WorldWideScience

Sample records for accidental irradiation-induced aplasia

  1. Therapeutic potential of ex vivo expansion of haematopoietic precursors for the treatment of accidental irradiation-induced aplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen-Neildez, T.M.A.; Vetillard, J.; Thierry, D.; Nenot, J.C.; Parmentier, C.

    1996-01-01

    After whole body overexposure, the key issue is the therapeutic decision, i.e. the choice between bone marrow transplantation and other strategies. The indications of bone marrow transplantation cover only a short range of doses, provided the exposure is distributed uniformly within the body; a rare event in accidental settings. The results of the clinical trials for Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor: G-CSF, Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor: GM-CSF or Interleukin 3: IL-3, in vivo and in vitro radiobiology experiments suggest that growth factor therapy could be of use after most accidental overexposures to evidence and to stimulate the remaining haematopoietic stem cells in order to shorten the duration of aplasia, although questions have been raised about growth factor infusion real clinical efficiency. Ex vivo expansion of haematopoietic precursor, stem cells and differentiated cells is a new approach of growth factor therapy, which may be of interest for the treatment of patients with accidental radiation-induced aplasia. These studies aim to expand the pool of progenitors and stem cells for transplantation or to expand differentiated cells (mainly granulocytes but also megakaryocytes) for transfusion. This is made possible due to the development of techniques allowing the selection of a population of haematopoietic progenitors and stem cells from the blood (with stimulation by growth factors prior stem cell harvesting) or bone marrow using immature cell positive selection. The next step consisting in their culture with combination of growth factors or additional stroma cells is also under development. Autologous progenitor cells generated ex vivo has been recently used with some success for reconstitution of haematopoiesis after high-dose chemotherapy. (author)

  2. Spontaneous hematologic recovery from bone marrow aplasia after accidental tenfold overdosage with radiophosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, J.; Bischof, B.; Coninx, S.

    1983-01-01

    Two patients with polycythemia vera received intravenously an accidental tenfold overdosage of radiophosphorus therapy (60 and 50 mCi 32P, respectively). In both patients, the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications 3 wk after the 32P medication led to detection of the error and referral to our hospital. Upon admission they showed an agranulocytosis, severe thrombocytopenia, and bone marrow aplasia. In both cases, spontaneous recovery of the hematopoiesis was observed from day 40 posttreatment onward. In one patient, a slow but ultimately complete normalization of blood counts and marrow morphology took place, whereas in the other, a mild thrombocytopenia persists. Nearly 5 yr after the accidental overdosage, both patients are clinically well. Symptoms of polycythemia vera have not reappeared up to now. Attempts were made to evaluate the radiation dose absorbed by the bone marrow. In the first patient, the daily 32P excretion was determined from day 22 to day 60, whereas in the other patient a whole body count was performed on day 78 after administration. From these results, an approximate cumulative bone marrow dose of 10 Sv (1000 rem) could be calculated

  3. Hematopoiesis stimulation test by interleukin 1α gene transfer in the Cynomolgus macaque: application to secondary medullary aplasia from an accidental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Revel, Th.

    2002-12-01

    After a description of the context of medullary aplasia (haematological radiobiology, radiation acute syndrome, therapeutic care), and an overview of knowledge about the interleukin-1 and medullary stroma cells, this research thesis aims at investigating therapeutic alternatives for radio-accidental aplasia. More precisely, it aims at defining means to get cytokines which are efficient for haematopoiesis. Interleukin-1 is chosen for its properties and tests are performed on a macaque with two approaches for gene transfer: an ex vivo transfer by retroviral vector enabling an integration in the target cell genome, and an in situ transfer by adeno-viral vector directly applied in the animal osseous medulla

  4. Vermian aplasia and hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports vermian aplasia or hypoplasia unrelated to Dandy-Walker complex or Joubert syndrome. Vermian hypoplasia is most commonly associated with the malformations of Dandy-Walker cyst or variant. There have been few reports of familial vermian anomaly (Joubert syndrome) with episodes of polypnea and apnea. Five patients with vermian hypoplasia or absence were prospectively discovered among 1,130 children undergoing brain MR imaging. Ages ranged from 2 mo to 15 y at the time of discovery: The abnormalities were poorly defined in three patients who had previously undergone CT. There was no common link in these patients with a variable number of other systemic, brain, or facial abnormalities. No unifying symptoms were identified. Two patients had the MR imaging appearance of Joubert syndrome, but none had the cyclical respiratory symptoms usually associated with this syndrome

  5. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  6. Aplasia medular: Actualización Bone marrow aplasia: Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Machín García

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available La aplasia medular, según su etiología puede ser congénita y adquirida; esta última es la más frecuente. La causa del fallo de la hematopoyesis parece ser multifactorial. Se revisan las causas de aplasia medular adquirida, sus mecanismos fisiopatológicos y se hace énfasis en los mecanismos inmunes, que desempeñan un papel central en su fisiopatología. Se actualizan los criterios diagnósticos, los elementos de pronóstico desfavorable, así como las enfermedades con las que debe hacerse el diagnóstico diferencial. Las terapéuticas actuales más efectivas son los inmunosupresores y el trasplante de médula ósea, cada uno de ellos ofrece ventajas y desventajas y requiere de indicaciones precisasBone marrow aplasia according to its etiology may be congenital or acquired. The latter is the most frequent. Haemopoietic failure seems to be caused by several factors. The causes of acquired medullary aplasia and its physiopathological mechanisms are reviewed. Emphasis is made on th immune mechanisms, which play an important role in its physiopathology. The diagnostic criteria as well as the elements of an unfavorable diagnosis and the disease that must be taken into consideration to make the differential diagnosis are analyzed in this paper. The most effective treatments at present are the immunosuppressors and bone marrow transplantation. Each has advantages and disadvantages and requires specific indications

  7. New experimental approach to treatment of radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia: ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Drouet, M.; Grenier, N.; Grange, L.; Bourin, P.; Vetillard, J.; Thierry, D.; Mestries, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The management of bone marrow aplasia secondary to accidental exposure to high doses of ionizing radiations requires new therapeutic protocols in addition to cytokine therapy. The in vitro incubation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from irradiated nonhuman primates with negative and positive regulators of hematopoiesis may lead to helpful products of transfusion. (author)

  8. Therapeutic approaches of hematopoietic syndrome after serious accidental global irradiation. Ex vivo expansion interest of hematopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry, D.

    1994-01-01

    Aplasia is one of the main syndrome, appearing after one global accidental irradiation by one ionizing radiation source. The hematopoietic syndrome is characterized by a peripheric blood cell number fall; the cell marrow is reduced too

  9. Aplasia cutis congenita, skull defect, brain heterotopia, and intestinal lymphangiectasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonioli, Eugenio; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Spena, Gianantonio; Morcaldi, Guido; Di Stefano, Antonio; Serra, Giovanni; Bellini, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    We describe a female infant with a previously unreported combination of manifestations characterized by aplasia cutis, skull defect, brain heterotopia, mild congenital lymphedema, and intestinal lymphangiectasia. The association of intestinal lymphangiectasia and aplasia cutis, and the association

  10. [Morphogenesis of vaginal aplasia. Therapeutic deductions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, H N; Smadja, A; Belaisch, J

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the studies of the embryogenesis of the vagina, the authors consider that malformations classically described as being partial aplasia should not be separated from the total absence of the vagina. The important feature is the association of a functioning or non functioning uterus with the absence of the vagina. They believe that it is incorrect to describe the pouch of menstrual retention associated with a functioning uterus as "haematocolpos" and that is not justified to describe the cup-shaped vestibular depression as "hemi-vagina". According to the authors, although vaginal aplasia with a functioning uterus forming a pouch of menstrual retention constitutes an absolute indication for surgery, surgery is not justified in cases of vaginal aplasia with a non functioning uterus. If Frank's method fails in these cases, the patient or the couple should be referred to a sexologist, as women with this anomaly retain a perfect femininity, although unable to conceive.

  11. Incidental finding of cutaneous meningeal heterotopia in aplasia cutis congenita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Katharine; Zedek, Daniel; Sayed, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita and cutaneous meningeal heterotopia are both rare congenital conditions that most commonly occur on the scalp and may appear clinically and histologically similar. A subtype of aplasia cutis congenita, membranous aplasia cutis congenita, and cutaneous meningeal heterotopia are both proposed to result from neural tube closure errors. However, neither non-membranous nor membranous aplasia cutis congenita are known to occur together with cutaneous meningeal heterotopia in the same lesion. We report the incidental finding of cutaneous meningeal heterotopia within a lesion of aplasia cutis congenita. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Medical management of accidentally exposed individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, Jean-Claude [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-12-31

    Bone marrow aplasia is one of the main syndromes following a high dose accidental radiation exposure. Although both transfusion and bone marrow transplantation have been used with some success since the first treatments of patients, other therapeutic strategies are needed. New promising approaches of the treatment of aplasia have appeared with the development of experimental and clinical hematology. Some new trends for the treatment of the hematopoietic injury based on bone marrow transplantation rely on new sources of compatible donor cells, such as cord blood, on the selection of immature haemopoietic cells and on new transplant regimens. The hematopoietic growth factors stimulate proliferation and/or differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors and possibly stem cells. Furthermore, they act on the functions of mature cells. They have now specific uses in hematology, related to their role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Some growth factors have already been used for the treatment of accidental radiation-induced aplasia and lessons have been learned from their medical management and follow-up. (author) 30 refs.

  13. Medical management of accidentally exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Bone marrow aplasia is one of the main syndromes following a high dose accidental radiation exposure. Whilst transfusion and bone marrow transplantation have been used with some success starting with the first treatments of accident victims, other therapeutic strategies are needed. With the development of experimental and clinical haematology, promising new approaches to the treatment of aplasia have appeared. New trends for the treatment of haemopoietic injury based on bone marrow transplantation rely on new sources of compatible donor cells, such as cord blood, on the selection of immature haemopoietic cells and on new transplant regimens. Haemopoietic growth factors stimulate the proliferation and/or differentiation of haemopoietic progenitors and, possibly, stem cells. Furthermore, they act on the functions of mature cells. Currently, they have specific uses in haematology related to their role in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of haemopoietic progenitor cells. Growth factors have already been used for the treatment of accidental radiation induced aplasia and lessons have been learned from their medical management and followup. (author)

  14. Genetics of Müllerian aplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Sandbacka, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Müllerian aplasia (MA) is a rare congenital disorder of the female reproductive tract. It involves loss of a functional uterus and upper two thirds of the vagina, resulting in infertility and need of treatment to enable normal sex life. Skeletal and renal structural abnormalities, such as scoliosis and renal agenesis are often associated with MA. The patients are otherwise healthy females with normal secondary sex characteristics and karyotype (46,XX). However, psychosocial problems are often...

  15. Irradiation induced effects in zirconium (A review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, P.K.

    1975-06-01

    Irradiation creep in zirconium and its alloys is comprehensively discussed. The main theories are outlined and the gaps between them and the observed creep behaviour, indicated. Although irradiation induced point defects play an important role, effects due to irradiation induced dislocation loops seem insignificant. The experimental results suggest that microstructural variations due to prior cold-working or hydrogen injection perturb the irradiation growth and the irradiation creep of zircaloy. Further investigations into these areas are required. One disadvantage of creep experiments lies in their duration. The possibility of accelerated experiments using ion implantation or electron irradiation is examined in the final section, and its possible advantages and disadvantages are outlined. (author)

  16. New experimental approach to treatment of radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia: ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic cells; Nouvelle approche experimentale du traitement de l`aplasie medullaire radio-induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Drouet, M.; Grenier, N.; Grange, L.; Bourin, P.; Vetillard, J.; Thierry, D.; Mestries, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The management of bone marrow aplasia secondary to accidental exposure to high doses of ionizing radiations requires new therapeutic protocols in addition to cytokine therapy. The in vitro incubation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from irradiated nonhuman primates with negative and positive regulators of hematopoiesis may lead to helpful products of transfusion. (author).

  17. Pure White Cell Aplasia and Necrotizing Myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Geon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure white cell aplasia (PWCA is a rare hematologic disorder characterized by the absence of neutrophil lineages in the bone marrow with intact megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis. PWCA has been associated with autoimmune, drug-induced, and viral exposures. Here, we report a case of a 74-year-old female who presented with severe proximal weakness without pain and was found to have PWCA with nonspecific inflammatory necrotizing myositis and acute liver injury on biopsies. These findings were associated with a recent course of azithromycin and her daily use of a statin. Myositis improved on prednisone but PWCA persisted. With intravenous immunoglobulin and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor therapies, her symptoms and neutrophil counts improved and were sustained for months.

  18. Pulmonary Aplasia in an Adult : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Yiyit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary aplasia is a rare congenital anomaly in which there are absence of pulmonary vessels, bronchus and parenchyma. It is distinguished from pulmonary agenesis by the presence of rudimentary stump bronchus. Patients are usually diagnosed in childhood. Patients without additional anomaly and the patients with mild disease can be diagnosed in adulthood. The left lung was not observed at the chest X-ray of 19-year-old male patient with respiratory distress in exercise. Left lung aplasia was diagnosed by computed tomography and ventilation perfusion scintigraphy. The patients with lung aplasia have an increased risk of infections. Therefore the follow-up of the patients is important.

  19. Unilateral aplasia of both cruciate ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Dennis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aplasia of both cruciate ligaments is a rare congenital disorder. A 28-year-old male presented with pain and the feeling of instability of his right knee after trauma. The provided MRI and previous arthroscopy reports did not indicate any abnormalities except cruciate ligament tears. He was referred to us for reconstruction of both cruciate ligaments. The patient again underwent arthroscopy which revealed a hypoplasia of the medial trochlea and an extremely narrow intercondylar notch. The tibia revealed a missing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL footprint and a single bump with a complete coverage with articular cartilage. There was no room for an ACL graft. A posterior cruciate ligament could not be identified. The procedure was ended since a ligament reconstruction did not appear reasonable. A significant notch plasty if not a partial resection of the condyles would have been necessary to implant a ligament graft. It is most likely that this would not lead to good knee stability. If the surgeon would have retrieved the contralateral hamstrings at the beginning of the planned ligament reconstruction a significant damage would have occurred to the patient. Even in seemingly clear diagnostic findings the arthroscopic surgeon should take this rare abdnormality into consideration and be familiar with the respective radiological findings. We refer the abnormal finding of only one tibial spine to as the "dromedar-sign" as opposed to the two (medial and a lateral tibial spines in a normal knee. This may be used as a hint for aplasia of the cruciate ligaments.

  20. Accidental Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Devin, Lee; Sullivan, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Historical accounts of human achievement suggest that accidents can play an important role in innovation. In this paper, we seek to contribute to an understanding of how digital systems might support valuable unpredictability in innovation processes by examining how innovators who obtain value from...... they incorporate accidents into their deliberate processes and arranged surroundings. By comparing makers working in varied conditions, we identify specific factors (e.g., technologies, characteristics of technologies) that appear to support accidental innovation. We show that makers in certain specified...... conditions not only remain open to accident but also intentionally design their processes and surroundings to invite and exploit valuable accidents. Based on these findings, we offer advice for the design of digital systems to support innovation processes that can access valuable unpredictability....

  1. Congenital aplasia of the semicircular canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satar, Bulent; Mukherji, Suresh K; Telian, Steven A

    2003-05-01

    To describe the underrecognized inner ear malformation characterized by complete aplasia of the labyrinthine semicircular canals associated with a relatively well-formed cochlea, to investigate its relationship with known syndromic forms of hearing loss, and to hypothesize regarding the potential embryopathogenesis of this anomaly. A retrospective case review consisting of cases of sensorineural hearing loss with radiographic evidence demonstrating agenesis of the semicircular canals associated with a cochlea that was either morphologically normal or sufficiently well developed to accommodate the full insertion of a cochlear implant electrode. Cases were identified by computerized tomography findings that identified the anomaly under study. Departments of otolaryngology and radiology in a tertiary referral center, with a large cochlear implant program serving over 800 patients, more than half of whom are children. Fifteen patients with the anomaly under study were identified. Each patient underwent a complete otologic examination, audiometric studies, and high resolution computerized tomography of the temporal bone in axial and coronal planes. The bony morphology of the cochlea, round and oval windows, vestibule, semicircular canals, and vestibular aqueduct, and the course of the facial nerve were examined. Auditory findings and otologic treatment are presented. Of the 15 identified patients, 4 were nonsyndromic, 9 had CHARGE association (Coloboma of the eye, congenital Heart defects, choanal Atresia, mental and/or growth Retardation, Genital hypoplasia, and Ear anomalies and/or deafness), 1 met criteria for Noonan's syndrome, and one had features of both these syndromes. Although the cochlea was present in all cases, the cochlear morphology was usually abnormal in the CHARGE association patients. Of the 20 ears in the CHARGE subjects, only 3 ears (15%) were seen to have completely normal development of the cochlea in both the basal and upper turns. The others

  2. From labyrinthine aplasia to otocyst deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesemann, Anja Maria; Goetz, Friedrich; Neuburger, Jürgen; Lenarz, Thomas; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2010-02-01

    Inner ear malformations (IEMs) are rare and it is unusual to encounter the rarest of them, namely labyrinthine aplasia (LA) and otocyst deformity. They do, however, provide useful pointers as to the early embryonic development of the ear. LA is characterised as a complete absence of inner ear structures. While some common findings do emerge, a clear definition of the otocyst deformity does not exist. It is often confused with the common cavity first described by Edward Cock. Our purpose was to radiologically characterise LA and otocyst deformity. Retrospective analysis of CT and MRI data from four patients with LA or otocyst deformity. Middle and inner ear findings were categorised by two neuroradiologists. The bony carotid canal was found to be absent in all patients. Posterior located cystic structures were found in association with LA and otocyst deformity. In the most severe cases, only soft tissue was present at the medial border of the middle ear cavity. The individuals with otocyst deformity also had hypoplasia of the petrous apex bone. These cases demonstrate gradual changes in the two most severe IEMs. Clarification of terms was necessary and, based on these findings, we propose defining otocyst deformity as a cystic structure in place of the inner ear, with the cochlea, IAC and carotid canal absent. This condition needs to be differentiated from the common cavity described by Edward Cook. A clear definition of inner ear malformations is essential if outcomes following cochlear implantation are to be compared.

  3. [Aplasia cutis congenita associated with epidermolysis bullosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Guerrero, Félix; Muñoz-Solís, Adrián Antonio; Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a skin condition of rare presentation, this disease is characterized by absence of skin at birth and associated with facial, skin and bone skull deformities. The diagnosis is mainly clinical. Male 5 days after birth, unique product of primigravida mother and no family history of relevance. Physical examination revealed bilateral and symmetrical skin defects of both lower extremities, the disease is characterized by skin fragility, scabs, and coated pseudomembrane ulcers, decreased interdigital space between toes of the left foot, retraction of the foot and genu varum. It was handled with allograft of epidermis cultured in vitro, general wound care and clinical follow-up. ACC associated with epidermolysis bullosa is one of the rarer forms of presentation. It is necessary to rule out other skin diseases. Clinical management is recommended with biological or synthetic skin cover, infection prevention, early treatment of complications and clinical follow. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. From labyrinthine aplasia to otocyst deformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesemann, Anja Maria; Goetz, Friedrich; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Neuburger, Juergen; Lenarz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Inner ear malformations (IEMs) are rare and it is unusual to encounter the rarest of them, namely labyrinthine aplasia (LA) and otocyst deformity. They do, however, provide useful pointers as to the early embryonic development of the ear. LA is characterised as a complete absence of inner ear structures. While some common findings do emerge, a clear definition of the otocyst deformity does not exist. It is often confused with the common cavity first described by Edward Cock. Our purpose was to radiologically characterise LA and otocyst deformity. Retrospective analysis of CT and MRI data from four patients with LA or otocyst deformity. Middle and inner ear findings were categorised by two neuroradiologists. The bony carotid canal was found to be absent in all patients. Posterior located cystic structures were found in association with LA and otocyst deformity. In the most severe cases, only soft tissue was present at the medial border of the middle ear cavity. The individuals with otocyst deformity also had hypoplasia of the petrous apex bone. These cases demonstrate gradual changes in the two most severe IEMs. Clarification of terms was necessary and, based on these findings, we propose defining otocyst deformity as a cystic structure in place of the inner ear, with the cochlea, IAC and carotid canal absent. This condition needs to be differentiated from the common cavity described by Edward Cook. A clear definition of inner ear malformations is essential if outcomes following cochlear implantation are to be compared. (orig.)

  5. Electron-irradiation-induced phase transformation in alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.; Arakawa, K.; Lee, J.-G.; Mori, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, electron-irradiation-induced phase transformations between alumina polymorphs were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the electron-irradiation-induced α → κ' phase transformation occurred in the alumina under 100 keV electron irradiation. It is likely that the knock-on collision between incident electrons and Al 3+ cations is responsible for the occurrence of electron-irradiation-induced phase transformation from α-alumina to κ'-alumina.

  6. Right pulmonary aplasia, aberrant left pulmonary artery, and bronchopulmonary sequestration with an esophageal bronchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Peter; McCauley, Roy; Westra, Sjirk; Baba, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary aplasia and bronchopulmonary foregut malformations in which a patent communication between the foregut and the pulmonary system is present are rare congenital abnormalities. Pulmonary aplasia associated with a pulmonary sling is an even rarer abnormality. We report a unique case of right pulmonary aplasia, aberrant left pulmonary artery, and bronchopulmonary sequestration with an esophageal bronchus diagnosed by multidetector helical CT. (orig.)

  7. Trapezius aplasia: indications for a dual developmental origin of the trapezius muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, Linda S.; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2006-01-01

    Aplasia of the trapezius muscle is a rarely encountered, mostly asymptomatic anomaly. We report a case of isolated unilateral complete trapezius aplasia that was noticed during a dissection course. Apart from isolated cases, trapezius aplasia may occur in different combinations with other muscle

  8. Pure red cell aplasia following irradiation of an asymptomatic thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Kazuo; Masaoka, Akira; Mizuno, Takeo; Ichimura, Hideki

    1982-01-01

    An unusual case of pure red-cell aplasia (PRCA) developed sixteen days after irradiation of an asymptomatic thymoma. After removal of the encapsulated thymoma there was no improvement in the anemia, and no response to adrenocortical and anabolic steroid hormones or immunosuppressive agents. (author)

  9. Tissue expansion for correction of baldness in aplasia cutis congenita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmans, S.J.A.; Don Griot, J.P.W.; Niessen, F.B.; Mulder, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aplasia cutis is a congenital absence of the skin, usually presenting on the scalp. In 20% of all cases, part of the skull is also absent. A residual area of baldness may still be present some years after surgical or conservative treatment. It is possible to excise the scarred hairless region and

  10. Pyloric atresia epidermolysis bullosa aplasia cutis syndrome: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pyloric atresia epidermolysis bullosa aplasia cutis syndrome: a case report and literature ... skin over the right leg from the knee joint up to the middle of the right foot. ... Examination indicated no signs of child abuse; the parents refused an ...

  11. Gamma Irradiation Induced Degradation of Orange Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Saucedo Luna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, gamma irradiation induced degradation of orange peels (OP was investigated. The lignocellulosic biomass degradation was carried out at doses of 0 (control, 600, 1800 and 3500 kGy using a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The samples were tested for total and reducing sugars. The concentrations of total sugars ranged from 0.530 g∙g−1 in control sample to 0.382 g∙g−1 of dry weight in the sample which received the highest radiation dose. The reducing sugars content varying from 0.018 to 0.184 g∙g−1 of dry weight with the largest rise occurring in the sample irradiated at 3500 kGy. The concentrations of sucrose, glucose and fructose were determined. The changes generated in physico-chemical properties were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and termogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG. The results show that OP was affected, but not significantly, which suggests that lignocellulose and sugars profiles were partially degraded after gamma irradiation.

  12. Irradiation-induced amorphization process in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hiroaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-04-01

    Effects of the element process of irradiation damage on irradiation-induced amorphization processes of graphite was studied. High orientation thermal decomposed graphite was cut about 100 nm width and used as samples. The irradiation experiments are carried out under the conditions of electronic energy of 100-400 KeV, ion energy of 200-600 KeV, ionic species Xe, Ar, Ne, C and He and the irradiation temperature at from room temperature to 900 K. The critical dose ({phi}a) increases exponentially with increasing irradiation temperature. The displacement threshold energy of graphite on c-axis direction was 27 eV and {phi}a{sup e} = 0.5 dpa. dpa is the average number of displacement to atom. The critical dose of ion irradiation ({phi}a{sup i}) was 0.2 dpa at room temperature, and amorphous graphite was produced by less than half of dose of electronic irradiation. Amorphization of graphite depending upon temperature is discussed. (S.Y.)

  13. Pure Red Cell Aplasia Associated with Good Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Okui

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA and hypogammaglobulinemia are paraneoplastic syndromes that are rarer than myasthenia gravis in patients with thymoma. Good syndrome coexisting with PRCA is an extremely rare pathology. We report the case of a 50-year-old man with thymoma and PRCA associated with Good syndrome who achieved complete PRCA remission after thymectomy and postoperative immunosuppressive therapy, and provide a review of the pertinent literature.

  14. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    OpenAIRE

    B. T. Dzumabaeva; L. S. Birjukova; L. B. Kaplanskaya; D. P. Maksimov

    2011-01-01

    The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19) is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis...

  15. CT and MR Imagings of Semicircular Canal Aplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chung Hee; Hong, Hyun Sook; Yi, Beom Ha; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Shi Chan [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical, CT and MR imaging findings of semicircular canal (SCC) aplasia and to evaluate if a correlation exists between these findings and the associated anomalies or syndromes. This study retrospectively reviewed the CT and MRI findings of five patients with SCC aplasia. The CT and MR findings were analyzed for SCC, direction of facial nerve canal, cochlea, vestibule, oval or round window, middle ear ossicles, and internal auditory canal (IAC). The subjects included three boys and two girls ranging in age from one to 120 months (mean age; 51 months). Four of the subjects had the CHARGE syndrome, and one had the Goldenhar syndrome. Moreover, four subjects had sensorineural hearing loss and one had combined hearing loss. The course of the facial nerve canal was abnormal in all five cases. Moreover, trapped cochlea and dysplastic modiolus were each observed in one case. Four subjects had atresia of the oval window; whereas ankylosis of the ossicles was present in three subjects. IAC stenosis was present in one patient with the CHARGE syndrome. The aberrant course of the facial nerve canal, atresia of the oval window, and abnormal ossicles were frequently associated in patients with SCC aplasia. In addition, the Goldenhar and CHARGE syndromes were also commonly associated syndromes.

  16. The role of diclofenack on inducing of aplasia cutis congenita: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pajaziti, Laura; Rexhepi, Syzana; Shatri-Mu?a, Ylfete; Ferizi, Mybera

    2009-01-01

    Background Aplasia cutis congenita is a disorder where e newborn child is missing skin from certain areas. It is a rare condition with no particular race or sex more at risk. May occur by itself or be associated with other physical syndromes or disorders. A classification system exists for aplasia cutis congenital consisting of 9 groups, based on the number and location of the skin defects and the presence or absence of other malformations. Causes of aplasia congenital could be heredity, tera...

  17. Electron irradiation-induced defects in {beta}-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Ryuichiro [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Reseach Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology

    1996-04-01

    To add information of point defects in cubic crystal SiC, polycrystal {beta}-SiC on the market was used as sample and irradiated by neutron and electron. In situ observation of neutron and electron irradiation-induced defects in {beta}-SiC were carried out by ultra high-voltage electronic microscope (UHVEM) and ordinary electronic microscope. The obtained results show that the electron irradiation-induced secondary defects are micro defects less than 20 nm at about 1273K, the density of defects is from 2x10{sup 17} to 1x10{sup 18}/cc, the secondary defects may be hole type at high temperature and the preexistant defects control nuclear formation of irradiation-induced defects, effective sink. (S.Y.)

  18. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Dzumabaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19 is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis germs, thus to reduce the pancytopenia associating complications in this population. 

  19. X-irradiation-induced emesis in Suncus murinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Yoshifumi; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuki, Norio; Shikita, Mikio.

    1993-01-01

    X-irradiation-induced emesis was investigated in Suncus murinus, a house musk shrew. Whole body X-irradiation caused emesis, and the calculated ED 50 value that induced emesis in 50% of animals was 429 cGy. At the irradiation dose of 800 cGy all the animals vomited 10.0±2.4 times with a latency of 20.0±2.9 min. The emetogenic effect of X-irradiation was dependent on the part of the body exposed. Abdominal X-irradiation at 1000 cGy caused emesis in all animals studied, whereas the same dose to the head had no emetogenic effect. We investigated several prophylactic methods against X-irradiation-induced emesis. Surgical vagotomy completely inhibited the emesis induced by 800 cGy X-irradiation. Emesis was also prevented by the subcutaneous administration of tropisetron (ICS 205-930, a selective serotonergic 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist) with an ID 50 value of 29 μg/kg. These results suggest that (1) suncus is a useful experimental animal for the study of radiation-induced emesis and the development of prophylactic drugs, (2) serotonin plays an important role in X-irradiation-induced emesis, and (3) X-irradiation-induced emesis is very similar to that caused by cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (author)

  20. Pure red cell aplasia following autoimmune hemolytic anemia: An enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 6-month history of anemia. The laboratory findings revealed hemolytic anemia and direct antiglobulin test was positive. With a diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA, prednisolone was started but was ineffective after 1 month of therapy. A bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA showing severe erythroid hypoplasia. The case was considered PRCA following AIHA. This combination without clear underlying disease is rare. Human parvovirus B19 infection was not detected in the marrow aspirate during reticulocytopenia. The patient received azathioprine, and PRCA improved but significant hemolysis was once again documented with a high reticulocyte count. The short time interval between AIHA and PRCA phase suggested an increased possibility of the evolution of a single disease.

  1. Irradiation-induced stress relaxation of Eurofer97 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzginova, N.V.; Jong, M.; Rensman, J.W.; Hegeman, J.B.J.; Laan, J.G. van der

    2011-01-01

    The irradiation-induced stress relaxation behavior of Eurofer97 at 300 deg. C up to 3.4 dpa and under pre-stress loads typical for the ITER applications is investigated. The bolt specimens are pre-loaded from 30% to 90% of the yield strength. To verify the results obtained with the pre-stressed bolts, bent strips were investigated as well. The strips are bent into a pre-defined radius in order to achieve similar pre-stress levels. The irradiation-induced stress relaxation is found to be independent of the pre-stress level. 10-12% of the stress relaxation in Eurofer97 may be reached after a dose of 0.1 dpa, and after an irradiation dose of 2.7 dpa 42-47% of the original pre-stress is retained.

  2. Irradiation-induced tumours of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aanesen, J P; Olofsson, J [Linkoepings Hoegskola (Sweden)

    1979-09-01

    Though irradiation-induced tumours are uncommon, they represent a well defined entity. At this Hospital, 14 irradiation-induced head and neck tumours were encountered in 11 patients over a 10-year period. The irradiation had been given for tuberculous lymphadenitis in 6 of the patients, for lupus vulgaris in one, and thyrotoxicosis in another; the other 3 patients had received radiotherapy for malignant tumours. The interval between the treatment and the diagnosis of the tumour disease ranged from 9 to 48 years (mean 32). Three of the patients had multiple tumours. In view of the risk of cancer-albeit a small one-associated with radiological diagnosis and radiotherapy, these should be performed only on strict indications, expecially in young patients.

  3. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome in a father and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ganger, Rudolf; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Reconstruction of these patients required multiple surgical procedures and orthoprosthesis was mandatory. The main goal of treatment was to achieve walking. Stabilization of the ankle joint by fibular-talar-chondrodesis on both sides, followed by bilateral Brown-procedure at the knee joint level has been applied accordingly. The outcome was with improved function of the deformed limbs and walking was achieved with simultaneous designation of orthotic fitting. This is the first study encompassing the diagnosis and management of a father and daughter with bilateral tibial aplasia associated with variable split hand/foot deformity without foot ablation. Our patients showed the typical AD pattern of inheritance of split-hand/foot and tibial aplasia.

  4. Doctor Ward's Accidental Terrarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Presents the story of the accidental invention of the Wardian case, or terrarium, by Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward. Advocates the use of this story in teaching precollege biology as an illustration of how a chance event can lead to a major scientific advancement and as an example of the common occurrence of multiple discovery in botany. Contains 34…

  5. Pure red cell aplasia in a simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation patient: inside the erythroblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Labbadia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of pure red cell aplasia in a simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplant recipient on immunosuppressive therapy is reported here. The patient presented with anemia unresponsive to erythropoietin treatment. Bone marrow cytomorphology was highly suggestive of parvovirus pure red cell aplasia, which was confirmed with serology and polymerase chain reaction positive for parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. After the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin the anemia improved with a rising number of the reticulocytes.

  6. High incidence of recurrent copy number variants in patients with isolated and syndromic Mullerian aplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Nik-Zainal , Serena; Strick , Reiner; Storer , Mekayla; Huang , Ni; Rad , Roland; Willatt , Lionel; Fitzgerald , Tomas; Martin , Vicki; Sandford , Richard; Carter , Nigel P; Janecke , Andreas; Renner , Stefan; Oppelt , Patricia G; Oppelt , Peter; Schulze , Christine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Congenital malformations involving the Mullerian ducts are observed in around 5% of infertile women. Complete aplasia of the uterus, cervix, and upper vagina, also termed Mullerian aplasia or Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome occurs with an incidence of around 1 in 4,500 female births, and occurs in both isolated and syndromic forms. Previous reports have suggested that a proportion of cases, especially syndromic cases, are caused by variation in c...

  7. Assessment of evolutive and prognostic indicators applied to accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morera Carrillo, M. de Lourdes; Cardenas, J.; Dubner, D.; Perez, M. del Rosario; Gisone, P.

