severe wear and exhibited patchy tribofilms of Zn-phosphates as well as sulfides of Zn and Fe.

  17. Food Grade Grease Berbahan Baku Minyak Sawit Crude Palm Oil (Cpo Off Grade Dengan Variasi Konsentrasi Thickening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martanto Totok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food grade grease (FGG is a kind of lubricant made from vegetable oil. Food Grease isconsidered safe for healthy and it does not pollute the environment so that it can be veryimportant for particular industries such as pharmaceutical, animal feeding, cosmetic, andespecially food industry. This study is aiming at obtaining optimum basic formulation ofthickening agent (LiOH that can produce qualified food grade grease. It is a kind of factorialexperimental study by using complete random sampling. Based on Fisher test, the treatmentshows a different result significantly. Then, it is continued by conducting Duncan’s MultipleRange Test (DMRT. 2% of activated charcoal is the best treatment because it results FFAscore, lower water content, and the bright yellow color that is shown by the score of 5.48%,0.0498 %, and 3 % that successively obtained. The treatment on thickening agent (LiOH(P1 and the revious one (L1 are the best treatment which produce qualified food gradegrease, corrosion resistance value 12.0, dropping point 130C, lubricating texture value 1,pH value 9.45, water content 0.19%, and ash content value 0.76%.

  18. Acidogenesis and Two-Phase Codigestion of Fats, Oils, and Greases and Municipal Biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varin, Ross; Novak, John; Bott, Charles

    2016-11-01

      Acidogenic codigestion of fats, oils, and greases (FOG) was studied using suspended growth sludge digesters operated as batch fed reactors that were fed twice daily. The digesters were maintained at a 2-day retention time and at 37 °C to mimic the acid phase of an acid-gas digestion system. As FOG loading rates increased, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was found to increase, although the percentage of VFA production compared to theoretical values decreased exponentially to just 20% at the highest loading rates. FOG matter was found to have accumulated in the reactor vessel in semi-solid balls that floated near the liquid surface. Two-phase codigestion of FOG was studied at 37 °C using Continuously Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTRs) as acid phase digesters (APD) operated with 2-day retention times, followed by gas phase digesters (GPD) with 15-day retention times. The two-phase systems were compared by FOG addition to the APD versus GPD. FOG addition to the APD resulted in 88% destruction of LCFAs, whereas FOG addition to the GPD resulted in 95% destruction of LCFAs. Accumulated LCFAs were found in the APD receiving FOG and were primarily composed palmitic acid (16:0), followed by oleic acid (18:1) and stearic acid (18:0).

  19. Development and implementation of a propeller test capability for GL-10 "Greased Lightning" propeller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Brian Edward

    Interest in small unmanned aerial vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years. Hybrid vehicles which allow forward flight as a fixed wing aircraft and a true vertical landing capability have always had applications. Management of the available energy and noise associated with electric propeller propulsion systems presents many challenges. NASA Langley has developed the Greased Lightning 10 (GL-10) vertical takeoff, unmanned aerial vehicle with ten individual motors and propellers. All are used for propulsion during takeoff and contribute to acoustic noise pollution which is an identified nuisance to the surrounding users. A propeller test capability was developed to gain an understanding of how the noise can be reduced while meeting minimum thrust requirements. The designed propeller test stand allowed for various commercially available propellers to be tested for potential direct replacement of the current GL-10 propellers and also supported testing of a newly designed propeller provided by the Georgia Institute of Technology. Results from the test program provided insight as to which factors affect the noise as well as performance characteristics. The outcome of the research effort showed that the current GL-10 propeller still represents the best choice of all the candidate propellers tested.

  20. Fat, oil and grease waste from municipal wastewater: characterization, activation and sustainable conversion into biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Carlo; Pagano, Michele; Lopez, Antonio; Mininni, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) recovered by the oil/water separator of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled, characterized, activated and converted into biofuel. Free acids (50-55%) and fatty soaps (26-32%) not only composed the main components, but they were also easily separable from the starting waste. The respective free fatty acid profiles were gas-chromatographically evaluated, interestingly verifying that free acids had a different profile (mainly oleic acid) with respect to the soapy fraction (saturated fatty acids were dominant). The inorganic composition was also determined for soaps, confirming that calcium is the most commonly present metal. The chemical activation of this fatty waste was made possible by converting the starting soaps into the respective free fatty acids by using formic acid as activator, coproducing the relevant formates. The activated fatty matter was then converted into biofuel through direct esterification under very mild conditions (345 K, atmospheric pressure) and obtaining thermodynamic conversion in less than 2 h. The process was easily scaled up, isolating at the end pure biodiesel (purity > 96%) through distillation under vacuum, providing a final product conformed to commercial purposes.

  1. Analysis of grease contamination influence on the internal radial clearance of ball bearings by thermographic inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković Žarko Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing ball bearings service life is its internal radial clearance. However, this parameter is also very complex because it depends on applied radial load and ball bearings dimensions, surface finish and manufacturing materials. Thermal condition of ball bearings also significantly affects internal radial clearance. Despite many researches performed in order to find out relevant facts about different aspects of ball bearings thermal behaviour, only few of them are dealing with the real working conditions, where high concentration of solid contaminant particles is present. That’s why the main goal of research presented in this paper was to establish statistically significant correlation between ball bearings temperatures, their working time and concentration of contaminant particles in their grease. Because of especially difficult working conditions, the typical conveyor idlers bearings were selected as representative test samples and appropriate solid particles from open pit coal mines were used as artificial contaminants. Applied experimental methodology included thermographic inspection, as well as usage of custom designed test rig for ball bearings service life testing. Finally, by obtained experimental data processing in advanced software, statistically significant mathematical correlation between mentioned bearings characteristics was determined and applied in commonly used internal radial clearance equation. That is the most important contribution of performed research - the new equation and methodology for ball bearings internal clearance determination which could be used for eventual improvement of existing bearings service life equations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35029 i br. TR14033

  2. Novice Collaboration in Solo and Accompaniment Improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how non-musicians engaged in a solo-accompaniment music improvisation relationship. Seven user teams interacted with two electronic music instruments integrated in two pen tablets. One instrument was a melody instrument and the other a chord instru-ment. The study was done...

  3. Inflammation of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma (Video) Macular Degeneration Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James ... Introduction to Eye Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors ...

  4. Pigmentary glaucoma accompanied by Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koucheki, Behrooz; Jalali, Kamran Hodjat

    2012-08-01

    To report a case of pigmentary glaucoma (PG) accompanied by Usher syndrome. Case report. The results were presented after standard ocular examination, visual field test, anterior segment and fundus photography, electroretinography, and otolaryngology consultation were conducted. Typical retinitis pigmentosa, flat electroretinography, congenital sensorineural hearing loss, high intraocular pressure, Krukenberg spindle, iris concavity, radial iris transillumination defect, severe pigment deposition on the trabecular meshwork, and glaucomatous optic nerve damage were indicative of PG accompanied by Usher syndrome. In some rare cases, PG may coexist with Usher syndrome. Common findings of Usher syndrome, including night blindness, impaired vision, visual field defects, and retinal changes may distract the clinician from considering the diagnosis of glaucoma. Such association should be borne in mind to make a timely diagnosis and treatment possible.

  5. A review on hydrolytic enzymes in the treatment of wastewater with high oil and grease content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, M C; Freire, D M G

    2006-11-01

    Wastewater from dairies and slaughterhouses contains high levels of fats and proteins that present low biodegradability. A large number of pretreatment systems are employed to remove oil and grease (O&G) to prevent a host of problems that may otherwise arise in the biological process, and reduce the efficiency of the treatment station. Problems caused by excessive O&G include a reduction in the cell-aqueous phase transfer rates, a sedimentation hindrance due to the development of filamentous microorganisms, development and flotation of sludge with poor activity, clogging and the emergence of unpleasant odors. Therefore the application of a pretreatment to hydrolyze and dissolve lipids may improve the biological degradation of fatty wastewaters, accelerating the process and improving time efficiency. However thus far, only a few studies describing the degradation of fats and oils by alkaline/acid/enzymatic hydrolysis have been reported; the treatment of effluents from several origins is a new and promising application for lipases. Among the strains that produce the hydrolytic enzymes studied, the fungus Penicillium restrictum is a particularly promising one. When cultivated in low-cost solid medium composed of agro-industrial waste, P. restrictum produces a pool of hydrolases capable of degrading the most complex organic compounds. This degradation enables a considerable increase in organic matter removal efficiency to be realized, which results in the attainment of a high-quality effluent in the subsequent biological treatment stage. Consequently, there is presently a wide variety of ongoing scientific investigation in the field of developing enzymatic hydrolysis processes to precede traditional biological treatment.

  6. A review on hydrolytic enzymes in the treatment of wastewater with high oil and grease content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarota, M.C. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). School of Chemistry; Freire, D.M.G. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Institute of Chemistry

    2006-11-15

    Wastewater from dairies and slaughterhouses contains high levels of fats and proteins that present low biodegradability. A large number of pretreatment systems are employed to remove oil and grease (OandG) to prevent a host of problems that may otherwise arise in the biological process, and reduce the efficiency of the treatment station. Problems caused by excessive OandG include a reduction in the cell-aqueous phase transfer rates, a sedimentation hindrance due to the development of filamentous microorganisms, development and flotation of sludge with poor activity, clogging and the emergence of unpleasant odors. Therefore the application of a pretreatment to hydrolyze and dissolve lipids may improve the biological degradation of fatty wastewaters, accelerating the process and improving time efficiency. However thus far, only a few studies describing the degradation of fats and oils by alkaline/acid/enzymatic hydrolysis have been reported; the treatment of effluents from several origins is a new and promising application for lipases. Among the strains that produce the hydrolytic enzymes studied, the fungus Penicillium restrictum is a particularly promising one. When cultivated in low-cost solid medium composed of agro-industrial waste, P. restrictum produces a pool of hydrolases capable of degrading the most complex organic compounds. This degradation enables a considerable increase in organic matter removal efficiency to be realized, which results in the attainment of a high-quality effluent in the subsequent biological treatment stage. Consequently, there is presently a wide variety of ongoing scientific investigation in the field of developing enzymatic hydrolysis processes to precede traditional biological treatment. (author)

  7. Orbit Control of Fly-around Satellite with Highly Eccentric Orbit Using Solar Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-gang, Hou; Chang-yin, Zhao; Ming-jiang, Zhang; Rong-yu, Sun

    2017-01-01

    The method of controlling highly eccentric accompanying flight orbit using the solar wing is proposed in this paper. The formation is maintained by controlling the orbit of the accompanying satellite (follower). The accompanying satellite rotates around its inertial principal axis with a constant angular velocity. The control on the accompanying satellite is divided into the in-plane control and out-of-plane control. The in-plane control is superior to the out-of-plane control. The out-of-plane control force is applied when the in-plane error is eliminated or the in-plane control force can not be supplied due to some geometrical factors. By the sliding mode control method, the magnitude and direction of the control force required by the in-plane orbit control are calculated. Then accordingly, the expression of the solar wing orientation with respect to the satellite body in the control process is derived, so that by adjusting the orientation of the solar wing, the required control force can be obtained. Finally, the verification on this method is performed by numerical simulations, including the orbit adjustment, error elimination, and the orbit maintenance. It is shown that this method can keep the error less than 5 m, and it is feasible for the space formation flight.

  8. Severe Hypoglycemia Accompanied with Thyroid Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nakatani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 32-year-old Japanese women with severe hypoglycemia accompanied with thyroid crisis. She complained of dyspnea, general fatigue, and leg edema. She was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism with congestive heart failure and liver dysfunction. Soon after admission, sudden cardiopulmonary arrest occurred. She was then transferred to the intensive care unit. Her serum glucose level was 7 mg/dl. Intravenous glucose, hydrocortisone, diuretics, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF saved her. We considered that hypoglycemia occurred due to heart failure and liver dysfunction due to thyroid crisis.

  9. Solutions manual to accompany Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Solutions Manual to Accompany Fundamentals of Calculus the text that encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the core book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and Functions The Derivative Using the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic

  10. Solutions manual to accompany Nonlinear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Bazaraa, Mokhtar S; Shetty, C M

    2014-01-01

    As the Solutions Manual, this book is meant to accompany the main title, Nonlinear Programming: Theory and Algorithms, Third Edition. This book presents recent developments of key topics in nonlinear programming (NLP) using a logical and self-contained format. The volume is divided into three sections: convex analysis, optimality conditions, and dual computational techniques. Precise statements of algortihms are given along with convergence analysis. Each chapter contains detailed numerical examples, graphical illustrations, and numerous exercises to aid readers in understanding the concepts a

  11. Primary biliary cirrhosis accompanied by CREST syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouraklis, Gregory; Glinavou, Andromahi; Karatzas, Gabriel

    2002-09-01

    CREST syndrome, a relatively benign, slowly progressive variant of systemic scleroderma consists of calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia. Although the association of this syndrome with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is recognized in women, it has never been described in a man. We report the rare case of a male patient with CREST syndrome accompanied by PBC, manifested by acute cholecystitis and mild jaundice. The association of the two conditions is clinically and etiologically important. Clinicians must be aware of this association, sincethe clinical features of CREST syndrome may be mild and may be thought to be complications of the underlying liver disease.

  12. Effect of bacterial lipase on anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater and grease in batch condition and continuous fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, Maha; Aloui, Fathi; Hadrich, Fatma; Loukil, Slim; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-10-10

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of bacterial lipase on biogas production of anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater (SHWW) and hydrolyzed grease (HG). A neutrophilic Staphylococcus xylosus strain exhibiting lipolytic activity was used to perform microbial hydrolysis pretreatment of poultry slaughterhouse lipid rich waste. Optimum proportion of hydrolyzed grease was evaluated by determining biochemical methane potential. A high biogas production was observed in batch containing a mixture of slaughterhouse composed of 75% SHWW and 25% hydrolyzed grease leading to a biogas yield of 0.6 L/g COD introduced. Fixed bed reactor (FBR) results confirmed that the proportion of 25% of hydrolyzed grease gives the optimum condition for the digester performance. Biogas production was significantly high until an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 g COD/L. d. This study indicates that the use of biological pre-treatment and FBR for the co-digestion of SHWW and hydrolyzed grease is feasible and effective.

  13. Predicting steady-state temperature, life, skid, and film thickness in a greased preloaded hybrid ball bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, J.V. [J.V. Poplawski and Associates, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Atwell, D.R.; Lubas, M.J.; Odessky, V. [General Dynamics Corp., Groton, CT (United States)]|[General Dynamics Corp., Avenel, NJ (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the use of the SHABERTH computer program supplemented with experimental temperature and skid data to quantify steady-state bearing operation. Parametric studies on ball diameter and number, contact angle, curvature, grease type, and preload are presented with their influence on contact stress, fatigue life, skid load, film thickness, and inner and outer race temperatures. These results are compared for a steel versus hybrid bearing set in a DB and DFSL mounting. The method presented can be applied to the design of other steel and hybrid ball thrust bearing systems.

  14. Case of cholinergic urticaria accompanied by anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Shigeruko; Kojo, Kazumi; Takayama, Noriko; Hiragun, Makiko; Kan, Takanobu; Hide, Michihiro

    2017-11-01

    Cholinergic urticaria occasionally occurs in combination with anaphylactic symptoms. However, this has not been widely reported. Herein, we report the case of a 14-year-old Japanese male who was diagnosed with cholinergic urticaria accompanied by anaphylaxis. The patient, who was suffering from atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma, had developed wheals after exercising or bathing, which would have increased his core body temperature, since summer 2014. He experienced two episodes of severe systemic symptoms and wheal development when he took a bath after eating in December 2014 and the following January. His symptoms included wheezing, numbness of the lips, respiratory distress, blindness and fainting. Laboratory tests revealed the following results: serum IgE level, 7060 IU/mL; titers of specific immunoglobulin E antibodies against Malassezia and MGL_1304, 31.70 UA/mL and 112.5 ng/mL, respectively. A histamine release test against human sweat revealed a class 4 response. Skin prick and intradermal tests against autologous sweat produced immediate-type positive reactions. According to these findings, we diagnosed him with the sweat-hypersensitivity type of cholinergic urticaria accompanied by anaphylaxis. He was successfully treated with lafutidine, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, in combination with fexofenadine. It is important for dermatologists to be aware that cholinergic urticaria can progress to anaphylaxis. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Preliminary experimental research to detect grease stain of petroleum pipeline by sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma-ray transmission method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Shi Heng

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on the detection of grease stain for petroleum pipeline in Karamay oil-field of Xinjiang is carried out by gamma-ray transmission method. Experimental provision consists of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma radiator and NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The response of grease stain thickness of petroleum pipeline in Karamay oil-field is ln(N sub 0 /N)=0.00548 d-0.0046, and the response of paraffin thickness is ln(N sub 0 /N)=0.00522d-0.0126. The result of experiment indicates that the response of grease stain thickness is more sensitive than the response of paraffin thickness

  16. Bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Kocak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked juvenile retinoschisis is a rare hereditary retinal disease characterized by a tangential splitting of the neurosensory retina which may cause early-onset visual impairment. Existence of the retinal neurosensory layer splitting on cross-sectional images of optical coherance tomography (OCT and the absence of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA help confirming the diagnosis. Such diagnostic tests are also helpful in determining the management of the disease. However, most of the retinoschisis cavities remain stable and rarely extend to the posterior pole, many authors suggest laser prophylaxis to avoid the potential risk of retinal detachment due to holes in the outer retinal layer. Herein, we report a case with bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis who was evaluated with detailed ophthalmologic examination. Visual acuity, fundoscopy, OCT, and FA remained stable in the second year of follow-up after prophylactic argon laser treatment.

  17. Bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Nilufer; Ozturk, Taylan A; Kaynak, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    X-linked juvenile retinoschisis is a rare hereditary retinal disease characterized by a tangential splitting of the neurosensory retina which may cause early-onset visual impairment. Existence of the retinal neurosensory layer splitting on cross-sectional images of optical coherance tomography (OCT) and the absence of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA) help confirming the diagnosis. Such diagnostic tests are also helpful in determining the management of the disease. However, most of the retinoschisis cavities remain stable and rarely extend to the posterior pole, many authors suggest laser prophylaxis to avoid the potential risk of retinal detachment due to holes in the outer retinal layer. Herein, we report a case with bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis who was evaluated with detailed ophthalmologic examination. Visual acuity, fundoscopy, OCT, and FA remained stable in the second year of follow-up after prophylactic argon laser treatment. PMID:23571248

  18. Wastewater transformations and fertilizer value when co-digesting differing ratios of swine manure and used cooking grease in low-cost digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, Stephanie [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, 1445 Animal Sci./Ag. Eng. Bldg., College Park, MD 20742-2315 (United States); Martin, Jay F. [Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, 590 Woody Hayes Drive, Columbus, OH 43210-1057 (United States); Botero, Raul Botero; Nogueira da Silva, Tatiana; Dias da Silva, Ederson [EARTH University, Apartado Postal 4442 - 1000, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2010-12-15

    A nine-month co-digestion investigation was conducted in Costa Rica to optimize animal wastewater treatment, renewable energy production, and fertilizer creation using 12 Taiwanese-model, plug-flow digesters (250 L each) constructed of tubular polyethylene and PVC piping, operating without mechanical or heating components. The experiment tested three replications of four treatment groups: the control (T0), which contained only swine manure, and T2.5, T5, and T10, which contained 2.5%, 5%, and 10% used cooking grease (by volume) combined with swine manure. T2.5 had the greatest methane production (45 L d{sup -1}), a 124% increase from the control. No adverse effects were observed from co-digesting 2.5% grease in terms of organic matter removal, pathogen reduction, grease removal, and pH. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced 94.7% to 1.96 g L{sup -1}, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were reduced 99.2 and 97.1%, respectively, and grease removal was 99.9%. The average effluent pH (7.05) and alkalinity in T2.5 was within the optimal range for methanogens and increased significantly during the nine-month experiment, likely due to adaptation of the methanogenic organisms to the influent grease concentrations. Total nitrogen concentration decreased 34.0%, and NH{sub 4}-N increased 97.1% during digestion in T2.5, with no significant differences between T2.5 and T0. There was less phosphorus reduction with co-digestion, with 181 mg g{sup -1} of total phosphorus (TP) in T2.5 and only 90.6 mg g{sup -1} of TP in T0, resulting in lower N:P ratios in the grease treatment groups due to the greater concentration of phosphorus in the effluent. (author)

  19. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  20. Posttraumatic orbital emphysema: a numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorek, Andrzej; Kłosowski, Paweł; Plichta, Lukasz; Raczyńska, Dorota; Zmuda Trzebiatowski, Marcin; Lemski, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture) of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features-thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall). The observation was made from 1 · 10(-3) to 1 · 10(-2) second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found.

  1. Posttraumatic Orbital Emphysema: A Numerical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Skorek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features—thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall. The observation was made from 1·10-3 to 1·10-2 second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found.

  2. Auroral pulsations and accompanying VLF emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Tagirov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of simultaneous TV observations of pulsating auroral patches and ELF-VLF-emissions in the morning sector carried out in Sodankylä (Finland on February 15, 1991 are presented. Auroral pulsating activity was typical having pulsating patches with characteristic periods of about 7 s. Narrow-band hiss emissions and chorus elements at intervals of 0.3–0.4 s formed the main ELF-VLF activity in the frequency range 1.0–2.5 kHz at the same time. The analysis of auroral images with time resolution of 0.04 s allowed perfectly separate analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the auroral luminosity. Mutual correspondence between the behaviour of the luminous auroral patches and the appearance of ELF noise type hiss emissions and VLF chorus trains was found in two intervals chosen for analysis. While the hiss emissions were associated with the appearance of luminosity inside a limited area close to the zenith, the structured VLF emissions were accompanied by rapid motion of luminosity inside the area. The spatial dimension of the pulsating area was about 45–50 km and luminosity propagated inside it with velocity of about 10–12 kms. We discuss a new approach to explain the 5–15 s auroral pulsation based on the theory of flowing cyclotron maser and relaxation characteristics of ionosphere.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  3. Auroral pulsations and accompanying VLF emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Tagirov

    Full Text Available Results of simultaneous TV observations of pulsating auroral patches and ELF-VLF-emissions in the morning sector carried out in Sodankylä (Finland on February 15, 1991 are presented. Auroral pulsating activity was typical having pulsating patches with characteristic periods of about 7 s. Narrow-band hiss emissions and chorus elements at intervals of 0.3–0.4 s formed the main ELF-VLF activity in the frequency range 1.0–2.5 kHz at the same time. The analysis of auroral images with time resolution of 0.04 s allowed perfectly separate analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the auroral luminosity. Mutual correspondence between the behaviour of the luminous auroral patches and the appearance of ELF noise type hiss emissions and VLF chorus trains was found in two intervals chosen for analysis. While the hiss emissions were associated with the appearance of luminosity inside a limited area close to the zenith, the structured VLF emissions were accompanied by rapid motion of luminosity inside the area. The spatial dimension of the pulsating area was about 45–50 km and luminosity propagated inside it with velocity of about 10–12 kms. We discuss a new approach to explain the 5–15 s auroral pulsation based on the theory of flowing cyclotron maser and relaxation characteristics of ionosphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  4. Perceptions regarding the clinical accompaniment of student nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions regarding the clinical accompaniment of student nurses in the ... communication and interpersonal relationships among various categories of nurses could be ... Key Words: Accompaniment; Clinical teaching / learning; Perceptions ...

  5. Effects of glycerin concentration in steam-flaked corn-based diets with supplemental yellow grease on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-eight individually fed crossbred steers (initial BW = 381 ± 7.61 kg) were used to determine the effects of glycerin (GLY) concentration in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with added yellow grease on animal performance and carcass characteristics. Glycerin was included at 0, 2.5, 5, and 10...

  6. Glycerolysis with crude glycerine as an alternative 3 pretreatment for biodiesel production from grease trap 4 waste: Parametric study and energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports the use of crude glycerine from biodiesel production in the glycerolysis process and presents the associated parametric and energy analyses. The potential of glycerolysis as an alternative pretreatment method for high free fatty acid (FFA) containing fats, oils and greases (FOGs) ...

  7. 16 CFR 1500.125 - Labeling requirements for accompanying literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. 1500.125 Section 1500.125 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... REGULATIONS § 1500.125 Labeling requirements for accompanying literature. When any accompanying literature...

  8. Pretreatment methods as a means of boosting methane production from sewage sludge and its mixtures with grease trap sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Anna; Neczaj, Ewa

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the selected pretreatment methods as a means of intensification of methane production from sewage sludge as well as its mixtures with grease trap sludge. The addition of the fat rich material to the digester treating sewage sludge resulted in an increased methane yield as well as volatile solids (VS) removal of up to 36% (from 134.75 mL/g VS to 182.84 mL/g VS). Furthermore, thermochemical pretreatment of the co-digestion mixture resulted in an approximately 76% higher methane yield as compared to the untreated sewage sludge. The energy balance showed that, for both materials ultrasonic pretreatment and thermochemical pretreatment has an energy self-sufficiency. All of the tested models fit the experimental data with coefficients of determination higher than 0.96.

  9. Pretreatment methods as a means of boosting methane production from sewage sludge and its mixtures with grease trap sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosser Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the selected pretreatment methods as a means of intensification of methane production from sewage sludge as well as its mixtures with grease trap sludge. The addition of the fat rich material to the digester treating sewage sludge resulted in an increased methane yield as well as volatile solids (VS removal of up to 36% (from 134.75 mL/g VS to 182.84 mL/g VS. Furthermore, thermochemical pretreatment of the co-digestion mixture resulted in an approximately 76% higher methane yield as compared to the untreated sewage sludge. The energy balance showed that, for both materials ultrasonic pretreatment and thermochemical pretreatment has an energy self-sufficiency. All of the tested models fit the experimental data with coefficients of determination higher than 0.96.

  10. Fertility reduction programmes should accompany land reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiku, J

    1994-01-01

    health and welfare. Fertility reduction programs should be accompanied by economic policies, such as land reform. Uganda's proposed policy promotes intervention programs in health, nutrition, education, and the environment. To succeed, local support must be mobilized, and population problems should be addressed in a way that integrates gender equity, empowerment of women, sustained economic growth, eradication of poverty, and international cooperation.

  11. Preseptal Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Altan Yaycıoğlu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with orbital infections present to our clinic usually with unilateral pain, hyperemia, and edema of the eyelids. The differentiation between preseptal and orbital cellulitis is utmost important in that the second requires hospitalization. Since in orbital cellulitis, the tissues posterior to the orbital septum are involved, signs such as conjunctival chemosis, limited eye movement, decreased vision, as well as afferent pupil defect secondary to optic nerve involvement may also be observed. Prompt intravenous antibiotic treatment should be started, and surgical drainage may be performed if patient shows failure to improve in 48 hours despite optimal management. Without treatment, the clinical course may progress to subperiosteal or orbital abscess, and even to cavernous sinus thrombosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 52-6

  12. Transneptunian Orbit Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, J.; Tancredi, G.; Bernstein, G. M.; Spahr, T.; Muinonen, K.

    We review the orbit computation problem for the transneptunian population. For these distant objects, the problem is characterized by their short observed orbital arcs, which are known to be coupled with large uncertainties in orbital elements. Currently, the observations of even the best observed objects, such as the first-ever transneptunian object (TNO), Pluto, cover only a fraction of their revolution. Furthermore, of the some 1200 objects discovered since 1992, roughly half have observations from only one opposition. To ensure realistic analyses of the population, e.g., in the derivation of unbiased orbital distributions or correlations between orbital and physical properties, realistic estimation of orbital uncertainties is important. We describe the inverse problem of orbit computation, emphasizing the short-arc problem and its statistical treatment. The complete solution to the problem can be given in terms of the orbital-element probability density function (p.d.f.), which then serves as a starting point for any further analysis, where knowledge of orbital uncertainties is required. We give an overview of the variety of computational techniques developed for TNO orbital uncertainty estimation in the recent years. After presenting the current orbital distribution, we demonstrate their application to several prediction problems, such as classification, ephemeris prediction, and dynamical analysis of objects. We conclude with some future prospects for TNO orbit computation concerning the forthcoming next-generation surveys, including the anticipated evolution of TNO orbital uncertainties over the coming decades.

  13. ASC Champ Orbit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite.......This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite....

  14. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  15. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  16. Idiopathic granulomatous orbital inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Schlingemann, R. O.; Goldschmeding, R.; Koornneef, L.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: Granulomatous orbital inflammation may occur as an isolated condition of unknown origin. These idiopathic granulomatous lesions are believed to belong to the orbital pseudotumor group by some authors, whereas others consider them sarcoidosis limited to the orbit. The aim of this study is to

  17. Spin-Orbital Order Modified by Orbital Dilution in Transition-Metal Oxides: From Spin Defects to Frustrated Spins Polarizing Host Orbitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Brzezicki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the changes in spin and orbital patterns induced by magnetic transition-metal ions without an orbital degree of freedom doped in a strongly correlated insulator with spin-orbital order. In this context, we study the 3d ion substitution in 4d transition-metal oxides in the case of 3d^{3} doping at either 3d^{2} or 4d^{4} sites, which realizes orbital dilution in a Mott insulator. Although we concentrate on this doping case as it is known experimentally and more challenging than other oxides due to finite spin-orbit coupling, the conclusions are more general. We derive the effective 3d−4d (or 3d−3d superexchange in a Mott insulator with different ionic valencies, underlining the emerging structure of the spin-orbital coupling between the impurity and the host sites, and demonstrate that it is qualitatively different from that encountered in the host itself. This derivation shows that the interaction between the host and the impurity depends in a crucial way on the type of doubly occupied t_{2g} orbital. One finds that in some cases, due to the quench of the orbital degree of freedom at the 3d impurity, the spin and orbital order within the host is drastically modified by doping. The impurity either acts as a spin defect accompanied by an orbital vacancy in the spin-orbital structure when the host-impurity coupling is weak or favors doubly occupied active orbitals (orbital polarons along the 3d−4d bond leading to antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic spin coupling. This competition between different magnetic couplings leads to quite different ground states. In particular, for the case of a finite and periodic 3d atom substitution, it leads to striped patterns either with alternating ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic domains or with islands of saturated ferromagnetic order. We find that magnetic frustration and spin degeneracy can be lifted by the quantum orbital flips of the host, but they are robust in special regions of the

  18. Families of Keplerian orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butikov, Eugene I [St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2003-03-01

    Various properties of Keplerian orbits traced by satellites that are launched from one and the same spatial point with different initial velocities are discussed. Two families of elliptical orbits are investigated, namely the sets of orbits produced by a common direction but different magnitudes of the initial velocities, and by a common magnitude but various directions of the initial velocities. For the latter family, the envelope of all the orbits is found, which is the boundary of the spatial region occupied by the orbits.

  19. Families of Keplerian orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Butikov, E I

    2003-01-01

    Various properties of Keplerian orbits traced by satellites that are launched from one and the same spatial point with different initial velocities are discussed. Two families of elliptical orbits are investigated, namely the sets of orbits produced by a common direction but different magnitudes of the initial velocities, and by a common magnitude but various directions of the initial velocities. For the latter family, the envelope of all the orbits is found, which is the boundary of the spatial region occupied by the orbits.

  20. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  1. Male torque strength in simulated oil rig tasks: the effects of grease-smeared gloves and handle length, diameter and orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imrhan, S.N. [University of Texas at Arlington (United States). Dept. of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering; Farahmand, K. [Texas A and M University at Kingsville (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This paper examines the effects of two glove conditions and selected handle and task characteristics on tightening (clockwise) torques on cylindrical handles in simulated oil rig tasks. Ten males exerted MVC torques with the right hand on nine handles with different length-diameter combinations (3.8, 7.6 and 12.7 cm in length with 3.8, 6.7 and 8.4 cm in diameter) with dry and grease-smeared gloves in two orientations. The results showed a 50% reduction of torque when using grease-smeared glove compared to dry glove; a 15% increase with the long handle compared to the short one; a 25% increase with the medium diameter handle compared to the small one; and a 12% increase with the horizontally oriented handle compared with the vertical one. There were important interaction effects also. (author)

  2. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208 Section 93.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.208 Articles accompanying poultry. No...

  3. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter...

  4. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No...

  5. 9 CFR 93.409 - Articles accompanying ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying ruminants. 93.409 Section 93.409 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.409 Articles accompanying ruminants...

  6. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge with grease trap sludge and municipal solid waste as co-substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, A; Neczaj, E; Singh, B R; Almås, Å R; Brattebø, H; Kacprzak, M

    2017-05-01

    The feasibility of simultaneous treatment of multiple wastes via co-digestion was studied in semi-continuous mode at mesophilic conditions. The obtained results indicated that sewage sludge, organic fraction of municipal waste (OFMSW) and grease trap sludge (GTS) possess complementary properties that can be combined for successful anaerobic digestion. During the co-digestion period, methane yield and VS removal were significantly higher in comparison to digestion of sewage sludge alone. Addition of GTS to digesters treating sewage sludge resulted in increased VS removal and methane yield up to 13% (from 50 to 56.4) and 52% (from 300 to 456,547m(3)/Mg VSadd), respectively. While the use of OFMSW as the next co-substrate in the feedstock, can boost methane yield and VS removal up to 82% (300-547m(3)/Mg VSadd) and approximately 29% (from 50% to 64.7%), respectively. Moreover, the results of the present laboratory study revealed that the addition of co-substrates to the feedstock had a significant influence on biogas composition. During the experiment methane content in biogas ranged from 67% to 69%. While, the concentration of LCFAs was increasing with the gradual increase in the share of co-substrates in the mixtures, wherein only the oleic acid was higher than some inhibition concentrations which have been reported in the literature. However, it did not significantly affect the efficiency of the co-digestion process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Improved biogas production from food waste by co-digestion with de-oiled grease trap waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Jie; Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Li, Yu-You; Xu, Kai-Qin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of co-digesting food waste (FW) and de-oiled grease trap waste (GTW) to improve the biogas production. A lab-scale mesophilic digester (MD), a temperature-phased anaerobic digester (TPAD) and a TPAD with recycling (TPAD-R) were synchronously operated under mono-digestion (FW) and co-digestion (FW+de-oiled GTW). Co-digestion increased the biogas yield by 19% in the MD and TPAD-R, with a biogas yield of 0.60L/g VS added. Specific methanogenic activity in the TPAD-R was much higher than that in the MD. In addition to methane, hydrogen at a yield of approximately 1mol/mol hexose was produced in the TPAD-R. Alkalinity was consumed more in the co-digestion than in mono-digestion. Co-digestion resulted in more lipid accumulation in each digester. The MD favored the degradation of lipid and conversion of long-chain fatty acids more than the TPAD and TPAD-R. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal and electrical properties of thermal-grease-insulated REBCO superconducting coils with respect to winding tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jung-Bin; Choi, Yoon Hyuck; Yang, Dong Gyu; Kim, Young-Gyun; Kim, Seong-Gyeom; Choi, Yeon Suk; Lee, Haigun

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the thermal and electrical characteristics of a silicon-based grease insulation (GI) GdBCO coil with respect to the winding tension through charge, sudden discharge, and over-current tests. Charge and sudden discharge test results demonstrate that the charging/discharging delay time increases as the winding tension increases; this is because the characteristic resistance of the coil decreases due to the reduced contact resistance. The over-current test results confirm that the thermal/electrical stabilities of the GI coil are considerably enhanced with an increased winding tension resulting from improved thermal contact and the decrease in the electrical contact resistance between the turn-to-turn layers of the coil. Thus, as the winding tension increases, the charging/discharging rates decrease whereas the thermal/electrical stabilities improve. Overall, selecting the appropriate winding tension for a GI coil is critical for achieving thermal/electrical stabilities, as well as ameliorating the charging/discharging delay phenomenon generally observed in a no-insulation coil.

