Sample records for accommodating practical constraints

  1. Countermovement strategy changes with vertical jump height to accommodate feasible force constraints. (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung; Park, Sukyung; Choi, Sangkyu


    In this study, we developed a curve-fit model of countermovement dynamics and examined whether the characteristics of a countermovement jump can be quantified using the model parameter and its scaling; we expected that the model-based analysis would facilitate an understanding of the basic mechanisms of force reduction and propulsion with a simplified framework of the center of mass (CoM) mechanics. Ten healthy young subjects jumped straight up to five different levels ranging from approximately 10% to 35% of their body heights. The kinematic and kinetic data on the CoM were measured using a force plate system synchronized with motion capture cameras. All subjects generated larger vertical forces compared with their body weights from the countermovement and sufficiently lowered their CoM position to support the work performed by push-off as the vertical elevations became more challenging. The model simulation reasonably reproduced the trajectories of vertical force during the countermovement, and the model parameters were replaced by linear and polynomial regression functions in terms of the vertical jump height. Gradual scaling trends of the individual model parameters were observed as a function of the vertical jump height with different degrees of scaling, depending on the subject. The results imply that the subjects may be aware of the jumping dynamics when subjected to various vertical jump heights and may select their countermovement strategies to effectively accommodate biomechanical constraints, i.e., limited force generation for the standing vertical jump. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Management practices and production constraints of central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2016 on randomly selected 250 households who reared goats in Emba Alaje District to assess management practices of central highland goats and their major constraints. A pretested and semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the required data. Out of ...

  3. Accommodation deficit in children with Down syndrome: practical considerations for the optometrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little JA


    Full Text Available Julie-Anne Little School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UKAbstract: Down syndrome is the most common cause of intellectual impairment, and life expectancy in this group has increased in recent decades, meaning that health care is increasingly focused on quality of life and the management of treatable illnesses. There are frequent problems associated with vision in Down syndrome, including refractive errors, strabismus, reduced vision, and reduced accommodative ability. This review will discuss the importance of accommodative ability; describe the prevalence and nature of accommodative deficits in Down syndrome, which are found in approximately 55%–76% of individuals; discuss the management of this deficit with the prescription of bifocal correction; and summarize the possible etiologies of hypoaccommodation in Down syndrome. Finally, the review will consider practical considerations for the optometrist managing accommodative deficits in patients with Down syndrome. Keywords: Down syndrome, accommodation, accommodative deficits, dynamic retinoscopy, bifocals, refractive error

  4. GPS constraints on shear accommodation in the northern Walker Lane, western Nevada, USA (United States)

    Bormann, J. M.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C. W.; Blewitt, G.; Wesnousky, S. G.


    The Walker Lane is a zone of active intracontinental transtension that accommodates approximately 10 mm/yr of right-lateral deformation, up to 20-25% of Pacific-North America relative plate motion. Between Walker Lake and Lake Tahoe, the Walker Lane lacks optimally oriented strike-slip faults to accommodate northwest-directed dextral shear. In this region Quaternary deformation appears to be concentrated in a northwest-trending series of north-striking, normal fault-bounded basins. To address the question of how shear is transferred through this portion of the Walker Lane, we combine GPS data from the University of Nevada, Reno’s semi-continuous MAGNET GPS network with observations from EarthScope’s Plate Boundary Observatory to present a new velocity field for the Walker Lane with an average station spacing of 20 km. Measurements in MAGNET ( began in January 2004 and now provide time series of up to 6 years for the longest running sites and >3 years for all sites. Together with recent improvements in GPS data processing models using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, this allows us to estimate rates with uncertainty well below 1 mm/yr. These recent improvements include the use of reprocessed GPS orbits from the IGS Analysis Center at JPL. Our GPS processing now includes satellite and station antenna calibrations, random-walk tropospheric zenith delay and gradients using the GMF mapping function, second-order ionospheric corrections, global-scale ambiguity resolution using our custom Ambizap software, and our custom Great Basin spatially-filtered reference frame. The velocity solution shows a smooth and continuous increase in shear across the Walker Lane in addition to NW-SE directed extension. We use a block model driven by GPS velocities to estimate the role that vertical axis rotation of fault-bounded blocks and slip on basin-bounding faults play in shear accommodation. The block model also allows us to incorporate published

  5. A practical method to solve an optimization problem with constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Presura, Cristian; Yetkiner, I. Hakan


    Some economic models need constraints imposed on control and/or state-space constraints. In most cases, nonetheless, the use of constraints is avoided because it brings significant technical difficulties to a model. This paper offers a new practical technique to solve control and state-space

  6. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  7. Impact of Development and Accommodation Practices on Older Workers' Job Characteristics, Prolonged Fatigue, Work Engagement, and Retirement Intentions Over Time. (United States)

    Stynen, Dave; Jansen, Nicole W H; Slangen, Jos J M; Kant, IJmert


    The impact of development and accommodation practices on older workers' retirement intentions was investigated in this prospective study, together with potential pathways and the role of career stage. A subsample of full-time, older workers (n = 678) from the Maastricht Cohort Study was followed-up for 2 years. Regression analysis was conducted for three age groups. Development practices related positively with later retirement intentions in workers aged 55 to 59 years. The accommodation practice of demotion related negatively with later retirement intentions in worker aged at least 60 years. Decision latitude and work engagement were found to link development and accommodation practices with later retirement intentions in particular in workers aged 55 to 59 years. It was indicated in this prospective study that development and accommodation practices may be useful for prolonging working careers.

  8. Accommodation Consumers and Providers’ Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices for Sustainability: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Michael Hall


    Full Text Available Accommodation and lodging are an integral component of the tourism and hospitality industry. Given the sectors’ growing contribution to resource consumption and waste, there is a growing body of literature on the attitudes, behaviours and practices of consumers, managers, staff and owners of lodging with respect to sustainability. This paper presents the results of a systematic analysis of articles on attitudes, behaviours and practices of consumers and the provision of accommodation with respect to sustainability. The results indicate that there is a dearth of longitudinal studies on the sustainability of practices and behaviours. There are limitations in geographical coverage as well as methods, with research dominated by convenience sampling approaches. It is concluded that while there appear to be improvements in the potential sustainability of lodging with respect to technological approaches, the lack of systematic long-term studies on behavioural interventions represents a significant challenge to reducing the absolute emissions of the sector as well as reductions in energy and water use and waste production. Given the lack of longitudinal studies, it is not known whether observed behavioural changes are sustained over time.

  9. Search strategies in practice: Influence of information and task constraints. (United States)

    Pacheco, Matheus M; Newell, Karl M


    The practice of a motor task has been conceptualized as a process of search through a perceptual-motor workspace. The present study investigated the influence of information and task constraints on the search strategy as reflected in the sequential relations of the outcome in a discrete movement virtual projectile task. The results showed that the relation between the changes of trial-to-trial movement outcome to performance level was dependent on the landscape of the task dynamics and the influence of inherent variability. Furthermore, the search was in a constrained parameter region of the perceptual-motor workspace that depended on the task constraints. These findings show that there is not a single function of trial-to-trial change over practice but rather that local search strategies (proportional, discontinuous, constant) adapt to the level of performance and the confluence of constraints to action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioural Constraints on Practices of Auditing in Nigeria (BCPAN) (United States)

    Akpomi, Margaret E.; Amesi, Joy


    This research was conducted to determine the behavioural constraints on practices of auditing (BCPAN) in Nigeria and to proffer strategies for making incidence of auditing (internal and external auditors) more effective. Thirty-seven administrators drawn from some public limited liability companies, private companies and tertiary institutions were…

  11. Careers in academic general practice: problems, constraints, and opportunities.


    Rashid, A.; Allen, J; Styles, B; Gray, D. P.


    Changing priorities in the NHS have underlined the crucial importance of academic general practice in providing quality training and research to underpin developments in general practice. Unfortunately, several problems and constraints mean that the full potential of general practitioners to make a contribution to teaching and research has not been realised. These issues are examined and recommendations for improvements are made. Obstacles to career development for academics in general practi...

  12. Constraints in the adoption of Indigenous farming practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kanagasabapathi


    Full Text Available Indigenous farming is a production system, based on renewal of ecological processes and strengthening of ecological functions of farm ecosystem to produce safe, healthy and sustainable food. Indigenous agriculture is being adopted by the farmers of Kolli Hills in centre Tamil Nadu for different reasons. However, a lot of constraints prevent the farmers in adopting indigenous farming practices, that include poor yield, poor marketing facilities, higher production cost and urbanization

  13. Citrus Production, Constraints and Management Practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus Production, Constraints and Management Practices in Ethiopia: The Case of Pseudocercospora Leaf and Fruit Spot Disease. ... ratings were 2.6, 2.3, 2.0 and 1.7, respectively. Similarly, the average incidences and severities on fruits were 63.8, 29.4, 18.0 and 16.7%, and 4.0, 3.0, 2.0 and 2.0, in the same order.

  14. Constraints in the adoption of Indigenous farming practices


    K Kanagasabapathi; V Sakthivel


    Indigenous farming is a production system, based on renewal of ecological processes and strengthening of ecological functions of farm ecosystem to produce safe, healthy and sustainable food. Indigenous agriculture is being adopted by the farmers of Kolli Hills in centre Tamil Nadu for different reasons. However, a lot of constraints prevent the farmers in adopting indigenous farming practices, that include poor yield, poor marketing facilities, higher production cost and urbanization

  15. Disentangling Mathematics Target and Access Skills: Implications for Accommodation Assignment Practices (United States)

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Geller, Joshua P.


    Appropriate assignment of accommodations is predicated on a clear distinction between target skills and access skills. In this study, we examine the agreement between test developer/researchers' and educators' classification of target and access skills as a possible explanatory mechanism for assigning accommodations. Findings indicate that…

  16. Accommodating practical constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy by means of compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, J


    intensity distribution, inverse modelling of the radiation attenuation within the compensator is required. Two novel and independent approaches, based on deconvolution and system identification, respectively, are proposed to accomplish this. To compare the approach with the 'rival' state of the art beam modulation technique, theoretical and experimental examination of the modulated fields generated by manufactured compensators and multileaf collimators is presented. This comparison focused on the achievable resolution of the intensity modulated beams in lateral and longitudinal directions. To take into account the characteristics of a clinical environment, a comprehensive study has been carried out to investigate the suitability of the most common commercially available treatment couch systems for their suitability for IMRT treatments. In this context, an original rule based advisory system has been developed to alert the operator of any potential collision of the beam with the moveable supporting structures ...

  17. Competencies of Front-Line Managers in Supported Accommodation: Issues for Practice and Future Research (United States)

    Clement, Tim; Bigby, Christine


    Background: Front-line managers of supported accommodation for people with intellectual disability are assumed to have a key role in the realisation of outcomes for service users. Yet, their job has been little researched. A job analysis from Minnesota that identified 142 competencies required of effective front-line managers was used to examine…

  18. Coordination in Climbing: Effect of Skill, Practice and Constraints Manipulation. (United States)

    Orth, Dominic; Davids, Keith; Seifert, Ludovic


    Climbing is a physical activity and sport involving many subdisciplines. Minimization of prolonged pauses, use of a relatively simple path through a route and smooth transitions between movements broadly define skilled coordination in climbing. To provide an overview of the constraints on skilled coordination in climbing and to explore future directions in this emerging field. A systematic literature review was conducted in 2014 and retrieved studies reporting perceptual and movement data during climbing tasks. To be eligible for the qualitative synthesis, studies were required to report perceptual or movement data during climbing tasks graded for difficulty. Qualitative synthesis of 42 studies was carried out, showing that skilled coordination in climbing is underpinned by superior perception of climbing opportunities; optimization of spatial-temporal features pertaining to body-to-wall coordination, the climb trajectory and hand-to-hold surface contact; and minimization of exploratory behaviour. Improvements in skilled coordination due to practice are related to task novelty and the difficulty of the climbing route relative to the individual's ability level. Perceptual and motor adaptations that improve skilled coordination are highly significant for improving the climbing ability level. Elite climbers exhibit advantages in detection and use of climbing opportunities when visually inspecting a route from the ground and when physically moving though a route. However, the need to provide clear guidelines on how to improve climbing skill arises from uncertainties regarding the impacts of different practice interventions on learning and transfer.

  19. Smallholder dairy production in Northern Malawi: production practices and constraints. (United States)

    Tebug, Stanly Fon; Kasulo, Victor; Chikagwa-Malunga, Susan; Wiedemann, Steffi; Roberts, David J; Chagunda, Mizeck G G


    Milk production in Malawi is still unsatisfactory despite efforts by different stakeholders to boost the dairy sector. To investigate the roots of the problem, a survey on the current production practices and constraints on smallholder dairy farming was conducted in the Northern Region of the country. A total of 210 farmers were interviewed. The results revealed that farmers had small herd sizes in the region with an average of 2.2 ± 0.6 cattle per farmer. Average herd size was larger in male-managed farms than in female-managed farms (2.6 ± 2.8 vs. 1.8 ± 1.3), farmers with more than 5 years of dairy farming experience had larger herds than those with less experience (2.6 ± 2.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1. 2) and farmers who grazed their animals tended to have larger herds than those that stall-fed their animals (4.4 ± 5.1 vs. 1.9 ± 1.3). Average milk production was 8.2 ± 6.5 l per cow per day. Higher average daily milk production was observed in farmers with above primary school education (10.3 ± 8.3 vs. 7.7 ± 5.6), those with dairy farming as main activity (9.3 ± 6.6 vs. 6. 5 ± 6.1) and farmers with more than 2 years of experience in dairy farming (9.3 ± 6.3 vs. 6.1 ± 6.4). Unreliable supply of improved animal genetics, poor animal health, feed shortage and poor prices for milk were considered to be the most important constraints to smallholder dairy farming in descending order.

  20. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice (United States)

    Pill, Shane


    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  1. Competencies of front-line managers in supported accommodation: issues for practice and future research. (United States)

    Clement, Tim; Bigby, Christine


    Front-line managers of supported accommodation for people with intellectual disability are assumed to have a key role in the realisation of outcomes for service users. Yet, their job has been little researched. A job analysis from Minnesota that identified 142 competencies required of effective front-line managers was used to examine what was expected of the equivalent position in Victoria, Australia. These competencies formed the basis of semistructured interviews with an extreme sample of 16 high-performing house supervisors and 5 more senior managers. Ninety-two percent of the original competences were retained, with changes in language and terminology to reflect the local context. Emergent findings highlighted the importance of house supervisors' "orientations." The findings support the proposition that the front-line manager's job is underpinned by core competencies and that the role merits further study. Issues of wider significance for human service organisations and researchers are discussed.

  2. Schools performing against the odds : enablements and constraints to school leadership practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naicker, Inbanathan; Grant, Carolyn (Callie); Pillay, Sivanandani (Sivie)


    .... We cast our gaze on one of these resilient schools in South Africa, and sought to learn about the leadership practices prevalent in this school and the enablements and constraints to the school leadership practice...

  3. The Effects of Quality Management Practices on Key Results: questionnaires sample for the industry of tourist accommodation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Álvarez García


    Full Text Available In this research work, we examine the direct and indirect effects of quality management practices on key results and we identify the relationship between quality practices. To achieve the proposed objective, a structural model was used, taking into account the previous review of the literature, in order to identify the quality practices and causal relationships with the key results. The theoretical model and hypotheses are tested using data collected from a sample of 186 tourist accommodation companies certified with the “Q for Tourist Quality” standard in Spain, from a questionnaire based on quality practices identified in the literature and on the EFQM Model, taking some of the most relevant scales as a reference. The methodology used consists of the application of an Exploratory and Confirmatory Factorial Analysis to validate the scales (reliability, one-dimensionality and validity and define the number of items of each of the measuring instruments of the constructs proposed, to then estimate the causal model proposed, proceeding to test the hypotheses formulated by using the Structural Equation Model (SEM technique. The results achieved support the relationship between quality practices and the direct and positive impact of two of the practices, processes management and quality policy/planning, on the key results. It was also observed that the quality practices that most influence key results are quality policy/planning along with leadership, when considering the total effects (direct and indirect.

  4. Making Structured Graphics and Constraints Practical for Large-Scale Applications (United States)


    the Gilt interface builder, the number of Making Structured Graphics and Constraints Practical for Large-Scale Applications - 8 constraints drops from...invented to allow feedback objects to use relationships such as "I am the same size and position as the selected object." Such constraints are expressed...with expressions such as: (gvl :selected :width) where the feedback object’s :selected slot is set with the appropriate object at run time. Changing

  5. Open innovation in the European space sector: Existing practices, constraints and opportunities (United States)

    van Burg, Elco; Giannopapa, Christina; Reymen, Isabelle M. M. J.


    To enhance innovative output and societal spillover of the European space sector, the open innovation approach is becoming popular. Yet, open innovation, referring to innovation practices that cross borders of individual firms, faces constraints. To explore these constraints and identify opportunities, this study performs interviews with government/agency officials and space technology entrepreneurs. The interviews highlight three topic areas with constraints and opportunities: 1) mainly one-directional knowledge flows (from outside the space sector to inside), 2) knowledge and property management, and 3) the role of small- and medium sized companies. These results bear important implications for innovation practices in the space sector.

  6. Ethical Tensions Related to Systemic Constraints: Occupational Alienation in Occupational Therapy Practice. (United States)

    Durocher, Evelyne; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; McCorquodale, Lisa; Phelan, Shanon


    Ethical tensions arise daily in health care practice and are frequently related to health care system structures or policies. Collective case study methodology was adopted to examine ethical tensions reported by occupational therapists practicing in different settings in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Inductive analysis involving multiple layers of coding was conducted. This article focuses on tensions related to systemic constraints. Participants reported ethical tensions related to balancing client priorities with those of health care services. Four themes related to systemic constraints were identified including imposed practices, ineffective processes, resource limitations, and lack of services. Therapists' aims could be seen to align with an "ethic of care" and were seen to be in tension in light of systemic constraints. The findings raise issues related to occupational justice, particularly related to occupational alienation in occupational therapy practice, and open conversations related to neoliberalist health care agendas. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Neuroscience and the law: philosophical differences and practical constraints. (United States)

    Martell, Daniel A


    Controversies surrounding the value of neuroscience as forensic evidence are explored from the perspective of the philosophy of mind, as well as from a practical analysis of the state of the scientific research literature. At a fundamental philosophical level there are profound differences in how law and neuroscience view the issue of criminal responsibility along the continuum from free will to determinism. At a more practical level, significant limitations in the current state of neuroimaging research constrain its ability to inform legal decision-making. Scientifically supported and unsupported forensic applications for brain imaging are discussed, and recommendations for forensic report writing are offered. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effect of managed care and financing on practice constraints and career satisfaction in primary care. (United States)

    Sturm, Roland


    The shift away from third party insurers to risk-sharing arrangements affecting care management and clinicians could be the most fundamental change in the health care system. Analysis was undertaken to study how managed care, practice setting, and financial arrangements affect physicians' perceived impact on their practice. Data were taken from the Community Tracking Study (CTS) physician survey, a national survey of active physicians in the United States fielded between August 1996 and August 1997. Survey instruments were completed by 7,146 primary care physicians in internal medicine (2,355), family practice (3,168), and pediatrics (1,623). The dependent variables are career satisfaction and perceived limitations and pressures on time spent with patients, clinical freedom, income, and continuity. To study the unique effect of financing and gatekeeping arrangements and practice setting, the dependent variables were regressed on gatekeeping, practice revenue, individual physician compensation, practice setting, specialty, age-group, sex, international medical graduate, board certification, and recent change in practice ownership. Total managed care revenue, or individual physician incentives, have no effect on career satisfaction and relatively limited effects on time pressure, income pressure, or patient continuity. In contrast, primary care gatekeeping has a highly significant adverse effect on the same outcome measures. After controlling for financial factors, demographic characteristics, and training differences, physicians in solo and 2-physician practices are significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with their medical career, more likely to report no clinical freedom, and more likely to feel income pressure than physicians in group practices, staff model HMOs, medical schools, or other settings. Physicians in solo and 2-physician practices were least satisfied with their careers and reported more constraints on their clinical freedom and income than

  9. Long-term Practice with Domain-Specific Task Constraints Influences Perceptual Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Oppici


    Full Text Available The long-term impact of practice with different task constraints on perceptual skill is relatively un-explored. This study examined the influence of extensive practice, i.e., more than a 1000 h of structured practice, with domain-specific task constraints on perceptual skill associated with the passing action. Despite performing the same passing skill, it is not known whether long-term exposure to specific soccer or futsal task constraints influences the players’ attunement to environmental information. This study examined this issue by assessing the attention orientation of soccer (n = 24 and futsal players (n = 24 during modified games (6 vs. 6. Futsal players had higher scanning behavior during ball reception and control (40% more ball-player attention alternations while soccer players mainly scanned the environment when not in ball possession (25% more attention alternations. We suggest that the behavioral differences found are elicited by the extensive domain-specific practice. That is, the higher number of players in soccer, and by a more intense game and easier to control ball in futsal. This study provides new insights into the long-term effects of practicing with specific task constraints.

  10. Long-term Practice with Domain-Specific Task Constraints Influences Perceptual Skills. (United States)

    Oppici, Luca; Panchuk, Derek; Serpiello, Fabio R; Farrow, Damian


    The long-term impact of practice with different task constraints on perceptual skill is relatively un-explored. This study examined the influence of extensive practice, i.e., more than a 1000 h of structured practice, with domain-specific task constraints on perceptual skill associated with the passing action. Despite performing the same passing skill, it is not known whether long-term exposure to specific soccer or futsal task constraints influences the players' attunement to environmental information. This study examined this issue by assessing the attention orientation of soccer (n = 24) and futsal players (n = 24) during modified games (6 vs. 6). Futsal players had higher scanning behavior during ball reception and control (40% more ball-player attention alternations) while soccer players mainly scanned the environment when not in ball possession (25% more attention alternations). We suggest that the behavioral differences found are elicited by the extensive domain-specific practice. That is, the higher number of players in soccer, and by a more intense game and easier to control ball in futsal. This study provides new insights into the long-term effects of practicing with specific task constraints.

  11. Big game hunting practices, meanings, motivations and constraints: a survey of Oregon big game hunters (United States)

    Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns


    We conducted a self-administered mail survey in September 2009 with randomly selected Oregon hunters who had purchased big game hunting licenses/tags for the 2008 hunting season. Survey questions explored hunting practices, the meanings of and motivations for big game hunting, the constraints to big game hunting participation, and the effects of age, years of hunting...

  12. Understanding Enactivism: A Study of Affordances and Constraints of Engaging Practicing Teachers as Digital Game Designers (United States)

    Li, Qing


    This study is intended to deepen our understanding of enactivism, an emergent theoretical paradigm, through empirical exploration of teacher undertakings as digital game creators. Specifically, it explores the affordances and constraints, two important enactivism concepts, of practicing teachers' experiences in designing and developing games for…

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Beginning Science Teachers' Practices, Institutional Constraints, and Adult Development (United States)

    Wilcox, Jesse Lee

    This year-long study explored how ten teachers--five first year, five second year--acclimated to their new school environment after leaving a master's level university science teacher preparation program known for being highly effective. Furthermore, this study sought to explore if a relationship existed between teachers' understanding and implementation of research-based science teaching practices, the barriers to enacting these practices--known as institutional constraints, and the constructive-developmental theory which explores meaning-making systems known as orders of consciousness. As a naturalistic inquiry mixed methods study, data were collected using both qualitative (e.g., semi-structured interviews, field notes) as well as quantitative methods (e.g., observation protocols, subject/object protocol). These data sources were used to construct participant summaries and a cross-case analysis. The findings from provide evidence that teachers' orders of consciousness might help to explain why understanding research-based science teaching practices are maintained by some new teachers and not others. Additionally, this study found the orders of consciousness of teachers relates to the perceptions of institutional constraints as well as how a teacher chooses to navigate those constraints. Finally, the extent to which teachers implement research-based science teaching practices is related to orders of consciousness. While many studies have focused on what meaning teachers make, this study highlights the importance of considering how teachers make meaning.

  14. Constraints to exclusive breastfeeding practice among breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria: implications for scaling up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunbiade Ojo M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding is still low despite the associated benefits. Improving the uptake and appropriating the benefits will require an understanding of breastfeeding as an embodied experience within a social context. This study investigates breastfeeding practices and experiences of nursing mothers and the roles of grandmothers, as well as the work-related constraints affecting nurses in providing quality support for breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria. Methods Using a concurrent mixed method approach, a structured questionnaire was administered to 200 breastfeeding mothers. In-depth interviews were also held with breastfeeding mothers (11, nurses (10 and a focus group discussion session with grandmothers. Results Breastfeeding was perceived as essential to baby's health. It strengthens the physical and spiritual bond between mothers and their children. Exclusive breastfeeding was considered essential but demanding. Only a small proportion (19% of the nursing mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding. The survey showed the major constraints to exclusive breastfeeding to be: the perception that babies continued to be hungry after breastfeeding (29%; maternal health problems (26%; fear of babies becoming addicted to breast milk (26%; pressure from mother-in-law (25%; pains in the breast (25%; and the need to return to work (24%. In addition, the qualitative findings showed that significant others played dual roles with consequences on breastfeeding practices. The desire to practice exclusive breastfeeding was often compromised shortly after child delivery. Poor feeding, inadequate support from husband and conflicting positions from the significant others were dominant constraints. The nurses decried the effects of their workload on providing quality supports for nursing mothers. Conclusion Breastfeeding mothers are faced with multiple challenges as they strive to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Thus

  15. Primary care practices' perceived constraints to engaging in research: the importance of context and 'Flow'. (United States)

    Michalec, Barret; Fagan, Heather Bittner; Rahmer, Brian


    The primary purpose of this study is to understand primary care practices' perceived constraints to engaging in research from micro-, meso-, and macro-level perspectives. Past research has spotlighted various barriers and hurdles that primary care practices face when attempting to engage in research efforts; yet a majority of this research has focused exclusively on micro- (physician-specific) and meso-level (practice-specific) factors. Minimal attention has been paid to the context - the more macro-level issues such as how these barriers relate to primary care practices' role within the dominant payment/reimbursement model of U.S. health-care system. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted in five U.S. practices, all owned by an independent academic medical center. Each had participated in at least one research study but were not part of a practice-based research network or affiliated with a medical school. Data were analyzed using NVIVO-9 by using a multistep coding process. Findings The perceived constraints offered by the participants echoed those featured in previous studies. Secondary analyses of the interconnected nature of these factors highlighted a valuable and sensitive 'Flow' that is evident at the individual, interaction, and organizational levels of primary care practice. Engaging in research appears to pose a significant threat to the outcomes of Flow (i.e., revenue, patient health outcomes, and the overall well-being of the practice). It is posited that the risk of not meeting expected productivity-based outcomes, which appear to be dictated by current dominant reimbursement models, frames the overall process of research-related decision making in primary care. Within the funding/reimbursement models of the US health-care system, engaging in research does not appear to be advantageous for primary care practices.

  16. Beyond the Practical Dilemmas and Conceptual Reductions: the Emergence of an ‘Accommodative Consciousness’ in the Alternative Globalization Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdolhamed Hosseini


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to show the emergence of a new ideological trend within the global field of resistance against the corporate-led globalization. This ideological trend, coined here the alter-globalization trend, is ideal-typically constructed in terms of its associated mode of social thought. The newly developed perspectives and cognitive transformations inside the global field of resistance convey a new mode of in-praxis thought, named here accommodative cognition. This heralds the formation of alternative principles for creating emancipatory knowledges and flexible solidarities. The paper draws on certain discursive evidence from the alter-globalization trend to show that the complexity of globalizing society and contemporary collective action is realized through the open spaces of dialogue and dispute introduced by the movement. This has resulted in the emergence of intellectual demands for transcending contradictions that are rooted in the post-1970s disputes between modernist and post-modernist, and materialist and post-materialist thoughts. Two other features of this new mode of cognition are: (1 a growing inclination to cut across incompatible conceptions of social polarities (i.e. around issues like class, gender, race, cultural identity, ethnicity, nationality and sexual orientation in establishing a flexible solidarity based on accommodating the Other’s interest and identity into the process of affirming the Self; and (2 understanding the complexities of globalization in terms of its structural unevenness, contradictions and multidimensionality.

  17. Evaluation of pig production practices, constraints and opportunities for improvement in smallholder production systems in Kenya. (United States)

    Mbuthia, Jackson Mwenda; Rewe, Thomas Odiwuor; Kahi, Alexander Kigunzu


    This study evaluated pig production practices by smallholder farmers in two distinct production systems geared towards addressing their constraints and prospects for improvement. The production systems evaluated were semi-intensive and extensive and differed in remoteness, market access, resource availability and pig production intensity. Data were collected using structured questionnaires where a total of 102 pig farmers were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed to define the socioeconomic characteristics of the production systems, understanding the different roles that pigs play, marketing systems and constraints to production. In both systems, regular cash income and insurance against emergencies were ranked as the main reasons for rearing pigs. Marketing of pigs was mainly driven by the type of production operation. Finances, feeds and housing were identified as the major constraints to production. The study provides important parameters and identifies constraints important for consideration in design of sustainable production improvement strategies. Feeding challenges can be improved through understanding the composition and proper utilization of local feed resources. Provision of adequate housing would improve the stocking rates and control mating.

  18. Middle School Teachers' Assignment of Test Accommodations (United States)

    Crawford, Lindy; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.


    Twenty middle school special education teachers from five states were interviewed in order to gain insight into their understanding of accommodation practices. Interview questions solicited information about teachers' understanding of test accommodations, the decision-making process they employed when choosing accommodations, and their reasons for…

  19. Noise coupling between accommodation and accommodative vergence (United States)

    Wilson, D.


    For monocular viewing, the fluctuations in accommodative lens power in the frequency range from 0.5 to 3 Hz were found to be considerably greater than those in accommodative vergence movements of the covered eye. Considering the close synkinesis between these motor responses for step changes or slow variations in accommodative stimulus, this finding is unexpected. This apparent lack of synkinesis is found to result mainly from the fact that the decrease in small-signal linear gain with increasing frequency is more rapid in the case of the accommodative vergence system than in the case of the accommodation system, rather than from some nonlinear phenomenon.

  20. Acquired vertical accommodative vergence. (United States)

    Klein-Scharff, Ulrike; Kommerell, Guntram; Lagrèze, Wolf A


    Vertical accommodative vergence is an unusual synkinesis in which vertical vergence is modulated together with accommodation. It results from a supranuclear miswiring of the network normally conveying accommodative convergence. So far, it is unknown whether this condition is congenital or acquired. We identified an otherwise healthy girl who gradually developed vertical accommodative vergence between five to 13 years of age. Change of accommodation by 3 diopters induced a vertical vergence of 10 degrees. This observation proves that the miswiring responsible for vertical accommodative vergence must not necessarily be congenital, but can be acquired. The cause and the mechanism leading to vertical accommodative vergence are yet unknown.

  1. The constraints of good governance practice in national solid waste management policy (NSWMP) implementation: A case study of Malaysia (United States)

    Wee, Seow Ta; Abas, Muhamad Azahar; Chen, Goh Kai; Mohamed, Sulzakimin


    Nowadays, international donors have emphasised on the adoption of good governance practices in solid waste management which include policy implementation. In Malaysia, the National Solid Waste Management Policy (NSWMP) was introduced as the main guideline for its solid waste management and the Malaysian government has adopted good governance practice in the NSMWP implementation. However, the good governance practices implemented by the Malaysian government encountered several challenges. This study was conducted to explore the good governance constraints experienced by stakeholders in the NSWMP implementation. An exploratory research approach is applied in this study through in-depth interviews with several government agencies and concessionaires that involved in the NSWMP implementation in Malaysia. A total of six respondents took part in this study. The findings revealed three main good governance constraints in the NSWMP implementation, namely inadequate fund, poor staff's competency, and ambiguity of policy implementation system. Moreover, this study also disclosed that the main constraint influenced the other constraints. Hence, it is crucial to identify the main constraint in order to minimise its impact on the other constraints.

  2. Reconciling Pairs of Concurrently Used Clinical Practice Guidelines Using Constraint Logic Programming (United States)

    Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Martin; Michalowski, Wojtek; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Farion, Ken


    This paper describes a new methodological approach to reconciling adverse and contradictory activities (called points of contention) occurring when a patient is managed according to two or more concurrently used clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The need to address these inconsistencies occurs when a patient with more than one disease, each of which is a comorbid condition, has to be managed according to different treatment regimens. We propose an automatic procedure that constructs a mathematical guideline model using the Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) methodology, uses this model to identify and mitigate encountered points of contention, and revises the considered CPGs accordingly. The proposed procedure is used as an alerting mechanism and coupled with a guideline execution engine warns the physician about potential problems with the concurrent application of two or more guidelines. We illustrate the operation of our procedure in a clinical scenario describing simultaneous use of CPGs for duodenal ulcer and transient ischemic attack. PMID:22195153

  3. Examining the practice of generalist expertise: a qualitative study identifying constraints and solutions. (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne; Dowrick, Christopher F; Freeman, George K; Gunn, Jane; Mair, Frances; May, Carl; Mercer, Stewart; Palmer, Victoria; Howe, Amanda; Irving, Greg; Shiner, Alice; Watson, Jessica


    Provision of person-centred generalist care is a core component of quality primary care systems. The World Health Organisation believes that a lack of generalist primary care is contributing to inefficiency, ineffectiveness and inequity in healthcare. In UK primary care, General Practitioners (GPs) are the largest group of practising generalists. Yet GPs fulfil multiple roles and the pressures of delivering these roles along with wider contextual changes create real challenges to generalist practice. Our study aimed to explore GP perceptions of enablers and constraints for expert generalist care, in order to identify what is needed to ensure health systems are designed to support the generalist role. Qualitative study in General Practice. UK primary care. A qualitative study - interviews, surveys and focus groups with GPs and GP trainees. Data collection and analysis was informed by Normalisation Process Theory. Qualitative study in General Practice. We conducted interviews, surveys and focus groups with GPs and GP trainees based mainly, but not exclusively, in the UK. Data collection and analysis were informed by Normalization Process Theory. UK based GPs (interview and surveys); European GP trainees (focus groups). Our findings highlight key gaps in current training and service design which may limit development and implementation of expert generalist practice (EGP). These include the lack of a consistent and universal understanding of the distinct expertise of EGP, competing priorities inhibiting the delivery of EGP, lack of the consistent development of skills in interpretive practice and a lack of resources for monitoring EGP. WE DESCRIBE FOUR AREAS FOR CHANGE: Translating EGP, Priority setting for EGP, Trusting EGP and Identifying the impact of EGP. We outline proposals for work needed in each area to help enhance the expert generalist role.

  4. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for the...

  5. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  6. Constraints in adapting animal husbandry practices by the dairy farmers in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Gangasagare

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to review the situation of dairying in Marathwada with the objectives to identify major constraints of the dairy farmers in adapting the recommended animal husbandry practices. The survey work was carried out for the milk pocket areas in eight districts of the Marathwada region. Out of 144 dairy farmers, 109 farmers cared crossbred animals; 65 out of 85 dairy farmers adapted cooling arrangement to cross-bred cows during summer; 35 of 45 adapted washing their animals during summer; 98 of 230 dairy farmers followed vaccination to their animals; 45 of 230 dairy farmers followed de-worming their animals; 37 of 230 adapted to control the ecto-parasite; 65 of 230 reacted for removal old debris; 105 of 230 dairy farmers adapted A.I. policy and only 88 of 230 dairy farmers were positive for the animals insurance. Higher proportion of the farmers has accepted the importance of crossbred cows. Higher numbers of farmers have positive response to cool their animals. Significantly more numbers of farmers did not care to vaccinate and accept other health measures for their animals. Non-significant differences between dairy farmers adapting and non-adapting A.I. practices were recorded while significant (P>0.01 difference was observed between the farmers adapting and not adapting the insurance policy. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 347-349

  7. Practical Constraint K-Segment Principal Curve Algorithms for Generating Railway GPS Digital Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewang Chen


    Full Text Available In order to obtain a decent trade-off between the low-cost, low-accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS receivers and the requirements of high-precision digital maps for modern railways, using the concept of constraint K-segment principal curves (CKPCS and the expert knowledge on railways, we propose three practical CKPCS generation algorithms with reduced computational complexity, and thereafter more suitable for engineering applications. The three algorithms are named ALLopt, MPMopt, and DCopt, in which ALLopt exploits global optimization and MPMopt and DCopt apply local optimization with different initial solutions. We compare the three practical algorithms according to their performance on average projection error, stability, and the fitness for simple and complex simulated trajectories with noise data. It is found that ALLopt only works well for simple curves and small data sets. The other two algorithms can work better for complex curves and large data sets. Moreover, MPMopt runs faster than DCopt, but DCopt can work better for some curves with cross points. The three algorithms are also applied in generating GPS digital maps for two railway GPS data sets measured in Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR. Similar results like the ones in synthetic data are obtained. Because the trajectory of a railway is relatively simple and straight, we conclude that MPMopt works best according to the comprehensive considerations on the speed of computation and the quality of generated CKPCS. MPMopt can be used to obtain some key points to represent a large amount of GPS data. Hence, it can greatly reduce the data storage requirements and increase the positioning speed for real-time digital map applications.

  8. Mitigation of adverse interactions in pairs of clinical practice guidelines using constraint logic programming. (United States)

    Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Wojtek; Michalowski, Martin; Farion, Ken; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Mohapatra, Subhra


    We propose a new method to mitigate (identify and address) adverse interactions (drug-drug or drug-disease) that occur when a patient with comorbid diseases is managed according to two concurrently applied clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). A lack of methods to facilitate the concurrent application of CPGs severely limits their use in clinical practice and the development of such methods is one of the grand challenges for clinical decision support. The proposed method responds to this challenge. We introduce and formally define logical models of CPGs and other related concepts, and develop the mitigation algorithm that operates on these concepts. In the algorithm we combine domain knowledge encoded as interaction and revision operators using the constraint logic programming (CLP) paradigm. The operators characterize adverse interactions and describe revisions to logical models required to address these interactions, while CLP allows us to efficiently solve the logical models - a solution represents a feasible therapy that may be safely applied to a patient. The mitigation algorithm accepts two CPGs and available (likely incomplete) patient information. It reports whether mitigation has been successful or not, and on success it gives a feasible therapy and points at identified interactions (if any) together with the revisions that address them. Thus, we consider the mitigation algorithm as an alerting tool to support a physician in the concurrent application of CPGs that can be implemented as a component of a clinical decision support system. We illustrate our method in the context of two clinical scenarios involving a patient with duodenal ulcer who experiences an episode of transient ischemic attack. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Disabling accommodation barriers: A study exploring how to better accommodate government employees with anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Mellifont, Damian; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Scanlan, Justin Newton


    Accommodating mental health in the workplace is challenging. Despite policy efforts to encourage the availability of mental health accommodations in the workplace, employees experiencing mental illness are missing out on accommodations that they need. To inform vocational rehabilitation professionals and managers in the public service of best practice accommodations for government employees with anxiety disorders. Thematic analysis was applied to data collected from the online Accommodating Government Employees with Anxiety Disorders Survey undertaken by 71 Australian public service employees diagnosed with at least one anxiety disorder. Our research results include theme and sub-theme representations of accommodations received, accommodations reported as missing, accommodations that study participants felt they couldn't request, along with rejected accommodations. From the study participants' accounts, three key findings supporting desirable vocational outcomes become apparent. First, that the availability of 'standard' flexible work arrangements, along with personalised accommodations, can assist persons with anxiety disorders (where needed) to reach and retain government positions. Second, the chief barriers reported to making accommodation requests revolve around fears of being stigmatised and penalised. Finally, there is a need for managerial decision-makers to remain open-minded, particularly when assessing requests for accommodations that may break from government norms.

  10. Prevalence of accommodative insufficiency and accommodative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of accommodative dysfunctions among Junior High School students in the Sunyani Municipality in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana. All the 204 students who were present in the randomly selected Junior High School on the day of the data collection participated in the study.

  11. Constraining designs for synthesis and timing analysis a practical guide to synopsys design constraints (SDC)

    CERN Document Server

    Gangadharan, Sridhar


    This book serves as a hands-on guide to timing constraints in integrated circuit design.  Readers will learn to maximize performance of their IC designs, by specifying timing requirements correctly.  Coverage includes key aspects of the design flow impacted by timing constraints, including synthesis, static timing analysis and placement and routing.  Concepts needed for specifying timing requirements are explained in detail and then applied to specific stages in the design flow, all within the context of Synopsys Design Constraints (SDC), the industry-leading format for specifying constraints.  ·         Provides a hands-on guide to synthesis and timing analysis, using Synopsys Design Constraints (SDC), the industry-leading format for specifying constraints; ·         Includes key topics of interest to a synthesis, static timing analysis or  place and route engineer; ·         Explains which constraints command to use for ease of maintenance and reuse, given several options pos...

  12. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle


    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  13. Ecological carbon sequestration via wood harvest and storage: Practical constraints and real-world possibilities (United States)

    Zeng, N.; King, A. W.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Wullschleger, S. D.


    A carbon sequestration strategy was recently proposed in which a forest is sustainably managed, and a fraction of the wood is selectively harvested and stored to prevent decomposition under anaerobic, dry or cold conditions. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, partially cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. The live trees serve as a 'carbon scrubber' or 'carbon remover' that provides continuous sequestration. The stored wood is a semi-permanent carbon sink, but also serves as a 'biomass/bioenergy reserve' that could be utilized in the future if deemed more beneficial, for instance, by contributing to supply infrastructure for biomass power generation. Based on global forest coarse wood production rate, land availability, conservation, other wood use, and other practical constraints, we estimate a carbon sequestration potential for wood harvest and storage (WHS) 1-3 GtC y-1. The implementation of such a scheme at our estimated lower value of 1 GtC y-1 would imply a doubling of the current world wood harvest rate. This can be achieved by harvesting wood at a modest harvesting intensity of 1.2 tC ha-1 y-1, over a forest area of 8 Mkm2 (800 Mha). To achieve the higher value of 3 GtC y-1, forests need to be managed this way on half of the world's forested land, or on a smaller area but with higher harvest intensity. However, any successful implementation strategy will need to balance the needs of the local community and environment. It nonethelss provides a novel new addition to a portfolio of existing forest management strategies. We propose 'carbon sequestration and biomass farms' with mixed land use for carbon, energy, agriculture, as well as conservation, provided that governance issues are properly dealt with. In another example, the forests damaged by insects, fire, storms such as in the America West could be thinned to reduce fire danger and harvested for

  14. Professional and Social Media Sites (SMSs): Motives and Positive Values of Accommodating Social Media Sites (SMSs) in Teaching Practices according to Indonesian Professional Educators: A Case Study in Two Indonesian Higher Educational Institutions (United States)

    Luke, J. Y.; Billy, Y. L.


    In millennium era, the proliferating Social Media Sites (SMSs) has not only brought increasing demands for all humans, but also creates positive values, specifically for the professional educators or lecturers in any ages. This study envisages the positive values of accommodating Social Media Sites (SMSs) in teaching practices according to the professional educators. Thirty professional educators, i.e. the lecturers, from two universities (i.e. Multimedia Nusantara University and Bina Nusantara University) has participated in this study. The data was collected from the survey by means of questionnaires, analysed using percentages, and exposed the results descriptively. The findings reflected that the positive values of accommodating Social Media Sites in teaching practices were to develop social skills and improve academic skills. However among the two values, the latter was highly influencing the professional educators because of the four reasons: enabling to do tutorial lessons, providing online discussion space with experts or guest lecturers, assisting in doing peer-review and peer-editing, and enhancing the receptive skills, the productive skills, and also the critical thinking skills of the users in SMSs, especially the professional educators or lecturers. Thus, accommodating Social Media Sites (SMSs) in teaching practices is essential for professional educators in Indonesia.