    2001-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome has been characterized in different ways that involve risk for life and health of the people overexposed to ionizing radiations. This work intends to test a therapeutical total body irradiation (TBI) model as conditioning to bone marrow transplantation. With the purpose of evaluating the applicability of several biological indicators in accidental overexposures, a study was carried out in 46 patients undergoing TBI receiving doses between 10 Gy and 12 Gy. The following parameters were assessed: lipo peroxyde plasmatic levels (TBARS) and total plasma antioxidant activity, reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) and charges in lymphocyte subpopulations. These data suggest that TBARS could provide an useful evolutive indicator in accidental overexposed patients and RMI is an early indicator of bone marrow recovery after radioinduced aplasia

  8. Marrow fat cell: response to x-ray induced aplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathija, A.; Ohanian, M.; Davis, S.; Trubowitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an integral structural component of normal rabbit marrow and is believed to behave primarily as a cushion in response to hemopoietic proliferation, accommodating to changes in hemopoiesis by change in either size or number or both of the fat cells in order to maintain constancy of the marrow volume. To test this hypothesis, aplasia of the right femur of New Zealand white rabbits was induced by x irradiation with 8000 rads; the left unirradiated limb served as control. Twenty-four hours before sacrifice 50 μCi of palmitate-114C was administered intravenously and the marrow of both femurs removed. Samples of perinephric fat were taken for comparison. Fat cell volume, C14 palmitate turnover and fatty acid composition were determined. The total number of fat cells in the entire marrow of both femurs was calculated. The measurements showed no difference in size or fatty acid turnover of the fat cells in the irradiated aplastic marrow from the cells of the control marrow. The number of fat cells in both the irradiated and the unirradiated control femurs was essentially the same. These findings do not support the view that marrow fat cells respond to diminished hematopoiesis by either increase in their volume or number. In addition, the findings suggest that both marrow and subcutaneous fat cells are fairly resistant to high doses of x-ray irradiation

  9. Flavour from accidental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, Luca; King, Stephen F.; Romanino, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    We consider a new approach to fermion masses and mixings in which no special 'horizontal' dynamics is invoked to account for the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and for the peculiar features of neutrino masses. The hierarchy follows from the vertical, family-independent structure of the model, in particular from the breaking pattern of the Pati-Salam group. The lightness of the first two fermion families can be related to two family symmetries emerging in this context as accidental symmetries

  10. Radiative accidental matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal [IFPA, Dép. AGO, Université de Liège,Bât B5, Sart Tilman B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium); Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María - Departamento de Física,Casilla 110-V, Avda. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Simoes, C.; Wegman, D. [IFPA, Dép. AGO, Université de Liège,Bât B5, Sart Tilman B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium)

    2016-07-25

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ→eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×10{sup 5} GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ→μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  11. Irradiation induced surface segregation in concentrated alloys: a contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A new computer modelization of irradiation induced surface segregation is presented together with some experimental determinations in binary and ternary alloys. The model we propose handles the alloy thermodynamics and kinetics at the same level of sophistication. Diffusion is described at the atomistic level and proceeds vis the jumps of point defects (vacancies, dumb-bell interstitials): the various jump frequencies depend on the local composition in a manner consistent with the thermodynamics of the alloy. For application to specific alloys, we have chosen the simplest statistical approximation: pair interactions in the Bragg Williams approximation. For a system which exhibits the thermodynamics and kinetics features of Ni-Cu alloys, the model generates the behaviour parameters (flux and temperature) and of alloy composition. Quantitative agreement with the published experimental results (two compositions, three temperatures) is obtained with a single set of parameters. Modelling austenitic steels used in nuclear industry requires taking into account the contribution of dumbbells to mass transport. The effects of this latter contribution are studied on a model of Ni-Fe. Interstitial trapping on dilute impurities is shown to delay or even suppress the irradiation induced segregation. Such an effect is indeed observed in the experiments we report on Fe 50 Ni 50 and Fe 49 Ni 50 Hf 1 alloys. (author)

  12. On the analogy between thermally and irradiation induced creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzarelli, F.A.; Huang, S.

    1977-01-01

    Employing an analogy between thermally induced and irradiation induced creep, physical arguments are used first to deduce a one-dimensional constitutive relation for metals under stress in a high temperature and high neutron flux field. This constitutive relation contains modified superposition integrals in which the temperature and flux dependence of the material parameters is included via the use of two reduced time scales; linear elastic, thermal expansion and swelling terms are also included. A systematic development based on thermodynamics, with the stress, temperature increment and defect density increment as independent variables in the Gibbs free energy, is then employed to obtain general three-dimensional memory integrals for strain; the entropy and coupled energy equation are also obtained. Modified superposition integrals similar to those previously obtained by physical argument are then obtained by substituting special functions into the results of the thermodynamic analysis, and the special case of an isotropic stress power law is examined in detail. (Auth.)

  13. Irradiation-induced segregation in multi-component alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, I.W.

    1983-01-01

    A unified analysis of irradiation-induced segregation in multi-component alloys is developed using the formulation of irreversible thermodynamics. Three distinct mechanisms for segregation, namely the inverse Kirkendall effect, the vacancy-wind effect, and the solute drag of interstitials, are identified. In particular, the inverse Kirkendall effect due to interstitials arises only if a solute-interstitial interaction or a mutual conversion among interstitials via lattice atom intermediaries operates simultaneously. In the limit of fast conversion a para-equilibrium state may be reached between interstitials and lattice atoms, and the interstitial mechanism becomes formally analogous to the vacancy mechanism. Although the past treatment of rate phenomena in this field was apparently limited to the latter case, the importance of the consideration of separate chemical potentials for interstitials of different species, in segregation and other irradiation effects, is emphasized. (orig.)

  14. Irradiation-induced creep in graphite: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.J.

    1981-08-01

    Data on irradiation-induced creep in graphite published since 1972 are reviewed. Sources include restrained shrinkage tests conducted at Petten, the Netherlands, tensile creep experiments with continuous strain registration at Petten and Grenoble, France, and controlled load tests with out-of-reactor strain measurement performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Petten, and in the United Kingdom. The data provide reasonable confirmation of the linear viscoelastic creep model with a recoverable transient strain component followed by a steady-state strain component, except that the steady-state creep coefficient must be treated as a function of neutron fluence and is higher for tensile loading than for compressive loading. The total transient creep strain is approximately equal to the preceding elastic strain. No temperature dependence of the transient creep parameters has been demonstrated. The initial steady-state creep coefficient is inversely proportional to the unirradiated Young modulus

  15. Electron irradiation induced nanocrystal formation in Cu-borosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, Mohammed Mohammed; Möbus, Günter, E-mail: g.moebus@sheffield.ac.uk [University of Sheffield, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Nanoscale writing of Cu nanoparticles in glasses is introduced using focused electron irradiation by transmission electron microscopy. Two types of copper borosilicate glasses, one with high and another with low Cu loading, have been tested at energies of 200–300 keV, and formation of Cu nanoparticles in a variety of shapes and sizes using different irradiation conditions is achieved. Electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis, combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, confirmed the irradiation-induced precipitated nanoparticles as metallic, while furnace annealing of the glass triggered dendrite-shaped particles of copper oxide. Unusual patterns of nanoparticle rings and chains under focused electron beam irradiation are also presented. Conclusively, electron beam patterning of Cu-loaded glasses is a promising alternative route to well-established femtosecond laser photoreduction of Cu ions in glass.

  16. Effect of irradiation-induced defects on fusion reactor ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Structural, thermal, and electrical properties critical to performance of ceramics in a fusion environment can be profoundly altered by irradiation effects. Neutron damage may cause swelling, reduction of thermal conductivity, increase in dielectric loss, and either reduction or enhancement of strength depending on the crystal structure and defect content of the material. Absorption of ionizing energy inevitably leads to degradation of insulating properties, but these changes can be reduced by alterations in structural or compositional makeup. Assessment of the irradiation response of candidate ceramics Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , SiC and Si 3 N 4 shows that each may find use in advanced fusion devices. The present understanding of irradiation-induced defects in ceramics, while far from complete, nevertheless points the way to methods for developing improved materials for fusion applications

  17. Aplasia pura de serie roja post-trasplante alogeneico de células progenitoras hematopoyeticas ABO incompatible Pure red cell aplasia after ABO incompatible bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bulliorsky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante alogeneico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TCPH con incompatibilidad ABO entre el donante y el receptor puede en ocasiones asociarse a trastornos en la progenie eritroide desarrollada a partir de la médula ósea trasplantada, caracterizado por un funcionamiento tardío, inadecuado e incompleto de la misma. En este contexto, la aplasia pura de serie roja es la complicación más severa. Se han intentado tratamientos para la aplasia pura de serie roja post-TCPH con eritropoyetina o plasmaféresis, con relativo éxito. Algunos autores han informado también la utilización de globulina antilinfocitaria, asumiendo que dicha aplasia selectiva de la serie roja en la médula ósea trasplantada es mediada por un mecanismo inmune. En este trabajo se describe un paciente portador de una leucemia aguda en quien se realizó un TCPH alogeneico (ABO incompatible con su donante. Teniendo niveles bajos de aglutininas contra el grupo sanguíneo de la donante, desarrolló una aplasia pura de serie roja post - TCPH. La misma no mejoró con tratamiento con eritropoyetina o con un refuerzo de progenitores hematopoyéticos de sangre periférica de la misma donante (boost, resolviéndose totalmente luego de un tratamiento exitoso con globulina antilinfocitaria de origen equino.ABO incompatibility in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may be associated with incomplete or delayed erythroid engraftment, being pure red cell aplasia (PRCA the most severe complication in this setting. Attempts for the treatment of PRCA have been made with erythropoietin or with plasmapheresis with relative success, and some authors have reported the reversibility of PRCA with antilymphocyte globulin (ALG or ATG, based on the assumption that PRCA might be immunologically mediated. We report herewith a patient with acute leukemia who developed post - BMT pure red cell aplasia. His sibling donor (sister was HLA identical and ABO incompatible, having low agglutinin

  18. Congenital aplasia of the optic chiasm and esophageal atresia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madonia Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The complete absence of the chiasm (chiasmal aplasia is a rare clinical condition. Hypoplasia of the optic nerve and congenital nystagmus are almost invariably associated characteristics. Microphthalmos or anophthalmos are common features in chiasmal aplasia, while central nervous system abnormalities are less frequent. Esophageal atresia can be isolated or syndromic. In syndromic cases, it is frequently associated with cardiac, limb, renal or vertebral malformations and anal atresia. More rarely, esophageal atresia can be part of anophthalmia-esophageal-genital syndrome, which comprises anophthalmia or microphthalmia, genital abnormalities, vertebral defects and cerebral malformations. Here, a previously unreported case of chiasmal aplasia presenting without microphthalmos and associated with esophageal atresia is described. Case presentation Aplasia of the optic chiasm was identified in a Caucasian Italian 8-month-old boy with esophageal atresia. An ultrasound examination carried out at 21 weeks' gestation revealed polyhydramnios. Intrauterine growth retardation, esophageal atresia and a small atrial-septal defect were subsequently detected at 28 weeks' gestation. Repair of the esophageal atresia was carried out shortly after birth. A jejunostomy was carried out at four months to facilitate enteral feeding. The child was subsequently noted to be visually inattentive and to be neurodevelopmentally delayed. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed chiasmal aplasia. No other midline brain defects were found. His karyotype was normal. Conclusion If achiasmia is a spectrum, our patient seems to depict the most severe form, since he appears to have an extremely severe visual impairment. This is in contrast to most of the cases described in the literature, where patients maintain good--or at least useful-- visual function. To the best of our knowledge, the association of optic nerve hypoplasia, complete chiasmal aplasia, esophageal

  19. Reticulocyte maturity index by flow cytometry: its applicability in radioinduced bone marrow aplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.; Gisone, P.; Perez, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Flow cytometric reticulocyte quantification was assayed in ten patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with previous conditioning chemotherapy and total body irradiation (TBI). A reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) was determined taking into account the RNA content. With de aim of testing the utility of RMI as an early predictor of functional recovery in marrow aplasia, other haematological indicators as neutrophils count were comparatively evaluated. Mean time elapsed between BMT and engraftment evidence by RMI was 17,6 days. In six patients the RMI was the earliest indicator of functional recovery. The applicability of this assay in the following of radioinduced bone marrow aplasia is discussed. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Chronic renal failure due to unilateral renal agenesis and total renal dysplasia (=aplasia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroepelin, T.; Ziupa, J.; Wimmer, B.

    1983-01-01

    Three adult patients with unilateral renal agenesis/total dysplasia (= aplasia) and with an early chronic renal failure are presented. One patient had renal agenesis without ureter bud and ureteric ostium on one side, and reflux pyelonephritis on the other; one had small compact total renal dysplasia (= aplasia) on one side, while chronic uric acid nephropathy (chronic renal disease as a cause of gout) was diagnosed on the other; the third patient had a total large multicystic dysplasia on one side, and on the other a segmental large multicystic dysplasia. Radiological steps and radiodiagnostic criteria are discussed and the combination of urogenital and extraurogenital anomalies is referred to. (orig.)

  1. Flow cytometric of reticulocytes quantification: radio-induction medullary aplasia application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.; Perez, M.; Gisone, P.

    1996-01-01

    Flow cytometric reticulocyte quantification was assayed in ten patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with previous conditioning by chemotherapy and total body irradiation. A reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) was determined taking into account the RNA content. With the aim of testing the utility of RMI as an early predictor of functional recovery in marrow aplasia, other hematological indicators as neutrophils count were comparatively evaluated. Mean time elapsed between BMT and engraftment evidence by RMI was 17,6 days. In six patients the RMI was the earliest indicator of functional recovery. The applicability of this assay in the pursuit of radioinduced bone marrow aplasia is discussed. (authors). 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Accidentes en el hogar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Pacios Alfonso

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio descriptivo de los accidentes domésticos ocurridos durante un año en la población de un consultorio del Médico de la Familia. Resultan más afectados los sujetos del sexo femenino y los grupos en edades extremas de la vida. El horario de la tarde fue el más peligroso. La relación con el uso de bebidas alcohólicas estuvo ausente en menores de 15 años y ancianos; en adultos jóvenes el dato requiere de otros estudios. Las contusiones por caídas fue el tipo más frecuente de lesión; los miembros superiores, la región corporal más afectada. Hubo secuelas en la quinta parte de los lesionados. Sólo cuatro de cada diez accidentes ocurridos se diagnostican en consulta. Más de la mitad de la morbilidad es oculta y cada lesionado pierde un promedio de 10 días de vida plenaA descriptive study of those home accidents reported by the population of a family physician´s office during a year was conducted. Females and the group at extreme ages of life were the most affected. Afternions were more dangerous. Drinking was not present among patients under 15 and aged people. As to young adults, this datum should be further studied. Contusions caused by falls were the most frequent type of injuries, whereas the upper limbs were the most injured. A fifth of these had sequelae. Only 4 accidents out of 10 were diagnosed at the physician´s office. More than falf of morbidity was hidden and every injured person lost an average of 10 days of full life

  3. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome in a father and daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Materials and Methods: Reconstruction of these patients required multiple surgical procedures and orthoprosthesis was mandatory. The main goal of treatment was to achieve walking. Stabilization of the ankle joint by fibular-talar-chondrodesis on both sides, followed by bilateral Brown-procedure at the knee joint level has been applied accordingly. Results: The outcome was with improved function of the deformed limbs and walking was achieved with simultaneous designation of orthotic fitting. Conclusion: This is the first study encompassing the diagnosis and management of a father and daughter with bilateral tibial aplasia associated with variable split hand/foot deformity without foot ablation. Our patients showed the typical AD pattern of inheritance of split-hand/foot and tibial aplasia.

  4. [Bilateral deep venous thrombosis and vena cava aplasia treated with local thrombolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelta, A.M.; Jørgensen, Maja; Just, Sven Richardt Lundgren

    2008-01-01

    In this case report the treatment of a young man with bilateral iliaco-femoral DVT and vena cava aplasia is presented. The patient was treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis; the catheters were introduced in the thrombus of both legs via v. popliteae. The treatment led to almost complete...

  5. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes of poorly crystalline carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on irradiation-induced changes of poorly crystalline carbons at high temperatures(>900 0 C). The materials surveyed include: (1) carbon fibers, (2) glassy carbons, (3) carbonaceous matrix materials for HTGR fuel rods and (4) pyrocarbons. The materials are listed in order of increasing stability, with maximum strains ranging from more than 50% for fibers to less than 10% for pyrocarbons. Dimensional changes of highly anisotropic carbon fibers appear to be sensitive to irradiation temperature, as slightly anisotropic pyrocarbons are, whereas temperature seems to have little influence on the behavior of isotropic glassy carbons over the range from 600 to 1350 0 C. Dimensional changes for graphite-filled matrix materials were roughly isotropic on the average and did not seem to be strongly temperature dependent for the lower fluences investigated. Increased graphite filler lowered volumetric dimensional changes of the matrix in agreement with a rule-of-mixtures relationship between change components for the filler and the less-stable binder phases. Instabilities of all of the poorly crystalline materials were generally greater than those for more crystalline carbons under the same conditions, including highly orientated graphites that approximate single-crystal behavior. (author)

  6. Irradiation induced precipitation in tungsten based, W-Re alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. K.; Wiffen, F. W.; Bentley, J.; Stiegler, J. O.

    1983-03-01

    Tungsten-base alloys containing 5, 11, and 25 pct Re were irradiated in the EBR-II reactor. Irradiation temperatures ranged from 600 to 1500 °C. All compositions were irradiated to fluences in the range 4.3 to 6.1 X 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), and three 25 pct Re samples were also irradiated to 3.7 X 1026 n/m2 at temperatures 700 to 900 °C. Postirradiation examination included measurement of electrical resistivity at room temperature and lower temperatures, X-ray diffraction, optical metallography, microprobe analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Irradiation induced resistivity decreases observed in most of the samples suggested second-phase precipitation. Complete results confirmed the precipitate formation in all samples, in disagreement with existing phase diagrams for the W-Re system. Electron diffraction showed the precipitates to be consistent with the cubic, Re-rich X-phase and inconsistent with the σ-phase. Large variations in precipitate morphology and distribution were observed between the different compositions and irradiation conditions. For the 5 and 11 pct Re-alloys, spherically symmetric strain fields surrounded the equiaxed precipitate particles, and were observed even where no particles were visible. These strain fields are believed to arise from local Re enrichment. Thermoelectric data show that the precipitation can lead to decalibration of W/Re thermocouples.

  7. The accidental (acoustical) tourist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kirk, Wayne

    2002-11-01

    The acoustical phenomenon observed at an ancient temple in the Great Ball Court at Chichen Itza was described as ''little short of amazing--an ancient whispering gallery'' by Silvanus G. Morley, leader of the Carnegie Institute's archaeological team that excavated and restored these structures in the 1920s. Since then, many others have experienced the extraordinary acoustics at Chichen Itza and other Maya sites. Despite these reports, archaeologists and acousticians have until recently shown little interest in understanding these phenomena. After experiencing Chichen Itza's remarkable acoustics as a tourist in 1994, the author commenced collecting and disseminating information about acoustical phenomena there and at other Mayan sites, hoping to stimulate interest among archaeologists and acousticians. Were these designs accidental or intentional? If intentional, how was the knowledge obtained? How were acoustical features used? This paper highlights the author's collection of anecdotal reports of mysterious Mayan acoustics (http://http://www.ianlawton.com/pa1.htm), recommended reading for scientists and engineers who wish to pursue this fascinating study. Also recounted are some of the reactions of archaeologists-ranging from curious, helpful, and insightful to humorous and appalling--to outsiders' efforts to bring serious scientific attention to the new field of acoustical archaeology.

  8. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  9. Ion irradiation-induced precipitation of Cr23C6 at dislocation loops in austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Shuoxue; Guo, Liping; Luo, Fengfeng; Yao, Zhongwen; Ma, Shuli; Tang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The irradiation-induced precipitates in argon ion-irradiated austenitic stainless steel at 550 °C were examined via transmission electron microscopy. The selected-area electron diffraction patterns of precipitates indicated unambiguously that the precipitates were Cr 23 C 6 carbides. It was observed directly for the first time that irradiation-induced Cr 23 C 6 precipitates formed at dislocation loops in austenitic stainless steel, and coarsened with increasing irradiation dose.

  10. High incidence of recurrent copy number variants in patients with isolated and syndromic Müllerian aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik-Zainal, Serena; Strick, Reiner; Storer, Mekayla; Huang, Ni; Rad, Roland; Willatt, Lionel; Fitzgerald, Tomas; Martin, Vicki; Sandford, Richard; Carter, Nigel P; Janecke, Andreas R; Renner, Stefan P; Oppelt, Patricia G; Oppelt, Peter; Schulze, Christine; Brucker, Sara; Hurles, Matthew; Beckmann, Matthias W; Strissel, Pamela L; Shaw-Smith, Charles

    2011-03-01

    Congenital malformations involving the Müllerian ducts are observed in around 5% of infertile women. Complete aplasia of the uterus, cervix, and upper vagina, also termed Müllerian aplasia or Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, occurs with an incidence of around 1 in 4500 female births, and occurs in both isolated and syndromic forms. Previous reports have suggested that a proportion of cases, especially syndromic cases, are caused by variation in copy number at different genomic loci. In order to obtain an overview of the contribution of copy number variation to both isolated and syndromic forms of Müllerian aplasia, copy number assays were performed in a series of 63 cases, of which 25 were syndromic and 38 isolated. A high incidence (9/63, 14%) of recurrent copy number variants in this cohort is reported here. These comprised four cases of microdeletion at 16p11.2, an autism susceptibility locus not previously associated with Müllerian aplasia, four cases of microdeletion at 17q12, and one case of a distal 22q11.2 microdeletion. Microdeletions at 16p11.2 and 17q12 were found in 4/38 (10.5%) cases with isolated Müllerian aplasia, and at 16p11.2, 17q12 and 22q11.2 (distal) in 5/25 cases (20%) with syndromic Müllerian aplasia. The finding of microdeletion at 16p11.2 in 2/38 (5%) of isolated and 2/25 (8%) of syndromic cases suggests a significant contribution of this copy number variant alone to the pathogenesis of Müllerian aplasia. Overall, the high incidence of recurrent copy number variants in all forms of Müllerian aplasia has implications for the understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of the condition, and for genetic counselling in families affected by it.

  11. Aplasia Cutis Congénita: Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Alonso Uría

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reportó el caso de un recién nacido, hijo de madre secundigesta, con una malformación congénita del cuero cabelludo, del tipo aplasia cutis congénita. Se describieron las características clínicas de ésta, su evolución, pronóstico y tratamiento. Se hizo énfasis en el cuidado y la prevención de las complicaciones, fundamentalmente infecciosas, en este tipo de neonatosThe case of a newborn, son of a secundigravida, with a congenital malformation of the scalp denominated aplasia cutis congenita is reported. Its clinical characteristics, evolutions, prognosis and treatment are described. Emphasis is made on the care and prevention of the complications, mainly infectious, in this type of neonates

  12. [Bilateral deep venous thrombosis and vena cava aplasia treated with local thrombolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelta, A.M.; Jørgensen, Maja; Just, Sven Richardt Lundgren

    2008-01-01

    In this case report the treatment of a young man with bilateral iliaco-femoral DVT and vena cava aplasia is presented. The patient was treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis; the catheters were introduced in the thrombus of both legs via v. popliteae. The treatment led to almost complete thr...... thrombus resolution and no valvular incompetence at three months follow-up. In our opinion this treatment should be offered even in complex cases of acute proximal deep venous thrombosis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/19......In this case report the treatment of a young man with bilateral iliaco-femoral DVT and vena cava aplasia is presented. The patient was treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis; the catheters were introduced in the thrombus of both legs via v. popliteae. The treatment led to almost complete...

  13. Anterior Pituitary Aplasia in an Infant with Ring Chromosome 18p Deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Bellfield

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first reported case of an infant with 18p deletion syndrome with anterior pituitary aplasia secondary to a ring chromosome. Endocrine workup soon after birth was reassuring; however, repeat testing months later confirmed central hypopituitarism. While MRI reading initially indicated no midline defects, subsequent review of the images confirmed anterior pituitary aplasia with ectopic posterior pituitary. This case demonstrates how deletion of genetic material, even if resulting in a chromosomal ring, still results in a severe syndromic phenotype. Furthermore, it demonstrates the necessity of close follow-up in the first year of life for children with 18p deletion syndrome and emphasizes the need to verify radiology impressions if there is any doubt as to the radiologic findings.

  14. [Risk factors for teeth aplasia and hypoplasia in cleft lip and palate children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolenkova, M V; Starikova, N V; Ageeva, L V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the significance of environmental risk factors for teeth aplasia and hypoplasia in cleft lip and palate children. Two hundred and forty-seven cleft lip and palate (CLP) children were enrolled in the study including 105 (42.5%) with bilateral CLP and 57.5% with unilateral CLP. The mean age was 11.2±4.9 years. Teeth condition was assessed clinically and radiologically. The impact of risk factors for teeth anomalies was analyzed by retrospective data obtained from computer database (absence of preoperative orthopedic treatment, palatal defects after primary palatoplasty and type of primary procedures). Surgical trauma by early periosteoplasty (at the age of 3-4 months), excessive scarring and tissue traction due to absence of early orthopedic treatment and palatal defect were associated with significantly higher incidence of incisors hypoplasia (both developmental enamel defects and microdentia) and aplasia of central incisors not seen in the other study subgroups. Incisors aplasia and hypoplasia in CLP patients do not always have disembryogenic origin but may depend on external environmental factors, including surgical trauma.

  15. The role of diclofenack on inducing of aplasia cutis congenita: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajaziti, Laura; Rexhepi, Syzana; Shatri-Muça, Ylfete; Ferizi, Mybera

    2009-10-12

    Aplasia cutis congenita is a disorder where e newborn child is missing skin from certain areas. It is a rare condition with no particular race or sex more at risk. May occur by itself or be associated with other physical syndromes or disorders. A classification system exists for aplasia cutis congenital consisting of 9 groups, based on the number and location of the skin defects and the presence or absence of other malformations. Causes of aplasia congenital could be heredity, teratogenic substances, placental infarcts, intrauterine infections, ectodermal dysplasias etc. Diagnosis is made based on the clinical findings. Prognosis depends of the other organs malfunction level and lesions size. Our case was an 22 months old Albanian girl, who was recommended to dermatology for a consultation by a pediatric surgeon because of the changes she had on her parietal part of the scalp with missing hair areas. The child has stenosis congenita ani and to her was installed stoma. In order to investigate other accompanied anomalies of the disease, there are made specific consults by neurologist, orthopedist, cardiologist, nephrologists and citogenetics. It was found out a minor visual discoordination, Sy Floppy, Digiti V superductus pedis bill. Laxitas articularum generalisata. It was a great challenge for us to find out that during the first trimester of the pregnancy (unplanned pregnancy), her mother used Diclofenac. Since there is limited information regarding to teratogenic effects of diclofenac, we considered it interesting to present this case.

  16. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia with concurrent aplasia of the pericardium in a foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tăbăran, Alexandru-Flaviu; Nagy, Andras Laszlo; Cătoi, Cornel; Morar, Iancu; Tăbăran, Alexandra; Mihaiu, Marian; Bolfa, Pompei

    2015-12-30

    In veterinary medicine congenital abnormalities of the diaphragm and pericardium are rare, idiopathic malformations, being reported mainly in dogs. This report documents an unusual case of developmental defects in a foal consisting of diaphragmatic hernia concurrent with pericardial aplasia. Following a normal delivery, a full term, female Friesian stillborn foal with the placenta was presented for necropsy. External morphological examination indicated a normally developed foal. At necropsy, a large oval defect (approximately 20 × 15 cm in size) was observed in the left-dorsal side of the diaphragm (left lumbocostal triangle). This defect allowed the intestinal loops, spleen and partially the liver to translocate into the thorax. The loops of the left ascending colon, including the pelvic flexure and partially the small intestine covered the cranial and dorsal posterior parts of the heart due to the complete absence of the left pericardium. The remaining pericardium presented as a white, semi-transparent strip, partially covering the right side of the heart. The left lung and the main bronchus were severely hypoplastic to approximately one-fifth the size of their right homologue. The intermediate part of the liver, containing mainly the enlarged quadrate lobe was translocated in the thorax, severely enlarged and showed marked fibrosis. Histologically in the herniated lobes we diagnosed hepatic chronic passive congestion, telangiectasia and medial hypertrophy of blood vessels. Concomitant malformation involving diaphragmatic hernia and pericardial aplasia in horses have not been previously reported. Moreover, this is the first case describing pericardial aplasia in horse.

  17. Ion irradiation-induced swelling and hardening effect of Hastelloy N alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.J. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro-and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, D.H.; Chen, H.C.; Lei, G.H.; Huang, H.F.; Zhang, W.; Wang, C.B. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yan, L., E-mail: yanlong@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Fu, D.J. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro-and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Tang, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The volumetric swelling and hardening effect of irradiated Hastelloy N alloy were investigated in this paper. 7 MeV and 1 MeV Xe ions irradiations were performed at room temperature (RT) with irradiation dose ranging from 0.5 to 27 dpa. The volumetric swelling increases with increasing irradiation dose, and reaches up to 3.2% at 27 dpa. And the irradiation induced lattice expansion is also observed. The irradiation induced hardening initiates at low ion dose (≤1dpa) then saturates with higher ion dose. The irradiation induced volumetric swelling may be ascribed to excess atomic volume of defects. The irradiation induced hardening may be explained by the pinning effect where the defects can act as obstacles for the free movement of dislocation lines. And the evolution of the defects' size and number density could be responsible for the saturation of hardness. - Highlights: •Irradiation Swelling: The irradiation induced volumetric swelling increases with ion dose. •Irradiation Hardening: The irradiation hardening initiates below 1 dpa, then saturates with higher ion dose (1–10 dpa). •Irradiation Mechanism: The irradiation phenomena are ascribed to the microstructural evolution of the irradiation defects.

  18. A small angle neutron study of irradiation induced microstructures in Cr-Mo-V WWER steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levit, Vladimir I.; Santos, Ari S.; Louzada, Ana R.R.; Silveira, Cristina M.; Vaniel, Ana Paula H.; Odette, George R.; Mader, Eric

    2000-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has proven to be a very effective technique for characterizing the ultrafine (∼1 nm) irradiation induced microstructures which are responsible for hardening and the concomitant embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels. SANS measurement were carried out on three irradiated and unirradiated weld materials of WWER- type on 8 m instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Washington, USA. Small (r m < 1 nm) irradiation induced features were found for all three materials. Were found volume fractions, number densities and ratios of magnetic to nuclear scattering. Some analyses of the irradiation induced precipitation nature and possible chemical composition were made by comparison of the results with other reactor materials SANS and Atom Probe Field Ion Microscopy data. (author)

  19. Origins of ion irradiation-induced Ga nanoparticle motion on GaAs surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, M.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, H. Y.; Thornton, K.; Goldman, R. S.; Sofferman, D. L.; Beskin, I.

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the origins of ion irradiation-induced nanoparticle (NP) motion. Focused-ion-beam irradiation of GaAs surfaces induces random walks of Ga NPs, which are biased in the direction opposite to that of ion beam scanning. Although the instantaneous NP velocities are constant, the NP drift velocities are dependent on the off-normal irradiation angle, likely due to a difference in surface non-stoichiometry induced by the irradiation angle dependence of the sputtering yield. It is hypothesized that the random walks are initiated by ion irradiation-induced thermal fluctuations, with biasing driven by anisotropic mass transport

  20. Acute Renal Failure following Accidental Potassium Bromate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental poisoning is common in children. Potassium bromate is a commonly used additive and raising agent in many edibles particularly bread, a staple food worldwide, yet its accidental poisoning has hitherto, not been documented in Nigeria. We report an unusual case of acute renal failure following accidental ...

  1. Assessment of evolutive and prognostic indicators applied to accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation; Evaluacion de indicadores pronosticos y evolutivos aplicables a situaciones accidentales de sobreexposicion a radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera Carrillo, M. de Lourdes; Cardenas, J. [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba); Dubner, D.; Perez, M. del Rosario; Gisone, P. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Radiopatologia; Carnot, J. [Hospital Clinico Quirurgico Hermanos Ameijeiras, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The acute radiation syndrome has been characterized in different ways that involve risk for life and health of the people overexposed to ionizing radiations. This work intends to test a therapeutical total body irradiation (TBI) model as conditioning to bone marrow transplantation. With the purpose of evaluating the applicability of several biological indicators in accidental overexposures, a study was carried out in 46 patients undergoing TBI receiving doses between 10 Gy and 12 Gy. The following parameters were assessed: lipo peroxyde plasmatic levels (TBARS) and total plasma antioxidant activity, reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) and charges in lymphocyte subpopulations. These data suggest that TBARS could provide an useful evolutive indicator in accidental overexposed patients and RMI is an early indicator of bone marrow recovery after radioinduced aplasia.

  2. Uterovaginal Anastomosis for Cases of Cryptomenorrhea Due to Cervical Atresia with Vaginal Aplasia: Benefits and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, M; Fouad, R; Elsetohy, K A; Hashem, A T; AbdAllah, A A; Fathi, A I

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess short-term benefits and risks of utero-vaginal anastomosis done for cases of cryptomenorrhea due to cervical atresia with vaginal aplasia. Prospective study. Surgical procedures were done between December 2013 and September 2015 at the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cairo University Hospital. Five patients who had cryptomenorrhea due to cervical atresia associated with vaginal aplasia were included. Utero-vaginal anastomoses were performed in 2 stages; a stage of McIndoe vaginoplasty and a stage of excision of the atretic cervical tissue and anastomosing the uterus to the neovagina. Follow-up was done by gynecological and ultrasound examination in a duration ranged from 12 to 36 months. Occurrence of regular menstrual flow and relief of the severe cyclic pain. All patients had relief of the severe cyclic pain. Four patients had regular menstrual flow. One patient developed occlusion of the track after 1 year and needed dilatation once. Three patients developed low vaginal stenosis without occlusion of the track. One patient had rectal injury repaired without causing postoperative morbidity. Uterovaginal anastomosis is a promising conservative management option for cervical atresia with vaginal aplasia, which has benefits but is not free of risks. Long-term follow-up is still needed to judge its feasibility. We recommend performing McIndoe vaginoplasty as a starting stage before the anastomosis preferably in a separate setting. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Post accidental small breaks analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depond, G.; Gandrille, J.

    1980-04-01

    EDF ordered to FRAMATOME by 1977 to complete post accidental long term studies on 'First Contrat-Programme' reactors, in order to demonstrate the safety criteria long term compliance, to get information on NSSS behaviour and to improve the post accidental procedures. Convenient analytical models were needed and EDF and FRAMATOME respectively developped the AXEL and FRARELAP codes. The main results of these studies is that for the smallest breaks, it is possible to manually undertake cooling and pressure reducing actions by dumping the steam generators secondary side in order to meet the RHR operating specifications and perform long term cooling through this system. A specific small breaks procedure was written on this basis. The EDF and FRAMATOME codes are continuously improved; the results of a French set of separate effects experiments will be incorporated as well as integral system verification

  4. APLASIA CUTIS CONGÉNITA – UM CASO CLÍNICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Costeira

    2016-07-01

    Comentários: A aplasia cutis congénita é uma lesão que pode ser causadora de grande ansiedade parental, pelo que é importante ao Pediatra o seu reconhecimento e devido esclarecimento. Apesar de se tratar, na maioria das vezes, de um defeito benigno, é importante o conhecimento da sua relação com outras anomalias e síndromes de forma a otimizar a sua orientação precoce e adequada. Da mesma forma, é importante o aconselhamento genético, nos casos que assim o justifiquem.

  5. A case of severe congenital kyphoscoliosis secondary to multiple bilateral thoracic pedicle aplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffray, Anne; Leloutre, Beatrice; Albertario, Marco; Bechard-Sevette, Nancy; Clement, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    A 9-month-old boy with congenital kyphoscoliosis secondary to multiple bilateral thoracic pedicle aplasias is presented. This anomaly has rarely been described in the literature. Plain films showed absence of thoracic pedicles bilaterally from T2 to T9, which was better demonstrated on CT multiplanar and 3-D reformatted images. There were no neurological symptoms even though the deformity progressed rapidly. Congenital kyphosis or kyphoscoliosis is often related to spinal anomalies that are located on the anterior aspect of the vertebrae. However, posterior anomalies may also be responsible and should be recognized before neurological complications occur. (orig.)

  6. Intracranial carotid anastomosis and partial aplasia of an internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.