  9. Understanding the spatial formation and accumulation of fats, oils and grease deposits in the sewer collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, Christopher Cyril Sandeep; Szakasits, Megan; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-01-01

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially, along with other obstructions (roots intrusion) and pipe deformations (pipe sags), may influence the detrimental buildup of FOG deposits. The purpose of this study was to quantify the spatial variation in FOG deposit formation and accumulation in a pilot-scale sewer collection system. The pilot system contained straight pipes, manholes, roots intrusion, and a pipe sag. Calcium and oil were injected into the system and operated at alkaline (pH = 10) and neutral (pH = 7) pH conditions. Results showed that solid accumulations were slightly higher at neutral pH. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis on the solids samples confirmed that the solids were indeed calcium-based fatty acid salts. However, the fatty acid profiles of the solids deviated from the profile found from FOG deposits in sewer systems, which were primarily saturated fatty acids. These results confirm the work done previously by researchers and suggest an alternative fate of unsaturated fatty acids that does not lead to their incorporation in FOG deposits in full-scale sewer systems.

  10. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M Al-Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  11. Family of Orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time. All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet. Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  12. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that appears not to be the case if choice white grease is used. There was no evidence of negative effects of the fat sources used in this experiment on the ATTD of any minerals.

  13. Orbital ordering and frustrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khomskii, D.I.; Mostovoy, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital ordering occurs in many transition metal compounds with Jahn–Teller ions (Cu2+, Mn3+, low-spin Ni3+, Ti3+ etc). It plays an important role in these materials. At the same time, exchange interactions in orbitally degenerate systems are inherently frustrated, even in materials with simple

  14. CONGENITAL ORBITAL TERATOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commenced on topical chloramphenicol therapy. The x-ray showed a left orbital soft tissue mass but no orbital enlargement and the swab showed no growth. ... proliferating neural bundles and some neural bundles lined by pigmented choroidal epithelium. Also seen are abundant fibrous tissues scattered within the.

  15. 31 CFR 560.507 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses... Iranian-origin accompanied baggage normally incident to travel. (b) Persons leaving the United States for... otherwise prohibited from importation or exportation under applicable United States laws. ...

  16. EXPERIENCES OF MOTHERS ACCOMPANYING HOSPITALIZED CHILDREN UNIT IN PEDIATRIC CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Marques dos Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the experience of mothers accompanying hospitalized children in the Pediatric Clinic of a hospital in the interior of Bahia. METHODS: Descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study which complied with Resolution 196/96 and was developed in the Pediatric Unit, in the period between September and December 2009 through semi-structured interviews with eleven accompanying mothers. RESULTS:The illness and hospitalization occurr abruptly and generate the need for reorganization of family dynamics to meet the demands of the family members. As the accompanying mother will understand the dynamics of health workers, they stay calmer and try to understand the disease, care and her responsabilities. CONCLUSIONS: The accompanying mother needs to be recognized as a constant in the lives of sick children and within their family context, so that their actions and reactions child during hospitalization.

  17. Peripheral orbit model

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Yasuo

    1975-01-01

    Peripheral orbit model, in which an incoming hadron is assumed to revolve in a peripheral orbit around a target hadron, is discussed. The non-diffractive parts of two-body reaction amplitudes of hadrons are expressed in terms of the radius, width an absorptivity of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is about 1 fm and the width of the orbit is determined by the range of the interaction between the hadrons. The model reproduces all available experimental data on differential cross-sections and polarizations of $K^{-}p\\to K^{-}p$ and $\\bar K^{\\circ}n$ reactions for all angles successfully. This contribution is not included in the proceedings since it will appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 51 (1974) No 2. Any person interested in the subject may apply for reprints to the author.

  18. Oil and grease (O&G removal from commercial kitchen waste water using carbonised grass as a key media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Siti Nazahiyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and grease (O&G are usually found in kitchen waste water. O&G are poorly soluble in water and can cause serious problems during the wastewater treatment. Adsorption is a fundamental process in the treatment of kitchen waste water and very economical. Activated carbon is the most effective adsorbent for this application. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to determine the potential of four materials (i.e. sand, gravel, carbonised grass (CG and clay powder as filter media for O&G removal. The CGs were originated from “Elephant Grass” and it is a fast growing plant with significant potential as carbon. The clay acts as a magnet, drawing the oil molecules out of the water and causing them to attach to the surfaces of the clay. In the current study, two filters were developed with different media materials to get the best percentage removal. Filters 1 and 2 were filled with sand, gravel and CG, and sand, gravel, CG and powder clay, respectively. Three samples were taken during peak hour between April and May 2016. The initial O&G concentration varied from 101.37 mg/l to 248.30 mg/l and the final concentration varied from none to 22.57 mg/l for both filters. The percentage removal (% of O&G were between 90.9 and 97.3 (Filter 1 and between 94.3 and 100 (Filter 2. Overall, both filters could efficiently remove O&G in the waste water and the quality of the carbonised grass proved to be as good as carbon produced from other traditional sources.

  19. Elucidating microbial community adaptation to anaerobic co-digestion of fats, oils, and grease and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amha, Yamrot M; Sinha, Pooja; Lagman, Jewls; Gregori, Matt; Smith, Adam L

    2017-10-15

    Despite growing interest in co-digestion and demonstrated process improvements (e.g., enhanced stability and biogas production), few studies have evaluated how co-digestion impacts the anaerobic digestion (AD) microbiome. Three sequential bench-scale respirometry experiments were conducted at thermophilic temperature (50 °C) with various combinations of primary sludge (PS); thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS); fats, oils, and grease (FOG); and food waste (FW). Two additional runs were then performed to evaluate microbial inhibition at higher organic fractions of FOG (30-60% volatile solids loading (VSL; v/v)). Co-digestion of PS, TWAS, FOG, and FW resulted in a 26% increase in methane production relative to digestion of PS and TWAS. A substantial lag time was observed in biogas production for vessels with FOG addition that decreased by more than half in later runs, likely due to adaptation of the microbial community. 30% FOG with 10% FW showed the highest increase in methane production, increasing 53% compared to digestion of PS and TWAS. FOG addition above 50% VSL was found to be inhibitory with and without FW addition and resulted in volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation. Methane production was linked with high relative activity and abundance of syntrophic fatty-acid oxidizers alongside hydrogenotrophic methanogens, signaling the importance of interspecies interactions in AD. Specifically, relative activity of Syntrophomonas was significantly correlated with methane production. Further, methane production increased over subsequent runs along with methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene expression, a functional gene in methanogens, suggesting temporal adaptation of the microbial community to co-digestion substrate mixtures. The study demonstrated the benefits of co-digestion in terms of performance enhancement and enrichment of key active microbial populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Orbit Stabilization of Nanosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON,DAVID J.

    1999-12-01

    An algorithm is developed to control a pulsed {Delta}V thruster on a small satellite to allow it to fly in formation with a host satellite undergoing time dependent atmospheric drag deceleration. The algorithm uses four short thrusts per orbit to correct for differences in the average radii of the satellites due to differences in drag and one thrust to symmetrize the orbits. The radial difference between the orbits is the only input to the algorithm. The algorithm automatically stabilizes the orbits after ejection and includes provisions to allow azimuthal positional changes by modifying the drag compensation pulses. The algorithm gives radial and azimuthal deadbands of 50 cm and 3 m for a radial measurement accuracy of {+-} 5 cm and {+-} 60% period variation in the drag coefficient of the host. Approaches to further reduce the deadbands are described. The methodology of establishing a stable orbit after ejection is illustrated in an appendix. The results show the optimum ejection angle to minimize stabilization thrust is upward at 86{sup o} from the orbital velocity. At this angle the stabilization velocity that must be supplied by the thruster is half the ejection velocity. An ejection velocity of 0.02 m/sat 86{sup o} gives an azimuthal separation after ejection and orbit stabilization of 187 m. A description of liquid based gas thrusters suitable for the satellite control is included in an appendix.

  1. Orbital cellulitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswaran, Savithri; Woods, Charles R; Benjamin, Daniel K; Givner, Laurence B; Shetty, Avinash K

    2006-08-01

    To review the epidemiology and management of orbital cellulitis in children. The medical records of children orbital cellulitis and confirmed by computed tomography scan were reviewed. A literature search for additional studies for systematic review was also conducted. Forty-one children with orbital cellulitis were identified. The mean age was 7.5 years (range, 10 months to 16 years), and 30 (73%) were male (male:female ratio = 2.7). All cases of orbital cellulitis were associated with sinusitis; ethmoid sinusitis was present in 40 (98%) patients. Proptosis and/or ophthalmoplegia was documented in 30 (73%), and 34 (83%) had subperiosteal and/or orbital abscesses. Twenty-nine (71%) had surgical drainage and 12 (29%) received antibiotic therapy only. The mean duration of hospitalization was 5.8 days. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 21 days. Orbital cellulitis occurs throughout childhood and in similar frequency among younger and older children. It is twice as common among males as females. Selected cases of orbital cellulitis, including many with subperiosteal abscess, can be treated successfully without surgical drainage.

  2. Orbital cystic neurinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokugawa, J; Nakao, Y; Mori, K; Maeda, M

    2003-07-01

    A 64-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of exophthalmus of her right eye. She had no neurological deficit except for the exophthalmus and numbness in the right side of her forehead (frontal nerve territory). Neuro-imaging demonstrated a cystic mass in the right orbit. The tumour was totally removed by microsurgical transcranial surgery. The histological diagnosis was neurinoma. The origin of the tumour was considered to be the frontal nerve. Only two other cases of orbital cystic neurinoma have been reported. This rare clinical entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of a cystic mass in the orbit.

  3. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  4. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Aiyub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  5. Orbital heat rate package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovin, J. K.; Spradley, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    Package consisting of three separate programs used to accurately predict temperature distribution of spacecraft in planetary orbit is invaluable tool for design and analysis of other structures that must function in complex thermal environment.

  6. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Y Gogri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital abscess generally occurs in older children but it can rarely affect infants and neonates too. We report a case of community acquired methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA neonatal orbital abscess in a 12-day-old term female neonate with no significant past medical history or risk factor for developing the infection. The case highlights the importance of consideration of CA-MRSA as a causative agent of neonatal orbital cellulitis even in a neonate without any obvious predisposing condition. Prompt initiation of appropriate medical therapy against MRSA and surgical drainage of the abscess prevents life threatening complications of orbital cellulitis which more often tend to be fatal in neonates.

  7. Microbial community adaptation influences long-chain fatty acid conversion during anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease with municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziels, Ryan M; Karlsson, Anna; Beck, David A C; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Bjorn, Annika; Stensel, H David; Svensson, Bo H

    2016-10-15

    Codigesting fats, oils, and greases with municipal wastewater sludge can greatly improve biomethane recovery at wastewater treatment facilities. Process loading rates of fats, oils, and greases have been previously tested with little knowledge of the digester microbial community structure, and high transient fat loadings have led to long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation and digester upsets. This study utilized recently-developed quantitative PCR assays for syntrophic LCFA-degrading bacteria along with 16S amplicon sequencing to relate changes in microbial community structure to LCFA accumulation during transient loading increases to an anaerobic codigester receiving waste restaurant oil and municipal wastewater sludge. The 16S rRNA gene concentration of the syntrophic β-oxidizing genus Syntrophomonas increased to ∼15% of the Bacteria community in the codigester, but stayed below 3% in the control digester that was fed only wastewater sludge. Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were the dominant methanogenic genera enriched in the codigester, and together comprised over 80% of the Archaea community by the end of the experimental period. Constrained ordination showed that changes in the codigester Bacteria and Archaea community structures were related to measures of digester performance. Notably, the effluent LCFA concentration in the codigester was positively correlated to the specific loading rate of waste oil normalized to the Syntrophomonas 16S rRNA concentration. Specific loading rates of 0-1.5 × 10(-12) g VS oil/16S gene copies-day resulted in LCFA concentrations below 30 mg/g TS, whereas LCFA accumulated up to 104 mg/g TS at higher transient loading rates. Based on the community-dependent loading limitations found, enhanced biomethane production from high loadings of fats, oils and greases can be achieved by promoting a higher biomass of slow-growing syntrophic consortia, such as with longer digester solids retention times. This work also

  8. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  9. The Lunar Orbital Prospector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; McCurdy, Greg

    1992-09-01

    The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.

  10. Anterior internal lenticonus accompanied by congenital nuclear cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Sun, Chuan-Bin; Yao, Ke

    2011-12-01

    Internal lenticonus is a very rare morphologic abnormality of crystalline lens which has been reported in only several cases in the literature. We herein reported the clinical characteristics and surgical findings of the anterior internal lenticonus accompanied by congenital nuclear cataract. Cataract extraction accompanied with intraocular lens implantation was uneventfully performed, and a good visual outcome was achieved in this case. Viral infection during embryonal and fetal period might account for the formation of the anterior internal lenticonus and congenital nuclear cataract in our case.

  11. [Orbital complications of sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuchaň, M; Horňák, M; Kaliarik, L; Krempaská, S; Koštialová, T; Kovaľ, J

    2014-12-01

    Orbital complications categorised by Chandler are emergency. They need early diagnosis and agresive treatment. Stage and origin of orbital complications are identified by rhinoendoscopy, ophtalmologic examination and CT of orbite and paranasal sinuses. Periorbital cellulitis and early stage of orbital cellulitis can be treated conservatively with i. v. antibiotics. Monitoring of laboratory parameters and ophtalmologic symptoms is mandatory. Lack of improvement or worsening of symptoms within 24-48 hours and advanced stages of orbital complications are indicated for surgery. The purpose of the study is to evaluate epidemiology, clinical features and management of sinogenic orbital complications. Retrospective data of 8 patients with suspicion of orbital complication admited to hospital from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Patients were analyzed in terms of gender, age, CT findings, microbiology, clinical features, stage and treatment. Male and female were afected in rate 1,66:1. Most of patients were young adult in 3rd. and 4th. decade of life (62,5 %). Acute and chronic sinusitis were cause of orbital complication in the same rate. The most common origin of orbital complication was ethmoiditis (62,5 %), than maxillary (25 %) and frontal (12,5 %) sinusitis. Polysinusitis with affection of ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinuses (75 %) was usual CT finding. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were etiological agens in half of cases. Periorbital oedema (100 %), proptosis, chemosis (50 %), diplopia and glaucoma (12,5 %) were observed. Based on examinations, diagnosis of periorbital oedema/preseptal cellulitis was made in 3 (37,5 %), orbital cellulitis in 3 (37,5 %) and subperiosteal abscess in 2 cases (25 %). All patients underwent combined therapy - i. v. antibiotics and surgery within 24 hours. Eradication of disease from ostiomeatal complex (OMC), drainage of affected sinuses and drainage of subperiosteal abscess were done via fuctional endonasal

  12. Orbital complications of rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijuwola, Oo; Adeyemo, Aa; Adeosun, Aa

    2007-06-01

    Suppurative extension of rhinosinusitis to the orbit is a complication that often results from delay in diagnosis and, or inadequate treatment. These complications may range from preseptal cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, orbital abscesses, and subperiosteal abscesses to intracranial extension with a threat to both vision and life. This study aims to review the clinical profile, treatment modalities and outcome of orbital complications of rhinosinusitis in Ibadan, Nigeria. A retrospective review of the charts of patients with orbital complications of rhinosinusitis managed in the departments of Otorhinolaryngology and Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan over a five year period (Feb 2002- Jan 2007) was carried out .The diagnosis of rhinosinusitis was based on history, physical examination, plain x ray and CT scan findings and antral puncture. Demographic data, clinical presentation and treatment were evaluated. A total of 24 patients were reviewed in the study. There were 13males and 11females (M/F, 1:1). The age range was 8months to 75years, 14 (58.3%) patients were children and while 10 (41.7%) patients were adults. 75% of the patients were seen during the dry season (November to February). The duration of symptoms ranged from one day to three weeks. Involvement of one eye occurred in 14 patients (58.3%); right eye (4), left eye (10). Both eyes were involved in 10 patients (41.7%). Non-axial proptosis was seen in 8 patients (33.3%). It was infero-lateral in 6 patients (25%) and infero-nasal in two (8.3%) patients. Orbital cellulitis was seen in 10 (41.7%) patients, 6 (25%) patients had preseptal cellulitis while 8 (33%) patients had orbital abscess. Cavernous sinus thrombosis was seen in 3 (12.5%) patients. The cases with preseptal and orbital cellulitis were effectively managed by intravenous antibiotics. Orbital abscesses were drained surgically with complete resolution. Sinus surgical procedures were done in 10(41.7%) patients. This group of

  13. Wanted: elbow grease

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    In Divonne-les-Bains, an association founded by former CERN personnel is restoring the oldest hydroelectric plant in France. The adventure started more than ten years ago, and now you’re invited to take part…   View of the benzole-powered thermic engine from 1907. Georges Leskens, a spritely 85-year-old, is president of the Divonnelectro association. Georges, a former electrical engineer at CERN, now has a new goal: to bring the Moulin David hydroelectric plant in Divonne-les-Bains, which he found in a derelict state in 2001, back to life. “When I entered the plant for the first time, I found several remarkable period machines… and the extent of the damage,” recalls Georges. “Among other things, the town used the building for storing salt and grit for the roads... so I don’t need to tell you what state the mechanisms were in!” Aware of the historical value of the site (see box), Georges convinced the D...

  14. Just Greasing the Wheels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    We traditionally see diplomats as mediators.They build bridges between nations and they repair them when they break. During a crisis, diplomats ‘keep it cool’ and try to prevent the crisis from worsening into armed conflict. Diplomats are the men and women who keep the international system runnin...

  15. Abstract: Right to Health Care – An Accompaniment Approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have been accompanying patients to access quality medical care at referral hospitals supporting approximately 500 inpatients yearly with a survival rate of 93.3%; and since 2012 the program supported twenty-five international patients' transfers; and patients always show gratitude for the services that they wouldn't ...

  16. Value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in community nursing science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical community health facilities where undergraduate students are placed for their practical work in community nursing science are dynamic and have ... and students during clinical accompaniment were explored for value sensitivity by means of video recordings,participant observation and focus group interviews.

  17. The Effect of Piano Accompaniment on Kindergartners' Developmental Singing Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterbury, Betty W.; Silcox, Lynn

    1993-01-01

    Reports the influence of piano harmonic accompaniment on singing ability of 203 kindergarten students during 1 year of instruction. Finds that no significant differences in singing ability occurred in the groups. Suggests that musical aptitude develops gradually and extensive musical exposure and instruction may be necessary to improve singing…

  18. Accompanying Partners of International Students: Reflections on Three Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dan; Arthur, Nancy; Domene, José F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews and critiques the existing literature on accompanying partners of international students (APIS), who are often an ignored population in programs and services for the internationalization of Canadian higher education. Particularly, we identify three issues. First, we argue that current research on this group overwhelmingly…

  19. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world shall...

  20. Right to Health Care – An Accompaniment Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The Right to Health Care (RTHC) is a Partners In Health (PIH) program that uses the accompaniment ap- proach with patients from any Inshuti Mu Buzima/Partners in Health (IMB/PIH)-supported district hospitals, namely Butaro, Kirehe and Rwinkwavu; and it allocates funding to ensure that quality medical care ...

  1. Bias in Examination Test Banks that Accompany Cost Accounting Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clute, Ronald C.; McGrail, George R.

    1989-01-01

    Eight text banks that accompany cost accounting textbooks were evaluated for the presence of bias in the distribution of correct responses. All but one were found to have considerable bias, and three of eight were found to have significant choice bias. (SK)

  2. Critical thinking of student nurses during clinical accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BY Uys

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts ‘critical thinking’ and ‘facilitation’ were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.

  3. A Tapestry of Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Hele, D. G.

    2005-07-01

    Satellites as they cross the night sky look like moving stars, which can be accurately tracked by an observer with binoculars as well as by giant radars and large cameras. These observations help to determine the satellite's orbit, which is sensitive to the drag of the upper atmosphere and to any irregularities in the gravity field of the Earth. Analysis of the orbit can be used to evaluate the density of the upper atmosphere and to define the shape of the Earth. Desmond King-Hele was the pioneer of this technique of orbit analysis, and this book tells us how the research began, before the launch of Sputnik in 1957. For thirty years King-Hele and his colleagues at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, developed and applied the technique to reveal much about the Earth and air at a very modest cost. In the 1960s the upper-atmosphere density was thoroughly mapped out for 100 to 2000 km, revealing immense variation of density with solar activity and between day and night. In the 1970s and 1980s a picture of the upper-atmosphere winds emerged, and the profile of the pear-shaped Earth was accurately charted. The number of satellites now orbiting the earth is over 5000. This book is the story of how this inexpensive research of their orbits developed to yield a rich harvest of knowledge about the Earth and its atmosphere, in a scientific narrative that is enlivened with many personal experiences.

  4. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  5. Relative motion of orbiting bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.

    2001-01-01

    A problem of relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on the example of the free motion of any body ejected from the orbital station that stays in a circular orbit around the earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by a simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on approximate differential equations of the relative orbital motion.

  6. Elliptical Orbit Performance Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myler, T.

    1984-01-01

    Elliptical Orbit Performance (ELOPE) computer program for analyzing orbital performance of space boosters uses orbit insertion data obtained from trajectory simulation to generate parametric data on apogee and perigee altitudes as function of payload data. Data used to generate presentation plots that display elliptical orbit performance capability of space booster.

  7. [Secondary orbital lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, I; Sevillano, C; Álvarez, M D

    2015-09-01

    A case is presented of an 85 year-old Caucasian female with lymphoma that recurred in the orbit (secondary ocular adnexal lymphoma). The orbital tumour was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the REAL classification (Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification). Orbital lymphomas are predominantly B-cell proliferations of a variety of histological types, and most are low-grade tumours. Patients are usually middle-aged or elderly, and it is slightly more common in women. A palpable mass, proptosis and blepharoptosis are the most common signs of presentation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Preseptal Cellulitis Or Orbital Cellulitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L T; Miller, D; Ah-Kee, E Y; Ferguson, A

    2015-06-29

    Preseptal cellulitis and orbital cellulitis can both present with increasing swelling, tenderness and redness around the eye, but their management differs. Preseptal cellulitis is more common and much less aggressive than orbital cellulitis. In contrast, orbital cellulitis is a medical emergency requiring urgent management. In this article, we provide a systematic approach to distinguish between preseptal cellulitis and orbital cellulitis at presentation, as the distinction between the two entities and the prompt recognition of orbital cellulitis can be potentially life-saving.

  9. Orbital Inflammation Developing from Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis in an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung In Kim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report a rare case of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC that developed into an orbital inflammation in an adult. Case Presentation: A 67-year-old Korean man, who had been diagnosed with EKC and treated for conjunctival injection and chemosis in the right eye for 4 days, was referred to Oculoplastics as orbital cellulitis was suspected. At the point of referral, clinical features such as decreased visual acuity, severe eyelid swelling, chemosis, follicles, corneal edema, limitations in lateral eye movement, and diplopia were observed in the right eye. Orbital cellulitis was suspected according to orbital computed tomography scan images, but there was no response to systemic antibiotics. Systemic steroid was administered instead, and then his symptoms and signs started to improve. The final diagnosis of this patient was orbital inflammation related to EKC based on the facts that there was no response to antibiotics, that he presented with contralateral symptoms and signs, that pseudomembrane formation occurred in both eyes, and that the symptoms resolved completely after 2 weeks. Conclusion: Clinicians need to consider the possibility of orbital inflammation developing from EKC, even in an adult patient, and treat the patient properly if the EKC symptoms and signs, such as conjunctival injection and follicles, are accompanied with symptoms and signs similar to orbital cellulitis.

  10. Preliminary orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, L. G.; Belkin, B.; Schweiter, G.; Sommar, K.

    The problem of intercontinental ballistic missile reentry vehicle orbit determination from incomplete passive (i.e., angles-only) or active (i.e., distance plus angles) information is presented. Launch location and time and impact location and time to complete the computation of an orbital element set are utilized. In addition, it is possible to construct a good estimate of the variance of the key quantity in the angles only case; namely the computed topocentric distance. This type of observation/information situation is enlarged to include a complete discussion of single-point differential correction.

  11. Pediatric Orbital Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Monson, Laura A.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    It is wise to recall the dictum “children are not small adults” when managing pediatric orbital fractures. In a child, the craniofacial skeleton undergoes significant changes in size, shape, and proportion as it grows into maturity. Accordingly, the craniomaxillofacial surgeon must select an appropriate treatment strategy that considers both the nature of the injury and the child's stage of growth. The following review will discuss the management of pediatric orbital fractures, with an emphasis on clinically oriented anatomy and development. PMID:24436730

  12. [Orbital complications of rhinosinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, J; Ilić, N; Belić, B; Zivić, L; Stanković, P; Erdevicki, L; Jovanović, S

    2009-01-01

    Orbital complications were observed in 53 patients (1.35%, n=53/3912 of all treated patients; 11.04%, n= 53/480 of hospitalized patients). Complications in the orbit can occur in 3-5% of adults with the inflammatory condition of sinuses, while the percentage in children ranges from 0.5-8%. The objective of our work was to determine the frequency of the occurence of orbital complications of the rhinosinal inflammatory origin in a group of adults and children. The retrospective analysis of patients treated of rhinosinusitis in the period 1992 to 2007, in the Clinical Center in Kragujevac. In the period of 15 years, a total number of 3912 patients were treated for inflamatory conditions of paranasal cavities. Orbital complications were found in 53 patients (1.35%, n=53/3912 of all treated patients). The number of children showing orbital complications caused by rhinosinusitis was 0.79%, while the number of adults was 1,88%. Acute rhinosinusitis in children was manifested as orbital complication in 14 patients (n=14/15, 93.33%), while 33 adults (n=33/38, 86.84%) had the exarcerbation of the chronic rhinosinusitis at the time of diagnosis of orbital complication. 80% of examined children had the maxillary and ethmoid sinus infected (n=12/15), while the adults most often had polysinusitis (n=22/38, 57.89%). In the juvenile age the most frequent complication was the cellulitis of the orbite (n=7/15, 46.66%), while in the adults it was the subperiostal absces (n=14/38, 36.84%). The adults were mostly treated surgically (n=31/38, 81.58%), while the children were treated by using conservative treatment (n=13/15, 86.67%). There were no cases of mortality. The prevention of complications is based on the adequate and timely treatment of acute sinusitis in children, as well as the curative treatment of chronical processes in adults.

  13. Satellite orbit predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  14. Periodic orbits and TDHF phase space structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Yukio; Iwasawa, Kazuo [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Physics; Tsukuma, Hidehiko; Sakata, Fumihiko

    1998-03-01

    The collective motion of atomic nuclei is closely coupled with the motion of nucleons, therefore, it is nonlinear, and the contents of the motion change largely with the increase of its amplitude. As the framework which describes the collective motion accompanied by the change of internal structure, time-dependent Hurtley Fock (TDHF) method is suitable. At present, the authors try to make the method for studying the large region structure in quantum system by utilizing the features of the TDHF phase space. The studies made so far are briefed. In this report, the correspondence of the large region patterns appearing in the band structure chart of three-level model with the periodic orbit group in the TDHF phase space is described. The Husimi function is made, and it possesses the information on the form of respective corresponding intrinsic state. The method of making the band structure chart is explained. There are three kinds of the tendency in the intrinsic state group. The E-T charts are made for the band structure charts to quantitatively express the large region tendency. The E-T chart and the T{sub r}-T chart are drawn for a selected characteristic orbit group. It became to be known that the large region properties of the quantum intrinsic state group of three-level model can be forecast by examining the properties of the periodic orbit group in the TDHF phase space. (K.I.)

  15. Rectal duplications accompanying rectovestibular fistula: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampal, Arzu; Ozbayoglu, Asli; Kaya, Cem; Pehlivan, Yildiz; Poyraz, Aylar; Ozen, I Onur; Percin, Ferda E; Demirogullari, Billur

    2013-08-01

    Rectal duplication (RD) cysts are rare congenital anomalies that can be diagnosed with the presence of another opening in the perineum. They seldom accompany anorectal malformations (ARM). Two cases of RD accompanying ARM at opposite ends of the phenotypic spectrum, are described. A 3-month-old baby and a 2-year-old girl with ARM were scheduled for posterior sagittal anorectoplasty. The infant had an orifice at the anal dimple and the other had an orifice at the vestibulum posterior to the rectovestibular fistula. The infant presented with no other anomalies whereas the older one presented with an unusual coexistence of caudal duplication and caudal regression syndromes. Perioperatively both orifices were found to be related to retrorectal cysts, and were excised. Clinicians should always be alert when dealing with complex malformations. Because these malformations have variable anatomical and clinical presentations, they can represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Spectral distribution of solo voice and accompaniment in pop music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Daniel Zangger; Sundberg, Johan

    2002-01-01

    Singers performing in popular styles of music mostly rely on feedback provided by monitor loudspeakers on the stage. The highest sound level that these loudspeakers can provide without feedback noise is often too low to be heard over the ambient sound level on the stage. Long-term-average spectra of some orchestral accompaniments typically used in pop music are compared with those of classical symphonic orchestras. In loud pop accompaniment the sound level difference between 0.5 and 2.5 kHz is similar to that of a Wagner orchestra. Long-term-average spectra of pop singers' voices showed no signs of a singer's formant but a peak near 3.5 kHz. It is suggested that pop singers' difficulties to hear their own voices may be reduced if the frequency range 3-4 kHz is boosted in the monitor sound.

  17. Adult-Onset Acquired Partial Lipodystrophy Accompanied by Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Muto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipodystrophy is a group of metabolic disorders, possibly caused by autoimmune disease. In this report, we describe a case of adult-onset acquired partial lipodystrophy accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis without a family history. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed dense infiltration of IL-27-producing cells as well as MMP-7- and MMP-28-expressing cells, both of which have been reported to facilitate the development of autoimmune disease. Our present case might suggest possible mechanisms for acquired partial lipodystrophy.

  18. The Lunar orbit paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Aleksandar S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Newton's formula for gravity force gives greather force intensity for atraction of the Moon by the Sun than atraction by the Earth. However, central body in lunar (primary orbit is the Earth. So appeared paradox which were ignored from competent specialist, because the most important problem, determination of lunar orbit, was inmediately solved sufficiently by mathematical ingeniosity - introducing the Sun as dominant body in the three body system by Delaunay, 1860. On this way the lunar orbit paradox were not canceled. Vujičić made a owerview of principles of mechanics in year 1998, in critical consideration. As an example for application of corrected procedure he was obtained gravity law in some different form, which gave possibility to cancel paradox of lunar orbit. The formula of Vujičić, with our small adaptation, content two type of acceleration - related to inertial mass and related to gravity mass. So appears carried information on the origin of the Moon, and paradox cancels.

  19. Myxoma of the orbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambhatla Saptagirish

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are rare, benign neoplasms of mesenchymal origin that usually develop in soft tissues. As the clinical manifestations are non-specific, it is difficult to diagnose the tumour without biopsy and histopathological examination. We report a case of orbital myxoma with histopathological correlation.

  20. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  1. Pancreatic serous cystic neoplasms accompanying other pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Woon; Song, In Hye; An, Soyeon; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Song, Ki-Byung; Hwang, Dae Wook; Lee, Sang Soo; Byun, Jae Ho; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kim, Song Cheol; Yu, Eunsil; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2017-02-01

    Serous cystic neoplasms (SCNs) are benign cystic neoplasms that predominantly occur in the tail of the pancreas in elderly women. It is well known that patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome can develop SCNs and neuroendocrine tumors in the pancreas. However, our understanding on SCNs accompanying other pancreatic tumors (SCNAOPTs) is limited. We compared the clinicopathological features of 15 surgically resected SCNAOPTs with 259 conventional SCNs. The prevalence of SCNAOPT was 5%. The SCNAOPTs were significantly smaller than conventional solitary SCNs, and they were more commonly observed in the head of the pancreas, whereas conventional solitary SCNs were more frequently noted in the body and tail. However, no differences were found in terms of sex, patient age, or the gross patterns of the SCNs. Accompanying neoplasms included 7 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, 1 colloid carcinoma arising from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, 6 neuroendocrine tumors, and 1 solid pseudopapillary neoplasm. Four neuroendocrine tumors associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome occurred as multiples, whereas 2 neuroendocrine tumors without von Hippel-Lindau syndrome were solitary. In summary, SCNAOPTs comprise 5% of all SCNs and tend to be smaller and located in the head of the pancreas. Common accompanying tumors include intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, neuroendocrine tumors, and other neoplasms such as colloid carcinoma and solid pseudopapillary neoplasm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Real-time implementation of an interactive jazz accompaniment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nikhil

    Modern computational algorithms and digital signal processing (DSP) are able to combine with human performers without forced or predetermined structure in order to create dynamic and real-time accompaniment systems. With modern computing power and intelligent algorithm layout and design, it is possible to achieve more detailed auditory analysis of live music. Using this information, computer code can follow and predict how a human's musical performance evolves, and use this to react in a musical manner. This project builds a real-time accompaniment system to perform together with live musicians, with a focus on live jazz performance and improvisation. The system utilizes a new polyphonic pitch detector and embeds it in an Ableton Live system - combined with Max for Live - to perform elements of audio analysis, generation, and triggering. The system also relies on tension curves and information rate calculations from the Creative Artificially Intuitive and Reasoning Agent (CAIRA) system to help understand and predict human improvisation. These metrics are vital to the core system and allow for extrapolated audio analysis. The system is able to react dynamically to a human performer, and can successfully accompany the human as an entire rhythm section.

  3. Closed total dislocation of talus without any accompanying fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursu, Sarper; Sahin, Vedat; Demir, Bilal; Yildirim, Timur

    2013-01-01

    Total talar dislocation, ie, disruption of the talus from the calcaneus, navicula, and tibia, is a rare and severe injury. We present a case of closed peritalar dislocation without any accompanying fractures and, thus, discuss the conflicts encountered in this rare injury. A 25-year-old male patient presented with severe pain, swelling, and deformity in his right ankle within 30 minutes of a fall from a height. There were no wounds around the ankle. Radiographs revealed that the talus was disrupted from the calcaneus, navicula, and tibia moving in the anterolateral direction. No accompanying fractures were seen in the talus or in surrounding bones. After an unsuccessful closed reduction attempt, a further decision was open reduction. It was seen that the interposed joint capsula was preventing reduction. After reduction, stability of the ankle was checked and found to be satisfactory, so no fixation material was used. It has been 2 years since the first injury, and the patient is functioning well, with no pain. The ankle has the same range of motion as the unaffected side. No sign of an avascular necrosis or sclerosis is seen on the final radiographs. Closed total dislocation of the talus without any accompanying fractures is a rare entity. The injury is open to various important complications, such as avascular necrosis, infection in patients with open wounds, and arthritic changes. To achieve a good outcome, early reduction of the dislocation has key importance.

  4. The formation of the eccentric-orbit millisecond pulsar J1903+0327 and the origin of single millisecond pulsars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegies Zwart, S.; van den Heuvel, E.P.J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Nelemans, G.