  15. Evaluation and prioritization of rice production practices and constraints under temperate climatic conditions using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir A. Mir


    Full Text Available Due to overwhelming complex and vague nature of interactions between multiple factors describing agriculture, Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM methods are widely used from farm to fork to facilitate systematic and transparent decision support, figure out multiple decision outcomes and equip decision maker with confident decision choices in order to choose best alternative. This research proposes a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP based decision support to evaluate and prioritize important factors of rice production practices and constraints under temperate climatic conditions and provides estimate of weightings, which measure relative importance of critical factors of the crop under biotic, abiotic, socio-economic and technological settings. The results envisage that flood, drought, water logging, late sali, temperature and rainfall are important constraints. However, regulating transplantation time; maintaining planting density; providing training to the educated farmers; introducing high productive varieties like Shalimar Rice-1 and Jhelum; better management of nutrients, weeds and diseases are most important opportunities to enhance rice production in the region. Therefore, the proposed system supplements farmers with precise decision information about important rice production practices, opportunities and constraints.

  16. Evaluation and prioritization of rice production practices and constraints under temperate climatic conditions using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mir, S.A.; Padma, T.


    Due to overwhelming complex and vague nature of interactions between multiple factors describing agriculture, Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods are widely used from farm to fork to facilitate systematic and transparent decision support, figure out multiple decision outcomes and equip decision maker with confident decision choices in order to choose best alternative. This research proposes a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) based decision support to evaluate and prioritize important factors of rice production practices and constraints under temperate climatic conditions and provides estimate of weightings, which measure relative importance of critical factors of the crop under biotic, abiotic, socio-economic and technological settings. The results envisage that flood, drought, water logging, late sali, temperature and rainfall are important constraints. However, regulating transplantation time; maintaining planting density; providing training to the educated farmers; introducing high productive varieties like Shalimar Rice-1 and Jhelum; better management of nutrients, weeds and diseases are most important opportunities to enhance rice production in the region. Therefore, the proposed system supplements farmers with precise decision information about important rice production practices, opportunities and constraints.

  17. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  18. Restoring natural geomorphic process to river environments influenced by practical design constraints (United States)

    Moir, H. J.


    The process restoration philosophy promotes the reinstatement of natural process (particularly the continuum of sediment transport processes) at the catchment scale. Associated with this approach is the concept that river biological communities, having evolved under natural/ un-impacted conditions, will respond positively to the reinstatement of natural physical function. The application of this 'let-the-river-do-the-work' approach is regarded as providing a sustainable alternative to traditional more 'hard engineering' approaches. However, often the reality is that full restoration of the controlling physical processes at the catchment scale is not feasible due to a variety of constraints (e.g. altered geomorphic regime, agriculture, infrastructure/ services, urban development, costs, etc.) and less ambitious objectives have to be set. Thus, under these typical constrained circumstances, can process restoration still be applied and, given the fundamental assumption of biophysical linkage, can ecology still be expected to respond positively? To elucidate these issues, we present four case studies from Scotland which represent the spectrum of process restoration application relating to almost no design constraints to very significant limitations (culvert daylighting within a housing development). We highlight that, despite significant constraints, physical river processes can (and should) always be considered in restoration design. The case studies demonstrate that natural physical processes (evidenced through indicators of sediment transport) quickly reinstate following construction; this was despite significant local constraints but reliant on physical/ geomorphic process being explicitly incorporated into to the design approach. Furthermore, evidence of associated improvements to the ecological/ habitat/ biotic condition of the restored sections of river were observed.

  19. Employment Accommodations for People with Disabilities: Does Gender Really Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen P Hartnett


    Full Text Available AbstractThe Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA requires employersto provide reasonable accommodations for any qualified individual with adisability. By examining the ongoing evaluation data from the Job AccommodationNetwork (JAN, this study seeks to investigate whether or not genderdifferences are present in the reasonable accommodation process. Open andclosed-ended data are collected using a 20-minute structured telephoneinterview of JAN customers (n= 1,247; 44% response rate. The results show veryfew differences between men’s and women’s accommodation request types, whetheror not accommodations were granted, the costs of requested accommodations, andsatisfaction with JAN. A significant difference, however, was found by genderon the effectiveness of the accommodation.  Key Words: Accommodations, Disabilities, Gender, Employment, Social Work Practice


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    essary for accurate and efficient reception of visual input, it is therefore necessary for these functions to be tested in all basic school children. Effects of accommodative dysfunctions on academic performance need to be studied. Keywords: Amplitude of Accommodation, Accommodative Insufficiency, Accommodative Infacil-.

  1. Accommodating Picky Palates (United States)

    Lum, Lydia


    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  2. Multi-objective optimization in the presence of practical constraints using non-dominated sorting hybrid cuckoo search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balasubbareddy


    Full Text Available A novel optimization algorithm is proposed to solve single and multi-objective optimization problems with generation fuel cost, emission, and total power losses as objectives. The proposed method is a hybridization of the conventional cuckoo search algorithm and arithmetic crossover operations. Thus, the non-linear, non-convex objective function can be solved under practical constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is analyzed for various cases to illustrate the effect of practical constraints on the objectives' optimization. Two and three objective multi-objective optimization problems are formulated and solved using the proposed non-dominated sorting-based hybrid cuckoo search algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method in confining the Pareto front solutions in the solution region is analyzed. The results for single and multi-objective optimization problems are physically interpreted on standard test functions as well as the IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results and also validated against existing methods.

  3. Assessment of Gastric Accommodation in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia by 99mTc-Pertechtenate Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging: Practical but not Widely Accepted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Amiriani


    Full Text Available Objective: Impaired gastric accommodation is one of the main symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to assess gastric accommodation in patients with functional dyspepsia using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging. Methods: Twenty-four patients with functional dyspepsia and 50 healthy volunteers as control group were enrolled in this study. All participants were given 5 mCi 99mTc-pertechtenate intravenously, served with a low fat meal, and underwent SPECT scanning 20 minutes after the meal. Results: Based on the scintigraphic data, gastric volumes were found to be significantly increased after food ingestion in both patient and control groups. We also found that while there was no significant difference between patient and control groups in terms of fasting gastric volumes, postprandial gastric volume was significantly lower in patients as compared to healthy individuals (p<0.05. Conclusion: Measuring gastric volume by using SPECT can be a valuable method in the detection of functional dyspepsia and in differentiation of this entity from other organic disorders.

  4. Ecotourism and Ecolodge Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Bulatović


    Full Text Available In ecotourism, as a specific form of tourism, conscientious individuals and groups participate, who by its influence on nature are trying to reduce effects produced by so called mass tourism. Ecotourism product should be developed on the contemporary tourism trends, with full respect of local specificity which represent commitment in regard to competitive destinations. Existence of receptive factors, such as facilities for accommodation, nutrition, entertainment and recreation, represent one of the basic prerequisites for the development of any ecotourism destination. Ecotourists seek accommodation which is ecologically acceptable, modest but cozy at the same time and provides unique experience in natural surroundings. In accordance with these demands protected areas all around the world offer its visitors high quality Ecolodge facilities, which are fully submerged into nature. During their construction and management strict criteria of protection of the environment are followed with optimal waste and energy management. Montenegro has enviable spacious potential for this kind of accommodation in protected areas, especially in its five national parks, so this form of accommodation has to find its place in the future development of tourism. Designing and construction of ecotourism facilities has to be strategically planned and the fact, that it is not enough just to have attractive location but also specific content it has to offer, has to be respected. Ecolodge facilities should be designed and built in accordance with traditional architecture and surrounding materials, to influence as little as possible on the environment and to use alternative energy sources. In other words, it is necessary to provide sustainability of these facilities.

  5. Husbandry, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the pastoral communities of Afar and Somali, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Tadesse


    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe husbandry practices, herd structure, owners’ trait preferences, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the two major camel rearing pastoral communities, viz. Afar and Somali, to generate baseline information that would help to plan possible breed improvement strategies and options for the different camel populations. The study sites were selected purposively while households from each of the sites randomly. Data were collected using formal questionnaires and focus group discussion. Results showed that average camel population per household was higher in Mille (28.06±2.27, Gode (27.51±2.02, and Moyale (24.07±2.13 districts. Female camel populations with age of >1 year contributes 78-83% of the total camel herd population in all the study districts. Higher number of female animals in the herd in the arid environment means providing continuous supply of milk and allows a rapid recovery of herd numbers after a disease outbreak or drought occurrence. This shows that pastoralists breeding objectives are in relation to the arid environment and female population in the herd. Most of the pastoral communities utilize a single breeding male camel per 40-50 female camels and this will affect productivity and heterogeneity of camel population. With regard to trait preference, all pastoral communities ranked milk yield as the first trait of choice, except Liben district in which adaptation trait was the primary preference. Growth trait ranked second in Mille, Gode, Liben, and Jijiga pastoral communities where as adaptation trait ranked second in Amibara and Shinille pastoral communities. The major camel production constraints were feed, diseases, and lack of water in that order and the major cause of the constraints was the recurrent drought occurred during the past 2-3 decades in the two regions. Therefore, in planning and implementation of the breeding strategies for small

  6. Constraints and Meaning-Making: Dealing with the Multifacetedness of Social Studies in Audited Teaching Practices (United States)

    Strandler, Ola


    Purpose: The backdrop of the article is the emergence of an international and politically motivated ambition that aims at standardising the purpose and outcomes of teaching practices via various forms of outcome controls. This ambition of standardisation is discussed in a Swedish context in relation to social studies teaching, which, at its core,…

  7. Constraints to adoption of improved hatchery management practices among catfish farmers in Lagos State


    Oghenetejiri DIGUN-AWETO; Ademuyiwa OLADELE


    Aquaculture has shown capacities to serve as means of livelihood, improve living standards, provide employment and generate foreign exchange in many countries. Recent investment in Nigerian aquaculture has been target towards catfish farming. However, small quantity and poor quality fish seeds are one of the problems limiting production. Consequently, Lagos State government introduced improved breeding and hatchery management practices as a package to fish hatchery operators with the aim of i...

  8. Accommodating ‘design’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpova, Yulia


    This article investigates the background of Soviet industrial design in Soviet art theory. Instead of considering design's interconnection with technology and science, or with consumption and everyday life, the author traces its conceptualisation as a new artistic phenomenon. Using archival records...... of professional discussions, polemical articles in the art press and design projects, the author looks at how industrial design was incorporated into the Soviet order of things. She concludes that accommodation of the Western model was the way to reform the system of socialism from inside, typical for the Soviet...

  9. Temporal accommodation response measured by photorefractive accommodation measurement device (United States)

    Song, Byoungsub; Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul


    Although accommodation response plays an important role in the human vision system for perception of distance, some three-dimensional (3D) displays offer depth stimuli regardless of the accommodation response. The consequence is that most observers watching 3D displays have complained about visual fatigue. The measurement of the accommodation response is therefore necessary to develop human-friendly 3D displays. However, only few studies about accommodation measurement have been reported. Most of the investigations have been focused on the measurement and analysis of monocular accommodation responses only because the accommodation response works individually in each eye. Moreover, a main eye perceives dominantly the object distance. However, the binocular accommodation response should be examined because both eyes are used to watch the 3D display in natural conditions. The ophthalmic instrument that we developed enabled to measure changes in the accommodation response of the two eyes simultaneously. Two cameras acquired separately the infrared images reflected from each eyes after the reflected beams passed through a cylindrical lens. The changes in the accommodation response could then be estimated from the changes in the astigmatism ratio of the infrared images that were acquired in real time. In this paper, we compared the accommodation responses of main eye between the monocular and the binocular conditions. The two eyes were measured one by one, with only one eye opened, during measurement for monocular condition. Then the two eyes were examined simultaneously for binocular condition. The results showed similar tendencies for main eye accommodation response in both cases.

  10. The Effects of Managers Leadership Practices on Organisational Citizenship Behaviours and Intervening Role of Organisational Justice: Sample of Accommodation Sector in Mugla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner DALGIN


    Full Text Available The focal point of this study is organisational citizenship behaviour notion that came into prominence after the study about in this subject researched by Bateman and Organ in 1983. In this study we aim to research the effect of leadership practises on organisational citizenship behaviour and how organisational justice affects the relationship between leadership practises and organisational citizenship behaviour as an intervening variable. We collected data about leadership practices and organizational justice perceptions and organizational citizenship behaviour. According to findings, most related leadership practices with organizational citizenship behaviour are enable others to act, model to way and inspire a shared vision. Finally we evaluate intervening variable role of organizational justice perceptions on relationship between leadership practices and organizational citizenship behaviour. According to findings, organizational justice has partially an intervening variable role on relationship between leadership practices and organizational citizenship behaviour. Organizational justice intensifies positive effects of leadership practices on organizational citizenship behaviour

  11. The trends of relevance about telling lung cancer diagnosis: social constraints, medical practice in several clinics. (United States)

    Doruk, Sibel; Sevinç, Can; Sever, Fidan; Itil, Oya; Akkoçlu, Atila


    The aim of this study is to assess the opinions of relatives about telling the lung cancer diagnosis to the patient and evaluate the implementation in our hospital. A survey questionnaire was designed, and applied on nurses and physicians working in oncology care units, 4th-6th grade medical students, and relatives of cancer and non-cancer patients. Totally 347 (228 males, 119 females) participants (64 physicians, 100 nurses, 61 medical students, and 122 relatives of patients) with a mean age of 28 were enrolled in the study. 62.5% of doctors, 53.2% of nurses, 59.5% of medical students and 45.9% of relatives of lung cancer patients thought that the patient should be informed about his/her cancer diagnosis. 29.5% of the physicians told their patients about their diagnosis of cancer. Gender, age, abroad experience, academic career, speciality, and period of professional experience were not determined to have any impact on physician's opinion and clinical practices. It was determined that physicians care more about patients' right to be informed than other participating groups. Generally, although physicians agree that the diagnosis of cancer should be told to the patient, their routine clinical practices do not reflect this viewpoint.

  12. ICU nurses' perceptions of potential constraints and anticipated support to practice defibrillation: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Hui, George C M; Low, Lisa P L; Lee, Iris S F


    The study examines the experience of intensive care nurses in caring for patients in cardiac arrest, and their perceptions of introducing nurse-led defibrillation. This was a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study at an intensive care unit (ICU) of an acute regional hospital in Hong Kong. Twelve registered nurses were purposefully selected for interview. Although all the participants were trained in basic life support, only 50% were trained in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), and those trained in ACLS described having limited opportunities to apply their defibrillation knowledge. Whilst participants believed that they were theoretically prepared to influence the patient's resuscitation outcomes, newly qualified nurses were reluctant to be accountable for defibrillation. In contrast, experienced nurses were more willing to perform nurse-led defibrillation. Support from management, cooperation between nurses and doctors, regular in-hospital 'real-drill' programmes, sponsorship for training, and the use of alternative defibrillation equipment should be considered to encourage nurse-led defibrillation in ICU settings. Nurse-led defibrillation is an approach of delivering prompt care to critically ill patients, and a way ahead for intensive care nursing in Hong Kong. Emphasis on a consistent policy to promote nurse-led defibrillation practice is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Practices and constraints in Bambara Groundnut’s production, marketing and consumption in the Brong Ahafo and Upper East Regions of Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berchie, J.N.; Adu-Dapaah, H.K.; Dankyi, A.A.; Plahar, W.A.; Nelson-Quartey, F.; Haleegoah, J.


    A study was undertaken to understand the practices and major constraints in bambara groundnut production, marketing and consumption in the Brong Ahafo (Transition) and Upper East (Guinea Savannah) Regions of Ghana. A total of 200 bambara producers, 33 marketers and 68 consumers were randomly chosen

  14. Teacher Trainers' and Trainees' Perceptions, Practices, and Constraints to Active Learning Methods: The Case of English Department in Bahir Dar University (United States)

    Engidaw, Berhanu


    This study is on teacher trainers and teacher trainees' perceptions and practices of active learning and the constraints to implementing them in the English Department of Bahir Dar University. A mixed study approach that involves a quantitative self administered questionnaire, a semi-structured lesson observation guide, and qualitative in depth…

  15. Economic Concerns in Optimal Power Dispatch in the Presence of a Generalized Unified Power Flow Controller under Practical Constraints (United States)

    Suresh, Chintalapudi V.; Sivanagaraju, Sirigiri; Reddy, P. Umapathi


    In power system restructuring, pricing the electrical power plays a vital role in cost allocation between suppliers and consumers. In optimal power dispatch problem, not only the cost of active power generation but also the costs of reactive power generated by the generators, shunt capacitors, transmission losses and device investment costs should be considered. In this paper, a more realistic multi-fuel total cost objective is formulated by considering all the above mentioned costs. As the characteristics of reactive power cost curve are similar to that of active power cost curve, a non-convex reactive power cost function is formulated. The formulated cost function is optimized by satisfying equality, in-equality and practical constraints and also device limits using the proposed uniform distributed two-stage particle swarm optimization. In this paper, power injection model of generalized unified power flow controller (GUPFC) including converter switching losses is presented. The proposed objective functions are optimized in the presence of UPFC and GUPFC and finally suitable device is identified for the standard IEEE-30 bus test system.

  16. Accommodative Reconstruction in Prose Recall. (United States)

    Spiro, Rand J.


    Reports an experiment which supports the predictions of the accommodative-reconstruction hypothesis that recall is not based on retrieval of stored traces of interpreted experience. It involves accommodating details of what is to be remembered to what is known at the time of recall. (PMJ)

  17. Accommodating Different Learning Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis


    of facilitating learning across this diverse group of students. The paper is based on a survey with 99 former participants of the course as respondents. The results of the survey imply that certain types of students benefit from the combination of mathematical theory and practical exercises related to basic...

  18. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca


    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...

  19. Analysis and effect of multi-fuel and practical constraints on economic load dispatch in the presence of Unified Power Flow Controller using UDTPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintalapudi V. Suresh


    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to analyze the effect of multi-fuel and practical constraints on economic load dispatch problem using a novel uniform distributed two-stage particle swarm optimization (UDTPSO algorithm without and with unified power flow controller (UPFC while satisfying equality, inequality, practical constraints such as ramp-rate and prohibited operating zone (POZ limits and device operating limits. A Novel severity function is formulated based on the transmission line overloads and bus voltage violations to identify an optimal location to install UPFC. A multi-objective optimization problem is solved for multi-fuel non-convex cost and transmission power loss objectives. Obtained results for considered standard test functions and electrical systems indicate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and can obtain efficient solution when compared to existing methods. Hence, the proposed method is a promising method and can be easily applied to optimize the power system objectives.

  20. Marketing of Accommodation Services


    Vydrová, Jana


    The objective of this Bachelor's Thesis is to point out specifics in application of marketing instruments in services, particularly in tourism. The thesis also explains which marketing approaches are most appropriate for the hotel businesses and how to be brought into practice. Theoretical findings are subsequently applied to elaborate and evaluate current marketing management of hotel Kamzik. While writing the Thesis, several methods were used -- SWOT analysis of the hotel, analysis of exter...

  1. 46 CFR 32.40-20 - Sleeping accommodations-T/ALL. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations-T/ALL. 32.40-20 Section 32.40-20... REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-20 Sleeping accommodations—T/ALL. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  2. Developments in Accommodating Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Tunç


    Full Text Available Technical progress in cataract surgery has decreased the incidence of severe complications in this type of surgery. The introduction of micro incision cataract surgery (MICS (sub- 2.0 mm incision allow the surgeon to achieve better postoperative control of astigmatism and higherorder aberration (HOAs with minimum induction of both. It is believed that multifocal lenses provide very successful results, however, there are limitations to these. Implantation of accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs is an option to treat presbyopia. The IOLs work by using the continued functionality of the ciliary muscle after cataract removal. Accommodating IOLs were designed to avoid the optical side effects of multifocal IOLs. Two main design concepts exist. First, axial shift concepts rely on anterior axial movement of one or two optics creating accommodative ability. Second, curvature change designs are designed to provide significant amplitudes of accommodation with little physical displacement. Accommodative IOLs to correct astigmatism and HOAs in the future are needed. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 288-93

  3. Accommodation training in foreign workers. (United States)

    Takada, Masumi; Miyao, Masaru; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki


    By relaxing the contracted focus-adjustment muscles around the eyeball, known as the ciliary and extraocular muscles, the degree of pseudomyopia can be reduced. This understanding has led to accommodation training in which a visual target is presented in stereoscopic video clips. However, it has been pointed out that motion sickness can be induced by viewing stereoscopic video clips. In Measurement 1 of the present study, we verified whether the new 3D technology reduced the severity of motion sickness in accordance with stabilometry. We then evaluated the short-term effects of accommodation training using new stereoscopic video clips on foreign workers (11 females) suffering from eye fatigue in Measurement 2. The foreign workers were trained for three days. As a result, visual acuity was statistically improved by continuous accommodation training, which will help promote ciliary muscle stretching.

  4. Can Partial Structures Accommodate Inconsistent Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vickers


    Full Text Available The semantic approach to scientific representation is now long established as a favourite amongst philosophers of science. One of the foremost strains of this approach—the model-theoretic approach (MTA—is to represent scientific theories as families of models, all of which satisfy or ‘make true’ a given set of constraints. However some authors (Brown 2002, Frisch 2005 have criticised the approach on the grounds that certain scientific theories are logically inconsistent, and there can be no models of an inconsistent set of constraints. Thus it would seem that the MTA fails to represent inconsistent scientific theories at all, and this raises concerns about the way it represents in general. In a series of papers (1990, 1993, 1995 and a recent book (2003 da Costa and French have developed a variant of the MTA approach which they call ‘partial structures’, and which they claim can accommodate inconsistent theories. I assess this claim, looking to two theories which have been called ‘inconsistent’: Bohr’s theory of the atom and classical electrodynamics.

  5. Accommodation Assisting Glasses for Presbyopia (United States)

    Fujita, Toyomi; Idesawa, Masanori


    We have considered the important functions for developing accommodation-assistance glasses which can assist eye focusing for aged person with presbyopia.We focused on keys to realize small and lightweight variable focusing lens and gaze distance detection. We devised new variable focusing lenses with control and gaze distance detection with a tunnel light path device. A prototype of glasses with devised elements was manufactured experimentally. From the result of trial use of them and experiments for evaluating characteristics,it was confirmed that proposed technologies were useful for realization of accommodation-assistance glasses.

  6. Unusual presentations of accommodative esotropia.


    Pollard, Z F; Greenberg, M F


    PURPOSE: Most patients with accommodative esotropia are first examined between the ages of 6 months and 2 years. This paper discusses unusual presentations of accommodative esotropia that occur outside of this age-group and/or have a precipitating event that triggered the esotropia. In a series of patients who were from 5 to 11 years of age, trauma was the precipitating event. In some of the patients under 6 months of age, high myopia, as well as a moderate to large amount of hyperopia, was t...

  7. Accommodation | Information | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Academy has made arrangements to accommodate all participants who have requested for it. Details ​of accommodation ​have been sent to ​all registered participants. Volunteers at the airport will assist the participants in reaching their respective places of accommodation. For any queries regarding accommodation ...

  8. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control (United States)

    Wilson, D.


    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  9. Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.


    The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

  10. Radon Infiltration in Rented Accommodation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn


    Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes located in 53 buildings, including 28 multi-occupant houses and 25 single-family terraced houses. The homes consisted of rented accommodation located in buildings recorded as being constructed before 2010 and after the year 1850. The radon level...

  11. Sex work and modes of self-employment in the informal economy: diverse business practices and constraints to effective working. (United States)

    Pitcher, Jane


    This article draws on research with adult sex workers in indoor settings in Great Britain to explore diverse forms of self-employment, employment relationships and small business development, set within the context of changes to the wider economy. It considers how external constraints such as the legal context, social stigma and dominant policy discourses can impact on sex workers' autonomy and actively work against their safety and wellbeing. The article argues that broad policy and legal approaches which fail to recognise the complexity of sex work constrain sex workers' opportunities for business development and improvement of their working circumstances. It suggests the need for recognition of sex work as legitimate labour, as a prerequisite for policy changes to support sex workers and pave the way for improved working conditions, not only in managed settings but also facilitating collective arrangements and independent lone working.

  12. Short-term adaptation of accommodation, accommodative vergence and disparity vergence facility. (United States)

    Maxwell, James; Tong, Jianliang; Schor, Clifton M


    Previous studies have found that subjects can increase the velocity of accommodation using visual exercises such as pencil push ups, flippers, Brock strings and the like and myriad papers have shown improvement in accommodation facility (speed) and sufficiency (amplitude) using subjective tests following vision training but few have objectively measured accommodation before and after training in either normal subjects or in patients diagnosed with accommodative infacility (abnormally slow dynamics). Accommodation is driven either directly by blur or indirectly by way of neural crosslinks from the vergence system. Until now, no study has objectively measured both accommodation and accommodative-vergence before and after vision training and the role vergence might play in modifying the speed of accommodation. In the present study, accommodation and accommodative-vergence were measured with a Purkinje Eye Tracker/optometer before and after normal subjects trained in a flipper-like task in which the stimulus stepped between 0 and 2.5 diopters and back for over 200 cycles. Most subjects increased their speed of accommodation as well as their speed of accommodative vergence. Accommodative vergence led the accommodation response by approximately 77 ms before training and 100 ms after training and the vergence lead was most prominent in subjects with high accommodation and vergence velocities and the vergence leads tended to increase in conjunction with increases in accommodation velocity. We surmise that volitional vergence may help increase accommodation velocity by way of vergence-accommodation cross links. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Family accommodation in adult obsessive–compulsive disorder: clinical perspectives (United States)

    Albert, Umberto; Baffa, Alessandra; Maina, Giuseppe


    The term accommodation has been used to refer to family responses specifically related to obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms: it encompasses behaviors such as directly participating in compulsions, assisting a relative with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) when he/she is performing a ritual, or helping him/her to avoid triggers that may precipitate obsessions and compulsions. At the opposite side, family responses to OCD may also include interfering with the rituals or actively opposing them; stopping accommodating OC symptoms or actively interfering with their performance is usually associated with greater distress and sometimes even with aggressive behaviors from the patients. This article summarizes progress of the recent research concerning family accommodation in relatives of patients with OCD. Family accommodation is a prevalent phenomenon both among parents of children/adolescents with OCD and relatives/caregivers of adult patients. It can be measured with a specific instrument, the Family Accommodation Scale, of which there are several versions available for use in clinical practice. The vast majority of both parents of children/adolescents with OCD and family members of adult patients show at least some accommodation; providing reassurances to obsessive doubts, participating in rituals and assisting the patient in avoidance are the most frequent accommodating behaviors displayed by family members. Modification of routine and modification of activities specifically due to OC symptoms have been found to be equally prevalent. Specific characteristics of patients (such as contamination/washing symptoms) and of relatives (the presence of anxiety or depressive symptoms or a family history positive for another anxiety disorder) are associated with a higher degree of family accommodation; these family members may particularly benefit from family-based cognitive–behavioral interventions. In recent years, targeting family accommodation has been suggested as

  14. The OEOP Duties of Reasonable Accommodation (United States)

    Coppedge, Angela


    I was fortunate enough to be assigned two assignments during my ten weeks here at NASA's Langley Research Center, in the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs (OEOP). One of my projects gave me the chance to gain experience in developing calculation formulas for the EXCEL computer system, while my second project gave me the chance to put my research skills and legal knowledge to use. The function of the OEOP is to ensure the adherence to personnel policy and practices in the employment, development, advancement and treatment of Federal employees and applicants for employment. This includes veterans and disabled as well. My initial project involved the research of hiring and promotion among the different minorities and females employed here at Langley. The objective of my first project was to develop graphs that showed the number of promotions during the past five years for each minority group here on the Center. I also had to show the average number of years it took for each promotion. The objective of my second and main research project was to find and research cases regarding the reasonable accommodation of disabled workers. The research of these cases is to ensure that individuals with disabilities are provided the necessary accommodations that are essential to the function of their job.

  15. Adaptability : How to accommodate changing user preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remoy, H.T.; van der Voordt, D.J.M.


    Purpose: When current accommodation is unsatisfactorily, office organisations consider relocating to new accommodation that optimally facilitate their main processes, supporting image and financial yield. However, due to high vacancy levels, public opinion and governmental awareness oppose new

  16. Impact of Information Technology, Clinical Resource Constraints, and Patient-Centered Practice Characteristics on Quality of Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongDeuk Baek


    Full Text Available Objective: Factors in the practice environment, such as health information technology (IT infrastructure, availability of other clinical resources, and financial incentives, may influence whether practices are able to successfully implement the patient-centered medical home (PCMH model and realize its benefits. This study investigates the impacts of those PCMH-related elements on primary care physicians’ perception of quality of care. Methods: A multiple logistic regression model was estimated using the 2004 to 2005 CTS Physician Survey, a national sample of salaried primary care physicians (n = 1733. Results: The patient-centered practice environment and availability of clinical resources increased physicians’ perceived quality of care. Although IT use for clinical information access did enhance physicians’ ability to provide high quality of care, a similar positive impact of IT use was not found for e-prescribing or the exchange of clinical patient information. Lack of resources was negatively associated with physician perception of quality of care. Conclusion: Since health IT is an important foundation of PCMH, patient-centered practices are more likely to have health IT in place to support care delivery. However, despite its potential to enhance delivery of primary care, simply making health IT available does not necessarily translate into physicians’ perceptions that it enhances the quality of care they provide. It is critical for health-care managers and policy makers to ensure that primary care physicians fully recognize and embrace the use of new technology to improve both the quality of care provided and the patient outcomes.

  17. Impact of Information Technology, Clinical Resource Constraints, and Patient-Centered Practice Characteristics on Quality of Care. (United States)

    Baek, JongDeuk; Seidman, Robert L


    Factors in the practice environment, such as health information technology (IT) infrastructure, availability of other clinical resources, and financial incentives, may influence whether practices are able to successfully implement the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model and realize its benefits. This study investigates the impacts of those PCMH-related elements on primary care physicians' perception of quality of care. A multiple logistic regression model was estimated using the 2004 to 2005 CTS Physician Survey, a national sample of salaried primary care physicians (n = 1733). The patient-centered practice environment and availability of clinical resources increased physicians' perceived quality of care. Although IT use for clinical information access did enhance physicians' ability to provide high quality of care, a similar positive impact of IT use was not found for e-prescribing or the exchange of clinical patient information. Lack of resources was negatively associated with physician perception of quality of care. Since health IT is an important foundation of PCMH, patient-centered practices are more likely to have health IT in place to support care delivery. However, despite its potential to enhance delivery of primary care, simply making health IT available does not necessarily translate into physicians' perceptions that it enhances the quality of care they provide. It is critical for health-care managers and policy makers to ensure that primary care physicians fully recognize and embrace the use of new technology to improve both the quality of care provided and the patient outcomes.

  18. Massification of Higher Education and Students' Accommodation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims at establishing a historical analysis of the impact of the massification of higher education and the resultant inadequate facilities on female and male students' accommodation in Tanzania. Focusing on students' accommodation, this article examines the experience of students' accommodation at the ...

  19. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A class...

  20. Understanding and Accommodating Students with Depression in the Classroom (United States)

    Crundwell, R. Marc; Killu, Kim


    Depression and mood disorders present a significant challenge in the classroom; resulting symptoms can impact memory, recall, motivation, problem solving, task completion, physical and motor skills, and social interactions. Little information is available on practical instructional accommodations and modifications for use by the classroom teacher.…

  1. Accommodating the Special Learner in Secondary General Music Classes (United States)

    VanWeelden, Kimberly


    It can be challenging to know which accommodations for special learners can be used within the various secondary general music class settings. Fortunately, there have been several recent music education and therapy articles based on special education practices that have addressed techniques for working with students with special needs in music.…

  2. Evaluating the role of behavioral factors and practical constraints in the performance of an agent-based model of farmer decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malawska, Anna Katarzyna; Topping, Christopher John


    and pesticide usage using an existing economic farm optimization model. We then gradually modified the model to include practical agronomic constraints and assumptions reflecting bounded rationality, and assessed the explanatory power of the added model components. The assessments were based on comparisons...... to the real world data and to the results of the previous model stages, and included two model versions differing with assumptions on the farmers' rationality. Thus, we assessed the sensitivity of the model to its behavioral assumptions. The results indicated that contrary to expectations, implementation......Farmer decision making models often focus on the behavioral assumptions in the representation of the decision making, applying bounded rationality theory to shift away from the generally criticized profit maximizer approach. Although complex on the behavioral side, such representations are usually...

  3. Psychophysiology of Refractive Accommodative Esotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungsoo Samuel Kim


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the psychophysiologic aspects of refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE. Methods. I prospectively recruited patients aged 3–6 years with more than 3.0 diopters of hyperopia who presented at Kim’s Eye Hospital from January 2011 to March 2013. I compared Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL which consists of internalizing factors (social withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety, and depression and externalizing factors (social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior between RAE group and control group. Results. Two out of three internalizing indexes were significantly different between groups (somatic complaints: RAE children 50.1±4.6 and controls 46.6±5.8, P=0.026; depression/anxiety: RAE children 48.8±7.9 and controls 43.9±6.8, P=0.024. Although there was no significant difference, RAE children scored slightly higher on the externalizing behavior index. In the RAE group, the far angle of esodeviation showed a moderate correlation with withdrawn behaviors. Conclusion. Hypermetropic children with high scores on the somatic complaint and depression/anxiety subscales of the CBCL could be at high risk for developing RAE. Psychosocial problems might be related to the pathogenesis of refractive accommodative esotropia.

  4. Adaptive stochastic disturbance accommodating control (United States)

    George, Jemin; Singla, Puneet; Crassidis, John L.


    This article presents a Kalman filter based adaptive disturbance accommodating stochastic control scheme for linear uncertain systems to minimise the adverse effects of both model uncertainties and external disturbances. Instead of dealing with system uncertainties and external disturbances separately, the disturbance accommodating control scheme lumps the overall effects of these errors in a to-be-determined model-error vector and then utilises a Kalman filter in the feedback loop for simultaneously estimating the system states and the model-error vector from noisy measurements. Since the model-error dynamics is unknown, the process noise covariance associated with the model-error dynamics is used to empirically tune the Kalman filter to yield accurate estimates. A rigorous stochastic stability analysis reveals a lower bound requirement on the assumed system process noise covariance to ensure the stability of the controlled system when the nominal control action on the true plant is unstable. An adaptive law is synthesised for the selection of stabilising system process noise covariance. Simulation results are presented where the proposed control scheme is implemented on a two degree-of-freedom helicopter.

  5. Practical occupational medicine in "practice"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Larsen, Anders; Schmidt, Jan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis


    In Denmark, the practice of occupational medicine tends to be carried out by specialists in occupational medicine and less so by family physicians. The provision of health service to workers is therefore limited. This constraint may also apply in other developed countries and even more in countries...... with few occupational health resources. This Editorial argues that family physicians are indeed in a position where they can make a major positive difference for their working patients and for the enterprises where they work. Without specialist knowledge in occupational medicine, the family physician......’s empiric knowledge in combination with a narrative approach to the patient permits the contribution from family medicine not only with regard to diagnosis and treatment, but also relating to actions targeted to optimize the patient’s future accommodation at work as well as to protect other similarly...

  6. Accommodation in pediatric oncology: parental experiences, preferences and unmet needs. (United States)

    Daniel, Gunar; Wakefield, Claire E; Ryan, Barbara; Fleming, Catharine Ak; Levett, Nicole; Cohn, Richard J


    For families of children diagnosed with cancer, proximity to the treatment center and staying close to immediate family members are essential for proper patient management. Accommodation services are therefore a key consideration in pediatric oncology. This descriptive study explored the accommodation used, and preferred, by parents of pediatric cancer patients at Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCH), Australia, and investigated their accommodation and practical needs. Forty-two parents from 25 families participated in individual semi-structured telephone interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded line-by-line. Coding was facilitated by data analysis software QSR NVivo v8 ( Emergent themes were numerically assessed to minimize the potential for researcher bias. Nine families (36%) lived near SCH and were able to stay at their own residence during treatment (mean distance of 15.4 km from SCH). The remaining families were categorized 'local, but requiring accommodation' (n=3 families represented by five parent interviews; mean distance of 82.22 km from SCH),'inner regional' (IR) (n=8 families, 15 parent interviews; mean distance of 396.75 km from SCH) or 'outer regional' (OR) (n=3 families, 5 interviews; mean distance of 547.4 km from SCH) according to the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) remoteness ratings. Accommodation provided for families from both IR and OR areas was mixed, with several families using multiple accommodation options during treatment, including Ronald Macdonald House (RMH), private accommodation or a rental property close to the hospital for the duration of the treatment. Six IR and one OR family utilized hotel or motel accommodation as an alternative to RMH due to unavailability of rooms. The majority of parents (37/42) preferred to stay on the hospital campus, near their child. Seven out of 11 IR and OR mothers preferred self-contained accommodation, while three out

  7. Employer benefits from making workplace accommodations. (United States)

    Solovieva, Tatiana I; Dowler, Denetta L; Walls, Richard T


    This study explored workplace disability accommodations and their benefits. The participants were employers and human resource professionals who had not used the services of the Job Accommodation Network (JAN). The companies included large businesses (more than 499 employees) and small businesses (fewer than 500 employees). The intent of this investigation was to assess the disability accommodations and benefits for the employers. The study used responses to online survey from194 employers to discuss disability-related accommodations for an employee or potential employee. The survey included 128 employers who reported having had a person with a disability who requested an accommodation. As reported by the employers, the most frequently mentioned direct benefits from implementing workplace accommodations were (a) retained a qualified employee, (b) increased worker productivity, and (c) eliminated the cost of training a new employee. The most frequently mentioned indirect benefits from accommodations were (a) improved interactions with coworkers, (b) increased overall company morale, and (c) increased overall company productivity. The most frequently reported types of implemented accommodations were buying equipment and changing work schedules. Most of the respondents estimated the direct benefits of having made an accommodation at more than $1000. The findings heighten awareness of benefits associated with making accommodations for people with disabilities in the workplace. These benefits signify value for business, coworkers, and individuals with disabilities for whom accommodations are critical for successful employment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Weighted Constraints in Fuzzy Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Kaymak (Uzay); J.M. Sousa


    textabstractMany practical optimization problems are characterized by some flexibility in the problem constraints, where this flexibility can be exploited for additional trade-off between improving the objective function and satisfying the constraints. Especially in decision making, this type of

  9. Market segmentation using perceived constraints (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen


    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  10. Work accommodations and natural supports for maintaining employment. (United States)

    Corbière, Marc; Villotti, Patrizia; Lecomte, Tania; Bond, Gary R; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot M


    Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders, even for those enrolled in supported employment programs, is typically brief. Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace, and job tenure for this population. The main objectives of this study were to develop and to validate a new measure to describe work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace and to determine which of them are significantly related to job tenure for participants enrolled in supported employment services. In total, 124 people with a severe mental disorder enrolled in supported employment programs and who obtained only one competitive employment at the 9-month follow-up answered the Work Accommodation and Natural Support Scale (WANSS). They also provided information regarding their disclosure (or non-) of mental disorders in the workplace and the length of their job tenure. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the WANSS showed 40 items distributed on 6 dimensions (e.g., Schedule flexibility). Correlation results showed that disclosure was significantly related to the number of work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace. Survival analyses indicated that one WANSS dimension was more salient in predicting job tenure: Supervisor and coworker supports. The WANSS is a valid and useful tool to assess work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace that employment specialists could use in their practice.

  11. Comparison of visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation in table tennis champions and non- players. (United States)

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Yarigholi, Mohammad R


    A table tennis player should fixate at different distances; track the objects with different speed, and in different visual environment. Their visual skills must be well developed for these capabilities. Therefore, visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation those are two criteria for visual skills have been compared in table tennis players and normal non-players. Twenty-nine young table tennis champions and 29 normal matched non-players (did not take part in any racket sports game) were evaluated. Basic visual and eye examinations were done for both of them. Normal results in basic examination were fundamental requirement for all the subjects. +/-2.00 sphere lenses for accommodation facility are used. An electrical current regulator changed the output light intensity of a conventional chart projector (Topcon). Light intensity decreased to 10 cd·m(-2) and visual acuity tested. In comparison of visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation in table tennis champions and non-players there are significant differences (p sensorial functions of expert players are well developed. That is consistent with other researchers. This result was interpreted as reflecting a better perceptual system of experts to the constraints encountered during table tennis and its use in practical settings for evaluating athletes or detecting sport talents. However some visual and perceptual training that usually used in orthoptics can be used for novice table tennis player to improve their abilities. Key PointsThat the ability of a champion depends on many sensory, motor and perceptual factors.Visual factors such as facility of accommodation and visual acuity in reduced lumination should be considered in table tennis players.Visual training may be useful for novice and also for experts.

  12. Constraints representing a meta-stable régime facilitate exploration during practice and transfer of learning in a complex multi-articular task. (United States)

    Orth, Dominic; Davids, Keith; Seifert, Ludovic


    Previous investigations have shown that inducing meta-stability in behavior can be achieved by overlapping affordances through constraint manipulation, allowing cooperative and competitive tendencies to functionally coexist. The purpose of this paper was to test a number of conditions applying these design principles on performance during skills practice and transfer. Of additional interest, was whether the existing skill level interacted with the environmental properties of the experimental tasks (varying indoor climbing routes). Two skill groups practised on three routes per session over four separate sessions. At the end of the final session, climbers undertook a transfer test. Routes, matched for difficulty, were manipulated in terms of hand-hold design. Route-1 and Route-2 were designed with holds with a single graspable edge, aligned entirely parallel or perpendicular to the ground plane respectively. Route-3 had at each hold, two graspable edges (one parallel and one perpendicular to the ground plane). Behavioral exploration at the hip and hands were largest under the metastable condition (Route-3). Skill level also interacted with route properties during practice and influenced transfer. Data suggest meta-stability induces exploratory behaviors. Less skilled individuals explore both hand and hip levels, whereas, more experienced climbers explore at the hip level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Workplace accommodations for persons with physical disabilities: evidence synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature. (United States)

    Padkapayeva, Kathy; Posen, Andrew; Yazdani, Amin; Buettgen, Alexis; Mahood, Quenby; Tompa, Emile


    To identify and synthesize research evidence on workplace accommodations used by employers to recruit, hire, retain, and promote persons with physical disabilities. A structured search of six electronic journal databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature on the topic published from January 1990 to March 2016. Articles describing or evaluating workplace disability accommodation policies and practices were given a full-text review. Topic experts were contacted to identify additional studies. Details on specific accommodations described in 117 articles were synthesized and organized into three groups comprised of a total of 12 categories. The majority of studies did not rigorously evaluate effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of the accommodations under study. This evidence synthesis provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature of value to occupational rehabilitation professionals and employers seeking guidance on workplace accommodation policies and practices for persons with physical disabilities. A wide range of accommodation options is available for addressing physical, social, and attitudinal barriers to successful employment. Besides physical/technological modifications, accommodations to enhance workplace flexibility and worker autonomy and strategies to promote workplace inclusion and integration are important. More comprehensive reporting and evaluations of the effectiveness of accommodations in research literature are needed to develop best practices for accommodating persons with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation There is a substantial peer-reviewed literature that provides insights into the barriers for persons with physical disabilities and the workplace accommodation practices to address them, though rigorous evaluations of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are uncommon. Attitudinal and social barriers stemming from stereotypes, ignorance and lack of knowledge are as important as physical barriers to employment for

  14. Is There a Downside of Job Accommodations? An Employee Perspective on Individual Change Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Kensbock


    Full Text Available By modifying the work environments, work routines, and work tasks of employees with health restrictions, organizations can effectively help them continue to perform their jobs successfully. As such, job accommodations are an effective tool to secure the continued employment of aging workers who develop disabilities across their life span. However, while accommodations tackle health-related performance problems, they might create new challenges on the part of the affected employee. Building on the organizational change and accommodations literatures, we propose a theoretical framework of negative experiences during accommodation processes and apply it to qualitative data from group interviews with 73 manufacturing workers at a German industrial company who were part of the company's job accommodation program. Although problems associated with health-related impairments were mostly solved by accommodation, affected employees with disabilities reported about interpersonal problems and conflicts similar to those that typically occur during organizational change. Lack of social support as well as poor communication and information were raised as criticisms. Furthermore, our findings indicate that discrimination, bullying, and maltreatment appear to be common during accommodation processes. To make accommodation processes more successful, we derive recommendations from the organizational change literature and apply it to the accommodation context. We also emphasize unique characteristics of the accommodation setting and translate these into practical implications.