    1980-01-01

    A rare arterial anastomosis between the right and left interal carotid arteries at the base at the skull, with aplasia of the cervical part of the left internal carotid artery is reported. The case is unusual because, in addition to the vascular anomaly of the carotid artery, there is an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and bilateral renal cysts. The condition is a complex malformation syndrome caused by defective regression of the third branchial artery. Because of the characteristic angiographic aspects such a case should be called transverse carotid anastomosis. (orig.)

  7. Intracranial carotid anastomosis and partial aplasia of an internal carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, G.

    1980-12-01

    A rare arterial anastomosis between the right and left internal carotid arteries at the base at the skull, with aplasia of the cervical part of the left internal carotid artery is reported. The case is unusual because, in addition to the vascular anomaly of the carotid artery, there is an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and bilateral renal cysts. The condition is a complex malformation syndrome caused by defective regression of the third branchial artery. Because of the characteristic angiographic aspects such a case should be called transverse carotid anastomosis.

  8. A Rare Case of Apical Root Resorption during Orthodontic Treatment of Patient with Multiple Aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Chintan M; Mahida, Khyati; Agrawal, Charu C; Bothra, Jitendrakumar; Mashru, Ketan

    2015-07-01

    External apical root resorption is an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. It reduces the length of root and breaks the integrity of teeth and dental arch. Orthodontics is the only dental specialty that clinically uses the inflammatory process to correct the mal-aligned teeth. Hence, it is necessary to know the risk factors of root resorption and do everything to reduce the rate of root resorption. Hence, all predisposing factors which are systemic as well as local should be considered before treatment begins. This case report describes the incidence of root resorption following orthodontic treatment and the teeth affected in the patient with multiple aplasia.

  9. Prenatal ultrasonography of trisomy 18 with radial aplasia: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Yeon Hee [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    Trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome) is the second most common chromosomal anomaly of the autosomal trisomy. Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18 is extremely important because of the complex malformations and lethal prognosis. Prenatal sonographic findings at 17 weeks of gestation showing radial aplasia with upper limb contracture, omphalocele, and suspicious esophageal atresia suggested the diagnosis and led to amniocentesis. Karyotyping revealed trisomy 18 (47 XX, +18, and characteristic autopsy findings were identified. We report a case of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 18 with a review of literatures.

  10. Prenatal ultrasonography of trisomy 18 with radial aplasia: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Yeon Hee

    2002-01-01

    Trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome) is the second most common chromosomal anomaly of the autosomal trisomy. Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18 is extremely important because of the complex malformations and lethal prognosis. Prenatal sonographic findings at 17 weeks of gestation showing radial aplasia with upper limb contracture, omphalocele, and suspicious esophageal atresia suggested the diagnosis and led to amniocentesis. Karyotyping revealed trisomy 18 (47 XX, +18, and characteristic autopsy findings were identified. We report a case of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 18 with a review of literatures.

  11. Pure Red Cell Aplasia and Hypogammaglobulinemia in a Patient with Thymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Sung Lin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both pure red cell aplasia (PRCA and hypogammaglobulinemia are rarer conditions than myasthenia gravis (MG in thymoma patients. Several articles have discussed the relation between PRCA and thymoma or hypogammaglobulinemia and thymoma, and their proper treatments. Instances of both PRCA and hypogammaglobulinemia in a thymoma patient are few and reported sporadically in the literature. We discuss a 46-year-old woman with thymoma and simultaneous PRCA and hypogammaglobulinemia who achieved complete remission from PRCA after perioperative steroid administration and extended thymectomy, and review the literature.

  12. Accidental hypothermia-an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paal, Peter; Gordon, Les; Strapazzon, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper provides an up-to-date review of the management and outcome of accidental hypothermia patients with and without cardiac arrest. METHODS: The authors reviewed the relevant literature in their specialist field. Summaries were merged, discussed and approved to produce this nar......BACKGROUND: This paper provides an up-to-date review of the management and outcome of accidental hypothermia patients with and without cardiac arrest. METHODS: The authors reviewed the relevant literature in their specialist field. Summaries were merged, discussed and approved to produce...... this narrative review. RESULTS: The hospital use of minimally-invasive rewarming for non-arrested, otherwise healthy, patients with primary hypothermia and stable vital signs has the potential to substantially decrease morbidity and mortality for these patients. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has...... and post-resuscitation care. CONCLUSIONS: Based on new evidence, additional clinical experience and clearer management guidelines and documentation, the treatment of accidental hypothermia has been refined. ECLS has substantially improved survival and is the treatment of choice in the patient with unstable...

  13. Edaravone protects human peripheral blood lymphocytes from γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Liu, Yinghui; Dong, Liangliang; Chu, Xiaoxia

    2015-03-01

    Radiation-induced cellular injury is attributed primarily to the harmful effects of free radicals, which play a key role in irradiation-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective efficacy of edaravone, a licensed clinical drug and a powerful free radical scavenger that has been tested against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in studies of various diseases. Edaravone was pre-incubated with lymphocytes for 2 h prior to γ-irradiation. It was found that pretreatment with edaravone increased cell viability and inhibited generation of γ-radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lymphocytes exposed to 3 Gy γ-radiation. In addition, γ-radiation decreased antioxidant enzymatic activity, such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the level of reduced glutathione. Conversely, treatment with 100 μM edaravone prior to irradiation improved antioxidant enzyme activity and increased reduced glutathione levels in irradiated lymphocytes. Importantly, we also report that edaravone reduced γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis through downregulation of Bax, upregulation of Bcl-2, and consequent reduction of the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. The current study shows edaravone to be an effective radioprotector against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in lymphocytes in vitro. Finally, edaravone pretreatment significantly reduced DNA damage in γ-irradiated lymphocytes, as measured by comet assay (% tail DNA, tail length, tail moment, and olive tail moment) (p edaravone offers protection from radiation-induced cytogenetic alterations.

  14. The irradiation induced creep of graphite under accelerated damage produced by boron doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocklehurst, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The presence of boron enhances fast neutron irradiation damage in graphite by providing nucleation sites for interstitial loop formation. Doping with 11 B casues an increase in the irradiation induced macroscopic dimensional changes, which have been shown to result from an acceleration in the differential crystal growth rate for a given carbon atom displacement rate. Models of irradiation induced creep in graphite have centred around those in which creep is induced by internal stresses due to the anisotopic crystal growth, and those in which creep is activated by atomic displacements. A creep test on boron doped graphite has been performed in an attempt to establish which of these mechanisms is the determining factor. An isotropic nuclear graphite was doped to a 11 B concentration of 0.27 wt.%. The irradiation induced volume shrinkage rate at 750 0 C increased by a factor of 3 over that of the virgin graphite, in agreement with predictions from the earlier work, but the total creep strains were comparable in both doped and virgin samples. This observation supports the view that irradiation induced creep is dependent only on the carbon atom displacement rate and not on the internal stress level determined by the differential crystal growth rate. The implications of this result on the irradiation behaviour of graphite containing significant concentrations of boron are briefly discussed. (author)

  15. A case of irradiation-induced malignant fibrous histiocytoma after an operation for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Yoshinori; Kuranishi, Fumito; Toyota, Kazuhiro; Nakahara Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    We recently observed a case of presumed irradiation-induced malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), which developed 11 years after postoperative chemoradiotherapy for residual rectal cancer. A 65-year-old female underwent chemoradiotherapy for the residual tumor on the sacrum after abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer in 1991. She showed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Biopsy and MRI in 2002 suggested a retroperitoneal malignant tumor associated with invasion of the uterus and the sacrum, and the patient subsequently underwent surgery. Histopathologically the tumor was MFH. This case was considered to be an irradiation-induced secondary malignant tumor, according to the criteria developed by Arlen et al. In elderly patients and cases that underwent chemoradiotherapy, the latency period of irradiation-induced secondary malignant tumor tends to be shorter. If the progress of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy increases the number of long-term surviving cases in the future, the incidence of irradiation-induced secondary malignant tumor will increase. It is therefore necessary to survey these cases over a longer period of time after surgery. (author)

  16. γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts in aliphatic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Gagne, N.

    1990-01-01

    γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts was investigated as a model for PCB residues in irradiated food. Formation of cyclohexyl adducts of PCBs was found to be significant when pure PCB congeners and Aroclor mixture were irradiated in cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Reaction pathways were investigated, and the effects of oxygen and electron scavenger were studied

  17. Routine treatment of bilateral aplasia of upper lateral incisors by orthodontic space closure without mandibular extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bernd; Seifi-Shirvandeh, Nasrin

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to gather statistically validated information on the changes in orthodontic variables in patients with bilateral upper lateral incisor aplasia treated with isolated orthodontic space closure. Data were collected from 25 (15 females, 10 males) consecutively treated, unselected adolescents [mean age at the end of treatment 16.4 years, standard deviation (SD) 1.3] after orthodontic space closure using push-and-pull mechanics (PPM). The changes in the relevant parameters were determined by comparing baseline and final lateral headfilms and casts. Following verification of normal distribution by means of a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, a two-tailed t-test for related data was performed. SNA, ANB, OcP-NL, OcP-ML, upper space balance, overbite, overjet, bilateral molar relationship, and L1-NB changed significantly (P orthodontic space closure for bilateral upper lateral incisor aplasia using PPM can be regarded as a valid alternative to prosthetic solutions. Long-term use of Class III elastics does not lead to significant changes in relevant orthodontic parameters.

  18. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  19. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Rodríguez Lucci; Virginia Pujol Lereis; Sebastián Ameriso; Guillermo Povedano; María F. Díaz; Alejandro Hlavnicka; Néstor A. Wainsztein; Sebastián F. Ameriso

    2013-01-01

    La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Str...

  20. Like Father, Like Daughter-inherited cutis aplasia occurring in a family with Marfan syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Yasmin Florence Khodeja; Williams, Charles A; Schoch, Jennifer Jane; Andrews, Israel David

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a newborn with co-occurrence of Marfan syndrome and aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) and a family history significant for Marfan syndrome and ACC in the father. This case details a previously unreported mutation in Marfan syndrome and describes a novel coinheritance of Marfan syndrome and ACC.

  1. Aplasia pura de serie roja post-trasplante alogeneico de células progenitoras hematopoyeticas ABO incompatible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bulliorsky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante alogeneico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TCPH con incompatibilidad ABO entre el donante y el receptor puede en ocasiones asociarse a trastornos en la progenie eritroide desarrollada a partir de la médula ósea trasplantada, caracterizado por un funcionamiento tardío, inadecuado e incompleto de la misma. En este contexto, la aplasia pura de serie roja es la complicación más severa. Se han intentado tratamientos para la aplasia pura de serie roja post-TCPH con eritropoyetina o plasmaféresis, con relativo éxito. Algunos autores han informado también la utilización de globulina antilinfocitaria, asumiendo que dicha aplasia selectiva de la serie roja en la médula ósea trasplantada es mediada por un mecanismo inmune. En este trabajo se describe un paciente portador de una leucemia aguda en quien se realizó un TCPH alogeneico (ABO incompatible con su donante. Teniendo niveles bajos de aglutininas contra el grupo sanguíneo de la donante, desarrolló una aplasia pura de serie roja post - TCPH. La misma no mejoró con tratamiento con eritropoyetina o con un refuerzo de progenitores hematopoyéticos de sangre periférica de la misma donante (boost, resolviéndose totalmente luego de un tratamiento exitoso con globulina antilinfocitaria de origen equino.

  2. Comportamiento de los accidentes laborales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gómez Vital

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una valoración sobre la situación de la accidentalidad en centros de trabajo de la provincia de Villa Clara de 1993 a 1997. El total de accidentes registrados fue de 12 522. Últimamente han disminuido y su índice de incidencia. En el último año se redujo el promedio de días perdidos, pero el índice de gravedad alcanzó la cifra mayor. Se insiste en el cumplimiento del programa de prevención y reducción de accidentes laborales.The situation of the occupational accidents that occurred in the province of Villa Clara from 1993 to 1997 was assessed. 12 522 accidents were registered during that periods. A decrease of these accidents and of their incidence rate has been observed lately. The average of lost days was reduced during the last year, out the severity index reached the highest figure. Emphasis is made on the importance of fulfilling the program of prevention and reduction of occupational accidents.

  3. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury in BJ human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po Yee; Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-06-01

    The effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) and its analogs on solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury were examined in BJ human fibroblasts. Sch B and schisandrin C (Sch C) increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level and protected against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury. The photoprotection was paralleled by decreases in the elastases-type protease activity and matrix-metalloproteinases-1 expression in solar-irradiated fibroblasts. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production. The results suggest that by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B or Sch C may offer the prospect of preventing skin photo-aging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Irradiation-induced creep in fuel compacts for high-temperature reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veringa, H; Blackstone, R [Stichting Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland, Petten; Loelgen, R

    1977-01-01

    Restrained shrinkage experiments at neutron fluences up to 3 x 10/sup 21/ n cm/sup -2/ DNE in the temperature range 600 to 1200/sup 0/C were performed on three different dummy coated-particle fuel compacts in the high-flux reactor at Petten. The data were evaluated to obtain the steady-state radiation creep coefficient of the compacts. It was found that, for the materials investigated, the creep coefficient is temperature dependent, but no clear relationship with Young's modulus could be established. Under certain conditions this irradiation-induced plasticity influences the elastic properties, with the concomitant increase of the creep coefficient. This effect coincides with the formation and further opening up of cracks due to stresses caused by irradiation-induced shrinkage of matrix material.

  5. Irradiation-induced creep in fuel compacts for high-temperature reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veringa, H.; Blackstone, R.; Loelgen, R.

    1977-01-01

    Restrained shrinkage experiments at neutron fluences up to 3 x 10 21 n cm -2 DNE in the temperature range 600 to 1200 0 C were performed on three different dummy coated-particle fuel compacts in the high-flux reactor at Petten. The data were evaluated to obtain the steady-state radiation creep coefficient of the compacts. It was found that, for the materials investigated, the creep coefficient is temperature dependent, but no clear relationship with Young's modulus could be established. Under certain conditions this irradiation-induced plasticity influences the elastic properties, with the concomitant increase of the creep coefficient. This effect coincides with the formation and further opening up of cracks due to stresses caused by irradiation-induced shrinkage of matrix material. (author)

  6. Protective effects of nelumbo nucifera against {gamma}-irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation in mice urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Il Yun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Caang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Jung [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The radioprotective effect of isoquercitrin-abundant fraction (IAF) of N. nucifera Gaertn. Ieaf extract against {gamma}-irradiation-induced oxidative stress was evaluated by the lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LPDAs) as a marker for oxidative risk in mice urine, and the DNA damage using comet assay in RAW 264.7 cells. Mice that were treated with IAF (50 mg/kg) and {gamma}-irradiation showed considerably decreased LPDA levels relative to those that had received {gamma}-irradiation alone. Furthermore, pretreatment with IAF resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of DNA damage in cells. It is demonstrated that pretreatment with IAF of N. nucifera Gaertn. gives protection against irradiation-induced cellular damage.

  7. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanzhou; Yu Ming; Deng Bo; Li Linfan; Jiang Haiqing; Li Jingye

    2012-01-01

    Acrylonitrile has been widely used in the modification of polymers by graft polymerization. In the present work, pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization method is used to introduce acrylonitrile onto PE nonwoven fabric instead of the traditional reaction in organic solvents system. The degree of grafting (DG) is measured by gravimetric method and the kinetics of the graft polymerization is studied. The existence of the graft chains is proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. Thermal stability of the grafted polymer is measured by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). - Highlights: → Acrylonitrile is grafted onto pre-irradiated polyethylene (PE) nonwoven fabrics. → Emulsion system is applied, for the graft polymerization avoids organic solvent. → Kinetic of the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization is studied. → Optimal condition is determined at the temperature below the b.p. of acrylonitrile.

  8. Finite element analysis of irradiation-induced dilation of the fuel subassembly duct in LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fuhai; Fu Hao; Li Nan; Yang Kongli; Wang Mingzhen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The calculation of irradiation-induced dilation of the fuel subassembly duct in LMFBR is important for fast reactor core design.. Purpose: To investigate how to calculate the dilation by using finite element method (FEM). Methods: First, irradiation-induced creep and swelling material models are introduced. Then, a theoretical solution based on a simplified bending plate model is briefly given. Finally, a stress update scheme for the adopted material models is presented and furthermore embedded into ABAQUS user interface UMAT to conduct finite element analysis. Both solutions are compared and discussed. Results: FEM successfully predicts the duct dilation and its solution agrees well with theoretical one in small deformation. Conclusions: The proposed stress update scheme is effective, The accuracy of the theory solution declines when dilation becomes larger. The maximum stress occurs at the duct corner point, and the location has stress relaxation effect. (authors)

  9. Irradiation-induced creep in metallic nanolaminates characterized by In situ TEM pillar nanocompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Shen J., E-mail: sdillon@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bufford, Daniel C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Jawaharram, Gowtham S.; Liu, Xuying; Lear, Calvin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hattar, Khalid [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Averback, Robert S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    This work reports on irradiation-induced creep (IIC) measured on nanolaminate (Cu-W and Ni-Ag) and nanocrystalline alloys (Cu-W) at room temperature using a combination of heavy ion irradiation and nanopillar compression performed concurrently in situ in a transmission electron microscope. Appreciable IIC is observed in multilayers with 50 nm layer thicknesses at high stress, ≈½ the yield strength, but not in multilayers with only 5 nm layer thicknesses.

  10. Relationship between equivalent chromium content and irradiation-induced swelling in 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.F.; Guthrie, G.L.

    1974-12-01

    A correlation is noted between equivalent chromium content and resistance to irradiation induced swelling in various 316 stainless steel specimens which have slightly different chemical compositions. Several examples are cited where an increased concentration of an α-stabilizing minor constituent results in decreased swelling. It is shown that the relative swelling resistance of alloys having the same carbon and equivalent nickel contents is higher for those alloys with the higher equivalent chromium content

  11. A review of irradiation induced re-solution in oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews the existing experimental evidence for irradiation induced re-solution and also possible explanations for the mechanism. The importance of re-solution is considered with regard to intragranular bubbles and the accumulation of gas on grain boundaries. It is concluded that re-solution is most effective at low temperatures and could account for the present concern over gas release in high burn-up water reactor fuel assemblies. (author)

  12. Calculation of diffraction patterns associated with electron irradiation induced amorphization of CuTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanathan, R.; Meshii, M.; Sabochik, M.J.

    1990-11-01

    A new approach that uses the multislice method in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations to study electron irradiation induced amorphisation is presented. Diffraction patterns were calculated for CuTi and found to be more sensitive than the pair correlation function to the structural changes preceding amorphisation. The results from this approach and from a study of long range order are presented. 16 refs., 8 figs

  13. Fatigue behavior of Type 316 stainless steel following neutron irradiation inducing helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Liu, K.C.

    1980-01-01

    Since a tokamak reactor operates in a cyclic mode, thermal stresses will result in fatigue in structural components, especially in the first wall and blanket. There has been limited work on fatigue in irradiated alloys but none on irradiated materials containing significant amounts of irradiation-induced helium. To provide scoping data and to study the effects of irradiation on fatigue behavior, 20%-cold-worked type 316 stainless steel from the MFE reference heat was studied

  14. Apoptosis-promoted tumorigenesis: γ-irradiation-induced thymic lymphomagenesis requires Puma-driven leukocyte death

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak, Ewa M.; Vandenberg, Cassandra J.; Delbridge, Alex R.D.; Wu, Li; Scott, Clare L.; Adams, Jerry M.; Strasser, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Although tumor development requires impaired apoptosis, we describe a novel paradigm of apoptosis-dependent tumorigenesis. Because DNA damage triggers apoptosis through p53-mediated induction of BH3-only proteins Puma and Noxa, we explored their roles in γ-radiation-induced thymic lymphomagenesis. Surprisingly, whereas Noxa loss accelerated it, Puma loss ablated tumorigenesis. Tumor suppression by Puma deficiency reflected its protection of leukocytes from γ-irradiation-induced death, because...

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of thymoma associated with pure red cell aplasia: three cases report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wencai; Xu Wuyin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To discuss how to diagnose and treat thymoma associated with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). Methods: Three patients of thymoma associated with PRCA were treated with thymothymectomy, and the local radiotherapy was conducted after operation for avoiding the thymoma reproduction. Determining of their peripheral blood hemoglobin was used to evaluate the postoperation result in PRCA. If PRCA can not be relieved, oral prednisone and cyclosporin A were given. Results: One patient with PRCA was cured, the second patient remained in remission by treatment with prednisone and CsA, and the third patient was in progress. Conclusion: The treatment by means of 'thymothymectomy-local radiotherapy-use of prednisone and CsA', is effective for thymoma associated with PRCA

  16. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  17. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  18. Characterisation of childhood and adolescence accidental fatalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Accidental death in childhood and adolescence is posing a public health problem in Nigeria, as most of these deaths were not caused by the victims. There is need to research into the pattern and circumstances surrounding the death. Aim: To characterise and study accidental deaths in childhood and ...

  19. Accidental Poisoning with Otapiapia: a Local Organophasphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are prone to accidental poisoning. We report this fatal organophosphate poisoning of a 3-year-old Nigerian boy following accidental ingestion of a homemade cocktail of kerosene and 'Otapiapia': a local rodenticide to highlight the dangers inherent in un-regulated production, home use and storage of this ...

  20. Tension Pneumothorax following an Accidental Kerosene Poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tension pneumothorax is a rare complication following an accidental kerosene poisoning. In such situation, a bed-side needle thoracocentesis is performed because of its potential of becoming fatal; hence its clinical importance. A case of 15 month old boy with tension pneumothorax following accidental kerosene ...

  1. Recurrence of thymoma with pleural invasion in a patient with myasthenia gravis and pure red blood cell aplasia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Sonia Pilar; Zuluaga, Claudia Patricia; Uriza, Luis Felipe C; Sanchez M, Jully Mariana

    2008-01-01

    Thymoma are thymic tumors that arise from epithelial cells, they have different morphological characteristics. It is known for its association with autoimmune diseases such as myasthenia gravis, pure red cell aplasia, systemic lupus erythematosus, or hipogamaglobulinemia pemphigus foliaceus. The association thymoma-myasthenia gravis-pure red cell aplasia is a rare one; there will be a case report with the corresponding discussion and review of the literature

  2. 48XXYY Syndrome in an Adult with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Unilateral Renal Aplasia, and Pigmentary Retinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zantour, Baha; Sfar, Mohamed Habib; Younes, Samia; Alaya, Wafa; Kamoun, Mahdi; Mkaouar, Emna; Jerbi, Saida

    2010-01-01

    A 45-year-old male was referred for diabetes mellitus. Clinical examination found a family history of multiple precocious deaths, strong consanguinity, personal history of seizures during childhood, small testicles, small penis, sparse body hair, long arms and legs, dysmorphic features, mental retardation, dysarthria, tremor, and mild gait ataxia. Investigations found pigmentary retinitis, metabolic syndrome, unilateral renal aplasia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and ruled out mitochondrial cytopathy and leucodystrophy. Karyotype study showed a 48XXYY chromosomal type. Renal aplasia and pigmentary retinitis have not been described in 48XXYY patients. They may be related to the chromosomal sex aneuploidy, or caused by other genetic aberrations in light of the high consanguinity rate in the patient's family.

  3. 48XXYY Syndrome in an Adult with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Unilateral Renal Aplasia, and Pigmentary Retinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha Zantour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old male was referred for diabetes mellitus. Clinical examination found a family history of multiple precocious deaths, strong consanguinity, personal history of seizures during childhood, small testicles, small penis, sparse body hair, long arms and legs, dysmorphic features, mental retardation, dysarthria, tremor, and mild gait ataxia. Investigations found pigmentary retinitis, metabolic syndrome, unilateral renal aplasia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and ruled out mitochondrial cytopathy and leucodystrophy. Karyotype study showed a 48XXYY chromosomal type. Renal aplasia and pigmentary retinitis have not been described in 48XXYY patients. They may be related to the chromosomal sex aneuploidy, or caused by other genetic aberrations in light of the high consanguinity rate in the patient's family.

  4. Incidental finding of unilateral isolated aplasia of serratus anterior muscle and winged scapula on chest radiograph: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon Sung; Park, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jeong Min [Dept. of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The isolated aplasia of the serratus anterior muscle with winging of scapula is very rare, and only a few cases are reported. Here, we present a case of a 30-year-old Korean male who initially presented with a left flank pain. His physical exam did not show any significant finding in his right shoulder. However, his chest radiograph showed absence of right serratus anterior muscle and slightly elevated and medially rotated right scapula. Subsequent CT scan showed the right serratus anterior muscle aplasia and medial winging of the right scapula. This case is unique in two aspects. First, the combination of abnormalities is different from the typical congenital abnormalities involving shoulder girdle, such as Sprengel deformity or Poland syndrome. Secondly, this was incidentally diagnosed with chest radiograph, without clinical impression. Careful reading of chest radiograph can help the radiologists to detect such clinically silent abnormalities.

  5. Incidental finding of unilateral isolated aplasia of serratus anterior muscle and winged scapula on chest radiograph: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon Sung; Park, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jeong Min

    2014-01-01

    The isolated aplasia of the serratus anterior muscle with winging of scapula is very rare, and only a few cases are reported. Here, we present a case of a 30-year-old Korean male who initially presented with a left flank pain. His physical exam did not show any significant finding in his right shoulder. However, his chest radiograph showed absence of right serratus anterior muscle and slightly elevated and medially rotated right scapula. Subsequent CT scan showed the right serratus anterior muscle aplasia and medial winging of the right scapula. This case is unique in two aspects. First, the combination of abnormalities is different from the typical congenital abnormalities involving shoulder girdle, such as Sprengel deformity or Poland syndrome. Secondly, this was incidentally diagnosed with chest radiograph, without clinical impression. Careful reading of chest radiograph can help the radiologists to detect such clinically silent abnormalities.

  6. Bone marrow transplantation (1958-1978): conditioning and graft-versus-host disease, indications in aplasias and leukemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathe, G; Schwarzenberg, L [Hopital Paul Brousse, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    1979-06-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT), which stimulated great hope for treatment of aplasias and leukemias in 1958 following our first success in grafting this tissue, is, after a long period of study and development, experiencing renewed interest since it is now possible to obtain, in case of transplantation with genotypically matched sibling donors, 70% long survival (cures) in aplasia (under the condition that the recipient is not sensitized by previous transfusions) and in leukemia (under the condition that the recipient is transplanted in a period of remission and is not sensitized by transfusions). When the patient does not possess any genotypically matched donor, a trial of incompatible bone marrow transplantation after conditioning with antilymphocyte serum is reasonable, since we have obtained good, although unexplained, results with this method, which should be pursued. In any case, these transplants must be done in intensive care units in hemato-oncology departments.

  7. Bone marrow transplantation (1958-1978): conditioning and graft-versus-host disease, indications in aplasias and leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathe, G.; Schwarzenberg, L.

    1979-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT), which stimulated great hope for treatment of aplasias and leukemias in 1958 following our first success in grafting this tissue, is, after a long period of study and development, experiencing renewed interest since it is now possible to obtain, in case of transplantation with genotypically matched sibling donors, 70% long survival (cures) in aplasia (under the condition that the recipient is not sensitized by previous transfusions) and in leukemia (under the condition that the recipient is transplanted in a period of remission and is not sensitized by transfusions). When the patient does not possess any genotypically matched donor, a trial of incompatible bone marrow transplantation after conditioning with antilymphocyte serum is reasonable, since we have obtained good, although unexplained, results with this method, which should be pursued. In any case, these transplants must be done in intensive care units in hemato-oncology departments

  8. Aplasia transitória da série vermelha na anemia falciforme Transient red cell aplasia in sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica P. A. Veríssimo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A doença falciforme, devido à vida média encurtada das hemácias, pelo quadro de hemólise crônica, pode apresentar um quadro clínico grave de anemia quando ocorre supressão da eritropoese devida à infecção pelo Parvovírus humano B19. O quadro clínico apresenta-se com febre, que pode preceder a anemia grave, fraqueza e mal- estar, além de sinais laboratoriais como queda da hemoglobina e reticulocitopenia importante. Diagnóstico laboratorial pode ser por imunofluorescência ou ensaio enzimático. O tratamento é a transfusão de concentrado de hemácias. Pode haver complicações associadas a esta infecção, tais como seqüestro esplênico, seqüestro hepático, síndrome torácica aguda, síndrome nefrótica, meningoencefalite e acidente vascular cerebral. Estratégias de prevenção poderão mudar a morbi-mortalidade desta condição no paciente portador de doença falciforme.Sickle cell disease due to shortened life span of red blood cells by hemolysis, may present with severe anemia when erythropoietic suppression occurs due to infection by the Human parvovirus B19. The clinical presentation presents with fever, which may precede transient red cell aplasia, as well as laboratorial signs such as a drop in hemoglobin and significant reticulo cytopenia. Laboratorial diagnosis may be by immunofluorescence or enzymatic assays. Treatment is achieved by transfusion of packed red blood cells. Complications may be associated to this infection, including splenic and hepatic sequestration, acute chest syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, meningoencephalitis and strokes. Strategies of prevention are able to change the morbidity and mortality of this condition in sickle cell disease patients.

  9. 48XXYY Syndrome in an Adult with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Unilateral Renal Aplasia, and Pigmentary Retinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zantour, Baha; Sfar, Mohamed Habib; Younes, Samia; Alaya, Wafa; Kamoun, Mahdi; Mkaouar, Emna; Jerbi, Saida

    2010-01-01

    A 45-year-old male was referred for diabetes mellitus. Clinical examination found a family history of multiple precocious deaths, strong consanguinity, personal history of seizures during childhood, small testicles, small penis, sparse body hair, long arms and legs, dysmorphic features, mental retardation, dysarthria, tremor, and mild gait ataxia. Investigations found pigmentary retinitis, metabolic syndrome, unilateral renal aplasia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and ruled out mitochon...

  10. Irradiation induced improvement in crystallinity of epitaxially grown Ag thin films on Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahiro, Katsumi; Nagata, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Sadae [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    1997-03-01

    We report the improvement in crystallinity of epitaxially grown Ag films on Si(100) substrates with ion irradiation. The irradiation of 0.5 MeV Si ions to 2x10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} at 200degC, for example, reduces the channeling minimum yield from 60% to 6% at Ag surface. The improvement originates from the decrease of mosaic spread in the Ag thin film. In our experiments, ion energy, ion species and irradiation temperature have been varied. The better crystallinity is obtained as the higher concentration of defect is generated. The mechanism involved in the irradiation induced improvement is discussed. (author)

  11. What can we learn from Raman Spectroscopy on irradiation-induced defects in UO2?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, L.; Martin, Ph.; Simon, P.; Guimbretiere, G.; Baldinozzi, G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent results on irradiated UO 2 by Raman spectroscopy evidenced Raman lines that are characteristic of irradiation-induced defects. Three main mechanisms are identified to explain their origin: resonant Raman, formation of new molecular entities, or breakdown in symmetry. Arguments are given to consider breakdown in symmetry as the predominant mechanism. A tentative description of the defects at the origin of this symmetry breakdown is proposed in terms of coordination polyhedrons of uranium. This discussion led us to consider that the Raman defect modes could be related to area with different stoichiometry. (authors)

  12. Limb/pelvis hypoplasia/aplasia with skull defect (Schinzel phocomelia): distinctive features and prenatal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, R S; Hoyme, H E; Roche, F; Ferguson, K; Hintz, S; Madan, A

    2001-11-01

    Schinzel phocomelia syndrome is characterized by limb/pelvis hypoplasia/aplasia: specifically, intercalary limb deficiencies and absent or hypoplastic pelvic bones. The phenotype is similar to that described in a related multiple malformation syndrome known as Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild syndrome. The additional important feature of large parietooccipital skull defects without meningocele, encephalocele, or other brain malformation has thus far been reported only in children with Schinzel phocomelia syndrome. We recently evaluated a boy affected with Schinzel phocomelia born to nonconsanguineous healthy parents of Mexican origin. A third-trimester fetal ultrasound scan showed severe limb deficiencies and an absent pelvis. The infant died shortly after birth. Dysmorphology examination, radiographs, and autopsy revealed quadrilateral intercalary limb deficiencies with preaxial toe polydactyly; an absent pelvis and a 7 x 3-cm skull defect; and extraskeletal anomalies including microtia, telecanthus, micropenis with cryptorchidism, renal cysts, stenosis of the colon, and a cleft alveolar ridge. A normal 46,XY karyotype was demonstrated, and autosomal recessive inheritance was presumed on the basis of previously reported families. This case report emphasizes the importance of recognizing severe pelvic and skull deficiencies (either post- or prenatally) in differentiating infants with Schinzel phocomelia from other multiple malformation syndromes that feature intercalary limb defects, including thalidomide embryopathy and Roberts-SC phocomelia. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Common crus aplasia: diagnosis by 3D volume rendering imaging using 3DFT-CISS sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Song, J.W.; Chon, K.-M.; Goh, E.-K.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the findings of three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering (VR) imaging in common crus aplasia (CCA) of the inner ear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using 3D VR imaging of temporal bone constructive interference in steady state (CISS) magnetic resonance (MR) images, we retrospectively reviewed seven inner ears of six children who were candidates for cochlear implants and who had been diagnosed with CCA. As controls, we used the same method to examine 402 inner ears of 201 patients who had no clinical symptoms or signs of sensorineural hearing loss. Temporal bone MR imaging (MRI) was performed with a 1.5 T MR machine using a CISS sequence, and VR of the inner ear was performed on a work station. Morphological image analysis was performed on rotation views of 3D VR images. RESULTS: In all seven cases, CCA was diagnosed by the absence of the common crus. The remaining superior semicircular canal (SCC) was normal in five and hypoplastic in two inner ears, while the posterior SCC was normal in all seven. One patient showed bilateral symmetrical CCA. Complicated combined anomalies were seen in the cochlea, vestibule and lateral SCC. CONCLUSION: 3D VR imaging findings with MR CISS sequence can directly diagnose CCA. This technique may be useful in delineating detailed anomalies of SCCs

  14. Localized orthodontic space closure for unilateral aplasia of lower second premolars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bernd; Schelper, Ina; Seifi-Shirvandeh, Nasrin

    2007-04-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether routine orthodontic space closure can be successfully achieved in patients with unilateral aplasia of the lower second premolars without extracting contralateral or opposing teeth. The dental records and lateral cephalograms of 17 consecutively treated subjects (11 females, 6 males) aged between 14.8 and 19.3 years at the end of active treatment (mean 16.1 years) were analysed. The spaces were closed by 'push-and-pull' mechanics (PPM). Pre- and post-treatment data were compared using a Student's t-test. At the end of active treatment, all parameters (ANB, SNA, SNB, ML/NL, U1-NA, L1-NB, overbite and overjet, upper and lower midline, upper and lower space balance) presented mean values close to accepted norms with satisfactory standard deviations (SDs). Five indicators of success changed significantly: (1) Space closure in the aplastic region was achieved. (2) On the aplastic side, a mean mesial molar relationship of 1.12 (SD 0.18) cusp width (cw) was achieved. The mean alteration from pre- to post-treatment was 1.53 cw (SD 0.29, P space and balanced space ratios.