    2011-01-01

    The millisecond pulsar (MSP) J1903+0327 is accompanied by an ordinary G dwarf star in an unusually wide (P orb 95.2 days) and eccentric (e 0.44) orbit. The standard model for producing MSPs fails to explain the orbital characteristics of this extraordinary binary, and alternative binary models are

  5. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Toprak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  6. Low Earth Orbit Satellite’s Orbit Propagation and Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Institute of Technology Email: honien.shou@xuite.net Abstract This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of Low Eearth Orbit(LEO...Arichandran, S. H. Tan, T. Bretschneider, High – Presicion Onboard Orbit Determination for Small Satellites - the GPS-Based XNS on X-SAT. 6th Symposium on

  7. Local orbitals by minimizing powers of the orbital variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Kristensen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    is obtained. For increasing power exponents, the penalty for delocalized orbitals is increased and smaller maximum orbital spreads are encountered. Calculations on superbenzene, C60, and a fragment of the titin protein show that for a power exponent equal to one, delocalized outlier orbitals may...

  8. Effects of glycerin concentration in steam-flaked corn-based diets with supplemental yellow grease on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttrey, E K; Luebbe, M K; McCollum, F T; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C; Hales, K E

    2015-07-01

    Forty-eight individually fed crossbred steers (initial BW = 381 ± 7.61 kg) were used to determine the effects of glycerin (GLY) concentration in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with added yellow grease on animal performance and carcass characteristics. Glycerin was included at 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% dietary DM replacing SFC. A completely randomized design was used with steers as the experimental unit, and the model included the fixed effects of diet. Contrast statements were used to determine linear and quadratic effects of GLY inclusion. Final BW and DMI were not affected (P > 0.27) by GLY concentration. Average daily gain and G:F based on live BW did not differ as GLY level increased in the diet from 0 to 10% of DM (P > 0.33). Carcass-adjusted final BW and carcass-adjusted G:F were also not affected by GLY concentration (P > 0.22); however, carcass-adjusted ADG tended to respond quadratically by decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY inclusion and increasing thereafter (P = 0.10). Calculated dietary NEm and NEg did not differ as GLY increased in the diet (P > 0.37). Hot carcass weight tended to respond quadratically, decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY and increasing thereafter (P = 0.10). Likewise, dressing percentage tended to respond quadratically by decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY inclusion and increasing to 10% GLY inclusion (P = 0.09). Fat thickness decreased linearly as GLY inclusion increased in the diet (P 0.21). Calculated yield grade (YG) decreased linearly as GLY increased in the diet from 0 to 10% of DM (P = 0.04). Based on our results, there was no animal performance benefit for replacing SFC with GLY in diets containing yellow grease, and the only change in carcass merit was a slight improvement in YG.

  9. Test bank to accompany Computers data and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1980-01-01

    Test Bank to Accompany Computers and Data Processing provides a variety of questions from which instructors can easily custom tailor exams appropriate for their particular courses. This book contains over 4000 short-answer questions that span the full range of topics for introductory computing course.This book is organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters. This text provides a very large number of questions so that instructors can produce different exam testing essentially the same topics in succeeding semesters. Three types of questions are included in this book, including multiple ch

  10. Study guide to accompany computers data and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1985-01-01

    Study Guide to Accompany Computer and Data Processing provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of computers and computer technology. This book presents the key benefits of using computers.Organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. This text then introduces computer hardware and describes the processor. Other chapters describe how microprocessors are made and describe the physical operation of computers. This book discusses as w

  11. ORFEO, THE PLEIADES ACCOMPANIMENT PROGRAM AND ITS USERS THEMATIC COMMISSIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tinel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ORFEO, the PLEIADES Accompaniment Program, was set up by CNES, the French Space Agency, to prepare, accompany and promote the use and the exploitation of the images acquired by this Very High Resolution optical sensor. It was initiated in 2004 and will last until the end of the first year of the satellite life (launched in December 2011 . The Thematic part of the ORFEO accompaniment program covers a large range of applications, and aims at specifying and validating products and services required by users. An in-depth work of user needs assessments in eight thematic domains (sea and coastline, risks and humanitarian aid, cartography and urban planning, geophysical hazards, hydrology, forestry, agriculture and defence has given rise to a large number of feasibility studies from 2006 to 2011. The Methodological Part of the ORFEO accompaniment program aims at preparing the use and exploitation of these submetric images. CNES decided to develop Orfeo Toolbox (OTB, an open source library capitalising the methodological know-how as a set of image processing and algorithmic components. Among other, OTB provides a number of heavily documented image processing functionalities such as filtering, feature extraction, segmentation, classification, change detection, 3D extraction, GIS links,.... As a conclusion to the ORFEO program, the PLEIADES Users Thematic Commissioning (UTC started three months after the satellite launch and will last until mid 2013. It covers a large number of specific interest ORFEO sites, on which PLEIADES images are being intensively acquired and processed. These ORFEO sites have been chosen according to the expectations expressed by the users in terms of their interest for dedicated thematic, their geographic location and their multi-thematic content. This paper presents the ORFEO program achievements (thematic and methodology and the organisation of the Users Thematic Commissioning (sites, studies. The paper is illustrated with some

  12. Solutions manual to accompany finite mathematics models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    A solutions manual to accompany Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications In order to emphasize the main concepts of each chapter, Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications features plentiful pedagogical elements throughout such as special exercises, end notes, hints, select solutions, biographies of key mathematicians, boxed key principles, a glossary of important terms and topics, and an overview of use of technology. The book encourages the modeling of linear programs and their solutions and uses common computer software programs such as LINDO. In addition to extensive chapters on pr

  13. [The mental stress of the accompaniment in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, R; Caron, L

    2011-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease affects patients in time and space and all dimensions of emotional, cognitive and social life. It is, in return, an unprecedented threat for the family, a disaster for each member of the family. Because of the love story, because of the suffering, the disease remains the relationship between patient and caregiver. We try to approach their suffering according to the carer's reports. Our research, conducted with support from France Alzheimer, aims to understand the nuances of the experience of becoming the accompanying person, drawing on some key moments of this accompaniment. It is through an exploratory research that we met eight caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Among them, seven were the spouses (four of seven patients are men), and one was the daughter of a patient. In a clinical psychological environment, we asked each caregiver the same question: "How would you talk about living or having lived Alzheimer'disease?" Our response will only aim to support words of the participant whenever necessary, but will also propose in difficult and particularly challenging moments, the possibility of sharing to enable the participant to verbalize their emotions. The meeting with some caregivers evidenced the preservation of a particular relationship with the patient, relationship within which the caregiver perceives in return the unspeakable weight of a disease, which works silently. Alzheimer's disease induces psychological modifications and requires great investment by caregivers, which is grafted on an earlier relationship. We should not consider the modifications in a linear relationship patient-caregiver but in a circular relationship, which complicates the relation of the couple and makes it indecisive. The violence of the confrontation with this disease results from multiple factors: social representations, impact of the diagnosis, evolution of the disease, affectivity and permanent interactions, in spite of the non verbal

  14. Antimitochondrial antibodies-positive myositis accompanied by cardiac involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Tetsuo; Fukatsu, Toru; Ichinohe, Yoshimaro; Hirata, Yasunobu

    2017-03-31

    We report a 55-year-old man who experienced proximal muscle weakness accompanied by the atrial flutter (AFL) with 1:1 conduction. Detailed examination revealed elevated antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and creatine kinase (CK). AFL was converted to sinus rhythm by cardioversion. He was diagnosed as AMA-positive myositis-associated AFL and was treated by prednisolone. Although his muscle weakness and CK level improved, AFL with 1:1 conduction reappeared. Therefore, radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) was needed to treat the AFL, resulting in maintenance of sinus rhythm. This case report describes cardiac involvement in a patient with AMA-positive myositis. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Plotting Orbital Trajectories For Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Interactive Orbital Trajectory Planning Tool (EIVAN) computer program is forward-looking interactive orbit-trajectory-plotting software tool for use with proximity operations (operations occurring within 1-km sphere of space station) and other maneuvers. Developed to plot resulting trajectories, to provide better comprehension of effects of orbital mechanics, and to help user develop heuristics for planning missions on orbit. Program runs with Microsoft's Excel for execution on MacIntosh computer running MacIntosh OS.

  16. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Akçay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal cellulitis (PC is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epidermidis, Haempphilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and S. pyogenes. The method for the diagnosis of OS and PS is computed tomography. Using effective antibiotics is a mainstay for the treatment of PC and OC. There is an agreement that surgical drainage should be performed in cases of complete ophthalmoplegia or significant visual impairment or large abscesses formation. This infections are also at a greater risk of acute visual loss, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, cerebritis, endophthalmitis, and brain abscess in children. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to control the infection. Diagnosis, treatment, management and complications of PC and OC are summarized in this manuscript. J MicrobiolInfect Dis 2014; 4(3: 123-127

  17. Orbits of four double stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present orbits of four double stars. Orbits of stars WDS 23516+4205 = ADS 17050 and WDS 18239+5848 = ADS 11336 were calculated for the first time. Orbits of double stars WDS 02022+3643 = ADS 1613 and WDS 18443+3940 = ADS 11635 were revised. We have also determined their masses, dynamical parallaxes and ephemerides.

  18. Orbital Cellulitis of Odontogenic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, William; Chakrabarti, Rahul; Choong, Jessica; Hardy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic orbital cellulitis, although uncommon, has the potential to cause severe vision loss if unsuspected and untreated. Compared to non-odontogenic bacteriology, odontogenic orbital abscesses typically feature a heavy mixed growth with anaerobic organisms. We review the literature and discuss the case of a 26-year-old male who presented with anaerobic orbital cellulitis for treatment.

  19. Retinoblastoma associated orbital cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, P.; Karcioglu, Z.; Huaman, A.; Al-Mesfer, S.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—Preseptal and orbital cellulitis are rare presenting features of intraocular retinoblastoma. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of retinoblastoma associated cellulitis, as well as to review its clinical and histopathological features.
METHODS—The medical records of 292 retinoblastoma patients in the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were reviewed. Those indicating a history of, or presenting with, cellulitis were retrieved and their clinical, radiological, and histopathological variables were assessed. Patients with definite extraocular tumour extension on clinical or radiological examination were excluded.
RESULTS—14 patients were found to have retinoblastoma associated cellulitis (4.8%); nine had bilateral and five had unilateral retinoblastoma. Conjunctival and blood cultures were performed in 10 cases and were negative. 10 children were treated with intravenous steroids, often in conjunction with antibiotics, resulting in a prompt decrease in inflammation. Three other children were treated with antibiotics alone and one received no treatment. Computed tomographic scanning depicted large intraocular tumours occupying between 80% and 100% of the globe in each case. In eight patients, periocular inflammation was radiologically interpreted as possible extraocular extension. In one patient serial computed tomographic scanning showed a reduction in intraocular calcification over time which occurred in the presence of cellulitis. 12 patients underwent enucleation and histopathological examination revealed large necrotic, poorly differentiated tumours associated with uveal involvement and early optic nerve invasion. Focal perilimbal destruction was seen in one patient, and in another peripapillary extrascleral extension was present. 12 patients are alive with a mean follow up of 56.4 months.
CONCLUSIONS—Radiological evaluation of scleral integrity may be hindered by periocular inflammatory

  20. Orbital Cellulitis Following Orbital Blow-out Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Je Yeon; Choi, Hwan Jun

    2017-10-01

    Orbital cellulitis and abscess have been described in the literature as complication that usually occur secondary to infection in the maxillary, ethmoidal, and frontal sinuses. If left untreated, it can lead to blindness, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, or cerebral abscess. Orbital fractures are a common sequela of blunt orbital trauma, but are only rarely associated with orbital cellulitis. So, the authors present rare orbital cellulitis after orbital blow-out fracture. A 55-year-old Asian complains of severe orbital swelling and pain on the left side. These symptoms had started 2 days earlier and worsened within the 24 hours before hospital admission resulting in visual disturbances such as diplopia and photophobia. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed considerable soft tissue swelling and abscess formation on the left side. Patient was subjected to surgical drainage under general anesthesia in the operation room. In this case, the postoperative period was uneventful and the rapid improvement of symptoms was remarkable. In conclusion, the abscess of the orbit is a surgical emergency in patients whose impairment of vision or ocular symptoms cannot be controlled with medical therapy using antibiotics. In our case, orbital cellulitis can occur after blunt orbital trauma without predisposing sinusitis. Early and prompt diagnosis and surgical drainage before severe loss of visual acuity rescue or recover the vision in case of orbital cellulitis.

  1. Value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in community nursing science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebin Arries

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical community health facilities where undergraduate students are placed for their practical work in community nursing science are dynamic and have undergone major transformation over the past few years. In the clinical field, community nurses and undergraduate students are representative of the different races and language and ethnic groups in the South African population, with each group espousing different value systems. Both parties – students and community nurses – report that, due to these differences, value conflicts are experienced during clinical accompaniment and that this has negative effects on clinical learning in community nursing science.

    The goal of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of students with regard to value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in the community nursing environment. An exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Interactions between community nurses and students during clinical accompaniment were explored for value sensitivity by means of video recordings,participant observation and focus group interviews. Data were collected by means of video recordings, participant observation and focus group interviews. The data were analysed and coded by the researcher and the external coder, using an inductive descriptive method to identify important segments of the regularity of behaviour. The focus group interviews were transcribed, analysed and coded by the researcher and the external coder, using Tesch’s steps of analysis (Creswell 1994:155–156.Lincoln and Guba’s criteria (1985:290 for trustworthiness were applied to the study.

    The general findings indicate that clinical accompaniment in community nursing is not value sensitive and, as a result, guidelines for value-sensitive clinical accompaniment need to be developed for undergraduate students in the community nursing environment. The following values (values for which guidelines need to be developed were

  2. Middleware Design for Swarm-Driving Robots Accompanying Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Kim, Sang Hyuck; Kang, Soon Ju

    2017-02-17

    Research on robots that accompany humans is being continuously studied. The Pet-Bot provides walking-assistance and object-carrying services without any specific controls through interaction between the robot and the human in real time. However, with Pet-Bot, there is a limit to the number of robots a user can use. If this limit is overcome, the Pet-Bot can provide services in more areas. Therefore, in this study, we propose a swarm-driving middleware design adopting the concept of a swarm, which provides effective parallel movement to allow multiple human-accompanying robots to accomplish a common purpose. The functions of middleware divide into three parts: a sequence manager for swarm process, a messaging manager, and a relative-location identification manager. This middleware processes the sequence of swarm-process of robots in the swarm through message exchanging using radio frequency (RF) communication of an IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol and manages an infrared (IR) communication module identifying relative location with IR signal strength. The swarm in this study is composed of the master interacting with the user and the slaves having no interaction with the user. This composition is intended to control the overall swarm in synchronization with the user activity, which is difficult to predict. We evaluate the accuracy of the relative-location estimation using IR communication, the response time of the slaves to a change in user activity, and the time to organize a network according to the number of slaves.

  3. Treatment of lingual traumatic ulcer accompanied with fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sella Sella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a common form of ulceration occured in oral cavity caused by mechanical trauma, either acute or chronic, resulting in loss of the entire epithelium. Traumatic ulcer often occurs in children that are usually found on buccal mucosa, labial mucosa of upper and lower lip, lateral tongue, and a variety of areas that may be bitten. To properly diagnose the ulcer, dentists should evaluate the history and clinical description in detail. If the lesion is allegedly accompanied by other infections, such as fungal, bacterial or viral infections, microbiological or serological tests will be required. One of the initial therapy given for fungal infection is nystatin which aimed to support the recovery and repair processes of epithelial tissue in traumatic ulcer case. Purpose: This case report is aimed to emphasize the importance of microbiological examination in suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. Case: A 12-year-old girl came to the clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia on June 9, 2011 accompanied with her mother. The patient who had a history of geographic tongue came with complaints of injury found in the middle of the tongue. The main diagnosis was ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection based on the results of swab examination. Case management: This traumatic ulcer case was treated with Dental Health Education, oral prophylaxis, as well as prescribing and usage instructions of nystatin. The recovery and repair processes of mucosal epithelium of the tongue then occured after the use of nystatin. Conclusion: It can be concluded that microbiological examination is important to diagnose suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. The appropriate treatment such as nystatin can be given for traumatic fungal infection.Latar belakang: Ulkus traumatic merupakan bentuk umum dari ulserasi rongga mulut yang terjadi akibat trauma

  4. Orbital Debris: A Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing orbital debris from a policy perspective is shown. The contents include: 1) Voyage through near-Earth Space-animation; 2) What is Orbital Debris?; 3) Orbital Debris Detectors and Damage Potential; 4) Hubble Space Telescope; 5) Mir Space Station Solar Array; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Satellite Explosions; 9) Satellite Collisions; 10) NASA Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines; 11) International Space Station Jettison Policy; 12) Controlled/Uncontrolled Satellite Reentries; 13) Return of Space Objects; 14) Orbital Debris and U.S. National Space Policy; 15) U.S Government Policy Strategy; 16) Bankruptcy of the Iridium Satellite System; 17) Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC); 18) Orbital Debris at the United Nations; 19) Chinese Anti-satellite System; 20) Future Evolution of Satellite Population; and 21) Challenge of Orbital Debris

  5. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP. The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan to use a nonlinear filtering method for immediate orbit tasks requires more precise satellite orbit state parameters in a short time. Although the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF method is widely used, its linear approximation of the drawbacks in dealing with nonlinear problems was especially evident, without compromising Kalman filter (unscented Kalman Filter, UKF. As a new nonlinear estimation method, it is measured at the estimated measurements on more and more applications. This paper will be the first study on UKF microsatellites in LEO orbit in real time, trying to explore the real-time precision orbit determination techniques. Through the preliminary simulation results, they show that, based on orbit mission requirements and conditions using UKF, they can satisfy the positioning accuracy and compute two indicators.

  6. ACCOMPANYING THERAPY IN PATIENTS AFTER ENDOSCOPIC LARYNGEAL SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Novozhilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the experience with accompanying therapy in patients after endoscopic laryngeal surgery, which has been gained at the Unit of Head and Neck Tumors, Moscow City Cancer Hospital Sixty-Two. Endolaryngeal operations have been performed using robotic CO2 laser and alternative modes of mechanical ventilation. Methods for abolishing laser-induced reactive tissue changes with different groups of pharmaceuticals are considered. Both the possible side effects of some drugs and their potential interaction are taken into account. The high efficacy of current inhalation systems (PARI delivering the required doses of medicaments over a short period of time and with minimal losses and regulating their dispersion in relation to the drug used is noted.

  7. Production accompanying testing of the ATLAS Pixel module

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067982; Klingenberg, R

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel detector, innermost sub-detector of the ATLAS experiment at LHC, CERN, can be sensibly tested in its entirety the first time after its installation in 2006. Because of the poor accessibility (probably once per year) of the Pixel detector and tight scheduling the replacement of damaged modules after integration as well as during operation will become a highly exposed business. Therefore and to ensure that no affected parts will be used in following production steps, it is necessary that each production step is accompanied by testing the components before assembly and make sure the operativeness afterwards. Probably 300 of about total 2000 semiconductor hybrid pixel detector modules will be build at the Universität Dortmund. Thus a production test setup has been build up and examined before starting serial production. These tests contain the characterization and inspection of the module components and the module itself under different environmental conditions and diverse operating parameters. O...

  8. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  9. A case of mediastinitis accompanied with hyperosmolar nonketotic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Mazhar Muslum; Kilinc, Faruk; Pekkolay, Zafer; Soylu, Hikmet; Tuzcu, Alpaslan Kemal

    2016-06-01

    Mediastinitis is a serious infection involving mediastinal spaces after cervical infections spread along the facial planes. A late diagnosis of mediastinitis may result in death. Here we present a diabetic patient suffered from mediastinit accompanied with hyperosmolar nonketotic coma. A 61 years old male patient with type 2 diabetes was admitted to our hospital, with complaint of generalized worsening and fever. A diagnosis of nonketotic hyperosmolar coma was done and proper treatment started immediately. Neck tomography revealed abscess formation in the upper mediastinum. The needle aspirat culture failed to show bacterial growth. After five days of antibiotic treatment the patient's symptoms resolved. The abscess formation and pleural effusion almost disappeared on control tomography. No similar case presentation was seen in the current literature. Apart from this case, mediastinit should be keep in mind when a patient suffered from dysphagia, fever and cervical swelling.

  10. A case of mediastinitis accompanied with hyperosmolar nonketotic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Muslum Tuna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediastinitis is a serious infection involving mediastinal spaces after cervical infections spread along the facial planes. A late diagnosis of mediastinitis may result in death. Here we present a diabetic patient suffered from mediastinit accompanied with hyperosmolar nonketotic coma. A 61 years old male patient with type 2 diabetes was admitted to our hospital, with complaint of generalized worsening and fever. A diagnosis of nonketotic hyperosmolar coma was done and proper treatment started immediately. Neck tomography revealed abscess formation in the upper mediastinum. The needle aspirat culture failed to show bacterial growth. After five days of antibiotic treatment the patient's symptoms resolved. The abscess formation and pleural effusion almost disappeared on control tomography. No similar case presentation was seen in the current literature. Apart from this case, mediastinit should be keep in mind when a patient suffered from dysphagia, fever and cervical swelling. Keywords: Mediastinitis, Nonketotic hyperglycemic coma, Pleural effusion

  11. Characteristics and Outcomes of Vertebrobasilar Artery Dissection with Accompanied Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Chien

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the popularity of MRI use, vertebrobasilar artery dissection (VBD has been found more frequently in patients with posterior circulation ischemic stroke (PCS. The relationship between VBD and atherosclerosis is unknown. The present study aimed to prove the hypothesis that PCS with pure VBD (p-VBD and with VBD and accompanied cervical or cerebral artery atherosclerosis (a-VBD have distinct manifestations. Methods: Patients with VBD-related PCS who were prospectively enrolled in the Taipei Veterans General Hospital Stroke Registry between January 1, 2010 and August 31, 2014 were recruited for the present study. Patients who had (1 atherosclerotic plaques with or without stenotic flow in cervical arteries on Duplex ultrasonography or (2 focal >30% stenosis in cerebral arteries other than the dissecting region (usually in arterial bifurcations which are prone to atheroma formation on brain MRA were defined as a-VBD. Results: There were 91 patients (67 [73.6%] males, mean age 65.5 years [SD = 15.2, range, 21–91] with VBD-related PCS recruited for the present study; 31 were a-VBD and 60 were p-VBD. The results showed that there were significant differences in onset age, frequency of cigarette smoking, dissecting vascular involvement, and infarct locations between the 2 groups. In addition, compared with p-VBD, the a-VBD group had poorer functional recovery at 3 months and 1 year, respectively, which was independent of age, sex, vascular risk factors, stroke severity at admission, and treatment options. Conclusion: VBD-related PCS with and without accompanied atherosclerosis had different manifestations and should be regarded as distinct arterial diseases.

  12. Middleware Design for Swarm-Driving Robots Accompanying Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Su Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on robots that accompany humans is being continuously studied. The Pet-Bot provides walking-assistance and object-carrying services without any specific controls through interaction between the robot and the human in real time. However, with Pet-Bot, there is a limit to the number of robots a user can use. If this limit is overcome, the Pet-Bot can provide services in more areas. Therefore, in this study, we propose a swarm-driving middleware design adopting the concept of a swarm, which provides effective parallel movement to allow multiple human-accompanying robots to accomplish a common purpose. The functions of middleware divide into three parts: a sequence manager for swarm process, a messaging manager, and a relative-location identification manager. This middleware processes the sequence of swarm-process of robots in the swarm through message exchanging using radio frequency (RF communication of an IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol and manages an infrared (IR communication module identifying relative location with IR signal strength. The swarm in this study is composed of the master interacting with the user and the slaves having no interaction with the user. This composition is intended to control the overall swarm in synchronization with the user activity, which is difficult to predict. We evaluate the accuracy of the relative-location estimation using IR communication, the response time of the slaves to a change in user activity, and the time to organize a network according to the number of slaves.

  13. Geo satellite attitude and orbit control: fixed orbit control thrasters

    OpenAIRE

    Ermoshkin, Yu; V. Raevsky; Urusov, V.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the enhanced application ofhigh-economical electro-jet orbit control thrusters for geostationary satellites; in particular, generation of controlling moments to the benefit of satellite attitude determination and control subsystems in the course of orbit control maneuvers ongoing. The scheme with thrusters fixed on a satellite body is analyzed. Possible orbit control session procedures are proposed on the basis of controlling moments generation. Advantages and disadvantage...

  14. A Typical Presentation of Orbital Pseudotumor Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ayatollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orbital pseudotumor, also known as idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS, is a benign, non- infective inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. The disease may mimics a variety of pathologic conditions. We pre-sent a case of pseudotumor observed in a patient admitted under the name of orbital celluli-ties. Case Report: A 26-year-old woman reffered to our hospital with the history of left ocular pain and headache 2 days before her visit.. Ophthalmological examination of the patient was normal except for the redness and lid edema, mild chemosis and conjunctival injection. Gen-eral assessment was normal but a low grade fever was observed. She was hospitalized as an orbital cellulitis patient. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics. On the third day , sud-denly diplopia, proptosis in her left eye and ocular pain in her right side appeared. MRI re-vealed bilateral enlargement of extraocular muscles. Diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was made and the patient was treated with oral steroid.She responded promptly to the treatment. Antibiotics were discontinued and steroid was tapered in one month period under close fol-low up. Conclusion: The clinical features of orbital pseudotumor vary widely . Orbital pseudotumor and orbital cellulitis can occasionally demonstrate overlapping features.. Despite complete physical examination and appropriate imaging, sometimes correct diagnosis of the disease would be difficult (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:256-259

  15. New Orbits for 18 Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Z.; Pavlović, R.

    2017-12-01

    Orbital elements of 18 visual binaries are computed using the measurements collected in the Fourth Catalog of Interferometric Measurements of Binary Stars; 15 orbits are determined for the first time and three orbits are revised. Eleven of the binaries, denoted as HDS, were discovered during the Hipparcos mission. The remaining binaries were discovered a few years earlier or later than 1991. All studied pairs are close, and all measured separations are less than 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 46. The shortest orbital period is 10 years and the longest orbital period is 127 years. Dynamical parallaxes and total masses of systems are derived from the orbital elements. We also give absolute magnitudes, spectral types, and (O-C) residuals in θ and ρ.

  16. Soundtracks to Accompany Visualizations of Nuclear Pasta Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear pasta is a substance found in neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae, arising at the extreme densities near nuclear saturation, when the attractive nuclear and repulsive coulomb forces mold the dense sea of protons and neutrons into shapes such as spheres, tubes, and slabs, which somewhat resemble different types of pasta. The structures are analyzed using molecular dynamical simulations for different proton fractions, temperatures, densities, and number of nucleons. The system is stressed by stretching it, squeezing it, or subjecting it to some outside force. In order to obtain a more complete representation of how the nuclear pasta responds, sound tracks were produced to accompany videos of stretching simulations. The audio tracks were made by assuming sound waves are produced from changes in the nucleon density. This density was calculated within a small region at frequent time intervals during the run. The resulting sound track was then synced with a video of the run in order to emphasize the development of the system as the pasta moves and breaks. Nuclear pasta is a substance found in neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae, arising at the extreme densities near nuclear saturation, when the attractive nuclear and repulsive coulomb forces mold the dense sea of protons and neutrons into shapes such as spheres, tubes, and slabs, which somewhat resemble different types of pasta. The structures are analyzed using molecular dynamical simulations for different proton fractions, temperatures, densities, and number of nucleons. The system is stressed by stretching it, squeezing it, or subjecting it to some outside force. In order to obtain a more complete representation of how the nuclear pasta responds, sound tracks were produced to accompany videos of stretching simulations. The audio tracks were made by assuming sound waves are produced from changes in the nucleon density. This density was calculated within a small region at frequent time intervals

  17. Orbital science's 'Bermuda Triangle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Thomas J.

    1991-02-01

    The effects of a part of the inner Van Allen belt lying closest to the earth, known as the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) upon spacecraft including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), are discussed. The area consists of positively charged ions and electrons from the Van Allen Belt which become trapped in the earth's dipole field. Contor maps representing the number of protons per square centimeter per second having energies greater than 10 million electron volts are presented. It is noted that the HST orbit causes it to spend about 15 percent of its time in the SAA, but that, unlike the experience with earlier spacecraft, the satellite's skin, internal structure, and normal electronic's packaging provides sufficient protection against eletrons, although some higher energy protons still get through. Various charged particle effects which can arise within scientific instruments including fluorescence, Cerenkov radiation, and induced radioactivity are described.

  18. Orbital Eccrine Hidrocystoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Marangoz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old female patient presented with a painless mass on her upper eyelid medially. She noticed the mass 4 years earlier and it had increased in size over time. She had no diplopia, eyelid swelling, skin lesion overlying the mass, or visual disturbances. On ocular examination, eye movements and funduscopy were normal. The mass was movable and painless with palpation. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast showed a 12x8x7 mm well-circumscribed cystic lesion with no contrast dye appearance. Surgical removal was performed delicately and no capsular rupture occured. Pathological examination revealed an eccrine hidrocystoma. Our aim is to underline that eccrine hidrocystoma should be included in differential diagnosis of orbital masses.

  19. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B

    2013-01-01

    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  20. CDDIS_DORIS_products_orbit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precise satellite orbits derived from analysis of Doppler Orbitography by Radiopositioning Integrated on Satellite (DORIS) data. These products are the generated by...

  1. Modelling of the temperature field that accompanies friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Przemysław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal modelling of the Friction Stir Welding process allows for better recognition and understanding of phenomena occurring during the joining process of different materials. It is of particular importance considering the possibilities of process technology parameters, optimization and the mechanical properties of the joint. This work demonstrates the numerical modelling of temperature distribution accompanying the process of friction stir welding. The axisymmetric problem described by Fourier’s type equation with internal heat source is considered. In order to solve the diffusive initial value problem a fully implicit scheme of the finite difference method is applied. The example under consideration deals with the friction stir welding of a plate (0.7 cm thick made of Al 6082-T6 by use of a tool made of tungsten alloy, whereas the material subjected to welding was TiC powder. Obtained results confirm both quantitatively and qualitatively experimental observations that the superior temperature corresponds to the zone where the pin joints the shoulder.

  2. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  3. [Clinical study of congenital heart disease accompanied by hypospadias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Hua; Xiao, Qian; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Jiang, Yong-Guang

    2014-02-01

    To study the concurrence of congenital heart disease and hypospadias and the relationship between the two diseases. We investigated the incidence and types of congenital heart disease accompanied by hypospadias in male children received in our hospital from January 2002 to December 2012, compared them with those in the general population, and analyzed the correlation of different types of heart disease with the incidence rate of hypospadias. Of the 7 385 male children with congenital heart disease, 134 (1.81%) were found with hypospadias, with a significantly higher morbidity than in the general population (0.33% -0.40%) (P congenital heart abnormalities (21/972, 2.16%) than in the atrial septal defect (10/1 015, 0.99%) and patent ductus arteriosus (6/565, 1.06%) groups (P type of hypospadias among different heart disease groups (P > 0.05). Hypospadias is a common concurrent condition in male children with congenital heart disease. The incidence rate of hypospadias is related with the type of congenital heart disease, and the two conditions may have some common pathogenic or susceptive factors.

  4. Ophthalmic manifestations of methylmalonic aciduria accompanied with homocystinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Jing Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Methylmalonicaciduia(MMAaccompanied with homocystinuria is a rare autosomal-recessive with congenital metabolic disorder of Vitamin B12. There are three subtypes, cblC, cblD, cblF, in which cblC is the most common one. The diagnostic tests are tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tests for activity of enzyme in fibroblasts from skin, complementary assay and genetic analysis can be used to make the subtype clear. Early-onset patients, defined by onset of symptoms before the age of 1 year, may have severe ocular involvement, including visual loss, nystagmus, strabismus, retinopathy, maculopathy, optic atrophy, abnormal electroretinography. Late-onset patients, defined by onset of symptoms after the age of 4 year, rarely have ocular manifestations. The pathogenesis of the ophthalmic symptoms may be related to the high level of homocystine, oxidative stress and the abnormal development of nervous systems. The treatment for MMA accompanied with homocystinuria is mostly symptomatic based. Ophthalmic treatment is limited. Early supplement of methionine,GSH or other antioxidants may be helpful for retinopathy. There is no standard ophthalmological examination for those patients in China. It is critical to set up inter-departmental cooperation and early stage examination for the treatments and outcomes of the patients.

  5. Orbital Evolution and Orbital Phase Resolved Spectroscopy of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tra in the 3–20 keV energy range were fitted with a power law and a high ... acceleration method and also depends on any anisotropy in the stellar wind structure. .... Orbital Evolution and Orbital Phase Resolved Spectroscopy. 415. Figure 3. (a) Pulse arrival time delays measured from the RXTE-PCA observation in 2003,.

  6. Orbital Chondroma: A rare mesenchymal tumor of orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi S Kabra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While relatively common in the skeletal system, cartilaginous tumors are rarely seen originating from the orbit. Here, we report a rare case of an orbital chondroma. A 27-year-old male patient presented with a painless hard mass in the superonasal quadrant (SNQ of left orbit since 3 months. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity of both eyes was 20/20, with normal anterior and posterior segment with full movements of eyeballs and normal intraocular pressure. Computerized tomography scan revealed well defined soft tissue density lesion in SNQ of left orbit. Patient was operated for anteromedial orbitotomy under general anesthesia. Mass was excised intact and sent for histopathological examination (HPE. HPE report showed lobular aggregates of benign cartilaginous cells with mild atypia suggesting of benign cartilaginous tumor - chondroma. Very few cases of orbital chondroma have been reported in literature so far.

  7. Hemiplegic peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Okuma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man experienced double vision around January, 2010, followed by weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. Articulation disorders and loss of hearing in his left ear developed, and he was admitted to our hospital on February 14, 2010. Physical examination was normal, and neurological examination showed clear consciousness with no impairment of cognitive function, but with articulation disorders. Olfactory sensation was reduced. Left ptosis and left gaze palsy, complete left facial palsy, perceptive deafness of the left ear, and muscle weakness of the left trapezius muscle were observed. Paresis in the left upper and lower extremities was graded 4/5 through manual muscle testing. Sensory system evaluation revealed complete left-side palsy, including the face. Deep tendon reflexes were slightly diminished equally on both sides; no pathologic reflex was seen. No abnormality of the brain parenchyma, cerebral nerves or cervicothoracolumbar region was found on brain magnetic resonance imaging. On electroencephalogram, alpha waves in the main frequency band of 8 to 9 Hz were recorded, indicating normal findings. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT scan showed reduced blood flow in the right inner frontal lobe and both occipital lobes. Nerve biopsy (left sural nerve showed reduction of nerve density by 30%, with demyelination. The patient also showed manifestations of multiple cranial nerve disorder, i.e., of the trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. Whole-body examination was negative. Finally, based on ischemic brain SPECT images, spinal fluid findings and nerve biopsy results, peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy was diagnosed.