  15. Computer-animated model of accommodation and presbyopia. (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel B


    To understand, demonstrate, and further research the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia. Private practice, Little Silver, New Jersey, USA. Experimental study. The CAMA 2.0 computer-animated model of accommodation and presbyopia was produced in collaboration with an experienced medical animator using Autodesk Maya animation software and Adobe After Effects. The computer-animated model demonstrates the configuration and synchronous movements of all accommodative elements. A new classification of the zonular apparatus based on structure and function is proposed. There are 3 divisions of zonular fibers; that is, anterior, crossing, and posterior. The crossing zonular fibers form a scaffolding to support the lens; the anterior and posterior zonular fibers work reciprocally to achieve focused vision. The model demonstrates the important support function of Weiger ligament. Dynamic movement of the ora serrata demonstrates that the forces of ciliary muscle contraction store energy for disaccommodation in the elastic choroid. The flow of aqueous and vitreous provides strong evidence for our understanding of the hydrodynamic interactions during the accommodative cycle. The interaction may result from the elastic stretch in the choroid transmitted to the vitreous rather than from vitreous pressue. The model supports the concept that presbyopia results from loss of elasticity and increasing ocular rigidity in both the lenticular and extralenticular structures. The computer-animated model demonstrates the structures of accommodation moving in synchrony and might enhance understanding of the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia. Dr. Goldberg is a consultant to Acevision, Inc., and Bausch & Lomb. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analyzing the Effect of Multi-fuel and Practical Constraints on Realistic Economic Load Dispatch using Novel Two-stage PSO (United States)

    Chintalapudi, V. S.; Sirigiri, Sivanagaraju


    In power system restructuring, pricing the electrical power plays a vital role in cost allocation between suppliers and consumers. In optimal power dispatch problem, not only the cost of active power generation but also the costs of reactive power generated by the generators should be considered to increase the effectiveness of the problem. As the characteristics of reactive power cost curve are similar to that of active power cost curve, a nonconvex reactive power cost function is formulated. In this paper, a more realistic multi-fuel total cost objective is formulated by considering active and reactive power costs of generators. The formulated cost function is optimized by satisfying equality, in-equality and practical constraints using the proposed uniform distributed two-stage particle swarm optimization. The proposed algorithm is a combination of uniform distribution of control variables (to start the iterative process with good initial value) and two-stage initialization processes (to obtain best final value in less number of iterations) can enhance the effectiveness of convergence characteristics. Obtained results for the considered standard test functions and electrical systems indicate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and can obtain efficient solution when compared to existing methods. Hence, the proposed method is a promising method and can be easily applied to optimize the power system objectives.

  17. [The role of accommodation in functional strabismus]. (United States)

    Cernea, P; Ignat, F


    The accommodative reflex unleash is produced by many stimuli, of which the most important are the lack of clarity of the retinal image and the convergence. The ciliary muscles, although innervated by vegetative fibres, behave like striated fibres. It is also discussed the role of accommodation in the appearance of functional strabismus.

  18. Accommodation Requests: Who Is Asking for What? (United States)

    Von Schrader, Sarah; Xu, Xu; Bruyère, Susanne M.


    Purpose: Workplace accommodations are central to improving employment outcomes for people with and without disabilities; this study presents national estimates comparing accommodation requests and receipt as reported by individuals with and without disabilities. Method: Estimates are developed from the May 2012 Current Population Survey Disability…

  19. Real and Pseudoaccommodation in Accommodative Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G. Pallikaris


    Full Text Available In the attempt to manage presbyopia, different intraocular lens designs have been proposed such as monofocal IOLs with monovision or multifocal IOLs. Even though the lenses mentioned offer satisfactory visual results, contemporary ophthalmology has not completely answered the presbyopic dilemma by simulating the accommodative properties of the crystalline lens itself. Accommodative IOLs were designed to fill this gap and provide satisfactory vision for all distances by restoring some degree of “pseudoaccommodation.” Pseudo accommodative capability can be linked to monofocal IOL’s as well but the results are not satisfactory enough to fully support unaided near vision. Pseudoaccommodation is a complex phenomenon that can be attributed to several static (i.e., pupil size, against-the-rule cylindrical refractive error, multifocality of the cornea and dynamic (i.e., anterior movement of the implant itself factors. Objective measurement of the accommodative capability offered by the accommodative IOLs is extremely difficult to obtain, and different methods such as autorefractometers, retinoscopy, and ultrasound imaging during accommodative effort, ray tracing, or pharmacological stimulation have been developed but the results are sometimes inconsistent. Despite the difficulties in measuring accommodation, accommodative IOLs represent the future in the attempt to successfully “cure” presbyopia.

  20. Accommodative lens refilling in rhesus monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Glasser, A; Wendt, M; Vilipuru, AS; van Kooten, TG; Norrby, S; Haitjema, HJ; Kooijman, AC

    PURPOSE. Accommodation can be restored to presbyopic human eyes by refilling the capsular bag with a soft polymer. This study was conducted to test whether accommodation, measurable as changes in optical refraction, can be restored with a newly developed refilling polymer in a rhesus monkey model. A

  1. 77 FR 38833 - Job Accommodation Network (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Job Accommodation Network AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type... operate its Job Accommodation Network (JAN), a national technical assistance center that facilitates the...

  2. Can current models of accommodation and vergence predict accommodative behavior in myopic children? (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R


    Investigations into the progression of myopia in children have long considered the role of accommodation as a cause and solution. Myopic children show high levels of accommodative adaptation, coupled with accommodative lag and high response AC/A (accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodation). This pattern differs from that predicted by current models of interaction between accommodation and vergence, where weakened reflex responses and a high AC/A would be associated with a low not high levels of accommodative adaptation. However, studies of young myopes were limited to only part of the accommodative vergence synkinesis and the reciprocal components of vergence adaptation and convergence accommodation were not studied in tandem. Accordingly, we test the hypothesis that the accommodative behavior of myopic children is not predicted by current models and whether that departure is explained by differences in the accommodative plant of the myopic child. Responses to incongruent stimuli (-2D, +2D adds, 10 prism diopter base-out prism) were investigated in 28 myopic and 25 non-myopic children aged 7-15 years. Subjects were divided into phoria groups - exo, ortho and eso based upon their near phoria. The school aged myopes showed high levels of accommodative adaptation but with reduced accommodation and high AC/A. This pattern is not explained by current adult models and could reflect a sluggish gain of the accommodative plant (ciliary muscle and lens), changes in near triad innervation or both. Further, vergence adaptation showed a predictable reciprocal relationship with the high accommodative adaptation, suggesting that departures from adult models were limited to accommodation not vergence behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Short-Term Adaptation of Accommodation, Accommodative Vergence and Disparity Vergence Facility


    Maxwell, James; Tong, Jianliang; Schor, Clifton M.


    Previous studies have found that subjects can increase the velocity of accommodation using visual exercises such as pencil push ups, flippers, Brock strings and the like and myriad papers have shown improvement in accommodation facility (speed) and sufficiency (amplitude) using subjective tests following vision training but few have objectively measured accommodation before and after training in either normal subjects or in patients diagnosed with accommodative infacility (abnormally slow dyn...

  4. Contact lenses vs spectacles in myopes: is there any difference in accommodative and binocular function? (United States)

    Jiménez, Raimundo; Martínez-Almeida, Loreto; Salas, Carlos; Ortíz, Carolina


    Theoretically, the accommodative and vergence demands are different between single-vision contact lenses and spectacle lenses. The aim of the present study was to determine whether these differences exist when these two correction methods are used in clinical practice. For this, different visual parameters that characterize the accommodative (accommodation amplitude, accommodative facility, and accommodative response) and binocular function (near and distance horizontal and vertical dissociated phorias, near and vertical associated phorias, near and distance negative and positive fusional vergence, vergence facility, near point of convergence, negative and positive relative accommodation, stimulus AC:A ratio and stereoacuity) were evaluated in a student population when their myopia was corrected with either spectacles or soft contact lenses (SCL). All parameters were measured on two separate occasions in 30 myopic habitual contact lens and spectacle wearers of mean age 19 ± 2.4 years. Some parameters such as accommodation amplitude, accommodative response, and stimulus AC:A ratio were measured using two measurement methods which are commonly used in clinical practice. Three measurements were taken for each parameter and averaged. For the comparative statistical analysis, we used the Student's t-test (p value spectacles: higher accommodative lags, higher negative relative accommodation, more esophoric near horizontal dissociated phoria, and lower negative fusional vergence in near vision. The results found in this study show a definite trend towards poorer accommodative and vergence function with the use of contact lenses in comparison to glasses. This downward trend, though not statistically significant in accommodative function (lower PRA values and less lens amplitude of accommodation) might suggest that temporal insufficiency in the accommodation process could be occurring while contact lenses are used, thereby possibly creating a lag in accommodation to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Li Sa Liow


    Full Text Available This paper starts by clarifying the role of branding orientation (BO among academic studies. It shortly introduces the development of the BO concepts. The empirical part consists of a search for and analysing of academic articles using a meta-analysis that consider BO in the accommodation industry. According to the results, significant appraisal of the branding building activities among higher star rating and luxury accommodation businesses are taking place due to the increasingly demanding guests. Thus, there is an upward pressure on small and medium accommodation businesses to survive or perform well. This paper recommends that scholars study the owners-managers, employees, and customer perspectives altogether, to better comprehend how large accommodation businesses displaying BO can generate superior performance. For the small and medium accommodation businesses, the emphasis is the owners-managers perceptions since they are the main decision-makers, and due to infancy of the small and medium enterprise (SME branding application.

  6. Consequences of Using Testing Accommodations: Student, Teacher, and Parent Perceptions of and Reactions to Testing Accommodations (United States)

    Lang, Sylvia C.; Kumke, Patrick J.; Ray, Corey E.; Cowell, Erin L.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Bolt, Daniel M.


    This study examined student, parent, and teacher perceptions of the use of testing accommodations and the relationship between student perceptions of testing accommodations and their disability status and grade level. Students with and without disabilities completed math and reading achievement tests with and without accommodations. Students,…

  7. The Bouchard-Taylor Report on Cultural and Religious Accommodation: Multiculturalism by Any Other Name?


    TREMBLAY, Luc B.


    In 2008, Gerard Bouchard and Charles Taylor released an important report as Co-Chairs of the Consultation Commission on Accommodation Practices Related to Cultural Differences. The Commission was set up by the Quebec government in response to public discontent concerning «reasonable accommodation» of religious and cultural practices. In the report, four delicate issues, among others, are examined: cultural integration, collective identity, church-state relations and the most ap...

  8. Phenomenology and clinical correlates of family accommodation in pediatric anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Storch, Eric A; Salloum, Alison; Johnco, Carly; Dane, Brittney F; Crawford, Erika A; King, Morgan A; McBride, Nicole M; Lewin, Adam B


    Despite evidence documenting high prevalence of family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, examination in other pediatric anxiety disorders is limited. Preliminary evidence suggests that family accommodation is common amongst children with anxiety disorders; however, the impact on clinical presentation and functional impairment has not been addressed. This study assessed the nature and clinical correlates of family accommodation in pediatric anxiety, as well as validating a mechanistic model. Participants included 112 anxious youth and their parents who were administered a diagnostic clinical interview and measure of anxiety severity, as well as questionnaires assessing internalizing and externalizing symptoms, family accommodation and functional impairment. Some form of accommodation was present in all families. Family accommodation was associated with increased anxiety severity and externalizing behaviors, having a diagnosis of separation anxiety, and increased functional impairment. Family accommodation partially mediated the relationship between anxiety severity and functional impairment, as well as externalizing behaviors and functional impairment. Family accommodation is common in pediatric anxiety disorders, and is associated with more severe clinical presentations and functional impairment. These findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in treatment and the need to specifically target accommodation practices during interventions to mitigate negative outcomes in anxious youth. Further studies utilizing longitudinal data are needed to validate mechanistic models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A multimedia constraint system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.A. van Hintum; G.J. Reynolds


    textabstractThe MADE constraint system provides excellent opportunities to introduce constraints in a multimedia application. Multimedia applications are not only a good place to experiment with constraint systems; constraints in a multimedia environment are almost indispensable. Due to the

  10. Teleworkers with disabilities: characteristics and accommodation use. (United States)

    Linden, Maureen; Milchus, Karen


    The prevalence of telework among people with disabilities is not as great as the general population, despite the accommodative benefits of telework. This study of employment and accommodation use patterns of people with disabilities investigates relationships between functional abilities, work location and nature, and accommodation use. Currently employed subjects with disabilities were recruited from client lists of research, technical assistance, and service provision centers, as well as through over 100 social networking venues focused on individuals with disabilities. A national, cross-sectional survey was administered electronically. Details of accommodation use for 373 individuals were compared using Chi-Square distribution analysis. Those in white-collar and knowledge-based jobs were twice as likely to telework as other worker types, and teleworkers were twice as likely to use flexible scheduling. Only 47% of teleworkers reported telework as a job accommodation. Of those, 57% were satisfied with telework and 76% reported it as important to job task completion. Increased use of flexible scheduling, particularly among those who view telework as an accommodation, suggests the primary accommodative benefit of telework is to reduce pain and fatigue-related barriers to traditional employment. Relatively low satisfaction with telework suggests that it presents other employment-related barriers.

  11. Nonverbal accommodation in health care communication. (United States)

    D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bylund, Carma L


    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within health care interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as joint convergence, followed closely by asymmetrical-patient convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by joint convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as asymmetrical-physician convergence. Differences were predominantly nonsignificant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre- and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as joint convergence or asymmetrical-physician convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender-concordant and nonconcordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in health care communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective.

  12. Accommodative performance of children with unilateral amblyopia. (United States)

    Manh, Vivian; Chen, Angela M; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A; Candy, T Rowan


    The purpose of this study was to compare the accommodative performance of the amblyopic eye of children with unilateral amblyopia to that of their nonamblyopic eye, and also to that of children without amblyopia, during both monocular and binocular viewing. Modified Nott retinoscopy was used to measure accommodative performance of 38 subjects with unilateral amblyopia and 25 subjects with typical vision from 3 to 13 years of age during monocular and binocular viewing at target distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm. The relationship between accommodative demand and interocular difference (IOD) in accommodative error was assessed in each group. The mean IOD in monocular accommodative error for amblyopic subjects across all three viewing distances was 0.49 diopters (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], ±1.12 D) in the 180° meridian and 0.54 D (95% CI, ±1.27 D) in the 90° meridian, with the amblyopic eye exhibiting greater accommodative errors on average. Interocular difference in monocular accommodative error increased significantly with increasing accommodative demand; 5%, 47%, and 58% of amblyopic subjects had monocular errors in the amblyopic eye that fell outside the upper 95% confidence limit for the better eye of control subjects at viewing distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm, respectively. When viewing monocularly, children with unilateral amblyopia had greater mean accommodative errors in their amblyopic eyes than in their nonamblyopic eyes, and when compared with control subjects. This could lead to unintended retinal image defocus during patching therapy for amblyopia. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  13. Science and payload options for animal and plant research accommodations aboard the early Space Station (United States)

    Hilchey, John D.; Arno, Roger D.; Gustan, Edith; Rudiger, C. E.


    The resources to be allocated for the development of the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) Space Station Animal and Plant Research Facility and the Growth Station Animal and Plant Vivarium and Laboratory may be limited; also, IOC accommodations for animal and plant research may be limited. An approach is presented for the development of Initial Research Capability Minilabs for animal and plant studies, which in appropriate combination and sequence can meet requirements for an evolving program of research within available accommodations and anticipated budget constraints.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur


    Full Text Available A table tennis player should fixate at different distances; track the objects with different speed, and in different visual environment. Their visual skills must be well developed for these capabilities. Therefore, visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation those are two criteria for visual skills have been compared in table tennis players and normal non-players. Twenty-nine young table tennis champions and 29 normal matched non-players (did not take part in any racket sports game were evaluated. Basic visual and eye examinations were done for both of them. Normal results in basic examination were fundamental requirement for all the subjects. +/-2.00 sphere lenses for accommodation facility are used. An electrical current regulator changed the output light intensity of a conventional chart projector (Topcon. Light intensity decreased to 10 cd·m-2 and visual acuity tested. In comparison of visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation in table tennis champions and non-players there are significant differences (p < 0.001. In the preliminary visual tests there was not any significant different in the two groups but the results in the top level table tennis player was very uniform and in every test and the standard deviation was lesser in tennis player group than non-players. These results show that motor and sensorial functions of expert players are well developed. That is consistent with other researchers. This result was interpreted as reflecting a better perceptual system of experts to the constraints encountered during table tennis and its use in practical settings for evaluating athletes or detecting sport talents. However some visual and perceptual training that usually used in orthoptics can be used for novice table tennis player to improve their abilities

  15. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations. (United States)


    ... separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... of access must be provided for each berthing arrangement where the upper berth is more than 60 inches...

  16. Layout of personnel accommodations for the SOFIA (United States)

    Daughters, David M.; Bruich, J. G.; Arceneaux, Gregory P.; Zirretta, Jason; Caton, William B.


    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Observatory is based upon a refurbished and heavily modified Boeing 747 SP aircraft. The Observatory, which provides accommodations for the Deutsches Zentrum Fur Luftund Raumfahrt 2.5 m telescope, science investigator teams, scientific instruments, mission crew and support systems. The US contractor team has removed most of the aircraft original furnishings and designed a new Layout of Personnel Accommodations (LOPA) tailored to SOFIA's needs.

  17. Exploring the Relationship Between Students with Accommodations and Instructor Self-Efficacy in Complying with Accommodations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Wright


    Full Text Available The willingness and flexibility of university instructors to comply with and provide accommodations for students with disabilities is critical to academic success. The authors examine how communication between students needing accommodations and university instructors impacts instructor self-efficacy, or instructors’ perception that they can meet the accommodation. Specifically, the authors’ explored the relationship between student self-disclosure of a disability and instructor empathy, flexibility, and self-efficacy in meeting student accommodation needs. Results revealed that the more a student self-discloses about a needed accommodation, the more self-efficacy an instructor has in making that accommodation. For the low-disclosure condition, empathy and flexibility were both significant predictors of self-efficacy, whereas, for the high-disclosure condition, only flexibility was a significant predictor of self-efficacy. Finally, instructors’ levels of empathy and flexibility both decreased after reading both the high and low self-disclosure scenarios.

  18. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace (United States)

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.


    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  19. Supervisors' perceptions of organizational policies are associated with their likelihood to accommodate back-injured workers. (United States)

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Shaw, William S; Loisel, Patrick; Reguly, Paula; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Soklaridis, Sophie


    Background Low back pain (LBP) is a major concern among North American workplaces and little is known regarding a supervisor's decision to support job accommodation for workers with LBP. The extent to which supervisors are included in a company's effort to institute disability management policies and practices and workplace safety climate are two factors that may influence a supervisor's decision to accommodate workers with LBP. Objective Determine the association between supervisors' perceptions of disability management policies, corporate safety culture and their likelihood of supporting job accommodations for workers with LBP. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of supervisors (N=796) recruited from a non-random, convenience sample of 19 Canadian and US employers. The outcome was supervisors' likeliness to support job accommodation and the exposure was global work safety culture and disability management policies and practices. A multivariable generalized linear modelling strategy was used and final models for each exposure were obtained after assessing potential effect modifiers and confounders. Results In the study, 796 eligible supervisors from 19 employers participated. Disability management policies and practices were positively associated with supervisors' likeliness to accommodate (β=0.19; 95% CI: 0.13; 0.24) while no significant association was found between corporate safety culture (β= -0.084; 95% CI: -0.19; 0.027) and supervisors' likeliness to accommodate. Conclusions Employers should ensure that proactive disability management policies and practices are clearly communicated to supervisors in order to improve job modification and return to work efforts. Implications for Rehabilitation Low back pain (LBP) is a major workplace concern and little is known regarding what factors are associated with a supervisor's likelihood to support job accommodation for workers with LBP. The objective of this article was to determine the association

  20. Psychometric properties of the Family Accommodation Scale for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-Patient Version. (United States)

    Wu, Monica S; Pinto, Anthony; Horng, Betty; Phares, Vicky; McGuire, Joseph F; Dedrick, Robert F; Van Noppen, Barbara; Calvocoressi, Lisa; Storch, Eric A


    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), family accommodation is a frequently occurring phenomenon that has been linked to attenuated treatment response, increased obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, and lower levels of functioning. No patient-report version of family accommodation exists, with available measures relying on relatives as informants. However, adult patients with OCD often present to clinical services alone, frequently making it impractical to obtain information from these informants. Consequently, a standardized patient-reported measure of family accommodation proves salient in clinical practice. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Family Accommodation Scale for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-Patient Version (FAS-PV). Sixty-one adults with OCD were administered clinician-rated measures of OCD symptom severity and self-report questionnaires examining functional impairment, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral difficulties. Fifty-four relatives completed self-report measures assessing family accommodation and family functioning. The majority of the adult OCD participants (89%) endorsed at least 1 type of accommodating behavior in the previous week. The FAS-PV total score demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was evidenced by strong associations with scores on another measure of family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, OCD-related family functioning, anxiety, and functional impairment. Divergent validity was supported through nonsignificant correlations with depressive symptoms and impulsivity. The FAS-PV did not significantly differ from the relative-reported measure of family accommodation in terms of the internal consistency or mean of the total scores. Ultimately, the FAS-PV scores demonstrated sound psychometric properties and validity in assessing family accommodation from the patient's perspective, encouraging its use in research and clinical practice. (c

  1. Accommodations Use for Statewide Standardized Assessments: Prevalence and Recommendations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W.


    The "Second Annual National Survey on Assessments and Accommodations for Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing" investigated the types of testing accommodations used on 2004-2005 statewide standardized assessments as well as recommendations for best practices. A total of 444 participants who served over 9,000 students as teachers,…

  2. Exploring the Relationship Between Students Needing Accommodations and Instructor Self-Efficacy in Complying with Accommodations (United States)

    Wright, Anna M.; Meyer, Kevin R.


    The willingness and flexibility of university instructors to comply with and provide accommodations for students with disabilities is critical to academic success. The authors examine how communication between students needing accommodations and university instructors impacts instructor self-efficacy, or instructors' perception that they can meet…

  3. Soft Concurrent Constraint Programming


    Bistarelli, S.; Montanari, U.; Rossi, F.


    Soft constraints extend classical constraints to represent multiple consistency levels, and thus provide a way to express preferences, fuzziness, and uncertainty. While there are many soft constraint solving formalisms, even distributed ones, by now there seems to be no concurrent programming framework where soft constraints can be handled. In this paper we show how the classical concurrent constraint (cc) programming framework can work with soft constraints, and we also propose an extension ...

  4. [Monochromatic aberration in accommodation. Dynamic wavefront analysis]. (United States)

    Fritzsch, M; Dawczynski, J; Jurkutat, S; Vollandt, R; Strobel, J


    Monochromatic aberrations may influence the visual acuity of the eye. They are not stable and can be affected by different factors. The subject of the following paper is the dynamic investigation of the changes in wavefront aberration with accommodation. Dynamic measurement of higher and lower order aberrations was performed with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) and a specially constructed target device for aligning objects in far and near distances on 25 subjects aged from 15 to 27 years old. Wavefront aberrations showed some significant changes in accommodation. In addition to the characteristic sphere reaction accompanying miosis and changes in horizontal prism (Z(1) (1)) in the sense of a convergence movement of the eyeball also occurred. Furthermore defocus rose (Z(2) (0)) and astigmatism (Z(2) (-2)) changed. In higher-order aberrations a decrease in coma-like Zernike polynomials (Z(3) (-1), Z(3) (1)) was found. The most obvious change appeared in spherical aberration (Z(4) (0)) which increased and changed from positive to negative. In addition the secondary astigmatism (Z(4) (-2)) and quadrafoil (Z(4) (4)) rise also increased. The total root mean square (RMS), as well as the higher-order aberrations (RMS-HO) significantly increased in accommodation which is associated with a theoretical reduction of visual acuity. An analysis of the influence of pupil size on aberrations showed significant increases in defocus, spherical aberration, quadrafoil, RMS and RMS HO by increasing pupil diameter. By accommodation-associated miosis, the growing aberrations are partially compensated by focusing on near objects. Temporal analysis of the accommodation process with dynamic wavefront analysis revealed significant delays in pupil response and changing of prism in relation to the sphere reaction. In accommodation to near objects a discrete time ahead of third order aberrations in relation to the sphere response was found. Using dynamic wavefront measurement

  5. Changes in dynamics of accommodation after accommodative facility training in myopes and emmetropes. (United States)

    Allen, Peter M; Charman, W Neil; Radhakrishnan, Hema


    This study evaluates the effect of accommodative facility training in myopes and emmetropes. Monocular accommodative facility was measured in nine myopes and nine emmetropes for distance and near. Subjective facility was recorded with automated flippers and objective measurements were simultaneously taken with a PowerRefractor. Accommodative facility training (a sequence of 5 min monocular right eye, 5 min monocular left eye, 5 min binocular) was given on three consecutive days and facility was re-assessed on the fifth day. The results showed that training improved the facility rate in both groups. The improvement in facility rates were linked to the time constants and peak velocity of accommodation. Some changes in amplitude seen in emmetropes indicate an improvement in facility rate at the expense of an accurate accommodation response. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Mukminatien


    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accomodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner’s linguistic needs for international communication. It would help ELT practitioners adjust their current practices through the inclusion of varieties of WEs in developing learners’ oral communication. This offers relevant pedagogical movement to argue that changes should be made about the way English is valued and taught.

  7. Quantifying interactions between accommodation and vergence in a binocularly normal population. (United States)

    Sweeney, Laura E; Seidel, Dirk; Day, Mhairi; Gray, Lyle S


    Stimulation of the accommodation system results in a response in the vergence system via accommodative vergence cross-link interactions, and stimulation of the vergence system results in an accommodation response via vergence accommodation cross-link interactions. Cross-link interactions are necessary in order to ensure simultaneous responses in the accommodation and vergence systems. The crosslink interactions are represented most comprehensively by the response AC/A (accommodative vergence) and CA/C (vergence accommodation) ratios, although the stimulus AC/A ratio is measured clinically, and the stimulus CA/C ratio is seldom measured in clinical practice. The present study aims to quantify both stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios in a binocularly normal population, and determine the relationship between them. 25 Subjects (mean ± SD age 21.0 ± 1.9 years) were recruited from the university population. A significant linear relationship was found between the stimulus and response ratios, for both AC/A (r² = 0.96, p vergence responses when viewing the Gaussian blurred target. This study has shown that more work is needed to refine the methodology of CA/C ratio measurement.

  8. Family accommodation mediates the association between anxiety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family accommodation mediates the association between anxiety symptoms in mothers and children. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... may improve the prognosis of those diagnosed with paediatric anxiety disorders and youth with subclinical anxiety symptoms by reducing both parent and child anxiety.

  9. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations. (United States)


    ... HOUSING DISCRIMINATORY CONDUCT UNDER THE FAIR HOUSING ACT Prohibition Against Discrimination Because of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204 Section 100.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE...

  10. 28 CFR 42.511 - Reasonable accommodation. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 42.511 Section 42.511 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY... cost in making allowance for the handicap of a qualified applicant or employee and to accept minor...

  11. Accommodation | Information | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accommodation. All participants are requested to fill up/update their Arrival and Departure details in the annual meeting link using the login credentials provided to you by email. This will help us in the local logistics/hospitality arrangements. There will be pick-up arrangements from Guwahati Airport/ Railway station to ...

  12. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts. (United States)

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward


    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by asserting the content as new information; or (b) by presupposing the content as given information which would then have to be accommodated. This distinction predicts that it is conversationally more appropriate to assert implausible information rather than presuppose it (e.g., von Fintel, 2008; Heim, 1992; Stalnaker, 2002). A second view rejects the assumption that presuppositions are accommodated; instead, presuppositions are assimilated into asserted content and both are correspondingly open to challenge (e.g., Gazdar, 1979; van der Sandt, 1992). Under this view, we should not expect to find a difference in conversational appropriateness between asserting implausible information and presupposing it. To distinguish between these two views of linguistic information, we performed two self-paced reading experiments with an on-line stops-making-sense judgment. The results of the two experiments-using the presupposition triggers the and too-show that accommodation is inappropriate (makes less sense) relative to non-presuppositional controls when the presupposed information is implausible but not when it is plausible. These results provide support for the first view of linguistic information: the contrast in implausible contexts can only be explained if there is a presupposition-assertion distinction and accommodation is a mechanism dedicated to reasoning about presuppositions. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. New concepts in accommodation and presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson dos Santos-Neto


    Full Text Available The authors conducted a review of classical and conflicting theories of accommodation and presbyopia. They make a critical comparison with the findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that have been developed in recent decades. Based on these studies, formulates a new approach on the subject, shifting the focus of the discussion of the lens to the posterior pole of the eye.

  14. Robot response behaviors to accommodate hearing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, Jered Hendrik; Kim, Jaebok; Koster, Raphaël


    One requirement that arises for a social (semi-autonomous telepresence) robot aimed at conversations with the elderly, is to accommodate hearing problems. In this paper we compare two approaches to this requirement; (1) moving closer, mimicking the leaning behavior commonly observed in elderly with

  15. Position Papers for the First Workshop on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming Held in Newport, Rhode Island on April 28-30, 1993 (United States)


    MemberDeclOrdering{ Class C; Member C::pub I publicO ); Member C::prot I; Member C::priv I; PublicleforeProtected... transportation scheduling application motivated our constraint propagation work (8]. We used KIDS semiautomatically to derive a global search...that the program does not backtrack on the data we have tried. For example, on a transportation problem involving 15,460 movement requirements

  16. Grading and price in the accommodation sector of South Africa


    Saayman, Melville; 10811281 - Du Plessis, Engelina


    Abstract: Grading and price in the accommodation sector of South Africa This article analyses the relationship between grading and price in the accommodation sector in South Africa. The literature review investigates whether the accommodation grading system is a good indicator of accommodation quality, and whether tourists get what they are paying for. The research was conducted in cooperation with the major role players in the accommodation sector in South Africa, namely the South Africa...

  17. Stochastic Constraint Programming


    Walsh, Toby


    To model combinatorial decision problems involving uncertainty and probability, we introduce stochastic constraint programming. Stochastic constraint programs contain both decision variables (which we can set) and stochastic variables (which follow a probability distribution). They combine together the best features of traditional constraint satisfaction, stochastic integer programming, and stochastic satisfiability. We give a semantics for stochastic constraint programs, and propose a number...

  18. Constraint and flow: Poiseuille shear response of a surfactant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    flow responses of L3 phases as well as their accommodation to the constraint of a prox- imate surface – in both these situations over appropriate ranges the higher symmetry of the stacked membrane phases is established. These phases exhibit a strong dynamical scaling due to their entropic stabilization by hydrodynamic ...

  19. Comparing Autorefractors for Measurement of Accommodation. (United States)

    Aldaba, Mikel; Gómez-López, Selena; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Pujol, Jaume; Arjona, Montserrat


    To compare the static and dynamic accommodative responses measured with the WAM-5500 and the PowerRef-II autorefractors. The dynamic and static monocular accommodative responses were measured with the WAM-5500 and the PowerRef-II instruments in 30 pre-presbyopic patients (23.66 [±3.19] years). The spherical equivalent was measured at 0.00, 2.50, and 5.00 diopters (D) of accommodative stimulation for the static measurements. The subjective refraction was also determined. Dynamic accommodation was measured for abrupt changes of stimulus vergence of 2.00 D. Mean and peak velocities of accommodation and disaccommodation were evaluated. For the PowerRef-II, dynamic measurements were calculated for sampling frequencies of 5 and 25 Hz. For far distance static results, the differences between subjective and WAM-5500 measurements were 0.07 (±0.21) D (p = 0.093) and those between subjective and PowerRef-II measurements were 0.70 (±0.47) D (p = 0.001). The difference in the response measured with both instruments was 0.08 (±0.32) D (p = 0.194) for 2.50 D and -0.32 (±0.48) D (p = 0.001) for 5.00 D of stimulation. For the dynamic mode, the PowerRef-II at 25 Hz measured faster mean and peak velocities of accommodation and disaccommodation than the WAM-5500, with statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences of 0.68 (±1.01), 0.67 (±0.98), 1.26 (±1.19), and 1.42 (±1.53) D/s, respectively. With a sampling frequency of 5 Hz for the PowerRef-II, these differences, which were statistically significant (p < 0.05), were reduced to 0.52 (±0.90), 0.49 (±0.91), 0.83 (±1.07), and 0.83 (±1.31) D/s, respectively. There is good agreement between subjective refraction and WAM-5500 measurements. In contrast, the PowerRef-II produced more hyperopic results. There were no differences among instruments at 2.50 D of static stimulation; however, differences were found at 5.00 D. In the dynamic measurements, the PowerRef-II measured faster velocities, partly attributed to the

  20. Cultural Diversity and Reasonable Accommodation. An Approach based on Freedom as Non-domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Wences


    Full Text Available One of the challenges that culturally diverse societies now face is that of learning to live with differences. Harmonization practices such as concerted adjustment and reasonable accommodation are some of the mechanisms proposed by cultural diversity management policies to deal with this contemporary situation. In the case of reasonable accommodation, this practice can be justified not only because it is based on a recognition of equality in difference, but also on a belief in freedom as a form of non domination, given the inequality present in power relations.

  1. Toward an automaton Constraint for Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He


    Full Text Available We explore the idea of using finite automata to implement new constraints for local search (this is already a successful technique in constraint-based global search. We show how it is possible to maintain incrementally the violations of a constraint and its decision variables from an automaton that describes a ground checker for that constraint. We establish the practicality of our approach idea on real-life personnel rostering problems, and show that it is competitive with the approach of [Pralong, 2007].

  2. Insight into Vergence-Accommodation Mismatch. (United States)

    Banks, Martin S; Kim, Joohwan; Shibata, Takashi


    Prolonged use of conventional stereo displays causes viewer discomfort and fatigue because of the vergence-accommodation conflict. We used a novel volumetric display to examine how viewing distance, the sign of the vergence-accommodation conflict, and the temporal properties of the conflict affect discomfort and fatigue. In the first experiment, we presented a fixed conflict at short, medium, and long viewing distances. We compared subjects' symptoms in that condition and one in which there was no conflict. We observed more discomfort and fatigue with a given vergence-accommodation conflict at the longer distances. The second experiment compared symptoms when the conflict had one sign compared to when it had the opposite sign at short, medium, and long distances. We observed greater symptoms with uncrossed disparities at long distances and with crossed disparities at short distances. The third experiment compared symptoms when the conflict changed rapidly as opposed to slowly. We observed more serious symptoms when the conflict changed rapidly. These findings help define comfortable viewing conditions for stereo displays.

  3. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations. (United States)

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M


    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Ovechkin


    Full Text Available Increased load on the visual analyzer of an operator, increase in everyday visual performance, universal introduction of information displaying on cathode-ray tubes result in temporary and stable visual disturbances. Accommodative refractive apparatus of an eye is one of the key points of application of visually intensive labor. Work associated with permanent eyestrain overloads oculomotor and accommodative apparatus thus provoking myopic shift, increase in dynamic refraction, exophoric or esophoric shift of initial visual equilibrium. Accommodation disorders are accompanied by changes in ciliary muscle blood supply, abnormalities of vegetative segment regulation, parasympathetic brain vascular dystonia due to the decreased tonus of sympathetic nervous system. Evaluation of certain kind of activity in terms of ergonomics includes examination of visual status and visual working capacity, development of visual professiograms and vision standards for certain professions, justification of methods and tools of visual work optimization. Visual disturbances in operators developing in the course of visually intensive occupational work should be considered from the viewpoint of traditional accommodation and refraction disorders as well as functional manifestations of general fatigue or thoracic cervical spine dysfunction. Symptoms of accommodative asthenopia can be regarded as a functional manifestation of general fatigue syndrome or functional neurosis. Development of multidisciplinary approach to the correction of accommodation refraction disorders in visually intensive labor persons is of scientific urgency and practical reasonability. There is a long-felt need in additional attraction of different specialists who use in their work physical factors for accommodative asthenopia correction. Development of multidisciplinary approach to accommodation refraction disorder correction in visually intensive labor persons is based on syndromic pathogenic

  5. The Soft Cumulative Constraint


    Petit, Thierry; Poder, Emmanuel


    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  6. Composing constraint solvers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Zoeteweij (Peter)


    htmlabstractComposing constraint solvers based on tree search and constraint propagation through generic iteration leads to efficient and flexible constraint solvers. This was demonstrated using OpenSolver, an abstract branch-and-propagate tree search engine that supports a wide range of relevant

  7. Advanced processing architectures that accommodate autonomy (United States)

    Daley, Philip C.


    This paper surveys past architectures accommodating autonomy and projects future directions in these architectures. In recent years research toward autonomous systems has been stimulated by Space Station Freedom, SDI, and DARPA's Strategic Computing Initiative. More recently, the Mars Rover studies and the Human Exploration Initiative are driving the needs for onboard computer systems which provide either autonomous or supervised autonomous operations. While early work focussed on defining functional requirements for such systems and the development of algorithms for each functional element, current research focuses on integrated sensori-motor control and techniques to assure that the processing architectures to execute these onboard functions will respect well-defined volume, weight, and power budgets. The success of programs which demonstrate autonomous systems such as the Martin Marietta Autonomous Land Vehicle, as well as large scale laboratory demonstrations of supervised autonomy, show this can be done. Integration requires many disciplines to be jointly considered: vision, planning, control, computer systems, and platform management. The system engineering discipline to balance the design imperatives of each within a well- engineered solution must advance as well. One of the intriguing aspects of this problem is that the approach and resulting architecture must accommodate changes to the mission and associated key mission timing parameters. Therefore, the ease of evolving both the architecture and mission contribute design imperatives of their own. This paper discusses processing architectures for autonomy and lessons learned in our past work, the impact of emerging techniques such as neural networks, and our recent work to exploit custom hardware to accommodate the increased number and complexity of onboard functions required for autonomous platforms while respecting stringent volume, weight, and power considerations.

  8. Skylab Workshop experience in experiment accommodation (United States)

    Hanlon, W. H.; Hassel, R. R.


    This paper examines the experiment support facilities available from the Orbital Workshop (OWS) module of the Skylab. Experiments and associated support provisions have been selected and described to illustrate the various accommodations and degree of complexities involved in the integration of these experiments into the Workshop. The interfaces described start with the simple and proceed to the complex. On the basis of the experience gained in integrating the experiments into the Workshop, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made on ways to facilitate future experiment operations and at the same time simplify and reduce the cost of integration efforts.

  9. Reminder : Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees

    CERN Multimedia


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel : 72862 / 74474

  10. Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees

    CERN Multimedia


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel: 72862 / 74474

  11. Math Learning Model That Accommodates Cognitive Style to Build Problem-Solving Skills (United States)

    Warli; Fadiana, Mu'jizatin


    The purpose of this research is to develop mathematical learning models that accommodate the cognitive styles reflective vs. impulsive students to build problem-solving skills, quality (valid, practical, and effective). To achieve the target would do research development (development research) and method development that consists of five stages,…

  12. Low energy constraints and scalar leptoquarks⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajfer Svjetlana


    Full Text Available The presence of a colored weak doublet scalar state with mass below 1 TeV can provide an explanation of the observed branching ratios in B → D(∗τντ decays. Constraints coming from Z → bb̄, muon g − 2, lepton flavor violating decays are derived. The colored scalar is accommodated within 45 representation of SU(5 group of unification. We show that presence of color scalar can improve mass relations in the up-type quark sector mass. Impact of the colored scalar embedding in 45-dimensional representation of SU(5 on low-energy phenomenology is also presented.

  13. Accommodating Mobile Learning in College Programs (United States)

    Alden, Jay


    Mobile devices and applications are expected to have a significant impact on teaching and learning in the near future. Yet colleges and universities are currently facing severe budget constraints and discretionary funding is restricted for new initiatives. The question addressed in this paper is: "What strategy should an institution of higher…

  14. Multi-Objective Transmission Network Planning with Consideration of Power Grid Vulnerability and Wind Power Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-guang Tian


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient approach for transmission network expansion planning. Three indicators are proposed to evaluate the planning, which is the power grid vulnerability, wind power accommodation and operation cost. Vulnerability is evaluated based on the complex network theory, and wind power accommodation analysis is performed by the rate of abandoned wind power. The optimization of transmission network expansion planning is translated into constraints multi-objective optimization problem. A novel QS-MOWE algorithm based on the improvement quick sort and NSGA-II algorithm has been proposed. The method can be used effectively to study the effect of increasing wind power integration and vulnerability with high wind generation uncertainties. The model and algorithms are applied to calculate a case of 6 units. The results show that the proposed modeling method can provide a useful guidance for planning problems.

  15. Modelling Hermetic Compressors Using Different Constraint Equations to Accommodate Multibody Dynamics and Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar


    elements are supported by fluid film bearings, where the hydrodynamic interaction forces are described by the Reynolds equation. The system of nonlinear equations is numerically solved for three different restrictive conditions of the motion of the crank, where the third case takes into account lateral...

  16. Development of a Smooth Trajectory Maneuver Method to Accommodate the Ares I Flight Control Constraints (United States)

    Pinson, Robin M.; Schmitt, Terri L.; Hanson, John M.


    Six degree-of-freedom (DOF) launch vehicle trajectories are designed to follow an optimized 3-DOF reference trajectory. A vehicle has a finite amount of control power that it can allocate to performing maneuvers. Therefore, the 3-DOF trajectory must be designed to refrain from using 100% of the allowable control capability to perform maneuvers, saving control power for handling off-nominal conditions, wind gusts and other perturbations. During the Ares I trajectory analysis, two maneuvers were found to be hard for the control system to implement; a roll maneuver prior to the gravity turn and an angle of attack maneuver immediately after the J-2X engine start-up. It was decided to develop an approach for creating smooth maneuvers in the optimized reference trajectories that accounts for the thrust available from the engines. A feature of this method is that no additional angular velocity in the direction of the maneuver has been added to the vehicle after the maneuver completion. This paper discusses the equations behind these new maneuvers and their implementation into the Ares I trajectory design cycle. Also discussed is a possible extension to adjusting closed-loop guidance.

  17. Physicians' responses to resource constraints. (United States)

    Hurst, Samia A; Hull, Sara Chandros; DuVal, Gordon; Danis, Marion


    A common dilemma that confronts physicians in clinical practice is the allocation of scarce resources. Yet the strategies used by physicians in actual situations of resource constraint have not been studied. This study explores the strategies and rationales reported by physicians in situations of resource constraints encountered in practice. A national survey of US internists, oncologists, and intensive care specialists was performed by computer-assisted telephone interviews. As part of this survey, we asked physicians to tell us about a recent ethical dilemma encountered in practice. A subset of respondents reported difficulties regarding resource allocation. Transcripts of open-ended responses were coded for content based on consensus. Of the 600 physicians originally identified, 537 were eligible and 344 participated (response rate, 64%). Internists do not make allocation decisions alone but rather engage in negotiation in their resolution. Furthermore, these decisions are not made as dichotomous choices. Rather they often involve alternative solutions in the face of complexities of both the health care system and situations where limited resources must be allocated. Justice is not commonly the justification for rationing. Physicians' experiences in situations of resource constraints appear to be more complex than the normative literature on health care rationing assumes. In addition, reasoning about justice in health care seems to play only a small part in clinical decision making. Bridging this gap could be an important step in fostering fair allocation of resources in difficult cases.

  18. MEM and Nott dynamic retinoscopy in patients with disorders of vergence and accommodation. (United States)

    García, Angel; Cacho, Pilar


    The accommodative response in 34 patients with accommodative and binocular disorders was assessed with two different techniques of dynamic retinoscopy used in clinical practice: monocular estimate method (MEM) and Nott retinoscopy. The data obtained by both techniques were compared, evaluating the correlation and agreement between them. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between the techniques with MEM values being more plus than Nott ones. There was a high correlation between the two techniques (0.90) and the regression analysis indicated that a linear relationship existed between MEM and Nott dynamic retinoscopy, so that accommodative lag value for Nott dynamic retinoscopy would be calculated by dividing the MEM result by 2. However, although both retinoscopies were related, there was a lack of agreement between them (+/-0.53 D) indicating that the two methods are not interchangeable for clinical purposes.