  15. Estimation of irradiation-induced material damage measure of FCM fuel in LWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Chungchan; Park, Sang-Yoon; Cho, Jin-Young; Chang, Jonghwa; Lee, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    An irradiation-induced material damage measure on tri-isotropic (TRISO) multi-coating layers of fully ceramic micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel to replace conventional uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) fuel for existing light water reactors (LWRs) has been estimated using a displacement per atom (DPA) cross section for a FCM fuel performance analysis. The DPA cross sections in 47 and 190 energy groups for both silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite are generated based on the molecular dynamics simulation by SRIM/TRIM. For the selected FCM fuel assembly design with FeCrAl cladding, a core depletion analysis was carried out using the DeCART2D/MASTER code system with the prepared DPA cross sections to evaluate the irradiation effect in the Korean OPR-1000. The DPA of the SiC and IPyC coating layers is estimated by comparing the discharge burnup obtained from the MASTER calculation with the burnup-dependent DPA for each coating layer calculated using DeCART2D. The results show that low uranium loading and hardened neutron spectrum compared to that of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) result in high discharge burnup and high fast neutron fluence. In conclusion, it can be seen that the irradiation-induced material damage measure is noticeably increased under LWR operating conditions compared to HTGRs. (author)

  16. Characterisation of irradiation-induced defects in ZnO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, I; Cizek, J; Lukac, F; Melikhova, O; Valenta, J; Havranek, V; Anwand, W; Skuratov, V A; Strukova, T S

    2016-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) combined with optical methods was employed for characterisation of defects in the hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals irradiated by 167 MeV Xe 26+ ions to fluences ranged from 3×10 12 to 1×10 14 cm -2 . The positron lifetime (LT), Doppler broadening as well as slow-positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) techniques were involved. The ab-initio theoretical calculations were utilised for interpretation of LT results. The optical transmission and photoluminescence measurements were conducted, too. The virgin ZnO crystal exhibited a single component LT spectrum with a lifetime of 182 ps which is attributed to saturated positron trapping in Zn vacancies associated with hydrogen atoms unintentionally introduced into the crystal during the crystal growth. The Xe ion irradiated ZnO crystals have shown an additional component with a longer lifetime of ≈ 360 ps which comes from irradiation-induced larger defects equivalent in size to clusters of ≈10 to 12 vacancies. The concentrations of these clusters were estimated on the basis of combined LT and SPIS data. The PAS data were correlated with irradiation induced changes seen in the optical spectroscopy experiments. (paper)

  17. Characterisation of irradiation-induced defects in ZnO single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, I.; Cizek, J.; Lukac, F.; Melikhova, O.; Valenta, J.; Havranek, V.; Anwand, W.; Skuratov, V. A.; Strukova, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) combined with optical methods was employed for characterisation of defects in the hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals irradiated by 167 MeV Xe26+ ions to fluences ranged from 3×1012 to 1×1014 cm-2. The positron lifetime (LT), Doppler broadening as well as slow-positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) techniques were involved. The ab-initio theoretical calculations were utilised for interpretation of LT results. The optical transmission and photoluminescence measurements were conducted, too. The virgin ZnO crystal exhibited a single component LT spectrum with a lifetime of 182 ps which is attributed to saturated positron trapping in Zn vacancies associated with hydrogen atoms unintentionally introduced into the crystal during the crystal growth. The Xe ion irradiated ZnO crystals have shown an additional component with a longer lifetime of ≈ 360 ps which comes from irradiation-induced larger defects equivalent in size to clusters of ≈10 to 12 vacancies. The concentrations of these clusters were estimated on the basis of combined LT and SPIS data. The PAS data were correlated with irradiation induced changes seen in the optical spectroscopy experiments.

  18. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Rodríguez Lucci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71% con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11% y 435 (29% con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%. Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos, representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos. No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.

  19. Irradiation-induced precipitation and solute segregation in alloys. Fourth annual progress report, February 1, 1981-March 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardell, A.J.

    1982-04-01

    The studies of irradiation-induced solute segregation (IISS) and irradiation-induced precipitation (IIP) in Ni-Si and Pd-Fe alloys have been completed. Progress is reported for several other projects: irradiation damage in binary Pd-Cr, -Mn and -V alloys (15 at. %); IIP in Pd-Mo and Pd-W alloys; IIP in Pd-25 at. % Cr alloy; and irradiation damage effects in proton-bombarded metallic glasses (Ni-65 Zr, 40 Fe 40 Ni 14 P6B). 27 figures

  20. Accidental and retrospective dosimetry using TL method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesterházy, D.; Osvay, M.; Kovács, A.; Kelemen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective dosimetry is one of the most important tools of accidental dosimetry for dose estimation when dose measurement was not planned. In the affected area many objects can be applied as natural dosimeters. The paper discusses our recent investigations on various electronic components and common salt (NaCl) having useful thermoluminescence (TL) properties. Among materials investigated the electronic components of cell phones seem promising for retrospective dosimetry purposes, having high TL responses, proper glow curve peaks and the intensity of TL peaks vs. gamma dose received provided nearly linear response in the dose range of 10 mGy–1.5 Gy. - Highlights: ► Electronic components and common salt were investigated for accidental and retrospective dosimetry. ► SMD resistors seem promising for retrospective dosimetry purposes. ► Table salt can be used effectively for accidental dosimetry purposes, as well.

  1. Studies on γ-irradiation-induced-degradation of chloramphenicol in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Fang; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng; Zhou Hongjie

    2008-01-01

    The irradiation-induced degradation of chloramphenicol by γ-rays in aqueous solution was studied and the radiolytical products were determined. The relationship among degradation rate, absorbed dose and initial concentration have been explored by comparing the position of maximum absorption peaks of chloramphenicol be- fore and after irradiation using high performance liquid chromatography. The identification of radiolytical products has been conducted using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It has been found that the relationship among C/C 0 , absorbed dose and initial concentration can be fit with index curve. After irradiation, more than 30 radiolytical products with stable absorption below 278nm could be determined. 8 major radiolytical products with [M-H] - 353, 337, 335(A), 335(B), 319, 289, 127, 166, which are detected in several different conditions, have been picked up. Their possible structures are deducted. (authors)

  2. Irradiation induced aerosol formation in flue gas: experiments on low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on irradiation induced aerosol formation from gaseous sulphur dioxide in humid air are presented. This work is connected to the aerosol particle formation process in the electron beam technique for cleaning flue gas. As a partial process of this method primary products of the radiolysis of water vapour convert sulphur dioxide into gaseous sulphuric acid which then nucleates with water vapour forming small acid droplets. This experimental work has been performed on relatively low absorbed doses. Aerosol particle formation is strongly dependent on dose. In the experiments, the first aerosol particles were detected already on absorbed doses of 0.1-10 mGy. The particle size in these cases is in the so-called ultrafine size range (1-20 nm). In this article three experimental set-ups with some characteristic results are presented. (Author)

  3. Energy and orientation dependence of electron-irradiation-induced defects in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, A.; Suski, J.; LeRoux, G.

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of several electron-irradiation-induced deep defect levels in InP has been measured by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) as a function of electron energy. The dominant centers exhibit a threshold at about 100 keV, which clearly points to a primary production event by electron--phosphorus-atom collision. This unambiguous determination allowed a test of the recently proposed orientation dependence technique to find the nature of the sublattice involved in the collision process for III-V compounds. A good quantitative agreement is obtained with a hard-sphere model for secondary collisions if disorientation of the beam in the sample is taken into account. Other traps exhibit higher thresholds which correspond either to indium-atom displacements or to the involvement of secondary collisions in the production event

  4. A physically-based correlation of irradiation-induced transition temperature shifts for RPV steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eason, E.D.; Odette, G.R.; Nanstad, R.K.; Yamamoto, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a physically-based, empirically calibrated model for estimating irradiation-induced transition temperature shifts in reactor pressure vessel steels, based on a broader database and more complete understanding of embrittlement mechanisms than was available for earlier models. Brief descriptions of the underlying radiation damage mechanisms and the database are included, but the emphasis is on the model and the quality of its fit to U.S. power reactor surveillance data. The model is compared to a random sample of surveillance data that were set aside and not used in fitting and to selected independent data from test reactor irradiations, in both cases showing good ability to predict data that were not used for calibration. The model is a good fit to the surveillance data, with no significant residual error trends for variables included in the model or additional variables that could be included

  5. Transmission electron microscope study of neutron irradiation-induced defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Ryuichiro; Kawano, Tetsuya; Fujimoto, Ryoji

    1994-01-01

    Commercial Czochralski-grown silicon (Cz-Si) and float-zone silicon (Fz-Si) wafers were irradiated with fission neutrons at various fluences from 10 19 to 10 22 n/cm 2 at temperatures ranging from 473 K to 1043 K. The irradiation induced defect structures were examined by transmission electron microscopy and ultra high voltage electron microscopy, which were compared with Marlowe code computer simulation results. It was concluded that the vacancy-type damage structure formed at 473 K were initiated from collapse of vacancy-rich regions of cascades, while interstitial type defect clusters formed by irradiation above 673 K were associated with interstitial oxygen atoms and free interstitials which diffused out of the cascades. Complex defect structures were identified to consist of {113} and {111} planar faults by the parallel beam illumination diffraction analysis. (author)

  6. Ion irradiation-induced diffusion in bixbyite-fluorite related oxides: Dislocations and phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolly, Gaboriaud, E-mail: Rolly.gaboriaud@univ-poitiers.fr [Institut Pprime, CNRS-University of Poitiers, SP2MI-BP 30179, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Fabien, Paumier [Institut Pprime, CNRS-University of Poitiers, SP2MI-BP 30179, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Bertrand, Lacroix [CSIC – University of Sevilla, Avenida Américo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Ion-irradiation induced diffusion and the phase transformation of a bixbyite-fluorite related rare earth oxide thin films are studied. This work is focused on yttrium sesquioxide, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, thin films deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates using the ion beam sputtering technique (IBS). As-deposited samples were annealed ant then irradiated at cryogenic temperature (80 K) with 260 keV Xe{sup 2+} at different fluences. The irradiated thin oxide films are characterized by X-ray diffraction. A cubic to monoclinic phase transformation was observed. Analysis of this phenomenon is done in terms of residual stresses. Stress measurements as a function of irradiation fluences were realised using the XRD-sin{sup 2}ψ method. Stress evolution and kinetic of the phase transformation are compared and leads to the role-played by the nucleation of point and extended defects.

  7. Irradiation-induced mutation experiments with eiploid and tetraploid tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tomato mutation experiments are described. The tomatoes used in the experiment were the diploid Reziszta and its autotetraploid variety. The experimental plants were exposed to an irradiation of 5000 rsd for 1-2 days, and after transplantation into the gamma field, to chronic irradiation during the whole growing season. The chronic treatment heavily reduced fertility in the generations of tetraploid tomato plants. Recurrent treatment of tetraploid led to further deterioration in fertility. Several berries were formed with few seeds or with no seeds at all. After three irradiations, the chlorophyll mutation frequency increased in the diploid and tetraploid tomato plants. For diploids, treatment applied at the seedling stage gave a lower chlorophyll mutation frequency. With tetraploids the same treatment induced similar chlorophyll mutation frequency. As regards to phenotypic variability of quantitative characteristics in diploid and tetraploid tomatoes, the single and repeated chronic irradiation induced no increase in the variability of properties like flowering time, weight, height etc. (author)

  8. Heavy ion irradiation induces autophagy in irradiated C2C12 myoblasts and their bystander cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Mizuki; Tajika, Yuki; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is one of the major processes involved in the degradation of intracellular materials. Here, we examined the potential impact of heavy ion irradiation on the induction of autophagy in irradiated C2C12 mouse myoblasts and their non-targeted bystander cells. In irradiated cells, ultrastructural analysis revealed the accumulation of autophagic structures at various stages of autophagy (id est (i.e.) phagophores, autophagosomes and autolysosomes) within 20 min after irradiation. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and autolysosomes containing MVBs (amphisomes) were also observed. Heavy ion irradiation increased the staining of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 and LysoTracker Red (LTR). Such enhanced staining was suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. In addition to irradiated cells, bystander cells were also positive with LTR staining. Altogether, these results suggest that heavy ion irradiation induces autophagy not only in irradiated myoblasts but also in their bystander cells. (author)

  9. Proton irradiation induced defects in Cd and Zn doped InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybicki, G.C.; Williams, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Proton irradiation induced defects in Zn and Cd doped InP have been studied by deep level transient spectroscopy, (DLTS). After 2 MeV proton irradiation the defects H4 and H5 were observed in lightly Zn doped InP, while the defects H3 and H5 were observed in more heavily Zn and Cd doped InP. The defect properties were not affected by the substitution of Cd for Zn, but the introduction rate of H5 was lower in Cd doped InP. The annealing rate of defects was also higher in Cd doped InP. The use of Cd doped InP may thus result in an InP solar cell with even greater radiation resistance

  10. Magnetic circular dichroism study of electron-irradiation induced defects in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gislason, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    A strong magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) absorption band centered at 1.07 eV in electron irradiated InP is reported. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of the signal reveal that the centre giving rise to this band is a spin triplet. By simulating neutral and reverse bias conditions of junction measurements through a careful choice of irradiation dose and starting material, the MCD band is shown to have an annealing behaviour closely resembling that of the majority carrier traps which control the Fermi level position in n- and p-type InP. The 1.07 eV MCD band represents the first magneto-optical signal connected with this family of complex irradiation-induced defects in InP. (author) 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Electron-beam-irradiation-induced crystallization of amorphous solid phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Wu, Liangcai; Wen, Lin; Ma, Liya; Zhang, Xingyao; Li, Yudong; Guo, Qi; Song, Zhitang

    2018-04-01

    The electron-beam-irradiation-induced crystallization of phase change materials in a nano sized area was studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Amorphous phase change materials changed to a polycrystalline state after being irradiated with a 200 kV electron beam for a long time. The results indicate that the crystallization temperature strongly depends on the difference in the heteronuclear bond enthalpy of the phase change materials. The selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal that Ge2Sb2Te5 is a nucleation-dominated material, when Si2Sb2Te3 and Ti0.5Sb2Te3 are growth-dominated materials.

  12. Modelling irradiation-induced softening in BCC iron by crystal plasticity approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Xiazi; Terentyev, Dmitry; Yu, Long; Song, Dingkun; Bakaev, A.; Duan, Huiling

    2015-01-01

    Crystal plasticity model (CPM) for BCC iron to account for radiation-induced strain softening is proposed. CPM is based on the plastically-driven and thermally-activated removal of dislocation loops. Atomistic simulations are applied to parameterize dislocation-defect interactions. Combining experimental microstructures, defect-hardening/absorption rules from atomistic simulations, and CPM fitted to properties of non-irradiated iron, the model achieves a good agreement with experimental data regarding radiation-induced strain softening and flow stress increase under neutron irradiation. - Highlights: • A stress- and thermal-activated defect absorption model is proposed for the dislocation-loop interaction. • A temperature-dependent plasticity theory is proposed for the irradiation-induced strain softening of irradiated BCC metals. • The numerical results of the model match with the corresponding experimental data.

  13. The irradiation induced creep in fuel compact materials for H.T.R. applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veringa, H.; Blackstone, R.; Loelgen, R.

    1976-01-01

    Restrained shrinkage experiments up to 3 x 10 21 ncm -2 (DNE) in the temperature range of 600-1,200 0 C on three different dummy coated particle fuel compact materials were performed in the High Flux Reactor at Petten, the Netherlands. The data were evaluated to obtain the steady state irradiation creep coefficient of the compacts. It was found that for the materials investigated, the creep coefficient is temperature-dependent, but no clear relationship to the Young's modulus could be established. Under certain conditions, this irradiation-induced plasticity influences the elastic properties, while also the creep coefficient increases. This effect coincides with the formation and further opening of cracks due to stresses caused by irradiation shrinkage of the matrix material. (orig.) [de

  14. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes of fuel compacts and graphite sleeves of OGL-1 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kimio; Minato, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Tobita, Tsutomu; Kikuchi, Teruo; Kurobane, Shiro; Adachi, Mamoru; Fukuda, Kousaku

    1988-06-01

    Experimental data are summarized on irradiation-induced dimensional changes of fuel compacts and graphite sleeves of the first to ninth OGL-1 fuel assemblies. The range of fast-neutron fluence is up to 4 x 10 24 n/m 2 (E > 0.18 MeV); and that of irradiation temperature is 900 - 1400 deg C for fuel compacts and 800 - 1050 deg C for graphite sleeves. The dimensional change of the fuel compacts was shrinkage under these test conditions, and the shrinkage fraction increased almost linearly with fast-neutron fluence. The shrinkage fraction of the fuel compacts was larger by 20 % in the axial direction than in the radial direction. Influence of the irradiation temperature on the dimensional-change behavior of the fuel compacts was not observed clearly; presumably the influence was hidden by scatter of the data because of low level of the fast-neutron fluence and the resultant small dimensional changes. (author)

  15. Protection of a protein against irradiation-induced degradation by additives in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaev, E.; Reddy, R.; Kimball, R.N.; Weinschenk, M.F.; Guinn, M.; Margulis, L.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of ionizing radiation on a globular protein (porcine somatotropin, pST) in the solid state was studied using rate of dissolution, high-performance liquid chromatography, and Electron spin resonance (ESR) in the presence of different additives. o-Vanillin stabilized pST against irradiation-induced degradation whereas effects of trolox and isopropyl alcohol were less significant. Stabilization effect of o-vanillin has been related to the energy transfer from pST molecules to the additive which was facilitated by formation of covalent bonds between o-vanillin and pST molecules. Anticorrelation between the level of free radicals and chemical degradation (i.e. degradation increased with decrease in a free radical level) was observed in the presence of o-vanillin

  16. Modelling irradiation-induced softening in BCC iron by crystal plasticity approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiazi [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); CAPT, HEDPS and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Terentyev, Dmitry, E-mail: dterenty@SCKCEN.BE [Structural Material Group, Institute of Nuclear Materials Science, SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Yu, Long; Song, Dingkun [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Bakaev, A. [Structural Material Group, Institute of Nuclear Materials Science, SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Duan, Huiling, E-mail: hlduan@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); CAPT, HEDPS and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Crystal plasticity model (CPM) for BCC iron to account for radiation-induced strain softening is proposed. CPM is based on the plastically-driven and thermally-activated removal of dislocation loops. Atomistic simulations are applied to parameterize dislocation-defect interactions. Combining experimental microstructures, defect-hardening/absorption rules from atomistic simulations, and CPM fitted to properties of non-irradiated iron, the model achieves a good agreement with experimental data regarding radiation-induced strain softening and flow stress increase under neutron irradiation. - Highlights: • A stress- and thermal-activated defect absorption model is proposed for the dislocation-loop interaction. • A temperature-dependent plasticity theory is proposed for the irradiation-induced strain softening of irradiated BCC metals. • The numerical results of the model match with the corresponding experimental data.

  17. Irradiation-induced permeability in pyrocarbon coatings. Final report of work conducted under PWS FD-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, M.J.; Thiele, B.A.; Homan, F.J.

    1982-10-01

    Two US irradiation experiments were planned to provide information to supplement data from the German program on irradiation-induced permeability in pyrocarbon coatings. Hopefully, the data from both programs could be combined to define the onset of neutron-induced permeability in a variety of Biso coatings produced with different process variables (coating temperature, coating gases, and coating rates). The effort was not successful. None of the preirradiation characterization procedures were able to adequately predict irradiation performance. A large amount of within-batch scatter was observed in the fission gas and cesium release data along with significant within-batch variation in coating properties. Additional preirradiation characterization might result in a procedure that could successfully predict irradiation performance, but little can be done about the within-batch variation in coating properties. This variation is probably the result of random movement of particles within the coating furnace during pyrocarbon deposition. 19 figures, 4 tables

  18. A reevaluation of X-irradiation-induced phocomelia and proximodistal limb patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jenna L; Delgado, Irene; Ros, Maria A; Tabin, Clifford J

    2009-07-16

    Phocomelia is a devastating, rare congenital limb malformation in which the long bones are shorter than normal, with the upper portion of the limb being most severely affected. In extreme cases, the hands or fingers are attached directly to the shoulder and the most proximal elements (those closest to the shoulder) are entirely missing. This disorder, previously known in both autosomal recessive and sporadic forms, showed a marked increase in incidence in the early 1960s due to the tragic toxicological effects of the drug thalidomide, which had been prescribed as a mild sedative. This human birth defect is mimicked in developing chick limb buds exposed to X-irradiation. Both X-irradiation and thalidomide-induced phocomelia have been interpreted as patterning defects in the context of the progress zone model, which states that a cell's proximodistal identity is determined by the length of time spent in a distal limb region termed the 'progress zone'. Indeed, studies of X-irradiation-induced phocomelia have served as one of the two major experimental lines of evidence supporting the validity of the progress zone model. Here, using a combination of molecular analysis and lineage tracing in chick, we show that X-irradiation-induced phocomelia is fundamentally not a patterning defect, but rather results from a time-dependent loss of skeletal progenitors. Because skeletal condensation proceeds from the shoulder to fingers (in a proximal to distal direction), the proximal elements are differentially affected in limb buds exposed to radiation at early stages. This conclusion changes the framework for considering the effect of thalidomide and other forms of phocomelia, suggesting the possibility that the aetiology lies not in a defect in the patterning process, but rather in progenitor cell survival and differentiation. Moreover, molecular evidence that proximodistal patterning is unaffected after X-irradiation does not support the predictions of the progress zone model.

  19. A Reevaluation of X-Irradiation Induced Phocomelia and Proximodistal Limb Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jenna L.; Delgado, Irene; Ros, Maria A.; Tabin, Clifford J.

    2009-01-01

    Phocomelia is a devastating, rare congenital limb malformation in which the long bones are shorter than normal, with the upper portion of the limb being most severely affected. In extreme cases, the hands or fingers are attached directly to the shoulder and the most proximal elements (those closest to the shoulder) are entirely missing. This disorder, previously known in both autosomal recessive and sporadic forms, showed a dramatic increase in incidence in the early 1960’s due to the tragic toxicological effects of the drug thalidomide, which had been prescribed as a mild sedative1, 2. This human birth defect is mimicked in developing chick limb buds exposed to X-irradiation3-5. Both X-irradiation5 and thalidomide-induced phocomelia5, 6 have been interpreted as patterning defects in the context of the Progress Zone Model, which states that a cell’s proximodistal (PD) identity is determined by the length of time spent in a distal limb region termed the “Progress Zone” 7. Indeed, studies of X-irradiation induced phocomelia have served as one of the two major experimental lines of evidence supporting the validity of the Progress Zone Model. Here, using a combination of molecular analysis and lineage tracing, we show that X-irradiation-induced phocomelia is fundamentally not a patterning defect, but rather results from a time-dependent loss of skeletal progenitors. As skeletal condensation proceeds from the shoulder to fingers (in a proximal to distal direction), the proximal elements are differentially affected in limb buds exposed to radiation at early stages. This conclusion changes the framework for considering the effect of thalidomide and other forms of phocomelia, suggesting the possibility that the etiology lies not in a defect in the patterning process, but rather in progenitor cell survival and differentiation. Moreover, molecular evidence that PD patterning is unaffected following X-irradiation does not support the predictions of the Progress Zone

  20. Irradiation induced tensile property change of SA 508 Cl.3 reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se-Hwan; Hong, Jun-Hwa; Kuk, Il-Hiun

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation induced tensile property change of four kinds of reactor pressure vessel steels manufactured by different steel refining process was compared based on the differences in the unirradiated and irradiated microstructure. Microvickers hardness, indentation, and miniature tensile specimen tests were conducted for mechanical property measurement and optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used for microstructural characterization. Specimens were 2 irradiated to a neutron fluence of 2.7x10 19 n/cm 2 (E ≥ 1 MeV) at 288 deg. C. Investigation on the unirradiated microstructures showed largely a same microstructure in that tempered acicular bainite and ferrite with bainitic phase prevailing in the unirradiated condition. Band-shaped segregations were also clearly observed except a kind of materials. A large difference in the unirradiated microstructure appeared in the grain size and carbide microstructure. Of carbide microstructures, noticeable differences were observed in the size and distribution of cementite, and bainitic lath microstructures. No noticeable changes were observed in the optical and thin film TEM microstructures after irradiation. Complicated microstructural. state of heat treated bainitic low alloy microstructure prevents easy quantification of microstructural changes due to irradiation. Apparent differences, however, were observed in the results of mechanical testing. Results of tensile testing and hardness measurement show that a steel refined by vacuum carbon deoxidation(VCD) method exhibits the highest radiation hardening behavior. Some of mechanical testing results on irradiated materials were possible to understand based on the initial microstructure, but further investigations using a wide array of sophisticated tools (for example, SANS, APFIM) are required to understand and characterize irradiation induced defects that are responsible for irradiation hardening behavior but are not revealed by

  1. Validation of software components for the prediction of irradiation-induced damage of RPV steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, Frank; Birkenheuer, Uwe; Ulbricht, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    The modelling of irradiation-induced damage of RPV steels from primary cascades up to the change of mechanical properties bridging length scales from the atomic level up to the macro-scale and time scales up to years contributes essentially to an improved understanding of the phenomenon of neutron embrittlement. In future modelling may become a constituent of the procedure to evaluate RPV safety. The selected two-step approach is based upon the coupling of a rate-theory module aimed at simulating the evolution of the size distribution of defect-solute clusters with a hardening module aimed at predicting the yield stress increase. The scope of the investigation consists in the development and validation of corresponding numerical tools. In order to validate these tools, the output of representative simulations is compared with results from small-angle neutron scattering experiments and tensile tests performed for neutron-irradiated RPV steels. Using the developed rate-theory module it is possible to simulate the evolution of size, concentration and composition of mixed Cu-vacancy clusters over the relevant ranges of size up to 10.000 atoms and time up to tens of years. The connection between the rate-theory model and hardening is based upon both the mean spacing and the strength of obstacles for dislocation glide. As a result of the validation procedure of the numerical tools, we have found that essential trends of the irradiation-induced yield stress increase of Cu-bearing and low-Cu RPV steels are displayed correctly. First ideas on how to take into account the effect of Ni on both cluster evolution and hardening are worked out.

  2. Irradiation induced tensile property change of SA 508 Cl. 3 reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se Hwan; Hong, Jun Hwa; Kuk, Il Hiun

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation induced tensile property change of four kinds of reactor pressure vessel steels manufactured by different steel refining process was compared based on the differences in the miniature tensile specimen tests were conducted for mechanical property measurement and optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used for microstructural characterization. Specimens were irradiated to a neutron fluence of 2.7 x 10 19 n/cm 2 (E ≥ 1 MeV) at 288 deg C. Investigation on the unirradiated microstructures showed largely a same microstructure in that tempered acicular bainite and ferrite with bainitic phase prevailing in the unirradiated condition. Ban-shaped segregations were also clearly observed except a kind of materials. A large difference in the unirradiated microstructure appeared in the grain size and carbide microstructure. Of carbide microstructures, noticeable differences were observed in the size and distribution of cementite, and bainitic lath microstructures. No noticeable changes were observed in the optical and thin film TEM microstructures after irradiation. Complicated microstructural state of heat treated bainitic low alloy microstructure prevents easy quantification of microstructural changes due to irradiation. Apparent differences, however, were observed in the results of mechanical testing. Results of tensile testing and hardness measurement show that a steel refined by vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD) method exhibits the highest radiation hardening behavior. Some of mechanical testing results on irradiated materials were possible to understand based on the initial microstructure, but further investigations using a wide array of sophisticated tools (for example, SANS, APFIM) are required to understand and characterize irradiation induced defects that are responsible for irradiation hardening behavior but are not revealed by conventional TEM. (author)

  3. Analysis of accidental UF6 releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yumao; Tan Rui; Gao Qifa

    2012-01-01

    As interim substance in the nuclear fuel enrichment process, Uranium Hexafluoride (UF 6 ) is widely applied in nuclear processing, enrichment and fuel fabrication plants. Because of its vivid chemical characteristics and special radiological hazard and chemical toxicity, great attention must be paid to accident of UF 6 leakage. The chemical reactions involved in UF 6 release processes were introduced, therewith potential release styles, pathways and characteristics of diffusion were analyzed. The results indicated that the accidental release process of UF 6 is not a simple passive diffusion. So, specific atmospheric diffusion model related to UF 6 releases need be used in order to analyze and evaluate accurately the accidental consequences. (authors)

  4. accidental injuries in children (physical child abuse)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-06

    Dec 6, 2016 ... are often due to minor accidental injuries. However ... In dark-skinned children, bruises may be confused with café-au-lait spots. .... A bruise should not be examined in isolation if reason- ... dren with intellectual disability, such as autism and hy- ... opmental stage, social and environmental factors includ-.

  5. Accidental injuries and cutaneous contaminations during general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that cutaneous, percutaneous, and mucous membrane exposure to patients blood and body fluids are common events during general surgical operations. Most accidental injuries were due to solid suture needle-sticks, mostly injured personnel were the primary operating surgeons, ...

  6. Associação entre aplasia segmentar de veia safena magna e varizes em membros inferiores avaliada pelo ecocolor Doppler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Cristina Seidel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoContextoHá diferenças individuais no diâmetro da veia safena magna (VSM em membros normais e doentes; sendo possível a identificação dessas alterações pelo ecocolor Doppler.ObjetivoAvaliar a associação da aplasia segmentar da VSM com a presença de varizes e/ou insuficiência da mesma em membros inferiores, usando o ecocolor Doppler em pacientes com clínica de doença venosa crônica (DVC.Métodos1.408 pacientes com queixas compatíveis de DVC de membros inferiores, sendo 1.286 do sexo feminino, com idade entre 17 e 85 anos, examinados com ecocolor Doppler. Foram incluídos aqueles com classificação CEAP clínica C0 a C4. Pela avaliação clínica, a amostra foi distribuída em grupo A, pacientes com varizes, e grupo B, aqueles sem varizes. O ecocolor Doppler determinou se havia aplasia da VSM pela análise do seu trajeto no compartimento safeno e presença de veias varicosas nos diferentes sítios. Para estatística, foram considerados os testes Qui-quadrado ou Exato de Fisher e uma análise de resíduos em tabelas, com nível de significância de 5%.ResultadosNo grupo A houve 479 (83,9% de VSM insuficientes, 169 (38,2% com aplasia e 71 (80,7% com insuficiência e aplasia associadas. No grupo B, houve 92 (16,1% de VSM insuficientes, 273 (61,8% com aplasia e 17 (19,3% com insuficiência e aplasia associadas.ConclusãoA aplasia segmentar da VSM ocorre mais em membros inferiores que não apresentam varizes e/ou insuficiência da mesma, mas considerando-se a presença da associação de aplasia e insuficiência, houve maior incidência no grupo de membros que apresentavam varizes.

  7. Thyroid aplasia in male sibling of heterozygotic twins born to the hyperthyroid mother treated with propylthiouracil during pregnancy (case report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzouki, A A

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old pregnant female was diagnosed to have thyrotoxicosis (TSH= 0.005 µU/ml) at 13th week of gestation. Propylthiouracil (PTU; 200 mg daily) was prescribed to her and four weekly follow ups by the endocrinologist and obstetrician were ensured. At each examination TSH, FT4 and FT3 levels were normal and she became symptom free. Repeated ultrasound examination throughout the pregnancy did not reveal any fetal abnormality. The lady normally delivered heterozygotic twins. Umbilical cord blood of the baby boy twin showed a high TSH (541 µU/ml; reference range 0.270 - 4.20 μU/ml). He was started on thyroxine therapy (50 µg once daily). Ultrasound reported the absence of the thyroid gland. One month later TSH was within normal range and thyroxine dose was adjusted to 25 µg once daily. Repeated ultrasound confirmed the absence of thyroid gland. TSH was repeatedly normal. The boy is currently doing well on thyroxine replacement therapy. The other non-identical twin was a healthy girl with normal thyroid function tests and always thereafter. This case report suggested that PTU could be a hazardous drug to the fetus, since the mother gave birth to a baby with thyroid aplasia. PTU, Thyroid aplasia, Thyrotoxicosis, TSH.

  8. Accidental childhood poisoning in Benin City: Still a problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental poisoning (AP) is a leading cause of ill – health and deaths among. Nigerian children. Reports on AP are infrequent in Nigeria. This retrospective descriptive study examined the prevailing pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Benin City. Accidental poisonings were identified in 226 (3.3%) of the cases ...

  9. The impact of irradiation induced specimen charging on microanalysis in a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens-Kalceff, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    subsurface specimen charging may still be significant. Charged beam irradiation of poorly conducting materials results in the trapping of charge at pre-existing or irradiation induced defects thereby inducing a localized electric field within the irradiated micro-volume of specimen. The residual surface potentials associated with the localized trapped charge induced electric field have been mapped using KPM. Evidence of electro-diffusion and defect micro-segregation in charged beam irradiated silicon dioxide is observed. The associated mobile defect species are identified using CL microanalysis techniques. The high correlation between KPM and CL images confirms the significant influence of localized potentials on the microstructure of technologically important silicon dioxide. In order to relate the observed potentials to the electron beam induced specimen charging, the calculated potential profiles are evaluated using three dimensional conformal Finite Element Analysis. It is demonstrated that relatively simple models of specimen charging are able to account for the observed potentials resulting from focussed electron irradiation of poorly conducting materials. The complex processes involved in the production and spatial segregation of defects (e.g. interstitial molecular and atomic species) in poorly conducting materials are dependent on highly localized irradiation induced electric fields. When poorly conducting materials are irradiated with electrons, a sub-surface electric field may be induced due to the localization of charges at defects. Negatively charged species will migrate towards the surface, while positively charged species will migrate towards the region of maximum negative trapped charge, towards the base of the interaction volume. Electron beam irradiation of silicon dioxide produces characteristic highly correlated changes in the spatial distribution of CL emission, in the topography of the irradiated surface, and the localised residual surface potential

  10. Blue light irradiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo via ROS generation in rat gingival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Shiotsu-Ogura, Yukako; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Toyama, Toshizo; Yoshino, Fumihiko

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that oxidative stress with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is induced by blue light irradiation to a living body. Only limited research has been reported in dental field on the dangers of blue light, mostly focusing on cytotoxicity associated with heat injury of dental pulp. We thus performed an in vivo study on oral tissue exposed to blue light. ROS generated upon blue light irradiation of flavin adenine dinucleotide were measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. After blue light irradiation, the palatal gingiva of Wistar rats were isolated. Collected samples were subjected to biochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and glutathione. Singlet oxygen was generated by blue light irradiation, but was significantly quenched in an N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) concentration-dependent manner. Blue light significantly accelerated oxidative stress and increased the oxidized glutathione levels in gingival tissue. These effects were also inhibited by NAC pre-administration. The results suggest that blue light irradiation at clinical levels of tooth bleaching treatment may enhance lipid peroxidation by the induction of oxidative stress and the consumption of a significant amount of intracellular glutathione. In addition, NAC might be an effective supplement for the protection of oral tissues against blue light irradiation-induced oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Irreversible thermodynamics models and constitutive equations of the irradiation induced deformation and damage accumulating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassilew, C.