  8. Substantial Lateral Motions Accompany Tectonic Deformation on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Sengor, A. M. C.; Ghail, R.; Klimczak, C.; Solomon, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Absent plate tectonics, deformation accompanying large-scale relative horizontal motion of the lithosphere on Venus is much more evenly distributed than that on Earth, which is mainly concentrated at plate boundaries. Yet Earth's plates, especially those of the continental lithosphere, are themselves internally deformed, often in a spatially distributed manner. Tectonic deformation on Venus thus has parallels to intraplate deformation on Earth, and so the morphology and kinematics of large-scale tectonics on Venus can be compared with structurally similar intraplate regions here. For example, numerous low-lying plains on Venus delineated by fold belts are analogous to mountain-range-bound sedimentary basins on Earth. One such site, northeast of Artemis Corona, is elliptical in plan and, at 1100 km in east-west and 620 km in north-south dimension, is akin to the Tarim Basin in northwest China (1250 km × 560 km). The fold belts demarcating this plain structurally resemble the Tian Shan range to the northwest and the Altun Shan to the southeast of the Tarim Basin, as well as the southern mountain range of the Sichuan Basin in southwest China. Notably, the Sichuan Basin is comparable in size (560 km × 390 km) to two other elliptical, fold-belt-bordered plains in the northeastern portion of Lada Terra on Venus (400 km × 300 km and 400 km × 370 km, respectively). The mountain ranges that delimit both the Tarim and Sichuan basins have accommodated substantial transpressive deformation: the Altun Shan range is situated atop the major Altyn Tagh left-lateral strike-slip fault, and the Longmenshan thrust belt to the northwest of the Sichuan Basin includes right-lateral shear. The fold belts on Venus may therefore possess a greater component of transpressive deformation than currently recognized, and these structures may thereby have facilitated more large-scale lateral mobility of the planet's lithosphere than previously thought.

  9. Efficient conversion of brown grease produced by municipal wastewater treatment plant into biofuel using aluminium chloride hexahydrate under very mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Carlo; Lopez, Antonio; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Wastes produced by oil/water separation at the wastewater treatment plant of Bari West (Southern Italy) were taken, characterized and converted. About 12% of this material was composed of greases, mainly made of free fatty acids (50%) and soaps (34%), and was easily separable by the aqueous phase through a hot centrifugation. After chemical activation of this fatty fraction, a direct esterification was carried out under very mild conditions (320K and atmospheric pressure), converting more than 90% of the original free fatty acids into the respective methyl esters in less than 4h, by using AlCl3·6H2O. The activation energy correlated to the use of this catalyst was also calculated (Eaest=43.9kJmol(-1)). The very low cost of the biodiesel produced (0.45€L(-1)) and the associated relevant specific energy (5.02MJ kgFAMEs(-1)) make such a process a really sustainable and effective example of valorization of a waste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasmablastic lymphoma mimicking orbital cellulitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkhuysen, R.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Weijs, W.L.J.; Gerlach, N.L.; Berge, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon, potentially devastating condition that, when not promptly and adequately treated, can lead to serious sequelae. The presenting clinical signs are proptosis, swelling, ophthalmoplegia, pain and redness of the peri-orbital tissues. A number of cases

  11. Diffractive molecular-orbital tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chunyang; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Wang, Feng; He, Lixin; Shi, Wenjing; Li, Yang; Li, Min; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-03-01

    High-order-harmonic generation in the interaction of femtosecond lasers with atoms and molecules opens the path to molecular-orbital tomography and to probe the electronic dynamics with attosecond-Ångström resolutions. Molecular-orbital tomography requires both the amplitude and phase of the high-order harmonics. Yet the measurement of phases requires sophisticated techniques and represents formidable challenges at present. Here we report a scheme, called diffractive molecular-orbital tomography, to retrieve the molecular orbital solely from the amplitude of high-order harmonics without measuring any phase information. We have applied this method to image the molecular orbitals of N2, CO2, and C2H2 . The retrieved orbital is further improved by taking account the correction of Coulomb potential. The diffractive molecular-orbital tomography scheme, removing the roadblock of phase measurement, significantly simplifies the molecular-orbital tomography procedure and paves an efficient and robust way to the imaging of more complex molecules.

  12. Orbit Modeller - Virtual Astronomical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdyushev, V. A.; Banshchikova, M. A.; Bordovitsyna, T. V.; Chuvashov, I. N.; Ryabova, G. O.

    2017-09-01

    We present a virtual astronomical laboratory project - "Orbit Modeller" (OM). This should be an interactive web-tool enabling one to simulate numerically the orbital motion of any celestial body within or beyond the solar system. Another function of OM is a repository of old observations and documents.

  13. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-03-16

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, "pure" or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection.

  14. Generating realistic synthetic meteoroid orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Denis; Brown, Peter G.; Campbell-Brown, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    Context. Generating a synthetic dataset of meteoroid orbits is a crucial step in analysing the probabilities of random grouping of meteoroid orbits in automated meteor shower surveys. Recent works have shown the importance of choosing a low similarity threshold value of meteoroid orbits, some pointing out that the recent meteor shower surveys produced false positives due to similarity thresholds which were too high. On the other hand, the methods of synthetic meteoroid orbit generation introduce additional biases into the data, thus making the final decision on an appropriate threshold value uncertain. Aims. As a part of the ongoing effort to determine the nature of meteor showers and improve automated methods, it was decided to tackle the problem of synthetic meteoroid orbit generation, the main goal being to reproduce the underlying structure and the statistics of the observed data in the synthetic orbits. Methods. A new method of generating synthetic meteoroid orbits using the Kernel Density Estimation method is presented. Several types of approaches are recommended, depending on whether one strives to preserve the data structure, the data statistics or to have a compromise between the two. Results. The improvements over the existing methods of synthetic orbit generation are demonstrated. The comparison between the previous and newly developed methods are given, as well as the visualization tools one can use to estimate the influence of different input parameters on the final data.

  15. Density-orbital embedding theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, L.; Gritsenko, O.

    2010-01-01

    In the article density-orbital embedding (DOE) theory is proposed. DOE is based on the concept of density orbital (DO), which is a generalization of the square root of the density for real functions and fractional electron numbers. The basic feature of DOE is the representation of the total

  16. Measuring Scars of Periodic Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenon of periodic orbit scarring of eigenstates of classically chaotic systems is attracting increasing attention. Scarring is one of the most important ``corrections'' to the ideal random eigenstates suggested by random matrix theory. This paper discusses measures of scars and in so doing also tries to clarify the concepts and effects of eigenfunction scarring. We propose a new, universal scar measure which takes into account an entire periodic orbit and the linearized dynamics in its vicinity. This measure is tuned to pick out those structures which are induced in quantum eigenstates by unstable periodic orbits and their manifolds. It gives enhanced scarring strength as measured by eigenstate overlaps and inverse participation ratios, especially for longer orbits. We also discuss off-resonance scars which appear naturally on either side of an unstable periodic orbit.

  17. Plasmablastic lymphoma mimicking orbital cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Matthias A. W.; Weijs, Willem L. J.; Gerlach, Niek L.; Bergé, Stefaan J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon, potentially devastating condition that, when not promptly and adequately treated, can lead to serious sequelae. The presenting clinical signs are proptosis, swelling, ophthalmoplegia, pain and redness of the peri-orbital tissues. A number of cases have been reported in which these symptoms have been mistakenly interpreted as being secondary to an orbital infection whilst, in fact, other pathology was present. Discussion We add another case in which, on clinical grounds and after radiological assessment and laboratory tests, a working diagnosis of orbital cellulitis of the left eye was made. It was only after histopathological analysis of a soft tissue specimen from the maxillary sinus that a diagnosis of an AIDS-related plasmablastic lymphoma was made. The patient was referred to the department of haematology where chemotherapeutic treatment for the lymphoma and the HIV infection was started. This case report adds another differential diagnosis of orbital cellulitis to the existing literature. PMID:18597126

  18. Rehabilitation of orbital cavity after orbital exenteration using polymethyl methacrylate orbital prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the eye with the incidence of 0.09 and 2.42 cases/100 000 people. Orbital invasion is a rare complication but, if recognized early, can be treated effectively with exenteration. Although with advancements in technology such as computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing, material science, and retentive methods like implants, orbital prosthesis with stock ocular prosthesis made of methyl methacrylate retained by anatomic undercuts is quiet effective and should not be overlooked and forgotten. This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of two male patients with polymethyl methacrylate resin orbital prosthesis after orbital exenteration, for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper eyelid. The orbital prosthesis was sufficiently retained by hard and soft tissue undercuts without any complications. The patients using the prosthesis are quite satisfied with the cosmetic results and felt comfortable attending the social events.

  19. Orbital Infarction due to Sickle Cell Disease without Orbital Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron L. McBride

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy that results in paroxysmal arteriolar occlusion and tissue infarction that can manifest in a plurality of tissues. Rarely, these infarcted crises manifest in the bony orbit. Orbital infarction usually presents with acute onset of periorbital tenderness, swelling, erythema, and pain. Soft tissue swelling can result in proptosis and attenuation of extraocular movements. Expedient diagnosis of sickle cell orbital infarction is crucial because this is a potentially sight-threatening entity. Diagnosis can be delayed since the presentation has physical and radiographic findings mimicking various infectious and traumatic processes. We describe a patient who presented with sickle cell orbital crisis without pain. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion in patients with known sickle cell disease or of African descent born outside the United States in a region where screening for hemoglobinopathy is not routine, even when the presentation is not classic.

  20. SPHERES Mars Orbiting Sample Return External Orbiting Capture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission scenario utilizes a small Orbiting Sample (OS) satellite, launched from the surface of Mars, which will rendezvous with an...

  1. Optical evidence of quantum rotor orbital excitations in orthorhombic manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovaleva, N. N., E-mail: nkovaleva@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kugel, K. I. [Loughborough University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Potůček, Z. [Czech Technical University (Czech Republic); Kusmartseva, O. E. [Loughborough University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Goryachev, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems in Chemical Physics (Russian Federation); Bryknar, Z. [Czech Technical University (Czech Republic); Demikhov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Trepakov, V. A.; Dejneka, A. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics (Czech Republic); Kusmartsev, F. V. [Loughborough University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Stoneham, A. M. [University College London, London Centre for Nanotechnology (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    In magnetic compounds with Jahn–Teller (JT) ions (such as Mn{sup 3+} or Cu{sup 2+}), the ordering of the electron or hole orbitals is associated with cooperative lattice distortions. There the role of JT effect, although widely recognized, is still elusive in the ground state properties. Here we discovered that, in these materials, there exist excitations whose energy spectrum is described in terms of the total angular momentum eigenstates and is quantized as in quantum rotors found in JT centers. We observed features originating from these excitations in the optical spectra of a model compound LaMnO{sub 3} using ellipsometry technique. They appear clearly as narrow sidebands accompanying the electron transition between the JT split orbitals at neighboring Mn{sup 3+} ions, displaying anomalous temperature behavior around the Néel temperature T{sub N} ≈ 140 K. We present these results together with new experimental data on photoluminescence found in LaMnO{sub 3}, which lend additional support to the ellipsometry implying the electronic-vibrational origin of the quantum rotor orbital excitations. We note that the discovered orbital excitations of quantum rotors may play an important role in many unusual properties observed in these materials upon doping, such as high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance.

  2. JSC Orbital Debris Website Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The website provides information about the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office at JSC, which is the lead NASA center for orbital debris research. It is recognized world-wide for its leadership in addressing orbital debris issues. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has taken the international lead in conducting measurements of the environment and in developing the technical consensus for adopting mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. Work at the center continues with developing an improved understanding of the orbital debris environment and measures that can be taken to control its growth. Major Contents: Orbital Debris research is divided into the following five broad efforts. Each area of research contains specific information as follows: 1) Modeling - NASA scientists continue to develop and upgrade orbital debris models to describe and characterize the current and future debris environment. Evolutionary and engineering models are described in detail. Downloadable items include a document in PDF format and executable software. 2) Measurements - Measurements of near-Earth orbital debris are accomplished by conducting ground-based and space-based observations of the orbital debris environment. The data from these sources provide validation of the environment models and identify the presence of new sources. Radar, optical and surface examinations are described. External links to related topics are provided. 3) Protection - Orbital debris protection involves conducting hypervelocity impact measurements to assess the risk presented by orbital debris to operating spacecraft and developing new materials and new designs to provide better protection from the environment with less weight penalty. The data from this work provides the link between the environment defined by the models and the risk presented by that environment to operating spacecraft and provides recommendations on design and operations procedures to reduce the risk as

  3. Clinical characteristics and treatment of blow-out fracture accompanied by canalicular laceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa; Ahn, Jaemoon; Lee, Tae Eun; Lee, Jong Mi; Shin, Hyungho; Chi, Mijung; Park, Minsoo; Baek, Sehyun

    2012-09-01

    Blow-out fracture and canalicular laceration can occur simultaneously as a result of the same trauma. Despite its importance, little research has been conducted to identify clinical characteristics or surgical techniques for repair of a blow-out fracture accompanied by canalicular laceration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, the surgical approach, and the outcomes. Thirty-four eyes of 34 patients who underwent simultaneous repair of canalicular laceration using silicone tube intubation and reconstruction of blow-out fracture were included. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patient demographics, nature of injury, affected canaliculus, location, and severity of blow-out fracture, associated facial bone fracture, ophthalmic diagnosis, length of follow-up period, and surgical outcome. Mean patient age was 40.0 years (range, 17-71 y). The mean follow-up was 7.3 months. Fist to the orbital area (10 patients, 29.4%) was the most common cause. There were 24 lower canalicular lacerations (70.6%), 6 upper canalicular lacerations (17.6%), and 4 upper and lower canalicular lacerations (11.8%). Isolated medial wall fractures were most common (area A4: 20/34, 58.8%). Fractures involving both the floor and medial wall and maxillo-ethmoidal strut (areas A1, A2, A3, and A4) were the second most common (6/34, 17.6%), and floor and medial wall with intact strut (areas A1, A2, and A4) were injured in 6 patients (17.6%). Pure inferior wall fractures were least frequent (areas A1 and A2: 2/34, 5.9%). The severity of the fracture was severe in most patients except for 1 linear fracture with tissue entrapment and 1 moderate medial wall fracture (32/34, 94.1%). There was lid laceration in 20 patients (58.8%). Nasal bone fracture (5/34, 14.7%) was the most common facial bone fracture. Tubes were removed at a mean of 3.3 months (range, 3-4 mo). In total, 31 patients (91.2%) achieved complete success in canalicular laceration and blow

  4. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank

    2003-01-01

    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  5. Management of odontogenic orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCroos, F C; Liao, J C; Ramey, N A; Li, I

    2011-08-15

    This work describes a series of patients with odontogenic orbital cellulitis (OOC), focusing on rate of abscess formation, need for surgical intervention, and imaging findings helpful for rapid diagnosis. Review of a current case and 22 patients with OOC from the scientific literature demonstrated periapical lucency as the most commonly (36.4%) reported finding on facial and orbital computerized tomography (CT) scan. Orbital abscess occurred in 72.7% of cases, and tooth extraction and/or abscess drainage was required in 95.5% of cases reviewed for control of infection. The current case presented with periapical lucency on CT scan, developed orbital abscess despite broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, and required multiple surgical interventions for disease resolution. Though our patient regained excellent vision, OOC often can result in severe vision loss. Periapical lucency on CT can help identify this atypical origin of cellulitis that is strongly associated with abscess formation and need for surgical intervention.

  6. Influences of Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from Grease Trap as Binder on Rheological and Solvent Extraction Behavior in SS316L Metal Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with rheological and solvent extraction behavior of stainless steel 316L feedstocks using Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from grease traps as binder components along with Polypropylene (PP copolymer as a backbone binder. Optimal binder formulation and effect of solvent extraction variables on green compacts are being analyzed. Four binder formulations based on volumetric ratio/weight fraction between PP and RWFO being mixed with 60% volumetric powder loading of SS316L powder each as feedstock. The rheological analysis are based on viscosity, shear rate, temperature, activation energy, flow behavior index, and moldability index. The optimal feedstock formulation will be injected to form green compact to undergo the solvent extraction process. Solvent extraction variables are based on solvent temperature which are 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C with different organic solvents of n-hexane and n-heptane. Analysis of the weight loss percentage and diffusion coefficient is done on the green compact during the solvent extraction process. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC is used to confirm the extraction of the RWFO in green compacts. It is found that all binder fractions exhibit pseudoplastic behavior or shear thinning where the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. After considering the factors that affect the rheological characteristic of the binder formulation, feedstock with binder formulation of 20/20 volumetric ratio between PP and RWFO rise as the optimal binder. It is found that the n-hexane solvent requires less time for extracting the RWFO at the temperature of 60 °C as proved by its diffusion coefficient.

  7. Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Miyako; Matsuura, Yuichi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Shimozaki, Noriko; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou

    2013-07-09

    Prions, infectious agents associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, are primarily composed of the misfolded and pathogenic form (PrPSc) of the host-encoded prion protein. Because PrPSc retains infectivity after undergoing routine sterilizing processes, the cause of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) outbreaks are suspected to be feeding cattle meat and bone meals (MBMs) contaminated with the prion. To assess the validity of prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease, which is produced in the industrial manufacturing process of MBMs, we pooled, homogenized, and heat treated the spinal cords of BSE-infected cows under various experimental conditions. Prion inactivation was analyzed quantitatively in terms of the infectivity and PrPSc of the treated samples. Following treatment at 140°C for 1 h, infectivity was reduced to 1/35 of that of the untreated samples. Treatment at 180°C for 3 h was required to reduce infectivity. However, PrPSc was detected in all heat-treated samples by using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique, which amplifies PrPScin vitro. Quantitative analysis of the inactivation efficiency of BSE PrPSc was possible with the introduction of the PMCA50, which is the dilution ratio of 10% homogenate needed to yield 50% positivity for PrPSc in amplified samples. Log PMCA50 exhibited a strong linear correlation with the transmission rate in the bioassay; infectivity was no longer detected when the log PMCA50 of the inoculated sample was reduced to 1.75. The quantitative PMCA assay may be useful for safety evaluation for recycling and effective utilization of MBMs as an organic resource.

  8. Performance and emission analysis on blends of diesel, restaurant yellow grease and n-pentanol in direct-injection diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, J; Saravanan, S

    2017-02-01

    Yellow grease from restaurants is typically waste cooking oil (WCO) free from suspended food particles with free fatty acid (FFA) content less than 15%. This study proposes an approach to formulate a renewable, eco-friendly fuel by recycling WCO with diesel (D) and n-pentanol (P) to improve fuel-spray characteristics. Three ternary blends (D50-WCO45-P5, D50-WCO40-P10 and D50-WCO30-P20) were selected based on the stability tests and prepared with an objective to substitute diesel by 50% with up to 45% recycled component (WCO) and up to 20% bio-component (n-pentanol) by volume. The fuel properties of these ternary blends were measured and compared. The emission impacts of these blends on a diesel engine were analysed in comparison with diesel and D50-WCO50 (50% of diesel + 50% of WCO) under naturally articulated and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) approaches. Doping of n-pentanol showed improved fuel properties when compared to D50-WCO50. Viscosity is reduced up to 45%. Cetane number and density were comparable to that of diesel. Addition of n-pentanol to D50-WCO50 presented improved brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for all ternary blends. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of D50-WCO30-P20 blend is comparable to diesel due to improved atomization. Smoke opacity reduced, HC emissions increased and CO emissions remained unchanged with doping n-pentanol in the WCO. NOx emission increases with increase in n-pentanol and remained lower than diesel and all load conditions. However, NOx can be decreased by up to threefold using EGR. By adopting this approach, WCO can be effectively reused as a clean energy source by negating environmental hazards before and after its use in diesel engines, instead of being dumped into sewers and landfills.

  9. Orbital operations study. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the analyses of the orbital operations study is presented. Objectives, scope of study, and technical documentation format are discussed. A summary of the mission analyses including generic mission models, element pair interactions, and interfacing activities are presented. The analyses associated with each interfacing activity are also summarized. Significant implications derived during the course of the study on the EOS orbiter, space tug, RAM, and MSS are indicated.

  10. Microbiological profile of orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Suneetha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of the culture and sensitivity pattern is necessary, for the institution of appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy in orbital abscess. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe culture and sensitivity patterns of specimens from the orbit and surrounding structures. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively the medical records of 56 cases of orbital abscess were reviewed. Results: Cultures were positive in 38/56 (68.8% orbital specimens and the organisms included Staphylococcus aureus 18, Streptococci 7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3, 2 each of Enterobactersp, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter sp. and 1 each of Actinomyces israelii, Diptheroids, Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Citrobacter freundii, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. Four had polymicrobial infection. Culture of purulent nasal discharge, swabs taken from foci of infection on the face, and blood cultures were done in 26/56, and positive cultures were obtained in 16/26 (61.5% specimens. In 12 patients, there was a concurrence in the organism cultured from the orbit and from cultures from other sites. Gram-negative organisms were associated with increased ocular morbidity. Conclusion: Gram-positive cocci, especially S. aureus are the most common organisms isolated from orbital abscesses. Infections by Gram-negative organisms were associated with more complications. Empirical intravenous antibiotic therapy should have a broad spectrum of activity effective against a wide range of Staphylococcal organisms and Gram-negative bacilli.

  11. Ptosis as an Initial Manifestation of Orbital Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Wen Hsu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Ptosis on its own is an infrequent initial manifestation of orbital lymphoma. Orbital lymphoma usually presents as a palpable mass with proptosis, diplopia, and conjunctival (“salmon-pink” swelling. We report here a 62-year-old female patient who presented with right eye ptosis. The initial imaging study showed an indistinct enlargement of the superior rectus-levator muscle complex. After 3-4 months, ptosis and upward gazing movement were further restricted. The imaging study revealed a definite soft-tissue mass in the superior orbit surrounding the superior rectus-levator muscle complex. A tumor biopsy through anterior orbitotomy revealed a large diffuse B-cell lymphoma. With the experience of this case, we suggest that orbital lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of ptosis accompanied by impairment of levator muscle function.

  12. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  13. Triple Difference Approach to Low Earth Orbiter Precision Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jay-Hyoun; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; Yom, Jae-Hong; Cheon, Lee-Dong

    2003-03-01

    A precise kinematic orbit determination (P-KOD) procedure for Low Earth Orbiter(LEO) using the GPS ion-free triple differenced carrier phases is presented. Because the triple differenced observables provide only relative information, the first epoch's positions of the orbit should be held fixed. Then, both forward and backward filtering was executed to mitigate the effect of biases of the first epoch's position. P-KOD utilizes the precise GPS orbits and ground stations data from International GPS Service (IGS) so that the only unknown parameters to be solved are positions of the satellite at each epoch. Currently, the 3-D accuracy of P-KOD applied to CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) shows better than 35 cm compared to the published rapid scientific orbit (RSO) solution from GFZ (GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam). The data screening for cycle slips is a particularly challenging procedure for LEO, which moves very fast in the middle of the ionospheric layer. It was found that data screening using SNR (signal to noise ratio) generates best results based on the residual analysis using RSO. It is expected that much better accuracy are achievable with refined prescreening procedure and optimized geometry of the satellites and ground stations.

  14. Orbital, subconjunctival, and subcutaneous emphysema after an orbital floor fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ababneh OH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Osama H Ababneh Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Jordan and Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan Abstract: A 16-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with the complaint of a sudden, painful left eye and proptosis after an episode of sneezing. A few hours earlier, he had sustained a blunt trauma to the left orbit as the result of a fistfight. The initial examination showed subcutaneous and subconjunctival emphysema. Visual acuity in the left eye was 20/30 (0.67, the pupils were reactive with no relative afferent pupillary defect, and there were mild limitations in levoduction and supraduction. A slit-lamp examination showed normal anterior and posterior segments with an intraocular pressure of 26 mmHg. An orbital computed tomography scan showed orbital, subconjunctival, and subcutaneous emphysema associated with a small fracture of the orbital floor. Following conservative management with broad-spectrum oral antibiotics, a topical antiglaucoma drug, and lubricating eye drops, the patient improved dramatically within one week. Keywords: emphysema, orbital fracture, trauma

  15. Microbiology of pediatric orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Steven H; Yen, Michael T; Miller, Aaron M; Yen, Kimberly G

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the microbiology of pediatric orbital cellulitis associated with sinusitis. Retrospective review of medical records of pediatric patients treated for orbital cellulitis. All pediatric patients treated for orbital cellulitis associated with sinusitis at Texas Children's Hospital between December 1, 2001 and September 30, 2005 were reviewed. Data collected included patient age, history, microbiology results, and surgical intervention. Thirty-eight cases were identified. Fifteen cases required medical management, whereas 23 patients received a combination of medical and surgical intervention. Three patients had multiple surgical procedures performed. Of the procedures performed, four were sinus irrigation, 12 were sinusotomy and drainage, nine were orbitotomy with drainage of abscess, and one was craniotomy with drainage of abscess. Surgical aspirate specimens yielded a higher positive culture result rate with 9/9 of orbital abscesses and 13/16 of sinus aspirates demonstrating a positive yield. Two of the 27 blood cultures had a positive yield. Staphylococcus species was the most common organism isolated. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) represented 73% of S. aureus isolates. Streptococcus species was the next most common pathogen. Three cultures yielded Haemophilus species with one being positive for H. influenzae. Organisms responsible for causing pediatric orbital cellulitis are evolving, with Staphylococcus followed by Streptococcus species being the most common pathogens. The occurrence of MRSA in pediatric orbital cellulitis is increasing, and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be directed against these organisms if they are prevalent in the community. Sinus and orbital abscess aspirates yielded the greatest number of positive cultures, though these invasive surgical procedures should be performed only when clinically indicated.

  16. Featured Image: Globular Cluster Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    This figure (click for the full view) shows the meridional galactic orbits of 12 globular clusters that orbit the Milky Way. The recent release of stellar parallax data from Gaia allowed a team of scientists at Dartmouth College to improve measurements of a number of galactic globular clusters very old clusters of stars that can either orbit within the galactic disk and bulge or more distantly in the galactic halo. In a recent publication led by Erin OMalley, the team presents their findings and combines their new measurements for the clusters with proper motions from past studies to calculate the orbits that these globulars take. These calculations show us whether the clusters reside in the galactic disk and bulge (as only NGC 104 does in the sample shown here, since its orbit is confined to 8 kpc radially and 4 kpc vertically of the galactic center), or if they are halo clusters. To learn more about the authors work, you can check out the paper below!CitationErin M. OMalley et al 2017 ApJ 838 162. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6574

  17. Orbital positioning and stationkeeping of geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, H.

    Orbit, launcher, and satellite related constraints on launch windows are reviewed. The flight sequence and orbital position optimization of spin and three axis stabilized satellites are described. Geostationary orbit perturbations and evolution, and orbit correction are considered. North-south and east-west stationkeeping strategies are outlined. Stationkeeping of Telecom-1 and TDF-1 is illustrated.

  18. ORBITAL CELLULITIS COMPLICATING SINUSITIS: A 15-YEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. NWaorgu

    Abstract. Background: Orbital cellulitis is an infection of the orbital soft tissues behind the orbital septum. Primary sinus infection is the most common cause of orbital cellulites. It is an ocular emergency that threatens not only vision but also life from complications such as meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and brain ...

  19. Understanding Pediatric Bacterial Preseptal and Orbital Cellulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Mithra O.; Durairaj, Vikram D.

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric preseptal and orbital cellulitis are infectious disorders that result in periorbital inflammation. Preseptal cellulitis is often associated with breaches in the skin barrier whereas orbital cellulitis is commonly associated with paranasal sinusitis. Orbital cellulitis may be associated with subperiosteal abscess. It is important to distinguish between preseptal from orbital cellulitis. Clinical examination and diagnostic imaging are useful in determining appropriate management. Pati...

  20. The Eccentric Behavior of Nearly Frozen Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Vincent, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Frozen orbits are orbits which have only short-period changes in their mean eccentricity and argument of periapse, so that they basically keep a fixed orientation within their plane of motion. Nearly frozen orbits are those whose eccentricity and argument of periapse have values close to those of a frozen orbit. We call them "nearly" frozen because their eccentricity vector (a vector whose polar coordinates are eccentricity and argument of periapse) will stay within a bounded distance from the frozen orbit eccentricity vector, circulating around it over time. For highly inclined orbits around the Earth, this distance is effectively constant over time. Furthermore, frozen orbit eccentricity values are low enough that these orbits are essentially eccentric (i.e., off center) circles, so that nearly frozen orbits around Earth are bounded above and below by frozen orbits.

  1. On-orbit low gravity cryogenic scientific investigations using the COLD-SAT Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) Satellite is an experimental spacecraft designed to investigate the systems and technologies required for an efficient, effective, and reliable management of cryogenic fluids in reduced-gravity space environment. This paper defines the technology needs and the accompanying experimental three-month baseline mission of the COLD-SAT Satellite; describes the experiment subsystems, major features, and rationale for satisfying primary and secondary experimental requirements, using LH2 as the test fluid; and presents the conceptual design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft subsystems which support the on-orbit experiment.

  2. Relative Orbit Elements for Satellites in Elliptical Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    flying missions [9, 35, 63, 75, 95, 107, 111], such as the European PRISMA mission [22], NASA’s Magnetosphere Multiscale mission [21, 34, 62, 80, 109...Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) Mission, 1999. [22] D’Amico, S., Gill, E., and Montenbruck, O., “Relative Orbit Control Design for the PRISMA Formation

  3. Assessing Terra Disposal Orbit Candidates from an Orbital Debris Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Andrew J.; Thompson, Roger C.; Mantziaras, Dimitrios C.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Terra satellite is reaching the end of its mission life. Because the satellite resides in the 705 km Earth Science Constellation, disposal strategies need to be considered to remove it from this densely populated operational orbit. Of critical importance was the need to examine the future potential risk to other satellite residents of the 705 km constellation due to an unexpected breakup event of the Terra satellite post-disposal. This study quantifies the comparative risk of debris impacts associated with the two leading candidate disposal orbits (701 km vs. 686 km) and characterizes the suitability of each orbit for the purpose of long-term spacecraft disposal. The increase in collision risk to any member of the 705 km Earth Science Constellation is very modest. The long-term, average, total risk (including the ambient background risk) due to a Terra breakup at a disposal of -19 km (i.e., 686 km) relative to the 705 km constellation is 9.7 × 10(exp -6) impacts/day versus 1.0 × 10(exp -5) impacts/day for a disposal of only -4 km (i.e., 701 km). For perspective, note that the nominal space background risk to the 705 km constellation is 9.2 × 10(exp -6) impacts/day which implies a very modest increase in risk (approximately 3% difference between the two cases) due to a Terra breakup in either disposal orbit.

  4. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  5. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  6. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  7. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  8. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  9. Orbital-only models: ordering and excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    2004-12-01

    We consider orbital-only models in Mott insulators, where the orbital orbital interactions are either due to Jahn Teller distortions or due to the Kugel Khomskii superexchange. This leads to highly anisotropic and frustrated orbital Hamiltonians. For two-fold degenerate eg systems, both types of orbital interactions lead to the same form of the Hamiltonian—the 120° model. In both cases, the predicted symmetry of the orbital ordering is the same, although different from the one observed experimentally. The orbital operators that appear in the two kinds of orbital-only Hamiltonians are different. In the case of superexchange, the orbital degrees of freedom are represented by quantum pseudo-spin 1/2 operators. But when the interactions are Jahn Teller mediated and the coupling with the lattice is strong, the orbital operators are essentially classical pseudospins. Thus as a function of the relative coupling strengths, a quantum-to-classical crossover is expected. For three-fold degenerate t2g orbitals, the Jahn Teller coupling gives rise to a particular type of orbital compass models. We point out that fluctuations—whether due to quantum effects or finite temperature—are of prime importance for ordering in the 120° and orbital compass models. The fluctuations generally generate a gap in the orbital excitation spectrum. These orbital excitations—orbitons—are hybrid excitations that carry both a lattice Jahn Teller and a magnetic Kugel Khomskii character.

  10. A rare case of orbital granulomatous inflammation from explosive hydraulic oil masquerading as orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Marvi; Roelofs, Kelsey; Jivraj, Imran; West, Robert; Rasmussen, Steve; Chan, Audrey

    2017-10-20

    The differential diagnosis for acute orbital inflammation is broad. We report a case of granulomatous orbital inflammation due to high-pressure oil injury to the orbit presenting as an atypical orbital cellulitis. Here we review the presentation and treatment of orbital inflammation from oil.

  11. 39 CFR 320.7 - Suspension for advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or periodicals. 320.7 Section 320.7 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE RESTRICTIONS ON... advertisements accompanying parcels or periodicals. (a) The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and... with merchandise in parcels or accompanying periodicals under the following circumstances: (1) The...

  12. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of visa...

  13. 5 CFR 582.203 - Information minimally required to accompany legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accompany legal process. 582.203 Section 582.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process § 582.203 Information minimally required to accompany legal process. (a) Sufficient identifying...

  14. 5 CFR 581.203 - Information minimally required to accompany legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accompany legal process. 581.203 Section 581.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROCESSING GARNISHMENT ORDERS FOR CHILD SUPPORT AND/OR ALIMONY Service of Process § 581.203 Information minimally required to accompany legal process. (a) Sufficient identifying...

  15. 30 CFR 250.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.246 Section 250.246 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.246 What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP...

  16. Music Listening Preferences in Early Life: Infants' Responses to Accompanied versus Unaccompanied Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Sundara, Megha

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated infant listening preferences for two versions of an unfamiliar Chinese children's song: unaccompanied (i.e., voice only) and accompanied (i.e., voice and instrumental accompaniment). Three groups of 5-, 8- and 11-month-old infants were tested using the Headturn Preference Procedure. A general linear model analysis of…

  17. 7 CFR 319.37-12 - Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles... Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-12 Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles. A restricted article for importation into the United States shall not be...

  18. Intraocular malignant melanoma of the choroid presenting as orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Kaliki, Swathi; Ali, Mohammed Javed; Naik, Milind N; Vemuganti, Geeta K

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of choroidal melanoma with features suggestive of orbital cellulitis. A 24-year-old Asian Indian male presented with a 20-day history of sudden loss of vision in the right eye. Edematous eyelids with complete mechanical ptosis, complete ophthalmoplegia, gross proptosis accompanied by massive chemosis, and prolapse of the inferior forniceal conjunctiva were noted. He denied perception of light in the right eye. The left eye was unremarkable. B-scan ultrasonography of the right eye showed a large dome-shaped mass filling the posterior segment suggestive of choroidal melanoma. Computed tomography confirmed those findings and showed no extraocular tumor extension. The patient was conservatively treated with systemic steroids following which the inflammation subsided. He underwent enucleation of the right eye and a diagnosis of spindle A cell choroidal melanoma was confirmed by histopathological examination. Although rare, orbital cellulitis is one of the presenting features of choroidal melanoma. Uveal melanoma-associated orbital cellulitis can be well controlled with systemic steroids, does not always indicate extraocular tumor extension, and can occur in spindle A cell melanomas.

  19. The Rosetta mission orbiter science overview: the comet phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Altobelli, N.; Buratti, B. J.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-05-01

    The international Rosetta mission was launched in 2004 and consists of the orbiter spacecraft Rosetta and the lander Philae. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, and to examine its environment in situ and its evolution in the inner Solar System. Rosetta was the first spacecraft to rendezvous with and orbit a comet, accompanying it as it passes through the inner Solar System, and to deploy a lander, Philae, and perform in situ science on the comet's surface. The primary goals of the mission were to: characterize the comet's nucleus; examine the chemical, mineralogical and isotopic composition of volatiles and refractories; examine the physical properties and interrelation of volatiles and refractories in a cometary nucleus; study the development of cometary activity and the processes in the surface layer of the nucleus and in the coma; detail the origin of comets, the relationship between cometary and interstellar material and the implications for the origin of the Solar System; and characterize asteroids 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. This paper presents a summary of mission operations and science, focusing on the Rosetta orbiter component of the mission during its comet phase, from early 2014 up to September 2016. This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'.