  19. Evidence of nicotine replacement's effectiveness dissolves when meta-regression accommodates multiple sources of bias. (United States)

    Stanley, T D; Massey, Shelby


    To accommodate and correct identifiable bias and risks of bias among clinical trials of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Meta-regression analysis of a published Cochrane Collaboration systematic review of 122 placebo-controlled clinical trials. Both identified risks of bias and potential publication (or reporting or small sample) bias are associated with an increase in the reported effectiveness of NRT. Whenever multiple sources of biases are accommodated by meta-regression, no evidence of a practically notable or statistically significant overall increased rate of smoking cessation remains. Our findings are in stark contrast with the 50% to 70% increase in smoking cessation reported by the Cochrane Collaboration systematic review. After more than 100 randomized clinical trials have been conducted, the overall effectiveness of NRT is in doubt. Simple, well-established meta-regression methods can test, accommodate, and correct multiple sources biases, often mentioned but dismissed by conventional systematic reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques (United States)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  1. Research on Power System Scheduling Improving Wind Power Accommodation Considering Thermal Energy Storage and Flexible Load (United States)

    Zou, Chenlu; Cui, Xue; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yang


    In the case of rapid development of wind power and heavy wind curtailment, the study of wind power accommodation of combined heat and power system has become the focus of attention. A two-stage scheduling model contains of wind power, thermal energy storage, CHP unit and flexible load were constructed. This model with the objective function of minimizing wind curtailment and the operation cost of units while taking into account of the total coal consumption of units, constraint of thermal energy storage and electricity-heat characteristic of CHP. This paper uses MICA to solve the problem of too many constraints and make the solution more feasible. A numerical example showed that the two stage decision scheduling model can consume more wind power, and it could provide a reference for combined heat and power system short-term operation

  2. Considerations for Providing Test Translation Accommodations to English Language Learners on Common Core Standards-Based Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-14-05 (United States)

    Turkan, Sultan; Oliveri, Maria Elena


    In this article, we review translation, adaptation policies, and practices in providing test accommodation for English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. We collected documents and conducted interviews with officials in the 12 states that provide translation accommodations to ELLs on content assessments. We then summarized challenges…

  3. Global propagation of side constraints for solving over-constrained problems


    Petit, Thierry; Poder, Emmanuel


    International audience; This article deals with the resolution of over-constrained problems using constraint programming, which often imposes to add to the constraint network new side constraints. These side constraints control how the initial constraints of the model should be satisfied or violated, to obtain solutions that have a practical interest. They are specific to each application. In our experiments, we show the superiority of a framework where side constraints are encoded by global ...

  4. Medial Rectus Bridge Faden Operations in Accommodative and Partially Accommodative Esotropia With Convergence Excess. (United States)

    Inal, Asli; Ocak, Osman Bulut; Aygit, Ebru Demet; Celik, Selcen; Ozturk Karabulut, Gamze; Inal, Berkay; Taskapili, Muhittin; Gokyigit, Birsen


    To evaluate the results of the bilateral bridge Faden operation on the medial rectus muscles with and without recession in the treatment of accommodative and partially accommodative esotropia with convergence excess. A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical records of 103 patients who underwent the bridge Faden operation on both medial rectus muscles, with or without recession, for the treatment of accommodative and partially accommodative esotropia with convergence excess. Preoperative and postoperative near and distance deviations and near-distance disparities were evaluated. The study population consisted of 38 (37%) girls and 65 (63%) boys. The mean age was 9.32 ± 5.83 years (range: 1 to 18 years) and the mean follow-up period was 14.49 ± 2.78 months. Fifty-one patients underwent the bridge Faden operation on both medial rectus muscles with recession (recession group) and 52 patients underwent the bridge Faden operation on both medial rectus muscles without recession (no recession group). The mean preoperative amount of esotropia at near was 43.51 ± 7.00 and 24.24 ± 3.56 prism diopters (PD) for the recession and no recession groups, respectively. The mean preoperative amount of esotropia at distance was 26.63 ± 6.86 and 9.22 ± 2.09 PD for both groups, respectively. The mean preoperative near-distance disparity was 17.14 ± 3.00 and 14.05 ± 4.14 PD for both groups, respectively. In both groups, there was a statistically significant difference in the near and distance deviations and the near-distance disparity between preoperative and postoperative values (P .05). The bridge Faden operation on both medial rectus muscles either with or without recession was a successful surgical procedure in patients with accommodative and partially accommodative esotropia. During the follow-up period, the success rates did not decrease. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 201X;XX(XX):XX-XX.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Symbolic Constraints in Constructive Geometric Constraint Solving


    Hoffmann, Christoph M.; Joan-Arinyo, Robert


    In design and manufacturing applications, users of computer aided design systems want to define relationships between dimension variables, since such relationships express design intent very flexibly. This work reports on a technique developed to enhance a class of constructive geometric constraint solvers with the capability of managing functional relationships between dimension variables. The method is shown to be correct.

  6. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan


    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  7. Credit Constraints in Education (United States)

    Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander


    We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…

  8. The Antigone Constraint. (United States)

    Tuggy, David

    This paper presents a class of sentences that certain syntactic rules of English would be expected to produce, but that are not grammatical. The sentences all involve the raising of a sentential Noun Phrase (NP) and the subsequent application of some syntactic rule to that senential NP. A constraint, referred to as the Antigone Constraint, is…

  9. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.


    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  10. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.


    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  11. Critical examination of isolation system design paradigms for a coupled powertrain and frame: Partial torque roll axis decoupling methods given practical constraints (United States)

    Liette, Jared; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra


    The torque roll axis motion decoupling concept is analytically and computationally studied in a realistic coupled powertrain and frame system using discrete, proportionally damped linear models. Recently, Hu and Singh (2012 [1]) (Journal of Sound and Vibration 331 (2012) 1498-1518) proposed new paradigms to fully decouple such a system. However, critical examination shows that the derivation does not always lead to a physically realizable system, as each powertrain mount is not referenced to a single location. This deficiency is overcome by deriving mount compatibility conditions to ensure realistic mount positions which are incorporated into proposed decoupling conditions. It is mathematically shown that full decoupling is not possible for a practical system, and therefore partial decoupling paradigms are pursued. Powertrain mount design using only the decoupled powertrain achieves better decoupling than minimizing conditions for the coupled system using a total least squares method. Further decoupling is obtained through frame isolation design using a decoupled frame model such that the torque roll mode is dominant over the frequency range considered. Other methods for limiting frame coupling are also briefly discussed.

  12. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshua Mugambwa; George William Mugerwa; Wilson Williams Mutumba; Claire Muganzi; Bridget Namubiru; Yusuf Waswa; Isaac Newton Kayongo


    .... This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD) to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction...

  13. Vergence driven accommodation with simulated disparity in myopia and emmetropia. (United States)

    Maiello, Guido; Kerber, Kristen L; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A


    The formation of focused and corresponding foveal images requires a close synergy between the accommodation and vergence systems. This linkage is usually decoupled in virtual reality systems and may be dysfunctional in people who are at risk of developing myopia. We study how refractive error affects vergence-accommodation interactions in stereoscopic displays. Vergence and accommodative responses were measured in 21 young healthy adults (n=9 myopes, 22-31 years) while subjects viewed naturalistic stimuli on a 3D display. In Step 1, vergence was driven behind the monitor using a blurred, non-accommodative, uncrossed disparity target. In Step 2, vergence and accommodation were driven back to the monitor plane using naturalistic images that contained structured depth and focus information from size, blur and/or disparity. In Step 1, both refractive groups converged towards the stereoscopic target depth plane, but the vergence-driven accommodative change was smaller in emmetropes than in myopes (F1,19=5.13, p=0.036). In Step 2, there was little effect of peripheral depth cues on accommodation or vergence in either refractive group. However, vergence responses were significantly slower (F1,19=4.55, p=0.046) and accommodation variability was higher (F1,19=12.9, p=0.0019) in myopes. Vergence and accommodation responses are disrupted in virtual reality displays in both refractive groups. Accommodation responses are less stable in myopes, perhaps due to a lower sensitivity to dioptric blur. Such inaccuracies of accommodation may cause long-term blur on the retina, which has been associated with a failure of emmetropization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ming-Leung Ma


    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D is statistically significant (p<0.0001. OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p=0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm, respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted.

  15. Determining the Minimal Power Capacity of Energy Storage to Accommodate Renewable Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingning Han


    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of renewable generation increases the need for flexibility to accommodate for growing uncertainties. The level of flexibility is measured by the available power that can be provided by flexible resources, such as dispatachable generators, in a certain time period under the constraint of transmission capacity. In addition to conventional flexible resources, energy storage is also expected as a supplementary flexible resource for variability accommodation. To aid the cost-effective planning of energy storage in power grids with intensive renewable generation, this study proposed an approach to determine the minimal requirement of power capacity and the appropriate location for the energy storage. In the proposed approach, the variation of renewable generation is limited within uncertainty sets, then a linear model is proposed for dispatchable generators and candidate energy storage to accommodate the variation in renewable generation under the power balance and transmission network constraints. The target of the proposed approach is to minimize the total power capacity of candidate energy storage facilities when the availability of existing flexible resources is maximized. After that, the robust linear optimization method is employed to convert and solve the proposed model with uncertainties. Case studies are carried out in a modified Garver 6-bus system and the Liaoning provincial power system in China. Simulation results well demonstrate the proposed optimization can provide the optimal location of energy storage with small power capacities. The minimal power capacity of allocated energy storage obtained from the proposed approach only accounts for 1/30 of the capacity of the particular transmission line that is required for network expansion. Besides being adopted for energy storage planning, the proposed approach can also be a potential tool for identifying the sufficiency of flexibility when a priority is given to

  16. Constraint-based reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gotlieb


    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  17. ATHENA: system studies and optics accommodation (United States)

    Ayre, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Ferreira, I.; Wille, E.; Fransen, S.; Stefanescu, A.; Linder, M.


    ATHENA is currently in Phase A, with a view to adoption upon a successful Mission Adoption Review in 2019/2020. After a brief presentation of the reference spacecraft (SC) design, this paper will focus on the functional and environmental requirements, the thermo-mechanical design and the Assembly, Integration, Verification & Test (AIVT) considerations related to housing the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) Mirror Modules (MM) in the very large Mirror Assembly Module (MAM). Initially functional requirements on the MM accommodation are presented, with the Effective Area and Half Energy Width (HEW) requirements leading to a MAM comprising (depending on final mirror size selected) between 700-1000 MMs, co-aligned with exquisite accuracy to provide a common focus. A preliminary HEW budget allocated across the main error-contributors is presented, and this is then used as a reference to derive subsequent requirements and engineering considerations, including: The procedures and technologies for MM-integration into the Mirror Structure (MS) to achieve the required alignment accuracies in a timely manner; stiffness requirements and handling scheme required to constrain deformation under gravity during x-ray testing; temperature control to constrain thermo-elastic deformation during flight; and the role of the Instrument Switching Mechanism (ISM) in constraining HEW and Effective Area errors. Next, we present the key environmental requirements of the MMs, and the need to minimise shock-loading of the MMs is stressed. Methods to achieve this Ø are presented, including: Selection of a large clamp-band launch vehicle interface (LV I/F); lengthening of the shock-path from the LV I/F to the MAM I/F; modal-tuning of the MAM to act as a low-pass filter during launch shock events; use of low-shock HDRMs for the MAM; and the possibility to deploy a passive vibration solution at the LV I/F to reduce loads.

  18. Accommodative changes after SMILE for moderate to high myopia correction. (United States)

    Zheng, Ke; Han, Tian; Zhou, Xingtao


    To investigate accommodative response and accommodative lag changes after femtosecond laser small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for moderate to high myopia correction. A total of 32 eyes of 32 patients with no strabismus who underwent SMILE were enrolled in this prospective clinical study. The accommodative response was obtained viewing monocularly with spherical equivalent refractive error corrected, using an open-field autorefractor at different stimulus levels (2.00D, 2.50D, 3.00D, 4.00D and 5.00D) for the right eye before a standard SMILE surgery and at 1-month follow-up after surgery. The mean age of the patients were 23.34 ± 2.90 years and the mean preoperative manifest refraction spherical equivalent was -5.74 ± 1.98 diopters. Significant differences were detected in both preoperative and postoperative accommodative responses to different stimulus levels (P linear regression model analysis revealed preoperative manifest refractive spherical equivalent (P = 0.006) and preoperative accommodative lag (P = 0.04) showed a significant impact on postoperative accommodative lag. This is the first report of accommodative changes after SMILE. Our preliminary results showed that a decrease in postoperative accommodative lag that might be related to the relief of the visual discomfort symptom.

  19. Teacher's Perceptions of the Effects of Testing Accommodations (United States)

    Brackenreed, Darlene


    This research investigates teachers' perceptions of testing accommodations to the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) for students with special needs. The study reports findings from 98 Northeastern Ontario grade 9 and 10 English teachers who were involved in providing accommodations to the OSSLT. Teachers who responded to the Teacher…

  20. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than 4...

  1. A comparative study of the gradient accommodative convergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gradient accommodative convergence/accommodation ratios (AC/A ratios) of fifty healthy primary school children between the ages of 6-12 years determined through a+1.00 DS lens and through a -1.00DS lens were compared. This was done by measuring the induced phoria at near using the Von Graeffe technique ...

  2. The changing accommodation landscape of Free State, 1936-2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longitudinal analysis was applied in order to understand the changing geography of accommodation in the Free State from 1936 to 2010. Throughout the analysis, the changes taking place in the landscape of accommodation in the Free State are embedded in relation to shifts occurring at the national scale in the tourism ...

  3. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mugambwa


    Full Text Available Privately provided accommodation is a growing service in Uganda’s higher education sector due to education liberalization and demand for education. This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction. Specifically, the objectives of the study were (a to find out the relationship between security and NTISD students’ satisfaction with privately provided accommodation, and (b to find out the hierarchical level of importance of NTISD student satisfaction of the three service quality dimensions (reliability, security, and tangibles with privately provided accommodation. Using quantitative and qualitative modes of data analysis and a sample of 300 students from 20 private hostels, this study established a strong positive significant relationship between security and satisfaction regarding privately provided accommodation. This implies that accommodation service providers should increase the quality of security so as to increase the satisfaction of students regarding privately provided accommodation. The study established the hierarchical order of importance from the most important service quality dimension, respectively, as follows: reliability, security, and tangibles. Therefore, private accommodation service managers should pay extra attention to the dimensions in the same order.

  4. The Evolution of the Number of Tourists accommodated in Arad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Rusu


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the evolution of the number of tourists accommodated in Arad between January 2006 and September 2009. For this purpose we have used the statistics data from the official sites. As variables we chose: X – independent variable - Total tourist arrival and accommodated in Arad, Y - dependent variable - Tourists staying in hotels.

  5. Chromatic aberration, accommodation, and color preference in asthenopia. (United States)

    Drew, Stefanie A; Borsting, Eric; Stark, Lawrence R; Chase, Chris


    Asthenopia is a common problem associated with near work and reports suggest that colored lenses or overlays may be applied to reduce symptoms. In this study, we examine the relationship between eyestrain, color preferences, and function of the accommodation and vergence system. Specifically, we examine whether symptomatic observers select colors that reduce accommodative demand based on longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA). Forty-seven undergraduate students participated in this study. Visual discomfort symptoms were assessed using the Conlon survey. A Mark 2 Intuitive Colorimeter was used to obtain optimal colored light preferences. LCA was modeled using the Chromatic Eye and spectral power density data. A comprehensive evaluation of accommodation and vergence was performed following standard procedures. A significant negative correlation (r = -0.51) was found between eyestrain symptoms and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) v' axis of colors preferences. Additionally, a significant negative correlation (r = -0.31) was found between eyestrain symptoms and LCA accommodation. Two thirds of the participants in the high discomfort group chose colors that decreased accommodative demand. Accommodative amplitude and vergence facility also correlated with LCA, accounting for 25% of the variance. The color preferences of individuals are systematically influenced by the functioning of their accommodation and vergence systems with increased symptomatology resulting in color selections that reduce LCA accommodative stimulus demand.

  6. Evaluating Computer-Based Test Accommodations for English Learners (United States)

    Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Sireci, Stephen G.


    Test accommodations for English learners (ELs) are intended to reduce the language barrier and level the playing field, allowing ELs to better demonstrate their true proficiencies. Computer-based accommodations for ELs show promising results for leveling that field while also providing us with additional data to more closely investigate the…

  7. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation (United States)

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy


    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  8. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations. (United States)


    ... public accommodation, customer shuttle bus services operated by private companies and shopping centers... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310...

  9. Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Larson, Michael J.; Fernandez, Melanie; Grabill, Kristen


    Despite the importance of the family in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relatively little empirical attention has been directed to family accommodation of symptoms. This study examined the relations among family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, functional impairment, and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

  10. Accommodating World Englishes in Developing EFL Learners' Oral Communication (United States)

    Mukminatien, Nur


    This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs) and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accommodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner's linguistic needs for…

  11. Equivalent refractive index of the human lens upon accommodative response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.A.; Dubbelman, M.; van der Heijde, R.G.L.; Heethaar, R.M.


    PURPOSE.: To experimentally verify the suggestion of Gullstrand (1909), i.e., that the equivalent refractive index of the human lens increases with accommodation. METHODS.: The left eye of five subjects was focused on different accommodation stimuli, while the right eye was imaged with Scheimpflug

  12. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell


    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed.

  13. Modelling the impact of spherical aberration on accommodation. (United States)

    Thibos, Larry N; Bradley, Arthur; López-Gil, Norberto


    To understand how primary and secondary spherical aberrations affect focusing of the retinal image and the measurement of refractive state in the accommodating eye. A computational eye model was constructed from published anatomical dimensions of the eye's refractive elements for a range of accommodative states. Two strategies for controlling accommodation were implemented, one in which paraxial rays are always perfectly focused and the other in which paraxial accommodative lag grew larger as target vergence increased. Multiple configurations of the model were achieved by selecting various combinations of pupil size and aberration structure. Refractive state was defined as optimum target vergence for maximizing retinal image quality according to several scalar metrics. When accommodation optimally focuses paraxial rays, retinal image quality is sub-optimal for metrics of image quality sensitive to non-paraxial rays. This loss of image quality can be recovered by optimizing target vergence computationally, which indicates the presence of real accommodative error according to the non-paraxial metric even though the eye is accurately focused paraxially. However, such errors are spurious if non-paraxial refractive state is misinterpreted as paraxial refractive state. Accommodative errors may indicate lag or lead, but in general the slope of the stimulus-response function is less than 1 for non-paraxial measures of image quality. These results depend strongly on pupil size and its variation due to accommodative miosis. spurious accommodative errors can appear when the eye focuses the retinal image optimally according to one metric of image quality (e.g. paraxial) while ocular refractive state is measured by another (e.g. non-paraxial). Spurious errors are small compared to real accommodative lag for small, photopic pupils but can be of the same order of magnitude as real lag for large, mesopic pupils. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The

  14. Restoration of accommodation: surgical options for correction of presbyopia (United States)

    Glasser, Adrian


    Accommodation is a dioptric change in the power of the eye to see clearly at near. Ciliary muscle contraction causes a release in zonular tension at the lens equator, which permits the elastic capsule to mould the young lens into an accommodated form. Presbyopia, the gradual age-related loss of accommodation, occurs primarily through a gradual age-related stiffening of the lens. While there are many possible options for relieving the symptoms of presbyopia, only relatively recently has consideration been given to surgical restoration of accommodation to the presbyopic eye. To understand how this might be achieved, it is necessary to understand the accommodative anatomy, the mechanism of accommodation and the causes of presbyopia. A variety of different kinds of surgical procedures has been considered for restoring accommodation to the presbyopic eye, including surgical expansion of the sclera, using femtosecond lasers to treat the lens or with so-called accommodative intraocular lenses (IOLs). Evidence suggests that scleral expansion cannot and does not restore accommodation. Laser treatments of the lens are in their early infancy. Development and testing of accommodative IOLs are proliferating. They are designed to produce a myopic refractive change in the eye in response to ciliary muscle contraction either through a movement of an optic or through a change in surface curvature. Three general design principles are being considered. These are single optic IOLs that rely on a forward shift of the optic, dual optic IOLs that rely on an increased separation between the two optics, or IOLs that permit a change in surface curvature to produce an increase in optical power in response to ciliary muscle contraction. Several of these different IOLs are available and being used clinically, while many are still in research and development. PMID:18399800

  15. A review of non-strabismic accommodative and vergence anomalies in school-age children. Part 2: Accommodative anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. Wajuihian


    Full Text Available Comfortable reading and the performance of related near point activities involve efficient accommodative and vergence systems. However, accommodative and convergence anomalies are associated with various symptoms of asthenopia that impair efficient near point tasks. In Part 1 of this two-part article, studies on vergence anomalies were reviewed. In the current paper (Part 2, anomalies of accommodation are reviewed. The aims of the latter paper were to derive the prevalence and distribution estimates of anomalies of accommodation in school-age children and address variations in the study methods and findings. Despite variations in the study methods and findings, anomalies of accommodation are prevalent among school-age populations. Variations and limitations of previous studies are discussed and recommendations for improving future studies are suggested.

  16. Accommodations: Staff Identity and University Space (United States)

    Cox, Andrew; Herrick, Tim; Keating, Patrick


    Space has been of growing significance in social theory in recent years, yet, explorations of it in the scholarship of higher education have been limited. This is surprising, given the critical role space has in shaping staff and students' engagement with the university. Taking a practice-based approach and focusing on academic identities, this…

  17. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the study area whereas flatland and gentle slopes characterize the western, northwestern, and central parts of the study area. The drainage pattern in the study area is dendritic. Water flows from south, east and northeast to the center and forms one main river that drains the watershed northwest. This river then leaves the ...

  18. Management practices and production constraints of central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cattle, sheep, goats, and equine, respectively (BoARD, 2015). Sampling procedure ... For milk source. 1. 0.4. Housing managements of goats in the study area. The statistical analysis of the present study indicated that 62.4% of the to- ... milk, goats' milk was also processed into butter using a traditional processing technique ...

  19. Successful Aging Through Successful Accommodation With Assistive Devices. (United States)

    Freedman, Vicki A; Kasper, Judith D; Spillman, Brenda C


    To provide a profile of older adults who successfully accommodate declines in capacity by using assistive devices. Using the National Health and Aging Trends Study, we provide national estimates of prevalent, incident, and persistent successful accommodation of mobility and self-care activity limitations. For incident and persistent accommodation groups, we describe their subjective wellbeing and participation restrictions, health and functioning, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and acquisition of assistive devices and environmental features. We estimate regression models predicting incident and persistent successful accommodation and the extent of wellbeing and participation restrictions for incident and persistent groups (vs. those who are fully able). Nearly one-quarter of older adults have put in place accommodations that allow them to carry out daily activities with no assistance or difficulty. In adjusted models, incident and persistent successful accommodation is more common for those ages 80-89, those with more children, and those living in homes with environmental features already installed; wellbeing levels for these groups are similar and participation restrictions only slightly below those who are fully able. A focus on facilitating successful accommodation among those who experience declines in capacity may be an effective means of promoting participation and wellbeing in later life.

  20. Accommodation and Phoria in Children Wearing Multifocal Contact Lenses. (United States)

    Gong, Celia R; Troilo, David; Richdale, Kathryn


    To determine the effect of multifocal contact lenses on accommodation and phoria in children. This was a prospective, non-dispensing, randomized, crossover, single-visit study. Myopic children with normal accommodation and binocularity and no history of myopia control treatment were enrolled and fitted with CooperVision Biofinity single vision (SV) and multifocal (MF, +2.50D center distance add) contact lenses. Accommodative responses (photorefraction) and phorias (modified Thorington) were measured at four distances (>3 m, 100 cm, 40 cm, 25 cm). Secondary measures included high- and low-contrast logMAR acuity, accommodative amplitude, and facility. Differences between contact lens designs were analyzed using repeated measures regression and paired t-tests. A total of 16 subjects, aged 10 to 15 years, completed the study. There was a small decrease in high (SV: -0.08, MF: +0.01) and low illumination (SV: -0.03, MF: +0.08) (both P contact lenses exhibited reduced accommodative responses and more exophoria at increasingly higher accommodative demands than with single vision contact lenses. This suggests that children may be relaxing their accommodation and using the positive addition or increased depth of focus from added spherical aberration of the multifocals. Further studies are needed to evaluate other lens designs, different amounts of positive addition and aberrations, and long-term adaptation to lenses.

  1. Study on accommodation by autorefraction and dynamic refraction in children. (United States)

    Krishnacharya, Prabhakar Srinivasapur


    Childhood accommodation interferes with accurate diagnosis of the latent refractive errors. Dynamic retinoscopy offers accurate measurements of accommodative response, while an autorefractometer can predict the accommodative system activation in children. A correlation of the accommodative effort with the dynamic refraction has been investigated in emmetropic children, before and after cycloplegia. A prospective clinical study of accommodative effort in 149 emmetropic children, in the age group 3-16 years, has been conducted using TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor. Dynamic refraction was performed by monocular estimation method before and after cycloplegia, using the retinoscope mirror light as target. Retinoscopic reflex produced 'with the motion' was corrected with positive spherical lenses, and that 'against the motion' was corrected with negative spherical lenses, to achieve neutralization. Mean accommodative effort measured for 149 children included in the study was -0.63±0.69D and dynamic refraction was -0.07±0.44D before cycloplegia, while the mean was+0.52D after cycloplegia, irrespective of the method used. Autorefractor measured -0.17D of accommodative effort per unit change in dynamic refraction before cycloplegia and +0.90D after cycloplegia. The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11-13 and 14-15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Entrepreneurial Characteristics And Constraints Of Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The, entrepreneurial characteristics marketing strategies, poultry drugs distribution methods and constraints were studied among 110 poultry enterprises in Imo State, Nigeria. Ten types of poultry businesses were identified with commercial feeds retailing, egg and broiler productions being the most frequently practiced (18.1 ...

  3. Constraints in Genetic Programming (United States)

    Janikow, Cezary Z.


    Genetic programming refers to a class of genetic algorithms utilizing generic representation in the form of program trees. For a particular application, one needs to provide the set of functions, whose compositions determine the space of program structures being evolved, and the set of terminals, which determine the space of specific instances of those programs. The algorithm searches the space for the best program for a given problem, applying evolutionary mechanisms borrowed from nature. Genetic algorithms have shown great capabilities in approximately solving optimization problems which could not be approximated or solved with other methods. Genetic programming extends their capabilities to deal with a broader variety of problems. However, it also extends the size of the search space, which often becomes too large to be effectively searched even by evolutionary methods. Therefore, our objective is to utilize problem constraints, if such can be identified, to restrict this space. In this publication, we propose a generic constraint specification language, powerful enough for a broad class of problem constraints. This language has two elements -- one reduces only the number of program instances, the other reduces both the space of program structures as well as their instances. With this language, we define the minimal set of complete constraints, and a set of operators guaranteeing offspring validity from valid parents. We also show that these operators are not less efficient than the standard genetic programming operators if one preprocesses the constraints - the necessary mechanisms are identified.

  4. Ontogenetic constraints on foraminiferal test construction. (United States)

    Caromel, Aude G M; Schmidt, Daniela N; Rayfield, Emily J


    Developmental processes represent one of the main constraints on the generation of adult form. Determining how constructional and energetic demands operate throughout growth is es-sential to understanding fundamental growth rules and trade-offs that define the framework within which new species originate. In organisms producing spiral shells, coiling patterns can inform on the constructional constraints acting throughout development that dictated the diversification of forms within a group. Here, we use Synchrotron radiation X-Ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) reconstructions of eight planktic foraminifera repre-sentative of the major morphotypic groups to determine disparity of coiling patterns by measuring Raupian parameters. The results show that foraminifera are a morphologically highly conservative group, exploiting a limited range of poten-tial coiling patterns. Very similar coiling patterns during early ontogeny, regardless of species, point toward strong constraints in early ontogeny and to common develop-mental processes acting across all morphogroups. Dispersion and lateral displacement of taxa in morphospace are limited to the adult stage. Accretion with low translation down the coiling axis in juveniles may maximize lateral growth and metabolic efficiency in light of costly calcification. Increased translation in the adult stages allows growth to accommo-date new chamber shapes, mediated by changes in aperture location and the site of accretion over ontogeny. These constructional constraints, and the accretion of a small number of discrete chambers, limit the potential for novel forms within the foraminifera compared to other groups of coiling organisms and may explain the repeated evolution of similar morphotypes throughout the evolutionary history of the group. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Including deaf and hard-of-hearing students with co-occurring disabilities in the accommodations discussion. (United States)

    Leppo, Rachel H T; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Bond, Mark P


    Students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH) are a low-incidence group of students; however, SDHH also have a high incidence of additional disabilities (SDHH+). Many SDHH and SDHH+ require accommodations for equal access to classroom instruction and assessment, particularly in mainstreamed educational settings where spoken English is the primary language. Accommodations for SDHH, overall, have increased under federal legislation including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act and the No Child Left Behind Act. Unfortunately, specific practice recommendations for SDHH+ and their unique needs are often lacking in the research literature. This article presents findings regarding accommodations use by SDHH and SDHH+ from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2. Initial logistic regression analysis found no differences in accommodations use of SDHH and SDHH+. However, logistic regression analysis that compared specific additional disability groups with the larger overall SDHH group did find differences in accommodations use for two SDHH+ groups: students who had a learning disability and students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This article includes a discussion of the implications of these findings for both research and practice.

  6. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua


    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...

  7. Employers’ Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Workers With Mental Illness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shankar, Janki; Liu, Lili; Nicholas, David; Warren, Sharon; Lai, Daniel; Tan, Shawn; Zulla, Rosslynn; Couture, Jennifer; Sears, Alexandra


    .... Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce...

  8. Occlusal accommodation and mouthguards for prevention of orofacial trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geary, Julian Lindsay


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aleksandra Vujko; Tamara Gajić; Miloš Dragosavac; Branka Maksimović; Milutin Mrkša


    Many researchers consider agritourism as a major agent of local development, but there is still a lack of awareness about the importance of networking and integration among agritourism accommodation...

  10. Amplitude of Accommodation and its Relation to Refractive Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lekha


    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the relationship between amplitude of accommodation and refractive errors in the peri-presbyopic age group. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of 316 consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years who attended our outpatient clinic were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 J1 in both eyes were included. The amplitude of accommodation (AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation (NPA. In patients with more than ± 2 diopter sphere correction for distance, the NPA was also measured using appropriate soft contact lenses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in AA between myopes and hypermetropes ( P P P P P P >0.5. Conclusion: Our study showed higher amplitude of accommodation among myopes between 35 and 44 years compared to emmetropes and hypermetropes

  11. Accommodation in school children with music or sports activities. (United States)

    Mäntyjärvi, M I


    The accommodation of 324 school children aged 10 to 16 years was studied before and after a 12-minute reading session. One hundred and twenty children (81 girls and 39 boys) were wind instrument players in school bands, 93 children (48 girls and 45 boys) trained in an individual sport, and 111 children (65 girls and 46 boys) having no such activities were studied as a control group. At the end of the reading session, decreased accommodation (7 diopters or less) was found in 19 (15.8%) of the musicians, in six (6.5%) of the athletes, and in six (5.4%) of the control group. The difference was significant between the musicians and the control group, but not significant between the athletes and the control group. The majority of the children with low accommodation were girls; there was only one boy with decreased accommodation in each of the three groups.

  12. Random Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Coja-Oghlan


    Full Text Available Random instances of constraint satisfaction problems such as k-SAT provide challenging benchmarks. If there are m constraints over n variables there is typically a large range of densities r=m/n where solutions are known to exist with probability close to one due to non-constructive arguments. However, no algorithms are known to find solutions efficiently with a non-vanishing probability at even much lower densities. This fact appears to be related to a phase transition in the set of all solutions. The goal of this extended abstract is to provide a perspective on this phenomenon, and on the computational challenge that it poses.

  13. Accommodative Behavior of Eyes Wearing Aspheric Single Vision Contact Lenses. (United States)

    Altoaimi, Basal H; Almutairi, Meznah S; Kollbaum, Pete; Bradley, Arthur


    Wearing aspheric contact lenses adds significant amounts of negative spherical aberration (SA). Also, when accommodated and converged to near targets, pupil size shrinks and SA shift from positive to more negative direction. Interestingly, in this study, pupil miosis was fully or partially able to compensate for the additional accommodation-induced negative SA. The present study aims to examine the accommodative response characteristics of young eyes fit with aspheric single vision contact lenses (SVCLs) that add significant negative SA to the eye responding to a wide range of accommodation stimuli. Using a Shack-Hartmann aberrometer, the accommodation behavior in eight young adult eyes (mean age and spherical equivalent is 27.25 ± 2.05 years and -1.75 ± 1.80D, respectively) was measured while subjects fixated binocularly and monocularly 20/40 letter E, which were moved from 2 m to 20 cm (0.5 to 5D) in 0.25D steps. Using natural pupils, refractive state was defined using three standard criteria: the dioptric power that (1) minimized the root mean square error (minRMS), (2) best-fit paraxial, and (3) provided the peak image quality (peak IQ). Wearing aspheric lenses with negative SA shifts the mean SA of the unaccommodated eyes from +0.05 μm (eyes only) to -0.029 μm (eyes + SVCL) and increases the negative SA for the eye + lens when accommodating from -0.029 to -0.07 μm for natural pupils. Aberration changes with accommodation were attenuated by the accommodative pupil miosis, which reduced binocular viewing pupil diameters from 3.9 to 3.3 mm. This alteration of the typical SA levels by the aspheric SVCL did not prevent accurate accommodation (mean ± standard deviation accommodative lag under binocular viewing were -0.08 ± 0.12D, -0.38 ± 0.12D, and -0.26 ± 0.08D for paraxial, minRMS, and peak IQ, respectively). These data clearly show that aspheric contact lenses designed to correct some or all of the unaccommodated eye's positive SA do not interfere with

  14. Palm Tree Resort and Hotel Subic Bay: Accommodations


    Lola Williams


    ACCOMMODATIONS "We're more than accommodating." Palm Tree Resort offers sea view rooms and suites, designed from the ground up with guest comfort in mind. Each room is exquisite, featuring individual ventilation units, king size beds, sofas, spacious bathrooms, widescreen television, DVD/CD players, high-speed internet access and reading chairs. All maximize the spectacular views of the sea and surrounding mountains, while providing guests with an upscale residential atmosphere. A...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The EU ecolabel for accommodation is a voluntary scheme designed to encourage businesses to market goods and services with a reduced impact on the environment and to help consumers – including public and private purchasers – to identify them easily. The eco-certification for accommodation has become an important instrument used for greening the tourism sectors, through the implication of policy makers, who created the legal framework, tourism operators, who made the efforts of adopting the certification, and consumers, who’s environmental and ethical concerns represented one of the main drivers for the adoption of sustainable practices by hotels. The paper presents a brief comparison between two certification schemes from two different parts of the world (European Union and Australia, in order to highlight the diversity of measures that can be taken for responding to sustainability challenges.

  16. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim


    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  17. Development of seating accommodation models for soldiers in vehicles. (United States)

    Zerehsaz, Yaser; Jin, Jionghua Judy; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P


    Data from a previous study of soldier driving postures and seating positions were analysed to develop statistical models for defining accommodation of driver seating positions in military vehicles. Regression models were created for seating accommodation applicable to driver positions with a fixed heel point and a range of steering wheel locations in typical tactical vehicles. The models predict the driver-selected seat position as a function of population anthropometry and vehicle layout. These models are the first driver accommodation models considering the effects of body armor and body-borne gear. The obtained results can benefit the design of military vehicles, and the methods can also be extended to be utilised in the development of seating accommodation models for other driving environments where protective equipment affects driver seating posture, such as vehicles used by law-enforcement officers and firefighters. Practitioner Summary: A large-scale laboratory study of soldier driving posture and seating position was designed to focus on tactical vehicle (truck) designs. Regression techniques are utilised to develop accommodation models suitable for tactical vehicles. These are the first seating accommodation models based on soldier data to consider the effects of personal protective equipment and body-borne gear.

  18. The effect of phenylephrine on the ciliary muscle and accommodation. (United States)

    Richdale, Kathryn; Bailey, Melissa D; Sinnott, Loraine T; Kao, Chiu-Yen; Zadnik, Karla; Bullimore, Mark A


    To objectively measure changes in the human ciliary muscle dimensions in vivo after instillation of topical phenylephrine, a mydriatic and vasodilating agent. A cross-sectional study of 25 healthy young adults was conducted. Measurements of pupil size, accommodation, and ciliary muscle thickness were made both before and 30 min after instillation of 1% proparacaine and 2.5% phenylephrine. Accommodation was measured in three ways: subjectively using a push-up technique and Royal Air Force (RAF) rule, and objectively using both the Grand Seiko autorefractor and PowerRefractor. Images of the temporal ciliary muscle were acquired using the Visante Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer (OCT). Ciliary muscle images were objectively analyzed using a computer-based segmentation technique. Amplitude of accommodation using the push-up test was reduced by about 1 D with phenylephrine (p 0.30). There was statistically significant thickening of the anterior region and thinning of the posterior region of the ciliary muscle with accommodation (p affect either baseline ciliary muscle thickness or the accommodative contraction of the muscle (p > 0.09). Low-dose phenylephrine does not affect ciliary muscle dimensions, ciliary muscle contractility, or accommodative response to a 4 D near target.

  19. Hyperelastic modelling of the crystalline lens: Accommodation and presbyopia (United States)

    Lanchares, Elena; Navarro, Rafael; Calvo, Begoña


    Purpose The modification of the mechanical properties of the human crystalline lens with age can be a major cause of presbyopia. Since these properties cannot be measured in vivo, numerical simulation can be used to estimate them. We propose an inverse method to determine age-dependent change in the material properties of the tissues composing the human crystalline lens. Methods A finite element model of a 30-year-old lens in the accommodated state was developed. The force necessary to achieve full accommodation in a 30-year-old lens of known external geometry was computed using this model. Two additional numerical models of the lens corresponding to the ages of 40 and 50 years were then built. Assuming that the accommodative force applied to the lens remains constant with age, the material properties of nucleus and cortex were estimated by inverse analysis. Results The zonular force necessary to reshape the model of a 30-year-old lens from the accommodated to the unaccommodated geometry was 0.078 newton (N). Both nucleus and cortex became stiffer with age. The stiffness of the nucleus increased with age at a higher rate than the cortex. Conclusions In agreement with the classical theory of Helmholtz, on which we based our model, our results indicate that a major cause of presbyopia is that both nucleus and cortex become stiffer with age; therefore, a constant value of the zonular forces with aging does not achieve full accommodation, that is, the accommodation capability decreases.

  20. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...

  1. Partially clairvoyant scheduling for aggregate constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Subramani


    constraints. In this paper, we extend the class of constraints for which partially clairvoyant schedules can be determined efficiently, to include aggregate constraints. Aggregate constraints form a strict superset of standard constraints and can be used to model performance metrics.

  2. A history of studies of visual accommodation in birds. (United States)

    Glasser, A; Howland, H C


    Since 1813, when Crampton first described the ciliary muscle of the avian eye, there has been little agreement on how birds are able to change the focus of their eyes. Numerous later studies on the eyes of a variety of bird species contradicted earlier findings or proposed new accommodative mechanisms. The resulting confusion persists today, and a number of significant works on the avian eye perpetuate many of the myths developed during the 1800s. There is little consensus on avian accommodation; the early literature contains many accurate descriptions of the mechanisms, along with elegant experimental evidence to support them. Much of the early literature, however, is in German and has remained obscure. Further, among the mechanistic descriptions of avian accommodation are many that are incorrect. The current confusion can be attributed in part to the fact that some birds have both corneal and lenticular accommodation. It is unclear to what extent different bird species employ both mechanisms, or depend on one mechanism or the other. These facts, together with the diversity of bird species, their range of visual requirements, and the numerous anatomical differences in their eyes, make it impossible to describe a single avian mechanism of accommodation. Our own experience in studying accommodation in the chick eye has led us to review the historical literature in an attempt to provide a new foundation for future studies on visual accommodation in birds. While in relation to the anatomical arrangements [of the bird eye], these have led our knowledge pretty much to a conclusion.... There is among all these works no real difference of opinion. However, in terms of the accommodative mechanism of the bird eye, at the present time there are many different views of what is going on. Here the circumstances are very similar to what happened a few decades ago in the study of accommodation generally, but particularly with humans, when Helmholtz made the remark. "There is no

  3. Virtual workstations and telepresence interfaces: Design accommodations and prototypes for Space Station Freedom evolution (United States)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.


    An advanced human-system interface is being developed for evolutionary Space Station Freedom as part of the NASA Office of Space Station (OSS) Advanced Development Program. The human-system interface is based on body-pointed display and control devices. The project will identify and document the design accommodations ('hooks and scars') required to support virtual workstations and telepresence interfaces, and prototype interface systems will be built, evaluated, and refined. The project is a joint enterprise of Marquette University, Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA), and NASA's ARC. The project team is working with NASA's JSC and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (the Work Package contractor) to ensure that the project is consistent with space station user requirements and program constraints. Documentation describing design accommodations and tradeoffs will be provided to OSS, JSC, and McDonnell Douglas, and prototype interface devices will be delivered to ARC and JSC. ACA intends to commercialize derivatives of the interface for use with computer systems developed for scientific visualization and system simulation.

  4. Atom mapping with constraint programming. (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Nahar, Feras; Schnorr, Norah; Backofen, Rolf; Stadler, Peter F; Flamm, Christoph


    Chemical reactions are rearrangements of chemical bonds. Each atom in an educt molecule thus appears again in a specific position of one of the reaction products. This bijection between educt and product atoms is not reported by chemical reaction databases, however, so that the "Atom Mapping Problem" of finding this bijection is left as an important computational task for many practical applications in computational chemistry and systems biology. Elementary chemical reactions feature a cyclic imaginary transition state (ITS) that imposes additional restrictions on the bijection between educt and product atoms that are not taken into account by previous approaches. We demonstrate that Constraint Programming is well-suited to solving the Atom Mapping Problem in this setting. The performance of our approach is evaluated for a manually curated subset of chemical reactions from the KEGG database featuring various ITS cycle layouts and reaction mechanisms.

  5. Accommodation in young adults wearing aspheric multifocal soft contact lenses (United States)

    Lindskoog Pettersson, Anna; Wahlberg Ramsay, Marika; Lundström, Linda; Rosén, Robert; Nilsson, Maria; Unsbo, Peter; Brautaset, Rune


    The aim of the present project was to investigate accommodative behavior in young adults and adolescents fitted with an aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens with focus on evaluating whether these lenses can be an alternative treatment for subjects in which a reduced level of blur and thereby accommodation in near vision is aimed at. Twenty normal subjects aged between 21 and 35 years participated in the study. Aberrometry was perfomed using a Zywave™ aberrometer, first on the uncorrected eyes of all subjects, and again while the subjects wore a multifocal contact lens with a +1.00 add. A Shin-Nippon N Vision-K 5001 Autoref-Keratometer was used to measure accommodative response with two different refractive corrections: (1) habitual spectacle correction only, and (2) habitual correction and a aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens. Four hours of adaptation to the lens was allowed. The lag when wearing only the habitual spectacles was compared with the lag while wearing both the habitual spectacles and the aspheric multifocal contact lens. The mean lag of accommodation for the subject group was 0.85 D (±0.57 SD) and 0.75 D (±0.52 SD) without and with the multifocal lens, respectively. Statistical analyses showed no difference in lag (t = 0.8479, p = 0.407) with and without the lens. In conclusion, young normal subjects do not relax accommodation when fitted with aspheric multifocal center distance lenses when the addition is +1.00. It is therefore unlikely that subjects with accommodative ability, in whom the treatment purpose is to reduce blur and thereby accommodation, can be effectively treated with such lenses.