    1989-11-01

    This report gives an overall evaluation of several in-reactor deformation and creep-rupture experiments performed in BR-2, FFTF, and Rapsodie on pressurised tubes of the stabilized austenitic stainless steels 1.4970, 1.4981, 1.4988, and the nickel base alloy Hastelloy-X. The irradiation induced deformation processes observed in the components operating in a neutron environment can be divided into two main groups: 1. volume conserving creep and 2. volumetric swelling. Since the observed deformation as well as damage accumulating phenomena are caused by the same constrained generated and free disposable point defects and helium atoms, it is obvious and advisable to analyze, and to model simultaneously the ensemble of the elementary mechanisms and processes effective at the same time. Phenomenological models based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes have been developed, with the aim of: 1. grasping the partial relationships between the external variables and the response functions (creep, swelling, creep driven swelling, and time to rupture), 2. fathoming the rate-controlling mechanisms, 3. providing insight into the structural details and changes occurring during the deformation and the damage accumulating processes, 4. integrating the damage accumulating processes comprehensively, and 5. formulating the constitutive equations required to describe the elementary processes that generate plastic deformations as well as damage accumulation. (orig./MM)

  12. γ-irradiation-induced mortality: protective effect of protease inhibitors in chickens and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, M.A.; Galton, J.E.; Troll, W.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Chickens (Gallus domesticus) were protected from the acute γ-irradiation-induced mortality (within 24 hours) by the proteolytic enzyme inhibitors, soy-bean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), lima bean inhibitor (LBTI), antipain, α-N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester HCl (BAEE), trasylol, and leupeptin. Several other enzyme inhibitors, p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester HCl (TAME), α-tosyl-lysyl-chloromethyl ketone HCl (TLCK) and epsilon-amino caproic acid (EACA), did not protect. EACA even increased the mortality caused by γ-irradiation. The pattern of protective enzyme inhibitors suggests involvement of a kallikrein-like enzyme. SBTI and antipain also protected against low range lethal γ-irradiation exposures, 690 R in BALB/c and 880 R in SJL/J mice. It is suggested that enhanced vascular permeability, which in chickens is known to be the cause of the irradiation mortality during the first 24 hours, may also contribute to the mortality in mice during the first week after irradiation. (author)

  13. Measurements of near-ultimate strength for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and irradiation-induced crosslinking improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bei; Locascio, Mark; Zapol, Peter; Li, Shuyou; Mielke, Steven L; Schatz, George C; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2008-10-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are being exploited in a growing number of applications from ballistic armour to nanoelectronics. However, measurements of these properties have not achieved the values predicted by theory due to a combination of artifacts introduced during sample preparation and inadequate measurements. Here we report multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a mean fracture strength >100 GPa, which exceeds earlier observations by a factor of approximately three. These results are in excellent agreement with quantum-mechanical estimates for nanotubes containing only an occasional vacancy defect, and are approximately 80% of the values expected for defect-free tubes. This performance is made possible by omitting chemical treatments from the sample preparation process, thus avoiding the formation of defects. High-resolution imaging was used to directly determine the number of fractured shells and the chirality of the outer shell. Electron irradiation at 200 keV for 10, 100 and 1,800 s led to improvements in the maximum sustainable loads by factors of 2.4, 7.9 and 11.6 compared with non-irradiated samples of similar diameter. This effect is attributed to crosslinking between the shells. Computer simulations also illustrate the effects of various irradiation-induced crosslinking defects on load sharing between the shells.

  14. Solar ultraviolet irradiation induces decorin degradation in human skin likely via neutrophil elastase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Xia, Wei; Liu, Ying; Remmer, Henriette A; Voorhees, John; Fisher, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity, which degrades type I collagen fibrils. Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in skin and constitutes the majority of skin connective tissue (dermis). Degradation of collagen fibrils impairs the structure and function of skin that characterize skin aging. Decorin is the predominant proteoglycan in human dermis. In model systems, decorin binds to and protects type I collagen fibrils from proteolytic degradation by enzymes such as MMP-1. Little is known regarding alterations of decorin in response to UV irradiation. We found that solar-simulated UV irradiation of human skin in vivo stimulated substantial decorin degradation, with kinetics similar to infiltration of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. Proteases that were released from isolated PMN cells degraded decorin in vitro. A highly selective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase blocked decorin breakdown by proteases released from PMN cells. Furthermore, purified neutrophil elastase cleaved decorin in vitro and generated fragments with similar molecular weights as those resulting from protease activity released from PMN cells, and as observed in UV-irradiated human skin. Cleavage of decorin by neutrophil elastase significantly augmented fragmentation of type I collagen fibrils by MMP-1. Taken together, these data indicate that PMN cell proteases, especially neutrophil elastase, degrade decorin, and this degradation renders collagen fibrils more susceptible to MMP-1 cleavage. These data identify decorin degradation and neutrophil elastase as potential therapeutic targets for mitigating sun exposure-induced collagen fibril degradation in human skin.

  15. Irradiation induced defects containing oxygen atoms in germanium crystal as studied by deep level transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Noboru; Kambe, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Haruo; Matsuda, Koji.

    1984-05-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy was applied to the electron trapping levels which are associated with the irradiation induced lattice defects in germanium crystals. The germanium crystals used in the study were doped with oxygen, antimony or arsenic and the defects were formed by electron irradiation of 1.5MeV or 10MeV. The nature of so called ''thermal defect'' formed by heat treatment at about 670K was also studied. The trapping levels at Esub(c)-0.13eV, Esub(c)-0.25eV and Esub(c)-0.29eV were found to be associated with defects containing oxygen atoms. From the experimental results the Esub(c)-0.25eV level was attributed to the germanium A-center (interstitial oxygen atom-vacancy pair). Another defect associated with the 715cm -1 infrared absorption band was found to have a trapping level at the same position at Esub(c)-0.25eV. The Esub(c)-0.23eV and Esub(c)-0.1eV levels were revealed to be associated with thermal donors formed by heat treatment at about 670K. Additional two peaks (levels) were observed in the DLTS spectrum. The annealing behavior of the levels suggests that the thermal donors originate from not a single type but several types of defects. (author)

  16. Irradiation-induced structure and property changes in tokamak plasma-facing, carbon-carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites are an attractive choice for fusion reactor plasma-facing components because of their low atomic number, superior thermal shock resistance, and low neutron activation. Next generation plasma fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will require advanced carbon-carbon composite materials possessing high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated severe heat loads. Moreover, ignition machines such as ITER will produce large neutron fluxes. Consequently, the influence of neutron damage on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials must be evaluated. Data from two irradiation experiments are reported and discussed here. Carbon-carbon composite materials were irradiated in target capsules in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A peak damage dose of 4.7 displacements per atom (dpa) at 600 degree C was attained. The carbon materials irradiated included uni-directional, two-directional, and three-directional carbon-carbon composites. Dimensional changes are reported for the composite materials and are related to single crystal dimensional changes through fiber and composite structural models. Moreover, the irradiation-induced dimensional changes are reported and discussed in terms of their architecture, fiber type, and graphitization temperature. The effect of neutron irradiation on thermal conductivity of two three-directional, carbon-carbon composites is reported and the recovery of thermal conductivity due to thermal annealing is discussed

  17. Measurements of near-ultimate strength for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and irradiation-induced crosslinking improvements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, B.; Locascio, M.; Zapol, P.; Li, S.; Mielke, S. L.; Schatz, G. C.; Espinosa, H. D.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are being exploited in a growing number of applications from ballistic armour to nanoelectronics. However, measurements of these properties have not achieved the values predicted by theory due to a combination of artifacts introduced during sample preparation and inadequate measurements. Here we report multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a mean fracture strength >100 GPa, which exceeds earlier observations by a factor of approximately three. These results are in excellent agreement with quantum-mechanical estimates for nanotubes containing only an occasional vacancy defect, and are {approx}80% of the values expected for defect-free tubes. This performance is made possible by omitting chemical treatments from the sample preparation process, thus avoiding the formation of defects. High-resolution imaging was used to directly determine the number of fractured shells and the chirality of the outer shell. Electron irradiation at 200 keV for 10, 100 and 1,800 s led to improvements in the maximum sustainable loads by factors of 2.4, 7.9 and 11.6 compared with non-irradiated samples of similar diameter. This effect is attributed to crosslinking between the shells. Computer simulations also illustrate the effects of various irradiation-induced crosslinking defects on load sharing between the shells.

  18. Measurements of near-ultimate strength for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and irradiation-induced crosslinking improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, B.; Locascio, M.; Zapol, P.; Li, S.; Mielke, S.L.; Schatz, G.C.; Espinosa, H.D.

    2008-01-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are being exploited in a growing number of applications from ballistic armour to nanoelectronics. However, measurements of these properties have not achieved the values predicted by theory due to a combination of artifacts introduced during sample preparation and inadequate measurements. Here we report multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a mean fracture strength >100 GPa, which exceeds earlier observations by a factor of approximately three. These results are in excellent agreement with quantum-mechanical estimates for nanotubes containing only an occasional vacancy defect, and are ∼80% of the values expected for defect-free tubes. This performance is made possible by omitting chemical treatments from the sample preparation process, thus avoiding the formation of defects. High-resolution imaging was used to directly determine the number of fractured shells and the chirality of the outer shell. Electron irradiation at 200 keV for 10, 100 and 1,800 s led to improvements in the maximum sustainable loads by factors of 2.4, 7.9 and 11.6 compared with non-irradiated samples of similar diameter. This effect is attributed to crosslinking between the shells. Computer simulations also illustrate the effects of various irradiation-induced crosslinking defects on load sharing between the shells.

  19. Continuous in-situ measurements of fission fragment irradiation induced void swelling in Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefakis, H.

    1980-01-01

    A novel simulation technique has been developed to study the early stages of irradiation induced void formation in metals. The technique makes use of fission fragment irradiation produced by doping with 235 U and irradiating in a thermal neutron flux under highly controlled irradiation-environmental conditions. Employment of a computer and a high temperature radiation resistant LVDT resulted in a high volumetric sensitivity and the production of continuous, in-situ void swelling data for bulk specimens. Results for Ni, used as a test-metal served to corroborate the technique in a number of ways including comparisons with (a) reactor data, (b) direct post-irradiation specimen length measurements and (c) TEM examinations of irradiated samples. The technique has several unique advantages and, in conjunction with other conventional methods, it offers the possibility of detailed evaluation of void nucleation and growth theories. In view of the present results no definitive answer may be given on the issue of the incubation period while checks with two theoretical models have yielded an order-of-magnitude agreement

  20. Irradiation-induced defects in graphite and glassy carbon studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Kajino, M.; Kuwahara, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kuramoto, E.; Takenaka, M.

    1992-01-01

    ACAR and positron lifetime measurements have been made on, HOPG, isotropic fine-grained graphites, glassy carbons and C 60 /C 70 . HOPG showed a marked bimodal ACAR distribution along the c-axis. By irradiation of 1.0 X 10 19 fast neutrons/cm 2 remarkable narrowing in the ACAR curves and disappearance of the bimodal distribution were observed. Lifetime in HOPG increased from 225 psec to 289 psec (positron-lifetime in vacancies and their small clusters) by the irradiation. The irradiation on isotropic graphites and glassy carbons, however, gave slight narrowing in ACAR curves and decrease in lifetimes (360 psec → 300psec). This suggests irradiation-induced vacancy trapping in crystallites. In C 60 /C 70 powder two lifetime components were detected: τ 1 =177psec, τ 2 =403psec (I 2 =58%). The former is less than the bulk lifetime of HOPG, while the latter being very close to lifetimes in the isotropic graphites and glassy carbons. This and recent 2D-ACAR study of HOPG surface [15] strongly suggest free and defect surface states around ''soccer ball'' cages

  1. Low energy helium ion irradiation induced nanostructure formation on tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ajlony, A.; Tripathi, J.K.; Hassanein, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the low energy helium ion irradiation induced surface morphology changes on tungsten (W) surfaces under extreme conditions. Surface morphology changes on W surfaces were monitored as a function of helium ion energy (140–300 eV), fluence (2.3 × 10 24 –1.6 × 10 25 ions m −2 ), and flux (2.0 × 10 20 –5.5 × 10 20 ion m −2 s −1 ). All the experiments were performed at 900° C. Our study shows significant effect of all the three ion irradiation parameters (ion flux, fluence, and energy) on the surface morphology. However, the effect of ion flux is more pronounced. Variation of helium ion fluence allows to capture the very early stages of fuzz growth. The observed fuzz growth and morphology changes were understood in the realm of various possible phenomena. The study has relevance and important impact in the current and future nuclear fusion applications. - Highlights: •Reporting formation of W nanostructure (fuzz) due to low energy He ion beam irradiation. •Observing the very early stages for the W-Fuzz formation. •Tracking the surface morphological evolution during the He irradiation. •Discussing in depth our observation and drawing a possible scenario that explain this phenomenon. •Studying various ions irradiation parameters such as flux, fluence, and ions energy.

  2. Preparation of the proton exchange membranes for fuel cell under pre-irradiation induced grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingye; Muto, F.; Matsuura, A.; Kakiji, T.; Miura, T.; Oshima, A.; Washio, M.; Katsumura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared via pre-irradiation induced grafting of styrene or styrene/divinylbenzene (S/DVB) into the crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene (RX-PTFE) films with thickness around 10 m and then sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid. The membrane electrode assembles (MEAs) based on these PEMs with ion exchange capacity (IEC) values around 2meq/g were prepared by hot-press with Nafion dispersion coated on the surfaces of the membranes and electrodes. And the MEA based on the Nafion 112 membrane was also prepared under same procedure as a comparison. The performances of the MEAs in single fuel cell were tested under different working temperatures and humidification conditions. The performance of the synthesized PEMs showed better results than that of Nafion 112 membrane under low humidification at 80 degree C. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were taken with the direct current density of 0.5A/cm 2 and the resulted curves in Nyqvist representation obeyed the half circle pattern. (authors)

  3. Irradiation-induced modification of the material parameters in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentjens, Lena

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the material properties of lithium niobate are directedly influenced by the irradiation with 3 He ions with an energy of 40 MeV. In the first part the irradiation-induced material changes are intensively studied. Long-time stable changes of the refractive index are measured in the range of up to 6.10 -3 , which depend on the radiation dose and exhibit until now no saturation behaviour. Accompanied is this change by an also dose-dependent deformation as well as a brownish change of color of the crystals. Furthermore a by several orders of magnitude increased electrical dark- and photoconductivity, which depends on the ion dose and exhibits until now also no saturation behaviour. An effect independent on the ion dose is the reduction of the coercive field strength by about 10%. Furthermore it was stated the quantity of the effects not only depends on the absolute dose, but also on the irradiation direction in view of the crystallographic c-axis. The second part of this thesis deals with the generation of microscopic structures in lithium niobate. By an ion microbeam respectively a shiftable slit aperture the fabrication of refractive-index gratings is pursued. Grating with periodicity lengths in the range of 12-160 μm could until now be detected and promise in comparison with photorefractive gratings the advance of larger stability.

  4. Low energy helium ion irradiation induced nanostructure formation on tungsten surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajlony, A., E-mail: montaserajlony@yahoo.com; Tripathi, J.K.; Hassanein, A.

    2017-05-15

    We report on the low energy helium ion irradiation induced surface morphology changes on tungsten (W) surfaces under extreme conditions. Surface morphology changes on W surfaces were monitored as a function of helium ion energy (140–300 eV), fluence (2.3 × 10{sup 24}–1.6 × 10{sup 25} ions m{sup −2}), and flux (2.0 × 10{sup 20}–5.5 × 10{sup 20} ion m{sup −2} s{sup −1}). All the experiments were performed at 900° C. Our study shows significant effect of all the three ion irradiation parameters (ion flux, fluence, and energy) on the surface morphology. However, the effect of ion flux is more pronounced. Variation of helium ion fluence allows to capture the very early stages of fuzz growth. The observed fuzz growth and morphology changes were understood in the realm of various possible phenomena. The study has relevance and important impact in the current and future nuclear fusion applications. - Highlights: •Reporting formation of W nanostructure (fuzz) due to low energy He ion beam irradiation. •Observing the very early stages for the W-Fuzz formation. •Tracking the surface morphological evolution during the He irradiation. •Discussing in depth our observation and drawing a possible scenario that explain this phenomenon. •Studying various ions irradiation parameters such as flux, fluence, and ions energy.

  5. Effect of melatonin and time of administration on irradiation-induced damage to rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Take

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ionizing irradiation on testes and the protective effects of melatonin were investigated by immunohistochemical and electron microscopic methods. Eighty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into 10 groups. The rats in the irradiated groups were exposed to a sublethal irradiation dose of 8 Gy, either to the total body or abdominopelvic region using a 60Co source at a focus of 80 cm away from the skin in the morning or evening together with vehicle (20% ethanol or melatonin administered 24 h before (10 mg/kg, immediately before (20 mg/kg and 24 h after irradiation (10 mg/kg, all ip. Caspace-3 immunoreactivity was increased in the irradiated group compared to control (P < 0.05. Melatonin-treated groups showed less apoptosis as indicated by a considerable decrease in caspace-3 immunoreactivity (P < 0.05. Electron microscopic examination showed that all spermatogenic cells, especially primary spermatocytes, displayed prominent degeneration in the groups submitted to total body and abdominopelvic irradiation. However, melatonin administration considerably inhibited these degenerative changes, especially in rats who received abdominopelvic irradiation. Total body and abdominopelvic irradiation induced identical apoptosis and testicular damage. Chronobiological assessment revealed that biologic rhythm does not alter the inductive effect of irradiation. These data indicate that melatonin protects against total body and abdominopelvic irradiation. Melatonin was more effective in the evening abdominopelvic irradiation and melatonin-treated group than in the total body irradiation and melatonin-treated group.

  6. X-ray irradiation induced reversible resistance change in Pt/TiO2/Pt cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seo Hyoung; Kim, Jungho; Phatak, Charudatta; D'Aquila, Kenneth; Kim, Seong Keun; Kim, Jiyoon; Song, Seul Ji; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Eastman, Jeffrey A; Freeland, John W; Hong, Seungbum

    2014-02-25

    The interaction between X-rays and matter is an intriguing topic for both fundamental science and possible applications. In particular, synchrotron-based brilliant X-ray beams have been used as a powerful diagnostic tool to unveil nanoscale phenomena in functional materials. However, it has not been widely investigated how functional materials respond to the brilliant X-rays. Here, we report the X-ray-induced reversible resistance change in 40-nm-thick TiO2 films sandwiched by Pt top and bottom electrodes, and propose the physical mechanism behind the emergent phenomenon. Our findings indicate that there exists a photovoltaic-like effect, which modulates the resistance reversibly by a few orders of magnitude, depending on the intensity of impinging X-rays. We found that this effect, combined with the X-ray irradiation induced phase transition confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, triggers a nonvolatile reversible resistance change. Understanding X-ray-controlled reversible resistance changes can provide possibilities to control initial resistance states of functional materials, which could be useful for future information and energy storage devices.

  7. Fe+ ion irradiation induced changes in structural and magnetic properties of iron films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Papamihail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 490keV Fe+ ion irradiation of 200nm thick Fe films was found to induce both structural and magnetic changes. Both, the lattice constant and the grain size increase as a function of dose and both properties follow the same power law. Irradiation induces a depth dependent magnetic profile consisting of two sublayers. The top Fe sublayer has a magnetic moment higher than that of the Fe before the irradiation whereas the bottom sublayer lower. The two sublayers are connected with the effects of Fe+ irradiation, i.e. the top sublayer with the depth in which mainly radiation damage occurs whereas the bottom one with the implantation of impinging Fe+ ions. The magnetic moments of the two sublayers have a non-monotonous variation with irradiation dose depicting a maximum for the top sublayer and a minimum for the bottom one at 96.2 dpa (‘displacements per atom’. The magnetic moment enhancement/reduction is discussed in relation with the atomic volume variation in the case of atom displacements and/or implantation effects.

  8. Pyridoxal phosphate-responsive seizures in a patient with cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) and congenital deafness with labyrinthine aplasia, microtia and microdontia (LAMM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dill, P.; Schneider, J.; Weber, P.; Trachsel, D.; Tekin, M.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Thony, B.; Blau, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present an 8-year-old boy with folate receptor alpha (FRα) defect and congenital deafness with labyrinthine aplasia, microtia and microdontia (LAMM syndrome). Both conditions are exceptionally rare autosomal recessive inherited diseases mapped to 11q13. Our patient was found to have novel

  9. Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.; Huang, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability

  10. Accidental poisoning with detomidine and butorphanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, N

    2010-09-01

    This is a case report concerning a veterinarian who spilled detomidine and butorphanol on dermatitic hands while sedating a horse. This resulted in acute poisoning from which the patient spontaneously recovered with supportive management. Veterinarians often suffer from occupational dermatitis and handle strong sedatives with no gloves while working around unpredictable animals. Thus, this group is at risk of accidental self-poisoning from this method.

  11. On the diffusion process of irradiation-induced point defects in the stress field of a moving dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, E.

    1987-01-01

    The cellular model of a dislocation is used for an investigation of the time-dependent diffusion process of irradiation-induced point defects interacting with the stress field of a moving dislocation. An analytic solution is given taking into account the elastic interaction due to the first-order size effect and the stress-induced interaction, the kinematic interaction due to the dislocation motion as well as the presence of secondary neutral sinks. The results for the space and time-dependent point defect concentration, represented in terms of Mathieu-Bessel and Mathieu-Hankel functions, emphasize the influence of the parameters which have been taken into consideration. Proceeding from these solutions, formulae for the diffusion flux reaching unit length of the dislocation, which plays an important role with regard to void swelling and irradiation-induced creep, are derived

  12. Identification of irradiation treatment in processed food. Pt. 2. Evaluation of a SPE-method for analyzing irradiation induced hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Berg, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with a solid phase extraction (SPE) method for the isolation of irradiation induced hydrocarbons which can replace the column chromatography described in the paragraph 35 LMBG (German Food Law) procedure L06.00-37. Using this new method, only a tenth of solvents and column material is necessary. The SPE method was a good as LC-LC-GC/FID or LC-LC-GC/MS in analyzing new or complex matrices like paprika or salmon. Additionally, it is fast, cheap and easy to perform. As far as we know, the detection of irradiation traetment in paprika powder by analyzing irradiation induced hydrocarbons has not been described before. The new method is a good alternative for the commonly used thermoluminescence procedure. (orig.) [de

  13. Social evaluation of intentional, truly accidental, and negligently accidental helpers and harmers by 10-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Brandon M; Steckler, Conor M; Le, Doan T; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2017-11-01

    Whereas adults largely base their evaluations of others' actions on others' intentions, a host of research in developmental psychology suggests that younger children privilege outcome over intention, leading them to condemn accidental harm. To date, this question has been examined only with children capable of language production. In the current studies, we utilized a non-linguistic puppet show paradigm to examine the evaluation of intentional and accidental acts of helping or harming in 10-month-old infants. In Experiment 1 (n=64), infants preferred intentional over accidental helpers but accidental over intentional harmers, suggestive that by this age infants incorporate information about others' intentions into their social evaluations. In Experiment 2 (n=64), infants did not distinguish "negligently" accidental from intentional helpers or harmers, suggestive that infants may find negligent accidents somewhat intentional. In Experiment 3 (n=64), we found that infants preferred truly accidental over negligently accidental harmers, but did not reliably distinguish negligently accidental from truly accidental helpers, consistent with past work with adults and children suggestive that humans are particularly sensitive to negligently accidental harm. Together, these results imply that infants engage in intention-based social evaluation of those who help and harm accidentally, so long as those accidents do not stem from negligence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Thrombopenia and radial aplasia: 2 cases with platelet function and ultrastructural studies of megakaryocytes and platelets (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhan, I; Bayle, J; Mattei, J F; Thevenieau, D; Perrimond, H; Muratore, R

    1979-10-01

    The authors report on two cases of congenital thrombopenia with radial aplasia. Both children display several formative abnormalities and a mild thrombopenia; hemorragic manifestations occurred in the first case only. Megacryoblastic to platelets series, as studied with electronic microscopy, show small-sized, "microcytic" and hypogranular megacaryocytes, displaying a maturative disorder (dysmegacaryocytopoiesis). In functional studies, platelets of the first patient show an imperfect nucleotidic release and do not agregate normally with ristocetin. The second case exhibits mostly a PF3 reduction. The variety of expression of the megacaryocytic-platelets disorders appears likewise in the squelettal and visceral malformations. The whole disorder could be ascribed to a pleiotropic abnormal gene with a variable expressivity.

  15. Aplasia medular após transplante hepático em pediatria Aplastic anemia after pediatric liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene P. Garanito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplasia de medula é uma das mais raras (Aplastic anemia (AA is one of the rarest (<1% and most serious complications of liver transplantation for fulminant non-A, non-B and non-C hepatitis. It was first described in 1987 by Stock; the mechanism involved is an immunologically mediated condition secondary to an unknown viral infection. The disease is associated with a dismal prognosis. Spontaneous recovery from acquired AA is very rare however some patients (50-70% recover after immunosuppressive therapy, such as Cyclosporin A (CsA and Antithymocyte globulin (ATG, even after liver transplantation. Another treatment option is bone marrow transplantation. We report on a child who developed AA following liver transplantation for fulminant viral hepatitis that was treated with intensive immunosuppression including CsA and ATG and achieved complete recovery.

  16. Irradiation-induced doping of Bismuth Telluride Bi2Te3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rischau, Carl Willem

    2014-01-01

    around the point of optimal compensation. This coexistence is explained by the formation of charge puddles due to spatial inhomogeneities in the distribution of defects and the associated charges. Moreover, it was shown that at both temperatures, the irradiation-induced defects lead to a strong decrease of the hole carrier concentration and the electron mobility so that a metal-insulator transition in terms of the Ioffe-Regel criterion can be achieved. However, the irradiation-induced changes of the carrier concentration are not sufficient to induce a Mott metal-insulator transition. The magnetoresistance measured in-situ during low temperature irradiation shows the presence of weak anti-localization, which might be a signature of the topologically protected surface states. (author)

  17. Pulmonary anatomy and a case of unilateral aplasia in a common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina): developmental perspectives on cryptodiran lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, E R; Sedlmayr, J C; Schott, R; Lyson, T R; Sanders, R K; Lambertz, M

    2017-12-01

    The common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is a well studied and broadly distributed member of Testudines; however, very little is known concerning developmental anomalies and soft tissue pathologies of turtles and other reptiles. Here, we present an unusual case of unilateral pulmonary aplasia, asymmetrical carapacial kyphosis, and mild scoliosis in a live adult C. serpentina. The detailed three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the respiratory system in both the pathological and normal adult C. serpentina, and a hatchling are visualized using computed tomography (CT), microCT, and 3D digital anatomical models. In the pathological turtle, the right lung consists of an extrapulmonary bronchus that terminates in a blind stump with no lung present. The left lung is hyperinflated relative to the normal adult, occupying the extra coelomic space facilitated by the unusual mid-carapacial kyphotic bulge. The bronchial tree of the left lung retains the overall bauplan of the normal specimens, with some minor downstream variation in the number of secondary airways. The primary difference between the internal pulmonary structure of the pathological individual and that of a normal adult is a marked increase in the surface area and density of the parenchymal tissue originating from the secondary airways, a 14.3% increase in the surface area to volume ratio. Despite this, the aplasia has not had an impact upon the ability of the turtle to survive; however, it did interfere with aquatic locomotion and buoyancy control under water. This turtle represents a striking example of a non-fatal congenital defect and compensatory visceral hypertrophy. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  18. Irradiation-induced amorphization of Cd2Nb2O7 pyrochlore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldrum, A.; White, C. W.; Keppens, V.; Boatner, L. A.; Ewing, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Several investigations have recently been undertaken in order to achieve a more complete understanding of the radiation-damage mechanisms in A 2 B 2 O 7 pyrochlore-structure compounds. The present work represents the first systematic study of the irradiation-induced amorphization of a pyrochlore with A- and B-site cation valences of +2 and +5, respectively. Relatively large single crystals of Cd 2 Nb 2 O 7 were grown for these experiments. In situ ion-irradiation experiments were carried out in a transmission electron microscope in conjunction with ex situ Rutherford backscattering measurements of ion-irradiated Cd 2 Nb 2 O 7 single crystals. Cd 2 Nb 2 O 7 can be amorphized in situ by Ne or Xe ions at temperatures up to 480 and 620 K, respectively. At room temperature, the amorphization fluence was 36 times higher for 280 keV Ne + than for 1200 keV Xe 2+ , corresponding to a displacement dose that was higher by a factor of 3. Disordering of Cd and Nb over the available cation sites occurs at intermediate ion doses prior to amorphization. The temperature dependence of the amorphization dose is modeled, and the results are compared to those of a previous model. The bulk-sample Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) results were generally consistent with the in situ TEM measurements. Effects of crystallographic orientation and ion charge state had relatively little effect on the damage accumulation in bulk crystals. The RBS data are consistent with a defect-accumulation, cascade-overlap model of amorphization of Cd 2 Nb 2 O 7 , as are the in situ TEM observations

  19. Evaluation of radio-protective effect of melatonin on whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazale; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of melatonin against radiation-induced oxidative injury to the rat liver after whole body irradiation. In this experimental study,thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 only received melatonin (30 mg/kg on the first day and 30 mg/kg on the following days), group 3 only received whole body gamma irradiation of 10 Gy, and group 4 received 30 mg/kg melatonin 30 minutes prior to radiation plus whole body irradiation of 10 Gy plus 30 mg/kg melatonin daily through intraperitoneal (IP) injection for three days after irradiation. Three days after irradiation, all rats were sacrificed and their livers were excised to measure the biochemical parameters malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Each data point represents mean ± standard error on the mean (SEM) of at least eight animals per group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare different groups, followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage by increasing MDA levels and decreasing GSH levels. Hepatic MDA levels in irradiated rats that were treated with melatonin (30 mg/kg) were significantly decreased, while GSH levels were significantly increased, when compared to either of the control groups or the melatonin only group. The data suggest that administration of melatonin before and after irradiation may reduce liver damage caused by gamma irradiation.

  20. High-dose irradiation induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Shim

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR treatment induces a DNA damage response, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis in metazoan somatic cells. Because little has been reported in germline cells, we performed a temporal analysis of the DNA damage response utilizing Drosophila oogenesis as a model system. Oogenesis in the adult Drosophila female begins with the generation of 16-cell cyst by four mitotic divisions of a cystoblast derived from the germline stem cells. We found that high-dose irradiation induced S and G2 arrests in these mitotically dividing germline cells in a grp/Chk1- and mnk/Chk2-dependent manner. However, the upstream kinase mei-41, Drosophila ATR ortholog, was required for the S-phase checkpoint but not for the G2 arrest. As in somatic cells, mnk/Chk2 and dp53 were required for the major cell death observed in early oogenesis when oocyte selection and meiotic recombination occurs. Similar to the unscheduled DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs generated from defective repair during meiotic recombination, IR-induced DSBs produced developmental defects affecting the spherical morphology of meiotic chromosomes and dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, various morphological abnormalities in the ovary were detected after irradiation. Most of the IR-induced defects observed in oogenesis were reversible and were restored between 24 and 96 h after irradiation. These defects in oogenesis severely reduced daily egg production and the hatch rate of the embryos of irradiated female. In summary, irradiated germline cells induced DSBs, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects resulting in reduction of egg production and defective embryogenesis.

  1. Protective effect of Hippophae rhamnoides leaf extract on gamma irradiation induced clastogenecity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Anuradha; Prasad, Jagdish; Bala, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn) is a plant belonging to Elaeagnaceae family and is distributed worldwide. It has variety of uses from nutritional food to pharmacological application. The study was aimed to analyse the extract from Hippophae rhamnoides leaves for their possible protective effects against the whole body 60 Co-a-irradiation. The study was performed on six groups of male mice i.e. untreated group, H. rhamnoides extract group, irradiated (2Gy), irradiated (3Gy), H. rhamnoides and irradiated (2Gy) and H. rhamnoides and irradiated (3Gy). In each group micronucleus test was performed utilising bone marrow and peripheral blood. The mice were sacrificed 30 hrs after treatment and analysed for the presence of micronuclei. In the present study, there was no significant increase in the frequency of either micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) or normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) in H. rhamnoides extract treated group over the negative control group of animals, indicating its non-clastogenic and non-toxic activity in the erythropoietic system. H. rhamnoides extract showed good anti-clastogenic activity against the a-irradiation induced clastogenecity in both the tissues i.e. bone marrow and peripheral blood by reducing the frequency of micronuclei. Also the administration of H. rhamnoides extract along with irradiation was slightly able to increase the frequency of PCE in bone marrow as well as in peripheral blood in comparison to the irradiated group (2Gy and 3Gy) indicating its ability to reduce the toxicity caused by irradiation in the erythropoietic system. Thus the results indicate the non-clastogenic effect of H. rhamnoides leaf extract and significant protective activity against 60 Co-a-irradiation suggesting its pharmacological significance for development of radioprotector. (author)

  2. Positron and positronium studies of irradiation-induced defects and microvoids in vitreous metamict silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Saneyasu, M.; Tabata, M.; Tang, Z.; Nagai, Y.; Chiba, T.; Ito, Y.

    2000-01-01

    To study irradiation-induced defects and structural microvoids in vitreous silica (v-SiO 2 ), positron lifetime, angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (ACAR), and electron spin resonance (ESR) were measured on v-SiO 2 and quartz (c-SiO 2 ) samples irradiated with fast neutrons up to a dose of 4.1x10 20 n/cm 2 . Two kinds of positron-trapping defects have been found to form in v-SiO 2 by fast neutron irradiation: type-I and type-II defects. Similar defects also appear in the irradiated c-SiO 2 , indicating that both the defects are common in v-SiO 2 and c-SiO 2 . The detailed annealing and photo-illumination studies of positron annihilation and ESR for these two defects suggest that the type-I defects are non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC), while the type-II defects are oxygen molecules which cannot be detected by ESR. Higher dose irradiation than 1.0x10 20 n/cm 2 causes c-SiO 2 to change to metamict (amorphous) phase (m-SiO 2 ). Positronium (Ps) atoms are found to form in microvoids with an average radius of about 0.3 nm in the v-SiO 2 and m-SiO 2 . This suggests that microvoids proved by Ps are structurally intrinsic open spaces and reflect the topologically disordered structure of these phases in the subnanometer scale

  3. The effect of mesenchymal stem cells on the p53 methylation in irradiation-induced thymoma in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai B Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: MSCs decrease the incidence of irradiation-induced thymoma, which may be mediated by improving thymus microenvironment and changing the methylation of p53 promoter, and subsequently maintaining genome′s stability.

  4. La prevención de accidentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available Working accidents have a high moral and material impact, and are often easy to avoid, at least in about half the cases. Hence it is most important that campaigns for the reduction of these accidents should be correctly planned, so that such campaigns should not merely result in additional expense, and in a lowering of staff morale, when workers find themselves operating in an unpleasant and dangerous activity. In addition to special requirements, which may be studied in a later paper, and which must necessarily cover a very wide number of alternative cases, there are circumstances of a general nature, such as financial and moral consequences, and psychological repercussions, which influence the prevention of accidents and are the subject of this article.La notable repercusión moral y material que tienen los accidentes de trabajo y la fácil evitación de los mismos, por lo menos en la mitad de los casos, hacen sumamente importante que las campañas de prevención de accidentes estén bien orientadas y proyectadas, para evitar que se traduzcan, únicamente, en un gasto más y en una disminución de la moral del personal, al ver, éste, que está situado en medio de un ambiente desagradable y peligroso. Además de las normas particulares, que pueden ser objeto de otro trabajo posterior, y que han de ser forzosamente amplias, debido a la multiplicidad de factores que intervienen, hay, sin embargo, unas consideraciones de carácter general, tales como repercusiones económicas y morales y factores psicológicos que influyen en la prevención de accidentes y que son objeto del presente artículo.