  20. The Rosetta mission orbiter science overview: the comet phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M G G T; Altobelli, N; Buratti, B J; Choukroun, M

    2017-07-13

    The international Rosetta mission was launched in 2004 and consists of the orbiter spacecraft Rosetta and the lander Philae. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, and to examine its environment in situ and its evolution in the inner Solar System. Rosetta was the first spacecraft to rendezvous with and orbit a comet, accompanying it as it passes through the inner Solar System, and to deploy a lander, Philae, and perform in situ science on the comet's surface. The primary goals of the mission were to: characterize the comet's nucleus; examine the chemical, mineralogical and isotopic composition of volatiles and refractories; examine the physical properties and interrelation of volatiles and refractories in a cometary nucleus; study the development of cometary activity and the processes in the surface layer of the nucleus and in the coma; detail the origin of comets, the relationship between cometary and interstellar material and the implications for the origin of the Solar System; and characterize asteroids 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. This paper presents a summary of mission operations and science, focusing on the Rosetta orbiter component of the mission during its comet phase, from early 2014 up to September 2016.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. The Rosetta mission orbiter science overview: the comet phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, N.; Buratti, B. J.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-01-01

    The international Rosetta mission was launched in 2004 and consists of the orbiter spacecraft Rosetta and the lander Philae. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko by remote sensing, and to examine its environment in situ and its evolution in the inner Solar System. Rosetta was the first spacecraft to rendezvous with and orbit a comet, accompanying it as it passes through the inner Solar System, and to deploy a lander, Philae, and perform in situ science on the comet's surface. The primary goals of the mission were to: characterize the comet's nucleus; examine the chemical, mineralogical and isotopic composition of volatiles and refractories; examine the physical properties and interrelation of volatiles and refractories in a cometary nucleus; study the development of cometary activity and the processes in the surface layer of the nucleus and in the coma; detail the origin of comets, the relationship between cometary and interstellar material and the implications for the origin of the Solar System; and characterize asteroids 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. This paper presents a summary of mission operations and science, focusing on the Rosetta orbiter component of the mission during its comet phase, from early 2014 up to September 2016. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Cometary science after Rosetta’. PMID:28554981

  2. Medical transcription outsourcing greased lightning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikman, Jeremy; Whiting, Stacilee

    2007-06-01

    As medical transcription volume grows, providers need to decide whether to outsource the work, and if so, whether to retain offshore or onshore firms. There are benefits and drawbacks to both. To avoid problems, providers need to make sure the details are spelled out in the contract and that their expectations are understood and met by the outsource firm.

  3. Orbitally excited charm - strange mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, Penelope A. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This thesis describes an attempt to measure the properties of mesons containing a charm quark and a strange quark in a state of orbital angular momentum L > 0, and compare these with the predictions of theoretical models based on heavy quark effective theory.

  4. THREE PLANETS ORBITING WOLF 1061

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D. J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Tinney, C. G.; Bentley, J. S.; Zhao, Jinglin, E-mail: duncan.wright@unsw.edu.au [Department of Astronomy and Australian Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-02-01

    We use archival HARPS spectra to detect three planets orbiting the M3 dwarf Wolf 1061 (GJ 628). We detect a 1.36 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with an orbital period P = 4.888 days (Wolf 1061b), a 4.25 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 17.867 days (Wolf 1061c), and a likely 5.21 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 67.274 days (Wolf 1061d). All of the planets are of sufficiently low mass that they may be rocky in nature. The 17.867 day planet falls within the habitable zone for Wolf 1061 and the 67.274 day planet falls just outside the outer boundary of the habitable zone. There are no signs of activity observed in the bisector spans, cross-correlation FWHMs, calcium H and K indices, NaD indices, or Hα indices near the planetary periods. We use custom methods to generate a cross-correlation template tailored to the star. The resulting velocities do not suffer the strong annual variation observed in the HARPS DRS velocities. This differential technique should deliver better exploitation of the archival HARPS data for the detection of planets at extremely low amplitudes.

  5. CONGENITAI, ORBITAL, TERATOMIA IN A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calcification encasing a deformed globe (computerized axial tomography scan). A lid-sparing modified exenteration with temporalis muscle transplant/split skin graft was performed. Histopathology reports on biopsy tissues revealed derivatives of all three germ cell layers consistent with the diagnosis of orbital teratoma.

  6. Getting a Crew into Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Despite the temporary setback in our country's crewed space exploration program, there will continue to be missions requiring crews to orbit Earth and beyond. Under the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, NASA should have its own heavy launch rocket and crew vehicle developed by 2016. Private companies will continue to explore space, as well. At the…

  7. Optimal Reorientation Of Spacecraft Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelnokov Yuriy Nikolaevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimal reorientation of the spacecraft orbit is considered. For solving the problem we used quaternion equations of motion written in rotating coordinate system. The use of quaternion variables makes this consideration more efficient. The problem of optimal control is solved on the basis of the maximum principle. An example of numerical solution of the problem is given.

  8. Orbital abscess: Management and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Suneetha

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To discuss the diagnosis, management and outcome of various types of orbital abscess. Methods: The medical records of 13 patients diagnosed and treated for orbital abscess were reviewed. The sources of infection included: paranasal sinusitis (n = 5, odontogenic origin of infection (n = 4, one each, temporal fossa abscess, palatal abscess, furuncle on the nose, and secondary to retrobulbar injection of steroid. Computed tomographic scans revealed the presence of an abscess in all 13 cases. Associated findings on CT scan included: sinus disease (n = 8, cavernous sinus thrombosis (n = 2 and subdural empyema (n = 2. All patients were treated with intensive, multiple, intravenous antibiotics and early surgical drainage. Results: Purulent material collected surgically from the orbit cultured Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3, two each Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter species and one each β-haemolytic Streptococci, Citrobacter frundi and Enterobacter. Final visual acuity was good in 6 patients (6/12 - 6/6 and no light perception in 6 others. Visual acuity could not be recorded in the infant. The other complications were intracranial abscess (n = 4, cavernous sinus thrombosis (n = 2 and restricted ocular motility (n = 1. Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is necessary, along with early institution of appropriate diagnostic imaging, and aggressive medical and surgical treatment for a favourable outcome in cases of orbital abscess.

  9. Retinoblastoma presenting with orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walinjkar, Jaydeep; Krishnakumar, S; Gopal, Lingam; Ramesh, Anita; Khetan, Vikas

    2013-06-01

    To study the effectiveness of pre-enucleation steroids in reducing inflammation in patients with retinoblastoma presenting as orbital cellulitis. Medical records of consecutive retinoblastoma patients presenting at a single tertiary eye care center during a period of 3 years were retrospectively reviewed. For those who presented with orbital cellulitis, clinical, radiological, and histopathological variables were assessed. The effect of pre-enucleation steroids was noted in this group of patients. Of 260 retinoblastoma cases reviewed, 14 had retinoblastoma-associated cellulitis (5.39%). Of these 14 patients, 4 received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 10 cases (mean age at presentation, 14.2 months; mean follow-up, 16.4 months), 9 presented with orbital cellulitis and were included in the study. Radiological imaging depicted intraocular tumors occupying 80% to 100% of the globe in each case. All patients underwent enucleation. Five children received pre-enucleation systemic steroids (mean, 5.4 days), which resulted in a prompt decrease in inflammation. Postenucleation chemotherapy was administered in 4 (6 cycles) and external beam radiation therapy in 1 patient with high-risk histopathological characteristics. Advanced necrotic retinoblastoma with anterior segment involvement may present as orbital cellulitis. Pre-enucleation systemic steroids can aid in the surgical management of these tumors. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. DOT strategies versus orbiter strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope is a high-resolution solar imager coming on-line at La Palma. The definition of the DOT science niche, strategies, and requirements resemble Solar Orbiter considerations and deliberations. I discuss the latter in the light of the former, and claim that multi-line observation

  11. The Coupled Orbit-Attitude Dynamics and Control of Electric Sail in Displaced Solar Orbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mingying Huo; He Liao; Yanfang Liu; Naiming Qi

    2017-01-01

    .... The results of stability analysis show that only some of the orbits are marginally stable. For unstable displaced orbits, linear quadratic regulator is employed to control the coupled attitude-orbit...

  12. [Orbital mycetoma: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, N N; Seck, S M; Diop, Y; Ndiaye Sow, M N; Agboton, G; Diakhaté, M; Dieng, M; Dieng, M T

    2013-05-01

    Mycetomas are pathological processes through which exogenous fungal or actinomycotic etiological agents produce grains. These etiological agents live in the soil and plants of endemic areas. They are introduced traumatically, primarily into the foot. The orbital location is rare. We report the case of a 17-year-old student admitted for progressive left proptosis over 2 years, following penetrating trauma by a fork in a rural setting. Examination revealed a heterogenous orbital mass with multiple fistulae, producing pus and black grains, and suggested, due to the color of the grains, a diagnosis of fungal mycetoma. MRI revealed a destructive process at the level of the lamina papracea of the ethmoid and the orbital floor. Anatomopathological examination confirmed the fungal nature of the infection, while culture in Sabouraud's medium was inconclusive. The outcome was favorable after exenteration and debridementof the ipsilateral maxillary sinus and nasal cavities, along with 4 months of ketoconazole. No recurrence has been observed for 14 months after surgery. Mycetomas are endemic to northwest Africa. Most frequently located in the foot, they are seldom seen in the orbit. The color of the grains provides a clue as to the etiology. Black-grain mycetomas are always fungal and are treated surgically--essentially like cancer--as the persistence of a single grain will cause a recurrence. The orbital location of a mycetoma is rare. In the present case report, the concept of port of entry, the clinical appearance, and the color of the grains guided the diagnosis. The histological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Space Shuttle Orbiter-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  14. CT findings of sinonasal and orbital Wegener's granulomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ri, Kyoushichi; Kushihashi, Tamio; Munechika, Hirotsugu (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1994-02-01

    We reviewed the CT findings of four cases of Wegener's granulomatosis that presented as inflammatory masses in the sinonasal cavity or orbit. In the present study, an infiltrative nature and homogeneous texture with contrast enhancement were typical of the masses. In addition, the masses were frequently accompanied by infiltration of the pterygopalatine fossa or destruction of adjacent bone. However, no pathognomonic findings were observed. (author).

  15. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the maxillary antrum and orbit presenting as acute bacterial orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S. P.; Lloyd, I. C.; Anderson, H.; Joyce, P. W.; Pace-Balzan, A.

    1991-01-01

    Orbital involvement by plasma cell tumours is rare. Orbital tumours do not generally present as an acute orbital inflammatory disease in adults, though tumours such as rhabdomyosarcoma may cause clinical signs similar to an acute orbital cellulitis in children. We describe a patient with bacterial orbital cellulitis and sinusitis who was found to have an extra-medullary plasmacytoma of the maxillary antrum and orbit and coexisting testicular seminoma. Images PMID:1854702

  16. [Accompany death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador Borrell, Montserrat

    2010-11-01

    One of the roles of nursing is to take care of the patients in terminal situation. The time, the experience, the formation, and the personal and professional attitudes that the nurse has will propitiate that taking care of moribund patients might turn into one of the more rewarding human experiences in life. There for, it is indispensable that nurses assume death as a natural and inevitable reality to achieve. The principal aim of the study is to evaluate the competence of confrontation and the autoefficiency of the welfare among nurses who work with adult patients at the end of the life. Descriptive study realized in the units of Oncology, Hametology and Palliative Care of the following centers: La Fe, Clínico, Dr. Peset, H. General, Arnau de Vilanova and Dr. Moliner de Portacoelli in Valencia (Spain). The following instruments were used: the Bugen Scale of confrontation of the Death (1980-1981) and the Robbins Scale of Autoefficiency (1992). Data suggests that major coping gives major autoeffciency and vice versa. The realized study opens numerous questions, specially related with training and the burden of preparation along the whole professional career, in order to achieve competence for coping and autoefficiency.

  17. Precision Analysis of LEO Satellite Orbit Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yafei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of different fitting intervals on the predicted orbit of different arc lengths was analyzed by using the dynamic fitting method and taken HY-2A satellite as an example. According to two orbit products, one was the precise orbit obtained by CNES and the other was rapid orbit computed by adopting zero-different reduced dynamic method, obtaining the precise predicted orbit. By the results, we can get that the 3DRMS is near 6dm by using 12h or 24h fitting orbit to forecast 12h arc; the 3DRMS is near 1m when forecasting 24h arc.

  18. Propiedades fisicoquímicas y tribológicas de una grasa grafitada de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio//Physicochemical and tribological properties of graphite grease based on Jatrophacurcas L oil and lithium soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano‐Chitue de Assunção‐Nascimento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las grasas lubricantes son consideradas una dispersión coloidal de un espesante en un fluido lubricante. Los aceites vegetales son ampliamente usados en muchas formulaciones de grasas. En este trabajo se determinaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas y tribológicas de una grasa lubricante fabricada con aceite vegetal de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio (JC1G5. Alfa tocoferol acetato y grafito fueron usados como aditivos antioxidante y de extrema presión respectivamente. La grasa JC1G5 mostró un color negro, una temperatura de goteo de 140 oC, apropiadas propiedades de corrosión al cobre y un grado de consistencia NLGI Grado1. El efecto de la lubricación de la grasa JC1G5 fue probado, empleando una máquina de cuatro bolas y un tribómetro timken. Los resultados indican que la grasa JC1G5 posee propiedades tribológicas comparables con una grasa mineral de jabón de litio.Palabras claves: grasa, jatropha curcas L, jabón de litio, propiedades fisicoquímicas, propiedades tribológicas.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractLubricating greases are considered as colloidal dispersions of a thickener in a lubricating fluid. The vegetable oils are widely used in many formulations of greases. In this paper were determined the physicochemical and tribological properties of graphite grease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetableoil and lithium soap (JC1G5. Alpha tocofherol acetate and graphite were used as antioxidant and extreme pressure additives respectively. The grease JC1G5 showed a black color, a dropping point of 140 oC, appropriate magnitude of copper corrosion and consistency NLGI Grade 1. Lubrication performance of the grease JC1G5 was tested using the 4-ball wear tester and timken tribometer tester. Results indicate that the grease JC1G5 has tribological properties comparable to that of mineral oil base lithium grease.Key words: grease, jatrophacurcas L, lithium soap, physicochemical

  19. Vascular Injury Accompanying Displaced Proximal Humeral Fractures: Two Cases and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Hofman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases in which displaced proximal humeral fractures are accompanied by vascular injury. These Injuries are very rare but severe and the accompanying vascular impairment can have great clinical consequences. Therefore, we try to emphasize on the importance of thorough and accurate diagnostics, because it is obligatory for early diagnosis and improving the eventual outcome of these injuries. The specific order in treatment (internal fixation first or vascular repair first depends on the severity of the accompanying vascular injury. The increasing use of endovascular procedures to treat vascular lesions is a very interesting development with several advantages, especially in elderly and multimorbid patients.

  20. Aiming at a 1-cm orbit for low earth orbiters : Reduced-dynamic and kinematic precise orbit determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.N.A.M.; Van den IJssel, J.

    2003-01-01

    The computation of high-accuracy orbits is a prerequisite for the success of Low Earth Orbiter (LEO) missions such as CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE. The mission objectives of these satellites cannot be reached without computing orbits with an accuracy at the few cm level. Such a level of accuracy might be

  1. Structure and electronic properties of ion pairs accompanying cyclic morpholinium cation and alkylphosphite anion based ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Prakash L.; Singh, Priti; Gejji, Shridhar P.

    2017-07-01

    Molecular insights for the formation of ion pairs accompanying the cyclic ammonium cation based room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) composed of alkyl substituted N-methylmorpholinium (RMMor) and alkylphosphite [(Rsbnd O)2PHdbnd O] (Rdbnd ethyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl) anion have been derived from the M06-2x level of theory. Electronic structures, binding energies, and spectral characteristics of the ion pairs underlying these RTILs have been characterized. The ion pair formation is largely governed by Csbnd H⋯O and other intermolecular interactions. Calculated binding energies increase with the increasing alkyl chain on either cation or alkylphosphite anion. The cation-anion binding reveals signature in the frequency down-(red) shift of the characteristic anionic Pdbnd O stretching whereas the Psbnd H stretching exhibits a shift in the opposite direction in vibrational spectra which has further been rationalized through molecular electron density topography. Correlations of measured electrochemical stability with the separation of frontier orbital energies and binding energies in the ion pairs have further been established.

  2. Robustness analysis method for orbit control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Yang, Keying; Qi, Rui; Zhao, Shuge; Li, Yanyan

    2017-08-01

    Satellite orbits require periodical maintenance due to the presence of perturbations. However, random errors caused by inaccurate orbit determination and thrust implementation may lead to failure of the orbit control strategy. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the robustness of the orbit control methods. Feasible strategies which are tolerant to errors of a certain magnitude can be developed to perform reliable orbit control for the satellite. In this paper, first, the orbital dynamic model is formulated by Gauss' form of the planetary equation using the mean orbit elements; the atmospheric drag and the Earth's non-spherical perturbations are taken into consideration in this model. Second, an impulsive control strategy employing the differential correction algorithm is developed to maintain the satellite trajectory parameters in given ranges. Finally, the robustness of the impulsive control method is analyzed through Monte Carlo simulations while taking orbit determination error and thrust error into account.

  3. Assessment and management of orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nikul; Syed, Irfan; Osborne, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Orbital cellulitis is a medical emergency requiring multidisciplinary team involvement. Early diagnosis and intervention is imperative to avoid serious complications. This article provides an evidence-based approach to the assessment and management of patients with orbital cellulitis.

  4. MOOSE: Manned On-Orbit Servicing Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinoff, J.; Leontsinis, N.; Lane, J.; Singh, R.; Angelone, K.; Boswell, C.; Chamberlain, I.; Concha, M.; Corrodo, M.; Custodio, O.

    The ability to service satellites has thus far been limited to low earth orbit platforms within reach of the Space Shuttle. Other orbits, such as geosynchronous orbits containing high-value spacecraft have not been attainable by a servicing vehicle. The useful life of a satellite can be extended by replacing spent propellant and damaged orbital replacement units, forestalling the need for eventual replacement. This growing need for satellite on-orbits servicing can be met by the Manned On-Orbit Servicing Equipment (MOOSE). Missions requiring orbit transfer capability, precision manipulation and maneuvering, and man-in-the-loop control can be accomplished using MOOSE. MOOSE is a flexible, reusable, single operator, aerobraking spacecraft designed to refuel, repair, and service orbiting spacecraft. MOOSE will be deployed from Space Station Freedom, (SSF), where it will be stored, resupplied, and refurbished.

  5. SILEX in-orbit performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Gilles; Chorvalli, Vincent

    2004-06-01

    PASTEL embarked on-board SPOT4, French LEO earth observation satellite, and OPALE mounted on-board ARTEMIS, European GEO telecommunication satellite are the key components of SILEX (Semi-conductor Inter-satellite Link Experiment) system. Launched in March 1998, PASTEL terminal was first verified via star tracking. Then, first SILEX optical communication was successfully performed in December 2001 with ARTEMIS at 31000 km. Following 12 months ARTEMIS orbit rising, SILEX commissioning phase was successfully achieved in spring 2003. Today, more than hundred successful optical communications have been achieved. On 1st of October 2003, the SILEX optical link was declared fully operational by the European and French space agencies. After a recall of SILEX architecture, design and on-ground verification, this paper reports on in-orbit results.

  6. Has Nemesis' orbit been detected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsemme, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    The orbital angular momenta of 126 very young comets are calculated from the orbital data of Marsden and Roemer (1982) and analyzed statistically. A large anisotropy is detected in a plane almost perpendicular to the ecliptic and shown to have a characteristic dissipation lifetime of 10-30 Myr. Dynamic evolution computations indicate that the impulse which produced the anisotropy is that of a very slow massive (10-90 Jupiter mass) body, which is bound to the solar system, passed its 15,000-35,000-AU perihelion about 2-15 Myr ago, and has period 5-50 Myr. It is suggested that this body could well be identical to Nemesis, the object proposed to explain mass faunal extinctions.

  7. The Orbiting Primate Experiment (OPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Debourne, M. N. G.; Mcclure, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumentation and life support systems are described for an experiment to determine the physiological effects of long term space flight on unrestrained, minimally instrumented rhesus macaques flown in orbit for periods up to six months or one year. On return from orbit, vestibular, cardiovascular, and skeletal muscle function will be tested. Blood chemistry and hematological studies will be conducted as well as tests of the immunological competence of selected animals. Nasal, rectal, and throat swabs will be used for bacterial and viral studies, and histopathological and histochemical investigations will be be made of all organs using light and electron microscopy. The experiment is being considered as a payload for the biomedical experiment scientific satellite.

  8. Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Webster

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar system described here (CMOR comprises a basic 5-element receiving system, co-located with a pulsed transmitter, specifically designed to observe meteor echoes and to determine their position in space with an angular resolution of ~1° and a radial resolution of ~3 km. Two secondary receiving sites, a few km distant and arranged to form approximately a right angle with the base station, allow the determination of the velocity (speed and direction of the meteor that, together with the time of occurrence, lead to an estimate of the orbit of the original meteoroid. Some equipment details are presented along with a method used to determine the orbits. Representative echoes are shown and observations on the 2002 Leonid shower presented.

  9. Gauge Freedom in Orbital Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Efroimsky, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In orbital and attitude dynamics the coordinates and the Euler angles are expressed as functions of the time and six constants called elements. Under disturbance, the constants are endowed with time dependence. The Lagrange constraint is then imposed to guarantee that the functional dependence of the perturbed velocity on the time and constants stays the same as in the undisturbed case. Constants obeying this condition are called osculating elements. The constants chosen to be canonical are c...

  10. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    the research taking place in the biology laboratory. This should promote contribu-tions to the grid, and thereby mediate the appropriation of the grid technology. GridOrbit visualizes the activity in the grid, shows information about the different active projects, and supports a messaging functionality where...... people comment on projects. Our work explores the usage of interactive technologies as enablers for the appropriation of an otherwise invisible infrastructure....

  11. Orbital assembly and maintenance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, D.; Grant, C.; Kyrias, G.; Lord, C.; Rombach, J.; Salis, M.; Skidmore, R.; Thomas, R.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements, conceptual design, tradeoffs, procedures, and techniques for orbital assembly of the support structure of the microwave power transmission system and the radio astronomy telescope are described. Thermal and stress analyses, packaging, alignment, and subsystems requirements are included along with manned vs. automated and transportation tradeoffs. Technical and operational concepts for the manned and automated maintenance of satellites were investigated and further developed results are presented.

  12. Understanding Pediatric Bacterial Preseptal and Orbital Cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mithra O.; Durairaj, Vikram D.

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric preseptal and orbital cellulitis are infectious disorders that result in periorbital inflammation. Preseptal cellulitis is often associated with breaches in the skin barrier whereas orbital cellulitis is commonly associated with paranasal sinusitis. Orbital cellulitis may be associated with subperiosteal abscess. It is important to distinguish between preseptal from orbital cellulitis. Clinical examination and diagnostic imaging are useful in determining appropriate management. Patients are usually treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and surgery when indicated. PMID:20616919

  13. A new kinematical definition of orbital eccentricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new concept of orbital eccentricity is given. The dimensionless quantities proposed in the present paper to serve as orbital eccentricities have a kinematical nature. The purpose is to use them in describing the motion for the case of three-dimensional orbits. A comparison done for nearly planar orbits shows that the values of the eccentricities proposed here do not differ significantly from those corresponding to the eccentricities of geometric nature usually applied.

  14. Christoph Rothmann's discourse on the comet of 1585 an edition and translation with accompanying essays

    CERN Document Server

    Granada, Miguel A; Jardine, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Christoph Rothmann's Discourse on the Comet of 1585 offers the first edition of the Latin treatise after it was published in 1619. It is accompanied by an English translation and a full introduction and commentary.

  15. [Letter and accompanying Bill proposing the creation of the Agassiz Wilderness

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference contains both the letter, addressed to the Speaker of the House, proposing the creation of thirty-seven new wilderness areas, and the accompanying...

  16. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Pool, S. L.; Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program addresses a need for more time to perform experiments and other tasks during Space Shuttle missions. As a part of this program, the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) has been instituted to obtain information about physiologic effects of extending mission duration and the effectiveness of countermeasures against factors that might compromise crew health, safety, or performance on extended-duration missions. Only those investigations that address and characterize operational problems, develop countermeasures, or evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures will be pursued. The EDOMP investigations will include flight-associated Detailed Supplementary Objectives as well as ground-based studies simulating the influence of microgravity. Investigator teams have been formed in the following areas: biomedical physiology, cardiovascular and fluid/electrolyte physiology, environmental health, muscle and exercise physiology, and neurophysiology. Major operational questions must be answered in each of these areas, and investigations have been designed to answer them. The EDO program will proceed only after countermeasures have been shown to be effective in preventing or mitigating the adverse changes they have been designed to attenuate. The program is underway and will continue on each Shuttle flight as the manifest builds toward a 16-day orbital flight.

  17. Molecular Orbitals and the Atomistics of Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-10

    dominantly a N-N bonding orbital the N-Fe interaction is non- bonding. The b2 orbital in the Fe4 cluster is d-d w-bonding between nearest neig ;hbo and...distance. This is the distance which is realized when there is no electron density in a N-3 antibonding orbital. In this cluster son of the electron

  18. Classification of Stellar Orbits Near Corotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breet, Jessica; Daniel, Kathryne J.; Bryn Mawr College Galaxy Lab

    2018-01-01

    The process of radial migration is frequently invoked as an important process to spiral galaxy evolution, but the physical properties that determine the efficiency of radial migration are poorly defined. In order for a star to migrate radially it must first be trapped in a resonant orbit at the corotation radius of a spiral pattern. Stars in such trapped orbits have changing average orbital radii — and thus orbital angular momenta — without any change in orbital eccentricity. It follows that transient spiral patterns can permanently rearrange the distribution of orbital angular momentum in the disk without kinematically heating it. It is also known that orbits can also have a significant dynamical response at Lindblad Resonances (LRs), where the Ultraharmonic Lindblad Resonances (ULRs) have a lesser impact on the disk. The goal of our project is to examine and constrain the efficiency of radial migration via an investigation into whether or not stars in trapped orbits have a dynamical response at the ULRs. We produced a dataset of nearly 105 orbits with initial conditions across a range of radii and 2-D velocities. We then classified these orbits into four categories based on analytic criteria for whether or not they are in trapped orbits and/or cross the ULR over 1 gigayear. Preliminary investigations show that trapped orbits that also meet the ULR have a chaotic response, putting a potential limit on the efficiency of radial migration.

  19. Periodic Orbits and Deformed Shell Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Arita, K.; Magner, A. G.; Matsuyanagi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Relationship between quantum shell structure and classical periodic orbits is briefly reviewed on the basis of semi-classical trace formula. Using the spheroidal cavity model, it is shown that three-dimensional periodic orbits, which are born out of bifurcation of planar orbits at large prolate deformations, generate the superdeformed shell structure.

  20. On Directional Measurement Representation in Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    Precision Orbit Determination (OD) is often critical for successful satellite operations supporting a wide variety of missions. Directional or angles only...representations. The three techniques are then compared experimentally for a geostationary and a low Earth orbit satellite using simulated data to evaluate their... Orbit Determination (OD) is often critical for successful satellite operations supporting a wide variety of missions. Precision OD involves

  1. Cesium's Off-the-Map Valence Orbital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goesten, Maarten G.; Rahm, Martin; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias; Hensen, Emiel J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The Td-symmetric [CsO4]+ ion, featuring Cs in an oxidation state of 9, is computed to be a minimum. Cs uses outer core 5s and 5p orbitals to bind the oxygen atoms. The valence Cs 6s orbital lies too high to be involved in bonding, and contributes to Rydberg levels only. From a molecular orbital

  2. The orbital record in stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alfred G.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital signals are being discovered in pre-Pleistocene sediments. Due to their hierarchical nature these cycle patterns are complex, and the imprecision of geochronology generally makes the assignment of stratigraphic cycles to specific orbital cycles uncertain, but in sequences such as the limnic Newark Group under study by Olsen and pelagic Cretaceous sequence worked on by our Italo-American group the relative frequencies yield a definitive match to the Milankovitch hierarchy. Due to the multiple ways in which climate impinges on depositional systems, the orbital signals are recorded in a multiplicity of parameters, and affect different sedimentary facies in different ways. In platform carbonates, for example, the chief effect is via sea-level variations (possibly tied to fluctuating ice volume), resulting in cycles of emergence and submergence. In limnic systems it finds its most dramatic expression in alternations of lake and playa conditions. Biogenic pelagic oozes such as chalks and the limestones derived from them display variations in the carbonate supplied by planktonic organisms such as coccolithophores and foraminifera, and also record variations in the aeration of bottom waters. Whereas early studies of stratigraphic cyclicity relied mainly on bedding variations visible in the field, present studies are supplementing these with instrumental scans of geochemical, paleontological, and geophysical parameters which yield quantitative curves amenable to time-series analysis; such analysis is, however, limited by problems of distorted time-scales. My own work has been largely concentrated on pelagic systems. In these, the sensitivity of pelagic organisms to climatic-oceanic changes, combined with the sensitivity of botton life to changes in oxygen availability (commonly much more restricted in the Past than now) has left cyclic patterns related to orbital forcing. These systems are further attractive because (1) they tend to offer depositional continuity

  3. Precision orbit raising trajectories. [solar electric propulsion orbital transfer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, P. F.; Horsewood, J. L.; Pines, S.

    1975-01-01

    A precision trajectory program has been developed to serve as a test bed for geocentric orbit raising steering laws. The steering laws to be evaluated have been developed using optimization methods employing averaging techniques. This program provides the capability of testing the steering laws in a precision simulation. The principal system models incorporated in the program are described, including the radiation environment, the solar array model, the thrusters and power processors, the geopotential, and the solar system. Steering and array orientation constraints are discussed, and the impact of these constraints on program design is considered.

  4. Management of preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongmu; Yen, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis describes an infection involving the soft tissues posterior to the orbital septum, including the fat and muscle within the bony orbit. This condition may be associated with severe sight and life-threatening complications. Despite significant advances in antimicrobial therapies and diagnostic technologies, the management of orbital cellulitis often remains challenging, and rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are important in minimizing complications and optimizing outcomes. This review summarizes the distinctive characteristics of preseptal and orbital cellulitis, with a focus on anatomic considerations, predisposing conditions, approaches to evaluation, and management strategies. PMID:23960899

  5. Linear magnetoelectric effect by orbital magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramucci, A; Bousquet, E; Fechner, M; Mostovoy, M; Spaldin, N A

    2012-11-09

    We use symmetry analysis and first-principles calculations to show that the linear magnetoelectric effect can originate from the response of orbital magnetic moments to the polar distortions induced by an applied electric field. Using LiFePO(4) as a model compound we show that spin-orbit coupling partially lifts the quenching of the 3d orbitals and causes small orbital magnetic moments (μ((L)) ≈ 0.3 μ(B)) parallel to the spins of the Fe(2+) ions. An applied electric field E modifies the size of these orbital magnetic moments inducing a net magnetization linear in E.

  6. [Orbital emphysema: radiologic and ophthalmologic findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanas-Álava, Susana; Rodríguez-Marco, Nelson Arturo; Artigas-Martín, José María; Fernández-Larripa, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Orbital emphysema, or the presence of air in orbital tissues, is normally associated with an injury although it can arise when a Valsalva maneuver causes an increase in upper airway pressure. This potential complication of an orbital wall fracture, usually in the ethmoid bone, occurs in 50% of such cases. On fracture, air passes from the nasal fossa, sinuses, or subcutaneous tissue. The condition is benign and transient in most cases, and loss of vision is rare. No protocol for treating orbital emphysema with serious complications in which vision is affected has been established. We report 9 cases of orbital emphysema, describing events leading to the fractures, radiologic findings, and treatments.

  7. Sclerosing Wegener's granulomatosis in the orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report three cases of sclerosing Wegener's granulomatosis in the orbit and to compare the histopathological morphology with those of other types of sclerosing orbital inflammation. METHODS: We analysed the clinical data along with histopathological specimens from orbital biopsies......, tissue necrosis, vasculitis and widespread dense fibrosis. In certain areas of all specimens the fibrous tissue was arranged in characteristic concentric, onionskin-like whorls of collagen around obliterated small blood vessels. CONCLUSIONS: Wegener's granulomatosis may lead to orbital fibrosis...... and sclerosis. The stromal changes and cellular infiltrate resemble the non-specific orbital inflammation previously termed orbital pseudotumour. We present the first 'onionskin' lesions in association with Wegener's granulomatosis in the orbit. This latter morphology may represent an abnormal fibrotic reaction...

  8. Mission design of a Pioneer Jupiter Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L. D.; Nunamaker, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Mission analysis and design work performed in order to define a Pioneer mission to orbit Jupiter is described. This work arose from the interaction with a science advisory 'Mission Definition' team and led to the present mission concept. Building on the previous Jupiter Orbiter-Satellite Tour development at JPL a magnetospheric survey mission concept is developed. The geometric control of orbits which then provide extensive local time coverage of the Jovian system is analyzed and merged with the various science and program objectives. The result is a 'flower-orbit' mission design, yielding three large apoapse excursions at various local times and many interior orbits whose shape and orientation is under continual modification. This orbit design, together with a first orbit defined by delivery of an atmospheric probe, yields a mission of high scientific interest.

  9. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  10. Gauge Freedom in Orbital Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efroimsky, Michael

    2005-12-01

    In orbital and attitude dynamics the coordinates and the Euler angles are expressed as functions of the time and six constants called elements. Under disturbance, the constants are endowed with time dependence. The Lagrange constraint is then imposed to guarantee that the functional dependence of the perturbed velocity on the time and constants stays the same as in the undisturbed case. Constants obeying this condition are called osculating elements. The constants chosen to be canonical are called Delaunay elements, in the orbital case, or Andoyer elements, in the spin case. (As some Andoyer elements are time dependent even in the free-spin case, the role of constants is played by their initial values.) The Andoyer and Delaunay sets of elements share a feature not readily apparent: in certain cases the standard equations render them non-osculating. In orbital mechanics, elements furnished by the standard planetary equations are non-osculating when perturbations depend on velocities. To preserve osculation, the equations must be amended with extra terms that are not parts of the disturbing function. In the case of Delaunay parameterisation, these terms destroy canonicity. So under velocity-dependent disturbances, osculation and canonicity are incompatible. (Efroimsky and Goldreich 2003, 2004) Similarly, the Andoyer elements turn out to be non-osculating under angular-velocity-dependent perturbation. Amendment of only the Hamiltonian makes the equations render nonosculating elements. To make them osculating, more terms must enter the equations (and the equations will no longer be canonical). In practical calculations, is often convenient to deliberately deviate from osculation by substituting the Lagrange constraint with a condition that gives birth to a family of nonosculating elements.