  6. Accommodative training to reduce nearwork-induced transient myopia. (United States)

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Ludlam, Diana P


    To assess changes in the nearwork-induced transient myopia parameters of initial magnitude and its decay duration, as well as accuracy of the near accommodative steady-state response and clinically based accommodative facility, after 6 weeks of home-based accommodative training in asymptomatic myopes. Ten young adult, progressing myopes participated in the study. The experimental paradigm consisted of a baseline session and two follow-up sessions at the end of the third and sixth weeks of training. At the first session, baseline refractive state and selected accommodative functions were assessed. Measurements were repeated at the two follow-up sessions. Home-based vision training included accommodative flippers (+/-2 D) at near, Hart chart at distance (6 m) and near (40 cm), and prism flipper (6 pd) training at near (40 cm), for a total of 20 minutes a day performed 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Several dynamic accommodative response functions improved significantly with training. Lens flipper rate increased significantly from 11 to 16 cpm in the OD (p = 0.04), 11 to 19 cpm in the OS (p = 0.03), and 8 to 11 cpm in the OU (p = 0.03). Hart chart rate increased significantly from 22 to 33 cpm in the OD (p = 0.01) and from 22 to 31 cpm in the OS (p = 0.02). There was a significant negative correlation between lens flipper rate and nearwork-induced transient myopia decay duration after training (p = 0.02) with binocular viewing. Training of the accommodative system in these progressing myopes resulted in improved dynamics in both laboratory and clinical measures. This is consistent with earlier reports in the literature of improvement in symptomatic myopic subjects.

  7. Reasonable Accommodation In The Workplace: To Be Or Not To Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Bronwen Bernard


    Full Text Available Freedom of religion is a fundamental right enshrined in and protected by section 15 of the Constitution. This right allows for the practice of religion without interference from the state and individuals. A question which often arises relates to the extent to which freedom of religion can be exercised in the workplace. Religious practice often extends beyond societal norms, but religious intolerance has proven to be a source of conflict. In the workplace this conflict arises "where the employer's right to the employee's labour and service conflicts with the employee's inability or refusal to render services because of a religious or cultural belief". The courts have played an important role in balancing the rights of the employer to manage his business operations efficiently with the rights of the employee to practice his religious or cultural beliefs. The critical question is how the employer is expected to balance and maintain an orderly, disciplined and efficient workplace whilst accommodating an employee's right to religious freedom. The case of Department of Correctional Services v Police and Prison Civil Rights Union (POPCRU 2011 32 ILJ 2629 (LAC is one where the employer's application of rules relating to the dress code of employees impacted on the religious beliefs and practices of five staff. In this note, this decision and the decisions in other recent cases are analysed in order to determine how the courts have dealt with the issue of the reasonable accommodation of religious practices in the workplace. The employer in the POPCRU case was justified in wanting to improve the discipline and standards within the prison. The findings of the LAC and SCA were indeed correct: while the dress code appeared to be neutral, the actual impact resulted in the disparate treatment of the employees. They were discriminated against as a result of wearing dreadlocks. The employer failed to reasonably accommodate the religious beliefs of the employees

  8. Accommodative Stimulus-Response Curve with Emoji Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Montés-Micó


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the static measurement of the accommodative stimulus-response curve with emoji symbols. Methods. The accommodative stimulus-response curve was measured in 18 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack sensor to obtain the objective accommodative response from the Zernike defocus term. Measurements were acquired at different accommodative demands, from 0 to 3 D with a step of 0.5 D. Detailed and nondetailed emoji targets were used with two different sizes, corresponding to the two most common visual angles used in smartphones. Results. A regression analysis was performed to fit the mean results obtained for each target. The determination coefficient was R2≥0.988 for all targets. For the detailed targets, the slopes for the averaged stimulus-response curve were 0.65 and 0.66 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. For the nondetailed targets, the slopes were 0.60 and 0.58 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. p values for these slopes were statistically significant for the two types of targets (p<0.01. Conclusions. Our results reveal that the replacement of a word or several words by detailed or nondetailed emoji symbols seems not to provoke a different accommodative response in normal subjects and under standard viewing conditions in the use of smartphones.

  9. Accommodative Stimulus-Response Curve with Emoji Symbols (United States)

    Montés-Micó, Robert; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa


    Purpose To evaluate the static measurement of the accommodative stimulus-response curve with emoji symbols. Methods The accommodative stimulus-response curve was measured in 18 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack sensor to obtain the objective accommodative response from the Zernike defocus term. Measurements were acquired at different accommodative demands, from 0 to 3 D with a step of 0.5 D. Detailed and nondetailed emoji targets were used with two different sizes, corresponding to the two most common visual angles used in smartphones. Results A regression analysis was performed to fit the mean results obtained for each target. The determination coefficient was R2 ≥ 0.988 for all targets. For the detailed targets, the slopes for the averaged stimulus-response curve were 0.65 and 0.66 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. For the nondetailed targets, the slopes were 0.60 and 0.58 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. p values for these slopes were statistically significant for the two types of targets (p emoji symbols seems not to provoke a different accommodative response in normal subjects and under standard viewing conditions in the use of smartphones. PMID:29082040

  10. Interaction between Accommodation and Vergence on Distance Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Daijogo


    Full Text Available Fisher and Ciuffreda (1988 and Mon-Williams and Tresilian (1999 reported that, without vergence cue, diopter change in accommodation induced change in apparent distance. Meanwhile, there is conflicting evidence about the relative roles of accommodation and vergence in distance perception (Richards & Miller, 1969; von Holst, 1973. In the current study, we investigated interaction between accommodation and vergence on distance perception. The perceived distance from integration of vergence evoked by a fixation target and accommodation by a pair of concave or convex lenses in front of eyes is measured with a mirror stereoscope. The stimulus was a white square with a black cross-shaped fixation on a black background. In dark surroundings, subjects were asked to commit the apparent distance of the target to memory, and then without the lenses, re-create the distance by changing distance of another fixation target. The apparent size of the target through lenses were equivalent to the size without lenses. The results showed that not only vergence but accommodation affect the apparent distance, and they were summed linearly.

  11. A survey of anthropometry and physical accommodation in ergonomics curricula. (United States)

    Garneau, Christopher J; Parkinson, Matthew B


    The size and shape of users are an important consideration for many products and environments. Designers and engineers in many disciplines must often accommodate these attributes to meet objectives such as fit and safety. When practitioners have academic training in addressing these issues, it is typically through courses in Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E). This paper investigates education related to physical accommodation and offers suggestions for improvement. A survey was conducted wherein 21 instructors at 18 universities in the United States provided syllabi for 29 courses, which were analysed to determine topics related to anthropometry and resources used for the courses. The results show that within the U.S., anthropometry is covered in the majority of courses discussing physical ergonomics, but important related concepts were often omitted (e.g., digital human modelling, multivariate accommodation and variability across global populations). Curricula could be improved by incorporating more accurate anthropometry, multivariate problems and interactive online tools. This paper describes a study investigating collegiate ergonomics courses within the U.S. in the area of physical accommodation. Course schedules and texts were studied for their treatment of several topics related to accommodating the spatial requirements (anthropometry) of users. Recommendations are made for improving course curricula.

  12. Anxiety sensitivity and family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (United States)

    Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Storch, Eric A


    Although anxiety sensitivity (AS) presents in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), it has received minimal empirical attention. There are postulated connections between AS and family accommodation, but this relationship has yet to be formally examined. The present study included 58 adults with OCD who completed a clinician-rated measure of OCD symptom severity, as well as self-report measures assessing AS, family variables, impairment, and co-occurring psychopathology. Participants' AS moderately correlated with family accommodation, family functioning, and depression, while strongly correlating with anxiety symptoms. The Fear of Cognitive Dyscontrol AS subscale moderately correlated with multiple domains of functional impairment, and predicted family accommodation beyond the effects of OCD symptom severity. Family accommodation mediated the relationship between the Fear of Cognitive Dyscontrol AS subscale and functional impairment. The study was cross-sectional in nature, limiting the ability to establish directionality and causation. The sample was also limited to adults with OCD and their own symptomology, necessitating further investigations of these constructs in pediatric samples and psychopathology in the caregivers/relatives. These findings highlight the importance of considering fears regarding the loss of mental control within the context of family accommodation in OCD when evaluating functional impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The NCL natural constraint language

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianyang


    This book presents the Natural Constraint Language (NCL) language, a description language in conventional mathematical logic for modeling and solving constraint satisfaction problems. It uses illustrations and tutorials to detail NCL and its applications.

  14. An efficient method for minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function subject to a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function over a region defined by a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint, and two-sided bounds on the variables (box constraints. Such problems are interesting from both theoretical and practical point of view because they arise in some mathematical programming problems as well as in various practical problems such as problems of production planning and scheduling, allocation of resources, decision making, facility location problems, and so forth. Polynomial algorithms are proposed for solving problems of this form and their convergence is proved. Some examples and results of numerical experiments are also presented.

  15. Subjective vs Objective Accommodative Amplitude: Preschool to Presbyopia (United States)

    Anderson, Heather A.; Stuebing, Karla K.


    Purpose This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Methods Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects 3–64 years using a 1.5mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40cm up to 3.33cm. Results In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3–5 year group (subjective push-up = 16.00 ± 4.98D versus objective proximal stimulated = 7.94 ± 2.37D and objective lens stimulated = 6.20 ± 1.99D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6–10 year group (8.81 ± 1.24D and 8.05 ± 1.82D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p<0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference = 0.55D). Conclusions Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia. PMID:25602235

  16. Subjective versus objective accommodative amplitude: preschool to presbyopia. (United States)

    Anderson, Heather A; Stuebing, Karla K


    This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects aged 3 to 64 years using a 1.5-mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33 cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40 cm up to 3.33 cm. In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3- to 5-year group (subjective push-up, 16.00 ± 4.98 diopters [D] vs. objective proximal stimulated, 7.94 ± 2.37 D, and objective lens stimulated, 6.20 ± 1.99 D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6- to 10-year group (8.81 ± 1.24 D and 8.05 ± 1.82 D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p < 0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference, 0.55 D). Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia.

  17. Accommodation of Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna


    Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Anorexia nervosa (AN) can be difficult to manage. Over time, carers can feel

  18. Maximum human objectively measured pharmacologically stimulated accommodative amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzybowski A


    Full Text Available Andrzej Grzybowski,1,2 Ronald A Schachar,3 Magdalena Gaca-Wysocka,2 Ira H Schachar,4 Barbara K Pierscionek5 1Institute for Research in Ophthalmology, Foundation for Ophthalmology Development, Poznan, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland; 3Department of Physics, University of Texas, Arlington, TX, 4Byers Eye Institute of Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 5School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK Purpose: To measure the maximum, objectively measured, accommodative amplitude, produced by pharmacologic stimulation.Methods: Thirty-seven healthy subjects were enrolled, with a mean age of 20.2±1.1 years, corrected visual acuity of 20/20, and mean spherical equivalent refraction (SER =–0.83±1.60 diopters. For each subject, the right pupil was dilated with phenylephrine 10%. After 30 minutes, the pupil was measured, the left eye was patched, and the right eye was autorefracted. Pilocarpine 4% was then instilled in the right eye, followed by phenylephrine. At 45 minutes after the pilocarpine, autorefraction and pupil size were again measured.Results: Mean pupil size pre- and postpilocarpine was 8.0±0.8 mm and 4.4±1.9 mm, respectively. Pre- and postpilocarpine, the mean SER was –0.83±1.60 and –10.55±4.26 diopters, respectively. The mean pilocarpine-induced accommodative amplitude was 9.73±3.64 diopters. Five subjects had accommodative amplitudes ≥14.00 diopters. Accommodative amplitude was not significantly related to baseline SER (p-value =0.24, pre- or postpilocarpine pupil size (p-values =0.13 and 0.74, or change in pupil size (p-value =0.37. Iris color did not statistically significantly affect accommodative amplitude (p-value =0.83.Conclusion: Following topically applied pilocarpine, the induced objectively measured accommodation in the young eye is greater than or equal to the reported subjectively measured voluntary maximum accommodative

  19. A Selfish Constraint Satisfaction Genetic Algorithms for Planning a Long-Distance Transportation Network (United States)

    Onoyama, Takashi; Maekawa, Takuya; Kubota, Sen; Tsuruta, Setuso; Komoda, Norihisa

    To build a cooperative logistics network covering multiple enterprises, a planning method that can build a long-distance transportation network is required. Many strict constraints are imposed on this type of problem. To solve these strict-constraint problems, a selfish constraint satisfaction genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed. In this GA, each gene of an individual satisfies only its constraint selfishly, disregarding the constraints of other genes in the same individuals. Moreover, a constraint pre-checking method is also applied to improve the GA convergence speed. The experimental result shows the proposed method can obtain an accurate solution in a practical response time.

  20. Coverage-based constraints for IMRT optimization. (United States)

    Mescher, H; Ulrich, S; Bangert, M


    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires an incorporation of uncertainties in order to guarantee an adequate irradiation of the tumor volumes. In current clinical practice, uncertainties are accounted for implicitly with an expansion of the target volume according to generic margin recipes. Alternatively, it is possible to account for uncertainties by explicit minimization of objectives that describe worst-case treatment scenarios, the expectation value of the treatment or the coverage probability of the target volumes during treatment planning. In this note we show that approaches relying on objectives to induce a specific coverage of the clinical target volumes are inevitably sensitive to variation of the relative weighting of the objectives. To address this issue, we introduce coverage-based constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Our implementation follows the concept of coverage-optimized planning that considers explicit error scenarios to calculate and optimize patient-specific probabilities [Formula: see text] of covering a specific target volume fraction [Formula: see text] with a certain dose [Formula: see text]. Using a constraint-based reformulation of coverage-based objectives we eliminate the trade-off between coverage and competing objectives during treatment planning. In-depth convergence tests including 324 treatment plan optimizations demonstrate the reliability of coverage-based constraints for varying levels of probability, dose and volume. General clinical applicability of coverage-based constraints is demonstrated for two cases. A sensitivity analysis regarding penalty variations within this planing study based on IMRT treatment planning using (1) coverage-based constraints, (2) coverage-based objectives, (3) probabilistic optimization, (4) robust optimization and (5) conventional margins illustrates the potential benefit of coverage-based constraints that do not require tedious adjustment of target

  1. Accommodation in the Formal World of Mathematical Thinking (United States)

    Stewart, Sepideh; Schmidt, Ralf


    In this study, we examined a mathematician and one of his students' teaching journals and thought processes concurrently as the class was moving towards the proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory. We employed Tall's framework of three worlds of mathematical thinking as well as Piaget's notion of accommodation to theoretically study the…

  2. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (United States)


    ... physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... § 910.34 Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (a) Every development shall incorporate features which will make the development accessible by the physically handicapped. The standards in the “American...

  3. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaines, S.O.; Henderson, M.C.; Kim, M.; Gilstrap, S.; Yi, J.; Rusbult, C.E.; Hardin, D.P.; Gaertner, L.A.


    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect,

  4. The Role of Fundamental Frequency in Phonetic Accommodation (United States)

    Babel, Molly; Bulatov, Dasha


    Previous research has argued that fundamental frequency is a critical component of phonetic accommodation. We tested this hypothesis in an auditory naming task with two conditions. Participants in an Unfiltered Condition completed an auditory naming task with a single male model talker. A second group of participants was assigned to a Filtered…

  5. Disability Accommodations in Online Courses: The Graduate Student Experience (United States)

    Terras, Katherine; Leggio, Joseph; Phillips, Amy


    Research is beginning to demonstrate that online learning may afford students with disabilities enhanced opportunities for academic success. In this study, the authors interviewed 11 graduate students to determine their experiences with disability accommodations in online courses and their perceptions of the relationship between those…

  6. Amplitude of accommodation is reduced in pre-presbyopic diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing exponentially often causing an enormous public health burden due to changing lifestyles. People with diabetes ... The influence of age and duration of diabetes on amplitude of accommodation were analysed using the regression analysis. Results: The mean ...

  7. The importance of the human touch in the luxury accommodation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luxury accommodation is certainly not a new concept as luxury has been closely associated with hospitality since ancient Greek and Roman times, but what guests now want from luxury properties is new – memorable luxury experiences. And it is up to the management and owners to make sure this happens. To date, there ...

  8. Acute Effect of Caffeine on Amplitude of Accommodation and Near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is widely consumed in kola nuts and in other products in Sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the acute effect of caffeine on the amplitude of accommodation and near point of convergence of healthy Nigerians. Forty volunteers between ages of 20 and 27 years with refractive power± 0.50 DS were employed.

  9. Accommodating multilingualism in IT classrooms in the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the language context of Information Technology (IT) classes in the Free State province. An overview of the multilingual context within which the research was done is provided through a brief historical background of language accommodation and recognition in South Africa in general, and then ...

  10. Effect of Magnesium Sulfate (a laxative) on accommodation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO ), a laxative and over-the-counter drug is abusively used by individuals to relieve constipation, hard and inconsistent stool, and after effect of poor diet. Thirty young volunteers of both sexes were administered 15g of MgSO effervescence laxative. The effect of the drug on accommodation, ...

  11. Effects of combined therapy in 80 cases of accommodative esotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate a comprehensive treatment for accommodative esotropia.METHODS: Eighty patients with accommodative esotropia were analyzed. All cases wore corrective glasses 7d after mydriasis by 10g/L atropine. The pupils were all comprehensively trained. If the position of the esotropic eyes could not be corrected by spectacles and both eyes had similar visual acuity in one year, surgical intervention was taken to correct the position. Refraction, visual acuity, visual function and strabismus degree change before and after treatment were evaluated.RESULTS: One year after wearing glasses, 50 cases had corrected eye position through correction and 30 cases were partially accommodative esotropia. Ten cases of esotropia degree >+15△ which could not be complete corrected by cure correction got surgical intervention. Seven cases of them got normal eye positions and 3 cases were over corrected 10△-20△. After comprehensive treatment of 3 years, the cure rate of amblyopia was 88.7%.CONCLUSION: The treatment for accommodative esotropia is a comprehensive course. It is necessary to pay attention to eye position correction, but also for the treatment of amblyopia, while paying attention to establish binocular vision.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Accommodation Infrastructure and Tourism Flows on Feleacu Hill (Cluj County. Feleacu Hill experienced tourism development between 2001 and 2015. The INS data indicates that the number of accommodation units increased from one (2001 to four (2015 and there are a few more which are not registered in the INS database. The accommodation capacity increases, as many guesthouses are expanding their premises to receive more tourists and new accommodation units emerge, such as Hotel Premier in Vâlcele (Feleacu commune. Tourism flows also registered a highly positive trend. The number of arrivals increased from 95 tourists in 2002 to 7791 tourists in 2015. However, there was a downturn between 2009 and 2012, due to the economic crisis and the opening of the Turda – Gilău motorway (A3, which redirected transit routes outside the region and led to the closure of Paradis Hotel in 2012. Since 2012, the number of arrivals and overnight stays increased steadily due to the development of new forms of tourism – rural tourism, agrotourism, extreme tourism and complex tourism, materialized in growing numbers of tourists at the two guesthouses in Ciurila commune (“La Mesteceni” and “Domeniul Regilor”. Tourism brings obvious benefits to the rural communities on Feleacu Hill, even if the average duration of stay is still low.

  13. Health Care Provider Accommodations for Patients with Communication Disorders (United States)

    Burns, Michael I.; Baylor, Carolyn; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Starks, Helene; Yorkston, Kathryn


    Health care providers can experience increased diffculty communicating with adult patients during medical interactions when the patients have communication disorders. Meeting the communication needs of these patients can also create unique challenges for providers. The authors explore Communication Accommodation Theory (H. Giles, 1979) as a guide…

  14. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo


    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  15. The relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Gulden Turgut


    Full Text Available Background: Refraction problems, motor disorders, sensorial disorders, physical and psychic traumas of eye may be responsible for development of strabismus. Anemia may cause sensory-neural disorders in children. We investigated the relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four patients with accommodative esotropia were evaluated. This group was identified as patient group (group 1. Eighty-three pediatric patients, who were not esotropia and only had refraction problems, were identified as control group (group 2. The difference between the groups was statistically analyzed evaluating patients for anemia. Results: 33 of 64 patients with accommodative esotropia in group 1 were male, as 43 of 83 patients with refractive error in group 2 were male. The mean age of patients in group 1 and 2 were 6 ΁ 3.92 and 6.37 ΁ 2.74 (P > 0.05 respectively. There was significant difference between two groups, when mean hemoglobin value of those was compared (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Hb level may affects the accommodative esotropia.

  16. Pseudo-accommodation with intraocular lenses implanted in the bag. (United States)

    Altan-Yaycioglu, Rana; Gözüm, Nilüfer; Gücükoglu, Ahmet


    To evaluate the accommodation potential in eyes after intraocular lens in-the-bag implantation. Fifty-one consecutive patients were included in the study. Group 1 included 26 eyes that had phacoemulsification with continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and in-the-bag implanted foldable IOL. Twenty-five eyes in Group 2 had capsulotomy with extracapsular cataract extraction and were implanted with polymethylmethacrylate IOL. Time elapsed from surgery was at least 6 months. There was no significant difference for age or gender between groups (P > .05). We measured accommodation amplitude and depth of the anterior chamber at distance and near fixation with an ultrasonic biometry device. The results were compared using the unpaired Student t-test. The anterior chamber depths while fixating at a distant object were not significantly different between groups (P>.05), however, at near the difference was statistically significant (P=.008). The change in depths between far and near fixation was significantly different (P=.002) and was more pronounced in the the capsulorhexis group (P < .001). The accommodation amplitudes in this group were significantly greater than in the capsulotomy group (P = .025). Patients who had uncomplicated small incision phacoemulsification surgery with continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and in-the-bag implanted lens seemed to preserve some pseudo-accommodation after surgery.

  17. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8. (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…

  18. The relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children. (United States)

    Turgut, Fethiye Gulden; Yalcin, Elvan; Silfeler, Ibrahim; Balci, Ozlem


    Refraction problems, motor disorders, sensorial disorders, physical and psychic traumas of eye may be responsible for development of strabismus. Anemia may cause sensory-neural disorders in children. We investigated the relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children. Sixty-four patients with accommodative esotropia were evaluated. This group was identified as patient group (group 1). Eighty-three pediatric patients, who were not esotropia and only had refraction problems, were identified as control group (group 2). The difference between the groups was statistically analyzed evaluating patients for anemia. 33 of 64 patients with accommodative esotropia in group 1 were male, as 43 of 83 patients with refractive error in group 2 were male. The mean age of patients in group 1 and 2 were 6 ± 3.92 and 6.37 ± 2.74 (P > 0.05) respectively. There was significant difference between two groups, when mean hemoglobin value of those was compared (P < 0.05). Hb level may affects the accommodative esotropia.

  19. Adjusting western research techniques to accommodate research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to adjust Western research techniques to accommodate research in the indigenous realm. Indigenous knowledge systems require a different approach from Western methodologies of collecting data. Indigenous people take pride in sharing their knowledge as they 'live it' because it cannot be contested ...

  20. Cooperating or competing in three languages : Cultural accommodation or alienation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, Diemo; Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner's dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French,

  1. Reasonable accommodation in EU equality law in a broader perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldschmidt, J.E.


    The Framework Directive on equal treatment in employment and occupation of 2000 introduces the obligation to provide reasonable accommodations to people with disabilities. The author deals with the impact and meaning of this obligation from a human rights perspective. Adopting a substantive

  2. Cooperating or competing in three languages : Cultural accommodation or alienation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, D.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner’s dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French,

  3. Visual Accommodation, the Mandelbaum Effect, and Apparent Size. (United States)


    sympathetic. Pathways for sympathetic involvement are documented. For example, Monney , Morgan, Olmsted, and Wagman (1941) traced the sympathetic fibers...changes and the dark focus of accommodation. Perceotlo and Psychoohvsics, 1978, 24, 437-443. Monney , J. B., Morgan, M. W., Jr., Olmsted, J. M. D., and

  4. When anaphoric and logical discourse markers meet accommodation


    Jayez, Jacques; Rossari, Corinne


    Aim : contribute filling the gap between discourse and lexicon by studying Discourse Markers (DM).General approach: to describe DM in their own right rather than just as manifestations of all-purpose discourse relations (Jayez & Rossari 1998).Importance of dynamic properties. DM constrain the possible arrays of discourse operations.This talk: interaction of DM with accommodation.

  5. Coworker Informal Work Accommodations to Family: Scale Development and Validation (United States)

    Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica; Murase, Toshio; DeChurch, Leslie A.; Jimenez, Miliani


    Drawing on research regarding the utility of coworker support in mitigating work/family conflict, the authors developed a scale to measure Coworker-enacted Informal Work Accommodations to Family (C-IWAF). C-IWAF differs from coworker support in that it describes actual behaviors coworkers engage in to help one another deal with incompatible work…

  6. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities (United States)

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.


    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  7. Accommodating Students' Sensory Learning Modalities in Online Formats (United States)

    Allison, Barbara N.; Rehm, Marsha L.


    Online classes have become a popular and viable method of educating students in both K-12 settings and higher education, including in family and consumer sciences (FCS) programs. Online learning dramatically affects the way students learn. This article addresses how online learning can accommodate the sensory learning modalities (sight, hearing,…

  8. a comparative study of the gradient accommodative convergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vision case analysis, accommodative convergence must be maintained. In binocular vision case ... Graeffe technique and subsequently through a +1.00DS lens and a -100DS lens; the change in phoria brought about by the change in ... Many children who have reading problems or who are learning disabled or dyslexic ...

  9. Can Shneidman's "Ten Commonalities of Suicide" Accommodate Rational Suicide? (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.


    Reviews the concept of rational suicide and compares it with one researcher's list of commonalities of suicide. Claims that the list cannot accommodate rational suicide. Suggests that the list is biased against rational suicide and should be renamed so it cannot be maintained that suicide must be irrational. (RJM)

  10. Accommodations in Homeschool Settings for Children with Special Education Needs (United States)

    Stoudt, Patricia Koelsch


    This qualitative study was designed to examine how homeschooling parents in Pennsylvania make the determination to engage with public school districts to accommodate the special education needs (SEN) of their children. This phenomenological study used direct interviews with 30 Pennsylvania families who are homeschooling children with SEN. Data…

  11. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.A.; Terwee, T.T.; Koopmans, S.A.; Dubbelman, M.; van der Heijde, R.G.L.; Heethaar, R.M.


    Purpose: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. Setting: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Methods:

  12. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Erik A.; Terwee, Thom T.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Dubbelman, Michiel; van der Heijde, Rob G. L.; Heethaar, Rob M.


    PURPOSE: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. SETTING: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. METHODS:

  13. Hydrogels for an accommodating intraocular lens. An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, JH; Spaans, CJ; van Calck, RV; van Beijma, FJ; Norrby, S; Pennings, AJ


    In this study it was investigated whether hydrogels could be used for an accommodating lens. The requirements of such a hydrogels are a low modulus, high refractive index, transparency, and strength. Since conventional hydrogels do not possess this combination of properties, a novel preparation

  14. Evaluating Calculators as Accommodations for Secondary Students with Disabilities (United States)

    Bone, Erin Kae; Bouck, Emily C.


    Students with disabilities often struggle with grade-level mathematics without appropriate support and accommodations. This study compared the performance of middle school students with disabilities on computational-based mathematics assessments when they had access to calculators and when they did not. Using a single-case ABAB design, data were…

  15. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng


    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  16. Accommodation, acuity, and their relationship to emmetropization in infants. (United States)

    Mutti, Donald O; Mitchell, G Lynn; Jones, Lisa A; Friedman, Nina E; Frane, Sara L; Lin, Wendy K; Moeschberger, Melvin L; Zadnik, Karla


    To evaluate the relationship between accommodation, visual acuity, and emmetropization in human infancy. Defocus at distance and near (57 cm) was assessed using Mohindra and dynamic retinoscopy, respectively, in 262 normal birthweight infants at 3, 9, and 18 months of age. Preferential looking provided acuity data at the same ages. The spherical equivalent refractive error was measured by cycloplegic retinoscopy (cyclopentolate 1%). Univariate linear regression analyses showed no associations between the change in refractive error and defocus at distance or near. Change in refractive error was linearly related to the accommodative response at distance (R = 0.17, p < 0.0001) and near (R = 0.13, p < 0.0001). The ten subjects with the poorest emmetropization relative to the change predicted by the linear effects of their refractive error had higher average levels of hyperopic defocus at distance and near (p < 0.043). Logistic regression showed a decrease in the odds of reaching +2.00 diopter or less hyperopia by 18 months with increasing levels of hyperopia at 3 months, or if Mohindra retinoscopy was myopic combined with acuity better than the median level of 1.25 logMAR [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.68 to 0.88)]. The level of cycloplegic refractive error was the best single factor for predicting emmetropization by 18 months of age, with smaller contributions from visual acuity and Mohindra retinoscopy. The lack of correlation between defocus and change in refractive error does not support a simple model of emmetropization in response to the level of hyperopic defocus. Infants were capable of maintaining accurate average levels of accommodation across a range of moderate hyperopic refractive errors at 3 months of age. The association between the change in refractive error and accommodative response suggests that accommodation is a plausible visual signal for emmetropization.

  17. Accommodation Responds to Optical Vergence and Not Defocus Blur Alone. (United States)

    Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Esteve-Taboada, José J; Kruger, Philip B; Montés-Micó, Robert; López-Gil, Norberto


    To determine whether changes in wavefront spherical curvature (optical vergence) are a directional cue for accommodation. Nine subjects participated in this experiment. The accommodation response to a monochromatic target was measured continuously with a custom-made adaptive optics system while astigmatism and higher-order aberrations were corrected in real time. There were two experimental open-loop conditions: vergence-driven condition, where the deformable mirror provided sinusoidal changes in defocus at the retina between -1 and +1 diopters (D) at 0.2 Hz; and blur-driven condition, in which the level of defocus at the retina was always 0 D, but a sinusoidal defocus blur between -1 and +1 D at 0.2 Hz was simulated in the target. Right before the beginning of each trial, the target was moved to an accommodative demand of 2 D. Eight out of nine subjects showed sinusoidal responses for the vergence-driven condition but not for the blur-driven condition. Their average (±SD) gain for the vergence-driven condition was 0.50 (±0.28). For the blur-driven condition, average gain was much smaller at 0.07 (±0.03). The ninth subject showed little to no response for both conditions, with average gain Vergence-driven condition gain was significantly different from blur-driven condition gain (P = 0.004). Accommodation responds to optical vergence, even without feedback, and not to changes in defocus blur alone. These results suggest the presence of a retinal mechanism that provides a directional cue for accommodation from optical vergence.

  18. A qualitative study of nurses' attitudes towards' and accommodations of patients' expressions of religiosity and faith in dementia care. (United States)

    Skomakerstuen Ødbehr, Liv; Kvigne, Kari; Hauge, Solveig; Danbolt, Lars Johan


    To investigate nurses' attitudes towards and accommodations of patients' expressions of religiosity and faith in dementia care. Holistic care for people with dementia addresses patients' religiosity and faith. Nurses' accommodations of patients' religiosity have not been studied extensively even though nurses report a lack of experience and knowledge regarding religious care. This study has a qualitative research design. Eight focus group interviews with 16 nurses and 15 care workers in four Norwegian nursing homes were conducted from June 2011-January 2012. The interview text was analysed using van Manen's hermeneutic-phenomenological approach and Lindseth and Nordberg's structural analysis. The following three main themes reflected the nurses' and care workers' attitudes towards and accommodations of patients' expressions of religiosity and faith: (i) embarrassment vs. comfort, described in the sub-themes 'feelings of embarrassment' and 'religiosity as a private matter'; (ii) unknown religious practice vs. known religious practice, described as 'religious practice that was scary' or 'religious practice that was recognizable'; and (iii) death vs. life, described as 'difficulty talking about death 'or 'focusing on life and the quality of life'. Nurses and care workers were uncertain and lacked knowledge of the patients' expressions of religiosity and faith in terms of both their substance and their function. Nurses struggled with ambivalent feelings about patients' religious expressions and with unclear understanding of the significance of religiosity. These challenges compromised person-centred and holistic care on several occasions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Bifocals Fail to Improve Stereopsis Outcomes in High AC/A Accommodative Esotropia. (United States)

    Whitman, Mary C; MacNeill, Katelyn; Hunter, David G


    To assess whether stereopsis outcomes of patients with accommodative esotropia with high accommodative convergence/accommodation relationship (AC/A) were improved after treatment with bifocal glasses compared with single-vision lenses. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with high AC/A accommodative esotropia; evidence of stereopsis, binocularity (on Worth 4-dot testing), or improvement in near angle with +3.00 D lenses; and at least 4 years of records available for review, who were seen in the Department of Ophthalmology at Boston Children's Hospital between 2006 and 2014. Use of bifocal or single-vision glasses. Charts were reviewed retrospectively. Stereopsis was log transformed for statistical analysis. Linear (for stereopsis) or logistic (for surgery) regression was used to control for confounders. Stereopsis at final follow-up, difference in stereopsis between final and initial visits, and progression to strabismus surgery. Secondary outcomes included final near and distance deviations. Of the 180 patients who met inclusion criteria, 77 used bifocals and 103 used single-vision lenses. Bifocals did not improve stereopsis outcomes compared with single-vision lenses. In both groups, stereopsis was similar at the initial and final visits, with similar improvement in both groups. Children in the bifocal group had a 3.6-fold higher rate of strabismus surgery than children in the single-lens group (P = 0.04.) Additionally, children in the bifocal group had near deviations 4 PD larger than those with single lenses at final follow-up, even after controlling for age and initial deviation (P = 0.02). These results did not change if surgical patients were eliminated or in the subgroup with initial distance deviation of 0 PD in full hyperopic correction. Despite their widespread use, there is no evidence that bifocals improve outcomes in children with accommodative esotropia with high AC/A. In our retrospective review, children with bifocals had higher surgical rates and

  20. Near-Optimal Fingerprinting with Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyás Gábor György


    Full Text Available Several recent studies have demonstrated that people show large behavioural uniqueness. This has serious privacy implications as most individuals become increasingly re-identifiable in large datasets or can be tracked, while they are browsing the web, using only a couple of their attributes, called as their fingerprints. Often, the success of these attacks depends on explicit constraints on the number of attributes learnable about individuals, i.e., the size of their fingerprints. These constraints can be budget as well as technical constraints imposed by the data holder. For instance, Apple restricts the number of applications that can be called by another application on iOS in order to mitigate the potential privacy threats of leaking the list of installed applications on a device. In this work, we address the problem of identifying the attributes (e.g., smartphone applications that can serve as a fingerprint of users given constraints on the size of the fingerprint. We give the best fingerprinting algorithms in general, and evaluate their effectiveness on several real-world datasets. Our results show that current privacy guards limiting the number of attributes that can be queried about individuals is insufficient to mitigate their potential privacy risks in many practical cases.

  1. Istanbul hotels from a 360 0 perspective: A comprehensive view of the Istanbul accommodation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Alvarez


    Full Text Available As destinations are striving to become more competitive and attract visitors and tourists, the performance of its enterprises, including hotels is essential. Despite the significance of research in this area, to date, there are no studies that analyze the accommodation industry of a given destination from a broad perspective, since most of the investigations focus on a specific area of the organization and its relationship with the hotel’s performance. Therefore, the research aims to provide a comprehensive view of the accommodation industry in Istanbul. Moreover, the study will also attempt to establish a standard data collection instrument that can be used in the future as a benchmarking tool. The research will be carried out on a number of complementary perspectives that include management practices, financial performance measures, operational indicators, employee profile and attitudes, customer profile and satisfaction, environmental practices and use and investment in technology. Furthermore, the study attempts to determine the most important factors that affect the performance of the hotels and to explore the relationship between the different variables included.

  2. Freedom, Constraint, or Both? Readings on Popular Music and Gender (United States)

    Bjorck, Cecilia


    This article examines how notions of freedom are linked to popular music practices in previous research literature. The author discusses how two competing discourses depict popular music practices on the one hand as "freedom," and on the other hand as "constraint," and how these ideas relate to gender. She also argues that…

  3. Constraints and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Biskjær, Michael Mose; Lundqvist, Caroline Emilie


    Developing creative abilities is an important part of 21st century skills, and yet remains challenging. In this paper we describe a study investigating small-scale creative strategies that groups of Scandinavian high school students use when collaboratively building LEGO models. We recorded thirty...... groups of students building three models each. We studied groups building with traditional plastic bricks and also using a digital environment. The building tasks students undertake, and our subsequent analysis, are informed by the role constraints and ambiguity play in creative processes. Based...... on the insights we gained, we present three strategies for designing tools and environments that support students as they develop creative skills. These strategies relate to: tools and materials, mutual learning, and reflection...

  4. Relative constraints and evolution (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan G. Diaz


    Several mathematical models of evolving systems assume that changes in the micro-states are constrained to the search of an optimal value in a local or global objective function. However, the concept of evolution requires a continuous change in the environment and species, making difficult the definition of absolute optimal values in objective functions. In this paper, we define constraints that are not absolute but relative to local micro-states, introducing a rupture in the invariance of the phase space of the system. This conceptual basis is useful to define alternative mathematical models for biological (or in general complex) evolving systems. We illustrate this concept with a modified Ising model, which can be useful to understand and model problems like the somatic evolution of cancer.

  5. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due to n...... and sub-concepts, including ‘late’, ‘self-imposed’, and ‘continua of creativity constraints’, to inform future cross-disciplinary work on creativity constraints....

  6. Solving Sudoku with Constraint Programming (United States)

    Crawford, Broderick; Castro, Carlos; Monfroy, Eric

    Constraint Programming (CP) is a powerful paradigm for modeling and solving Complex Combinatorial Problems (generally issued from Decision Making). In this work, we model the known Sudoku puzzle as a Constraint Satisfaction Problems and solve it with CP comparing the performance of different Variable and Value Selection Heuristics in its Enumeration phase. We encourage this kind of benchmark problem because it may suggest new techniques in constraint modeling and solving of complex systems, or aid the understanding of its main advantages and limits.

  7. Constraint-Based Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, G; Bouma, Gosse; Noord, Gertjan van


    We propose a generalization of Categorial Grammar in which lexical categories are defined by means of recursive constraints. In particular, the introduction of relational constraints allows one to capture the effects of (recursive) lexical rules in a computationally attractive manner. We illustrate the linguistic merits of the new approach by showing how it accounts for the syntax of Dutch cross-serial dependencies and the position and scope of adjuncts in such constructions. Delayed evaluation is used to process grammars containing recursive constraints.

  8. Distributed fusion estimation for sensor networks with communication constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wen-An; Song, Haiyu; Yu, Li


    This book systematically presents energy-efficient robust fusion estimation methods to achieve thorough and comprehensive results in the context of network-based fusion estimation. It summarizes recent findings on fusion estimation with communication constraints; several novel energy-efficient and robust design methods for dealing with energy constraints and network-induced uncertainties are presented, such as delays, packet losses, and asynchronous information... All the results are presented as algorithms, which are convenient for practical applications.

  9. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco


    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  10. Deepening Contractions and Collateral Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Ravn, Søren Hove; Santoro, Emiliano

    and occasionally non-binding credit constraints. Easier credit access increases the likelihood that constraints become slack in the face of expansionary shocks, while contractionary shocks are further amplified due to tighter constraints. As a result, busts gradually become deeper than booms. Based...... on the differential impact that occasionally non-binding constraints exert on the shape of expansions and contractions, we are also able to reconcile a more negatively skewed business cycle with a moderation in its volatility. Finally, our model can account for an intrinsic feature of economic downturns preceded...

  11. Adjustment and Optimization of the Cropping Systems under Water Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli An


    Full Text Available The water constraint on agricultural production receives growing concern with the increasingly sharp contradiction between demand and supply of water resources. How to mitigate and adapt to potential water constraint is one of the key issues for ensuring food security and achieving sustainable agriculture in the context of climate change. It has been suggested that adjustment and optimization of cropping systems could be an effective measure to improve water management and ensure food security. However, a knowledge gap still exists in how to quantify potential water constraint and how to select appropriate cropping systems. Here, we proposed a concept of water constraint risk and developed an approach for the evaluation of the water constraint risks for agricultural production by performing a case study in Daxing District, Beijing, China. The results show that, over the whole growth period, the order of the water constraint risks of crops from high to low was wheat, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, summer soybean, summer peanut, spring corn, and summer corn, and the order of the water constraint risks of the cropping systems from high to low was winter wheat-summer grain crops, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, and spring corn. Our results are consistent with the actual evolving process of cropping system. This indicates that our proposed method is practicable to adjust and optimize the cropping systems to mitigate and adapt to potential water risks. This study provides an insight into the adjustment and optimization of cropping systems under resource constraints.

  12. Analytical way to model magnetic transients and accommodation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, J. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Rd OX1 3PJ, Oxford (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:


    The paper demonstrates the use of the model, based on hyperbolic geometry, by applying it on magnetic transient and reptation problems. By using the rules of the natural geometry inside of the major hysteresis loop, the model provides an easy analytical solution to the complex phenomena of reptation, accommodation and the general transient behaviour of hysteretic materials. It compares favourably with published examples selected from the literature and results of other models. The mathematics used is far simpler than that of other models with no need for heavy computer time and time consuming numerical approximation. On reptation the model follows the pattern set by published experimental data. The mathematics described here offers an analytical solution to the problem of accommodation instead of numerical approximation. It provides an ideal tool in experiments and theoretical work alike.

  13. Postoperative efficacy of partial accommodative esotropia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-An Lu


    Full Text Available AIM:To explore the operative opportunity and postoperative effects in patients with partially accommodative esotropia.METHODS: Three stages of the binocular visual function and VEP were observed in different ages with 65 cases of partially accommodative esotropia in preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: The difference in binocular visual function between preoperatively and postoperatively was significant(Z=7.253, P=0.000. The difference in binocular visual function with the difference age of operation was significant(H=6.739, P=0.034. The postoperation latencies were shortened and amplitude values were higher than preoperation(Platency=0.029, Pamplitude=0.037.CONCLUSION: The binocular visual function was improved after surgery. The early correction of eye position will benefit to the binocular visual function.

  14. CHOA concussion consensus: establishing a uniform policy for academic accommodations. (United States)

    Popoli, David Michael; Burns, Thomas G; Meehan, William P; Reisner, Andrew


    Concussion research generally centers on physical challenges, though aspects such as social functioning and returning to school also warrant attention in pediatric populations. Restoring academic performance postconcussion remains a challenge. Here we provide recommendations addressing a uniform policy for pediatric concussion patients in academic institutions. Tools that may minimize difficulty with academic re-entry include independent educational evaluations, individualized educational programs (IEPs), student support teams (SSTs), letters of academic accommodation, time off, and 504 Plans. Recognition and treatment is crucial for symptom relief and prevention of functional disruption, as is specialist referral during the acute window. We recommend early intervention with a letter of academic accommodation and SST and suggest that 504 Plans and IEPs be reserved for protracted or medically complicated cases. Students with concussion should be observed for anxiety and depression because these symptoms can lead to prolonged recovery, decreased quality of life, and other social challenges.

  15. Modeling the convergence accommodation of stereo vision for binocular endoscopy. (United States)

    Gao, Yuanqian; Li, Jinhua; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Shuxin


    The stereo laparoscope is an important tool for achieving depth perception in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS). A dynamic convergence accommodation algorithm is proposed to improve the viewing experience and achieve accurate depth perception. Based on the principle of the human vision system, a positional kinematic model of the binocular view system is established. The imaging plane pair is rectified to ensure that the two rectified virtual optical axes intersect at the fixation target to provide immersive depth perception. Stereo disparity was simulated with the roll and pitch movements of the binocular system. The chessboard test and the endoscopic peg transfer task were performed, and the results demonstrated the improved disparity distribution and robustness of the proposed convergence accommodation method with respect to the position of the fixation target. This method offers a new solution for effective depth perception with the stereo laparoscopes used in robot-assisted MIS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Modifier constraint in alkali borophosphate glasses using topological constraint theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zeng, Huidan, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Jiang, Qi [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Donghui [Unifrax Corporation, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States); Chen, Guorong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Polymer Program, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Chen, Jianding [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)


    In recent years, composition-dependent properties of glasses have been successfully predicted using the topological constraint theory. The constraints of the glass network are derived from two main parts: network formers and network modifiers. The constraints of the network formers can be calculated on the basis of the topological structure of the glass. However, the latter cannot be accurately calculated in this way, because of the existing of ionic bonds. In this paper, the constraints of the modifier ions in phosphate glasses were thoroughly investigated using the topological constraint theory. The results show that the constraints of the modifier ions are gradually increased with the addition of alkali oxides. Furthermore, an improved topological constraint theory for borophosphate glasses is proposed by taking the composition-dependent constraints of the network modifiers into consideration. The proposed theory is subsequently evaluated by analyzing the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature in alkali borophosphate glasses. This method is supposed to be extended to other similar glass systems containing alkali ions.