  5. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model

  6. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  7. Personal protective clothing against accidental immersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, David; Tipton, Michael [Surrey Univ., Robens Inst. of Health and Safety, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The requirements for protective clothing against accidental immersion are discussed and the advantages and limitations of the main types of immersion protection available are analysed. The variety of designs available reflects the various circumstances under which they may be used. In broad terms in the offshore industry these include the following activities: normal work without risk of immersion but with a possible need to abandon the rig or ship; work in areas where there is risk of accidentally falling into the sea; flying over the sea in a helicopter. The first response to sudden immersion in sea water, which must usually be considered to be cold, is a sudden gasp often followed by an immediate phase of uncontrolled breathing. Since control of ones breathing between and under the breaking waves is essential to staying alive, this is a critical time. After surviving this initial ``cold shock`` phase, the effects of body heat loss become hazardous. Protection against hypothermia has been the priority for those providing survival suits and protective clothing while the hazard of the immediate response to cold immersion has been unrecognised to a large extent. (UK)

  8. Irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Wilfert, F.; Palm, J.; Burdak-Rothkamm, S.; Ruebe, C.; Koenig, J.; Liu Li; Schuck, A.; Willich, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced lung injury are poorly understood, but have been shown to correlate with dysregulation of different cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-)α, interleukin-(IL)-1α and IL-6 after whole-lung irradiation. Material and methods: the thoraces of C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 12 Gy. Treated and control mice were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks post irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polmyerase chain reaction) was established to evaluate the expression of TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice. For histological analysis, lung tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Results: multiplex RT-PCR analysis revealed a biphasic expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung tissue after irradiation. After an initial increase at 1 h p.i. for TNF-α and at 6 h p.i. for IL-1α and IL-6, the mRNA expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines returned to basal levels (48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks p.i.). During the pneumonic phase, TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-6 were significantly elevated and revealed their maximum at 8 weeks p.i. Histopathologic evaluation of the lung sections obtained within 4 weeks p.i. revealed only minor lung damage in 5-30% of the lung tissue. By contrast, at 8, 16, and 24 weeks p.i., 70-90% of the lung tissue revealed histopathologically detectable organizing alveolitis. Conclusion: irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. The initial transitory cytokine response occurred within the first hours after lung irradiation with no detectable histopathologic alterations. The second, more persistent cytokine elevation coincided with the onset of histologically discernible organizing acute pneumonitis. (orig.)

  9. Irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Wilfert, F.; Palm, J.; Burdak-Rothkamm, S.; Ruebe, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Koenig, J. [Inst. of Medical Biometrics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Liu Li [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Cancer Center, Union Hospital Tongji Medical Coll., Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Schuck, A.; Willich, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Univ. of Muenster (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background and purpose: the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced lung injury are poorly understood, but have been shown to correlate with dysregulation of different cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-){alpha}, interleukin-(IL)-1{alpha} and IL-6 after whole-lung irradiation. Material and methods: the thoraces of C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 12 Gy. Treated and control mice were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks post irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polmyerase chain reaction) was established to evaluate the expression of TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice. For histological analysis, lung tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Results: multiplex RT-PCR analysis revealed a biphasic expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung tissue after irradiation. After an initial increase at 1 h p.i. for TNF-{alpha} and at 6 h p.i. for IL-1{alpha} and IL-6, the mRNA expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines returned to basal levels (48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks p.i.). During the pneumonic phase, TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 were significantly elevated and revealed their maximum at 8 weeks p.i. Histopathologic evaluation of the lung sections obtained within 4 weeks p.i. revealed only minor lung damage in 5-30% of the lung tissue. By contrast, at 8, 16, and 24 weeks p.i., 70-90% of the lung tissue revealed histopathologically detectable organizing alveolitis. Conclusion: irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. The initial transitory cytokine response occurred within the first hours after lung irradiation with no detectable histopathologic alterations. The second, more persistent cytokine elevation coincided with the onset of histologically discernible organizing acute

  10. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Accidental Radiation Occurrence Reports (HFZ-240), Office of Communication, Education, and Radiation Programs, 9200 Corporate Blvd., Rockville, MD 20850, and the reports and their envelopes shall be distinctly...

  11. Ionizing irradiation induces apoptotic damage of salivary gland acinar cells via NADPH oxidase 1-dependent superoxide generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Yoshihisa; Sasabe, Eri; Ueta, Eisaku; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles in various physiological processes. Recently, several novel homologues of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been discovered and this protein family is now designated as the Nox family. We investigated the involvement of Nox family proteins in ionizing irradiation-induced ROS generation and impairment in immortalized salivary gland acinar cells (NS-SV-AC), which are radiosensitive, and immortalized ductal cells (NS-SV-DC), which are radioresistant. Nox1-mRNA was upregulated by γ-ray irradiation in NS-SV-AC, and the ROS level in NS-SV-AC was increased to approximately threefold of the control level after 10 Gy irradiation. The increase of ROS level in NS-SV-AC was suppressed by Nox1-siRNA-transfection. In parallel with the suppression of ROS generation and Nox1-mRNA expression by Nox1-siRNA, ionizing irradiation-induced apoptosis was strongly decreased in Nox1-siRNA-transfected NS-SV-AC. There were no large differences in total SOD or catalase activities between NS-SV-AC and NS-SV-DC although the post-irradiation ROS level in NS-SV-AC was higher than that in NS-SV-DC. In conclusion, these results indicate that Nox1 plays a crucial role in irradiation-induced ROS generation and ROS-associated impairment of salivary gland cells and that Nox1 gene may be targeted for preservation of the salivary gland function from radiation-induced impairment

  12. Flux pinning by heavy-ion-irradiation induced linear defects in YBa2Cu3O7 epitaxial films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budhani, R.C.; Zhu, Y.; Suenaga, M.

    1992-01-01

    We report some transport measurements carried out to study flux pinning by heavy-ion-irradiation induced linear defects in Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 films. Our results show that in these in situ deposited films containing a large concentration of defects frozen-in at the time of film growth, a marginal enhancement in critical current density occurs when the density of linear defects 10 /cm 2 , and their diameter of the order of coherence length. This criterion is satisfied by Ag +21 ions. The damage due to Au +24 ions is much too severe to improve the J c

  13. Irradiation-induced changes in the subclavian and axillary arteries after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, G.; Niederle, B.; Polterauer, P.; Waneck, R.

    1986-01-01

    Three case reports are reviewed to illustrate the possibility of treating irradiation-induced lesions of the subclavian-brachial vascular segment (aneurysm and segmental occlusions) 14, 20, and 26 years after radical mastectomy and subsequent radiotherapy. All patients had an extraanatomic vein bypass graft from the carotid to the brachial artery crossing the shoulder near the acromioclavicular joint, with the advantage that the tissue changed by radiotherapy or infected by ulceration could be circumvented. There were no postoperative complications, with adequate function of the grafts (follow-up, 17, 24, and 20 months, respectively)

  14. CD19 CAR-targeted T cells induce long-term remission and B Cell Aplasia in an immunocompetent mouse model of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco L Davila

    Full Text Available Although many adults with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL are induced into remission, most will relapse, underscoring the dire need for novel therapies for this disease. We developed murine CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs and an immunocompetent mouse model of B-ALL that recapitulates the disease at genetic, cellular, and pathologic levels. Mouse T cells transduced with an all-murine CD3ζ/CD28-based CAR that is equivalent to the one being used in our clinical trials, eradicate B-ALL in mice and mediate long-term B cell aplasias. In this model, we find that increasing conditioning chemotherapy increases tumor eradication, B cell aplasia, and CAR-modified T cell persistence. Quantification of recipient B lineage cells allowed us to estimate an in vivo effector to endogenous target ratio for B cell aplasia maintenance. In mice exhibiting a dramatic B cell reduction we identified a small population of progenitor B cells in the bone marrow that may serve as a reservoir for long-term CAR-modified T cell stimulation. Lastly, we determine that infusion of CD8+ CAR-modified T cells alone is sufficient to maintain long-term B cell eradication. The mouse model we report here should prove valuable for investigating CAR-based and other therapies for adult B-ALL.

  15. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui YUAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypothermia. A series of rewarming measures, such as infusion of warm fluids, inspiration of warm air, abdominal infusion of warm fluid, instruction of warm fluid into pleural cavity, intravenous infusion of warm fluid, rewarming through ECMO, etc. have been used recently. Advance in research on the classification of hypothermia, its impact to the body and the treatment methods are reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.15

  16. Fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, F; Martz, W; Birngruber, C G; Dettmeyer, R B

    2018-04-23

    Brake cleaner liquid is commonly used for cleaning of engines and motor parts. The commercially available products usually contain mainly volatile organic compounds. As a consequence brake cleaner evaporates fast and almost completely from the cleaned surface. This case report presents a fatal accidental inhalation of brake cleaner liquid aerosols due to the attempted cleaning of a boat engine. A 16year old boy was found lifeless in the engine compartment of a boat engine. In close proximity to the body, the police found cleanings wipes soaked with brake cleaner as well as a pump spray bottle filled with brake cleaner. Essentially the autopsy revealed a cerebral oedema with encephalomalacia, no coagulated blood as well as increased blood and tissue fluid content of the lung. Toxicological analysis revealed brake cleaner fluid in the lung, gastric content and heart blood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [The accidental detection of apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, P R

    2011-04-01

    Accidental detection of an asymptomatic apical periodontitis raises the question whether this lesion should be treated or not. Arguments favouring treatment are that the inflammation may cause pain in the future, may enlarge or may negatively affect the host's resistance. Reasons for not treating may be that treatment weakens the tooth, may cause iatrogenic damage and that treatment is expensive and burdensome for the patient and does not lead in all cases to complete healing. Scientific evidence supporting either choice, whether treating the lesion or not, is lacking. In making such decisions, therefore, personal judgments by the patient and the dentist concerning the impact on the quality of life of the patient play an important role.

  18. Is the tri-bimaximal mixing accidental?

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The Tri-bimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an "anarchical" structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry which differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain "flavor alignment" as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and sub-dominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understand the lepton mixing.

  19. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin-Wei; Lu, Jia-Peng

    2015-01-01

    -4 years in China, of which 31 633 (10.1%) were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0%) of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5%) among all post-neonatal infant deaths, and 15 554 (31.7%) among children with 1-4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used...

  20. protective effect of combined administration of isoflavones genistein and daidzein against irradiation -induced damage in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.M.

    2009-01-01

    The renewed interests in the search for plant-derived drugs in the field of alternative medicine necessitate further studies. the present work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of diet phyto estrogens such as diadzein and genistein on repairing oxidative damage and protecting calcium homeostatic system against radiation induced disorders in female rats. soybean isoflavones were orally administered in a dose of 9 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 and 26 days. irradiated animals received diadzein and genistein for 11 consecutive days before exposing female rats to 6 Gy gamma irradiation and continued to receive soybean isoflavones until sacrificed 10 and 15 days post irradiation . Irradiation induced significant decrease in white blood cells(WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (Ht %), glutathione (GSH), calcium (CA) and estradiol, while it induced significant elevation in serum malondialdehyde(MDA), inorganic phosphorus, thyroxine 3 (T 3 ) and thyroxine 4 (T 4 ), 10 and 15 days post -irradiation . diadzein and genistein treatment before and through irradiation accelerated the recovery of circulating WBCs and RBCs, elevated HB, Hct % GSH meanwhile hindered the depression in CA. Soy isoflavones depressed MDA and ameliorated the increase in T 3 , T 4 and elevated estradiol and phosphorus levels 10 and 15 days post irradiation. the results recommend combined treatment with genistein and daidzein to mitigate irradiation-induced damage and bon loss and suggest clinical application of these isoflavones in radiotherapy

  1. Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lin Yen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet (UV irradiation-induced skin damage. Artocarpus communis possesses several pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation. However, the photoprotective activity of methanol extract of A. communis heartwood (ACM in ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin damage has not yet been investigated. The present study was performed using ultraviolet absorption, histopathological observation, antioxidant and anti-inflammation assays to elucidate the mechanism of the photoprotective activity of ACM. Our results indicated that ACM displayed a UVA and UVB absorption effect and then effectively decreased scaly skin, epidermis thickness and sunburn cells during ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice. ACM not only decreased ultraviolet irradiation-mediated oxidative stress, including lowering the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05, but also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 1β. Additionally, ACM can decrease the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 via inhibiting TNF-α-independent pathways (p < 0.05 in UVB-mediated inflammation and formation of sunburn cells. Consequently, we concluded that ACM extract has a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation due to its sunscreen property, and its topical formulations may be developed as therapeutic and/or cosmetic products in further studies.

  2. Irradiation-induced precipitates in a neutron irradiated 304 stainless steel studied by three-dimensional atom probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, T., E-mail: ttoyama@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Narita-cho 2145-2, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nozawa, Y. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Narita-cho 2145-2, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Van Renterghem, W. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Matsukawa, Y.; Hatakeyama, M.; Nagai, Y. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Narita-cho 2145-2, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Al Mazouzi, A. [EDF R and D, Avenue des Renardieres Ecuelles, 77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France); Van Dyck, S. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Irradiation-induced precipitates in a 304 stainless steel were investigated by three-dimensional atom probe. > The precipitates were found to be {gamma}' precipitates (Ni{sub 3}Si). > Post-irradiation annealing was performed to discuss the contribution of the precipitates to irradiation-hardening. - Abstract: Irradiation-induced precipitates in a 304 stainless steel, neutron-irradiated to a dose of 24 dpa at 300 deg. C in the fuel wrapper plates of a commercial pressurized water reactor, were investigated by laser-assisted three-dimensional atom probe. A high number density of 4 x 10{sup 23} m{sup -3} of Ni-Si rich precipitates was observed, which is one order of magnitude higher than that of Frank loops. The average diameter was {approx}10 nm and the average chemical composition was 40% Ni, 14% Si, 11% Cr and 32% Fe in atomic percent. Over a range of Si concentrations, the ratio of Ni to Si was {approx}3, close to that of {gamma}' precipitate (Ni{sub 3}Si). In some precipitates, Mn enrichment inside the precipitate and P segregation at the interface were observed. Post-irradiation annealing was performed to discuss the contribution of the precipitates to irradiation-hardening.

  3. On the modeling of irradiation-induced homogeneous precipitation in proton-bombarded Ni-Si solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nghi Q.; Janghorban, K.; Ardell, A. J.

    1981-10-01

    Irradiation-induced solute redistribution leading to precipitation of coherent γ' particles in undersaturated Ni-based solid solutions containing 6 and 8 at.% Si during 400-keV proton bombardment was modeled, based on the concept of solute segregation in concentrated alloys under spatially-dependent defect production conditions. The combined effects of (i) an extremely large difference between the defect production rates in the peak-damage and mid-range regions during irradiation and (ii) a preferential coupling between the interstitial and solute fluxes generate a net transient flux of Si atoms into the mid-range region, which is much larger than the solute flux out of this location. As a result, the Si concentration exceeds the solubility limit and homogeneous precipitation of the γ' phase occurs in this particular region of the irradiated samples. The spatial, compositional and temperature dependences of irradiation-induced homogeneous precipitation derived from the present theoretical calculations are in good qualitative agreement with experimental observations

  4. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Hon-Meng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bee, Soo-Tueen, E-mail: beest@utar.edu.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnam, C.T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahmat, A.R. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Investigation of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on electron beam irradiated PLA. • Irradiated PLA blends were weakened by incorporation of high amount of TMPTMA. • TMPTMA interacts with polymer free radicals to build crosslinking network. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3–5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25–250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples.

  5. Protective effect of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate from salmon skin on UV irradiation-induced photoaging of mice skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiejun; Hou, Hu; Lu, Jiaohan; Zhang, Kai; Li, Bafang

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of gelatin (SG) isolated from salmon skin and its hydrolysate (SGH) on photoaging skin, and the mechanism responsible for anti-photoaging. The average molecular weights of SG and SGH were 65 kDa and 873 Da, respectively. The amino acid compositions of SG and SGH were similar. Both of them were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. Twenty-five peptides were identified from SGH. SG and SGH could improve UV irradiation-induced pathological changes of macroscopical tissue texture and skin morphology. Hydroxyproline content is an indicator of matrix collagen content, SG and SGH could inhibit the decrease of hydroxyproline content in photoaging skin in a dose dependent manner. In addition, SG and SGH could alleviate UV irradiation-induced oxidative damages to skin by increasing the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), increasing the content of glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the content of malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, SG and SGH could enhance immune regulation system by increasing the thymus index. Thus, the anti-photoaging mechanisms of SG and SGH were by inhibiting the depletion of antioxidant defense components, involving in the synthesis of collagen and enhancing the function of immune system. Besides, SGH showed a better result in protecting skin from photoaging than SG.

  6. Electron-irradiation induced changes in structural and magnetic properties of Fe and Co based metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, S.N., E-mail: kane_sn@yahoo.com [School of Physics, D.A. University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Satalkar, M., E-mail: satalkar.manvi@gmail.com [School of Physics, D.A. University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Ghosh, A.; Shah, M. [School of Physics, D.A. University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Ghodke, N. [UGC-DAE CSR, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Pramod, R.; Sinha, A.K.; Singh, M.N.; Dwivedi, J. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, P.O. CAT, Indore 452013 (India); Coisson, M.; Celegato, F.; Vinai, F.; Tiberto, P. [INRIM, Electromagnetism Division, Strada Delle Cacce 91, I-10135 TO (Italy); Varga, L.K. [RISSPO, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Enhancement of Ms by low electron irradiation dose in Fe-based alloy. • Variation of magnetic properties by electron irradiation induced ordered phase. • Electron irradiation alters TM-TM distance and, magnetic properties. - Abstract: Electron-irradiation induced changes in structural and, magnetic properties of Co{sub 57.6}Fe{sub 14.4}Si{sub 4.8}B{sub 19.2}Nb{sub 4}, Fe{sub 72}Si{sub 4.8}B{sub 19.2}Nb{sub 4} and, Co{sub 72}Si{sub 4.8}B{sub 19.2}Nb{sub 4} metallic glasses were studied using magnetic hysteresis and, synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. Results reveal composition dependent changes of magnetic properties in electron irradiated metallic glasses. A low electron irradiation dose (15 kGy) enhances saturation magnetization (up to 62%) in Fe-based alloy (Fe{sub 72}Si{sub 4.8}B{sub 19.2}Nb{sub 4}). Synchrotron XRD measurements reveal that electron irradiation transforms the amorphous matrix to a more ordered phase, accountable for changes in magnetic properties.

  7. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Hon-Meng; Bee, Soo-Tueen; Ratnam, C.T.; Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Rahmat, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on electron beam irradiated PLA. • Irradiated PLA blends were weakened by incorporation of high amount of TMPTMA. • TMPTMA interacts with polymer free radicals to build crosslinking network. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3–5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25–250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples

  8. Patient with pure red cell aplasia who was exposed to the atomic bomb near the site of blast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, N; Matsukuma, G; Uchiyama, E; Tsunoo, S; Anpi, S [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1976-03-01

    This paper describes a female patient who had been exposed at the age of 26 to the atomic bomb at a distance of 1.3 km from the bombed area. She was pointed out to have anemia and the disturbance of the liver in 1961. In 1963, she had iron deficiency, hypoleucocytosis, and hyper-..gamma.. globulinemia, and showed a high value of serum colloids. In 1969, she had more frequently anemia together with hyper ..gamma..-globulinemia. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum colloids were still high. The positive reaction to the LE cells began to appear. The liver biopsy findings showed proliferation of Kupper cells in the lobule, decidual degeneration of some liver cells, infiltration of many round cells in the Glisson's sheath. Therefore, she was diagnosed as having pure red cell aplasia and lupoid hepatitis. However, in 1970 she was suspected of having pulmonary valvular insufficiency caused by pulmonary hypertension in spite of the continuous steroid therapy. In 1974, she died of jundice, hyper-..gamma..-globulinemia which accompanied urea in the blood and the increased values of nitrogen and NH/sub 3/. This patient was considered to be interested on the assumption of the relationships between exposure to the atomic bomb and disturbance of immunity.

  9. Colorectal irradiation induced immune response: 'toll like receptors' therapeutic manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacave-Lapalun, Jean-Victor

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of the abdomino-pelvic sphere to ionizing radiation is associated with a high incidence of complications. Radiation therapy may cause short and / or long-term harmful effects. In the most severe cases and in the absence of heavy treatments, the appearance of ulcers may induce the death of patients. Clinical trials are being conducted with Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) to cure theses complications. Others studies indicate that the injection of bacterial motifs limits the radiotoxicity in the intestine. They stimulate receptors (Toll-Like- Receptors (TLR)) located on the surface of epithelial and intestinal immune cells. The first aim of this doctoral work is to characterize the effects of TLR stimulation on immunity and tissue repair using a model of localized colorectal irradiation at 20 Gy (acute effects of radiotherapy) on a rat. The thesis then aims to potentiate the effects of the MSC treatment when adding TLR ligands upon localized colorectal irradiation at 27 Gy (accidental complications). This work, using a 20 Gy exposure, show that TLR stimulation improves homeostasis (normalization of T cells, induction of regulatory T cells (Treg) and macrophages 'anti-inflammatory' M2). On the 27 Gy colorectal model, the injection of TLR ligand before CSM transplant improves the immune climate by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducting Treg and M2 cells. These modulations could contribute to improving the implantation and effectiveness of CSM. The observations have all shown that the stimulation of immunity is an approach to minimize radiation-induced lesions. (author) [fr

  10. The Artificial, the Accidental, the Aesthetic…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Koltick

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we define, discuss or assess aesthetics within a contemporary philosophical framework? The indefiniteness that accompanies attempts to formalize a definition of the aesthetic is a primary focus of this paper. This lack of a definition has occupied philosophers for hundreds of years in attempts to delineate the boundaries of an elusively formless concept. This formlessness speaks to the incredibly evasive character of such a pervasive feature recognized in both natural and artificial systems, agents and artefacts. With the rapid growth of artificially intelligent systems and an astounding diversity in computational creativity, in what ways may we approach aesthetics? How is the aesthetic recognized, determined and produced? This paper seeks to critically engage issues of non-human agency, inter-object relations, and aesthetic theory in relation to computational entities and autonomous systems. The ability of these systems to operate outside of human cognitive limitations including thought patterns and constructions which may preclude alternative aesthetic outcomes, afford them in some ways limitless potential in relation to aesthetics. The designation of the accidental or provisional is utilized as an alternative approach to the production and assessment of aesthetic occurrences of the non-human.

  11. Dose assessment under incidental and accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Dose assessment for the licesing process of a nuclear power plant covers the routine release of radioactive substances into the atmosphere as well as releases due to incidents. Source terms for these incidents are evaluated by the detailed incident analysis of the plant. The types of incidents to be covered are determined in the FRG by the ''Stoerfall-Leitlinien'' of the Ministry of the Interior. The calculation of dose equivalents in the environment of the plant differs from the calculation of doses due to routine releases, as incidents are single events occuring at undeterminate time, and the results must be conservative. Some details are being described. During the operation of the plant it is essential to measure not only the radioactivity release rates but also the necessary meteorological parameters for the instantaneous determination of the atmospheric dispersion in case of incidental or accidental releases of radioactivity. This instantaneous assessment assists in taking measurements of ground contamination and in deciding about countermeasures for the protection of plant personnell and population. (author) [pt

  12. Accidental hydroxychloroquine overdose resulting in neurotoxic vestibulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansky, Peter B; Werth, Victoria P

    2017-04-12

    Hydroxychloroquine is an oral antimalarial medication commonly used off-label for a variety of rheumatological conditions, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome and dermatomyositis. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with acute onset headache, bilateral tinnitus, and left-sided facial numbness and tingling in the setting of accidentally overdosing on hydroxychloroquine. By the next morning, the patient began to experience worsening in the tingling sensation and it eventually spread to her left arm, thigh and distal extremities. The patient also complained of new onset blurring of her peripheral vision and feeling 'off balance.' Despite a complete neurological and ophthalmological work-up with unremarkable imaging and blood work, the patient has had no improvement in her tinnitus, left-sided paresthesias, visual disturbance or ataxia. This is a unique case of hydroxychloroquine overdose resulting in permanent neurotoxic vestibulopathy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M.; Managanvi, S. S.; Bhat, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. (authors)

  14. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  15. Static and mobile networks design for atmospheric accidental releases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abida, R.

    2010-01-01

    The global context of my PhD thesis work is the optimization of air pollution monitoring networks, but more specifically it concerns the monitoring of accidental releases of radionuclides in air. The optimization problem of air quality measuring networks has been addresses in the literature. However, it has not been addresses in the context of surveillance of accidental atmospheric releases. The first part of my thesis addresses the optimization of a permanent network of monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the air, covering France. The second part concerns the problem of targeting of observations in case of an accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear plant. (author)

  16. Low energy electron irradiation induced carbon etching: Triggering carbon film reacting with oxygen from SiO{sub 2} substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cheng [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wang, Chao, E-mail: cwang367@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn; Diao, Dongfeng, E-mail: cwang367@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2016-08-01

    We report low-energy (50–200 eV) electron irradiation induced etching of thin carbon films on a SiO{sub 2} substrate. The etching mechanism was interpreted that electron irradiation stimulated the dissociation of the carbon film and SiO{sub 2}, and then triggered the carbon film reacting with oxygen from the SiO{sub 2} substrate. A requirement for triggering the etching of the carbon film is that the incident electron penetrates through the whole carbon film, which is related to both irradiation energy and film thickness. This study provides a convenient electron-assisted etching with the precursor substrate, which sheds light on an efficient pathway to the fabrication of nanodevices and nanosurfaces.

  17. A 3D-RBS study of irradiation-induced deformation and masking properties of ordered colloidal nanoparticulate masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolnai, Z.; Deak, A.; Nagy, N.; Toth, A.L.; Kotai, E.; Battistig, G.

    2010-01-01

    The 500 keV Xe 2+ irradiation-induced anisotropic deformation of ordered colloidal silica nanoparticulate masks is followed using 2 MeV 4 He + Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) with different measurement geometries and the improved data analysis capabilities of the RBS-MAST spectrum simulation code. The three-dimensional (3D) geometrical transformation from spherical to oblate ellipsoidal and polygonal shape and the decrease of the mask's hole size is described. The masking properties of the silica monolayer and the depth distribution of Xe in the underlying Si substrate vs. the irradiated Xe 2+ fluence are discussed. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) is applied as complementary characterization tool. Our results give contribution to clarify the impact of ion-nanoparticle interactions on the potentials and limits of nanosphere lithography. We also show the capability of the conventional RBS technique to characterize laterally ordered submicron-sized three-dimensional structures.

  18. The evolution of interaction between grain boundary and irradiation-induced point defects: Symmetric tilt GB in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Qin, Yuan; Yang, Yingying; Yao, Man; Wang, Xudong; Xu, Haixuan; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular dynamics method is used and scheme of calculational tests is designed. The atomic evolution view of the interaction between grain boundary (GB) and irradiation-induced point defects is given in six symmetric tilt GB structures of bcc tungsten with the energy of the primary knock-on atom (PKA) EPKA of 3 and 5 keV and the simulated temperature of 300 K. During the collision cascade with GB structure there are synergistic mechanisms to reduce the number of point defects: one is vacancies recombine with interstitials, and another is interstitials diffuse towards the GB with vacancies almost not move. The larger the ratio of the peak defect zone of the cascades overlaps with the GB region, the statistically relative smaller the number of surviving point defects in the grain interior (GI); and when the two almost do not overlap, vacancy-intensive area generally exists nearby GBs, and has a tendency to move toward GB with the increase of EPKA. In contrast, the distribution of interstitials is relatively uniform nearby GBs and is affected by the EPKA far less than the vacancy. The GB has a bias-absorption effect on the interstitials compared with vacancies. It shows that the number of surviving vacancies statistically has increasing trend with the increase of the distance between PKA and GB. While the number of surviving interstitials does not change much, and is less than the number of interstitials in the single crystal at the same conditions. The number of surviving vacancies in the GI is always larger than that of interstitials. The GB local extension after irradiation is observed for which the interstitials absorbed by the GB may be responsible. The designed scheme of calculational tests in the paper is completely applicable to the investigation of the interaction between other types of GBs and irradiation-induced point defects.

  19. Temper embrittlement, irradiation induced phosphorus segregation and implications for post-irradiation annealing of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.J.; English, C.A.; Foreman, A.J.; Gage, G.; Hyde, J.M.; Ray, P.H.N.; Vatter, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Three steels designated JPB, JPC and JPG from the IAEA Phase 3 Programme containing two copper and phosphorus levels were pre- and post-irradiation Charpy and hardness tested in the as-received (AR), 1200 C/0.5h heat treated (HT) and heat treated and 450 C/2000h aged (HTA) conditions. The HT condition was designed to simulate coarse grained heat-affected zones (HAZ's) and showed a marked sensitivity to thermal ageing in all three alloys. Embrittlement after thermal ageing was greater in the higher phosphorus alloys JPB and JPG. Charpy shifts due to thermal ageing of between 118 and 209 C were observed and accompanied by pronounced intergranular fracture, due to phosphorus segregation. The irradiation embrittlement response was complex. The low copper alloys, JPC and JPB, in the HT and HTA condition exhibited significant irradiation induced Charpy shift but very low or even negative hardness changes indicating non-hardening embrittlement. The higher copper alloy, JPG, also exhibited irradiation hardening in line with its copper content. Fractographic and microchemical studies indicated irradiation induced phosphorus segregation and a transition from cleavage to intergranular failure at grain boundary phosphorus concentrations above a critical level. The enhanced grain boundary phosphorus level increased with dose in agreement with a kinetic segregation model developed at Harwell. The relevance of the thermal ageing studies to RPV Annealing for Plant-Life Extension was identified early in the program. It is of concern that annealing of RPV's has been performed, or is proposed, at temperatures in the range 425--475 C for periods of about 1 week (168h). Much attention has been given to the use of in-situ hardness measurements and machining miniature Charpy and tensile specimens from belt-line plate and weld materials. However, HAZ's, often containing higher phosphorus levels than the present materials, have largely been ignored. A post-irradiation annealing (PIA

  20. EFFICIENCY OF BORAGE SEEDS OIL AGAINST GAMMA IRRADIATION-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE RATS: POSSIBLE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Hala A H; Abdallah, Inas Z A; Yousef, Fatimah M; Huwait, Etimad A

    2017-01-01

    Borage ( Borago officinal L.) is an annual herbaceous plant of great interest because its oil contains a high percentage of γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The present work was carried out to detect fatty acids composition of the oil extracted from borage seeds (BO) and its potential effectiveness against γ-irradiation- induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. GC-MS analysis of fatty acids methyl esters of BO was performed to identify fatty acids composition. Sixty rats were divided into five groups (12 rats each): Control, irradiated; rats were exposed to (6.5 Gy) of whole body γ-radiation, BO (50 mg/kg b.wt), irradiated BO post-treated and irradiated BO prepost-treated. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at two time intervals 7 and 15 days post-irradiation. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels, lipids profile, as well as serum and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxide (malondialdehyde) (MDA) levels were assessed. Histopathological examination of liver sections were also carried out. The results showed that the high contents of BO extracted by cold pressing, were linoleic acid (34.23%) and GLA (24.79%). Also, oral administration of BO significantly improved serum levels of liver enzymes, lipids profile, as well as serum and hepatic GSH and MDA levels (p<0.001) as compared with irradiated rats after 15 days post irradiation. Moreover, it exerted marked amelioration against irradiation-induced histopathological changes in liver tissues. The improvement was more pronounced in irradiated BO prepost-treated group than irradiated BO post-treated. BO has a beneficial role in reducing hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by radiation exposure. Therefore, BO may be used as a beneficial supplement for patients during radiotherapy treatment.

  1. Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development and the stabilization of p53 protein of American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Changmann [Department of Plant Medicine, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gil-Hah, E-mail: khkim@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Plant Medicine, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The American serpentine leafminer fly, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), is one of the most destructive polyphagous pests worldwide. In this study, we determined electron beam doses for inhibition of normal development of the leaf miner and investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation on DNA damage and p53 stability. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (2nd instar), puparia (0-24 h old after pupariation) and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with increasing doses of electron beam irradiation (six levels between 30 and 200 Gy). At 150 Gy, the number of adults that developed from irradiated eggs, larvae and puparia was lower than in the untreated control. Fecundity and egg hatchability decreased depending on the doses applied. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated flies demonstrated that males were more radiotolerant than females. Adult longevity was not affected in all stages. The levels of DNA damage in L. trifolii adults were evaluated using the alkaline comet assay. Our results indicate that electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, low doses of electron beam irradiation led to the rapid appearance of p53 protein within 6 h; however, it decreased after exposure to high doses (150 Gy and 200 Gy). These results suggest that electron beam irradiation induced not only abnormal development and reproduction but also p53 stability caused by DNA damage in L. trifolii. We conclude that a minimum dose of 150 Gy should be sufficient for female sterilization of L. trifolii. - Highlights: > Electron beam irradiation inhibited normal development of the leaf miner. > Electron beam irradiation inhibited normal reproduction of the leaf miner. > Electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage. > Electron beam irradiation induced p53 stability.

  2. Main problems of external monitoring in the accidental zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrikov, O.K.; Gul'din, A.N.; Komarov, V.I.; Malkov, V.L.; Smirnov, N.V.; Sukhoruchkin, A.K.; Proskuryakov, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Operational experience of the external monitoring service during emergency response is analysed as applied to the problems of optimization of environmental monitoring under accidental conditions. Problems of rapid and strategical environmental radiation monitoring are considered

  3. Accidental transection of flexometallic endotracheal tube during partial maxillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma D Ladi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of an 18-year-old female patient in whom accidental sectioning of flexometallic endotracheal tube occurred during partial maxillectomy for mass lesion under general anaesthesia. She was managed successfully by tracheostomy.

  4. Cytogenetic biological dosimetry. Dose estimative in accidental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, O.R. dos; Campos, I.M.A. de.

    1988-01-01

    The methodology of cytogenetic biological dosimetry is studied. The application in estimation of dose in five cases of accidental exposure is reported. An hematological study and culture of lymphocytes is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Limits to radioactive effluents and countermeasures in accidental situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowotny, G.; Gonzalez, A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses the criteria used by the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, as competent authority, to set limits to radioactive effluents from nuclear installations. It also discusses the selection of action levels for carrying out countermeasures in accidental situations. (author)

  6. Ventricular fibrillation after accidental injection of bupivacaine into the pericardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Even, B. J.; de Jongh, R. F.; de Hert, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    A postoperative cardiac surgical patient developed ventricular fibrillation immediately after accidental pericardial injection of bupivacaine at room temperature. The possible causes, which include systemic toxicity, local vasoconstriction with myocardial ischaemia, local toxic effect of bupivacaine

  7. Dosimetric significance of cytogenetic examinations in human accidental over exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doloy-Biola, M.T.; Lego, R.; Ducatez, G.; Lepetit, J.; Bourguignon, M.