  11. Kalman Orbit Optimized Loop Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lawrence E.; Meehan, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    Under certain conditions of low signal power and/or high noise, there is insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR) to close tracking loops with individual signals on orbiting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In addition, the processing power available from flight computers is not great enough to implement a conventional ultra-tight coupling tracking loop. This work provides a method to track GNSS signals at very low SNR without the penalty of requiring very high processor throughput to calculate the loop parameters. The Kalman Orbit-Optimized Loop (KOOL) tracking approach constitutes a filter with a dynamic model and using the aggregate of information from all tracked GNSS signals to close the tracking loop for each signal. For applications where there is not a good dynamic model, such as very low orbits where atmospheric drag models may not be adequate to achieve the required accuracy, aiding from an IMU (inertial measurement unit) or other sensor will be added. The KOOL approach is based on research JPL has done to allow signal recovery from weak and scintillating signals observed during the use of GPS signals for limb sounding of the Earth s atmosphere. That approach uses the onboard PVT (position, velocity, time) solution to generate predictions for the range, range rate, and acceleration of the low-SNR signal. The low- SNR signal data are captured by a directed open loop. KOOL builds on the previous open loop tracking by including feedback and observable generation from the weak-signal channels so that the MSR receiver will continue to track and provide PVT, range, and Doppler data, even when all channels have low SNR.

  12. LEIR Closed Orbit Measurement proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2004-01-01

    For the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) continuous (every 10ms) tracking of the closed orbit is necessary during the acceleration and on request. To do so it is foreseen to re-use parts of the existing hardware, mainly the pick-ups (PUs), from LEAR while other parts like the head amplifiers and the acquisition system will have to be re-designed. This note addresses the hardware and software needed for an analogue based acquisition system as well as a DSP based solution. The commissioning of LEIR is foreseen for mid 2005.

  13. Dynamic MRI of orbital lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Hiroko (Kochi Medical School, Nangoku (Japan))

    1991-04-01

    Study of time intensity curves was performed for 15 orbital lesions. Inflammatory lesions (2 chronic dacryoadenitis, 1 chalazion, 1 inflammatory pseudotumor), 1 meningioma, and 4 pseudolymphoma showed rapid increase with run off. They showed peak formations within 2 minutes. Tumors except for meningioma (3 malignant lymphoma, 2 retinoblastoma, 1 pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland) showed gradual increase without peak formation. No difference between benign and malignancy was detected. Dynamic MRI would be useful for differential diagnosis between pseudotumor and malignant lymphoma, that has been difficult for imaging diagnosis so far. (author).

  14. Neptune Polar Orbiter with Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienstock, Bernard; Atkinson, David; Baines, Kevin; Mahaffy, Paul; Steffes, Paul; Atreya, Sushil; Stern, Alan; Wright, Michael; Willenberg, Harvey; Smith, David; hide

    2005-01-01

    The giant planets of the outer solar system divide into two distinct classes: the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn, which consist mainly of hydrogen and helium; and the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, which are believed to contain significant amounts of the heavier elements oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon and sulfur. Detailed comparisons of the internal structures and compositions of the gas giants with those of the ice giants will yield valuable insights into the processes that formed the solar system and, perhaps, other planetary systems. By 2012, Galileo, Cassini and possibly a Jupiter Orbiter mission with microwave radiometers, Juno, in the New Frontiers program, will have yielded significant information on the chemical and physical properties of Jupiter and Saturn. A Neptune Orbiter with Probes (NOP) mission would deliver the corresponding key data for an ice giant planet. Such a mission would ideally study the deep Neptune atmosphere to pressures approaching and possibly exceeding 1000 bars, as well as the rings, Triton, Nereid, and Neptune s other icy satellites. A potential source of power would be nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). Such an ambitious mission requires that a number of technical issues be investigated, however, including: (1) atmospheric entry probe thermal protection system (TPS) design, (2) probe structural design including seals, windows, penetrations and pressure vessel, (3) digital, RF subsystem, and overall communication link design for long term operation in the very extreme environment of Neptune's deep atmosphere, (4) trajectory design allowing probe release on a trajectory to impact Neptune while allowing the spacecraft to achieve a polar orbit of Neptune, (5) and finally the suite of science instruments enabled by the probe technology to explore the depths of the Neptune atmosphere. Another driving factor in the design of the Orbiter and Probes is the necessity to maintain a fully operational flight system during the lengthy transit time

  15. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  16. Orbital socket contracture: a complication of inflammatory orbital disease in patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talar-Williams, C; Sneller, M C; Langford, C A; Smith, J A; Cox, T A; Robinson, M R

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To describe the clinical characteristics of orbital socket contracture in patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG). Methods: A retrospective cohort study The medical records of 256 patients with WG examined at the National Institutes of Health from 1967 to 2004 were reviewed to identify patients with orbital socket contracture. Details of the orbital disease including Hertel exophthalmometry readings, radiological findings, and results of eye examinations were recorded. Orbital socket contracture was defined as orbital inflammation with proptosis followed by the development of enophthalmos and radiographic evidence of residual fibrotic changes in the orbit. To examine for risk factors in the development of a contracted orbit, patients with orbital socket contracture were compared to patients without contracture with respect to multiple variables including history of orbital surgery, orbital disease severity, and major organ system involvement. The main outcome measures were the clinical characteristics of orbital socket contracture associated with inflammatory orbital disease in patients with WG. Results: Inflammatory orbital disease occurred in 34 of 256 (13%) patients and detailed clinical data on 18 patients were available and examined. Orbital socket contracture occurred during the clinical course in six patients; the features included restrictive ophthalmopathy (five), chronic orbital pain (three), and ischaemic optic nerve disease (two) resulting in blindness (no light perception) in one patient. The orbital socket contracture occurred within 3 months of treatment with immunosuppressive medications for inflammatory orbital disease in five patients and was not responsive to immunosuppressive medications. The median degree of enophthalmos in the contracted orbit compared with the fellow eye was 2.8 mm (range 1.5–3.5 mm) by Hertel exophthalmometry. There were no risk factors that predicted development of orbital socket contracture. Conclusions: In

  17. Knowledge and expectations of the accompanying member concerning illnesses and hospitalization of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Gloria Machado de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing the knowledge, difficulties and expectations of accompanying members concerning illnesses and hospitalization of the newborn. It is a qualitative study with 11 accompanying members of infants admitted in public hospital, in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. It consists of semi-structured interviews carried out and recorded in June 2012. It was based on the content analysis that emerged from three categories: knowing the health problems of the newborn, expectations in the hospital context and difficulties faced by accompanying members. It was observed that the accompanying members had limited knowledge about the health conditions that resulted in the hospitalization of the newborn, although there was a professional health team for the guidelines, for the affected needs. Commonly speaking, it expresses limited information, but possible to be understood. It is essential that the health professionals provide to the accompanying members on the disease, treatment and recovery of the newborn so that they can understand the process of hospitalization and provide proper assistance.

  18. Role of Negative Orbit Vector in Orbital Blow-Out Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Youn; Lee, Hwa; Baek, Sehyun

    2017-11-01

    Negative orbit vector is defined as the most anterior globe portion protrudes past the malar eminence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between negative orbit vector and blow-out fracture location analyzing the distance between the anterior corneal surface and orbital bone with facial soft tissue in medial and orbital floor blow out fractures using orbital computed tomography (CT). Seventy-seven patients diagnosed with blow-out fractures involving the medial or orbital floor were included. Distances from the anterior cornea to lower lid fat, inferior orbital wall, inferior orbital rim, and anterior cheek mass were measured using orbital CT scans. The proportion of negative orbit vector and measured distanced were compared between medial wall fracture and orbital floor fracture. Medical records including age, sex, concomitant ophthalmic diagnosis, and nature of injury were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-three eyes from 43 patients diagnosed with medial wall fracture and 34 eyes from 34 patients diagnosed with orbital floor fracture were included. There was no significant difference in the distance from the anterior cornea to lower lid fat (P = 0.574), inferior orbital wall (P = 0.494), or orbital rim (P = 0.685). The distance from anterior cornea to anterior cheek mass was significantly different in medial wall fracture (-0.19 ± 3.49 mm) compared with orbital floor fracture (-1.69 ± 3.70 mm), P = 0.05. Negative orbit vector was significantly higher in orbital floor fracture patients (24 among 34 patients, 70.6%) compared with those with medial wall fractures (19 among 43 patients, 44.2%) (P = 0.04). Patients presenting with a negative orbit vector relationship when the most anterior portion of globe protruded past the anterior cheek mass and malar eminence were more likely to develop orbital floor fracture than medial wall fracture.

  19. Ionization of pyridine: Interplay of orbital relaxation and electron correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, A. B.; Holland, D. M. P.; Powis, I.; Menzies, R. C.; Potts, A. W.; Karlsson, L.; Gromov, E. V.; Badsyuk, I. L.; Schirmer, J.

    2017-06-01

    The valence shell ionization spectrum of pyridine was studied using the third-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction approximation scheme for the one-particle Green's function and the outer-valence Green's function method. The results were used to interpret angle resolved photoelectron spectra recorded with synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range of 17-120 eV. The lowest four states of the pyridine radical cation, namely, 2A2(1 a2 -1), 2A1(7 a1 -1), 2B1(2 b1 -1), and 2B2(5 b2 -1), were studied in detail using various high-level electronic structure calculation methods. The vertical ionization energies were established using the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster approach with single, double, and triple excitations (EOM-IP-CCSDT) and the complete basis set extrapolation technique. Further interpretation of the electronic structure results was accomplished using Dyson orbitals, electron density difference plots, and a second-order perturbation theory treatment for the relaxation energy. Strong orbital relaxation and electron correlation effects were shown to accompany ionization of the 7a1 orbital, which formally represents the nonbonding σ-type nitrogen lone-pair (nσ) orbital. The theoretical work establishes the important roles of the π-system (π-π* excitations) in the screening of the nσ-hole and of the relaxation of the molecular orbitals in the formation of the 7a1(nσ)-1 state. Equilibrium geometric parameters were computed using the MP2 (second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory) and CCSD methods, and the harmonic vibrational frequencies were obtained at the MP2 level of theory for the lowest three cation states. The results were used to estimate the adiabatic 0-0 ionization energies, which were then compared to the available experimental and theoretical data. Photoelectron anisotropy parameters and photoionization partial cross sections, derived from the experimental spectra, were compared to predictions obtained with the continuum

  20. The earth orbiting space debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The space debris population is similar to the asteroid belt, since it is subject to a process of high-velocity mutual collisions that affects the long-term evolution of its size distribution. Presently, more than 10 000 artificial debris particles with diameters larger than 10 cm (and more than 300 000 with diameters larger than 1 cm are orbiting the Earth, and are monitored and studied by a large network of sensors around the Earth. Many objects of different kind compose the space debris population, produced by different source mechanisms ranging from high energy fragmentation of large spacecraft to slow diffusion of liquid metal. The impact against a space debris is a serious risk that every spacecraft must face now and it can be evaluated with ad-hoc algorithms. The long term evolution of the whole debris population is studied with computer models allowing the simulation of all the known source and sink mechanisms. One of these codes is described in this paper and the evolution of the debris environment over the next 100 years, under different traffic scenarios, is shown, pointing out the possible measures to mitigate the growth of the orbital debris population. .

  1. Investigations of SPS Orbit Drifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drøsdal, Lene [CERN; Bracco, Chiara [CERN; Cornelis, Karel [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Wenninger, Jorg [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    The LHC is filled from the last pre-injector, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. Over the LHC injection processes, a drift of the beam trajectories has been observed in TI 2 and TI 8, requiring regular correction of the trajectories, in order to ensure clean injection into the LHC. Investigations of the trajectory variations in the transfer lines showed that the main source of short term trajectory drifts are current variations of the SPS extraction septa (MSE). The stability of the power converters has been improved, but the variations are still present and further improvements are being investigated. The stability over a longer period of time cannot be explained by this source alone. The analysis of trajectory variations shows that there are also slow variations in the SPS closed orbit at extraction. A set of SPS orbit measurements has been saved and analysed. These observations will be used together with simulations and observed field errors to locate the second source of variations.

  2. Fungal infections of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients.

  3. Introducing the Moon's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    I present a novel way to introduce the lunar orbital eccentricity in introductory astronomy courses. The Moon is perhaps the clearest illustration of the general orbital elements such as inclination, ascending node, eccentricity, perigee, and so on. Furthermore, I like the students to discover astronomical phenomena for themselves, by means of a guided exercise, rather than just telling them the facts.1 The inclination and nodes may be found by direct observation, monitoring carefully the position of the Moon among the stars. Even the regression of the nodes may be discovered in this way2 To find the eccentricity from students' observations is also possible,3 but that requires considerable time and effort. if a whole class should discover it in a short time, here is a method more suitable for a one-day class or home assignment. The level I aim at is, more or less, advanced high school or first-year college students. I assume them to be acquainted with celestial coordinates and the lunar phases, and to be able to use algebra and trigonometry.

  4. Investigations of SPS orbit drifts

    CERN Document Server

    Drøsdal, L; Cornelis, K; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Wenninger, J; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is filled from the last pre-injector, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. Over the LHC injection processes, a drift of the beam trajectories has been observed in TI 2 and TI 8, requiring regular correction of the trajectories, in order to ensure clean injection into the LHC. Investigations of the trajectory variations in the transfer lines showed that the main source of short term trajectory drifts are current variations of the SPS extraction septa (MSE). The stability of the power converters has been improved, but the variations are still present and further improvements are being investigated. The stability over a longer period of time cannot be explained by this source alone. The analysis of trajectory variations shows that there are also slow variations in the SPS closed orbit at extraction. A set of SPS orbit measurements has been saved and analysed. These observations will be used together with simulations and observed field errors to locate the s...

  5. On-orbit Passive Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Patricia A.; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliott

    2008-01-01

    On July 12, 2006, British-born astronaut Piers Sellers became the first person to conduct thermal nondestructive evaluation experiments in space, demonstrating the feasibility of a new tool for detecting damage to the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) structures of the Shuttle. This new tool was an EVA (Extravehicular Activity, or spacewalk) compatible infrared camera developed by NASA engineers. Data was collected both on the wing leading edge of the Orbiter and on pre-damaged samples mounted in the Shuttle s cargo bay. A total of 10 infrared movies were collected during the EVA totaling over 250 megabytes of data. Images were downloaded from the orbiting Shuttle to Johnson Space Center for analysis and processing. Results are shown to be comparable to ground-based thermal inspections performed in the laboratory with the same type of camera and simulated solar heating. The EVA camera system detected flat-bottom holes as small as 2.54cm in diameter with 50% material loss from the back (hidden) surface in RCC during this first test of the EVA IR Camera. Data for the time history of the specimen temperature and the capability of the inspection system for imaging impact damage are presented.

  6. Pegging the porous orbital implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Royce L C; Ramstead, Cory L; Nathoo, Nawaaz

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) orbital implants are commonly used for the anophthalmic socket. With a HA implant, if motility is not satisfactory then a peg system can be surgically placed in attempts to improve motility. The authors report the technique and results of 83 patients who received motility peg placement over an 8-year period by a single surgeon. Retrospective chart review of all patients with previous enucleation with either primary or secondary insertion of a HA implant who received a motility peg by a single oculoplastic surgeon between January 1999 and February 2007. Eighty-three patients underwent placement of a titanium peg and sleeve during the study period. Complications seen in the follow-up period included discharge, pyogenic granuloma, and others. Infection was experienced in 1 case. Fourteen patients (17%) required further surgical management due to complications. The largely positive results of this moderately sized case series validates the efficacy of pegging a hydroxyapatite orbital implant with minor risk of serious complications; this may have been due to a combination of factors including an experienced surgeon and adequate follow-up. As a procedure that can be completed in a hospital or minor surgical suite with sedation, it remains a viable option for many patients.

  7. Boxy Orbital Structures in Rotating Bar Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Velasquez, L.; Patsis, P. A.; Puerari, I.; Skokos, Ch.; Manos, T.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate regular and chaotic two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) orbits of stars in models of a galactic potential consisting of a disk, a halo, and a bar to find the origin of boxy components that are part of the bar or (almost) the bar itself. Our models originate in snapshots of an N-body simulation, which develops a strong bar. We consider three snapshots of the simulation, and, for the orbital study, we treat each snapshot independently, as an autonomous Hamiltonian system. The calculated corotation–to–bar length ratios indicate that in all three cases, the bar rotates slowly, while the orientation of the orbits of the main family of periodic orbits changes along its characteristic. We characterize the orbits as regular, sticky, or chaotic after integrating them for a 10 Gyr period by using the GALI2 index. Boxiness in the equatorial plane is associated either with quasi-periodic orbits in the outer parts of stability islands or with sticky orbits around them, which can be found in a large range of energies. We indicate the location of such orbits in diagrams, which include the characteristic of the main family. They are always found about the transition region from order to chaos. By perturbing such orbits in the vertical direction, we find a class of 3D nonperiodic orbits, which have boxy projections both in their face-on and side-on views.

  8. An analysis of near-circular lunar mapping orbits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Lunar mapping; orbit maintenance; orbit life time; lunar gravity model; spherical harmonics. ... The aim is to select the appropriate near-circular orbit characteristics,which extend orbit life through passive orbit maintenance.The spherical harmonic terms that make major contributions to the orbital behaviour are ...

  9. oas electoral observations vs. unasur accompaniment in the last elections in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos PASCUAL PLANCHUELO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electoral observation has become an essential exercise for the development of electoral democracy. The proliferation of organizations monitoring elections makes necessary to distinguish real «election observation activities», from other similar activities, such as «electoral accompaniment». Independence is an essential element that must be respected by true electoral observation organizations. Accordingly, the lack of independence in some of these organizations transforms them into «intervened electoral observation» actors, dowgrading its credibility and reliability. Hence, the last electoral processes that have taken place in Venezuela, provide the necessary factual basis to distinguish oas election observation missions, from unasur accompaniment missions.

  10. Steam thermolysis of tire shreds: modernization in afterburning of accompanying gas with waste steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitko, V. A.

    2010-03-01

    On the basis of experience in the commercial operation of tire-shred steam thermolysis in EnresTec Inc. (Taiwan) producing high-grade commercial carbon, liquid pyrolysis fuel, and accompanying fuel gas by this method, we have proposed a number of engineering solutions and calculated-analytical substantiations for modernization and intensification of the process by afterburning the accompanying gas with waste steam condensable in the scrubber of water gas cleaning of afterburning products. The condensate is completely freed of the organic pyrolysis impurities and the necessity of separating it from the liquid fuel, as is the case with the active process, is excluded.

  11. Peculiarities of infectious diseases course accompanied by quinsy syndrome in children (data from children infectious hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikova T.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study morbidity dynamics for the period of 15 years and to determine clinical signs that accompany quinsy syndrome (diphtheria, infectious mononucleosis, scarlet fever, quinsy. Retrospective study analysis of annual reports and case-histories was carried out. 323 cases of infectious diseases accompanied by quinsy syndrome were examined. Clinical and epidemic signs of diseases were determined during the period of morbidity raise. The current clinical course of diseases was characterized in detail. The significant percentage of renal complications in case of pharyngonasal cavity lesion was shown

  12. TREATMENT OF ACUTE INFLAMMATORY DISEASES ACCOMPANIED BY THROAT IRRITATION AND PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Petrovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenetically, prescription of local action drugs containing a wide spectrum antiseptic is reasonable for the upper respiratory tract diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain. It should be noted that such drugs are very popular among parents; however, most of these drugs may have a range of side effects, which considerably complicate their use in children. That is why the right choice of local action drugs for the acute inflammatory diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain is a guarantee of treatment efficacy and high compliance. This article examines pharmacological qualities of an antiseptic-containing local action drug permitted to use in children over 4 years of age.

  13. Orbit keeping attitude control for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, D.; Bedell, H.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that on-orbit configuration variability is expected to be a characteristic of a space station. The implementation of such a chracteristic will present reboost and thruster control system designers with a number of new challenges. The primary requirement for the space station orbit reboost (or orbit keeping) system is to ensure system viability for extended duration and prevent an uncontrolled reentry as with Skylab. For a station in a low earth orbit, earodynamic drag will be sufficient to cause relatively quick orbit altitude decay. A propulsion system is, therefore, needed to counteract the aerodynamic drag forces and to boost the vehicle to the desired orbit altitudes. A description is given of a typical reboost operational procedure and propellant requirements. Attention is given to thruster control systems, and aspects of reboost guidance.

  14. Orbital Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener Granulomatosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Karra; Lin, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    The pathology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly Wegener granulomatosis, typically features a granulomatous and sometimes necrotizing vasculitis targeting the respiratory tract and kidneys. However, orbital involvement occurs in up to 60% of patients and is frequently the first or only clinical presentation in patients with systemic or limited forms of GPA. Orbital GPA can cause significant morbidity and potentially lead to complete loss of vision and permanent facial deformity. Fortunately, GPA is highly responsive to medical treatment with corticosteroids combined with cyclophosphamide or, more recently, rituximab. Therefore, it is imperative for this disease to be accurately diagnosed on orbital biopsy and distinguished from other histologically similar orbital lesions. Herein, we review the clinical and pathologic findings of orbital GPA, focusing on the differentiation of this disease from other inflammatory orbital lesions. PMID:25076302

  15. Growth and development of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Aaron J; Kahn, David

    2012-11-01

    Every surgeon operating on the face, and particularly around the eye, should possess a working knowledge of the critical details related to development of the human orbit and recognized changes that occur during the course of aging. The anatomy of the orbit and periorbital region is complex, and the diagnosis and treatment of patients with orbital/periorbital disease requires expertise in congenital differences and awareness of the changes that occur as individuals age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Orbital Debris and NASA's Measurement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Africano, J. L.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2002-05-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, the number of manmade objects in orbit around the Earth has dramatically increased. The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) tracks and maintains orbits on over nine thousand objects down to a limiting diameter of about ten centimeters. Unfortunately, active spacecraft are only a small percentage ( ~ 7%) of this population. The rest of the population is orbital debris or ``space junk" consisting of expended rocket bodies, dead payloads, bits and pieces from satellite launches, and fragments from satellite breakups. The number of these smaller orbital debris objects increases rapidly with decreasing size. It is estimated that there are at least 130,000 orbital debris objects between one and ten centimeters in diameter. Most objects smaller than 10 centimeters go untracked! As the orbital debris population grows, the risk to other orbiting objects, most importantly manned space vehicles, of a collision with a piece of debris also grows. The kinetic energy of a solid 1 cm aluminum sphere traveling at an orbital velocity of 10 km/sec is equivalent to a 400 lb. safe traveling at 60 mph. Fortunately, the volume of space in which the orbiting population resides is large, collisions are infrequent, but they do occur. The Space Shuttle often returns to earth with its windshield pocked with small pits or craters caused by collisions with very small, sub-millimeter-size pieces of debris (paint flakes, particles from solid rocket exhaust, etc.), and micrometeoroids. To get a more complete picture of the orbital-debris environment, NASA has been using both radar and optical techniques to monitor the orbital debris environment. This paper gives an overview of the orbital debris environment and NASA's measurement program.

  17. Wavefunction Intensity Statistics from Unstable Periodic Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1998-01-01

    We examine the effect of short unstable periodic orbits on wavefunction statistics in a classically chaotic system, and find that the tail of the wavefunction intensity distribution in phase space is dominated by scarring associated with the least unstable periodic orbits. In an ensemble average over systems with classical orbits of different instabilities, a power law tail is found, in sharp contrast to the exponential prediction of random matrix theory. The calculations are compared with numerical data and quantitative agreement is obtained

  18. Mercury's resonant rotation from secular orbital elements

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Hussmann, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    We used recently produced Solar System ephemerides, which incorporate 2 years of ranging observations to the MESSENGER spacecraft, to extract the secular orbital elements for Mercury and associated uncertainties. As Mercury is in a stable 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, these values constitute an important reference for the planet’s measured rotational parameters, which in turn strongly bear on physical interpretation of Mercury’s interior structure. In particular, we derive a mean orbital period o...

  19. Orbital motion effects in astrometric microlensing

    OpenAIRE

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2014-01-01

    We investigate lens orbital motion in astrometric microlensing and its detectability. In microlensing events, the light centroid shift in the source trajectory (the astrometric trajectory) falls off much more slowly than the light amplification as the source distance from the lens position increases. As a result, perturbations developed with time such as lens orbital motion can make considerable deviations in astrometric trajectories. The rotation of the source trajectory due to lens orbital ...

  20. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Wrapper Script

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; Khanampornpan, Teerapat

    2008-01-01

    The MRO OLVM wrapper script software allows Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) sequence and spacecraft engineers to rapidly simulate a spacecraft command product through a tool that simulates the onboard sequence management software (OLVM). This script parses sequence files to determine the appropriate time boundaries for the sequence, and constructs the script file to be executed by OLVM to span the entirety of the designated sequence. It then constructs script files to be executed by OLVM, constructs the appropriate file directories, populates these directories with needed input files, initiates OLVM to simulate the actual command product that will be sent to the spacecraft, and captures the results of the simulation run to an external file for later review. Additionally, the tool allows a user to manually construct the script, if desired, and then execute the script with a simple command line.

  1. Orbital actinomycotic mycetoma caused by

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Walton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Case summary An 18-month-old male neutered Ragdoll cat presented with an 8 week history of progressive unilateral right-sided mucopurulent nasal discharge and exophthalmos. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneous right retrobulbar mass and bilateral nasal cavity disease. Filamentous structures seen on cytology of retrobulbar and nasal biopsies were mistakenly identified as filamentous fungal hyphae. Subsequent investigations revealed that the cat had a retrobulbar actinomycotic mycetoma with invasion of the globe. The aetiological agent was identified on 16S recombinant DNA sequencing as Streptomyces cinnamoneus . After exenteration and chronic antimicrobial therapy the cat was alive and well 3 years after presentation. Relevance and novel information This is the first report of a pathogenic role of S cinnamoneus in a cat. Orbital actinomycotic mycetomas in cats can resemble mycotic granulomas.

  2. Orbit IMU alignment: Error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive accuracy analysis of orbit inertial measurement unit (IMU) alignments using the shuttle star trackers was completed and the results are presented. Monte Carlo techniques were used in a computer simulation of the IMU alignment hardware and software systems to: (1) determine the expected Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) manual mode IMU alignment accuracy; (2) investigate the accuracy of alignments in later shuttle flights when the automatic mode of star acquisition may be used; and (3) verify that an analytical model previously used for estimating the alignment error is a valid model. The analysis results do not differ significantly from expectations. The standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 alignments was determined to the 68 arc seconds per axis. This corresponds to a 99.7% probability that the magnitude of the total alignment error is less than 258 arc seconds.

  3. Airbreathing Acceleration Toward Earth Orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C

    2007-05-09

    As flight speed increases, aerodynamic drag rises more sharply than the availability of atmospheric oxygen. The ratio of oxygen mass flux to dynamic pressure cannot be improved by changing altitude. The maximum possible speed for airbreathing propulsion is limited by the ratio of air capture area to vehicle drag area, approximately Mach 6 at equal areas. Simulation of vehicle acceleration shows that the use of atmospheric oxygen offers a significant potential for minimizing onboard consumables at low speeds. These fundamental calculations indicate that a practical airbreathing launch vehicle would accelerate to near steady-state speed while consuming only onboard fuel, then transition to rocket propulsion. It is suggested that an aircraft carrying a rocket-propelled vehicle to approximately Mach 5 could be a realistic technical goal toward improving access to orbit.

  4. Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Steve Wall is the host of this video entitled, "Return to the Red Planet". Live animation of the Mars Observer orbiting Mars is presented. Steve Wall explains the spacecraft insertion maneuver and also explains the purpose for the Mars Observer launch. Live coverage of the Cape Canaveral launch of the Mars Observer is also presented. Suzanne Dodd, Chief of the Mission Planning team describes the burn start and how the spacecraft will be captured by Mars' gravity. Glenn Cunningham, Mars Observer Project Manager, gives background information on the Mars Observer and describes the organizations behind the Mars Observer Spacecraft, such as the Deep Space Network, the Mission Operation Support Office, Science Investigators, the Flight Engineering Office, Operations Office, and the Ground Data System Office. Dr. William Piotrowski, Acting Director, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA, talks about the purpose of the Mars Pathfinder which is to develop the technology and systems for landing small science packages on Mars. Mr. Roger Gibbs, Former Mars Observer Spacecraft Systems Engineer, tells us how the Mars Observer was built and describes the structural elements on the Mars Observer. The 11-month cruise period for the spacecraft is given by Joseph Beerer, Manager of the Engineering office. The thrust for the Mars Orbit Insertion is described by Ronald Klemetson, Technical Manager, Propulsion Subsystem Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). George Chen, Lead Engineer Attitude and Articulation Subsystem Spacecraft Team, explains the importance of the attitude control engines on the Spacecraft. Marvin Traxler, Manager of Tracking and Data Acquisition, describes how searching for a signal from the Mars Observer works. See NONP-NASA-VT-2000081555 for a continuation of this discussion with Marvin Traxler.

  5. CDDIS_GNSS_products_orbit_ultrarapid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precise satellite orbits derived from analysis of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data. Analysis Centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service (IGS)...

  6. CDDIS_GNSS_products_orbit_rapid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precise satellite orbits derived from analysis of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data. Analysis Centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service (IGS)...

  7. Orbit lifetime characteristics for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryder, L.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M.

    The factors that influence the orbital lifetime characteristics of the NASA Space Station are discussed. These include altitude, attitude, launch date, ballistic coefficient, and the presence of large articulating solar arrays. Examples from previous program systems studies are presented that illustrate how each factor affects Station orbit lifetime. The effect of atmospheric density models on orbit lifetime predictions is addressed along with the uncertainty of these predictions using current trajectory analysis of the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft. Finally, nominal reboost altitude profiles and fuel requirement considerations are presented for implementing a reboost strategy based on planned Shuttle Orbiter rendezvous strategy and contingency considerations.

  8. CDDIS_GNSS_products_orbit_final

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precise satellite orbits derived from analysis of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data. Analysis Centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service (IGS)...

  9. CDDIS_GNSS_products_orbit_realtime

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precise satellite orbits derived from analysis of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data. Analysis Centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service (IGS)...

  10. Maneuver Estimation Model for Relative Orbit Determination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Storch, Tara R

    2005-01-01

    While the use of relative orbit determination has reduced the difficulties inherent in tracking geosynchronous satellites that are in close proximity, the problem is often compounded by stationkeeping...

  11. Linear Magnetoelectric Effect by Orbital Magnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Scaramucci, A.; Bousquet, E.; Fechner, M.; Mostovoy, M.; Spaldin, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    We use symmetry analysis and first principles calculations to show that the linear magnetoelectric effect can originate from the response of orbital magnetic moments to the polar distortions induced by an applied electric field. Using LiFePO4 as a model compound we show that spin-orbit coupling partially lifts the quenching of the 3d orbitals and causes small orbital magnetic moments ($\\mu_{(L)}\\approx 0.3 \\mu_B$) parallel to the spins of the Fe$^{2+}$ ions. An applied electric field $\\mathbf...

  12. The fundamental group of the orbit space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattab Hawete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a subgroup of the group Homeo(X of homeomorphisms of a topological space X. Let G¯$\\bar G$ be the closure of G in Homeo(X. The class of an orbit O of G is the union of all orbits having the same closure as O. We denote by X/G˜$X/\\widetildeG$ the space of classes of orbits called the orbit class space. In this paper, we study the fundamental group of the spaces X/G, X/G¯$X/\\bar G$ and X/G˜$X/\\widetildeG$

  13. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  14. A Qualitative Investigation into the Characteristics and Effects of Music Accompanying Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, David-Lee; Karageorghis, Costas I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the characteristics of music used to accompany physical exercise and investigate the effects of such music using a qualitative approach. This work underpins the further development of a theoretical structure that is still relatively new. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of…

  15. Clinical accompaniment: the critical care nursing students’ experiences in a private hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tsele

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of clinical accompaniment of the student enrolled for the post-basic diploma in Medical and Surgical Nursing Science: Critical Care Nursing (General is an important dimension of the educational/learning programme. The clinical accompanist/mentor is responsible for ensuring the student’s compliance with the clinical outcomes of the programme in accordance with the requirements laid down by the Nursing Education Institution and the South African Nursing Council. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of the students enrolled for a post-basic diploma in Medical and Surgical Nursing Science: Critical Care Nursing (General, in relation to the clinical accompaniment in a private hospital in Gauteng. An exploratory, descriptive and phenomenological research design was utilised and individual interviews were conducted with the ten students in the research hospital. A content analysis was conducted and the results revealed both positive and negative experiences by the students in the internal and external worlds. The recommendations include the formulation of standards for clinical accompaniment of students. the evaluation of the quality of clinical accompaniment of students and empowerment of the organisation, clinical accompanists/mentors and clinicians.

  16. Measurement of the specific airway resistance by plethysmography in young children accompanied by an adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a procedure for measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) by whole body plethysmography in young awake children accompanied by an adult. sRaw was measured by a single-step procedure, omitting the measurement of the thoracic gas volume. The frequency...

  17. 75 FR 61489 - Renewal of Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of Doxycycline Hyclate Tablets Accompanied by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Renewal of Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of Doxycycline... use of doxycycline hyclate tablets accompanied by emergency use information subject to the terms of..., Michael O. Leavitt, declared an emergency justifying the authorization of the emergency use of doxycycline...

  18. numerical scheme for simulating multicomponent mass transport accompanied by reversible chemical reaction sin porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benes, Nieck Edwin; Verzijl, Richard; Verweij, H.

    1999-01-01

    A numerical scheme is presented for computer simulation of multicomponent gas transport possibly accompanied by reversible chemical reactions in a macroporous medium, based on the dusty gas model. Using analytical solutions for simple systems it is shown that the derivation of the scheme is

  19. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA...

  20. 76 FR 44926 - Renewal of Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of Doxycycline Hyclate Tablets Accompanied by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... and Amendment To Include All Oral Formulations of Doxycycline AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OS...-3(a) and amending the declaration to include all oral formulations of doxycyline accompanied by... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. 360bbb-3(b)(4). DATES: This Notice and referenced...

  1. The double-torus ionization chamber ``diogenes'' for multiparameter experiments on light charged particle accompanied fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeg, P.; Hoffmann, K. F.; Mutterer, M.; Theobald, J. P.; Weingärtner, K.; Pannicke, J.; Gönnenwein, F.; Barreau, G.; Leroux, B.

    1983-11-01

    A new detector system for the comprehensive investigation of light charged particle accompanied fission is described. First experimental results obtained on neutron induced fission of 235U at the high-flux reactor of the ILL are used to discuss the properties of the system.

  2. Analysis on the environmental problems accompanying the high-speed urbanization of small towns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Ge, Jian; Hua, Ying

    2002-01-01

    The environmental problems accompanying the rapid urbanization of many small towns like Keqiao, Shaoxing County of China and their countermeasures are presented. To settle these problems rationally as well as effectively will not only conduce to boost the environmental quality and life quality of cities, but also help to promote the development of regional economy and the realization of sustainable development.

  3. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each motor...

  4. 76 FR 69738 - Revised 2011 Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and Accompanying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... COMMISSION Revised 2011 Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and Accompanying... Competition Bureau released the revised Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and... Competition Bureau, Telecommunications Access Policy Division, at (202) 418-7400 or via the Internet at...