  17. Evolution of growth by genetic accommodation in Icelandic freshwater stickleback


    Robinson, Beren W


    Classical Darwinian adaptation to a change in environment can ensue when selection favours beneficial genetic variation. How plastic trait responses to new conditions affect this process depends on how plasticity reveals to selection the influence of genotype on phenotype. Genetic accommodation theory predicts that evolutionary rate may sharply increase when a new environment induces plastic responses and selects on sufficient genetic variation in those responses to produce an immediate evolu...

  18. Can the EU’s constitutional framework accommodate democratic politics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scicluna Nicole


    Full Text Available The robustness of the EU’s constitutional framework – and its ability to accommodate democratic politics – is challenged as never before. The growing disconnect between formally democratic procedures and substantive choice is well illustrated by the Greek crisis. Since its first bailout in May 2010, Greece has held four general elections and a referendum. Yet, the anti-austerity preferences of the Greek electorate have not been effectively translated into policy.

  19. Imposed anisometropia, accommodation, and regulation of refractive state. (United States)

    Troilo, David; Totonelly, Kristen; Harb, Elise


    To determine the effects of imposed anisometropic retinal defocus on accommodation, ocular growth, and refractive state changes in marmosets. Marmosets were raised with extended-wear soft contact lenses for an average duration of 10 weeks beginning at an average age of 76 d. Experimental animals wore either a positive or negative power contact lens over one eye and a plano lens or no lens over the other. Another group wore binocular lenses of equal magnitude but opposite sign. Untreated marmosets served as controls and three wore plano lenses monocularly. Cycloplegic refractive state, corneal curvature, and vitreous chamber depth were measured before, during, and after the period of lens wear. To investigate the accommodative response, the effective refractive state was measured through each anisometropic condition at varying accommodative stimuli positions using an infrared refractometer. Eye growth and refractive state are significantly correlated with the sign and power of the contact lens worn. The eyes of marmosets reared with monocular negative power lenses had longer vitreous chambers and were myopic relative to contralateral control eyes (p lenses produced a significant reduction in vitreous chamber depth and hyperopia relative to the contralateral control eyes (p lenses of opposite sign, we found larger interocular differences in vitreous chamber depths and refractive state (p lenses, however, the mean effective refractive state was still hyperopia in the negative-lens-treated eyes and myopia in the positive-lens-treated eyes. Imposed anisometropia effectively alters marmoset eye growth and refractive state to compensate for the imposed defocus. The response to imposed hyperopia is larger and faster than the response to imposed myopia. The pattern of accommodation under imposed anisometropia produces effective refractive states that are consistent with the changes in eye growth and refractive state observed.

  20. Accommodation and the Visual Regulation of Refractive State in Marmosets (United States)

    Troilo, David; Totonelly, Kristen; Harb, Elise


    Purpose To determine the effects of imposed anisometropic retinal defocus on accommodation, ocular growth, and refractive state changes in marmosets. Methods Marmosets were raised with extended-wear soft contact lenses for an average duration of 10 wks beginning at an average age of 76 d. Experimental animals wore either a positive or negative contact lens over one eye and a plano lens or no lens over the other. Another group wore binocular lenses of equal magnitude but opposite sign. Untreated marmosets served as controls and three wore plano lenses monocularly. Cycloplegic refractive state, corneal curvature, and vitreous chamber depth were measured before, during, and after the period of lens wear. To investigate the accommodative response, the effective refractive state was measured through each anisometropic condition at varying accommodative stimuli positions using an infrared refractometer. Results Eye growth and refractive state are significantly correlated with the sign and power of the contact lens worn. The eyes of marmosets reared with monocular negative power lenses had longer vitreous chambers and were myopic relative to contralateral control eyes (plenses produced a significant reduction in vitreous chamber depth and hyperopia relative to the contralateral control eyes (plenses of opposite sign, we found larger interocular differences in vitreous chamber depths and refractive state (plenses, however, the mean effective refractive state was still hyperopia in the negative-lens-treated eyes and myopia in the positive-lens-treated eyes. Conclusions Imposed anisometropia effectively alters marmoset eye growth and refractive state to compensate for the imposed defocus. The response to imposed hyperopia is larger and faster than the response to imposed myopia. The pattern of accommodation under imposed anisometropia produces effective refractive states that are consistent with the changes in eye growth and refractive state observed. PMID:19104464

  1. Accommodating interruptions: A grounded theory of young people with asthma. (United States)

    Hughes, Mary; Savage, Eileen; Andrews, Tom


    The aim of this study was to develop an explanatory theory on the lives of young people with asthma, issues affecting them and the impact of asthma on their day-to-day lives. Accommodating Interruptions is a theory that explains young people's concerns about living with asthma. Although national and international asthma management guidelines exist, it is accepted that the symptom control of asthma among the young people population is poor. This study was undertaken using Classic Grounded Theory. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and clinic consultations with young people aged 11-16 years who had asthma for over 1 year. Data were also collected from participant diaries. Constant comparative analysis, theoretical coding and memo writing were used to develop the substantive theory. The theory explains how young people resolve their main concern of being restricted by Accommodating Interruptions in their lives. They do this by assimilating behaviours in balance finding, moderating influence, fitting in and assuming control minimising the effects of asthma on their everyday lives. The theory of Accommodating Interruptions explains young people's asthma management behaviours in a new way. It allows us to understand how and why young people behave the way they do because they want to participate and be included in everyday activities, events and relationships. The theory adds to the body of knowledge on how young people with asthma live their day-to-day lives and it challenges some existing viewpoints in the literature regarding their behaviours. The findings have implications for developing services to support young people in a more meaningful way as they accommodate the interruptions associated with asthma in their lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Propagation and Evolution of Design Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nair, V. V.; Howard, Thomas J.; Culley, S. J.


    for an adaptive solution until the 3rd stage-gate of the project. The researcher acted as project manager of the design project using a participatory action research methodology. During the design work the researcher recorded and classified the various design constraints introduced and propagated throughout...... the design project.Where it was hypothesised that the variant design type will contain all constraints of the adaptive design with additional ones, the study should this not to be the case. The study also revealed that contrary to popular belief, changes at higher systems levels may exhibit less creativity......The research in this paper reports a case study of a design project which had two scopes for a variant and an adaptive design type. This is quite common practice where designers commonly propose short and long term solutions to design problems. In this particular case, preference was not voiced...

  3. Usage of CISS and Conlon surveys in eye accommodation studies (United States)

    Panke, Karola; Svede, Aiga; Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Krumina, Gunta


    To date, there is no assessment of more than one survey used for a clinical research study that address subjects with and without symptoms related to accommodative or binocular vision disorders. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate two different surveys - CISS and Conlon for the same subject group and analyse also critical visual function parameters. Monocular and binocular accommodative response for 20 subjects was measured for dominant eye with openfield infrared autorefractometer (Shin-Nippon SRW-5000) at three distances (24 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm). Subjects were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic group using cut off score 21 for CISS and 20 for Conlon survey. We found positive exponential growth relationship between CISS and Conlon scores (R² = 0.7), but separation between symptomatic and asymptomatic group differed significantly depending on which survey was used. We found positive correlation between Conlon score and exophoria at 30 cm (r=0.41, p=0.01) and 24 cm (r=0.27, p=0.03). Relationship between subjective symptoms and following clinical parameters - accommodation lag (r history and tool to measure patient satisfaction and results of treatment effectiveness instead of using them for clinical trials as a criteria to divide symptomatic and asymptomatic group.

  4. Effect of vergence adaptation on convergence-accommodation: model simulations. (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R; Irving, Elizabeth L; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan


    Several theoretical control models depict the adaptation effects observed in the accommodation and vergence mechanisms of the human visual system. Two current quantitative models differ in their approach of defining adaptation and in identifying the effect of controller adaptation on their respective cross-links between the vergence and accommodative systems. Here, we compare the simulation results of these adaptation models with empirical data obtained from emmetropic adults when they performed sustained near task through + 2D lens addition. The results of our experimental study showed an initial increase in exophoria (a divergent open-loop vergence position) and convergence-accommodation (CA) when viewing through +2D lenses. Prolonged fixation through the near addition lenses initiated vergence adaptation, which reduced the lens-induced exophoria and resulted in a concurrent reduction of CA. Both models showed good agreement with empirical measures of vergence adaptation. However, only one model predicted the experimental time course of reduction in CA. The pattern of our empirical results seem to be best described by the adaptation model that indicates the total vergence response to be a sum of two controllers, phasic and tonic, with the output of phasic controller providing input to the cross-link interactions.

  5. Workplace accommodations and job success for persons with bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Tremblay, Carol Horton


    This research seeks to identify job characteristics and workplace policies conducive to the job success of individuals with bipolar disorder, and to examine the interactions between employers and bipolar employees regarding requested workplace accommodations. The study population consists of 39 adults who were in outpatient care and diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder. Each participant completed a mail-in questionnaire regarding workplace characteristics that would enhance job performance. Primary beneficial work characteristics reported are schedule flexibility, autonomy, and supervisor willingness to provide accommodations. Specific helpful characteristics noted by participants include allowances for working at home, leaves of absence, frequent breaks, barriers between work spaces, control over goal-setting, creativity, and avoidance of jobs with pace set by machinery. Twelve of the 26 workers requested workplace changes, and of the 12 requests, 10 were implemented. Incidents of employer bias were reported. The experiences of the survey participants regarding beneficial workplace accommodations may help to improve the productivity and well-being of other individuals with bipolar disorder.

  6. The Generalization of Auditory Accommodation to Altered Spectral Cues. (United States)

    Watson, Christopher J G; Carlile, Simon; Kelly, Heather; Balachandar, Kapilesh


    The capacity of healthy adult listeners to accommodate to altered spectral cues to the source locations of broadband sounds has now been well documented. In recent years we have demonstrated that the degree and speed of accommodation are improved by using an integrated sensory-motor training protocol under anechoic conditions. Here we demonstrate that the learning which underpins the localization performance gains during the accommodation process using anechoic broadband training stimuli generalize to environmentally relevant scenarios. As previously, alterations to monaural spectral cues were produced by fitting participants with custom-made outer ear molds, worn during waking hours. Following acute degradations in localization performance, participants then underwent daily sensory-motor training to improve localization accuracy using broadband noise stimuli over ten days. Participants not only demonstrated post-training improvements in localization accuracy for broadband noises presented in the same set of positions used during training, but also for stimuli presented in untrained locations, for monosyllabic speech sounds, and for stimuli presented in reverberant conditions. These findings shed further light on the neuroplastic capacity of healthy listeners, and represent the next step in the development of training programs for users of assistive listening devices which degrade localization acuity by distorting or bypassing monaural cues.

  7. Employers’ Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Workers With Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janki Shankar


    Full Text Available Many individuals with mental illness want to return to work and stay in employment. Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce. The aim of the current research was to explore the challenges employers face and the support they need to hire and accommodate workers with mental illness (WWMI. A qualitative research design guided by a grounded theory approach was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 employers selected from a wide range of industries in and around Edmonton, Canada. The employers were a mix of frontline managers, disability consultants, and human resource managers who had direct experience with hiring and supervising WWMI. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. The findings highlight several challenges that employers face when dealing with mental health issues of workers in the workplace. These challenges can act as barriers to hiring and accommodating WWMI.

  8. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning


    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...

  9. Constraints in vector meson photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, F


    Constraints are discussed for spin observables extracted from photoproduction of vector mesons. These constraints originate from positivity of the spin density matrix and should be part of any future analysis of experimental data. Spin observables need to be defined in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame.

  10. Constraints in Vector Meson Photoproduction (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tabakin, F.


    Constraints are discussed for spin observables extracted from photoproduction of vector mesons. These constraints originate from positivity of the spin density matrix and should be part of any future analysis of experimental data. Spin observables need to be defined in the photon-nucleon c.m. frame.

  11. Thermodynamic Constraints Improve Metabolic Networks. (United States)

    Krumholz, Elias W; Libourel, Igor G L


    In pursuit of establishing a realistic metabolic phenotypic space, the reversibility of reactions is thermodynamically constrained in modern metabolic networks. The reversibility constraints follow from heuristic thermodynamic poise approximations that take anticipated cellular metabolite concentration ranges into account. Because constraints reduce the feasible space, draft metabolic network reconstructions may need more extensive reconciliation, and a larger number of genes may become essential. Notwithstanding ubiquitous application, the effect of reversibility constraints on the predictive capabilities of metabolic networks has not been investigated in detail. Instead, work has focused on the implementation and validation of the thermodynamic poise calculation itself. With the advance of fast linear programming-based network reconciliation, the effects of reversibility constraints on network reconciliation and gene essentiality predictions have become feasible and are the subject of this study. Networks with thermodynamically informed reversibility constraints outperformed gene essentiality predictions compared to networks that were constrained with randomly shuffled constraints. Unconstrained networks predicted gene essentiality as accurately as thermodynamically constrained networks, but predicted substantially fewer essential genes. Networks that were reconciled with sequence similarity data and strongly enforced reversibility constraints outperformed all other networks. We conclude that metabolic network analysis confirmed the validity of the thermodynamic constraints, and that thermodynamic poise information is actionable during network reconciliation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.


    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  13. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints (United States)

    Johnson, William R.


    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  14. Integrity Constraints in Trust Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Winsborough, William H.

    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust managementstyle authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then we address the fact that not all participants in a trust

  15. Conservation constraints on random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Wen Jong; Hsieh, J


    We study the random matrices constrained by the summation rules that are present in the Hessian of the potential energy surface in the instantaneous normal mode calculations, as a result of momentum conservation. In this paper, we analyse the properties related to such conservation constraints in two classes of real symmetric matrices: one with purely row-wise summation rules and the other with the constraints on the blocks of each matrix, which underscores partially the spatial dimension. We show explicitly that the constraints are removable by separating the degrees of freedom of the zero-eigenvalue modes. The non-spectral degrees of freedom under the constraints can be realized in terms of the ordinary constraint-free orthogonal symmetry but with the rank deducted by the block dimension. We propose that the ensemble of real symmetric matrices with full randomness, constrained by the summation rules, is equivalent to the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) with lowered rank. Independent of the joint probabil...

  16. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff


    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint...... space and answers linear-constraint queries using an optimal number of I/Os in the worst case. For d=3, we present a near-linear-size data structure that answers queries using an optimal number of I/Os on the average. We present linear-size data structures that can answer d-dimensional linear-constraint...

  17. Disparity-driven vs blur-driven models of accommodation and convergence in binocular vision and intermittent strabismus. (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M


    To propose an alternative and practical model to conceptualize clinical patterns of concomitant intermittent strabismus, heterophoria, and convergence and accommodation anomalies. Despite identical ratios, there can be a disparity- or blur-biased "style" in three hypothetical scenarios: normal; high ratio of accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) and low ratio of convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C); low AC/A and high CA/C. We calculated disparity bias indices (DBI) to reflect these biases and provide early objective data from small illustrative clinical groups that fit these styles. Normal adults (n = 56) and children (n = 24) showed disparity bias (adult DBI 0.43 [95% CI, 0.50-0.36], child DBI 0.20 [95% CI, 0.31-0.07]; P = 0.001). Accommodative esotropia (n = 3) showed less disparity-bias (DBI 0.03). In the high AC/A-low CA/C scenario, early presbyopia (n = 22) showed mean DBI of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.28-0.06), compared to DBI of -0.31 in convergence excess esotropia (n=8). In the low AC/A-high CA/C scenario near exotropia (n = 17) showed mean DBI of 0.27. DBI ranged between 1.25 and -1.67. Establishing disparity or blur bias adds to AC/A and CA/C ratios to explain clinical patterns. Excessive bias or inflexibility in near-cue use increases risk of clinical problems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah


    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  19. Priorities in Accommodating office user preferences : Impact on office users decision to stay or go

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remøy, HT; van der Voordt, Theo


    Purpose When current accommodation is unsatisfactory, office organisations consider relocating to new accommodation that optimally facilitates their main processes and supports image and financial yield. However, due to high vacancy levels, public opinion and governmental awareness oppose new office

  20. Framing effectiveness in impact assessment: Discourse accommodation in controversial infrastructure development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozema, Jaap G., E-mail: [Science, Society and Sustainability (3S) Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, DK-2450 København SV (Denmark); Bond, Alan J. [Science, Society and Sustainability (3S) Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Internal Box 375, North West University (Potchefstroom campus) (South Africa)


    There is ongoing debate about the effectiveness of impact assessment tools, which matters both because of the threat to future practice of the tools which are frequently perceived to be ineffective, and because of the disillusionment that can ensue, and controversy generated, amongst stakeholders in a decision context where opportunities for meaningful debate have not been provided. In this article we regard debate about the meaning of effectiveness in impact assessment as an inevitable consequence of increased participation in environmental decision-making, and therefore frame effectiveness based on an inclusive democracy role to mean the extent to which impact assessment can accommodate civil society discourse. Our aim is to investigate effectiveness based on this framing by looking at one type of impact assessment – environmental impact assessment (EIA) – in two controversial project proposals: the HS2 rail network in England; and the A4DS motorway in the Netherlands. Documentary analysis and interviews held with key civil society stakeholders have been deployed to identify discourses that were mobilised in the cases. EIA was found to be able to accommodate only one out of four discourses that were identified; for the other three it did not provide the space for the arguments that characterised opposition. The conclusion in relation to debate on framings of effectiveness is that EIA will not be considered effective by the majority of stakeholders. EIA was established to support decision-making through a better understanding of impacts, so its ineffectiveness is unsurprising when its role is perceived to be broader. However, there remains a need to map discourses in different decision contexts and to analyse the extent to which the range of discourses are accommodated throughout the decision process, and the role of impact assessment in those processes, before recommendations can be made to either improve impact assessment effectiveness, or whether it is


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.W. Groves


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The technology of Constraint Programming is rapidly becoming a popular alternative for solving large-scale industry problems. This paper provides an introduction to Constraint Programming and to Constraint Logic Programming (CLP, an enabler of constraint programming. The use of Constraint Logic Programming is demonstrated by describing a system developed for scheduling university timetables. Timetabling problems have a high degree of algorithmic complexity (they are usually NP-Complete, and share features with scheduling problems encountered in industry. The system allows the declaration of both hard requirements, which must always be satisfied, and soft constraints which need not be satisfied, though this would be an advantage.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel beskryf ’n familie van probleem-oplossingstegnieke bekend as “Constraint Programming”, wat al hoe meer gebruik word om groot-skaalse industriële probleme op te los. Die nut van hierdie tegnieke word gedemonstreer deur die beskrywing van ’n skeduleringsisteem om die roosters vir ’n universiteit te genereer. Roosterskeduleringsprobleme is in praktiese gevalle NP-volledig en deel baie eienskappe met industriële skeduleringsprobleme. Die sisteem wat hier beskryf word maak gebruik van beide harde beperkings (wat altyd bevredig moet word en sagte beperkings (bevrediging hiervan is wel voordelig maar dit is opsioneel.

  2. Logistics in providing private accommodation services in Primorsko-goranska county


    Mrnjavac, Edna; Pavia, Nadia; Cerović, Marta


    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to find a concept for optimizing cost and revenue from providing private accommodation services. The aim is to display how linking all participants who provide private accommodation services into a logistics network will result in better and higher quality service for the guest and in reduced cost for the private accommodation provider. Design – This study researches private accommodation providers in the Primorsko - Goranska County. Primorsko - Goran...

  3. Overlapping constraint for variational surface reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Solem, J.E.


    In this paper a counter example, illustrating a shortcoming in most variational formulations for 3D surface estimation, is presented. The nature of this shortcoming is a lack of an overlapping constraint. A remedy for this shortcoming is presented in the form of a penalty function with an analysi...... of the effects of this function on surface motion. For practical purposes, this will only have minor influence on current methods. However, the insight provided in the analysis is likely to influence future developments in the field of variational surface reconstruction....

  4. Accommodative response/stimulus by dynamic retinoscopy: near add guidelines. (United States)

    Goss, David A; Rana, Sania; Ramolia, Julie


    Monocular estimation method (MEM) dynamic retinoscopy and low neutral (LN) dynamic retinoscopy are common procedures for evaluating the need for near-point plus adds for improved near-point performance in non-presbyopes. A combination of MEM and LN has been suggested to be a method of plotting accommodative response/accommodative stimulus functions and evaluating guidelines for prescribing from MEM. Using a combined MEM-LN procedure, MEM was performed on 80 young adults at 40 cm, with distance correction and with plus adds in 0.25 D steps up to and including +2.00 D. Modified Thorington dissociated phorias were also performed with each of the plus adds. Subjects picked a preferred add, which subjectively made print easiest and most comfortable to read. The mean preferred add was +0.58 D over the distance prescription. The add derived from subtracting 0.25 D from the lag of accommodation with distance correction averaged 0.10 D more plus than the preferred add. The add at which dynamic retinoscopy showed a "with" motion of 0.25 D averaged 0.54 more plus than the preferred add. The add at which dynamic retinoscopy showed a "with" motion of 0.50 D averaged 0.16 more plus than the preferred add. Adds derived from subtracting 0.25 D from the lag with distance correction and from finding the add that yields 0.50 D of "with" motion compared favorably with the preferred adds on average, but the standard deviations of the differences were high. Those guidelines could be reasonable starting points for the prescription of near-point plus adds for non-presbyopes, but follow-up testing to confirm or adjust add power would be advisable in the clinical setting.

  5. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies. (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar


    To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects' symptoms. We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  6. Accommodating negative intracluster correlation with a mixed effects logistic model for bivariate binary data. (United States)

    Ten Have, T R; Kunselman, A; Zharichenko, E


    We extend the random intercept logistic model to accommodate negative intracluster correlations for bivariate binary response data. This approach assumes a single random effect per cluster, but entails separate affine transformations of this random effect for the two responses of the pair. We show this approach works for two data sets and a simulation, whereas other mixed effects approaches fail. The two data sets are from a crossover trial and a developmental toxicity study of the effects of chemical exposure on malformation risk among rat pups. Comparisons are made with the conditional likelihood approach and with generalized estimating equations estimation of the population-averaged logit model. Simulations show the conditional likelihood approach does not perform well for moderate to strong negative correlations, as a positive intracluster correlation is assumed. The proposed mixed effects approach appears to be slightly more conservative than the population-averaged approach with respect to coverage of confidence intervals. Nonetheless, the statistical literature suggests that mixed effects models provide information in addition to that provided by population-averaged models under scientific contexts such as crossover trials. Extensions to trivariate and higher-dimensional responses also are addressed. However, such extensions require certain constraints on the correlation structure.

  7. Misfit strain accommodation in epitaxial ABO3 perovskites: lattice distortions and lattice modulations (United States)

    Vailionis, A.; Boschker, H.; Houwman, E.; Koster, G.; Rijnders, G.; Blank, D. H.


    Transition-metal oxides exhibit variety of magnetic, electronic and structural properties due to the presence of strong electron-electron and electron-lattice correlations. For epitaxial ABO3 films substrate-induced biaxial stress is an effective tool to modify the electron-lattice coupling. We present a microstructural study of the lattice effects in SrRuO3 and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films grown under different tensile and compressive stresses. Due to the symmetry constraints, the ``pseudocubic'' perovskite unit cell does not reveal the diversity of distortions and tilts of BO6 octahedra which play a significant role in magnetic and electronic properties of the ABO3 perovskites. We show that the lattice distortions in perovskite thin films under misfit stress can be quantitatively described by assuming a lower symmetry unit cell: tetragonal, orthorhombic or monoclinic. The results demonstrate that the misfit strain modifies the degree and direction of BO6 octahedra distortions and rotations via structural transitions between tetragonal and orthorhombic unit cells as well as lattice modulations. The coherently strained films exhibit stress relief mechanism that is highly anisotropic along perpendicular in-plane directions. Such anisotropic stress accommodation is believed to affect anisotropic magnetic or electronic properties.

  8. Analysis of optical flow constraints. (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C


    Different constraint equations have been proposed in the literature for the derivation of optical flow. Despite of the large number of papers dealing with computational techniques to estimate optical flow, only a few authors have investigated conditions under which these constraints exactly model the velocity field, that is, the perspective projection on the image plane of the true 3-D velocity. These conditions are analyzed under different hypotheses, and the departures of the constraint equations in modeling the velocity field are derived for different motion conditions. Experiments are also presented giving measures of these departures and of the induced errors in the estimation of the velocity field.

  9. Accommodations assessment: Spaceborne Doppler lidar wind measuring system (United States)


    An accommodations analysis performed by the MSFC Preliminary Design Office for a spaceborne Doppler lidar wind measuring system is summarized. A dedicated, free-flying spacecraft design concept is described. Mass and beginning-of-life power requirements are estimated at 2260 kg and 6.0 - 8.5 kW respectively, to support a pulsed, CO2, Doppler lidar having a pulse energy of 10 J, pulse rate of 8 Hz, and efficiency of approximately 5%. Under the assumptions of the analysis, such a system would provide wind measurements on a global scale, with accuracies of a few meters per second.

  10. Accommodating Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Employees. (United States)

    Stiles, Holly


    Hearing loss is the 2nd most prevalent health issue around the world; in the US, about 1 in 5 people, and 3 in 5 combat veterans, have some amount of hearing loss [1]. Managers or supervisors will inevitably have an employee who has some degree of hearing loss. Employers have a legal obligation to make reasonable accommodations that enable employees with disabilities, including hearing loss, to be successful in the workplace. ©2017 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  11. Maxwell boundary condition and velocity dependent accommodation coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struchtrup, Henning, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2 (Canada)


    A modification of Maxwell's boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation is developed that allows to incorporate velocity dependent accommodation coefficients into the microscopic description. As a first example, it is suggested to consider the wall-particle interaction as a thermally activated process with three parameters. A simplified averaging procedure leads to jump and slip boundary conditions for hydrodynamics. Coefficients for velocity slip, temperature jump, and thermal transpiration flow are identified and compared with those resulting from the original Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis model. An extension of the model leads to temperature dependent slip and jump coefficients.

  12. Maxwell boundary condition and velocity dependent accommodation coefficient (United States)

    Struchtrup, Henning


    A modification of Maxwell's boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation is developed that allows to incorporate velocity dependent accommodation coefficients into the microscopic description. As a first example, it is suggested to consider the wall-particle interaction as a thermally activated process with three parameters. A simplified averaging procedure leads to jump and slip boundary conditions for hydrodynamics. Coefficients for velocity slip, temperature jump, and thermal transpiration flow are identified and compared with those resulting from the original Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis model. An extension of the model leads to temperature dependent slip and jump coefficients.

  13. The Effects of Testing Accommodations on Students' Performances and Reactions to Testing (United States)

    Lang, Sylvia C.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.


    This study examined the effects of testing accommodations on students' test performances and reactions to the use of testing accommodations. Participants (N = 170) were fourth- and eighth-grade students, with and without disabilities. All students were administered, with and without accommodations, equivalent forms of widely used math and reading…

  14. The Neural Bases of Reading: The Accommodation of the Brain's Reading Network to Writing Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perfetti, C.A.; Liu, Y.; Fiez, J.; Tan, L.H.; Cornelissen, P.; Hansen, P.; Kringelbach, M.; Pugh, K.


    This chapter explores the highly contrastive cases of English and Chinese to examine how the neural basis of reading accommodates variability in the structure of languages. The notion of accommodation, in fact, is central to the analysis. It argues that the reading network must accommodate variation

  15. Arrangement and method for accommodating a sample in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, H.W.


    Abstract of NL 9402226 (A) The invention relates to an arrangement for accommodating a sample in an electron microscope, equipped with a sample holder which comprises sample accommodation means and is designed for at least partial accommodation in an electron microscope, where at least one sample

  16. Age-related changes in accommodation measured with a double-pass system. (United States)

    Aldaba, Mikel; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Arjona, Montserrat; Pujol, Jaume


    To measure the accommodative response in a wide age range population using the retinal image quality assessments provided by a double-pass system. The accommodative response was measured using a custom-built double-pass setup in 84 patients from 15 to 55 years of age. Patients were classified in four groups (A: 15-25 year old; B: 26-35; C: 36-45; D: 46-55). Accommodation was stimulated from 0 to 5 dioptres (D) with the push up method using an open field fixation test. The total accommodative response in the stimulated range, the accommodative stimulus-response curve, the slope and the progression of optical quality with accommodation were measured. The total accommodation obtained in groups A and B was high, with a mean value of 4 D or higher, whereas values in older individuals were significantly lower. The accommodative stimulus-response curve and the slope were also high with a sudden decrease in patients over 35 years of age. The optical quality of the eye during accommodation did not change significantly. Participants aged 15-35 years showed a good accommodative response. Thereafter, a significant decrease of the response in the total accommodation, stimulus response curve and slope was observed. The younger groups showed a larger accommodative response than previously published. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  17. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners (United States)

    Abedi, Jamal


    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  18. Topology Optimization with Stress Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbart, A.


    This thesis contains contributions to the development of topology optimization techniques capable of handling stress constraints. The research that led to these contributions was motivated by the need for topology optimization techniques more suitable for industrial applications. Currently, topology

  19. Decentralized systems with design constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S


    This volume provides a rigorous examination of the analysis, stability and control of large-scale systems, and addresses the difficulties that arise because of dimensionality, information structure constraints, parametric uncertainty and time-delays.

  20. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjær, Michael Mose


    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due...... to no overall conceptual framing or shared terminology. This lack of unity hinders overt opportunities for cross-disciplinary interchange. We argue that an improved understanding of constraints in creativity holds a promising potential for advancements in creativity research across domains and disciplines. Here......, we give an overview of the growing, but incohesive body of research into creativity and constraints, which leads us to introduce ‘creativity constraints’ as a unifying concept to help bridge these disjoint contributions to facilitate crossdisciplinary interchange. Finally, we suggest key topics...

  1. Homebirth transfers in the United States: narratives of risk, fear, and mutual accommodation. (United States)

    Cheyney, Melissa; Everson, Courtney; Burcher, Paul


    The purpose of this study was to explore the contested space of home-to-hospital transfers that occur during labor or in the immediate postpartum period, as a means of identifying the mechanisms that maintain philosophical and practice divides between homebirth midwives and hospital-based clinicians in the United States. Using data collected from open-ended, semistructured interviews, participant observation, and reciprocal ethnography, we identified six key themes-three from each provider type. Collectively, providers' narratives illuminate the central stressors that characterize home-to-hospital transfers, and from these, we identify three larger sociopolitical mechanisms that we argue are functioning to maintain fractured articulations at the time of transfer. These mechanisms impede efficient and mutually respectful interactions and can result in costly delays. However, they also contain the seeds of possible solutions, and thus are important starting points for developing an integrated maternity system premised on mutual accommodation and seamless articulations across all delivery locations.

  2. Comparing family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, and nonanxious children. (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Jones, Johnna


    Family accommodation describes ways in which parents modify their behavior to help a child avoid or alleviate distress caused by emotional disorders. Accommodation is associated with increased symptom severity, lower functioning, and poorer treatment outcomes. Accommodation is prevalent in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) but no studies have compared accommodation in these groups or compared them to healthy controls to ascertain if accommodation is prevalent in the general population. This study addresses these gaps by comparing patterns of accommodation, factors that maintain accommodation, and its relation to symptom severity in OCD and AD, relative to healthy controls. We directly compared reports of accommodation to childhood OCD (N = 26) and AD (N = 31), and a comparison group of nonanxious (NA) children (N = 30). Mothers completed measures of accommodation (Family Accommodation Scale (FAS)/Family Accommodation Scale-Anxiety (FASA)), anxiety (Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Parent Report (SCARED-PR)), and OCD (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS)). Family accommodation is prevalent among mothers of children with OCD and AD. Few differences were found between the two clinical groups who reported more accommodation (F[2,84] = 23.411, P anxiety in AD (r = .426, P = .017) and OCD (r = .465, P = .017), but not in the NA group. Findings highlight family accommodation as a phenomenon that applies broadly and in a similar manner to children with AD and OCD. Evaluating accommodation provides useful information for clinical care and is an important part of the assessment of children with AD and OCD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds (United States)

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.


    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.

  4. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth


    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  5. Correlation between ocular parameters and amplitude of accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lekha


    Full Text Available Aim: To study the relationship between ocular parameters and amplitude of accommodation (AA in the peri-presbyopic age group (35-50 years. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years, who attended our outpatient clinic, were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20, J1 in both eyes were included. The AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation. The axial length (AL, central anterior chamber depth (CACD and lens thickness (LT were also measured. Results: There was moderate correlation (Pearson′s correlation coefficient r = 0.56 between AL and AA as well as between CACD and AA (r = 0.53 in myopes in the age group 35-39 years. In the other age groups and the groups taken as a whole, there was no correlation. In hypermetropes and emmetropes, there was no correlation between AA and the above ocular parameters. No significant correlation existed between LT and AA across different age groups and refractive errors. Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between AA and ocular parameters like anterior chamber depth, AL and LT.

  6. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation? (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McAuliffe, Michael; Haber, Graham


    This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  7. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly eBabel


    Full Text Available This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  8. Can Leverage Constraints Help Investors?


    Heimer, Rawley


    This paper provides causal evidence that leverage constraints can reduce the underperformance of individual investors. In accordance with Dodd-Frank, the CFTC was given regulatory authority over the retail market for foreign exchange and capped the maximum permissible leverage available to U.S. traders. By comparing U.S. traders on the same brokerages with their unregulated European counterparts, I show that the leverage constraint reduces average per-trade losses even after adjusting for ris...

  9. Risk Sharing under Incentive Constraints.


    Wagner, W.B.


    In addressing the matter, this thesis covers issues such as the welfare gains from international risk sharing, the impact of international risk sharing on national economic policies and production efficiency, the welfare effects of international risk sharing in the presence of tax competition, and risk sharing among entrepreneurs that face financing constraints. The thesis outlines the implications of incentive constraints for the efficiency of the actual extent and pattern of risk sharing am...

  10. Work, organisational practices, and margin of manoeuver during work reintegration. (United States)

    O'Hagan, Fergal


    Many individuals of working age experience cardiovascular disease and are disabled from work as a result. The majority of research in cardiac work disability has focused on individual biological and psychological factors influencing work disability despite evidence of the importance of social context in work disability. In this article, the focus is on work and organisational features influencing the leeway (margin of manoeuvre) workers are afforded during work reintegration. A qualitative method was used. A large auto manufacturing plant was selected owing to work, organisational, and worker characteristics. Workplace context was assessed through site visits and meetings with stakeholders including occupational health, human resources and union personnel and a review of collective agreement provisions relating to seniority, benefits and accommodation. Worker experience was assessed using a series of in-depth interviews with workers (n = 12) returning to work at the plant following disabling cardiac illness. Data was analysed using qualitative content analysis. Workers demonstrated variable levels of adjustment to the workplace that could be related to production expectations and work design. Policies and practices around electronic rate monitoring, seniority and accommodation, and disability management practices affected the buffer available to workers to adjust to the workplace. Work qualities and organisational resources establish a margin of manoeuver for work reintegration efforts. Practitioners need to inform themselves of the constraints on work accommodation imposed by work organisation and collective agreements. Organisations and labour need to reconsider policies and practices that creates unequal accommodation conditions for disabled workers. Implications for rehabilitation Margin of manoeuvre offers a framework for evaluating and structuring work reintegration programmes. Assessing initial conditions for productivity expectations, context and ways

  11. The Effects of Branding on Purchasing Preferences of Tourists at Accommodation Enterprises: An Implementation at Chain Accommodation Enterprises in Antalya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Yıldız


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of branding on the purchasing preferences of tourists at accommodation enterprises. Towards this end questionnaire technique was used and 398 questionnaires were considered to be evaluated. The data, gathered, analyzed by using statistical methods. As a result it is revealed that branding (brad awareness, perceived quality, brand image, brand trust, brand attitude and brand loyalty parameters has a positive effect on purchasing preferences of tourists and a negative effect on the volume of perceived risk. Factors contributing to more on purchasing preferences of tourists, respectively, brand attitude, brand loyalty and brand awareness.

  12. Extralenticular and lenticular aspects of accommodation and presbyopia in human versus monkey eyes. (United States)

    Croft, Mary Ann; McDonald, Jared P; Katz, Alexander; Lin, Ting-Li; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L


    To determine if the accommodative forward movements of the vitreous zonule and lens equator occur in the human eye, as they do in the rhesus monkey eye; to investigate the connection between the vitreous zonule posterior insertion zone and the posterior lens equator; and to determine which components-muscle apex width, lens thickness, lens equator position, vitreous zonule, circumlental space, and/or other intraocular dimensions, including those stated in the objectives above-are most important in predicting accommodative amplitude and presbyopia. Accommodation was induced pharmacologically in 12 visually normal human subjects (ages 19-65 years) and by midbrain electrical stimulation in 11 rhesus monkeys (ages 6-27 years). Ultrasound biomicroscopy imaged the entire ciliary body, anterior and posterior lens surfaces, and the zonule. Relevant distances were measured in the resting and accommodated eyes. Stepwise regression analysis determined which variables were the most important predictors. The human vitreous zonule and lens equator move forward (anteriorly) during accommodation, and their movements decline with age, as in the monkey. Over all ages studied, age could explain accommodative amplitude, but not as well as accommodative lens thickening and resting muscle apex thickness did together. Accommodative change in distances between the vitreous zonule insertion zone and the posterior lens equator or muscle apex were important for predicting accommodative lens thickening. Our findings quantify the movements of the zonule and ciliary muscle during accommodation, and identify their age-related changes that could impact the optical change that occurs during accommodation and IOL function.

  13. A Daily Diary Study of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Romantic Partner Accommodation. (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah B; Renshaw, Keith D; Kashdan, Todd B; Curby, Timothy W; Carter, Sarah P


    Little is known about the role of romantic partner symptom accommodation in PTSD symptom maintenance. To explore the bidirectional associations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and romantic partner symptom accommodation over time, military servicemen (n=64) with symptoms of PTSD and their cohabiting heterosexual civilian romantic partners (n=64) completed a 2-week daily diary study. Cross-lagged, autoregressive models assessed the stability of men's PTSD symptoms and partners' accommodation, as well as the prospective associations of earlier PTSD symptoms with later accommodation and vice versa. Analyses used Bayesian estimation to provide point estimates (b) and Credible Intervals (CIs). In all models, PTSD symptoms (total and individual clusters) were highly stable (b=0.91; CI: 0.88-0.95), and accommodation was moderately stable (b=0.48; CI: 0.40-0.54). In all models, earlier PTSD symptoms (total and clusters) were significantly, positively associated with later accommodation (b=0.04; CI: 0.02-0.07). In contrast, earlier accommodation was significantly associated only with later situational avoidance (b=0.02; CI: 0.00-0.07). Thus, PTSD symptoms may lead to subsequent accommodating behaviors in romantic partners, but partner accommodation seems to contribute only to survivors' future situational avoidance symptoms. The findings reinforce the notion that PTSD symptoms have an impact on relationship behaviors, and that accommodation from partners may sustain avoidant behaviors in particular. Clinicians should attend to romantic partners' accommodating behaviors when working with survivors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Accommodative facility test results and academic success in Polish second graders. (United States)

    Kedzia, B; Tondel, G; Pieczyrak, D; Maples, W C


    Accommodative infacility, as commonly measured by accommodative flippers, has been implicated as a factor in academic underperformance. This study compares four areas of academics (reading, writing, math and gym) to accommodative flexibility scores. Seventy-six elementary school children with a mean age was 8 years, 8 months were tested monocularly and binocularly with traditional accommodative flexibility flipper testing and with a new accommodative flexibility apparatus that allows control of visual acuteness, minification/magnification, and reaction time. These scores were then compared with academic scores using a number of failure criteria. The academic ratings were based on teacher responses for each student. Our data did not show any clear correlation or relationship between evaluations by reading, writing, math, or gym teachers and accommodative flexibility by either the traditional or new testing methods. Accommodative function, free of contaminating variables, does not appear to predict academic function any better than the traditional.

  15. On-the-Job Productivity Losses Among Employees With Health Problems: The Role of Work Accommodations. (United States)

    Gifford, Brian; Zong, Yang


    Debates about the productivity impact of work accommodations typically focus on employment and labor force participation outcomes. This study considers whether accommodations mediate on-the-job productivity losses among employees who report health problems. The study uses ordered logistic regression to predict employees' self-reported productivity losses as a function of health problems and experiences with needed work accommodations. On average, the odds that an employee who did not get a needed accommodation reported higher levels of lost productivity are 5.11 times the odds for an employee who got a needed accommodation. Although health problems make it difficult for many employees to perform well on the job, accommodations could reduce productivity losses in some cases. Nonetheless, more research on the impact of specific kinds of accommodations for different chronic conditions is warranted.

  16. Iranian nurses' constraint for research utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Neda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper identifies the views of Iranian clinical nurses regarding the utilization of nursing research in practice. There is a need to understand what restricts Iranian clinical nurses to use research findings. The aim of this study was to identify practicing nurses' view of aspects which they perceived constrain them from research utilization that summarizes and uses research findings to address a nursing practice problem. Methods Data were collected during 6 months by means of face-to face interviews follow by one focus group. Analysis was undertaken using a qualitative content analysis. Results Findings disclosed some key themes perceived by nurses to restrict them to use research findings: level of support require to be research active, to be research minded, the extent of nurses knowledge and skills about research and research utilization, level of educational preparation relating to using research, administration and executive challenges in clinical setting, and theory-practice gap. Conclusion This study identifies constraints that require to be overcome for clinical nurses to actively get involved in research utilization. In this study nurses were generally interested to use research findings. However they felt restricted because of lack of time, lack of peer and manager support and limited knowledge and skills of the research process. This study also confirms that research utilization and the change to research nursing practice are complex issues which require both organizational and educational efforts.

  17. Symptomatic accommodative disorders and asthenopia: Prevalence and association in Ghanaian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Darko-Takyi


    Full Text Available Background: There is a scarcity of data on asthenopia and accommodative disorders in children in Ghana as optometrists sometimes fail to carry out comprehensive assessments because of the lack of appropriate instruments.Aim: To establish the prevalence of asthenopic symptoms and symptomatic accommodative disorders among Junior High School children in Cape Coast metropolis (in their habitual vision state and to investigate if there are any associations between asthenopic symptoms and the disorders.Method: A prospective cross-sectional school-based study using a multistage sample of 627 participants aged 12–17 years from Junior High Schools in Cape Coast metropolis, Ghana, was conducted. Participants completed a reliable asthenopic symptoms questionnaire (Cronbach’s α = 0.866, and 220 participants who expressed two or more severe or very severe symptoms were selected for comprehensive accommodative system assessment over their habitual vision state.Results: The prevalence of symptoms of asthenopia (two or more severe or very severe and symptomatic accommodative disorders were 35.1% and 17.4% respectively. For specific symptomatic accommodative disorders, the prevalence was as follows: 7.7% accommodative insufficiency, 4.5% accommodative infacility, 1.4% accommodative excess and 3.8% accommodative fatigue. There were significant associations between some specific accommodative disorders and some specific asthenopic symptoms even though these asthenopic symptoms overlapped in other accommodative disorders.Conclusion: Specific asthenopic symptoms do not discriminate between the presences of specific types of accommodative disorders. A comprehensive accommodative system assessment with appropriate instruments is relevant to the diagnosis and management of accommodative disorders to relieve asthenopic symptoms.

  18. The willingness and constraints to routing HIV screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This descriptive cross- sectional study on 312 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, was carried out, to evaluate the knowledge of HIV/AIDS, the practice of voluntary HIV testing and also determine the constraints and motivation to voluntary HIV testing.

  19. Statistical constraints on state preparation for a quantum computer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum computing algorithms require that the quantum register be initially present in a superposition state. To achieve this, we consider the practical problem of creating a coherent superposition state of several qubits. We show that the constraints of quantum statistics require that the entropy of the system be brought ...

  20. Constraints to Vegetable Production among Women in Enugu North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints to Vegetable Production among Women in Enugu North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State. ... The major agronomic practices were direct sowing of seed (57.7%), mixed cropping (56.3%), organic manure (67.6%), staking (8.5%), broadcasting method of manuring (66%) and cutting with knife (method of ...

  1. The Effect of Some Constraints on Mathematics Instructors' Problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the effect of perceived constraints on four universities mathematics department instructors' classroom practices of problem solving in teaching mathematics. To this end, the target population of the study includes mathematics instructors in the Amhara Regional state universities. From a ...