    1975-01-01

    The damage to 13 workers following accidental exposures was assessed from lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations, and the results compared with those supplied by physical dosimetry and the clinical syndromes [fr

  8. Methodology for estimating accidental radioactive releases in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, H.B.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation of the risks of accidental radioactive releases is necessary in assessing the safety of any nuclear waste management system. The case of a radioactive waste form enclosed in a barrier system is considered. Two test calculations were carried out

  9. Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn | Abdulkadir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn. I Abdulkadir, L Hassan, F Abdullahi, FD Akeredolu, S Purdue, M Okpe, AM Sobowale, OA Adewumi, U Abdullahi, MA Onadiran, TT Sholadoye, S Baba, WN Ogala ...

  10. Lessons learned from accidental exposures in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The medical use of radiation is unique in that patients are intentionally exposed to radiation. The aim in radiation therapy is twofold: to deliver a dose and dose distribution that is adequate for tumour control, but which also minimizes complications in normal tissues. In therapeutic applications, the doses are high and a deviation from the prescribed dose may have severe or even fatal consequences. There is therefore a great need to ensure adequate radiation protection and safety in radiotherapy by verifying that all personnel involved are appropriately trained for their duties, that the equipment used meets relevant international specifications for radiation safety and that safety culture is embedded in routine activities in radiotherapy departments. Many individuals must interact and work together on highly technical measurements and calculations, and therefore the potential for mistakes is great. A review of the mistakes shows that most are due to human error. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115) require that a prompt investigation be conducted whenever an accidental medical exposure of patients occurs. The report of the investigation is to be disseminated to the appropriate parties so that lessons can be learned to prevent similar accidents or mitigate their consequences in the future. This Safety Report is a collection of a large number of events that may serve as a checklist against which to test the vulnerability of a facility to potential accidents, and to provide a basis for improving safety in the use of radiation in medical applications. A further purpose of this report is to encourage readers to develop a questioning and learning attitude, adopt measures for the prevention of accidents, and prepare for mitigation of the consequences of accidents if they occur

  11. Accidental oil spills - project management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobic, V.; Benkovic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Planning and organisation, as well as actions taken during accidental discharging of hazardous substances (hydrocarbons) into the soil and water, show that without integrating all the functions of safety, occupational safety, fire and explosion protection, technical safety, all the way to the environmental protection, procedure of cleaning, rehabilitation and remediation of polluted areas into their original state cannot be successfully carried out. Neglecting any of the mentioned links/components of the procedure represents a risk to people's health and life, while pollution to the environment remains a constant threat. Development of technologies is quickly transforming the environment in which the professionals of all disciplines work. Therefore, the response to changes by application of new technologies and procedures in all domains is indispensable, however, through a comprehensive and expert perception and consideration of each of the essential correlations comprising the safety management in all the fields. Through management of safety projects in environmental protection, it has become obvious that a united management of different fields is necessary, as well as management of safety in general. Engineering, health, legislation, public, environmental standards, occupational safety, hazards, biophysical and socio-economic aspects are parts of an integral management. Experts joined efforts through interaction and communications are inter-disciplinary characteristics, i.e. multi-disciplinary safety management, but also the management of each project separately. Exactly this knowledge exchange is highly productive and becomes an indispensable element in recognition of indirect and cumulative actions, thus applicable in any field. Implementation of European standards and accreditation of procedures pursuant to the corresponding standards, from risk assessment through rehabilitation to independent expert confirmation of efficiency in implementing the entire

  12. Accidental symmetries and the effective Lagrangian of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovrut, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between accidental worldsheet symmetries of the string generating functional and target space invariance groups is discussed. Accidental symmetries are used to derive the invariance groups and effective low energy Lagrangian for the bosonic string, and the heterotic string compactified to four-dimensions on Z N orbifolds. The necessity of a new type of Green-Schwarz mechanism, associated with the auxiliary vector field in the four-dimensional N = 1 supergravity multiplet, is shown using these methods

  13. [THREE CASES OF ACCIDENTAL AUTO-INJECTION OF ADRENALINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Iikura, Katsuhito; Ogura, Kiyotake; Wang, Ling-jen; Asaumi, Tomoyuki; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2015-12-01

    Reports on accidental auto-injection of adrenaline are few. We encountered three cases of accidental injection of adrenaline. In this study, we have examined and reported the clinical courses and symptoms of our cases. CASE 1 involved a female physician in her 50s who had attended an explanatory meeting on auto-injection of adrenaline. She mistook EpiPen® to be the EpiPen trainer and accidentally injected herself with 0.3 mg EpiPen®. Her systolic/diastolic pressure peaked at 7 min to reach 144/78 mmHg and decreased to 120/77 mmHg at 14 min. Except for palpitation after 7 min, the only subjective symptom was local pain at the injection site. CASE 2 was noted in a 6-year-old boy. He accidentally pierced his right forefinger with 0.15 mg EpiPen®, and after 20 min, his right forefinger was swollen. The swelling improved 80 min after the accidental injection. CASE 3 was noted in a 4-year-old girl. She accidentally injected herself with 0.15 mg EpiPen®. Her systolic/diastolic pressure peaked at 23 min to reach 123/70 mmHg and decreased to 96/86 mmHg at 28 min. Severe adverse effects of accidental auto-injection of adrenaline were not observed in these three cases. Our findings suggest that while handling adrenaline auto-injectors, we should keep in mind the possibility of accidental injection.

  14. A descriptive study of accidental skeletal injuries and non-accidental skeletal injuries of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Maha A H; Moustafa, Tarek A; Megahed, Haidy M; Salama, Naglaa; Ghitani, Sara A

    2018-02-01

    Lack of awareness and recognition of child maltreatment is the major reason behind underreporting. All victims often interact with the health care system for routine or emergency care. In several research works, non-accidental fractures are the second most common injury in maltreated children and it is represented up to one-third of cases. To determine the incidence of different types of accidental and non-accidental skeletal injuries among children, estimate the severity of injuries according to the modified injury severity score and to determine the degree of fractures either closed or opened (Gustiloe-Anderson open fracture classification). Moreover, identifying fractures resulting from child abuse and neglect. This aimed for early recognition of non-accidental nature of fractures in child maltreatment that can prevent further morbidity and mortality. A descriptive study was carried out on all children (109) with skeletal injuries who were admitted to both Main Alexandria and El-Hadara Orthopedic and Traumatology University Hospitals during six months. History, physical examination and investigations were done for the patients. A detailed questionnaire was taken to diagnose child abuse and neglect. Gustiloe-Anderson open fracture classification was used to estimate the degree of open fractures. Out of 109 children, twelve cases (11%) were categorized as child maltreatment. One case was physical abuse, eight cases (7.3%) were child neglect and three cases (2.8%) were labour exploitation. Road traffic accidents (RTA) was the commonest cause of skeletal injuries followed by falling from height. Regarding falls, they included 4 cases of stair falls in neglected children and another four cases of falling from height (balcony/window). The remaining 36 cases of falls were accidental. The skeletal injuries were in the form of fractures in 99 cases, dislocation in two cases, both fracture and/or dislocation in three cases, and bone deformity from brachial plexus injury

  15. In situ transmission electron microscope studies of ion irradiation-induced and irradiation-enhanced phase changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Motivated at least initially by materials needs for nuclear reactor development, extensive irradiation effects studies employing transmission electron microscopes (TEM) have been performed for several decades, involving irradiation-induced and irradiation-enhanced microstructural changes, including phase transformations such as precipitation, dissolution, crystallization, amorphization, and order-disorder phenomena. From the introduction of commercial high voltage electron microscopes (HVEM) in the mid-1960s, studies of electron irradiation effects have constituted a major aspect of HVEM application in materials science. For irradiation effects studies two additional developments have had particularly significant impact; the development of TEM specimen holder sin which specimen temperature can be controlled in the range 10-2200 K and the interfacing of ion accelerators which allows in situ TEM studies of irradiation effects and the ion beam modification of materials within this broad temperature range. This paper treats several aspects of in situ studies of electron and ion beam-induced and enhanced phase changes and presents two case studies involving in situ experiments performed in an HVEM to illustrate the strategies of such an approach of the materials research of irradiation effects

  16. Correlation of proton irradiation induced threshold voltage shifts to deep level traps in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Cardwell, D.; Sasikumar, A.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A., E-mail: ringel.5@osu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    The impact of proton irradiation on the threshold voltage (V{sub T}) of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is systematically investigated to enhance the understanding of a primary component of the degradation of irradiated high electron mobility transistors. The value of V{sub T} was found to increase monotonically as a function of 1.8 MeV proton fluence in a sub-linear manner reaching 0.63 V at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}. Silvaco Atlas simulations of V{sub T} shifts caused by GaN buffer traps using experimentally measured introduction rates, and energy levels closely match the experimental results. Different buffer designs lead to different V{sub T} dependences on proton irradiation, confirming that deep, acceptor-like defects in the GaN buffer are primarily responsible for the observed V{sub T} shifts. The proton irradiation induced V{sub T} shifts are found to depend on the barrier thickness in a linear fashion; thus, scaling the barrier thickness could be an effective way to reduce such degradation.

  17. Correlation of proton irradiation induced threshold voltage shifts to deep level traps in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Cardwell, D.; Sasikumar, A.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Speck, J. S.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of proton irradiation on the threshold voltage (VT) of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is systematically investigated to enhance the understanding of a primary component of the degradation of irradiated high electron mobility transistors. The value of VT was found to increase monotonically as a function of 1.8 MeV proton fluence in a sub-linear manner reaching 0.63 V at a fluence of 1 × 1014 cm-2. Silvaco Atlas simulations of VT shifts caused by GaN buffer traps using experimentally measured introduction rates, and energy levels closely match the experimental results. Different buffer designs lead to different VT dependences on proton irradiation, confirming that deep, acceptor-like defects in the GaN buffer are primarily responsible for the observed VT shifts. The proton irradiation induced VT shifts are found to depend on the barrier thickness in a linear fashion; thus, scaling the barrier thickness could be an effective way to reduce such degradation.

  18. Correlation of proton irradiation induced threshold voltage shifts to deep level traps in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Cardwell, D.; Sasikumar, A.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of proton irradiation on the threshold voltage (V T ) of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is systematically investigated to enhance the understanding of a primary component of the degradation of irradiated high electron mobility transistors. The value of V T was found to increase monotonically as a function of 1.8 MeV proton fluence in a sub-linear manner reaching 0.63 V at a fluence of 1 × 10 14  cm −2 . Silvaco Atlas simulations of V T shifts caused by GaN buffer traps using experimentally measured introduction rates, and energy levels closely match the experimental results. Different buffer designs lead to different V T dependences on proton irradiation, confirming that deep, acceptor-like defects in the GaN buffer are primarily responsible for the observed V T shifts. The proton irradiation induced V T shifts are found to depend on the barrier thickness in a linear fashion; thus, scaling the barrier thickness could be an effective way to reduce such degradation.

  19. The dose, temperature, and projectile-mass dependence for irradiation-induced amorphization of CuTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, J.; Okamoto, P.R.; Rehn, L.E.; Meshii, M.

    1989-01-01

    CuTi was irradiated with 1-MeV Ne + , Kr + , and Xe + in the temperature range from 150 to 563 K. The volume fraction of the amorphous phase produced during room temperature irradiation with Ne + and Kr + ions was determined as a function of ion dose from measurements of the integrated intensity of the diffuse ring in electron diffraction patterns. The results, analyzed by Gibbons' model, indicate that direct amorphization occurs along a single ion track with Kr + , but the overlapping of three ion tracks is necessary for amorphization with Ne + . The critical temperature for amorphization increases with increasing projectile mass from electron to Ne + to Kr + . However, the critical temperatures for Kr + and Xe + irradiations were found to be identical, and very close to the thermal crystallization temperature of an amorphous zone embedded in the crystalline matrix. Using the present observations, relationships between the amorphization kinetics and the displacement density along the ion track, and between the critical temperature and the stability of the irradiation-induced damage, are discussed

  20. Report on fundamental modeling of irradiation-induced swelling and creep in FeCrAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohnert, Aaron A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dasgupta, Dwaipayan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wirth, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-23

    In order to improve the accident tolerance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel, alternative cladding materials have been proposed to replace zirconium (Zr)-based alloys. Of these materials, there is a particular focus on iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys due to much slower oxidation kinetics in high-temperature steam than Zr-alloys. This should decrease the energy release due to oxidation and allow the cladding to remain integral longer in the presence of high temperature steam, making accident mitigation more likely. As a continuation of the development for these alloys, the material response must be demonstrated to provide suitable radiation stability, in order to ensure that there will not be significant dimensional changes (e.g., swelling), as well as quantifying the radiation hardening and radiation creep behavior. In this report, we describe the use of cluster dynamics modeling to evaluate the defect physics and damage accumulation behavior of FeCrAl alloys subjected to neutron irradiation, with a particular focus on irradiation-induced swelling and defect fluxes to dislocations that are required to model irradiation creep behavior.

  1. Role of L-carnitine in Ameliorating the Cadmium Chloride and/or Irradiation-Induced Testicular Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of oxidative stress in chronic administration of CdCl2 and/or irradiation toxicity and its prevention by pretreatment with L-carnitine was investigated. Adult male rats were administered with CdCl2 (3 mg/kg S.C. three times a week for three weeks) and /or irradiated at (2 Gy) dose level of gamma radiation. CdCl2 administration and/or irradiation induced cellular damage was indicated by significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme (LDH-X), glutathione level (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity (GSH-PX) as well as significant increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) in testicular tissues. Administration of L-carnitine (200 mg/kg I.P.) 1 hr before CdCl2 and/or irradiation, ameliorated the decrease in LDH-X, GSH and GSH-PX and the increase in MDA induced by CdCl2 and/or irradiation indicating the prophylactic action of L-carnitine on CdCl2 and /or irradiation toxicity. Various studies have indicated that cadmium is a potent heavy metal carcinogen in experimental animals (Poirier et al., 1983 and Waalkes et al..,1988) and is possibly carcinogenic in human populations exposed either occupationally or environmentally (Bako et al., 1982). Target sites for cadmium carcinogenesis in rodents have been shown to include testes after parenteral exposure (Poirier et al., 1983 and Waalkes et al., 1988) and lung after chronic inhalation (Takenaka et al., 1983)

  2. Demonstration of the astral post accidental code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmon, P.; Mourlon, C.

    2003-01-01

    . The results proposed by ASTRAL can in turn be saved in its database, on the user's request, in order to be processed by other tools such as Geographical Information Systems, which enable spatial analysis and map production. Such maps are very helpful in crisis situations to decision makers since by answering to questions of a 'where?' type, at a given time, they complete the information delivered by ASTRAL, which answers to questions of a 'when?' type, at a given site. This is why a link to ASTRAL has been constructed in CARTINFO, an IRSN tool dedicated to mapping results for its Crisis Technical Center. Thus the CONRAD, ASTRAL and CARTINFO softwares constitute a chain for IRSN's Crisis Technical Center, calculating transfers through the environment and consequences of an atmospheric accidental radionuclide release. The development of this version started in 1999 and has been subject to a quality assurance program. The identified customers and users have been associated in a control committee expressing needs, validating choices and checking the good progress of the project. The programming is currently being validated by test scenarios that check the equations, parameters, functionalities and navigation through the screens. The technology and architecture chosen for the second version of ASTRAL are different from the previous ones. It now uses an internet technology and is of a three-third type, the software requiring an Oracle database, a Microsoft web server and a consultation station. These choices offer important advantages: the spreading and maintenance of the tool are very easy. In fact, once the server and the database have been installed an a network, the users only need a web browser to run the code. The initial installation and the updating are thus no more to be made an every user station, but only on the server and/or the database; the code may be installed on a portable computer, which hosts the database, the internet server and the web browser. This

  3. Inhibition of Cartilage Acidic Protein 1 Reduces Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced-Apoptosis through P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Yinghong Ji; Xianfang Rong; Dan Li; Lei Cai; Jun Rao; Yi Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation can easily induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) and further lead to various eye diseases including cataract. Here for the first time, we investigated the role of cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) gene in UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Methods: Three groups of HLECs were employed including model group, empty vector group, and CRTAC1 interference group. Results: After UVB irradiation, the percentage of primary ap...

  4. Effect of interaction between irradiation-induced defects and intrinsic defects in the pinning improvement of neutron irradiated YBaCuO sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topal, Ugur; Sozeri, Huseyin; Yavuz, Hasbi

    2004-01-01

    Interaction between the intrinsic (native) defects and the irradiation-induced defects created by neutron irradiation was examined for the YBCO sample. For this purpose, non-superconducting Y-211 phase was included to the Y-123 samples at different contents as a source of large pinning center. The critical current density enhancement with the irradiation for these samples were analysed and then the role of defects on pinning improvement was discussed

  5. Effect of interaction between irradiation-induced defects and intrinsic defects in the pinning improvement of neutron irradiated YBaCuO sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topal, Ugur; Sozeri, Huseyin; Yavuz, Hasbi

    2004-08-01

    Interaction between the intrinsic (native) defects and the irradiation-induced defects created by neutron irradiation was examined for the YBCO sample. For this purpose, non-superconducting Y-211 phase was included to the Y-123 samples at different contents as a source of large pinning center. The critical current density enhancement with the irradiation for these samples were analysed and then the role of defects on pinning improvement was discussed.

  6. Effects of wearing bio-active material coated fabric against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damaged in Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jung Ae; Kim, Hye Rim; Yoon, Sun Hye; Nam, Sang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Jang, Beom Su; Go, Kyung Chan; Yang, Gwang Wung; Rho, Young Hwan; Park, Hyo Suk

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes cellular damage and death through the direct damage and/or indirectly the production of ROS, which induces oxidative stress. This study was designed to evaluate the in vivo radioprotective effects of a bio-active material coated fabric (BMCF) against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Healthy male SD rats wore bio-active material coated (concentrations in 10% and 30%) fabric for 7 days after 3 Gy of γ-irradiation. Radioprotective effects were evaluated by performing various biochemical assays including spleen and thymus index, WBC count, hepatic damage marker enzymes [aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] in plasma, liver antioxidant enzymes, and mitochondrial activity in muscle. Exposure to γ-irradiation resulted in hepatocellular and immune systemic damage. Gamma-irradiation induced decreases in antioxidant enzymes. However, wearing the BMCF-30% decreased significantly AST and ALT activities in plasma. Furthermore, wearing the BMCF-30% increased SOD (superoxide dismutase) and mitochondrial activity. These results suggest that wearing BMCF offers effective radioprotection against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in SD rats

  7. RhNRG-1β Protects the Myocardium against Irradiation-Induced Damage via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxin Gu

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD, which is a serious side effect of the radiotherapy applied for various tumors due to the inevitable irradiation of the heart, cannot be treated effectively using current clinical therapies. Here, we demonstrated that rhNRG-1β, an epidermal growth factor (EGF-like protein, protects myocardium tissue against irradiation-induced damage and preserves cardiac function. rhNRG-1β effectively ameliorated irradiation-induced myocardial nuclear damage in both cultured adult rat-derived cardiomyocytes and rat myocardium tissue via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. By activating ErbB2, rhNRG-1β maintained mitochondrial integrity, ATP production, respiratory chain function and the Krebs cycle status in irradiated cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the protection of irradiated cardiomyocytes and myocardium tissue by rhNRG-1β was at least partly mediated by the activation of the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway. Long-term observations further showed that rhNRG-1β administered in the peri-irradiation period exerts continuous protective effects on cardiac pump function, the myocardial energy metabolism, cardiomyocyte volume and interstitial fibrosis in the rats receiving radiation via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. Our findings indicate that rhNRG-1β can protect the myocardium against irradiation-induced damage and preserve cardiac function via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway.

  8. Effects of wearing bio-active material coated fabric against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damaged in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Ae; Kim, Hye Rim; Yoon, Sun Hye; Nam, Sang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Jang, Beom Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Go, Kyung Chan; Yang, Gwang Wung; Rho, Young Hwan; Park, Hyo Suk [Research and Development Center, VENTEX Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes cellular damage and death through the direct damage and/or indirectly the production of ROS, which induces oxidative stress. This study was designed to evaluate the in vivo radioprotective effects of a bio-active material coated fabric (BMCF) against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Healthy male SD rats wore bio-active material coated (concentrations in 10% and 30%) fabric for 7 days after 3 Gy of γ-irradiation. Radioprotective effects were evaluated by performing various biochemical assays including spleen and thymus index, WBC count, hepatic damage marker enzymes [aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] in plasma, liver antioxidant enzymes, and mitochondrial activity in muscle. Exposure to γ-irradiation resulted in hepatocellular and immune systemic damage. Gamma-irradiation induced decreases in antioxidant enzymes. However, wearing the BMCF-30% decreased significantly AST and ALT activities in plasma. Furthermore, wearing the BMCF-30% increased SOD (superoxide dismutase) and mitochondrial activity. These results suggest that wearing BMCF offers effective radioprotection against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in SD rats.

  9. Accidental deposition of local anaesthetic in the subdural space ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of accidental injection of local anaesthetic into the subdural space during neuraxial blockade is rare. The presentation of unexplainable clinical signs that do not match the clinical picture of subarachnoid or intravascular injection of the local anaesthetic agent should invoke high suspicion of unintentional ...

  10. Coincidence counting corrections for dead time losses and accidental coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1987-04-01

    An equation is derived for the calculation of the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting taking into account the dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The derivation is an extension of the method of J. Bryant [Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 14:143, 1963]. The improvement on Bryant's formula has been verified by experiment

  11. Brugada syndrome unmasked by accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranjcec, Darko; Bergovec, Mijo; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene SCN5A can cause Brugada syndrome (BrS), which is an inherited form of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient, with no previous medical history, who had ventricular fibrillation after accidental inhalation of gasoline...

  12. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah

    2014-01-01

    To test young children’s false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered 3 tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an “accidental transgressor” task, which measured a morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

  13. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  14. Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Enugu, South‑East, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental childhood poisoning is one of the recognized causes of ... are those undergoing the oral phase of their psychological development. .... Palm oil ingestion and induction of emesis were the most commonly used ... poisoning. Kerosene is found in most homes in Nigeria as it is the ... Ingestion of coconut water. 2. 3.1.

  15. Accidental hand grenade blast injuries in the Transkei region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Study: Accidental hand grenade blast injuries in the Transkei region of South Africa. 348. Vol 51 No 4. SA Fam ... There is some evidence that a substantial number of small arms and hand grenades ... Unfortunately, the safety device was ...

  16. Accidental administration of Syntometrine in adult dosage to the newborn.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, M F; Salfield, S A

    1980-01-01

    The clinical course is described of an infant who accidentally received an adult dose of Syntometrine (synthetic oxytocin + ergometrine) at delivery. The infant soon became ill with convulsions and ventilatory failure, and later with water intoxication. Similar reported cases are reviewed and recommendations are given for the management of future cases.

  17. Non-accidental injury: a review of the radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, H.

    1997-01-01

    There have been many descriptions of the radiological features of non-accidental injury since John Caffey introduced the concept of inflicted injury and initially described some of the patterns of injury. Since then, our understanding of the radiologically detectable injuries has increased. This article provides a review of our current understanding of the lesions. (orig.)

  18. Natural convection accidental conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmastro, D.F.; Clausse, A.

    1990-01-01

    Under certain conditions, wether accidental or in nuclear reactor design, a nuclear reactor core may be found to be refrigerated by a fluid in natural circulation. Before the possible density waves phenomenon occurrence, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the flow evolution and thermohydraulic variables under these conditions. (Author) [es

  19. Study of stowage of radioactive materials packagings in accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, G.; Gilles, P.; Phalippou, C.; Pouard, M.; Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1987-03-01

    The study of transport conditions shows that few data are available on accidental conditions. Two types of accidents are selected and defined by calculations and tests. Sizing of stowage is determined for a frontal shock (35 g deceleration), maintaining the packaging on the vehicle, and side shock rupture of the stowage system for a determined stress. Mathematical formulations are developed [fr

  20. Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Enugu, South‑East, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Accidental childhood poisoning is one of the recognized causes of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. The prevalence and type of substance ingested vary from place to place and over time. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining the frequency and ...

  1. Aplasia irreversible por el tratamiento con mesilato de Imatinib en una leucemia mieloide crónica: Presentación de un caso Irreversible aplasia due to the treatment with imatinib mesilate in a chronic myeloid leukemia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Agramonte Llanes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una paciente de 45 años de edad diagnosticada en marzo de 1984 como una leucemia mieloide crónica Ph + , BCR/ABL positivo, que llevó tratamiento con busulfán, hidroxiurea, interferón y arabinósido de citosina durante 15 años. En marzo del 2003 se diagnosticó fase de transformación y en abril se comenzó la administración de Imatinib en dosis de 600mg diarios. Evolutivamente presentó dolores óseos ligeros, edema palpebral y en el día 35 pancitopenia severa, que provocó la suspensión del tratamiento. Se tomaron muestras para medulograma y biopsia de médula ósea y se diagnosticó una aplasia medular severa. Se administró tratamiento con antibioticoterapia de amplio espectro, hemoderivados y factor estimulador de colonias granulocíticas. A pesar de estas medidas terapéuticas, la paciente falleció a los 46 días de suspendido el tratamiento con Imatinib, con un cuadro clínico de aplasia medular irreversible y distrés respiratorio, complicaciones atribuibles al ImatinibA 45-year-old female patient who was diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia Ph+ in March 1984, and had treatment with busulfan, hydroxyurea, interferon and cytosine arabinoside during 15 years is presented. In March 2003, the transformation stage was diagnosed and, in April, she began to receive imatinib at daily doses of 600 mg. Evolutively, she had mild bone pain, palpebral edema and, on the 35th day, severe pancytopenia that caused the suspension of the treatment. Bone marrow samples were taken by aspiration and biopsy, and a severe medular aplasia was diagnosed. Treatment with wide-spectrum antibiotic therapy, hemoderivates, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was applied. In spite of these therapeutic measures, the patient died 46 days after interrupting the treatment with imatinib, with a clinical picture of irreversible medular aplasia and respiratory distress, complications attributable to Imatinib

  2. Observaciones sobre accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sarmiento López

    1948-03-01

    Full Text Available En los tiempos antiguos no existía ley ni disposición alguna de carácter social que favoreciera a los trabajadores incapacitados por enfermedad o por accidente, por tanto, eran tratados como esclavos o considerados como animales. Los accidentes de trabajo y las enfermedades profesionales eran casi desconocidas antes de la introducción de la maquinaria en la industria, por lo cual no existía el derecho a indemnización por concepto de daños que sufriera el trabajador en el desempeño de sus labores. Solamente se conocen los edictos de Rotari (año 645 de la éra cristiana lanzados en Italia con el fin de reparar los accidentes de los obreros de la construcción y después, en la época del Renacimiento, algunas publicaciones que hablan de ciertas enfermedades de los trabajadores (Ellemborg 1473, Paracelso 1493-1541. Ya en la edad media la industria comenzó a tomar cierta importancia y dada la escasez de brazos, se vio obligado el patrón por fuerza de las circunstancias a prestar ayuda económica a los trabajadores incapacitados por una u otra causa. Los accidentes sucedidos en las industrias no se consideraban como de trabajo, por no conocerse el peligro que envolvía el empleo de la maqumana. En el siglo XVII y a principios del XVIII un médico italiano, Ramazzini habla del perjuicio que ocasionan ciertos trabajos en el organismo del individuo, produciendo alteraciones anatómicas y funcionales. Solamente a fines del siglo XVIII y a principios del XIX con la producción en masa, con el aumento del número de obreros y con la falta de protección, empezaron los accidentes de trabajo a hacerse notorios.

  3. Influence of ion beam irradiation induced defects on the structural, optical and electrical properties of tellurium nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Narinder [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa, 125055 (India); Department of Physics, Haryana College of Technology & Management, Kaithal, 136027 (India); Kumar, Rajesh [Department of Physics, RN College of Engineering & Technology, Madlauda, 132104 (India); Kumar, Sushil, E-mail: sushil_phys@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa, 125055 (India); Chakarvarti, S.K. [Research and Development, Manav Rachana International University, Faridabad, 121001 (India)

    2016-11-01

    In this study, tellurium nanowires were electrodeposited into the polymer membranes from aqueous acidic bath containing HTeO{sub 2}{sup +} ions. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images confirmed the formation of uniform and straight nanowires. The influence of 110 MeV Ni{sup 8+} ion irradiation induced defects on the structural, optical and electrical properties of as–deposited tellurium nanowires were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and current–voltage (I–V) measurements. The XRD data depicted the hexagonal phase of tellurium nanowires and further revealed a variation in the intensity of diffraction peaks of ion irradiated nanowires. Williamson–Hall (WH) analysis is used for convoluting the size and microstrain contributions to the width of diffraction peaks. Tellurium nanowires exhibited a distinct absorbance band in the visible region at 686 nm, while this was absent in bulk tellurium. Electrical properties of nanowires are explored on the basis of I–V curves, which revealed a significant increase in the electrical conductivity of irradiated nanowires. A possible mechanism for the enhanced electrical conductivity is the increase in carrier concentration due to thermally excited defects. The defects produced by ion irradiation play a vital role in modifying the properties of semiconducting nanowires. - Highlights: • 110 MeV Ni{sup 8+} ion beam induced changes in tellurium nanowires have been examined. • Nanowires were prepared using template electrodeposition method. • Irradiation improved the electrical conductivity of tellurium nanowires. • Mechanism for enhanced electrical conductivity of irradiated nanowires was discussed.

  4. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced phase transformation in undoped and niobium doped titanium dioxide composite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Subodh K., E-mail: subodhkgtm@gmail.com [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Chettah, Abdelhak [LGMM Laboratory, Université 20 Août 1955-Skikda, BP 26, 21000 Skikda (Algeria); Singh, R.G. [Department of Physics, Bhagini Nivedita College, Delhi University, Delhi 110043 (India); Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Study reports the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation induced phase transformation in undoped and Niobium doped anatase TiO{sub 2} composite thin films. Investigations were carried out at different densities of electronic excitations (EEs) using 120 MeV Ag and 130 MeV Ni ions irradiations. Films were initially annealed at 900 °C and results revealed that undoped films were highly stable in anatase phase, while the Nb doped films showed the composite nature with the weak presence of Niobium penta-oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) phase. The effect at low density of EEs in undoped film show partial anatase to rutile phase transformation; however doped film shows only further growth of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase beside the anatase to rutile phase transformation. At higher density of EEs induced by Ag ions, registered continuous ion track of ∼3 nm in lattice which leads to nano-crystallization followed by decomposition/amorphization of rutile TiO{sub 2} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} phases in undoped and doped films, respectively. However, Ni ions are only induced discontinuous sequence of ion tracks with creation of damage and disorder and do not show amorphization in the lattice. The in-elastic thermal spike calculations were carried out for anatase TiO{sub 2} phase to understand the effect of EEs on anatase to rutile phase transformation followed by amorphization in NTO films in terms of continuous and discontinuous track formation by SHI irradiation.

  5. Alpha-particle irradiation induced defects in SiO2 films of Si-SiO2 structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koman, B.P.; Gal'chynskyy, O.V.; Kovalyuk, R.O.; Shkol'nyy, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the work was to investigate alpha-particle irradiation induced defects in Si-SiO 2 structures by means of the thermostimulated discharge currents (TSDC) analysis. The object of investigation were (p-Si)-SiO 2 structures formed by a combined oxidation of the industrial p-Si wafers in dry and wet oxygen at temperature of 1150 C. The TSD currents were investigated in the temperature range between 90 and 500 K under linear heating rate. Pu 238 isotopes were the source of alpha-particles with an energy of 4-5 MeV and a density of 5.10 7 s -1 cm -2 . The TSD current curves show two peculiar maxima at about 370 and 480 K. Alpha-particle irradiation doesn't affect the general shape of the TSDC curves but leads to a shift of the maximum at 370 K and reduces the total electret charge which is accumulated in the Si-SiO 2 structures during polarization. The energy distribution function of the defects which are involved in SiO 2 polarization has been calculated. It showes that defects with activation energies of about 0.8 and 1.0 eV take part in forming the electret state, and these activation energies have certain energy distributions. It has been found that the TSDC maximum at 370 K has space charge nature and is caused by migration of hydrogen ions. In irradiated samples hydrogen and natrium ions localize on deeper trapping centres induced by alpha-particle irradiation. (orig.)

  6. Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells protect against UVA irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblast senescence, in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunli; Yuchi, Haishen; Sun, Lu; Zhou, Xiaoli; Lin, Jinde

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) exert a protective effect on ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblast (HDF) senescence. A senescence model was constructed as follows: HDFs (104–106 cells/well) were cultured in a six-well plate in vitro and then exposed to UVA irradiation at 9 J/cm2 for 30 min. Following the irradiation period, HDFs were co-cultured with HAMSCs, which were seeded on transwells. A total of 72 h following the co-culturing, senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining was performed and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were detected in the HDFs via flow cytometric analysis. The results demonstrated that the percentage of HDFs, detected via staining with X-gal, were markedly decreased when co-cultured with human HAMSCs, compared with the group that were not co-cultured. The ROS content was decreased and the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) recovered in cells treated with UVA and HAMSCs, compared with that of cells treated with UVA alone. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed the significant effects of HAMSCs on the HDF senescence marker genes p53 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNA expression. In addition to this, western blot analysis verified the effects of HAMSCs on UVA induced senescence, providing a foundation for novel regenerative therapeutic methods. Furthermore, the results suggested that activation of the extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway, is essential for the HAMSC-mediated UVA protective effects. The decrease in ROS content additionally indicated that HAMSCs may exhibit the potential to treat oxidative stress-mediated UVA skin senescence in the future. PMID:28627622

  7. Effect of He+ fluence on surface morphology and ion-irradiation induced defect evolution in 7075 aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Ma, Qian; Wan, Hao; Yang, Bin; Ge, Junjie; Zhang, Lingyu; Si, Naichao

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of microstructure for 7075 aluminum alloys with 50 Kev helium ions irradiation were studied by using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fluences of 1 × 1015, 1 × 1016 and 1 × 1017 ions cm-2 were selected, and irradiation experiments were conducted at room temperatures. The transmission process of He+ ions was simulated by using SRIM software, including distribution of ion ranges, energy losses and atomic displacements. Experimental results show that irradiated pits and micro-cracks were observed on irradiation sample surface, and the size of constituent particles (not including Mg2Si) decreased with the increasing dose. The x-ray diffraction results of the pair of peaks is better resolved in irradiated samples might indicate that the stressed structure consequence due to crystal defects (vacancies and interstitials) after He+ implantation. TEM observation indicated that the density of MgZn2 phase was significantly reduced after helium ion irradiation which is harmful to strength. Besides, the development of compressive stress produced a large amount of dislocation defects in the 1015 ions cm-2 sample. Moreover, higher fluence irradiation produced more dislocations in sample. At fluence of 1016 ions cm-2, dislocation wall formed by dislocation slip and aggregation in the interior of grains, leading to the refinement of these grains. As fluence increased to 1017 ions cm-2, dislocation loops were observed in pinned dislocation. Moreover, dislocation as effective defect sink, irradiation-induced vacancy defects aggregated to these sinks, and resulted in the formation of helium bubbles in dislocation.