  5. Savings Memory Is Accompanied by Transcriptional Changes That Persist beyond the Decay of Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leticia; Patel, Ushma; Rivota, Marissa; Calin-Jageman, Irina E.; Calin-Jageman, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    Most long-term memories are forgotten. What happens, then, to the changes in neuronal gene expression that were initially required to encode and maintain the memory? Here we show that the decay of recall for long-term sensitization memory in "Aplysia" is accompanied both by a form of savings memory (easier relearning) and by persistent…

  6. Updating the Premotor Theory: The Allocation of Attention Is Not Always Accompanied by Saccade Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belopolsky, Artem V.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing controversy regarding the relationship between covert attention and saccadic eye movements. While there is quite some evidence that the preparation of a saccade is obligatory preceded by a shift of covert attention, the reverse is not clear: Is allocation of attention always accompanied by saccade preparation? Recently, a…

  7. GOCE Satellite Orbit in a Computational Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobojc, Andrzej; Drozyner, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    The presented work plays an important role in research of possibility of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer Mission (GOCE) satellite orbit improvement using a combination of satellite to satellite tracking high-low (SST- hl) observations and gravity gradient tensor (GGT) measurements. The orbit improvement process will be started from a computed orbit, which should be close to a reference ("true") orbit as much as possible. To realize this objective, various variants of GOCE orbit were generated by means of the Torun Orbit Processor (TOP) software package. The TOP software is based on the Cowell 8th order numerical integration method. This package computes a satellite orbit in the field of gravitational and non-gravitational forces (including the relativistic and empirical accelerations). The three sets of 1-day orbital arcs were computed using selected geopotential models and additional accelerations generated by the Moon, the Sun, the planets, the Earth and ocean tides, the relativity effects. Selected gravity field models include, among other things, the recent models from the GOCE mission and the models such as EIGEN-6S, EIGEN-5S, EIGEN-51C, ITG-GRACE2010S, EGM2008, EGM96. Each set of 1-day orbital arcs corresponds to the GOCE orbit for arbitrary chosen date. The obtained orbits were compared to the GOCE reference orbits (Precise Science Orbits of the GOCE satellite delivered by the European Space Agency) using the root mean squares (RMS) of the differences between the satellite positions in the computed orbits and in the reference ones. These RMS values are a measure of performance of selected geopotential models in terms of GOCE orbit computation. The RMS values are given for the truncated and whole geopotential models. For the three variants with the best fit to the reference orbits, the empirical acceleration models were added to the satellite motion model. It allowed for further improving the fitting of computed orbits to the

  8. Precise Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and inferred gravity field information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, A.; Baur, O.; Krauss, S.

    2014-04-01

    This contribution deals with Precise Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which is tracked with optical laser ranges in addition to radiometric Doppler range-rates and range observations. The optimum parameterization is assessed by overlap analysis tests that indicate the inner precision of the computed orbits. Information about the very long wavelengths of the lunar gravity field is inferred from the spacecraft positions. The NASA software packages GEODYN II and SOLVE were used for orbit determination and gravity field recovery [1].

  9. Validation of Galileo orbits using SLR with a focus on satellites launched into incorrect orbital planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sośnica, Krzysztof; Prange, Lars; Kaźmierski, Kamil; Bury, Grzegorz; Drożdżewski, Mateusz; Zajdel, Radosław; Hadas, Tomasz

    2017-07-01

    The space segment of the European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo consists of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) spacecraft. The first pair of FOC satellites was launched into an incorrect, highly eccentric orbital plane with a lower than nominal inclination angle. All Galileo satellites are equipped with satellite laser ranging (SLR) retroreflectors which allow, for example, for the assessment of the orbit quality or for the SLR-GNSS co-location in space. The number of SLR observations to Galileo satellites has been continuously increasing thanks to a series of intensive campaigns devoted to SLR tracking of GNSS satellites initiated by the International Laser Ranging Service. This paper assesses systematic effects and quality of Galileo orbits using SLR data with a main focus on Galileo satellites launched into incorrect orbits. We compare the SLR observations with respect to microwave-based Galileo orbits generated by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) in the framework of the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment for the period 2014.0-2016.5. We analyze the SLR signature effect, which is characterized by the dependency of SLR residuals with respect to various incidence angles of laser beams for stations equipped with single-photon and multi-photon detectors. Surprisingly, the CODE orbit quality of satellites in the incorrect orbital planes is not worse than that of nominal FOC and IOV orbits. The RMS of SLR residuals is even lower by 5.0 and 1.5 mm for satellites in the incorrect orbital planes than for FOC and IOV satellites, respectively. The mean SLR offsets equal -44.9, -35.0 , and -22.4 mm for IOV, FOC, and satellites in the incorrect orbital plane. Finally, we found that the empirical orbit models, which were originally designed for precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites in circular orbits, provide fully appropriate results also for highly eccentric orbits with variable

  10. On the Mitigation of Solar Index Variability for High Precision Orbit Determination in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    causing increased difficulty in achieving and maintaining high precision orbit predictions for satellites operating in low Earth orbit . In particular, the...Geodetic satellites with high precision satellite laser ranging data are used as test cases for the Naval Research Laboratory’s Orbit Covariance Estimation...forces imparted upon a satellite . For satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), atmospheric drag forces are typically the largest source of force modeling error

  11. Rotational evolution of a symmetric gyrostat with visco-elastic bars around the center of mass in a circular orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hafiez Aly, Samy Ahmed

    1987-09-01

    The motion of a gyrostat in a circular orbit in a Newtonian field of force is considered. The gyrostat has four homogeneous viscoelastic bars attached to it. Rotation of the symmetric rotor inside the rigid body is statically and dynamically balanced. Bending deformations of the bars, accompanied by dissipation of energy, are the cause of the evolution of the system's rotational motion. Approximate equations describing this evolution are derived, together with averaged equations in Andoyer variables.

  12. An orbital masquerade syndrome: A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3. Fezza J, Chaudhry I A, Kwon Y H, Grannum E E, Sinard J and. Wolfley D E. Orbital melanoma presenting as orl ital cellulitis: a clinicopathologic report. Ophthal Plast Recons tr Surg 1998;. 14: 28 6-9. 4. Seedat R Y, Hamilton P D, de Jager L P, Strvdoni W and. Beukes C A. Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma preser ting as an ap-.

  13. Numerical bifurcation of Hamiltonian relative periodic orbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Claudia; Schilder, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Relative periodic orbits (RPOs) are ubiquitous in symmetric Hamiltonian systems and occur, for example, in celestial mechanics, molecular dynamics, and the motion of rigid bodies. RPOs are solutions which are periodic orbits of the symmetry-reduced system. In this paper we analyze certain symmetry...

  14. Orbiter Water Dump Nozzles Redesign Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Hank

    2017-01-01

    Hank Rotter, NASA Technical Fellow for Environmental Control and Life Support System, will provide the causes and lessons learned for the two Space Shuttle Orbiter water dump icicles that formed on the side of the Orbiter. He will present the root causes and the criticality of these icicles, along with the redesign of the water dump nozzles and lessons learned during the redesign phase.

  15. Third-generation muffin–tin orbitals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    generation muffin–tin orbitals (MTOs) are. We demonstrate that they can be downfolded to smaller and smaller basis sets: s p 3 d 10 , s p 3 , and bond orbitals. For isolated bands, it is possible to generate Wannier functions a priori. Also for bands ...

  16. Computed tomography (CT) of orbital cellulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, H.; Hara, K.; Okamura, R.; Watanabe, T.; Nagata, M. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-12-01

    Two cases of orbital cellulitis showed a tumor-like shadow in the orbit on CT examination. Abnormal shadows were also noticed in both cases in the frontal and ethmoid sinuses. Postoperatively, one case was diagnosed as pyocele of the frontal sinus, the other as sinusitis with subperitoneal hematoma. In these diagnoses, plane skull X-P, tomography and CT scanning were valuable.

  17. Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma of the Orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Osaily, Abdullah M; Al-Dosari, Faisal N; Elewa, Mostaf A; Butt, Sohail A

    2016-01-01

    Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare soft tissue tumor. Numerous cases of EMC have been reported in different anatomical locations. There is currently only a single case of EMC of the orbit and that was reported in 1985. We report a second case of orbital EMC in a 34-year-old healthy male.

  18. Linear Magnetoelectric Effect by Orbital Magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaramucci, A.; Bousquet, E.; Fechner, M.; Mostovoy, M.; Spaldin, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    We use symmetry analysis and first-principles calculations to show that the linear magnetoelectric effect can originate from the response of orbital magnetic moments to the polar distortions induced by an applied electric field. Using LiFePO4 as a model compound we show that spin-orbit coupling

  19. Objective measurement of motion in the orbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The research described in the thesis had two major aims: to find methods for objective measurement of motion in the orbit, and to determine the clinical use of these methods in patients with orbital disorders. This implied that a number of research questions had to be answered in the fields of both

  20. Orbital angular momentum: a personal memoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L.

    2017-02-01

    A definitive statement of the model used to describe orbital angular momentum is essentially now available. Its early history, and the interaction of those who played key roles in its development over 20 years ago in its development, is outlined in this Memoir. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  1. Inverse-Square Orbits: A Geometric Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, James C.; Weinstock, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Presents a derivation of Kepler's first law of planetary motion from Newtonian principles. Analogus derivations of the hyperbolic and parabolic orbits of nonreturning comets and the hyperbolic orbit for a particle in a repulsive inverse-square field are also presented. (HM)

  2. Orbital decomposition of CALIFA spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; van den Bosch, Remco; van de Ven, Glenn; Lyubenova, Mariya; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Meidt, Sharon E.; Martig, Marie; Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhao-Yu; Yildirim, Akin; Walcher, C. Jakob; Sanchez, Sebastian F.

    2018-01-01

    Schwarzschild orbit-based dynamical models are widely used to uncover the internal dynamics of early-type galaxies and globular clusters. Here we present for the first time the Schwarzschild models of late-type galaxies: an SBb galaxy NGC 4210 and an S0 galaxy NGC 6278 from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. The mass profiles within 2Re are constrained well with 1σ statistical error of ˜ 10 per cent. The luminous and dark mass can be disentangled with uncertainties of ˜20 and ˜ 50 per cent, respectively. From Re to 2Re, the dark matter fraction increases from 14 ± 10 to 18 ± 10 per cent for NGC 4210 and from 15 ± 10 to 30 ± 20 per cent for NGC 6278. The velocity anisotropy profiles of both σr/σt and σz/σR are well constrained. The inferred internal orbital distributions reveal clear substructures. The orbits are naturally separated into three components: a cold component with near circular orbits; a hot component with near radial orbits and a warm component in between. The photometrically identified exponential discs are predominantly made up of cold orbits only beyond ˜1Re, while they are constructed mainly with the warm orbits inside. Our dynamical hot components are concentrated in the inner regions, similar to the photometrically identified bulges. The reliability of the results, especially the orbit distribution, is verified by applying the model to mock data.

  3. Ejection-collision orbits in the RTBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollé, Mercè; Rodríguez, Òscar; Soler, Jaume

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we analyse the ejection-collision (EC) orbits of the planar restricted three body problem. Being μ ∈ (0, 0.5] the mass parameter, and taking the big (small) primary with mass 1 - μ (μ), an EC orbit will be an orbit that ejects from the big primary, does an excursion and collides with it. As it is well known, for any value of the mass parameter μ ∈ (0, 0.5] and sufficiently restricted Hill regions (that is, for big enough values of the Jacobi constant C), there are exactly four EC orbits. We check their existence and extend numerically these four orbits for μ ∈ (0, 0.5] and for smaller values of the Jacobi constant. We introduce the concept of n-ejection-collision orbits (n-EC orbits) and we explore them numerically for μ ∈ (0, 0.5] and values of the Jacobi constant such that the Hill bounded possible region of motion contains the big primary and does not contain the small one. We study the cases 1 ≤ n ≤ 10 and we analyse the continuation of families of such n-EC orbits, varying the energy, as well as the bifurcations that appear.

  4. Optimal parking orbits for manned Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Michael L.; Nordwall, Jill A.

    This paper summarizes a Mars parking orbit optimization effort. This parking orbit study includes the selection of optimal elliptic Mars parking orbits that meet mission constraints and that include pertinent apsidal misalignment losses. Mars missions examined are for the opportunity years of 2014, 2016, and 2018. For these mission opportunities, it is shown that the optimal parking orbits depend on the year that the mission occurs and are coupled with the outbound, Mars stay, and return phases of the mission. Constraints included in the parking orbit optimization process are periapsis lighting angle (related to a daylight landing requirement), periapsis latitude (related to a landing latitude range requirement) and the vehicle Trans-Earth-Injection stage mass. Also, effects of mission abort requirements on optimal parking orbits are investigated. Off-periapsis maneuvers for Mars orbit capture were found to be cost effective in reducing the mission delta-V for the 2016 abort from Mars capture scenario. The total capture and departure delta-V was `split' between the capture maneuver and the departure maneuver to reduce the 2016 Mars departure delta-V to below the level of the corresponding stage of the 2014 baseline mission. Landing results are provided that show Mars landing site access from the optimal elliptic parking orbits for Mars excursion vehicles with low (0.2) and high (1.3 and 1.6) lift to drag ratio.

  5. Cometary Orbital Trends with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael S.; Bodewits, Dennis; Feaga, Lori M.; Knight, Matthew M.; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane H.; Bauer, James M.

    2017-10-01

    Cometary mass-loss, i.e., activity, is nominally driven by the sublimation of volatiles. The three most abundant volatiles in the average comet are water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Of the three, CO2 is the most challenging to measure directly, and cannot be observed from the ground due to telluric absorptions. Owing to observations made by several space telescopes, including ISO, Spitzer, Akari, and WISE, as well as spacecraft missions to comets, we have a good estimate of the range of CO2 abundances in the comet population (~5-30% with respect to water). However, spacecraft missions have shown that the production of H2O, CO2 and CO are not fully understood. At each of three well-studied comets (9P/Tempel 1, 103P/Hartley 2, and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko), CO2 and H2O have had distinct distributions in the coma, suggesting different release mechanisms or heterogeneous source regions. For 67P, this resulted in relative abundances that varied along the comet’s orbit, demonstrating that a single measurement of the CO2-to-water abundance ratio in a cometary coma is not necessarily reflective of the bulk nucleus composition.To improve our understanding of CO2 production in comets, we began a time-domain survey of 24 targets with the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2015. Most targets are observed multiple times on month-long timescales, and some comets are observed on year-long timescales. We present a summary of the Spitzer project at the 2.5-year mark, including total CO2 production rates at heliocentric distances beyond 3 au, number and size of CO2 active areas, and seasonal variations in dust and CO2 production. We also compare the Spitzer results to comets observed in the NEOWISE survey (Bauer et al. 2017, this meeting). The NEOWISE data is complementary in that it provides observations of many targets with limited selection biases, whereas the Orbital Trends Survey observes a small number of targets in detail.This work is based on observations made with the

  6. Intracranial Infectious Aneurysm in Orbital Cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian; Kim, Charles; Carrasco, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysm and cavernous sinus thrombosis are rare complications of orbital cellulitis. We report the case of a 46-year-old male presenting with sinusitis and orbital cellulitis complicated by the development of an orbital mass. Following orbitotomy with debulking, the patient underwent bony orbital decompression for increasing proptosis postoperatively. While his exam stabilized, the patient developed complete ptosis and extraocular motor palsy in the contralateral eye after undergoing bilateral sinus debridement. Imaging was notable for the presence of a pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery, which was treated with a stent. This report demonstrates rare complications of orbital cellulitis. These patients should be monitored carefully with noninvasive imaging studies, such as cerebral angiography, for early detection of vascular abnormalities that can progress rapidly.

  7. Continuation of Sets of Constrained Orbit Segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten; Chamoun, George Chaouki

    Sets of constrained orbit segments of time continuous flows are collections of trajectories that represent a whole or parts of an invariant set. A non-trivial but simple example is a homoclinic orbit. A typical representation of this set consists of an equilibrium point of the flow and a trajectory...... that starts close and returns close to this fixed point within finite time. More complicated examples are hybrid periodic orbits of piecewise smooth systems or quasi-periodic invariant tori. Even though it is possible to define generalised two-point boundary value problems for computing sets of constrained...... orbit segments, this is very disadvantageous in practice. In this talk we will present an algorithm that allows the efficient continuation of sets of constrained orbit segments together with the solution of the full variational problem....

  8. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  9. Linear Magnetoelectric Effect by Orbital Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramucci, Andrea; Bousquet, Eric; Fechner, Michael; Mostovoy, Maxim; Spaldin, Nicola

    2013-03-01

    The linear magnetoelectric effect is the linear induction of a static magnetization (electric polarization) by an applied static electric (magnetic) field. Using symmetry analysis and ab initio calculations we show that, in addition to mechanisms involving magnetic moments of spins, such an effect can originate from the response of orbital magnetic moment to polar distortions induced by an applied electric field. Considering LiFePO4 as model compound, we show that spin-orbit coupling partially lifts the quenching of 3d orbitals and causes small orbital magnetic moments at the magnetic ions sites. An applied electric field modifies the sizes of these orbital magnetic moments and results in a net magnetization. Furthermore, we discuss the link between this mechanism and the electric field dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  10. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Tom; MacLeod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2017-01-01

    Any exploration vehicle assembled or Spacecraft placed in LEO or GTO must pass through this debris cloud and survive. Large cross section, low thrust vehicles will spend more time spiraling out through the cloud and will suffer more impacts.Better knowledge of small debris will improve survival odds. Current estimated Density of debris at various orbital attitudes with notation of recent collisions and resulting spikes. Orbital Debris Tracking and Characterization has now been added to NASA Office of Chief Technologists Technology Development Roadmap in Technology Area 5 (TA5.7)[Orbital Debris Tracking and Characterization] and is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crews due to the risk of Orbital Debris damage to ISS Exploration vehicles. The Problem: Traditional orbital trackers looking for small, dim orbital derelicts and debris typically will stare at the stars and let any reflected light off the debris integrate in the imager for seconds, thus creating a streak across the image. The Solution: The Small Tracker will see Stars and other celestial objects rise through its Field of View (FOV) at the rotational rate of its orbit, but the glint off of orbital objects will move through the FOV at different rates and directions. Debris on a head-on collision course (or close) will stay in the FOV at 14 Km per sec. The Small Tracker can track at 60 frames per sec allowing up to 30 fixes before a near-miss pass. A Stereo pair of Small Trackers can provide range data within 5-7 Km for better orbit measurements.

  11. The Solar Poynting-Robertson Effect On Particles Orbiting Solar System Bodies: Circular Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The Poynting-Robertson effect from sunlight impinging directly on a particle which orbits a Solar System body (planet, asteroid, comet) is considered from the Sun's rest frame. There appear to be no significant first-order terms in V(sub b)/c for circular orbits, where V(sub b) is the body's speed in its orbit about the Sun and c is the speed of light, when the particle's orbital semimajor axis is much smaller than the body's orbital semimajor axis about the Sun as is mainly the case in the Solar System.

  12. Theory and design methods of special space orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the theory and design of special space orbits. Offering a systematic and detailed introduction to the hovering orbit, spiral cruising orbit, multi-target rendezvous orbit, initiative approaching orbit, responsive orbit and earth pole-sitter orbit, it also discusses the concept, theory, design methods and application of special space orbits, particularly the design and control method based on kinematics and astrodynamics. In addition the book presents the latest research and its application in space missions. It is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates, especially those working in the fields of orbit design and control, as well as space-mission planning and research.

  13. Asymptomatic syringomyelia accompanied with metastatic cerebellar and spinal intramedullary lymphoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-Jia; Xu, Jin-Feng; Zheng, Xu-Ning; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2017-11-01

    Asympotamic syringomyelia accompanied with metastatic cerebellar and thoracic spinal intramedullary lymphoma is rare in clinical practice. If the intramedullary lymphoma is large enough, the patient will rapidly develop neurologic signs of spinal injury. The prognosis of this type of complication is always bad. Rapid and correct diagnosis and treatment is important for metastatic extranodal lymphoma with B cell of origin. Syringomyelia accompanied with metastatic cerebellar and thoracic spinal intramedullary lymphoma. The patient was treated with a combination of systemic chemotherapy and focal radiotherapy and intrathecal therapy. Resolution of metastatic lymphoma was not continued after conservative medical management and the patient died finally due to multiple organ failure. Syringomyelia can develop due to the metastatic thoracic intramedullary lymphoma in patients with diffuse malignant large B cell lymphoma. Early and accurate diagnosis, anti-lymphoma treatment, and timely neurosurgical intervention may delay the development of the disease.

  14. HEREDITARY DISEASES AND SYNDROMES ACCOMPANIED BY FEBRILE CONVULSIONS: CLINICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Dadali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide a review of the clinical and genetic characteristics of hereditary diseases and syndromes accompanied by febrile convulsions, which is illustrated by examples of their own observations. The paper sets forth the possibilities and limitations of using current methods for the molecular genetic diagnosis of idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsies. The most effective and less expensive technique of molecular genetic analysis is shown to be an exome sequencing test using the panels of genes responsible for the occurrence of diseases with simi1ar clinical symptoms. The paper also presents the structure of the panel of genes responsible for the occurrence of monogenic epilepsies, which has been designed at the Genomed Clinic and includes 448 genetic variants. It also determines the significance of using a chromosomal microarray analysis to diagnose both chromosomal and monogenic diseases accompanied by convulsions. 

  15. Pitch-informed solo and accompaniment separation towards its use in music education applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Estefanía; Schuller, Gerald; Dittmar, Christian

    2014-12-01

    We present a system for the automatic separation of solo instruments and music accompaniment in polyphonic music recordings. Our approach is based on a pitch detection front-end and a tone-based spectral estimation. We assess the plausibility of using sound separation technologies to create practice material in a music education context. To better understand the sound separation quality requirements in music education, a listening test was conducted to determine the most perceptually relevant signal distortions that need to be improved. Results from the listening test show that solo and accompaniment tracks pose different quality requirements and should be optimized differently. We propose and evaluate algorithm modifications to better understand their effects on objective perceptual quality measures. Finally, we outline possible ways of optimizing our separation approach to better suit the requirements of music education applications.

  16. Characteristics of Extraordinary Religious Phenomena Accompanying the Christian Religious Experience—Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Głaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to discuss in more detail the question of understanding of religious experience in the context of the Christian religion, as well as to show the characteristic extraordinary religious experiences accompanying many people during that experience. The question of experiences evoked by psychedelic drugs, such as the issue of a vision and chemical ecstasy, are not discussed here, and instead the author has chosen to present only typical phenomena accompanying religious experience, which are caused by God’s doing, like visions, ecstasy, glossolalia (speaking in tongues or stigmata. The paper also presents their role and contribution to the process of a human being’s religious development.

  17. Prevalence of open angle glaucoma in accompanying first degree relatives of patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Vegini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of open angle glaucoma in first-degree relatives accompanying POAG patients during routine examination in a reference hospital. METHOD: First-degree relatives of primary open angle glaucoma patients who accompanied their relatives to the glaucoma service of a reference hospital were screened for glaucoma. RESULTS: One-hundred and one first-degree relatives were examined, of which 56.4% had never had their intraocular pressure measured. 10.9% had previously been diagnosed with glaucoma, and 5.9% were newly diagnosed during this study. CONCLUSIONS: The eye examination of first-degree relatives identified a significant percentage of individuals with glaucoma. Despite being first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients, 56.4% of the companions had never had their eye pressure measured, demonstrating a lack of awareness about this disease.

  18. Triple Peripheral Nerve Injury Accompanying to Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižlknur Can

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary injuries especially extremity fractures may be seen concurrently with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Peripheral nerve damages may accompany to these fractures and may be missed out, especially in acute stage. In this case report; damage of radial, ulnar and median nerves which was developed secondarily to distal humerus fracture that could not be detected in acute stage, in a patient who had motor vehicle accident (MVA. 29-year-old male patient was admitted with weakness in the right upper extremity. 9 months ago, he had traumatic brain injury because of MVA, and fracture of distal humerus was detected in follow-ups. Upon the suspect of the peripheral nerve injury, the diagnosis was confirmed with ENMG. The patient responded well to the rehabilitation program treatment. In a TBI patient, it must be kept in mind that there might be a secondary trauma and therefore peripheral nerve lesions may accompany to TBI.

  19. Totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for early gastric cancer accompanied by huge hiatal hernia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Chie; Yajima, Kazuhito; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Oohinata, Ryouki; Yuu, Ken; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Amaki, Misato; Nakano, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    2016-02-01

    We herein present a case in which we used a totally laparoscopic approach for early gastric cancer accompanied by a huge hiatal hernia. An 80-year-old Japanese woman was referred with a chief complaint of dysphagia. A clinical diagnosis of early gastric cancer, T1b (SM) N0M0, stage IA, accompanied by hiatal hernia, was made. Distal gastrectomy with D1 plus lymphadenectomy was carried out. After the gastrectomy, the hernial sac was excised and the hernial orifice was closed. Reconstruction using the Roux-en-Y method was selected. The postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged on postoperative day 10. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Quotidian of accompanying family members in an environment of care: the emergence of hospital tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia da Silva Santos Passos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Understand the quotidian relationships of accompanying family members in an environment of care, which are close to the metaphor of a tribe in hospital environment. METHODQualitative study with data gathered from semi-structured interviews and observations with 16 family members accompanying hospitalized individuals with dependence on self-care. Data were submitted to thematic analysis, and analyzed through the metaphor of "tribe" proposed by comprehensive sociology. RESULTS Family members build up social clusters around caring, where we find traits typical of tribes: emotional ambience; solidarity based on links of sympathy and mutual assistance; an affectual nebula in the process of interaction; a logic of fusion in tactile relations; and communion/religiosity in the process of connecting in a collective identity. CONCLUSION In the presence of tragedy, families build social clusters similar to tribes having care as a totem.

  1. Geostationary Orbit Surveillance Using the Unscented Kalman Filter and the Analytical Orbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Roh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for geostationary orbit (or geostationary earth orbit [GEO] surveillance based on optical angular observations is presented in this study. For the dynamic model, precise analytical orbit model developed by Lee et al. (1997 is used to improve computation performance and the unscented Kalman filer (UKF is applied as a real-time filtering method. The UKF is known to perform well under highly nonlinear conditions such as surveillance in this study. The strategy that combines the analytical orbit propagation model and the UKF is tested for various conditions like different level of initial error and different level of measurement noise. The dependencies on observation interval and number of ground station are also tested. The test results shows that the GEO orbit determination based on the UKF and the analytical orbit model can be applied to GEO orbit tracking and surveillance effectively.

  2. Surgical guidance system using hand-held probe with accompanying positron coincidence detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2017-10-10

    A surgical guidance system offering different levels of imaging capability while maintaining the same hand-held convenient small size of light-weight intra-operative probes. The surgical guidance system includes a second detector, typically an imager, located behind the area of surgical interest to form a coincidence guidance system with the hand-held probe. This approach is focused on the detection of positron emitting biomarkers with gamma rays accompanying positron emissions from the radiolabeled nuclei.

  3. A case of recurrent complex regional pain syndrome accompanying Raynaud's disease: a prospective coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesikburun, Serdar; Günendi, Zafer; Aydemir, Koray; Özgül, Ahmet; Tan, Arif Kenan

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS) and Raynaud's disease are disorders characterized by vasomotor disturbances associating with abnormal autonomic nervous system. We present a case of CRPS involving a history of recurrence and no initiating event. Raynaud's disease accompanying CRPS was diagnosed clinically in the patient. We propose that a sympathetic dysfunction underlies the pathophysiologies of both disorders and may be responsible for the coexistence of these two distinct entities. Recurrence and unknown etiology of CRPS might account for temporary alterations in sympathetic function.

  4. Rapid Destruction of the Hip Joint Accompanied by an Enlarged Iliopsoas Bursa in a Healthy Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Association between enlarged iliopsoas bursa and hip lesions such as osteoarthritis of the hip or femoral head necrosis is infrequently seen. Enlarged iliopsoas bursa with a rapidly destructive arthropathy is claimed to be seen only in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, we report a patient with a rapidly destructive arthropathy accompanied by an enlarged iliopsoas bursa that has been misdiagnosed as an infection. PMID:27536579

  5. A qualitative investigation into the characteristics and effects of music accompanying exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Priest, DL; Karageorghis, CI

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the characteristics of music used to accompany physical exercise and investigate the effects of such music using a qualitative approach. This work underpins the further development of a theoretical structure that is still relatively new. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of exercise participants (N = 13), seven males and six females, all with at least two years’ experience of exercising to music. An inductive content analy...

  6. Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus Accompanied by Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Mimicking Neonatal Sepsis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Abacı, Ayhan; Razi, Cem Hasan; Özdemir, Osman; Hızlı, Samil; Kıslal, Fatih; Argas, Pınar Işık; Kabakuş, Nimet

    2010-01-01

    Neonatal diabetes mellitus (DM) develops within the first six weeks of life with basic findings including dehydration, hyperglycaemia, and mild or no ketonemia/ketonuria. It can be either transient or permanent. Here, we report a case of a one−month−old infant with permanent neonatal diabetes, due to pancreatic hypoplasia, accompanied by diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The hyperglycaemia and ketoacidosis resolved by the 14th hour of treatment, consisting of IV insulin and rehydration. Subsequent...

  7. Multiple dental anomalies accompany unilateral disturbances in abducens and facial nerves: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Talatahari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the oral rehabilitation of an 8-year-old girl with extensively affected primary and permanent dentition. This report is unique in which distinct dental anomalies including enamel hypoplasia, irregular dentin formation, taurodontism, hpodontia and dens in dente accompany unilateral disturbance of abducens and facial nerves which control the lateral eye movement, and facial expression, respectively.   Keywords: enamel hypoplasia; irregular dentin formation; taurodontism; hypodontia; dens in dente; abducens and facial nerves;

  8. Keratoacanthoma Accompanied by Multiple Lung Squamous Cell Carcinomas Developing in a Renal Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanori Furudate

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keratoacanthoma (KA is a benign keratinocytic neoplasm that spontaneously regresses after 3-6 months and shares features with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. An increased incidence of both KA and non-melanoma skin tumor, including SCC, is seen among immunosuppressed, organ-transplant recipients. In this report we describe a case of KA accompanied by multiple lung SCCs developing in a renal transplant recipient.

  9. CLINICAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES IN COURSE CHRONIC PANCREATITIS WITH ACCOMPANYING DUODENOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. M. Vahrushev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim. Research the clinical features, functional state of duodenum among patients with chronic pancreatitis and accompanying duodenostasis.Materials and methods. The clinical course of chronic pancreatitis with accompanying duodenostasis (85 cases and isolated chronic pancreatitis (56 cases has been studied. Along with the general clinical data the study includes the results of exocrine pancreatic function examination (fecal elastase-1, blood alpha amylase and lipase and its endocrine function (insulin and С-peptide. Regulating hormonal factors (gastrin and somatotropin have been studied. Was used results of rentgenology and endoscopic examinations, intraduodenal manometry results in verification of duodenostasis.Results. In the observation group resistant pain syndrome was revealed in 93% cases (at patient with isolated pancreatitis in 57% cases and in more degree was expressed coprological syndromes (amilorhea in 82,29% cases, creatorhea in 82,14% cases, steatorhea in 87,5% cases. In the observation group were significantly more diagnosed hyperperistaltic (in 88% cases of observation group and in 9,4% cases of the comparison group and duodenal hypertension (in 22% cases of observation group and in 0.0% cases of the comparison group. The phenomenon of «semolina» was reveals more often in observation group (in 31,9% cases of observation group and in 5% cases of the comparison group.Among patients with chronic pancreatitis and accompanying duodenostasis decrease the level of C-peptid and increase secretion of insulin, somatotropin and gastrin.Conclusion. It reveals that according to the comprehensive clinical and functional investigation chronic pancreatitis with accompanying duodenostasis gets a more severe course in comparison with isolated pancreatitis.

  10. Follicular B Cell Lymphoma with Accompanying Ischemic Gastritis Completely Resolved by Rituximab

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Anam; Mehta, Neal; Peroutka, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 89 Final Diagnosis: Follicular B-cell lymphoma with accompanying ischemic gastritis completely resolved by rituximab Symptoms: Nausea ? vomiting Medication: ? Clinical Procedure: ? Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Follicular B cell lymphomas account for a significant portion of all newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin?s lymphomas. While involvement can be varied, the most common extranodal presentation is within the gastrointestinal tract beyond the stomach. In ...

  11. The Stress and Vascular Catastrophes in Newborn Rats: Mechanisms Preceding and Accompanying the Brain Hemorrhages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Borisova, Ekaterina; Abakumov, Maxim; Gorin, Dmitry; Avramov, Latchezar; Fedosov, Ivan; Namykin, Anton; Abdurashitov, Arkady; Serov, Alexander; Pavlov, Alexey; Zinchenko, Ekaterina; Lychagov, Vlad; Navolokin, Nikita; Shirokov, Alexander; Maslyakova, Galina; Zhu, Dan; Luo, Qingming; Chekhonin, Vladimir; Tuchin, Valery; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the time-depended scenario of stress response cascade preceding and accompanying brain hemorrhages in newborn rats using an interdisciplinary approach based on: a morphological analysis of brain tissues, coherent-domain optical technologies for visualization of the cerebral blood flow, monitoring of the cerebral oxygenation and the deformability of red blood cells (RBCs). Using a model of stress-induced brain hemorrhages (sound stress, 120 dB, 370 Hz), we studied changes in neonatal brain 2, 4, 6, 8 h after stress (the pre-hemorrhage, latent period) and 24 h after stress (the post-hemorrhage period). We found that latent period of brain hemorrhages is accompanied by gradual pathological changes in systemic, metabolic, and cellular levels of stress. The incidence of brain hemorrhages is characterized by a progression of these changes and the irreversible cell death in the brain areas involved in higher mental functions. These processes are realized via a time-depended reduction of cerebral venous blood flow and oxygenation that was accompanied by an increase in RBCs deformability. The significant depletion of the molecular layer of the prefrontal cortex and the pyramidal neurons, which are crucial for associative learning and attention, is developed as a consequence of homeostasis imbalance. Thus, stress-induced processes preceding and accompanying brain hemorrhages in neonatal period contribute to serious injuries of the brain blood circulation, cerebral metabolic activity and structural elements of cognitive function. These results are an informative platform for further studies of mechanisms underlying stress-induced brain hemorrhages during the first days of life that will improve the future generation's health.

  12. INTEGRATED WASTE WATER TREATMENT ACCOMPANIED BY MINIMAL GENERATION OF EXCESSIVE ACTIVATED SLUDGE OR SEDIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makisha Nikolay Alekseevich

    2012-12-01

    ments held. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic processes helps provide the proper quality of integrated biological treatment. Chambers of the aeration reactor are also equipped with the polymer feed of various compositions. Sludge treatment that is also strongly needed was performed by means of aerobic stabilization accompanied by ejecting aeration. The experiment findings demonstrate its substantial effect in terms of both components, including sewage and sludge treatment.

  13. Evaluation of abort capabilities of rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Powell, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. A fully reusable SSTO vehicle would be quite desirable from an operational standpoint; however, such a vehicle cannot be designed without accompanying technological advances in structure, propulsion, and subsystems. The conceptual design of such a vehicle has recently been completed. This paper examines the abort capabilities of an advanced SSTO launch vehicle which has five main engines. In the event of a single or dual main engine shutdown it was determined when the vehicle could execute return-to-launch-site, abort-to-orbit, or down-range abort maneuvers. Throughout each abort maneuver, vehicle loads are kept within nominal ascent and entry design values.

  14. Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2014-09-22

    We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.