  2. Water Recovery System Architecture and Operational Concepts to Accommodate Dormancy (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Tabb, David; Anderson, Molly


    Future manned missions beyond low Earth orbit will include intermittent periods of extended dormancy. The mission requirement includes the capability for life support systems to support crew activity, followed by a dormant period of up to one year, and subsequently for the life support systems to come back online for additional crewed missions. NASA personnel are evaluating the architecture and operational concepts that will allow the Water Recovery System (WRS) to support such a mission. Dormancy could be a critical issue due to concerns with microbial growth or chemical degradation that might prevent water systems from operating properly when the crewed mission began. As such, it is critical that the water systems be designed to accommodate this dormant period. This paper identifies dormancy issues, concepts for updating the WRS architecture and operational concepts that will enable the WRS to support the dormancy requirement.

  3. [Specific cases of normo-sensorial strabismus: accommodative microstrabismus]. (United States)

    Paris, V


    This study shows that, in a population of microstrabic patients (N = 76), a regain of a normal stereoscopy was possible in 19.6 of the cases (14 cases). Of these patients, 14 were hyperopic. With the full hyperopic correction, the angle of deviation on the alternate cover test was 0.45 PD (range: 0 to 3 PD). Without correction the deviation increased to between 3 PD and 10 PD (mean: 6.3 PD). Ten patients presented an anisometropia between 0.75 D to 2.50 D. (mean: 1.4 D). All anisometropic patients were hyperopic and hyperopia was higher in the dominated eye in all these cases. These results demonstrate the interest of the definition of microtropia as a specific strabismological entity, which can be congenital or acquired and be influenced by accommodative factors. The incidence of anisometropia, as a consequence rather than a cause of the pathological dominance is discussed.

  4. Disturbance Accommodating Adaptive Control with Application to Wind Turbines (United States)

    Frost, Susan


    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. Many physical systems experience external disturbances that are persistent or continually recurring. Flexible structures and systems with compliance between components often form a class of systems that fail to meet standard requirements for adaptive control. For these classes of systems, a residual mode filter can restore the ability of the adaptive controller to perform in a stable manner. New theory will be presented that enables adaptive control with accommodation of persistent disturbances using residual mode filters. After a short introduction to some of the control challenges of large utility-scale wind turbines, this theory will be applied to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  5. Mass Accommodation and Chemical Reaction at Gas-Liquid Interfaces (United States)

    Kolb, C. E.; Williams, L. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Davidovits, P.


    The uptake of trace gases by liquid surfaces is an important process that initiates the heterogeneous chemistry of liquid aerosol particles and cloud droplets. We have recently reviewed the available experimental data for liquid aqueous and aqueous/organic surfaces (1). The review highlights some inconsistencies among experimental results and between experimental results and molecular dynamics simulations. Some of these inconsistencies will be evaluated and discussed in terms of the physics of liquid interfaces, the limitations of various experimental techniques and the disparate scales of laboratory experiments and current molecular simulations (1, 2). 1. Davidovits, P., Kolb, C. E., Williams, L. R., Jayne, J. T., Worsnop, D. R., 2006, Mass Accommodation and Chemical Reactions at Gas Liquid Interfaces, Chem. Rev. 106, 1323-1354. 2. Garrett, B. C., Schenter, G. K., Morita, A., 2006, Molecular Simulations of Molecules across the Liquid/Vapor Interface of Water, Chem. Rev. 106, 1355-1374.

  6. Spinal circuits can accommodate interaction torques during multijoint limb movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBuhrmann


    Full Text Available The dynamic interaction of limb segments during movements that involve multiple joints creates torques in one joint due to motion about another. Evidence shows that such interaction torques are taken into account during the planning or control of movement in humans. Two alternative hypotheses could explain the compensation of these dynamic torques. One involves the use of internal models to centrally compute predicted interaction torques and their explicit compensation through anticipatory adjustment of descending motor commands. The alternative, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, claims that descending signals can be simple and related to the desired movement kinematics only, while spinal feedback mechanisms are responsible for the appropriate creation and coordination of dynamic muscle forces. Partial supporting evidence exists in each case. However, until now no model has explicitly shown, in the case of the second hypothesis, whether peripheral feedback is really sufficient on its own for coordinating the motion of several joints while at the same time accommodating intersegmental interaction torques. Here we propose a minimal computational model to examine this question. Using a biomechanics simulation of a two-joint arm controlled by spinal neural circuitry, we show for the first time that it is indeed possible for the neuromusculoskeletal system to transform simple descending control signals into muscle activation patterns that accommodate interaction forces depending on their direction and magnitude. This is achieved without the aid of any central predictive signal. Even though the model makes various simplifications and abstractions compared to the complexities involved in the control of human arm movements, the finding lends plausibility to the hypothesis that some multijoint movements can in principle be controlled even in the absence of internal models of intersegmental dynamics or learned compensatory motor signals.

  7. Holonomic constraints: an analytical result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazars, Martial [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Universite de Paris Sud XI, Batiment 210, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)


    Systems subjected to holonomic constraints follow quite complicated dynamics that could not be described easily with Hamiltonian or Lagrangian dynamics. The influence of holonomic constraints in equations of motions is taken into account by using Lagrange multipliers. Finding the value of the Lagrange multipliers allows us to compute the forces induced by the constraints and therefore, to integrate the equations of motions of the system. Computing analytically the Lagrange multipliers for a constrained system may be a difficult task that depends on the complexity of systems. For complex systems it is, most of the time, impossible to achieve. In computer simulations, some algorithms using iterative procedures estimate numerically Lagrange multipliers or constraint forces by correcting the unconstrained trajectory. In this work, we provide an analytical computation of the Lagrange multipliers for a set of linear holonomic constraints with an arbitrary number of bonds of constant length. In the appendix explicit formulae are shown for Lagrange multipliers for systems having 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 bonds of constant length, linearly connected.

  8. Constraints influencing sports wheelchair propulsion performance and injury risk (United States)


    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. A potential issue for many wheelchair athletes is how to train hard to maximise performance while also reducing the risk of injuries, particularly to the shoulder due to the accumulation of stress placed on this joint during activities of daily living, training and competition. The overall purpose of this narrative review was to use the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to examine how various constraints acting upon the wheelchair-user interface may alter hand rim wheelchair performance during sporting activities, and to a lesser extent, their injury risk. As we found no studies involving Paralympic athletes that have directly utilised the dynamical systems approach to interpret their data, we have used this approach to select some potential constraints and discussed how they may alter wheelchair performance and/or injury risk. Organism constraints examined included player classifications, wheelchair setup, training and intrinsic injury risk factors. Task constraints examined the influence of velocity and types of locomotion (court sports vs racing) in wheelchair propulsion, while environmental constraints focused on forces that tend to oppose motion such as friction and surface inclination. Finally, the ecological validity of the research studies assessing wheelchair propulsion was critiqued prior to recommendations for practice and future research being given. PMID:23557065

  9. Co-variation in time between near-far accommodation of the lens and trapezius muscle activity. (United States)

    Forsman, Mikael; Lodin, Camilla; Richter, Hans


    Visual strain and discomfort may contribute to the generation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among e.g. computer workers. A positive correlation on a group level between eye-lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity has been reported. In this study we investigated the possibility of a direct, fast, connection between lens accommodation and trapezius muscles activity. The subjects focused alternately on Near and Far targets, with a mean switch time of 5 s, through four different lenses. The cross-correlation, R(tau) was computed, between the time signals of accommodation and electromyography (EMG) from 23 subjects. In the overall mean R(tau) of 736 curves, a small but significant correlation peak (0.019) with a delay (of the EMG signal) of about 0.3 s, revealed a small common component in the two signals. Among the lenses, the positive lens (3.5 D), showed the highest correlation peak (0.040). The correlation may be caused by a direct "hard-wired" connection between the ciliary and trapezius muscles. But it could also be caused indirectly by the subject's need for a more stable head in a more demanding visual task. The latter is supported by the result that the correlation was the highest in the positive lens condition. The present correlation is however weak and it has probably a low practical importance.

  10. Examining the psychometric properties of the Hindi version of Family Accommodation Scale-Self-Report (FAS-SR). (United States)

    Mahapatra, Ananya; Gupta, Rishi; Patnaik, Kuppili Pooja; Pattanaik, Raman Deep; Khandelwal, Sudhir Kumar


    Family accommodation (FA) is the phenomenon whereby caregivers assist or facilitate rituals or behaviours related to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). There is a need for a self-rated instrument to assess this construct in resource-strained clinical settings of India. To explore the factor structure of Hindi version of Family Accommodation Scale-Self Rated version (FAS-SR) and compare its validity with the gold standard Family Accommodation Scale-Interviewer Rated (FAS-IR) scale. The Hindi version of FAS-SR scale and FAS-IR scale was applied on 105 caregivers of patients with OCD. The initial factor analysis yielded three-factor models with an eigenvalue of >1 and the total variance explained by these factors was 72.017%. The internal consistency of the 19-item scale was 0.93 indicating good inter-item correlation. There was a significant positive correlation between FAS-IR scale total score and all the factors of the FAS-SR Scale. The average measure ICC was 0.889 with a 95% confidence interval from 0.783 to 0.981 (F (62,84)=37.547, pHindi version of FAS-SR and the FAS-IR scale. FAS-SR is a practical alternative to FAS-IR and has the potential to be used widely in an Indian setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term reproducibility of Edinger-Westphal stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys. (United States)

    He, Lin; Wendt, Mark; Glasser, Adrian


    If longitudinal studies of accommodation or accommodation restoration procedures are undertaken in rhesus monkeys, the methods used to induce and measure accommodation must remain reproducible over the study period. Stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus in anesthetized rhesus monkeys is a valuable method to understand various aspects of accommodation. A prior study showed reproducibility of EW-stimulated accommodation over 14 months after chronic electrode implantation. However, reproducibility over a period longer than this has not been investigated and therefore remains unknown. To address this, accommodation stimulation experiments in four eyes of two rhesus monkeys (13.7 and 13.8 years old) were evaluated over a period of 68 months. Carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation was first measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer (HCR) two weeks before electrode implantation to determine maximum accommodative amplitudes. EW stimulus-response curves were initially measured with the HCR one month after electrode implantation and then repeated at least six times for each eye in the following 60 months. At 64 months, carbachol iontophoresis induced accommodation was measured again. At 68 months, EW stimulus-response curves were measured with an HCR and photorefraction every week over four consecutive weeks to evaluate the short-term reproducibility over one month. In the four eyes studied, long-term EW-stimulated accommodation decreased by 7.00 D, 3.33 D, 4.63 D, and 2.03 D, whereas carbachol stimulated accommodation increased by 0.18 D-0.49 D over the same time period. The short-term reproducibility of maximum EW-stimulated accommodation (standard deviations) over a period of four weeks at 68 months after electrode implantation was 0.48 D, 0.79 D, 0.55 D and 0.39 D in the four eyes. Since the long-term decrease in EW-stimulated accommodation is not matched by similar decreases in carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation, the decline

  12. The Assessment of Accommodation and Convergence System in the Bank Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Mahjoob


    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the high outbreak rate of the eye disorders and problems particularly accommodation disorders and convergence insufficiency in computer users, the study tries to determine the convergence, accommodation system, condition, fusion reserves and vision dimension in bank employees (who work with computers and the control group (who are not computer users and then to compare the mentioned parameters in the two groups. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and observational study a total of 44 bank employees and 44 people as the control group members were selected randomly. Initially, refractive problems were reformed, and then accommodation, convergence and vision dimension evaluative tests were conducted. The test included measuring the near point of convergence, jump convergence, phoria, accommodation range (one eye, both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation, near fusion versions and TNO.Results: Our results showed that there was a not significant difference among the near point of convergence, jump convergence, near phoria, accommodation range (one eye and both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation in bank employees and control group.Conclusion: Regarding the studies, the outbreak rate of accommodation and convergence disorders is higher in bank employees than the control group which would be due to over working with computer within a fixed interval.

  13. The rate of change of vergence-accommodation conflict affects visual discomfort. (United States)

    Kim, Joohwan; Kane, David; Banks, Martin S


    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort.

  14. Optimal secondary coil design for inductive powering of the Artificial Accommodation System. (United States)

    Nagel, J A; Krug, M; Gengenbach, U; Guth, H; Bretthauer, G; Guthoff, R F


    Age-related ailments like presbyopia and cataract are increasing concerns in the aging society. Both go along with a loss of ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore the patients' ability to accommodate is the Artificial Accommodation System. This micro mechatronic system will be implanted into the capsular bag to replace the human crystalline lens. Depending on the patients' actual need for accommodation, the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously adapts the refractive power of its integrated optical element in a way that the projection on the patients' retina results in a sharp image. As the Artificial Accommodation System is an active implant, its subsystems have to be supplied with electrical energy. Evolving technologies, like energy harvesting, which can potentially be used to power an implant like the Artificial Accommodation System are at the current state of art not sufficient to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously [1]. In the near future, therefore an inductive power supply system will be developed which includes an energy storage to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously over a period of 24 h and can be recharged wirelessly. This Paper describes a new possibility to optimize the secondary coil design in a solely analytical way, based on a new figure of merit. Within this paper the developed figure of merit is applied to optimize the secondary coil design for the Artificial Accommodation System.

  15. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik


    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  16. Health care input constraints and cost effectiveness analysis decision rules. (United States)

    van Baal, Pieter; Morton, Alec; Severens, Johan L


    Results of cost effectiveness analyses (CEA) studies are most useful for decision makers if they face only one constraint: the health care budget. However, in practice, decision makers wishing to use the results of CEA studies may face multiple resource constraints relating to, for instance, constraints in health care inputs such as a shortage of skilled labour. The presence of multiple resource constraints influences the decision rules of CEA and limits the usefulness of traditional CEA studies for decision makers. The goal of this paper is to illustrate how results of CEA can be interpreted and used in case a decision maker faces a health care input constraint. We set up a theoretical model describing the optimal allocation of the health care budget in the presence of a health care input constraint. Insights derived from that model were used to analyse a stylized example based on a decision about a surgical robot as well as a published cost effectiveness study on eye care services in Zambia. Our theoretical model shows that applying default decision rules in the presence of a health care input constraint leads to suboptimal decisions but that there are ways of preserving the traditional decision rules of CEA by reweighing different cost categories. The examples illustrate how such adjustments can be made, and makes clear that optimal decisions depend crucially on such adjustments. We conclude that it is possible to use the results of cost effectiveness studies in the presence of health care input constraints if results are properly adjusted. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The Job Accommodation Scale (JAS): psychometric evaluation of a new measure of employer support for temporary job modifications. (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Soklaridis, Sophie; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Côté, Pierre; Loisel, Patrick


    An employer offer of temporary job modification is a key strategy for facilitating return-to-work for musculoskeletal conditions, but there are no validated scales to assess the level of support for temporary job modifications across a range of job types and organizations. To pilot test a new 21-item self-report measure [the Job Accommodation Scale (JAS)] to assess its applicability, internal consistency, factor structure, and relation to physical job demands. Supervisors (N = 804, 72.8 % male, mean age = 46) were recruited from 19 employment settings in the USA and Canada and completed a 30-min online survey regarding job modification practices. As part of the survey, supervisors nominated and described a job position they supervised and completed the JAS for a hypothetical worker (in that position) with an episode of low back pain. Job characteristics were derived from the occupational informational network job classification database. The full response range (1-4) was utilized on all 21 items, with no ceiling or floor effects. Avoiding awkward postures was the most feasible accommodation and moving the employee to a different site or location was the least feasible. An exploratory factor analysis suggested five underlying factors (Modify physical workload; Modify work environment; Modify work schedule; Find alternate work; and Arrange for assistance), and there was an acceptable goodness-of-fit for the five parceled sub-factor scores as a single latent construct in a measurement model (structural equation model). Job accommodations were less feasible for more physical jobs and for heavier industries. The pilot administration of the JAS with respect to a hypothetical worker with low back pain showed initial support for its applicability, reliability, and validity when administered to supervisors. Future studies should assess its validity for use in actual disability cases, for a range of health conditions, and to assess different stakeholder opinions about the

  18. Magnetotail dynamics under isobaric constraints (United States)

    Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl; Janicke, Lutz; Hesse, Michael


    Using linear theory and nonlinear MHD simulations, we investigate the resistive and ideal MHD stability of two-dimensional plasma configurations under the isobaric constraint dP/dt = 0, which in ideal MHD is equivalent to conserving the pressure function P = P(A), where A denotes the magnetic flux. This constraint is satisfied for incompressible modes, such as Alfven waves, and for systems undergoing energy losses. The linear stability analysis leads to a Schroedinger equation, which can be investigated by standard quantum mechanics procedures. We present an application to a typical stretched magnetotail configuration. For a one-dimensional sheet equilibrium characteristic properties of tearing instability are rediscovered. However, the maximum growth rate scales with the 1/7 power of the resistivity, which implies much faster growth than for the standard tearing mode (assuming that the resistivity is small). The same basic eigen-mode is found also for weakly two-dimensional equilibria, even in the ideal MHD limit. In this case the growth rate scales with the 1/4 power of the normal magnetic field. The results of the linear stability analysis are confirmed qualitatively by nonlinear dynamic MHD simulations. These results suggest the interesting possibility that substorm onset, or the thinning in the late growth phase, is caused by the release of a thermodynamic constraint without the (immediate) necessity of releasing the ideal MHD constraint. In the nonlinear regime the resistive and ideal developments differ in that the ideal mode does not lead to neutral line formation without the further release of the ideal MHD constraint; instead a thin current sheet forms. The isobaric constraint is critically discussed. Under perhaps more realistic adiabatic conditions the ideal mode appears to be stable but could be driven by external perturbations and thus generate the thin current sheet in the late growth phase, before a nonideal instability sets in.

  19. Constraints and opportunities for climate adaptation in regional water and land use planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, S.E.; Tàbara, J.D.; Dai, X.; Flachner, Z.; Neufeldt, H.; McEvoy, D.; West, J.; Cots, F.; Trombi, G.; Leemans, R.


    Whereas the literature on adaptation is rich in detail on impacts, vulnerability and constraints to climate adaptation, less is known about the conditions that facilitate adaptation in practice. We examined the constraints and opportunities for adaptation in water and land use planning in three

  20. Statistiques de la servitude en matiere de traduction (A Statistical Approach to Translation Constraints). (United States)

    Vinay, Jean-Paul


    States that sound translation practice rests on a clear understanding of linguistic and cultural constraints combined with a punctilious search for equivalences. Describes various levels of constraint and proposes a statistical investigation of the degree of freedom left to translators, suggesting that most of the translated text results from…

  1. Opportunities and Constraints for Climate Adaptation in Regional Water and Land Use Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, S.E.; West, J.; Leemans, R.; Tabara, J.D.; Dai, X.; Flachner, Z.; Neufeldt, H.; McEvoy, D.; Cots, F.; Trombi, G.


    Whereas the literature on adaptation is rich in detail on the impacts of, vulnerability to, and constraints of climate adaptation, less is known about the conditions that facilitate adaptation in practice. We examined the constraints and opportunities for adaptation in water and land use planning in

  2. New Constraints on Quantum Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.


    Full Text Available Hierarchical relationships between physical theories are discussed. It is explained how a lower rank theory imposes constraints on an acceptable structure of its higher rank theory. This principle is applied to the case of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory of massive particles. It is proved that the Dirac equation is consistent with these constraints whereas the Klein-Gordon equation, as well as all other second order quan- tum equations are inconsistent with the Schrödinger equation. This series of arguments undermines the theoretical structure of the Standard Model.

  3. Chronological, spatial, regulatory and financial aspects of conducting training practices in Transnistrian state university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Бурла


    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the educational practices with the students enrolled in the direction of «geography» of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. The problems are associated with the organization and conduct of practices at the present stage, among which are: regulatory constraints (lack of passports, travel documents for vehicles, financial constraints, military and political processes, the financial and currency crisis of 2015 in Transnistria, no final international political and legal status of Transnistria, and others. The measures to address the identified problems: timely execution of foreign passports, finding sponsors willing to finance part of the costs related to the practices; increase in the share of self-financing; conclusion of agreements with foreign universities on exchange of students, trainees; utilization of charitable funds and grants; inclusion of the Transnistrian University in an international program of the European Union on the interuniversity interaction «ERASMUS»; the use of the potential for the study programs of the European Union countries (e. g, programs, short-term accommodation of foreign students in families.

  4. Molecular and cellular constraints on proteins (United States)

    Kortemme, Tanja

    Engineering proteins with new sequences, structures and functions has many exciting practical applications, and provides new ways to dissect design principles for function. Recent successes in computational protein design provide a cause for optimism. Yet many functions are currently too complex to engineer predictively, and successful design of new biological activities also requires an understanding of the functional pressures acting on proteins in the context of cells and organisms. I will present two vignettes describing our progress with dissecting both molecular and cellular constraints on protein function. In the first, we characterized the cost and benefit of protein production upon sequence perturbations in a classic system for gene regulation, the lac operon. Our results were unexpected in light of the common assumption that the dominant fitness costs are due to protein expression. Instead, we discovered a direct linear relationship between cost and lacpermease activity, not protein or mRNA production. The magnitude of the cost of permease activity, relative to protein production, has consequences for regulation. Our model predicts an advantage of direct regulation of protein activity (not just expression), providing a new explanation for the long-known mechanism of ``inducer exclusion'' that inhibits transport through the permease. Similar pressures and cost/benefit tradeoffs may be key to engineering synthetic systems with improved fitness. In the second vignette, I will describe our recent efforts to develop computational approaches that predict protein sequences consistent with multiple functional conformations. We expect such ``multi-constraint'' models to improve predictions of functional sequences determined by deep mutational scanning in bacteria, to provide insights into how the balance between functional conformations shapes sequence space, and to highlight molecular and cellular constraints that cannot be captured by the model.

  5. Arrangement and method for accommodating a sample in an electron microscope


    H.W. Zandbergen


    Abstract of NL 9402226 (A) The invention relates to an arrangement for accommodating a sample in an electron microscope, equipped with a sample holder which comprises sample accommodation means and is designed for at least partial accommodation in an electron microscope, where at least one sample mount is provided which can contain a sample in a position in which the sample is at least partially visible from the outside of the sample mount from at least two sides opposite one another, the or ...

  6. Identifying Tourists Interested in Eco-Certified Accommodation Units from Brașov, Romania


    Cristinel Petrisor CONSTANTIN; Ana ISPAS; Adina Nicoleta CANDREA


    Ecolabels are key instruments for a sustainable tourism development and implementation of environmental certification of tourist accommodation facilities and services. The present paper aimes to analyze whether eco-certification is considered by tourists in the choice of accommodation in Romanian destinations. We have chosen as a case study the city of Brasov in order to evaluate if certification as a sustainability policy tool is needed for accommodation facilities. A survey was conducted am...



    Cristinel Petrisor Constantin; Ana Ispas; Adina Nicoleta Candrea


    Ecolabels are key instruments for a sustainable tourism development and implementation of environmental certification of tourist accommodation facilities and services. The present paper aimes to analyze whether eco-certification is considered by tourists in the choice of accommodation in Romanian destinations. We have chosen as a case study the city of Brasov in order to evaluate if certification as a sustainability policy tool is needed for accommodation facilities. A survey was conducted am...

  8. Correlation between the use of the accommodation and symptoms of asthenopia in hyperopic patients


    Juan Carlos Luna da Costa; Ian Beltrão de Sá Martins; Larissa Tavares Albuquerque Nóbrega; Maria Odília Navarro Medeiros; Luciana Maria Palitot; Marília Bezerra Cavalcanti Dias; Tarcízio José Dias


    ABSTRACT Purpose: The objective of this paper was to compare the symptoms of asthenopia in patients at different levels of hyperopia and corrected for different accommodative efforts. Methods: This study is an experimental design and quantitative approach. Sixty-nine hyperopic patients aged between 15 and 40 were selected. Individuals with a diagnosis of accommodative insufficiency and paralysis, accommodative spasm or any type of ocular deviation were excluded. Subjects were randomly divid...

  9. Biological Constraints on Literacy Acquisition. (United States)

    Cossu, Giuseppe


    Investigates some of the biological constraints that shape the process of literacy acquisition. Explores the possibility of isolating processing components of reading which correspond to computational units of equivalent size in the neural architecture. Suggests that the process of literacy acquisition is largely constrained by a specific…

  10. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper


    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  11. Intertemporal consumption and credit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren


    There is continuing controversy over the importance of credit constraints. This paper investigates whether total household expenditure and debt is affected by an exogenous increase in access to credit provided by a credit market reform that enabled Danish house owners to use housing equity...

  12. Conjoined Constraints and Phonological Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bonilha


    Full Text Available Since the start of Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993, research on phonological acquisition has explored the explanatory potential of constraint theories. This study, also based on Optimality Theory, attempts to analyze the acquisition of CVVC syllable structure by Brazilian Portuguese children and addresses the issue of Local Conjunction (Smolensky, 1995, 1997 in research that deals with problems of phonological acquisition.

  13. Continuous Optimization on Constraint Manifolds (United States)

    Dean, Edwin B.


    This paper demonstrates continuous optimization on the differentiable manifold formed by continuous constraint functions. The first order tensor geodesic differential equation is solved on the manifold in both numerical and closed analytic form for simple nonlinear programs. Advantages and disadvantages with respect to conventional optimization techniques are discussed.

  14. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.


    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  15. Constraint-Based Scheduling System (United States)

    Zweben, Monte; Eskey, Megan; Stock, Todd; Taylor, Will; Kanefsky, Bob; Drascher, Ellen; Deale, Michael; Daun, Brian; Davis, Gene


    Report describes continuing development of software for constraint-based scheduling system implemented eventually on massively parallel computer. Based on machine learning as means of improving scheduling. Designed to learn when to change search strategy by analyzing search progress and learning general conditions under which resource bottleneck occurs.

  16. Challenges in Accommodating Volume Change of Si Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Ko, Minseong; Chae, Sujong; Cho, Jaephil


    Si has been considered as a promising alternative anode for next-generation Li-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical energy density, relatively low working potential, and abundance in nature. However, Si anodes exhibit rapid capacity decay and an increase in the internal resistance, which are caused by the large volume changes upon Li insertion and extraction. This unfortunately limits their practical applications. Therefore, managing the total volume change remains a critical challenge for effectively alleviating the mechanical fractures and instability of solid-electrolyte-interphase products. In this regard, we review the recent progress in volume-change-accommodating Si electrodes and investigate their ingenious structures with significant improvements in the battery performance, including size-controlled materials, patterned thin films, porous structures, shape-preserving shell designs, and graphene composites. These representative approaches potentially overcome the large morphologic changes in the volume of Si anodes by securing the strain relaxation and structural integrity in the entire electrode. Finally, we propose perspectives and future challenges to realize the practical application of Si anodes in LIB systems.

  17. Charles F. Prentice award lecture 2008: surgical correction of presbyopia with intraocular lenses designed to accommodate. (United States)

    Schor, Clifton M


    Surgical restoration of accommodation with accommodating intra-ocular lenses (A-IOLs) presents a complex set of problems involving the design of the prosthetic mechanism. A variety of designs are currently employed that either translate the A-IOL toward the cornea along the sagittal axis, shear two lens components laterally, or deform lens shape to change dioptric power of the eye during attempts to accommodate. Effective biomechanical properties (elasticity and viscosity) of these lenses depend on both material properties and structural design of the A-IOL. Inevitable mismatches between the neuromuscular control of accommodation and the effective biomechanical properties of the prosthetic lens could lead to either unstable oscillations or sluggishness of dynamic accommodation; however, optimal dynamic responses may possibly be restored by neural recalibration. A model of dynamic accommodation is used to predict the consequences of these mismatches on dynamic accommodation, and reverse engineering is used to test the feasibility of neuromuscular recalibration. Empirical measures verify that neuromuscular adaptation of dynamic accommodation is possible in response to optically simulated increases and decreases of ocular-lens stiffness. Other design issues for A-IOLs include stability of optical properties, aberrations and image quality, and interactions of restored accommodation with binocular eye alignment (the near response).

  18. An Intelligent Hierarchical Approach to Actuator Fault Diagnosis and Accommodation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents a novel intelligent hierarchical approach to detection, isolation, and accommodation of primary aerodynamic actuator failures. The proposed...

  19. The online potential for the development of eco-certified accommodation units in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Adina BĂLTESCU


    Full Text Available The Internet and electronic communication have generated significant changes in the marketing strategies of accommodation units. On the other hand, sustainable development is a goal which requires concrete actions and changed mentalities. In Romania operates a number of eco-certified accommodation units. The online tools allow them to communicate the advantages and benefits of the sustainable services, and also to obtain a quick feedback from the consumers. This paper highlights the extent to which eco-certified accommodation units in our country offer relevant information to potential consumers and analyzes the online reviews regarding the eco-certified accommodation services

  20. The first and second order dynamics of accommodative convergence and disparity convergence (United States)

    Maxwell, James; Tong, Jianliang; Schor, Clifton M.


    Main sequences, the function describing the relationship between eye movement amplitude and velocity, have been used extensively in oculomotor research as an indicator of first-order dynamics yet it is difficult to find main sequence analysis for accommodative vergence or for disparity vergence in isolation when all mitigating factors have been well controlled and there are no studies in which accommodative vergence and disparity vergence main sequences have been generated for the same group of subjects. The present study measured main sequences in 1) accommodative vergence with disparity vergence open loop, 2) disparity vergence with accommodation open loop, and 3) combinations of accommodative and disparity vergence. A dynamic AC/A ratio was defined and was found to be similar to the traditional static AC/A ratio. Vergence acceleration was measured for all conditions. A pulse-step model of accommodation and convergence was constructed to interpret the dynamics of the crosslinked interactions between the two systems. The model supports cross-coupling of both the pulse and step components and simulates the primary empirical findings that 1) disparity vergence has a higher main sequence slope than accommodative vergence 2) both accommodative and disparity vergence acceleration increase with response amplitude whereas accommodation acceleration does not. PMID:20561972

  1. The impact of regulatory approaches targeting collaborative economy in the tourism accommodation sector:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Birkbak, Andreas

    This paper has been commissioned by the European Commission’s DG GROWTH to examine the impact of regulatory approaches targeting collaborative economy in the tourism accommodation sector in the cities of Barcelona, Berlin, Amsterdam and Paris. In relation to tourism, the growth of the collaborative...... economy peer-to-peer accommodation sector has significant impacts for traditional tourism industry structures and relationships. The growth of the collaborative economy peer-to-peer accommodation market has led to a diversification of accommodation stock, it has led to increased competition, and it has...

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available? (United States)


    ... Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10...-class. The basic class of accommodation by airlines that is normally the lowest fare offered regardless...

  3. Application of Systems Thinking in Health: Opportunities for Translating Theory into Practice; Comment on “Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmat Ullah Malik


    Full Text Available Systems thinking is not a new concept to health system strengthening; however, one question remains unanswered: How policy-makers, system designers and consultants with a system thinking philosophy should act (have acted as potential change agents in actually gaining opportunities to introduce systems thinking? Development of Comprehensive Multi-Year Plans (cMYPs for Immunization System is one such opportunity because almost all Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs develop and implement cMYPs every five years. Without building upon examples and showing practical application, the discussions and deliberations on systems thinking may fade away with passage of time. There are opportunities that exist around us in our existing health systems that we can benefit from starting with an incremental approach and generating evidence for longer lasting system-wide changes.

  4. Application of systems thinking in health: opportunities for translating theory into practice Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: a regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries". (United States)

    Malik, Asmat Ullah


    Systems thinking is not a new concept to health system strengthening; however, one question remains unanswered: How policy-makers, system designers and consultants with a system thinking philosophy should act (have acted) as potential change agents in actually gaining opportunities to introduce systems thinking? Development of Comprehensive Multi-Year Plans (cMYPs) for Immunization System is one such opportunity because almost all Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) develop and implement cMYPs every five years. Without building upon examples and showing practical application, the discussions and deliberations on systems thinking may fade away with passage of time. There are opportunities that exist around us in our existing health systems that we can benefit from starting with an incremental approach and generating evidence for longer lasting system-wide changes. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  5. Image diversity, shape modification with accommodation, dynamical change with accommodation, and age dependence of the ciliary body imaged by optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Shimizu, Kimiya; Satou, Nobuyuki; Igarashi, Akihito; Nakanishi, Motoi; Goto, Atsushi; Choi, Donghak; Yoshimura, Reiko; Hiro-Oka, Hideaki; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Ohbayashi, Kohji


    For investigation of accommodation and presbyopia, the ciliary body and its dynamics were imaged with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) method. We used two OCT systems; a discretely-swept frequency-comb OCT with a center wavelength at 1.6μ and ultra-fast spectral domain OCT with a center wavelength at 1.3μm. Measurements of dynamical modification of the ciliary body were carried out with ranging in age from 22 to 79. The OCT images and movies represent the changes of the ciliary body in the relaxed state and accommodated state. Modification in the ciliary body with accommodation was more evident for the younger subject group from the results of 2D imaging. The time dependent 3D movies of ciliary body dynamics were observed for the first time using ultra-fast spectral domain OCT system. The time duration of ciliary body thickness change in relation to the accommodation was measured from the movies.

  6. Creativity from Constraints in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder


    This paper investigates the role of constraints in limiting and enhancing creativity in engineering design. Based on a review of literature relating constraints to creativity, the paper presents a longitudinal participatory study from Coloplast A/S, a major international producer of disposable...... medical equipment. At Coloplast, constraints played a fundamental role and the observations show the important, dual role of constraints in terms of being a limitation and a prerequisite for creativity. Too few or too many constraints had a negative impact on creativity, whereas the formulation, rationale...... and ownership of formal constraints played a crucial role in defining their influence on creativity – along with the tacit constraints held by the designers. The designers were found to be highly constraint focused, and four main creative strategies for constraint manipulation were observed: blackboxing...

  7. Evolution of growth by genetic accommodation in Icelandic freshwater stickleback. (United States)

    Robinson, Beren W


    Classical Darwinian adaptation to a change in environment can ensue when selection favours beneficial genetic variation. How plastic trait responses to new conditions affect this process depends on how plasticity reveals to selection the influence of genotype on phenotype. Genetic accommodation theory predicts that evolutionary rate may sharply increase when a new environment induces plastic responses and selects on sufficient genetic variation in those responses to produce an immediate evolutionary response, but natural examples are rare. In Iceland, marine threespine stickleback that have colonized freshwater habitats have evolved more rapid individual growth. Heritable variation in growth is greater for marine full-siblings reared at low versus high salinity, and genetic variation exists in plastic growth responses to low salinity. In fish from recently founded freshwater populations reared at low salinity, the plastic response was strongly correlated with growth. Plasticity and growth were not correlated in full-siblings reared at high salinity nor in marine fish at either salinity. In well-adapted lake populations, rapid growth evolved jointly with stronger plastic responses to low salinity and the persistence of strong plastic responses indicates that growth is not genetically assimilated. Thus, beneficial plastic growth responses to low salinity have both guided and evolved along with rapid growth as stickleback adapted to freshwater.

  8. Reconstituted IMPDH polymers accommodate both catalytically active and inactive conformations. (United States)

    Anthony, Sajitha A; Burrell, Anika L; Johnson, Matthew C; Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Simonet, Jacqueline C; Michener, Peter; Andrews, Andrew; Kollman, Justin M; Peterson, Jeffrey R


    Several metabolic enzymes undergo reversible polymerization into macromolecular assemblies. The function of these assemblies is often unclear but in some cases they regulate enzyme activity and metabolic homeostasis. The guanine nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) forms octamers that polymerize into helical chains. In mammalian cells, IMPDH filaments can associate into micron-length assemblies. Polymerization and enzyme activity are regulated in part by binding of purine nucleotides to an allosteric regulatory domain. ATP promotes octamer polymerization, whereas GTP promotes a compact, inactive conformation whose ability to polymerize is unknown. Also unclear is whether polymerization directly alters IMPDH catalytic activity. To address this, we identified point mutants of human IMPDH2 that either prevent or promote polymerization. Unexpectedly, we found that polymerized and non-assembled forms of recombinant IMPDH have comparable catalytic activity, substrate affinity, and GTP sensitivity and validated this finding in cells. Electron microscopy revealed that substrates and allosteric nucleotides shift the equilibrium between active and inactive conformations in both the octamer and the filament. Unlike other metabolic filaments, which selectively stabilize active or inactive conformations, recombinant IMPDH filaments accommodate multiple states. These conformational states are finely tuned by substrate availability and purine balance, while polymerization may allow cooperative transitions between states. © 2017 by The American Society for Cell Biology.

  9. Method for compensating bellows pressure loads while accommodating thermal deformations (United States)

    Woodle, M. H.


    Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accommodate deformations with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The national synchrotron light source (NSLS) has two such electron storage rings, the VUV ring and the X-ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port. There are provisions for 16 beam ports on the VUV and 28 ports in the X-ray ring. At each of these locations the bellows are acted on by an external pressure of 1 atmosphere, which causes a 520 lb reaction at the vacuum chamber beam port and at the beamline flange downstream of the bellows. The use of rigid tie rods across the bellows flanges to support this load is troublesome because most storage ring vacuum chambers are baked in situ to achieve high internal vacuum. Significant forces can develop on components if thermal deformation is restrained and damage could occur.

  10. Accommodating Thickness in Origami-Based Deployable Arrays (United States)

    Zirbel, Shannon A.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.; Lang, Robert J.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Trease, Brian P.


    The purpose of this work is to create deployment systems with a large ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter. Deployment from a compact form to a final flat state can be achieved through origami-inspired folding of panels. There are many models capable of this motion when folded in a material with negligible thickness; however, when the application requires the folding of thick, rigid panels, attention must be paid to the effect of material thickness not only on the final folded state, but also during the folding motion (i.e., the panels must not be required to flex to attain the final folded form). The objective is to develop new methods for deployment from a compact folded form to a large circular array (or other final form). This paper describes a mathematical model for modifying the pattern to accommodate material thickness in the context of the design, modeling, and testing of a deployable system inspired by an origami six-sided flasher model. The model is demonstrated in hardware as a 1/20th scale prototype of a deployable solar array for space applications. The resulting prototype has a ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter of 9.2 (or 1.25 m deployed outer diameter to 0.136 m stowed outer diameter).

  11. Setting Sight on Role Playing: To Accommodate or to Repudiate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Apriani Fata


    Full Text Available To set sight on role play by means to look at EFL teacher’s experience and students’ perspectives of role play (RP technique enactment in teaching speaking by using qualitative design. This research was a qualitative study. It was discharged at a Senior high school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. It provided work for the instrument of observation sheet, field notes and interview guide, and also questionnaire. The methodology designated the combination of four mountainsides to expose in-depth the urgency of role play in which applied since 1936. The result of interview was exposed that the English teacher claimed that role play was a technique applied to promote speaking and it was corroborated by the result of field note. Likewise, regarding students’ perspective depicted that the students indeed agreed on themselves of the usefulness of role play to enhance their speaking skill and motivation. Thus, Students asserted that the learning was more fun and enjoyable through role play itself. It is merely found in this research study that role playing can accommodate students’ need and teacher’s side in English language teaching. Nevertheless, this article applies a small subject as the participant. Therefore, the researchers recommended to have a deep look at reasoning students’ point of view in terms of role play technique implementation in non-English class. And see ascertains how beneficial it is in terms of role play (RP in a large classroom.

  12. Decisive Constraints as a Creative Resource in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Halskov, Kim


    This article explores the observation that highly limiting, creative decisions of voluntary self-binding that radically prune the design solution space may in fact fuel and accelerate the process toward an innovative final design. To gain insight into this phenomenon, we propose the concept...... ‘decisive constraints’ based on a review of current, but dispersed, studies into creativity constraints. We build decisive constraints on two definitional conditions related to radical decision-making and creative turning points. To test our concept analytically and ensure its relevance to creative practice......, we apply the two definitional conditions to three media façade installation projects in which our interaction design research lab has been involved. In accord with insights from these case analyses, we argue that decisive constraints may inform current research into design processes and act...

  13. A constraint consensus memetic algorithm for solving constrained optimization problems (United States)

    Hamza, Noha M.; Sarker, Ruhul A.; Essam, Daryl L.; Deb, Kalyanmoy; Elsayed, Saber M.


    Constraint handling is an important aspect of evolutionary constrained optimization. Currently, the mechanism used for constraint handling with evolutionary algorithms mainly assists the selection process, but not the actual search process. In this article, first a genetic algorithm is combined with a class of search methods, known as constraint consensus methods, that assist infeasible individuals to move towards the feasible region. This approach is also integrated with a memetic algorithm. The proposed algorithm is tested and analysed by solving two sets of standard benchmark problems, and the results are compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. The comparisons show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other similar algorithms. The algorithm has also been applied to solve a practical economic load dispatch problem, where it also shows superior performance over other algorithms.

  14. Development of an Accommodation-Dependent Eye Model and Studying the Effects of Accommodation on Electron and Proton Dose Conversion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Vejdani-Noghreiyan


    Full Text Available Introduction International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP has provided a comprehensive discussion on threshold dose for radiation-induced cataract in ICRP publication 116. Accordingly, various parts of the eye lens have different radio-sensitivities. Recently, some studies have been performed to develop a realistic eye model with the aim of providing accurate estimation of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for different parts of the eye. However, the effect of accommodation, which changes the lens shape and pupil size, on dose conversion coefficients has not been considered yet. In this study, we purport to develop an accommodation-dependent eye model and to study the effects of accommodation on the electron and proton fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. Materials and Methods Herein, a modified eye model was developed by considering the effects of accommodation on the lens shape and pupil size. In addition, MCNPX 2.6 Monte Carlo transport code was used to calculate the effects of  eye lens accommodation on electron and proton fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. Results Calculation of dose conversion coefficients demonstrated that the accommodation causes up to 40% discrepancy for fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients of electrons in the range of 600 to 800 keV, which is due to the change of eye lens shape during the accommodation of the eye. Conclusion Since the accommodation of the eye change the lens shape and pupil size, it has considerable effect on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients of electrons at some ranges of incident particle energies that should be considered in simulation. However, the fluctuation of dose conversion coefficients of protons is negligible.

  15. Accommodating new ways of working : lessons from best practices and worst cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunia, S.; de Been, I.; van der Voordt, Theo


    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore which factors may explain the high or low percentages of satisfied employees in offices with shared activity-based workplaces. Design/methodology/approach – The paper compares data on employee satisfaction from two cases with remarkably high

  16. A Study of the Accommodation of Religious Practices in the United States Army. Volume 1 (United States)


    for his troops, the Army has provided for the spiritual dimension of soldiering. The Army successfully defended the chaplaincy in court on the basis...Adventists, commonly known as Seventh Day Adventists, and others have a vegetarian diet as a 29 recommendation of their faith. Many of the individual members... vegetarian regimen. For those who follow the Kosher laws, there are many meat and fish items that are forbidden. Pork and shellfish are among the most

  17. Practical Suggestions to Accommodate the Needs of Muslim Students on Campus (United States)

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Bagheri, Elham


    Given the internal and external challenges Muslim students face, it is important that student affairs practitioners find ways to assist Muslim students in their adherence to their religion as they pursue their degree. In this chapter, the authors present a brief introduction to Islamic tenets, discuss challenges facing Muslim college students, and…

  18. Preventing Control Constraint Violations by Use of Energy Balances for a Class of Coupled Systems: Applied to a Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob


    In this paper a scheme is presented for preventing violations of control signal constraints in a class of coupled systems. The scheme is an add-on solution to the existing control system; it works like a fault tolerant scheme, by accommodating the problem then occurring. The proposed scheme...... and not to optimize performance during all conditions. The scheme is applied to an example with a coal mill pulverizing coal for a power plant.  ...

  19. Project Scheduling Under Resource Constraints: Application of the Cumulative Global Constraint


    Trojet, Mariem; H'Mida, Fehmi; Lopez, Pierre


    International audience; This paper concerns project scheduling under resource constraints. The objective is to find a solution that minimizes the project makespan, while respecting the precedence constraints and the resource constraints. The problem under consideration is modelled as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP). It is implemented under the constraint programming language CHIP V5. For modelling the resource constraints, we are particularly interested in the application of the cumul...

  20. Testing multiple coordination constraints with a novel bimanual visuomotor task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene M Sisti

    Full Text Available The acquisition of a new bimanual skill depends on several motor coordination constraints. To date, coordination constraints have often been tested relatively independently of one another, particularly with respect to isofrequency and multifrequency rhythms. Here, we used a new paradigm to test the interaction of multiple coordination constraints. Coordination constraints that were tested included temporal complexity, directionality, muscle grouping, and hand dominance. Twenty-two healthy young adults performed a bimanual dial rotation task that required left and right hand coordination to track a moving target on a computer monitor. Two groups were compared, either with or without four days of practice with augmented visual feedback. Four directional patterns were tested such that both hands moved either rightward (clockwise, leftward (counterclockwise, inward or outward relative to each other. Seven frequency ratios (3∶1, 2∶1, 3∶2, 1∶1, 2∶3. 1∶2, 1∶3 between the left and right hand were introduced. As expected, isofrequency patterns (1∶1 were performed more successfully than multifrequency patterns (non 1∶1. In addition, performance was more accurate when participants were required to move faster with the dominant right hand (1∶3, 1∶2 and 2∶3 than with the non-dominant left hand (3∶1, 2∶1, 3∶2. Interestingly, performance deteriorated as the relative angular velocity between the two hands increased, regardless of whether the required frequency ratio was an integer or non-integer. This contrasted with previous finger tapping research where the integer ratios generally led to less error than the non-integer ratios. We suggest that this is due to the different movement topologies that are required of each paradigm. Overall, we found that this visuomotor task was useful for testing the interaction of multiple coordination constraints as well as the release from these constraints with practice in the presence of

  1. Patterns in workplace accommodations for people with multiple sclerosis to overcome cognitive and other disease-related limitations. (United States)

    Leslie, Mykal; Kinyanjui, Benson; Bishop, Malachy; Rumrill, Phillip D; Roessler, Richard T


    Cognitive symptoms and other functional limitations associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a significant negative impact on employment status. Work accommodations positively impact the ability of a person with MS to obtain and retain employment, however, current understanding of the role of accommodations in the careers of adults with MS is limited. To analyze the percentage of American workers with MS who utilize workplace accommodations as per Title I of the ADA, the types of accommodations most frequently required, and differences in disease variables, job-related factors, and quality of life between workers using and not using work accommodations. Data from 746 employed adult members of the National MS Society surveyed about career concerns were analyzed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used as appropriate to address the research questions. Approximately 25% reported having requested accommodations, and 87.7% reported receiving the requested accommodation. Participants with progressive MS, cognitive impairment, higher number of MS symptoms and greater symptom severity were more likely to use work accommodations. Participants with accommodations reported poorer job match and career optimism than those using no accommodations. This large-scale analysis addresses several outstanding questions concerning work accommodations among workers with MS. Cognitive symptoms and disease severity are strongly associated with need for accommodations, however accommodations do not appear to promote job satisfaction or longevity. The accommodation request process and the impact of accommodations on employment retention remain important research foci.

  2. Societal constraints related to environmental remediation and decommissioning programmes. (United States)

    Perko, Tanja; Monken-Fernandes, Horst; Martell, Meritxell; Zeleznik, Nadja; O'Sullivan, Patrick


    The decisions related to decommissioning or environmental remediation projects (D/ER) cannot be isolated from the socio-political and cultural environment. Experiences of the IAEA Member States point out the importance of giving due attention to the societal aspects in project planning and implementation. The purpose of this paper is threefold: i) to systematically review societal constraints that some organisations in different IAEA Member States encounter when implementing D/ER programmes, ii) to identify different approaches to overcome these constraints and iii) to collect examples of existing practices related to the integration of societal aspects in D/ER programmes worldwide. The research was conducted in the context of the IAEA project Constraints to Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation (CIDER). The research results show that societal constraints arise mostly as a result of the different perceptions, attitudes, opinions and concerns of stakeholders towards the risks and benefits of D/ER programmes and due to the lack of stakeholder involvement in planning. There are different approaches to address these constraints, however all approaches have common points: early involvement, respect for different views, mutual understanding and learning. These results are relevant for all on-going and planned D/ER programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-Imposed Creativity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose


    Abstract This dissertation epitomizes three years of research guided by the research question: how can we conceptualize creative self-binding as a resource in art and design processes? Concretely, the dissertation seeks to offer insight into the puzzling observation that highly skilled creative...... practitioners sometimes freely and intentionally impose rigid rules, peculiar principles, and other kinds of creative obstructions on themselves as a means to spur momentum in the process and reach a distinctly original outcome. To investigate this the dissertation is composed of four papers (Part II) framed...... of analysis. Informed by the insight that constraints both enable and restrain creative agency, the dissertation’s main contention is that creative self- binding may profitably be conceptualized as the exercise of self-imposed creativity constraints. Thus, the dissertation marks an analytical move from vague...

  4. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto


    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... the energy units. However, aggregated flexibility should support normal grid operation. In this paper, we build on the flex-offer (FO) concept to model the inherent flexibility of a prosumer (e.g., a single flexible consumption device such as a clothes washer). An FO captures flexibility in both time...... and amount dimensions. We define the problem of aggregating FOs taking into account grid power constraints. We also propose two constraint-based aggregation techniques that efficiently aggregate FOs while retaining flexibility. We show through a comprehensive evaluation that our techniques, in contrast...

  5. A compendium of chameleon constraints (United States)

    Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy


    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f(R) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  6. Optimizing measurement of subjective amplitude of accommodation with defocus curves. (United States)

    Gupta, Navneet; Wolffsohn, James S W; Naroo, Shehzad A


    To determine whether letter sequences and/or lens-presentation order should be randomized when measuring defocus curves and to assess the most appropriate criterion for calculating the subjective amplitude of accommodation (AoA) from defocus curves. Eye Clinic, School of Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Defocus curves (from +3.00 diopters [D] to -3.00 D in 0.50 D steps) for 6 possible combinations of randomized or nonrandomized letter sequences and/or lens-presentation order were measured in a random order in 20 presbyopic subjects. Subjective AoA was calculated from the defocus curves by curve fitting using various published criteria, and each was correlated to subjective push-up AoA. Objective AoA was measured for comparison of blur tolerance and pupil size. Randomization of lens-presentation order and/or letter sequences, or lack of, did not affect the measured defocus curves (P >.05, analysis of variance). The range of defocus that maintains highest achievable visual acuity (allowing for variability of repeated measurement) was better correlated to (r = 0.84) and agreed best with (+/-0.50 D) subjective push-up AoA than any other relative or absolute acuity criterion used in previous studies. Nonrandomized letters and lens presentation on their own did not affect subjective AoA measured by defocus curves, although their combination should be avoided. Quantification of subjective AoA from defocus curves should be standardized to the range of defocus that maintains the best achievable visual acuity.

  7. Botulinum toxin type A as treatment of partially accommodative esotropia. (United States)

    Flores-Reyes, E M; Castillo-López, M G; Toledo-Silva, R; Vargas-Ortega, J; Murillo-Correa, C E; Aguilar-Ruiz, A


    To determine the effectiveness of a botulinum toxin type A injection in both medial rectus muscles in patients with partially accommodative esotropia. Residual deviation and stability of strabismus were evaluated at 18 months follow up. A prospective, analytical, quasi-experimental study was conducted on a cohort of 21 patients who underwent total cycloplegic refraction and with a residual deviation of at least 14 DP. A botulinum toxin type A dose of 5 IU was injected into each medial rectus muscle for a residual deviation greater than 18 DP, with a dose of 2.5 IU being used for a deviation between 14 and 18 DP. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to relate residual deviation to variables recorded as potential predictors. A total of 21 patients were included, 33.3% (n=7) males and 66.6% (n=14) females. Mean visual acuity was -.28±.25 logMAR for right eye (range 0 to -1) and -.42±.31 logMAR for left eye (range 0 to -1.3). Mean angle of residual deviation before application of botulinum toxin was 40.95±8.6DP without spectacles correction, and 22.3±7.99 DP with full cycloplegic refraction. Adverse effects were ptosis in 14.2% (n=3), diplopia 23.8% (n=5), and vertical deviation in 33% (n=7). One patient had a poor outcome, therefore required surgical treatment. At one year follow up, 85.71% of patients showed good results with esotropia of 12 DP or less, dropping to 71.43% at 18 months of follow up. Botulinum toxin type A is an effective long-term treatment with a good response in 71.43% of patients. No predictors of good response were demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Managing Restaurant Tables using Constraints (United States)

    Vidotto, Alfio; Brown, Kenneth N.; Beck, J. Christopher

    Restaurant table management can have significant impact on both profitability and the customer experience. The core of the issue is a complex dynamic combinatorial problem. We show how to model the problem as constraint satisfaction, with extensions which generate flexible seating plans and which maintain stability when changes occur. We describe an implemented system which provides advice to users in real time. The system is currently being evaluated in a restaurant environment.

  9. Public investment under fiscal constraints


    Alessandro Missale; emanuele bacchiocchi; elisa borghi


    EU New Member States must comply with the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) and the investment requirements implied by the Lisbon Agenda. However, the SGP rules may result in underinvestment or distortions in the allocation of public expenditure. This paper provides new evidence on the effects of debt sustainability and SGP fiscal constraints on government expenditure in fixed capital, education and health in OECD countries by estimating government expenditure reaction functions to public debt ...

  10. Constraint-based feature validation


    Dohmen, M.H.P.J.


    The feature modeling paradigm combines geometric and functional product information in one model. In an ideal product development environment, multiple views of a product in terms of features coexist. Feature validation concerns the validity of the feature information in all these views, focusing on validity specification and maintenance. This thesis presents a feature validation scheme based on constraints. It enables flexible and expressive feature validity maintenance. The scheme ensures t...

  11. Memory Constraint Online Multitask Classification


    Cavallanti, Giovanni; Cesa-Bianchi, Nicolò


    We investigate online kernel algorithms which simultaneously process multiple classification tasks while a fixed constraint is imposed on the size of their active sets. We focus in particular on the design of algorithms that can efficiently deal with problems where the number of tasks is extremely high and the task data are large scale. Two new projection-based algorithms are introduced to efficiently tackle those issues while presenting different trade offs on how the available memory is man...

  12. Everyday Experiences of Homeless Young People in Supported Accommodation Programmes in Australia (United States)

    Danby, Susan; Farrell, Ann; Leiminer, Michele


    This paper investigates young people's accounts of governance in their everyday lives within a Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP) in regional Australia. The SAAP is a joint Commonwealth and State/Territory programme for assisting people who are homeless or at risk of homelessness by providing transitional supported accommodation and…

  13. The effect of lens-induced anisometropia on accommodation and vergence during human visual development. (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Shrikant R; Candy, T Rowan


    Clear and single binocular vision, a prerequisite for normal human visual development, is achieved through accommodation and vergence. Anisometropia is associated with abnormal visual development, but its impact on accommodation and vergence, and therefore on the individual's visual experience, is not known. This study determined the impact of transiently induced anisometropia on accommodative and vergence performance of the typically developing human visual system. One hundred eighteen subjects (age range, 2.9 months to 41.1 years) watched a cartoon movie that moved between 80 and 33 cm under six different viewing conditions: binocular and monocular, and with ±2 diopters (D) and ±4 D of lens-induced anisometropia. Twenty-one subjects (age range, 3.1 months to 12.1 years) also watched the movie with 11% induced aniseikonia. Accommodation and vergence were recorded in both eyes using a videoretinoscope (25 Hz). The main effect of viewing condition was statistically significant for both accommodation and vergence (both P anisometropia conditions (P 0.5). Accommodative and vergence gains of the typically developing visual system deteriorated marginally (accommodation more than vergence) with transiently induced anisometropia (up to ±4 D) and did not deteriorate significantly with induced aniseikonia of 11%. Some binocular cues remained with ±4 D of induced anisometropia and 11% induced aniseikonia, as indicated by the accommodative and vergence gains being higher than in monocular viewing.

  14. School Functioning and Use of School-Based Accommodations by Treatment-Seeking Anxious Children (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Comer, Jonathan S.; Donaldson, Aberdine R.; Elkins, R. Meredith; Nadeau, Meredith S.; Reid, Gerald; Pincus, Donna B.


    Anxiety disorders are commonly occurring among children and are associated with increased risk for poor educational outcomes. However, little is known about the specific supports and accommodations provided to anxious children in schools. This study examines reports of school functioning and school-based supports and accommodations among a sample…

  15. Family accommodation mediates the association between anxiety symptoms in mothers and children. (United States)

    Jones, Johnna D; Lebowitz, Eli R; Marin, Carla E; Stark, Kevin D


    The link between child anxiety and maternal anxiety has been well established but the factors underlying this association are not well understood. One potential factor is family accommodation, which describes ways in which parents change their behaviour to help a child avoid or alleviate anxiety. Family accommodation has been associated with greater symptom severity, more impairment and poorer treatment outcomes in the child. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal accommodation mediates the relation between parent and child anxiety. Mothers of children (N = 85) aged 7-17 years (M = 11.79) completed measures of their own anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)), their child's anxiety (Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED)), and family accommodation (Family Accommodation Scale Anxiety (FASA)). Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the mediational role of accommodation linking parent and child anxiety. Family accommodation was found to significantly mediate the link between maternal anxiety and child anxiety. These results inform theory and imply that the development of interventions designed to target family accommodation may improve the prognosis of those diagnosed with paediatric anxiety disorders and youth with subclinical anxiety symptoms by reducing both parent and child anxiety.

  16. Supervisor Autonomy and Considerate Leadership Style are Associated with Supervisors’ Likelihood to Accommodate Back Injured Workers (United States)

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Shaw, William; Soklaridis, Sophie


    PURPOSE To determine the association between supervisors’ leadership style and autonomy and supervisors’ likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors’ likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale. We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. RESULTS A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β= .012; 95% CI: .009–.016) and autonomy (β= .066; 95% CI: .025–.11) were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI: −.0026–.0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability. PMID:25595332

  17. 75 FR 65261 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation (United States)


    ... or spa that is open exclusively to patrons of a hotel or other public accommodations facility... ``public accommodations facility'' to mean: ``An inn, hotel, motel, or other place of lodging, except for... health departments, one from the Tennessee Hospitality Association, one from an ] individual, one from a...

  18. Visual Discomfort and the Temporal Properties of the Vergence-Accommodation Conflict. (United States)

    Kim, Joohwan; Kane, David; Banks, Martin S


    The vergence-accommodation conflict associated with viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content can cause visual discomfort. Previous studies of vergence and accommodation have shown that the coupling between the two responses is driven by a fast, phasic component. We investigated how the temporal properties of vergence-accommodation conflicts affect discomfort. Using a unique volumetric display, we manipulated the stimulus to vergence and the stimulus to accommodation independently. There were two experimental conditions: 1) natural viewing in which the stimulus to vergence was perfectly correlated with the stimulus to accommodation; and 2) conflict viewing in which the stimulus to vergence varied while the stimulus to accommodation remained constant (thereby mimicking S3D viewing). The stimulus to vergence (and accommodation in natural viewing) varied at one of three temporal frequencies in those conditions. The magnitude of the conflict was the same for all three frequencies. The young adult subjects reported more visual discomfort when vergence changes were faster, particularly in the conflict condition. Thus, the temporal properties of the vergence-accommodation conflict in S3D media affect visual discomfort. The results can help content creators minimize discomfort by making conflict changes sufficiently slow.

  19. A meta-analysis of family accommodation and OCD symptom severity. (United States)

    Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Martino, Charitie; Phares, Vicky; Selles, Robert R; Storch, Eric A


    Family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by myriad behaviors, such as modifying family routines, facilitating avoidance, and engaging in compulsions to reduce obsessional distress. It has been linked to various deleterious outcomes including increased functional impairment and poorer treatment response for OCD. Although extant literature suggests a linear relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity, the magnitude and statistical significance of this association has been inconsistent across studies, indicating that moderators may be influencing this relationship. The present study examined this relationship using meta-analytic techniques, and investigated sample-dependent (age, gender, comorbid anxiety/mood disorders) and methodological (administration method and number of items used in family accommodation measure, informant type, sample size, publication year) moderators. Forty-one studies were included in the present meta-analysis, and the overall effect size (ES) for the correlation between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity was moderate (r=.42). Moderator analyses revealed that the number of items on the family accommodation scale moderated the ES. No other sample-dependent or methodological characteristics emerged as moderators. In addition to being the first systematic examination of family accommodation moderators, these results highlight the moderate relationship between family accommodation and OCD severity that is influenced by measurement scales. Findings may be used to guide clinical care and inform future investigations by providing a more nuanced understanding of family accommodation in OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Sharing Health Information on Teachers' Production of Classroom Accommodations (United States)

    Cunningham, Melissa M.; Wodrich, David L.


    Ninety elementary-school teachers read information about a hypothetical student experiencing school-related problems due to Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), generated classroom accommodations to assist the student, and rated their confidence in these accommodations. Each teacher was provided one of three levels of information about T1DM: (a) "no…

  1. Recognizing and Accommodating Employees with PTSD: The Intersection of Human Resource Development, Rehabilitation, and Psychology (United States)

    Hughes, Claretha; Lusk, Stephanie L.; Strause, Stephanie


    All employees within the workplace must be treated fairly and equitably including those with disabilities who may require accommodations that serve to increase access to and maintenance of competitive employment. Human Resource Development (HRD) researchers and practitioners have experience in accommodating employees with disabilities but are now…

  2. Enabling or Empowering? Adaptations and Accommodations for Twice-Exceptional Students (United States)

    Weinfeld, Rich; Barnes-Robinson, Linda; Jeweler, Sue; Shevitz, Betty Roffman


    In order for gifted/learning disabled (GT/LD) students to effectively gain access to enriched and accelerated instruction, they often need to have appropriate adaptations and accommodations. Teachers, parents, and students have strong opinions and beliefs that influence which, if any, adaptations and accommodations they believe to be appropriate.…

  3. Audible Image Description as an Accommodation in Statewide Assessments for Students with Visual and Print Disabilities (United States)

    Ferrell, Kay Alicyn; Correa-Torres, Silvia M.; Howell, Jennifer Johnson; Pearson, Robert; Carver, Wendy Morrow; Groll, Amy Spencer; Anthony, Tanni L.; Matthews, Deborah; Gould, Bryan; O'Connell, Trisha; Botsford, Kathryn D,; Dewald, Hong Phangia; Smyth, Catherine A.; Dewald, Aaron John


    Introduction:Although image description has been identified as an accommodation for presentations conducted in the classroom, only a few U.S. states have approved it for use in high-stakes assessments. This study examined the use of audible image description as an assessment accommodation for students with visual and print disabilities by…

  4. WIDA Assessment and Accommodations for English Language Learners with Disabilities. 2014-2015 Test Administration (United States)

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015


    On a case-by-case basis where appropriate documentation exists, students with disabilities may require accommodations in order to access the W-APT and/or ACCESS for English Language Learners (ELLs). The information in this document replaces accommodations information in the appendices of the W-APT and ACCESS for ELLs test administration manuals…

  5. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.


    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  6. States' Accommodations Policies and Development of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards: A Discriminant Analysis (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Thurlow, Martha L.


    The characteristics of a state's accommodations policy may affect a state's decision about whether to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). A very restrictive accommodations policy may make it more difficult for some students to participate in the state's regular assessment used for accountability…

  7. 75 FR 12167 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation AGENCY... ``public accommodation'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. DATES: Written...; [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background The Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety...

  8. 46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. 167... Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. (a) All nautical school ships shall be provided with such number of good and efficient portable fire extinguishers approved by the Navy or Coast Guard as...

  9. Changes in lens stiffness due to capsular opacification in accommodative lens refilling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van Kooten, Theo G.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    Accommodation may be restored to presbyopic lenses by refilling the lens capsular bag with a soft polymer. After this accommodative lens refilling prevention of capsular opacification is a requirement, since capsular opacification leads to a decreased clarity of the refilled lens. It has been

  10. Polymer refilling of presbyopic human lenses in vitro restores the ability to undergo accommodative changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, B; Haitjema, HJ; Kooijman, AC; Barkhof, J

    PURPOSE. Because presbyopia is thought to be accompanied by increased lens sclerosis this study was conducted to investigate whether refilling the capsule of the presbyopic human lens with a soft polymer would restore the ability of the lens to undergo accommodative changes. METHODS. Accommodative

  11. The Impact of Accommodative Coping on Well-Being in Childhood and Adolescence: Longitudinal Findings (United States)

    Thomsen, Tamara; Fritz, Viktoria; Mößle, Regine; Greve, Werner


    Coping research has consistently shown that accommodative coping is positively correlated with individuals' health. Until now, however, there have been little to no studies on the prognostic impact of accommodative coping on health, and only a few studies investigating its buffering effect on the relation between stress and health in childhood and…

  12. Analysis of Space Tourism Constraints (United States)

    Bonnal, Christophe


    Space tourism appears today as a new Eldorado in a relatively near future. Private operators are already proposing services for leisure trips in Low Earth Orbit, and some happy few even tested them. But are these exceptional events really marking the dawn of a new space age ? The constraints associated to the space tourism are severe : - the economical balance of space tourism is tricky; development costs of large manned - the technical definition of such large vehicles is challenging, mainly when considering - the physiological aptitude of passengers will have a major impact on the mission - the orbital environment will also lead to mission constraints on aspects such as radiation, However, these constraints never appear as show-stoppers and have to be dealt with pragmatically: - what are the recommendations one can make for future research in the field of space - which typical roadmap shall one consider to develop realistically this new market ? - what are the synergies with the conventional missions and with the existing infrastructure, - how can a phased development start soon ? The paper proposes hints aiming at improving the credibility of Space Tourism and describes the orientations to follow in order to solve the major hurdles found in such an exciting development.

  13. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Cañas


    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs, discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1×10−11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1|≤5.6×10−11μB, |Λ2|≤4.0×10−11μB, and |Λ3|≤3.1×10−11μB (90% C.L., irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.

  14. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yuhsin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  15. Animal movement constraints improve resource selection inference in the presence of telemetry error. (United States)

    Brost, Brian M; Hooten, Mevin B; Hanks, Ephraim M; Small, Robert J


    Multiple factors complicate the analysis of animal telemetry location data. Recent advancements address issues such as temporal autocorrelation and telemetry measurement error, but additional challenges remain. Difficulties introduced by complicated error structures or barriers to animal movement can weaken inference. We propose an approach for obtaining resource selection inference from animal location data that accounts for complicated error structures, movement constraints, and temporally autocorrelated observations. We specify a model for telemetry data observed with error conditional on unobserved true locations that reflects prior knowledge about constraints in the animal movement process. The observed telemetry data are modeled using a flexible distribution that accommodates extreme errors and complicated error structures. Although constraints to movement are often viewed as a nuisance, we use constraints to simultaneously estimate and account for telemetry error. We apply the model to simulated data, showing that it outperforms common ad hoc approaches used when confronted with measurement error and movement constraints. We then apply our framework to an Argos satellite telemetry data set on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Gulf of Alaska, a species that is constrained to move within the marine environment and adjacent coastlines.

  16. A Systematic Review of Supported Accommodation Programs for People Released From Custody. (United States)

    Growns, Bethany; Kinner, Stuart A; Conroy, Elizabeth; Baldry, Eileen; Larney, Sarah


    One of the challenges that people recently released from custody face is securing housing. Many individuals rely on supported accommodation programs for housing in the immediate post-release period. However, the value of supported accommodation programs in producing positive criminal justice and health outcomes for people released from custody has not been widely examined. This article reviews the current literature on supported accommodation programs and the elements of these services that contribute to positive outcomes for individuals released from custody. We focused on programs that provided temporary, transitional group residences for adults recently released from a correctional setting. The systematic review identified only nine publications that met the inclusion criteria. Studies were frequently at high risk of bias and few consistent findings emerged about either effectiveness of accommodation programs or program characteristics associated with participant outcomes. Methodologically rigorous research is needed to determine the effectiveness of post-release supported accommodation programs.

  17. Electrical properties of Lupinus angustifolius L. stem. II. Accommodation and anode break excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zawadzki


    Full Text Available Under electrical stimulation of Lupinus stem phenomena of accommodation and anode break excitation appear. Their characteristic is the same as in the axon or nerve. Only their duration is about 103-104 longer in plants. The constant characterizing the rate of accommodation was calculated. A limiting threshold value was found beyond which excitation occurs, irrespective of the rate of stimulus rise (voltage gradient. The accommodation rate is approximately constant, whereas the range of accommodation varies and is dependent on the difference between the rheobase value and the limiting threshold value. Hence plants with a low rheobase are characterized by a wider range of accommodation. It is suggested that the changes in potential (including AP recorded on the stem surface are connected with changes of the potential on cell membranes (Sibaoka, 1962.

  18. Influence of orthokeratology lenses on the state of accommodative function in children with myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Tsybulskaya


    Full Text Available Aim. It was showed that optimal optical correction have positive effect on the accommodative apparatus of the myopic eye. Absolute and relative accommodation reserves, the nearest point of clear vision in 50 patients (100 eyes with mild myopia was studied in order to assess the state of the accommodative function of the eyes. Methods and results. All patients undergone refractive therapy with orthokeratology lenses Paragon CRT during the year. It was established that refractive lenses use for orthokeratology therapy in patients with myopia increases the accommodation reserves in 3.8 times and in 2.8 times increase in the nearest point of clear vision at 2.4 cm. Conclusion. This indicates the positive influence on accommodative opportunities of the myopic eyes.

  19. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine


    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  20. Relationship between protein structure and geometrical constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Hansen, Jan; Brunak, Søren


    We evaluate to what extent the structure of proteins can be deduced from incomplete knowledge of disulfide bridges, surface assignments, secondary structure assignments, and additional distance constraints. A cost function taking such constraints into account was used to obtain protein structures...... using a simple minimization algorithm. For small proteins, the approximate structure could be obtained using one additional distance constraint for each amino acid in the protein. We also studied the effect of using predicted secondary structure and surface assignments. The constraints used...

  1. Prediction of accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic subjects using ultrasound biomicroscopy. (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian


    To determine whether relatively low-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can be used to predict the accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes as well as in a previous study of young phakic subjects, despite lower accommodative amplitudes. College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, USA. Observational cross-sectional study. Static accommodative optical response was measured with infrared photorefraction and an autorefractor (WR-5100K) in subjects aged 36 to 46 years. A 35 MHz UBM device (Vumax, Sonomed Escalon) was used to image the left eye, while the right eye viewed accommodative stimuli. Custom-developed Matlab image-analysis software was used to perform automated analysis of UBM images to measure the ocular biometry parameters. The accommodative optical response was predicted from biometry parameters using linear regression, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and 95% prediction intervals. The study evaluated 25 subjects. Per-diopter (D) accommodative changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature, and anterior segment length were similar to previous values from young subjects. The standard deviations (SDs) of accommodative optical response predicted from linear regressions for UBM-measured biometry parameters were ACD, 0.15 D; lens thickness, 0.25 D; anterior lens radii of curvature, 0.09 D; posterior lens radii of curvature, 0.37 D; and anterior segment length, 0.42 D. Ultrasound biomicroscopy parameters can, on average, predict accommodative optical responses with SDs of less than 0.55 D using linear regressions and 95% CIs. Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to visualize and quantify accommodative biometric changes and predict accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Organizational Constraints on Corporate Public Relations Practitioners. (United States)

    Ryan, Michael


    Catalogs various internal constraints under which many public relations practitioners work, including constraints on (1) access to management; (2) information collection; (3) dissemination of timely, accurate information; and (4) the public relations mission. Reports that most practitioners see organizational constraints as more of a problem for…

  3. Reliance on constraints means detection of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Runeson, S.; Andersson, I.E.K.


    We argue four points. First, perception always relies on environmental constraints, not only in special cases. Second, constraints are taken advantage of by detecting information granted by the constraints rather than by internalizing them. Third, apparent motion phenomena reveal reliance on

  4. A general treatment of dynamic integrity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brock, EO

    This paper introduces a general, set-theoretic model for expressing dynamic integrity constraints, i.e., integrity constraints on the state changes that are allowed in a given state space. In a managerial context, such dynamic integrity constraints can be seen as representations of "real world"

  5. Constraint Satisfaction by Branch & Sample: anImplementation in C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per


    .) This Web publication presents B&S from the point of view of practical programming. The algorithm is incrementally developed from a simple sketch to full application independent source code in C, available free of charge on gentlemanly conditions. Concerns of user-machine interaction are introduced as part......The Branch & Sample algorithm (B&S) offers a search strategy potentially applicable to constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) whose variables are interdependent in terms of the constraints to be satisfied. CSPs are often combinatorially explosive (have very large numbers of solutions...... of the algorithm development, and practical advice on how to incorporate B&S into an application program is offered by way of example. For the benefit of non-C programmers, the essentials of C notation is briefly explained....

  6. Disclosure of Mental Disability by College and University Faculty: The Negotiation of Accommodations, Supports, and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Price


    Full Text Available High-profile shootings and student suicides have made mental health issues on college campuses a major national issue. College students are usually the focus of this conversation, while little attention beyond anecdotal accounts has been paid to faculty with mental health issues. In response to this lack of broad-scale research, a first-of-its-kind cross-institutional survey of faculty with mental disabilities was conducted. Respondents self-identified as faculty with mental disabilities, mental illness or mental-health histories. Results from 267 respondents indicated that nearly 70% had no or limited familiarity with accommodations, and even fewer used them (87%. A majority of respondents (62% disclosed to at least one person on campus, primarily colleagues (50% and department chairs (21%. Respondents felt most supported by spouses/significant others (75% very or extremely supported and friends (51% rather than colleagues (29% and supervisors (25%. In our discussion of these findings, we offer suggestions for practice that will improve environments, rather than focusing on case-by-case "fixes" for those who disclose. We also suggest directions for further research into this topic, which is frequently mentioned (in both scholarly and popular publications but rarely investigated systematically or on a wide scale.

  7. Magnifications of Single and Dual Element Accommodative Intraocular Lenses: Paraxial Optics Analysis (United States)

    Ale, Jit B; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur


    Purpose Using an analytical approach of paraxial optics, we evaluated the magnification of a model eye implanted with single-element (1E) and dual-element (2E) translating-optics accommodative intraocular lenses (AIOL) with an objective of understanding key control parameters relevant to their design. Potential clinical implications of the results arising from pseudophakic accommodation were also considered. Methods Lateral and angular magnifications in a pseudophakic model eye were analyzed using the matrix method of paraxial optics. The effects of key control parameters such as direction (forward or backward) and distance (0 to 2 mm) of translation, power combinations of the 2E-AIOL elements (front element power range +20.0 D to +40.0 D), and amplitudes of accommodation (0 to 4 D) were tested. Relative magnification, defined as the ratio of the retinal image size of the accommodated eye to that of unaccommodated phakic (rLM1) or pseudophakic (rLM2) model eyes, was computed to determine how retinal image size changes with pseudophakic accommodation. Results Both lateral and angular magnifications increased with increased power of the front element in 2E-AIOL and amplitude of accommodation. For a 2E-AIOL with front element power of +35 D, rLM1 and rLM2 increased by 17.0% and 16.3%, respectively, per millimetre of forward translation of the element, compared to the magnification at distance focus (unaccommodated). These changes correspond to a change of 9.4% and 6.5% per dioptre of accommodation, respectively. Angular magnification also increased with pseudophakic accommodation. 1E-AIOLs produced consistently less magnification than 2E-AIOLs. Relative retinal image size decreased at a rate of 0.25% with each dioptre of accommodation in the phakic model eye. The position of the image space nodal point shifted away from the retina (towards the cornea) with both phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Conclusion Power of the mobile element, and amount and direction of

  8. Evidence-based history taking under "time constraint"


    Alireza Moayyeri; Akbar Soltani; Hamideh Moosapour; Mohsin Raza


    Physicians all through the world visit patients under time limitations. The most important troubled clinical skill under ?time constraint? is the diagnostic approach. In this situation, clinicians need some diagnostic approaches to reduce both diagnostic time and errors. It seems that highly experienced physicians utilize some special tactics in this regard. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) as a relatively new paradigm for clinical practice stresses on using research evidences in diagnostic eval...

  9. Constraint-Based Abstract Semantics for Temporal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Gourinath; Gallagher, John Patrick


    Abstract interpretation provides a practical approach to verifying properties of infinite-state systems. We apply the framework of abstract interpretation to derive an abstract semantic function for the modal mu-calculus, which is the basis for abstract model checking. The abstract semantic funct...... abstract domains based on linear constraints. The implementation of the abstract semantic function makes use of an SMT solver. We describe an implemented system for proving properties of linear hybrid automata and give some experimental results....

  10. QPO Constraints on Neutron Stars (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman


    The kilohertz frequencies of QPOs from accreting neutron star systems imply that they are generated in regions of strong gravity, close to the star. This suggests that observations of the QPOs can be used to constrain the properties of neutron stars themselves, and in particular to inform us about the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear densities. Here we discuss some relatively model-insensitive constraints that emerge from the kilohertz QPOs, as well as recent developments that may hint at phenomena related to unstable circular orbits outside neutron stars.

  11. Varieties of the generality constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Clapp


    Full Text Available Since its introduction by Evans (1982, the generality constraint (GC has been invoked by various philosophers for different purposes. Our purpose here is, first, to clarify what precisely the GC states by way of an interpretive framework, the GC Schema, and second, to demonstrate in terms of this framework some problems that arise if one invokes the GC (or systematicity without clearly specifying an appropriate interpretation. By utilizing the GC Schema these sorts of problems can be avoided, and we thus propose it as a tool to facilitate argumentation that appeals to the GC.

  12. Static and dynamic crystalline lens accommodation evaluated using quantitative 3-D OCT. (United States)

    Gambra, Enrique; Ortiz, Sergio; Perez-Merino, Pablo; Gora, Michalina; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana


    Custom high-resolution high-speed anterior segment spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to characterize three-dimensionally (3-D) the human crystalline lens in vivo in four subjects, for accommodative demands between 0 to 6 D in 1 D steps. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased with accommodative demand at rates of 0.73 and 0.20 mm/D, resulting in an increase of the estimated optical power of the eye of 0.62 D per diopter of accommodative demand. Dynamic fluctuations in crystalline lens radii of curvature, anterior chamber depth and lens thickness were also estimated from dynamic 2-D OCT images (14 Hz), acquired during 5-s of steady fixation, for different accommodative demands. Estimates of the eye power from dynamical geometrical measurements revealed an increase of the fluctuations of the accommodative response from 0.07 D to 0.47 D between 0 and 6 D (0.044 D per D of accommodative demand). A sensitivity analysis showed that the fluctuations of accommodation were driven by dynamic changes in the lens surfaces, particularly in the posterior lens surface.

  13. Clinical importance of spherical and chromatic aberration on the accommodative response in contact lens wear (United States)

    Wahlberg, M.; Lindskoog Pettersson, A.; Rosén, R.; Nilsson, M.; Unsbo, P.; Brautaset, R.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accommodation response under both mono- and polychromatic light while varying the amount of spherical aberration. It is thought that chromatic and spherical aberrations are directional cues for the accommodative system and could affect response time, velocity or lag. Spherical aberration is often eliminated in modern contact lenses in order to enhance image quality in the unaccommodated eye. This study was divided into two parts. The first part was done to evaluate the amount of spherical and other Zernike aberrations in the unaccommodated eye when uncorrected and with two types of correction (trial lens and spherical-aberration controlled contact lens) and the second part evaluated the dynamic accommodation responses obtained when wearing each of the corrections under polychromatic and monochromatic conditions. Measurements of accommodation showed no significant differences in time, velocity and lag of accommodation after decreasing the spherical aberration with a contact lens, neither in monochromatic nor polychromatic light. It is unlikely that small to normal changes of spherical aberration in white light or monochromatic mid-spectral light affect directional cues for the accommodative system, not in white light or mid-spectral monochromatic light, since the accommodative response did not show any change.

  14. Morphology and Accommodative Function of the Vitreous Zonule in Human and Monkey Eyes (United States)

    Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L.; Wasielewski, Rainer; Ting-Li, Lin


    Purpose. To explore the attachments of the posterior zonule and vitreous in relation to accommodation and presbyopia in monkeys and humans. Methods. Novel scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) techniques were used to visualize the anterior, intermediate, and posterior vitreous zonule and their connections to the ciliary body, vitreous membrane, lens capsule, and ora serrata, and to characterize their age-related changes and correlate them with loss of accommodative forward movement of the ciliary body. α-Chymotrypsin was used focally to lyse the vitreous zonule and determine the effect on movement of the accommodative apparatus in monkeys. Results. The vitreous attached to the peripheral lens capsule and the ora serrata directly. The pars plana zonule and the posterior tines of the anterior zonule were separated from the vitreous membrane except for strategically placed attachments, collectively termed the vitreous zonule, that may modulate and smooth the forward and backward movements of the entire system. Age-dependent changes in these relationships correlated significantly with loss of accommodative amplitude. Lysis of the intermediate vitreous zonule partially restored accommodative movement. Conclusions. The vitreous zonule system may help to smoothly translate to the lens the driving forces of accommodation and disaccommodation generated by the ciliary muscle, while maintaining visual focus and protecting the lens capsule and ora serrata from acute tractional forces. Stiffening of the vitreous zonular system may contribute to age-related loss of accommodation and offer a therapeutic target for presbyopia. PMID:19815737

  15. Workplace accommodations and unmet needs specific to individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. (United States)

    Haynes, Scott; Linden, Maureen


    The purpose of this paper is to identify the workplace accommodations used by individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing, to report the perceived impact of the accommodations and to identify unmet needs with respect to workplace accommodations. Individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing participated in an online survey. Respondents identified with one of four levels of functional hearing ability and selected from descriptions of workplace accommodations. Each selection was ranked according to perceived importance, satisfaction and frequency of use. Respondents also commented on unmet needs. The most common accommodations were telephone aids (55%), co-worker helps (34%) and electronic communication (31%). Importance and frequency of use ranked high among most respondents (76% and 87%, respectively). However, perceived satisfaction ranked high among only 50% of respondents. The most common unmet needs were effective communication in groups and lack of co-worker support. Workplace accommodations are viewed as important and frequently used by individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. However, satisfaction with the accommodations is marginal at best. Unmet needs remain in the areas of communication in meetings, support of co-workers and the development of a more universally accessible workplace environment.

  16. Analysis and Countermeasures of Wind Power Accommodation by Aluminum Electrolysis Pot-Lines in China (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Ran, Ling; He, Guixiong; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Jie


    The unit energy consumption and its price have become the main obstacles for the future development of the aluminum electrolysis industry in China. Meanwhile, wind power is widely being abandoned because of its instability. In this study, a novel idea for wind power accommodation is proposed to achieve a win-win situation: the idea is for nearby aluminum electrolysis plants to absorb the wind power. The features of the wind power distribution and aluminum electrolysis industry are first summarized, and the concept of wind power accommodation by the aluminum industry is introduced. Then, based on the characteristics of aluminum reduction cells, the key problems, including the bus-bar status, thermal balance, and magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, are analyzed. In addition, a whole accommodation implementation plan for wind power by aluminum reduction is introduced to explain the theoretical value of accommodation, evaluation of the reduction cells, and the industrial experiment scheme. A numerical simulation of a typical scenario proves that there is large accommodation potential for the aluminum reduction cells. Aluminum electrolysis can accommodate wind power and remain stable under the proper technique and accommodation scheme, which will provide promising benefits for the aluminum plant and the wind energy plant.

  17. Correlation between the use of the accommodation and symptoms of asthenopia in hyperopic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Luna da Costa


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The objective of this paper was to compare the symptoms of asthenopia in patients at different levels of hyperopia and corrected for different accommodative efforts. Methods: This study is an experimental design and quantitative approach. Sixty-nine hyperopic patients aged between 15 and 40 were selected. Individuals with a diagnosis of accommodative insufficiency and paralysis, accommodative spasm or any type of ocular deviation were excluded. Subjects were randomly divided into four groups. Each one performed a nearvision task with different corrective lenses, varying the value of the accommodative effort. Results: There is significant reduction in the asthenopia score during the near-vision task when leaving 35% or more of the amplitude of accommodation in reserve. The linear regression showed that the variables total hyperopia (r = 0.109 and the difference between static and dynamic refraction (r = 0.135 did not obtain significant linear relationship to the asthenopia score. Conclusions: There is significant reduction in the asthenopia score when leaving 35% or more of the amplitude of accommodation in reserve. The symptoms of asthenopia are not associated to the severity of the hyperopic refractive error. The search for symptoms before the near vision task, using a questionnaire, related to the symptoms during the accommodative effort task, revealing the importance of searching for complaints about asthenopia during anamnesis, which can help ophthalmologists with prescriptions of glasses for hyperopic patients with asthenopia.

  18. An influenza outbreak among pilgrims sleeping at a school without purpose built overnight accommodation facilities. (United States)

    Staff, Michael; Torres, Maria I


    This report describes a respiratory illness outbreak amongst a group of over 700 World Youth Day 2008 pilgrims staying at a basic accommodation venue for 1 week in July 2008. At this venue, 1 group of pilgrims was accommodated as a large group in a gymnasium and another group was sub-divided into smaller groups and accommodated in classrooms. Following confirmation of an influenza B outbreak by influenza point of care testing, control measures were promptly implemented. Isolation of cases, improved hand, respiratory and general hygiene, establishment of a mobile tent health facility at the accommodation venue, and the use of oseltamivir for the treatment of cases and prophylaxis of high risk contacts were implemented and the outbreak was brought under control within the week. Overall, 20% of pilgrims met the case definition for an influenza-like illness and 36% had an onset prior to arrival at the venue. The attack rate for those with onset while at the venue was significantly higher amongst pilgrims accommodated in the gymnasium than those staying in the classrooms. Findings from this study highlight the importance of early detection, the rapid implementation of control measures and appropriate prescribing of antivirals to manage influenza outbreaks. The findings also highlight the benefits of accommodating individuals in smaller groups within basic accommodation venues in the context of mass gatherings.

  19. A quantitative geometric mechanics lens model: insights into the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia. (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew A


    This study expands on a geometric model of ocular accommodation (Reilly and Ravi, Vision Res. 50:330-336; 2010) by relaxing assumptions regarding lens symmetry about the equator. A method for predicting stretching force was derived. Two models were then developed: Model 1 held the equatorial geometry constant at all stages of accommodation, while Model 2 allowed localized deformation at the equator. Both models were compared to recent data for axial thickness, anterior and posterior radii of curvature, surface area, cross-sectional area, volume, and stretching force for the 29-year-old lens. Age-related changes in accommodation were also simulated. Model 1 gave predictions which agreed with the Helmholtz theory of accommodation, while Model 2's predictions agreed with the Schachar mechanism of accommodation. Trends predicted by Model 1 agreed with all available experimental data, while Model 2 disagreed with recent surface area measurements. Further analysis indicated that Model 1 was fundamentally more efficient in that it required less force per diopter change in optical power than Model 2. Model 1 more accurately predicted age-related changes in accommodation amplitude. This implies that the zero-force (fully accommodated) state geometry changes with age due to a shifting balance in residual stresses between the lens and capsule. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical activity participation and constraints among athletic training students. (United States)

    Stanek, Justin; Rogers, Katherine; Anderson, Jordan


    Researchers have examined the physical activity (PA) habits of certified athletic trainers; however, none have looked specifically at athletic training students. To assess PA participation and constraints to participation among athletic training students. Cross-sectional study. Entry-level athletic training education programs (undergraduate and graduate) across the United States. Participants were 1125 entry-level athletic training students. Self-reported PA participation, including a calculated PA index based on a typical week. Leisure constraints and demographic data were also collected. Only 22.8% (252/1105) of athletic training students were meeting the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations for PA through moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise. Although 52.3% (580/1105) were meeting the recommendations through vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise, 60.5% (681/1125) were meeting the recommendations based on the combined total of moderate or vigorous cardiorespiratory exercise. In addition, 57.2% (643/1125) of respondents met the recommendations for resistance exercise. Exercise habits of athletic training students appear to be better than the national average and similar to those of practicing athletic trainers. Students reported structural constraints such as lack of time due to work or studies as the most significant barrier to exercise participation. Athletic training students experienced similar constraints to PA participation as practicing athletic trainers, and these constraints appeared to influence their exercise participation during their entry-level education. Athletic training students may benefit from a greater emphasis on work-life balance during their entry-level education to promote better health and fitness habits.