  15. The evolution of selfing is accompanied by reduced efficacy of selection and purging of deleterious mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, Ramesh; Ness, Rob W; Wright, Stephen I; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2015-03-01

    The transition from outcrossing to selfing is predicted to reduce the genome-wide efficacy of selection because of the lower effective population size (Ne) that accompanies this change in mating system. However, strongly recessive deleterious mutations exposed in the homozygous backgrounds of selfers should be under strong purifying selection. Here, we examine estimates of the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) and changes in the magnitude of effective selection coefficients (Nes) acting on mutations during the transition from outcrossing to selfing. Using forward simulations, we investigated the ability of a DFE inference approach to detect the joint influence of mating system and the dominance of deleterious mutations on selection efficacy. We investigated predictions from our simulations in the annual plant Eichhornia paniculata, in which selfing has evolved from outcrossing on multiple occasions. We used range-wide sampling to generate population genomic datasets and identified nonsynonymous and synonymous polymorphisms segregating in outcrossing and selfing populations. We found that the transition to selfing was accompanied by a change in the DFE, with a larger fraction of effectively neutral sites (Nes 100), and simulations suggest that this is due to the exposure of recessive deleterious mutations. We conclude that the transition to selfing has been accompanied by the genome-wide influences of reduced Ne and strong purifying selection against deleterious recessive mutations, an example of purging at the molecular level. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Mulberry hypertrophy and accompanying sinonasal pathologies: A review of 68 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akduman, Davut; Haksever, Mehmet; Yanilmaz, Muhammed; Solmaz, Fevzi

    2016-08-01

    Mulberry hypertrophy occasionally coexists with sinonasal pathologies. There are very few reports in the literature on this clinical entity. We conducted a retrospective study to draw attention to this condition in the context of accompanying sinonasal pathologies. Our study group was made up of 68 patients-51 males and 17 females, aged 13 to 57 years (mean: 34.9)-who had been diagnosed with mulberry hypertrophy and at least one accompanying sinonasal pathology. All patients had a long-standing chronic discharge. Forty-nine of these patients (72.1%) had unilateral mulberry hypertrophy. The most common concomitant pathologies were chronic rhinosinusitis and ostiomeatal complex disease; others included septal deviation, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, and concha bullosa. Thirty-six patients (52.9%) with varying degrees of choanal/nasal obstruction were operated on with endoscopic excision to treat the mulberry hypertrophy. In all, most patients underwent some sort of surgery to treat either the mulberry hypertrophy or the accompanying sinonasal pathology. Based on our findings, we suggest a clinical staging system to serve as a way to standardize management and guide future basic and clinical research.

  17. Satellite orbits design using frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noullez, A.; Tsiganis, K.; Tzirti, S.

    2015-07-01

    We present here a new method for the efficient computation of periodic orbits, which are of particular interest for low-altitude satellite orbits design in high degree/order, non-axisymmetric gravity models. Our method consists of an iterative filtering scheme, that is itself based on 'Prony's method' of frequency analysis, and is independent of the complexity of the gravity model. Applying this method to the case of a low-altitude lunar orbiter, we show that it converges rapidly, in all models and for all values of altitude and initial inclination studied. Thus, as demonstrated below, one could use it to correct the initial conditions of a desired mission orbit - usually defined within the framework of a simplified model (e.g. the 'J2 problem') - ensuring minimal orbital eccentricity variations and, for very low altitudes, collision avoidance. At the same time, an accurate quasi-periodic decomposition of the orbit is computed, giving a measure of the periodic fluctuations of the orbital parameters.

  18. Distant retrograde orbits and the asteroid hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, Ettore; Ceccaroni, Marta; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Rossi, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) gained a novel wave of fame in space mission design because of their numerous advantages within the framework of the US plans for bringing a large asteroid sample in the vicinity of the Earth as the next target for human exploration. DROs are stable solutions of the three-body problem that can be used whenever an object, whether of natural or artificial nature, is required to remain in the neighborhood of a celestial body without being gravitationally captured by it. As such, they represent an alternative option to Halo orbits around the collinear Lagrangian points L1 and L2. Also known under other names ( e.g., quasi-satellite orbits, cis-lunar orbits, family- f orbits) these orbital configurations found interesting applications in several mission profiles, like that of a spacecraft orbiting around the small irregularly shaped satellite of Mars Phobos or the large Jovian moon Europa. In this paper a basic explanation of the DRO dynamics is presented in order to clarify some geometrical properties that characterize them. Their accessibility is then discussed from the point of view of mission analysis under different assumptions. Finally, their relevance within the framework of the present asteroid hazard protection programs is shown, stressing the significant increase in warning time they would provide in the prediction of impactors coming from the direction of the Sun.

  19. DFT Study of the Structure, Reactivity, Natural Bond Orbital and Hyperpolarizability of Thiazole Azo Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman I. Osman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure, reactivity, natural bond orbital (NBO, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO properties of three thiazole azo dyes (A, B and C were monitored by applying B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD functionals with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The geometrical parameters,dipolemoments,HOMO-LUMO(highest occupied molecular orbital,lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy gaps, absorption wavelengths and total hyperpolarizabilities were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 chloroform (CHCl3, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 and dimethlysulphoxide (DMSO. The donor methoxyphenyl group deviates from planarity with the thiazole azo moiety by ca. 38◦; while the acceptor dicyanovinyl, indandione and dicyanovinylindanone groups diverge by ca. 6◦. The HOMOs for the three dyes are identical. They spread over the methoxyphenyl donor moiety, the thiazole and benzene rings as π-bonding orbitals. The LUMOs are shaped up by the nature of the acceptor moieties. The LUMOs of the A, B and C dyes extend over the indandione, malononitrile and dicyanovinylindanone acceptor moieties, respectively, as π-antibonding orbitals. The HOMO-LUMO splittings showed that Dye C is much more reactive than dyes A and B. Compared to dyes A and B, Dye C yielded a longer maximum absorption wavelength because of the stabilization of its LUMOs relative to those of the other two. The three dyes show solvatochromism accompanied by significant increases in hyperpolarizability. The enhancement of the total hyperpolarizability of C compared to those of A and B is due to the cumulative action of the long π-conjugation of the indanone ring and the stronger electron-withdrawing ability of the dicyanovinyl moiety that form the dicyanovinylindanone acceptor group. These findings are facilitated by a natural bond orbital (NBO technique. The very high total hyperpolarizabilities of the three dyes define their potent nonlinear optical (NLO behaviour.

  20. DFT Study of the Structure, Reactivity, Natural Bond Orbital and Hyperpolarizability of Thiazole Azo Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Osman I

    2017-02-01

    The structure, reactivity, natural bond orbital (NBO), linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of three thiazole azo dyes (A, B and C) were monitored by applying B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD functionals with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The geometrical parameters,dipolemoments,HOMO-LUMO(highest occupied molecular orbital,lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energy gaps, absorption wavelengths and total hyperpolarizabilities were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) and dimethlysulphoxide (DMSO). The donor methoxyphenyl group deviates from planarity with the thiazole azo moiety by ca. 38◦; while the acceptor dicyanovinyl, indandione and dicyanovinylindanone groups diverge by ca. 6◦. The HOMOs for the three dyes are identical. They spread over the methoxyphenyl donor moiety, the thiazole and benzene rings as π-bonding orbitals. The LUMOs are shaped up by the nature of the acceptor moieties. The LUMOs of the A, B and C dyes extend over the indandione, malononitrile and dicyanovinylindanone acceptor moieties, respectively, as π-antibonding orbitals. The HOMO-LUMO splittings showed that Dye C is much more reactive than dyes A and B. Compared to dyes A and B, Dye C yielded a longer maximum absorption wavelength because of the stabilization of its LUMOs relative to those of the other two. The three dyes show solvatochromism accompanied by significant increases in hyperpolarizability. The enhancement of the total hyperpolarizability of C compared to those of A and B is due to the cumulative action of the long π-conjugation of the indanone ring and the stronger electron-withdrawing ability of the dicyanovinyl moiety that form the dicyanovinylindanone acceptor group. These findings are facilitated by a natural bond orbital (NBO) technique. The very high total hyperpolarizabilities of the three dyes define their potent nonlinear optical (NLO) behaviour.

  1. Orbital apocrine hidrocystoma with immunohistochemical confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Damous Feijó

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The authors report the first case in Brazilian literature of orbital apocrine hidrocystoma with immunohistochemistry confirmation. The tumor had been growing slowly and progressively, there was no history of impaired vision, diplopia, watering, discharge, or prior trauma. There was no proptosis and extraocular mobility was normal. The radiologic study by orbital computerized tomography revealed an extraconal nodule, with partially defined limits, with cystic and solid areas in the superomedial right orbit. An anterior orbitotomy, with full excision of the tumor was performed. A histopathology examination revealed apocrine hidrocystoma and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis. After surgery, the patient had total remission of symptoms.

  2. Displaying New Measurements on WDS Orbit Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Students who observe and measure a visual double star often want to see how their measurement compares with the historical record and with the orbit (if one has been determined). This paper describes how PowerPoint’s graphical tools can display a newly-measured data point on the orbit plot from USNO’s 6th Orbit Catalog, and how a simple spreadsheet can transform measurements expressed as (rho,theta) into a Cartesian plot of the sky positions (E, N). This information is presented as a resource for future students.

  3. Established meteor shower activity periods and orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggemans, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The CAMS dataset of 111233 orbits collected in the period 2010-2013 has been checked to verify the online data of the IAU meteor shower list. The activity periods for all meteor streams detected in CAMS data has been derived from the solar longitudes of the individual orbits that were associated with the meteor stream. For meteor showers that were absent in the CAMS data, mainly daylight meteor streams, CMOR data has been used to complete the information. To make future associations easier and to avoid mixing up shower data, the official naming and IAU code with the orbital elements are listed in this contribution.

  4. The orbit estimation for Larets satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, M.

    2006-10-01

    The LARETS satellite was launched on September 26, 2004 into a circular orbit at an altitude of 690 km and with an inclination of 98.2 degree. The aim of this study is the computation of the orbit of the satellite LARETS with the highest accuracy possible. The paper discusses the influence of the modelling of different physical effects on the motion of LARETS, in particular in terms of orbit quality. All computations are performed with the NASA program GEODYN II (Eddy et al.,1990).

  5. Elliptical Orbit ⇒ 1/r2 Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentis, Jeffrey; Fulton, Bryan; Hesse, Carol; Mazzino, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Newton's proof of the connection between elliptical orbits and inverse-square forces ranks among the "top ten" calculations in the history of science. This time-honored calculation is a highlight in an upper-level mechanics course. It would be worthwhile if students in introductory physics could prove the relation elliptical orbit ⇒ 1/r2 force without having to rely on upper-level mathematics. We introduce a simple procedure—Newton's Recipe—that allows students to readily and accurately deduce the algebraic form of force laws from a geometric analysis of orbit shapes.

  6. Cycler orbit between Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Dennis V.; Longuski, James M.; Aldrin, Buzz

    1993-06-01

    A periodic orbit between Earth and Mars has been discovered that, after launch, permits a space vehicle to cycle back and forth between the planets with moderate maneuvers at irregular intervals. A Space Station placed in this cycler orbit could provide a safe haven from radiation and comfortable living quarters for astronauts en route to Earth or Mars. The orbit is largely maintained by gravity assist from Earth. Numerical results from multiconic optimization software are presented for a 15-year period from 1995 through 2010.

  7. The orbital evolution of binary galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R.; Junqueira, S.

    2001-02-01

    We present the results of self-consistent numerical simulations performed to study the orbital circularization of binary galaxies. We have generalized a previous model (Junqueira & de Freitas Pacheco 1994) and confirmed partially their results. The orbital evolution of pairs of galaxies is faster when we consider interacting pairs with contacting ``live'' galaxy halos but the circularization time remains larger than the Hubble time. Besides, the time behavior of the orbits has changed in comparison with previous work because of tidal forces and dynamical friction acting on the halos.

  8. Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanipe, David B.; Provence, Robert Steve; Straube, Timothy M.; Reed, Helen; Bishop, Robert; Lightsey, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite (DRAGONSat) will demonstrate autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) in low Earth orbit (LEO) and gather flight data with a global positioning system (GPS) receiver strictly designed for space applications. ARD is the capability of two independent spacecraft to rendezvous in orbit and dock without crew intervention. DRAGONSat consists of two picosatellites (one built by the University of Texas and one built by Texas A and M University) and the Space Shuttle Payload Launcher (SSPL); this project will ultimately demonstrate ARD in LEO.

  9. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  10. Orbits 2nd order singularity-free solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang

    2014-01-01

    In its 2nd edition, this book covers the theory of satellite orbits, derives the complete solutions of orbital disturbances, describes the algorithms of orbits determination and the applications of the theory to the phenomenon of physical satellite formation.

  11. MR Imaging of Orbital Inflammatory Syndrome, Orbital Cellulitis, and Orbital Lymphoid Lesions: The Role of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, R.; Sepahdari, A.R.; Mafee, M.F.; Putterman, A.M.; Aakalu, V.; Wendel, L.J.A.; Setabutr, P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Orbital inflammatory syndrome (OIS) has clinical features that overlap with orbital lymphoid lesions and orbital cellulitis. Prompt diagnosis is needed in all 3 conditions because the management of each one differs greatly. CT and MR imaging, though useful, do not always distinguish among these conditions. The aim of this study was to identify the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating these 3 diagnoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of orbital MR imaging was conducted. T1- and T2-weighted and postcontrast images were analyzed. Region-of-interest analysis was performed by using measurements in areas of abnormality seen on conventional MR imaging sequences and measurements of the ipsilateral thalamus for each patient. The DWI signal intensity of the lesion was expressed as a percentage of average thalamic intensity in each patient. Similarly, lesion apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and lesion-thalamus ADC ratios were calculated. Statistical significance was determined by the Kruskal-Wallis test, and post hoc pairwise comparisons, by the Mann-Whitney U test for DWI-intensity ratio, ADC, and ADC ratio. RESULTS A significant difference was noted in DWI intensities, ADC, and ADC ratio between OIS, orbital lymphoid lesions, and orbital cellulitis (P cellulitis. Lymphoid lesions showed lower ADC than OIS and cellulitis. A trend was seen toward lower ADC in OIS than in cellulitis (P = .17). CONCLUSIONS DWI may help differentiate OIS from lymphoid lesions and cellulitis and may allow more rapid management. PMID:18842758

  12. A Case of Orbital Myiasis in Recurrent Eyelid Basal Cell Carcinoma Invasive into the Orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Triptesh Raj; Shrestha, Gulshan Bahadur; Sitaula, Ranju Kharel; Shah, Dev Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Orbital myiasis is the infestation of the orbital tissues by fly larvae or maggots. Compromise of periorbital tissues by malignant disease, surgery, ischemia, or infection may predispose the patient to orbital myiasis. Case Report. A 73-year-old male patient with neglected recurrent basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid invasive into the orbit presented with complaints of intense itching and crawling sensation with maggots wriggling and falling from the wound of left orbit. The patient improved following manual removal of the maggots along with oral Ivermectin treatment. Recurrence of the basal cell carcinoma was confirmed by punch biopsy from the wound and extended exenteration of the orbit followed by reconstructive surgery was done. Conclusion. Orbital myiasis is a rare and preventable ocular morbidity that can complicate the malignancies resulting in widespread tissue destruction. The broad spectrum antiparasitic agent, Ivermectin, can be used as noninvasive means to treat orbital myiasis. In massive orbital myiasis and those associated with malignancies, exenteration of the orbit must be seriously considered.

  13. Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 in Orbital Adipose Tissues: Potential Role in Orbital Thyrotropin Receptor Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan K.; Coenen, Michael J.; Bahn, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is required for maximal expression of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) in the thyroid. Extrathyroidal TSHR expression is detectable in normal orbital adipose tissues, with increased levels found in orbital tissues from patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO), and in orbital preadipocyte cultures following differentiation. In order to determine whether TTF-1 might be involved in orbital TSHR expression, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess relative expression of this and other thyroid-associated transcription factors (TTF-2 and Pax-8) in GO orbital tissue specimens (n = 28) and cultures (n = 3), and in normal orbital tissues (n = 19) and cultures (n = 3). We detected TTF-1 and TTF-2 mRNA in GO and normal orbital tissue samples, with no difference in levels noted between the tissues. In the GO orbital cultures, TTF-1 mRNA was higher in differentiated than in control (undifferentiated) cultures (p < 0.05), while TTF-2 was unchanged. In the normal cultures, neither TTF-1 nor TTF-2 mRNA levels increased in differentiated cultures. Pax8 was undetectable in all orbital tissues and cell cultures. The presence of mRNA encoding TTF-1 in orbital tissues and cultures suggest that this transcription factor may play an important role in extrathyroidal, as it does in thyroidal, TSHR expression. PMID:15929662

  14. CD56 negative extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of the orbit mimicking orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Ryan R; Clark, Jeremy D; Sokol, Jason A

    2013-02-01

    To report a case of Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of the orbit mimicking orbital cellulitis. A 52-year-old healthy male presented to our institution after 3 months of treatment for sinusitis with antibiotics and steroids. The patient was transferred due to the presence of an "orbital abscess" on CT with orbital signs that not responding to antibiotics. Clinical examination was significant for decreased vision in the affected orbit of 20/50, a trace RAPD OS, elevated IOP of 30 OS, proptosis and grossly decreased motility with diplopia, periorbital edema and chemosis. Dilated funded exam was unremarkable. CT imaging demonstrated a left sided pan-sinusitis, a medial "orbital process" with proptosis and erosion of the cribiform plate. The patient was taken for an emergent orbital exploration for histopathologic diagnosis. Intraorbital and sinus biopsy was consistent with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, with extension into the skull base and left orbital space. The patient was started on radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy. The authors demonstrate how the acute presentation of an aggressive extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma can present in a similar fashion as orbital cellulitis. Additionally, the case highlights that a unilateral pansinusitis with involvement of the skull base and orbit is likely due an aggressive malignant process in an immune competent patient.

  15. A Case of Orbital Myiasis in Recurrent Eyelid Basal Cell Carcinoma Invasive into the Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triptesh Raj Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Orbital myiasis is the infestation of the orbital tissues by fly larvae or maggots. Compromise of periorbital tissues by malignant disease, surgery, ischemia, or infection may predispose the patient to orbital myiasis. Case Report. A 73-year-old male patient with neglected recurrent basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid invasive into the orbit presented with complaints of intense itching and crawling sensation with maggots wriggling and falling from the wound of left orbit. The patient improved following manual removal of the maggots along with oral Ivermectin treatment. Recurrence of the basal cell carcinoma was confirmed by punch biopsy from the wound and extended exenteration of the orbit followed by reconstructive surgery was done. Conclusion. Orbital myiasis is a rare and preventable ocular morbidity that can complicate the malignancies resulting in widespread tissue destruction. The broad spectrum antiparasitic agent, Ivermectin, can be used as noninvasive means to treat orbital myiasis. In massive orbital myiasis and those associated with malignancies, exenteration of the orbit must be seriously considered.

  16. An alternative method study for determining the content oils and greases derived from spectrophotometric; Estudo de um metodo alternativo para determinacao de oleos e graxas derivado do metodo espectrofotometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Leila Rose Benevides; Bezerra, Magna Angelica dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP, PRH-14; Melo, Josette Lourdes de Sousa; Melo, Henio Normando de Sousa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Gomes, Andrea Karla Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The determination of the Text of Oils and Greases (TOG) it can be done by several methods - gravimetrical or spectrophotometric. That work seeks to study a method alternative spectrophotometric, being compared this with the method used by Curbelo (2002). The modifications were: the reason solvent/sample, and the procedure in which the solvent the sample was mixed. For the method of Curbelo (2002) 100 mL of the sample was mixed to 10 chloroform mL and separated in separation funnel. In the proposed method, adapted denominated Chloroform, the reason was of 20 sample mL for 20 chloroform mL, being this mixture, after manual agitation, taken directly for centrifuge. The medium results were of 81,36 mg/L and 150,44 mg/L for the methods of the Chloroform and Adapted Chloroform, respectively. In spite of the medium values they present differences of almost 50%, it can be verified that the methods demonstrated certain uniformity when evaluated separately, being obtained a minimum deviation of 5,88%. With base in those preliminary results, it can be verified that the developed alternative method gets to remove more oil, mainly for more concentrated samples - exception done to the results of the pattern - and that the two methods present viability of substitution of the gravimetrical methods. (author)

  17. Adapting ASPEN for Orbital Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Tran, Daniel; Jones, Grailing; Dang, Van; Knight, Russell

    2010-01-01

    By studying the Orbital Express mission, modeling the spacecraft and scenarios, and testing the system, a technique has been developed that uses recursive decomposition to represent procedural actions declaratively, schema-level uncertainty reasoning to make uncertainty reasoning tractable, and lightweight, natural language processing to automatically parse procedures to produce declarative models. Schema-level uncertainty reasoning has, at its core, the basic assumption that certain variables are uncertain, but not independent. Once any are known, then the others become known. This is important where a variable is uncertain for an action and many actions of the same type exist in the plan. For example, if the number of retries to purge pump lines was unknown (but bounded), and each attempt required a sub-plan, then, once the correct number of attempts required for a purge was known, it would likely be the same for all subsequent purges. This greatly reduces the space of plans that needs to be searched to ensure that all executions are feasible. To accommodate changing scenario procedures, each is ingested into a tabular format in temporal order, and a simple natural-language parser is used to read each step and to derive the impact of that step on memory, power, and communications. Then an ASPEN (Activity Scheduling and Planning Environment) model is produced based on this analysis. The model is tested and further changed by hand, if necessary, to reflect the actual procedure. This results in a great savings of time used for modeling procedures. Many processes that need to be modeled in ASPEN (a declarative system) are, in fact, procedural. ASPEN includes the ability to model activities in a hierarchical fashion, but this representation breaks down if there is a practically unbounded number of sub-activities and decomposition topologies. However, if recursive decomposition is allowed, HTN-like encodings are enabled to represent most procedural phenomena. For

  18. Spin-orbit excitations of quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosetti, A.; Escartín, J. M.; Lipparini, E.; Pederiva, F.

    2011-04-01

    Spin-orbit effects on the photoabsorption of a quantum well are discussed by means of a sum rules approach. We show that while the strength of the excitation is zero when the spin-orbit coupling is neglected, the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction gives rise to a nonzero strength and mean excitation energy in the far-infrared region. A simple expression for these quantities up to the second order in the Rashba interaction is derived. Modifications of the results due to the Dresselhaus spin-orbit term are discussed. The effect of two-body Coulomb interaction is then studied by means of a Quantum Monte Carlo calculation, showing that electron-electron correlations induce only a small deviation from the independent particle model result.

  19. Circular Orbits Inside the Sphere of Death

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Kirk T.

    2000-01-01

    A wheel or sphere rolling without slipping on the inside of a sphere in a uniform gravitational field can have stable circular orbits that lie wholly above the "equator", while a particle sliding freely cannot.

  20. Cephalic Tetanus from Penetrating Orbital Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloïse Guyennet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a neurologic disorder caused by tetanospasmin, a protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of the disease causing trismus and dysfunction of cranial nerves. We report the case of a man who presented with facial trauma, complete ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, areactive mydriasis, and periorbital hematoma. An orbital CT revealed air bubbles in the right orbital apex. The patient was given a tetanus toxoid booster and antibiotherapy. After extraction of a wooden foreign body, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy, disorders of swallowing, contralateral III cranial nerve palsy, and trismus. Only one case of cephalic tetanus from penetrating orbital wound has been reported in literature 20 years ago. When a patient presents with an orbital wound with ophthalmoplegia and signs of anaerobic infection, cephalic tetanus should be ruled out.

  1. Efficient Trajectory Propagation for Orbit Determination Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Javier; Pelaez, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Regularized formulations of orbital motion apply a series of techniques to improve the numerical integration of the orbit. Despite their advantages and potential applications little attention has been paid to the propagation of the partial derivatives of the corresponding set of elements or coordinates, required in many orbit-determination scenarios and optimization problems. This paper fills this gap by presenting the general procedure for integrating the state-transition matrix of the system together with the nominal trajectory using regularized formulations and different sets of elements. The main difficulty comes from introducing an independent variable different from time, because the solution needs to be synchronized. The correction of the time delay is treated from a generic perspective not focused on any particular formulation. The synchronization using time-elements is also discussed. Numerical examples include strongly-perturbed orbits in the Pluto system, motivated by the recent flyby of the New Horizons spacecraft, together with a geocentric flyby of the NEAR spacecraft.

  2. Synchronization behind the formation of Orbital Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Jennifer; Abrams, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to gain a greater understanding of why planetary and galactic orbital systems form as either synchronous or asynchronous systems. We simulate the orbiting particles and their movements. We believe that it is possible Kuramoto's model for synchronization can be used to explain the behavior of the particles orbiting about the larger mass object. We believe that the difference between synchrony and asynchrony will be a function of parameters for the system. We examine the effect the parameters have on the order parameter, defined by the Kuramoto model. We additionally examine the simplest system, one with two orbiting particles. We see that there are equilibrium points, indicating the possibility of both synchrony and asynchrony, depending on the system parameters. Our results merit further investigation into the equilibrium of the system with a large number of particles.

  3. Blindness resulting from orbital cellulitis following rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Mook; Han, Sang Chul; Ho, Samuel Y M; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2013-05-01

    Ophthalmic complications occurring after non-ophthalmic surgery are rare. We present a case of orbital cellulitis in a 24-year-old woman, who had undergone augmentation rhinoplasty in combination with breast augmentation. Symptoms included pain, swelling, erythema and eventual loss of vision in the left eye. Intravenous administration of antibiotics did not halt the rapid progression of this infection. On the sixth postoperative day, the patient underwent left-orbital evisceration to prevent the spread of infection to other organ systems. Despite aggressive therapy, the sequela was permanent, unilateral blindness. Orbital cellulitis in aesthetic surgery is extremely rare. In patients undergoing rhinoplasties that may be prolonged due to other concomitant cosmetic procedures, aseptic preoperative preparation and careful monitoring for signs of orbital infection are recommended. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ORION: A Supersynchronous Transfer Orbit mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, I. M.; Baker, J. F.; Shurmer, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    ORION F1 was launched on 29th November 1994 on an Atlas IIA launch vehicle. It was designed, built and delivered in-orbit by Matra Marconi Space Systems Plc and was handed over to ORION Satellite Corporation on 20th January 1995 at its on-station longitude of 37.5 deg W. The mission differed significantly from that of any other geostationary communications satellite in that the Transfer Orbit apogee altitude of 123,507 km was over three times geosynchronous (GEO) altitude and one third of the way to the moon. The SuperSynchronous Transfer Orbit (SSTO) mission is significantly different from the standard Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO)mission in a number of ways. This paper discusses the essential features of the mission design through its evolution since 1987 and the details of the highly successful mission itself including a detailed account of the attitude determination achieved using the Galileo Earth and Sun Sensor (ESS).

  5. ORION: A Supersynchronous Transfer Orbit mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, I. M.; Baker, J. F.; Shurmer, I. M.

    1995-05-01

    ORION F1 was launched on 29th November 1994 on an Atlas IIA launch vehicle. It was designed, built and delivered in-orbit by Matra Marconi Space Systems Plc and was handed over to ORION Satellite Corporation on 20th January 1995 at its on-station longitude of 37.5 deg W. The mission differed significantly from that of any other geostationary communications satellite in that the Transfer Orbit apogee altitude of 123,507 km was over three times geosynchronous (GEO) altitude and one third of the way to the moon. The SuperSynchronous Transfer Orbit (SSTO) mission is significantly different from the standard Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO)mission in a number of ways. This paper discusses the essential features of the mission design through its evolution since 1987 and the details of the highly successful mission itself including a detailed account of the attitude determination achieved using the Galileo Earth and Sun Sensor (ESS).

  6. Orbital impacts and the space shuttle windshield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Karen S.

    1995-06-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) fleet has flown more than sixty missions over the fourteen years since its first flight. As a result of encounters with on-orbit particulates (space debris and micrometeoroids), 177 impact features (chips) have been found on the STS outer windows (through STS-65). Forty-five of the damages were large enough to warrant replacement of the window. NASA's orbital operations and vehicle inspection procedures have chnaged over the history of the shuttle program, in response to concerns about the orbital environment and the cost of maintaining the space shuttle. These programmatic issues will be discussed, including safety concerns, maintenance issues, inspection procedures, and flight rule changes. Examples of orbital debris impacts to the shuttle windows will be provided. There will also be a brief discussion of the impact properties of glass and what design changes have been considered to improve the impact properties of the windows.

  7. NEAR GRS SPECTRA FOR EROS ORBIT PHASE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) observations made during the Eros orbit phase of the NEAR mission. The individual observations are combined into...

  8. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  9. Satellite orbits in Levi-Civita space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humi, Mayer

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we consider satellite orbits in central force field with quadratic drag using two formalisms. The first using polar coordinates in which the satellite angular momentum plays a dominant role. The second is in Levi-Civita coordinates in which the energy plays a central role. We then merge these two formalisms by introducing polar coordinates in Levi-Civita space and derive a new equation for satellite orbits which unifies these two paradigms. In this equation energy and angular momentum appear on equal footing and thus characterize the orbit by its two invariants. Using this formalism we show that equatorial orbits around oblate spheroids can be expressed analytically in terms of Elliptic functions. In the second part of the paper we derive in Levi-Civita coordinates a linearized equation for the relative motion of two spacecrafts whose trajectories are in the same plane. We carry out also a numerical verification of these equations.

  10. Orbit Response Measurements at the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, J

    2004-01-01

    The optics of the SPS ring and the TT40 transfer line have been analyzed using the closed orbit (respectively trajectory) response to controlled corrector magnet deflections. A large amount of information on the machine model, beam position monitor quality and orbit corrector calibrations can be extracted from te response data. The data was analyzed with the LOCO fit program that was adapted to the SPS machine model. A large amount of data was collected on the SPS ring, and the modelling was tested under a number of different conditions. The SPS ring data showed that a significant number of horizontal SPS orbit correctors do not provide the nominal kick strength and are damaged at the level of the magnet coil. This note describes the experience that has been gained at the SPS, the information that could be extracted from orbit data and some of the limitations of the analysis procedure in the context of the SPS.

  11. Graph-based Methods for Orbit Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagherjeiran, A; Kamath, C

    2005-09-29

    An important step in the quest for low-cost fusion power is the ability to perform and analyze experiments in prototype fusion reactors. One of the tasks in the analysis of experimental data is the classification of orbits in Poincare plots. These plots are generated by the particles in a fusion reactor as they move within the toroidal device. In this paper, we describe the use of graph-based methods to extract features from orbits. These features are then used to classify the orbits into several categories. Our results show that existing machine learning algorithms are successful in classifying orbits with few points, a situation which can arise in data from experiments.

  12. Designing the Orbital Space Tourism Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Sub-orbital space tourism is now well on its way to becoming a reality, with offerings by Virgin Galactic, Rocketplane, and others soon to be made available. Orbital space tourism is harder to achieve, but, if successful as a business model, will make significant contributions towards improved operational efficiencies, reusability, reliability and economies of scale to the world of crewed space flight. Some responses to the President's Vision for Space Exploration have included public space travel in low Earth orbit as sustaining and enabling elements of the vision in a post-Shuttle space architecture. This paper addresses the steps necessary to make possible such a US-based orbital space tourism business, and will assist commercial and government agencies concerned with the development of this new sector.

  13. Transfer and capture into distant retrograde orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher J.

    This dissertation utilizes theory and techniques derived from the fields of dynamical systems theory, astrodyanamics, celestial mechanics, and fluid mechanics to analyze the phenomenon of satellite capture and interrelated spacecraft transfers in restricted three-body systems. The results extend current knowledge and understanding of capture dynamics in the context of astrodynamics and celestial mechanics. Manifold theory, fast Lyapunov indicator maps, and the classification of space structure facilitate an analysis of the transport of objects from the chaotic reaches of the solar system to the distant retrograde region in the sun-Jupiter system. Apart from past studies this dissertation considers the role of the complex lobe structure encompassing stable regions in the circular restricted three-body problem. These structures are shown to be responsible for the phenomenon of sticky orbits and the transport of objects among stable regions. Since permanent capture can only be achieved through a change in energy, fast Lyapunov indicator maps and other methods which reveal the structure of the conservative system are used to discern capture regions and identify the underpinnings of the dynamics. Fast Lyapunov indicator maps provide an accurate classification of orbits of permanent capture and escape, yet monopolize computational resources. In anticipation of a fully three-dimensional analysis in the dissipative system a new mapping parameter is introduced based on energy degradation and averaged velocity. Although the study specifically addresses the sun-Jupiter system, the qualitative results and devised techniques can be applied throughout the solar system and to capture about extrasolar planets. Extending the analysis beyond the exterior of the stable distant retrograde region fosters the construction of transfer orbits from low-Earth orbit to a stable periodic orbit at the center of the stable distant retrograde region. Key to this analysis is the predictability of

  14. Satellite Laser Ranging Satellite Orbit Product from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SLR Satellite Orbit solutions available from the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS). Precise Orbit Determination (POD) solutions in Standard Product 3...

  15. Introduction to orbital flight planning (1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, H. E. (Editor); Davis, E. L.; Dell, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    This workbook is designed for students interested in space flight planning, who after training, may serve as flight planning aides. Routine flight planning activities requiring engineering-type calculations and analysis are covered. Practice exercises and brief instructions are given for the programming and use of the hand calculator as well as the calculation of position and velocity in the orbital plane. Calculation of relative orbital position is also covered with emphasis upon celestial coordinates and time measurement.

  16. Orbital involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinnider, L F; Romanchuk, K G

    1984-04-01

    In a 68-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia diagnosed on the basis of peripheral lymphocytosis, marked bilateral exophthalmos developed owing to massive orbital involvement by the disease. At the time there was no lymphadenopathy or evidence of organ infiltration. The response to radiotherapy was excellent. Orbital involvement is rare as an early clinical feature of chronic lymphocytic leukemia but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral exophthalmos in adults.

  17. Management of Orbital Floor Fractures: Our Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biplab Deb

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Otolaryngologists are often called to evaluate and manage patients with orbital floor fracture. We have described an overview of the treatment of orbital floor fractures using different reconstructive materials viz. autogenous like bone graft from iliac crest and allogenous like silicon block and titanium mesh. We have found that different implant materials offers equivalent satisfactory results in both functional and aesthetic considerations.

  18. Cephalic Tetanus from Penetrating Orbital Wound

    OpenAIRE

    Eloïse Guyennet; Jean-Laurent Guyomard; Emilie Barnay; Franck Jegoux; Jean-François Charlin

    2009-01-01

    Tetanus is a neurologic disorder caused by tetanospasmin, a protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of the disease causing trismus and dysfunction of cranial nerves. We report the case of a man who presented with facial trauma, complete ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, areactive mydriasis, and periorbital hematoma. An orbital CT revealed air bubbles in the right orbital apex. The patient was given a tetanus toxoid booster and antibiotherapy. After ex...

  19. Distinguishing features of preseptal and orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, James

    2010-03-01

    The differential diagnosis between orbital cellulitis and preseptal cellulitis is important as is the need to differentiate between an allergic response or infectious cellulitis of the eye. This article will examine the case of a 15-month-old boy who was brought to an emergency department with an oedematous right eye. The research about diagnosis and treatment will be evaluated and orbital cellulitis will be explored in more detail including the symptoms and complications.

  20. Necrotic intraocular retinoblastoma associated with orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalcı, Hilal; Gündüz, Kaan; Erden, Esra

    Orbital cellulitis associated with retinoblastoma is uncommon and is characterized by noninfectious inflammation of the periorbital structures. The underlying mechanism is thought to be necrosis of the intraocular tumor, leading to intraocular and periorbital inflammation. We report 2 retinoblastoma patients who presented with an orbital cellulitis-like picture and discuss clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.