  8. The effect of boron additions on irradiation-induced order changes in Ni3Al intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njah, N.; Gilbon, D.; Dimitrov, O.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of boron additions (0.1 wt%) on the kinetics of atomic order changes in a Ni 76 Al 24 intermetallic compound, under 1 MeV electron irradiation, were investigated at temperatures of 293 K and 410 K and displacement rates of 0.09 x 10 -3 to 4.7 x 10 -3 dpa.s -1 . In these irradiation conditions, a state of residual order was obtained for long irradiation times, characterized by a steady state order parameter S∞; it corresponds to a competition between two opposite features: irradiation disordering and thermal reordering enhanced by irradiation. Boron additions did not affect the efficiency of irradiation-induced disordering: the disordering cross-section (or, equivalently, the number of replacements per displacement var-epsilon) were comparable with and without a boron addition. By contrast, the S∞ values at 293 K were much lower in the alloy containing boron. Since boron does not change the disordering rate, the large difference between the values obtained in undoped and in boron-doped alloys shows that the reordering rate is strongly reduced by the presence of boron. Thus, boron modifies the mobility of the defects responsible for the irradiation-enhanced diffusion. The data on dislocation-loop size and the reordering kinetics suggest that vacancies are trapped by boron at low temperatures and immobilized, probably by the formation of a boron-vacancy complex. The effect becomes weaker at higher displacement rates and higher temperatures, probably due to the boron-vacancy complexes becoming unstable. It is proposed that two different reordering mechanisms may be operative at 293 K, according to the presence of boron: reordering is promoted by vacancy migration in the Ni 76 Al 24 alloy, whereas in the Ni 76 Al 24 (0.1 wt%B) alloy, it is promoted by the migration of split-interstitials or/and of low-mobility vacancy-boron complexes

  9. Leading global projects for professional and accidental project leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    This book is a must-read for anyone responsible for projects and initiatives that span functional and geographical divides. Authors Moran and Youngdahl bring extensive experience and learning from industry practice to present a clear and straightforward treatment of the leadership skills and knowledge required to lead projects that are global in nature. They have written the first book of its kind to address the three essential skills of global project leaders - strategic project management, project leadership, and cross-cultural leadership. The authors argue that global project leadership is an essential skill in our project-based world and that we are all either intentional or accidental project leaders. Intentional project leaders pursue formal project management education and even certification whereas accidental project leaders find themselves leading global projects and initiatives as a result of a special assignment or promotion. Moran and Youndahl have found that the vast majority of global projects ...

  10. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  11. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  12. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2014-04-09

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  13. Modeling investigation of the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of nanoscale precipitates in advanced structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Materials used in extremely hostile environment such as nuclear reactors are subject to a high flux of neutron irradiation, and thus vast concentrations of vacancy and interstitial point defects are produced because of collisions of energetic neutrons with host lattice atoms. The fate of these defects depends on various reaction mechanisms which occur immediately following the displacement cascade evolution and during the longer-time kinetically dominated evolution such as annihilation, recombination, clustering or trapping at sinks of vacancies, interstitials and their clusters. The long-range diffusional transport and evolution of point defects and self-defect clusters drive a microstructural and microchemical evolution that are known to produce degradation of mechanical properties including the creep rate, yield strength, ductility, or fracture toughness, and correspondingly affect material serviceability and lifetimes in nuclear applications. Therefore, a detailed understanding of microstructural evolution in materials at different time and length scales is of significant importance. The primary objective of this work is to utilize a hierarchical computational modeling approach i) to evaluate the potential for nanoscale precipitates to enhance point defect recombination rates and thereby the self-healing ability of advanced structural materials, and ii) to evaluate the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of such nanoscale precipitates resulting from enhanced point defect transport to and annihilation at precipitate interfaces. This project will utilize, and as necessary develop, computational materials modeling techniques within a hierarchical computational modeling approach, principally including molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo and spatially-dependent cluster dynamics modeling, to identify and understand the most important physical processes relevant to promoting the ''selfhealing'' or radiation resistance in advanced

  14. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced modifications in the optical band gap and Urbach's tail in polyaniline nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Somik; Kumar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Optical band gap and Urbach tail width of HCl and CSA doped polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers and the ion beam induced modifications in the band gap and Urbach's tail of the samples have been studied employing UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. All the major bands appearing in the FTIR spectra exhibit a decrease in intensity and broadening in their band widths upon interaction with the highly energetic ion beams. This suggests that SHI irradiation induces chain-scissioning events in the PAni nanofibers. An interesting result that comes out from the FTIR analysis is a transition from the benzenoid to quinoid states in the PAni chains, which reveals that there is a decrease in the degree of conjugation in the polymer upon irradiation. Optical absorption studies indicate three direct allowed transitions at ∼2.64, 3.61 and 4.08 eV for HCl doped PAni nanofibers and at ∼2.62, 3.49 and 4.02 eV for the CSA doped PAni nanofibers. The optical band gap is found to increase with increasing ion fluence which may be attributed to the reduction in the fiber diameters upon irradiation, which is corroborated by TEM analysis. Increase in the optical band gap also points out to a decrease in the conjugation length due to the larger torsion angles between the adjacent phenyl rings of the polymer with respect to the plane of the nitrogen atoms, which is also supported by FTIR results. The Urbach tail width decreases with increasing ion fluence indicating that structural disorders are annealed out of the PAni nanofibers which is also observed from the plots of (αhν) 2 against photon energy (hν) for HCl doped PAni nanofibers. The quantum confinement effect is confirmed by fact that a band gap exhibits a linear dependence on the inverse of the square of the radius of the PAni nanofibers. Infact, the increase in the optical band gap may be a combined effect of the decrease in the Urbach band width and the quantum confinement effect.

  15. Irradiation-Induced Cardiac Connexin-43 and miR-21 Responses Are Hampered by Treatment with Atorvastatin and Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Viczenczova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Radiation of the chest during cancer therapy is deleterious to the heart, mostly due to oxidative stress and inflammation related injury. A single sub-lethal dose of irradiation has been shown to result in compensatory up-regulation of the myocardial connexin-43 (Cx43, activation of the protein kinase C (PKC signaling along with the decline of microRNA (miR-1 and an increase of miR-21 levels in the left ventricle (LV. We investigated whether drugs with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or vasodilating properties, such as aspirin, atorvastatin, and sildenafil, may affect myocardial response in the LV and right ventricle (RV following chest irradiation. Adult, male Wistar rats were subjected to a single sub-lethal dose of chest radiation at 25 Gy and treated with aspirin (3 mg/day, atorvastatin (0.25 mg/day, and sildenafil (0.3 mg/day for six weeks. Cx43, PKCε and PKCδ proteins expression and levels of miR-1 as well as miR-21 were determined in the LV and RV. Results showed that the suppression of miR-1 was associated with an increase of total and phosphorylated forms of Cx43 as well as PKCε expression in the LV while having no effect in the RV post-irradiation as compared to the non-irradiated rats. Treatment with aspirin and atorvastatin prevented an increase in the expression of Cx43 and PKCε without change in the miR-1 levels. Furthermore, treatment with aspirin, atorvastatin, and sildenafil completely prevented an increase of miR-21 in the LV while having partial effect in the RV post irradiation. The increase in pro-apoptotic PKCδ was not affected by any of the used treatment. In conclusion, irradiation and drug-induced changes were less pronounced in the RV as compared to the LV. Treatment with aspirin and atorvastatin interfered with irradiation-induced compensatory changes in myocardial Cx43 protein and miR-21 by preventing their elevation, possibly via amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  16. Modeling investigation of the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of nanoscale precipitates in advanced structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-04-08

    Materials used in extremely hostile environment such as nuclear reactors are subject to a high flux of neutron irradiation, and thus vast concentrations of vacancy and interstitial point defects are produced because of collisions of energetic neutrons with host lattice atoms. The fate of these defects depends on various reaction mechanisms which occur immediately following the displacement cascade evolution and during the longer-time kinetically dominated evolution such as annihilation, recombination, clustering or trapping at sinks of vacancies, interstitials and their clusters. The long-range diffusional transport and evolution of point defects and self-defect clusters drive a microstructural and microchemical evolution that are known to produce degradation of mechanical properties including the creep rate, yield strength, ductility, or fracture toughness, and correspondingly affect material serviceability and lifetimes in nuclear applications. Therefore, a detailed understanding of microstructural evolution in materials at different time and length scales is of significant importance. The primary objective of this work is to utilize a hierarchical computational modeling approach i) to evaluate the potential for nanoscale precipitates to enhance point defect recombination rates and thereby the self-healing ability of advanced structural materials, and ii) to evaluate the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of such nanoscale precipitates resulting from enhanced point defect transport to and annihilation at precipitate interfaces. This project will utilize, and as necessary develop, computational materials modeling techniques within a hierarchical computational modeling approach, principally including molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo and spatially-dependent cluster dynamics modeling, to identify and understand the most important physical processes relevant to promoting the “selfhealing” or radiation resistance in advanced materials containing

  17. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF ACCIDENTAL FLOOD WAVES PROPAGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand Catalin STOENESCU

    2011-01-01

    The study presented in this article describes a modern modeling methodology of the propagation of accidental flood waves in case a dam break; this methodology is applied in Romania for the first time for the pilot project „Breaking scenarios of Poiana Uzului dam”. The calculation programs used help us obtain a bidimensional calculation (2D) of the propagation of flood waves, taking into consideration the diminishing of the flood wave on a normal direction to the main direction; this diminishi...

  18. A 'Puff' dispersion model for routine and accidental releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Rajkovic, B.; Milutinovic, P.

    1999-01-01

    A Puff dispersion model for accidental or routine releases is presented. This model was used as a constitutive part of an automatic meteorological station.All measured quantities are continuously displayed on PC monitor in a digital and graphical form, they are averaging every 10 minutes and sending to the civil information center of Belgrade. In the paper simulation of a pollutant plume dispersion from The oil refinery 'Pancevo', on April 18 th 1999 is presented. (author)

  19. La prevención de accidentes (3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1966-04-01

    Full Text Available The financial loss due to working accidents is very substantial, quite apart from the actual loss of human lives. Hence avoiding these accidents is a most important matter. The accident index in the various industries shows a rate of increase that is larger than should be the case in proportion to the development of the industries concerned, and the larger number of employees. The fact that these indexes are smaller in many countries, however, shows that these accidents can be considerably reduced if suitable measures are taken to avoid them. In chapter 2 of our magazine, issue no. 178, a variety of reasons were discussed that may originate accidents, although these causes are not directly linked to the accident itself. In this article mention is made of some of the measures that can be taken in the handling of cutting and welding equipment, and also of inflammable liquids, to prevent possible accidents.El peso de los accidentes de trabajo sobre la economía supone cantidades muy grandes que, independientemente del inestimable valor de una vida humana, realzan la importancia de la prevención de accidentes. Los índices de accidentes muestran en diferentes industrias un crecimiento mayor de lo que debería corresponder proporcionalmente, habida cuenta del crecimiento laboral. El hecho de que en distintos países los índices sean inferiores, demuestra que se pueden conseguir buenos frutos si se concede primordial importancia a que los trabajos se realicen con las debidas medidas de seguridad. En el Capítulo 2, número 178 de esta Revista, se detallaron diversas causas que pueden originar un accidente sin estar ligadas en forma directa con una tarea determinada. En el presente trabajo se indican algunas de las medidas que deben observarse en el manejo de los equipos de soldadura y corte, así como en el transvase de líquidos inflamables.

  20. Compact fluorescent lamp phosphors in accidental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K. V. R.; Pallavi, S. P.; Ghildiyal, R.; Parmar, M. C.; Patel, Y. S.; Ravi Kumar, V.; Sai Prasad, A. S.; Natarajan, V.; Page, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    The application of lamp phosphors for accidental dosimetry is a new concept. Since the materials used in fluorescent lamps are good photo luminescent materials, if one can either use the inherent defects present in the phosphor or add suitable modifiers to induce thermoluminescence (TL) in these phosphors, then the device (fluorescent lamp) can be used as an accidental dosemeter. In continuation of our search for a suitable phosphor material, which can serve both as an efficient lamp phosphor and as a good radiation monitoring device, detailed examination has been carried out on cerium and terbium-doped lanthanum phosphate material. A 90 Sr beta source with 50 mCi strength (1.85 GBq) was used as the irradiation source for TL studies. The TL response as a function of dose received was examined for all phosphors used and it was observed that the intensity of the TL peak vs. dose received was a linear function in the dose range 0.1-200 Gy in each case. Incidentally LaPO 4 :Ce,Tb is a component of the compact fluorescent lamp marketed recently as an energy bright light source. Besides having very good luminescence efficiency, good dosimetric properties of these phosphors render them useful for their use in accidental dosimetry also. (authors)

  1. Intratracheal injection of adenovirus containing the human MNSOD transgene protects athymic nude mice from irradiation-induced organizing alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, Michael W.; Bray, Jenifer A.; Krager, Stephen; Berry, Luann M.; Gooding, William; Engelhardt, John F.; Zwacka, Ralf; Travis, Elizabeth L.; Greenberger, Joel S.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A dose and volume limiting factor in radiation treatment of thoracic cancer is the development of fibrosis in normal lung. The goal of the present study was to determine whether expression prior to irradiation of a transgene for human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) or human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) protects against irradiation-induced lung damage in mice. Methods and Materials: Athymic Nude (Nu/J) mice were intratracheally injected with 10 9 plaque-forming units (PFU) of a replication-incompetent mutant adenovirus construct containing the gene for either human MnSOD, human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) or LacZ. Four days later the mice were irradiated to the pulmonary cavity to doses of 850, 900, or 950 cGy. To demonstrate adenoviral infection, nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out with primers specific for either human MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD transgene on freshly explanted lung, trachea, or alveolar type II cells, and immunohistochemistry was used to measure LacZ expression. RNA was extracted on day 0, 1, 4, or 7 after 850 cGy of irradiation from lungs of mice that had previously received adenovirus or had no treatment. Slot blot analysis was performed to quantitate RNA expression for IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TGF-β, MnSOD, or Cu/ZnSOD. Lung tissue was explanted and tested for biochemical activity of MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD after adenovirus injection. Other mice were sacrificed 132 days after irradiation, lungs excised, frozen in OCT, (polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol mixture) sectioned, H and E stained, and evaluated for percent of the lung demonstrating organizing alveolitis. Results: Mice injected intratracheally with adenovirus containing the gene for human MnSOD had significantly reduced chronic lung irradiation damage following 950 cGy, compared to control mice or mice injected with adenovirus containing the gene for human Cu/ZnSOD or LacZ. Immunohistochemistry

  2. Ultraviolet B irradiation induces changes in the distribution and release of arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that derivatives of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, the eicosanoids, play an important role in the inflammatory responses of the human skin. To better understand the metabolic fate of fatty acids in the skin, the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation (280-320 nm) on the distribution and release of 14 C-labeled arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture was investigated. Ultraviolet B irradiation induced the release of all three 14 C-labeled fatty acids from the phospholipids, especially from phosphatidylethanolamine, and this was accompanied by increased labeling of the nonphosphorus lipids. This finding suggests that UVB induces a significant liberation of eicosanoid precursor fatty acids from cellular phospholipids, but the liberated fatty acids are largely reincorporated into the nonphosphorus lipids. In conclusion, the present study suggests that not only arachidonic acid but also dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid might be involved in the UVB irradiation-induced inflammatory reactions of human skin

  3. Irradiation induced surface segregation in concentrated alloys: a contribution; Contribution a l`etude de la segregation de surface induite par irradiation dans les alliages concentres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A new computer modelization of irradiation induced surface segregation is presented together with some experimental determinations in binary and ternary alloys. The model we propose handles the alloy thermodynamics and kinetics at the same level of sophistication. Diffusion is described at the atomistic level and proceeds vis the jumps of point defects (vacancies, dumb-bell interstitials): the various jump frequencies depend on the local composition in a manner consistent with the thermodynamics of the alloy. For application to specific alloys, we have chosen the simplest statistical approximation: pair interactions in the Bragg Williams approximation. For a system which exhibits the thermodynamics and kinetics features of Ni-Cu alloys, the model generates the behaviour parameters (flux and temperature) and of alloy composition. Quantitative agreement with the published experimental results (two compositions, three temperatures) is obtained with a single set of parameters. Modelling austenitic steels used in nuclear industry requires taking into account the contribution of dumbbells to mass transport. The effects of this latter contribution are studied on a model of Ni-Fe. Interstitial trapping on dilute impurities is shown to delay or even suppress the irradiation induced segregation. Such an effect is indeed observed in the experiments we report on Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Fe{sub 49}Ni{sub 50}Hf{sub 1} alloys. (author). 190 refs.

  4. Tranexamic acid suppresses ultraviolet B eye irradiation-induced melanocyte activation by decreasing the levels of prohormone convertase 2 and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yamate, Yurika; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medicinal amino acid used in skin whitening care. This study examined the effects of tranexamic acid on the melanocyte activation of the skin induced by an ultraviolet (UV) B eye irradiation. The eye or ear was locally exposed to UVB at a dose of 1.0 kJ/m(2) using a 20SE sunlamp after covering the remaining body surface with aluminum foil. UVB eye irradiation induced melanocyte activation of the skin, similar to that observed following UVB ear irradiation, which was suppressed by the administration of tranexamic acid treatment. The plasma α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) content was increased by UVB irradiation of the eye; however, the increase in α-MSH was suppressed by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, UVB eye irradiation induced the up-regulation of prohormone convertase (PC) 2 in the pituitary gland. Meanwhile, the increase in PC2 induced by UVB eye irradiation was suppressed by tranexamic acid treatment. These results clearly indicate that tranexamic acid decreases the expression of PC2, which cleavages from proopiomelanocortin to α-MSH in the pituitary gland, thereby suppressing melanocyte activation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Analysis of irradiation-induced stresses in coating layers of coated fuel particles for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kimio; Kikuchi, Teruo; Fukuda, Kousaku; Sato, Sadao; Toyota, Junji; Shiozawa, Shusaku; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Kashimura, Satoru.

    1991-07-01

    Irradiation-induced stresses in coating layers of coated fuel particles were analyzed by the MICROS-2 code for the fuels of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) under its operating conditions. The analyses were made on the standard core fuel (A-type) and the test fuels comprising the advanced SiC-coated particle fuel (B-1 type) and the ZrC-coated particle fuel (B-2 type). For the B-1 type fuel, the stresses were relieved due to the thicker buffer and SiC layers than for the A type fuel. The slightly decreased thickness of the fourth layer for the B-1 type than for the A type fuel had no significant effect on the stresses. As for the B-2 type fuel, almost the same results as for the B-1 type were obtained under an assumption that the ZrC layer as well as the SiC layer undergoes negligible dimension change within the analysis conditions. The obtained results indicated that the B-1 and B-2 type fuels are better than the A type fuel in terms of integrity against the irradiation-induced stresses. Finally, research subjects for development of the analysis code on the fuel behavior are discussed. (author)

  6. Protective effect of S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) on irradiation-induced inhibition of intestinal transport function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.S.; Ando, M.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) on whole-body irradiation-induced inhibition of intestinal transport function. The jejunal transport of fluid and sugars was studied in male Swiss-Webster mice before and 3 days after whole-body irradiation (1000 rads). The rates of glucose and water transport were decreased by 86 and 70%, respectively, in irradiated animals. However, the rate of transport of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3MG) was not affected. In mice receiving WR-2721 (500 mg/kg, ip) 15 to 30 min prior to whole-body irradiation, net water flux was unaffected and the rate of D-glucose transport was decreased only 8%. WR-2721 administered alone (500 mg/kg, ip) had no effect on either D-glucose transport or net water flux across the jejunal mucosa. The results suggest that WR-2721 protects against irradiation-induced inhibition of some intestinal transport functions

  7. Accidental outcomes guide punishment in a "trembling hand" game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiery Cushman

    Full Text Available How do people respond to others' accidental behaviors? Reward and punishment for an accident might depend on the actor's intentions, or instead on the unintended outcomes she brings about. Yet, existing paradigms in experimental economics do not include the possibility of accidental monetary allocations. We explore the balance of outcomes and intentions in a two-player economic game where monetary allocations are made with a "trembling hand": that is, intentions and outcomes are sometimes mismatched. Player 1 allocates $10 between herself and Player 2 by rolling one of three dice. One die has a high probability of a selfish outcome, another has a high probability of a fair outcome, and the third has a high probability of a generous outcome. Based on Player 1's choice of die, Player 2 can infer her intentions. However, any of the three die can yield any of the three possible outcomes. Player 2 is given the opportunity to respond to Player 1's allocation by adding to or subtracting from Player 1's payoff. We find that Player 2's responses are influenced substantially by the accidental outcome of Player 1's roll of the die. Comparison to control conditions suggests that in contexts where the allocation is at least partially under the control of Player 1, Player 2 will punish Player 1 accountable for unintentional negative outcomes. In addition, Player 2's responses are influenced by Player 1's intention. However, Player 2 tends to modulate his responses substantially more for selfish intentions than for generous intentions. This novel economic game provides new insight into the psychological mechanisms underlying social preferences for fairness and retribution.

  8. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  9. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Froehle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed.

  10. Radioactive releases into the environment under accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1976-01-01

    Although accidents involving the release of radioactive materials and the unplanned exposure of people can occur at any stage of the nuclear fuel cycle, most attention has been focused on reactor accidents. Although no power reactor accidents involving exposure of the public have yet occured, it should be recognized that the probability of such accidental releases cannot be reduced to zero. Since the inventory of radioactive materials in power reactors is very large, it is usual to postulate, for safety assessments, that a release of fission products takes place in spite of all protective measures. This postulated release is of importance for reactor siting and for preparing emergency plans. (HP) [de

  11. Biokinetics of radionuclides and treatment of accidental intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; Stradling, G.N.; Menetrier, F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the objectives and reviews the progress of EULEP Working Party 5, convened under the auspices of the European Union's Fifth Framework Programme, to 'cluster' two EU-supported contracts, Biokinetics and Dosimetry of Internal Contamination (BIODOS (EU Contract FIS5-1999-00214)) and Radionuclide Biokinetics Database (EULEP) ( RBDATA-EULEP (Concerted Action Contract FIS5-1999-00218), and two non-EU funded projects, Biokinetics of Radionuclides in Human Volunteers (RNHV (non-EU Funded Project) and Treatment of Accidental Intakes of Radionuclides (TAIR (part-funded by EULEP)). (author)

  12. Accidentes de trabajo en un hospital de agudos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Bermúdez B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: El mejor conocimiento de los determinantes y circunstancias de producción de los accidentes laborales, favorecerá la implantación de medidas correctoras. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la evolución temporal de los accidentes de trabajo (AT y determinar los factores de riesgo de baja médica en el Hospital Dr. Peset de Valencia. MÉTODOS: Descripción y análisis retrospectivo de los accidentes de trabajo producidos en el Hospital Dr. Peset de Valencia durante los años 1992 a 1995. Se estimó por métodos deterministas la tendencia y estacionalidad de las series (índices estacionales, IE. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística para identificar los factores pronósticos de baja médica y determinar su probabilidad de ocurrencia . RESULTADOS: Las tasas más elevadas de AT se produjeron entre los trabajadores de cocina y lavandería (10,00 AT por 100 trabajadores-año. Los AT con baja médica mantienen una tendencia cercana a cero siendo febrero el mes con I.E más elevado (IE=139,8. Los que cursan sin baja médica tienen una tendencia positiva (r²=0,23, p<0,0001, siendo mayo el mes de mayor siniestralidad (IE=134,2. La probabilidad de que el accidente curse con baja médica aumenta significativamente con la edad, cuando se produce por la tarde, si ha tenido lugar en cocina/lavandería, y si se trata de un esguince o tendinitis. CONCLUSIONES: la actuación sobre la siniestralidad en los AT que cursen con IT, debería centrarse sobre los trabajos menos cualificados y en las áreas de cocina y lavandería.

  13. Clinical perspectives on osteogenesis imperfecta versus non-accidental injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elaine Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although non-accidental injuries (NAI) are more common in cases of unexplained fractures than rare disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), ruling out OI and other medical causes of fracture is always indicated. The majority of OI patients can be diagnosed with the help of family history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. In particular, there are a few radiological findings which are seen more commonly in NAI than in OI which may help guide clinician considerations regarding the probability of either of these diagnoses. At the same time, molecular testing still merits careful consideration in cases with unexplained fractures without obvious additional signs of abuse. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Accidental exposure with X-ray diffraction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanez, O.; Blanco, D.

    1991-01-01

    The shutter on one of the windows of an X-ray diffraction apparatus was accidentally left open, exposing the worker to the radiation. The worker was wearing a dosimeter film, which was processed immediately to evaluate the potential risk. It was determined that the exposure rate was 350 Roentgen/minute on the skin surface, with corrections being made for the worker's thin clothing. It was concluded that in spite of the worker receiving a relative high dose, it did not reach the threshold value for producing deterministic effects such as cataracts, erythema, and skin damage

  15. Early diagnosis and monitoring of whole-body accidental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury-Herard, A.; Jullien, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the handling of accidental, acute or protracted, whole-body overexposures. It is complementary to the report DPS 86/07 SEAPS previously published. The criteria for initial classification, as a function of the mean absorbed dose, the clinical and paraclinical evaluation, the monitoring methods and the treatments to undertake are described successively. The basic components of the therapy are the intensive care of the hematological syndrome with blood products transfusions and anti-infection prophylaxy. The indications and conditions for bone-marrow grafts are also discussed [fr

  16. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor is provided wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release

  17. Evaluation and mitigation of accidental releases of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruessermann, K.

    1982-12-01

    One result of the workshop was, that even in the case of severe accident sequences in modern nuclear power plants (other facilities were not discussed), there will be enough time to take active measures in order to lower the emissions and to diminish the consequences inside and outside of the plant. On the whole, new evidence from Harrisburg show that previously estimated accidental emissions, especially of radiologically relevant nuclides, have been rather conservative and that much lower emissions are possible, if the above measures are considered. Under accident conditions, models to predict radiation exposure must be applied under the event of a short-term release. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  19. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  20. Simulation of pulsed accidental energy release in a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshanskii, V.A.; Ivanov, A.G.; Uskov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    At the present time the strength of the load-bearing members of VVER and fast reactors during a hypothetical accident is ordinarily investigated in model experiments [1]. A power burst during an accident is simulated by a nonnuclear exothermal reaction in water, which simulates the coolant and fills the model. The problem is to make the correct choice of the simulator of the accidental energy burst as an effective (i.e., sufficiently high working capacity) source of dangerous loads, corresponding to the conditions of an accident. What factors and parameters determine the energy release? The answers to these questions are contradictory

  1. Accidental fatal lung injury by compressed air: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayamane, Anand Parashuram; Pradeepkumar, M V

    2015-03-01

    Compressed air is being used extensively as a source of energy at industries and in daily life. A variety of fatal injuries are caused by improper and ignorant use of compressed air equipments. Many types of injuries due to compressed air are reported in the literature such as colorectal injury, orbital injury, surgical emphysema, and so on. Most of these injuries are accidental in nature. It is documented that 40 pounds per square inch pressure causes fatal injuries to the ear, eyes, lungs, stomach, and intestine. Openings of body are vulnerable to injuries by compressed air. Death due to compressed air injuries is rarely reported. Many cases are treated successfully by conservative or surgical management. Extensive survey of literature revealed no reports of fatal injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs caused by compressed air. Here, we are reporting a fatal event of accidental death after insertion of compressed air pipe into the mouth. The postmortem findings are corroborated with the history and discussed in detail.

  2. Accidental Beam Losses and Protection in the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Wenninger, J.

    2005-01-01

    At top energy (proton momentum 7 TeV/c) with nominal beam parameters, each of the two LHC proton beams has a stored energy of 350 MJ threatening to damage accelerator equipment in case of accidental beam loss. It is essential that the beams are properly extracted onto the dump blocks in case of failure since these are the only elements that can withstand full beam impact. Although the energy stored in the beams at injection (450 GeV/c) is about 15 times smaller compared to top energy, the beams must still be properly extracted in case of large accidental beam losses. Failures must be detected at a sufficiently early stage and initiate a beam dump. Quenches and power converter failures will be detected by monitoring the correct functioning of the hardware systems. In addition, safe operation throughout the cycle requires the use of beam loss monitors, collimators and absorbers. Ideas of detection of fast beam current decay, monitoring of fast beam position changes and monitoring of fast magnet current changes are discussed, to provide the required redundancy for machine protection

  3. Pathological Findings in Accidental Electrocution in a Horse (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Florin Gal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the veterinarians are dealing with a number of cases that require forensic expertise. Such a circumstance could be the accidental electrocution in animals, one of the causes of unnatural death. There is a scarcity with reference to the pathological findings in veterinary forensic medicine. In this paper, we present the main lesions that occurred in a horse with accidental electrocution that was presented for complete necropsy survey. A horse corpse was sent to the Pathology Department (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania for a full medical survey. Preliminary results and external examination: the body was in rigor mortis; from the nasal cavities drained out reddish foam and in the mouth was observed the presence of ingested feed (straw that was not chewed, suggesting a quick death. The findings detected after internal examination of the carcass were poor blood coagulability, haemorrhagic diathesis throughout the body, with haemorrhages of various sizes in different body regions (e.g., muscles of the withers, in the gluteal muscle, the mucosa of epiglottis, larynx, trachea, in the interstitium of the lung, and ecchymosis in the left kidney. Some other lesions detected were infarcts and haemorrhages in the fundic region of the stomach’s mucosa. In electrocution, haemorrhages are most often located in the respiratory tract, aspect observed in our case too. However, the diagnosis of electrocution has to corroborate the necropsy findings (which are not specific, with some other data such as the fulminant death and inspection of power source.

  4. Accidental Beam Losses and Protection in the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.; Working Group On Machine Protection

    2005-06-01

    At top energy (proton momentum 7 TeV/c) with nominal beam parameters, each of the two LHC proton beams has a stored energy of 350 MJ threatening to damage accelerator equipment in case of accidental beam loss. It is essential that the beams are properly extracted onto the dump blocks in case of failure since these are the only elements that can withstand full beam impact. Although the energy stored in the beams at injection (450 GeV/c) is about 15 times smaller compared to top energy, the beams must still be properly extracted in case of large accidental beam losses. Failures must be detected at a sufficiently early stage and initiate a beam dump. Quenches and power converter failures will be detected by monitoring the correct functioning of the hardware systems. In addition, safe operation throughout the cycle requires the use of beam loss monitors, collimators and absorbers. Ideas of detection of fast beam current decay, monitoring of fast beam position changes and monitoring of fast magnet current changes are discussed, to provide the required redundancy for machine protection.

  5. Letalidad por accidentes de trabajo en Villa Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gómez Vital

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se valora la problemática de la letalidad por accidentes laborales en la provincia de Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre 1987 y 1997. Se determinan las principales causas, y fue la conducta negligente del individuo la que más incidió. En los últimos años de la década del 80 se registraron más cantidad de muertes por accidentes de trabajo, los que ocurrieron fundamentalmente en el puesto laboral. Queda puntualizado el importante rol del equipo médico en instituciones laborales.The problem of letality from working accidents in the province of Villa Clara from 1987 to 1997 was evaluated. The main causes were also determined. Individual negligent behaviour proved to be the first cause. More deaths from working accidents were registered late in the 1980s. Most of these accidents occurred at the working place. It was stressed the important role played by the medical team at the working institutions

  6. Últimos perfiles del accidente de trabajo en misión

    OpenAIRE

    Poquet Catalá, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    En este trabajo se analiza desde un punto de vista de la doctrina judicial y jurisprudencial la construcción doctrinal del accidente de trabajo en misión como derivación del accidente de trabajo in itinere y como configuración propia del accidente de trabajo en sí. Así, se procede a la delimitación respecto del accidente in itinere, se realiza un análisis de los requisitos configuradores del mismo, tanto genéricos como específicos, así como la aplicabilidad de la presunción iuris tantum de la...

  7. Accidental head injuries in children under 5 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.; Fischer, T.; Chapman, S.; Wilson, B.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the type and nature of head injuries sustained by children under the age of 5 years who present to a busy accident and emergency (A and E) department following an accidental fall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included all children under the age of 5 years, who over an 8-month period were referred to our A and E Department with head injury following an accidental fall. Data were collected regarding the height of the fall, whether or not stairs were involved, the type of surface that the child landed on and the height of the child. This was correlated with any soft-tissue injury or skull fracture. RESULTS: A total of 72 children (aged 4 months to 4.75 years) fulfilled all the criteria for an accidental fall. The heights of the falls ranged from less than 50 cm to over 3 m, with the majority below 1 m. Of the falls, 49 were onto a hard surface and 23 were onto a soft surface. Of the 72 children, 52 had visible evidence of head injury, 35 (71%) of 49 being the result of falls onto hard surfaces and 17 (74%) of 23 onto soft (carpeted) surfaces. There was no significant difference in the type of surface that resulted in a visible head injury. A visible head injury was seen in all children who fell from a height of over 1.5 m and in 95% of children who fell over 1 m. Of the 72 children, 32 (44%) had skull radiographs performed in accordance with established guidelines and 4 (12.5%) were identified as having a fracture. Of the 3 linear parietal fractures 2 were inflicted by falls of just over 1 m (from a work surface) and 1 by a fall of 80 to 90 cm onto the hard-edged surface of a stone fire surround. The 4th was a fracture of the base of skull following a fall from more than 3 m (from a first-storey window). CONCLUSIONS: In the vast majority of domestic accidents children do not suffer significant harm. Skull fractures are rare and probably occur in less than 5% of cases. To cause a skull fracture the fall needs to be from over 1 m or, if from a

  8. Irradiation-induced regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in six human squamous cell carcinoma lines of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artman, Meri Tuuli

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is frequently used to treat squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), although, it can be unsuccessful due to radiation resistance of the tumor. Currently, there are no established predictive markers for radiation resistance in SCCHN. The aim of this work was to investigate PAI-1 and VEGF secretion as markers for radiation resistance in six human SCCHN cell lines. The cell lines differed in their basal secretion levels and in their in vitro radiation sensitivity. PAI-1 and VEGF levels increased after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. A significant correlation was detected between radiation-induced PAI-1 and VEGF secretion, which suggests that irradiation-induced secretion of PAI-1 and VEGF are partially regulated by related mechanisms. However, neither basal levels nor radiation-induced PAI-1 and VEGF secretion correlated with radiation resistance. Therefore, PAI-1 and VEGF are most likely not predictive markers for radiation resistance in SCCHN.

  9. Study of irradiation induced defects and phase instability in β phase of Zr Excel alloy with in-situ heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.; Yao, Z.; Kirk, M.A.; Daymond, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    In situ heavy ion irradiation with 1 MeV Kr"2"+ was carried out to study irradiation induced phase change and atomic lattice defects in theβ phase of Zr Excel alloy. No decomposition of β-Zr was observed under irradiation at either 200 "oC or 450 "oC. However, ω-Zr particles experienced shape change and shrinkage associated enrichment of Fe in the β/ω interface at 200 "oC irradiation but not at 450 "oC. The defect evolution in the β-phase was examined with single phase Zr-20Nb alloy. It was found that dislocation loops with Burgers vector 1/2 and both present in β-Zr under room temperature irradiation. (author)

  10. Study of irradiation induced defects and phase instability in β phase of Zr Excel alloy with in-situ heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H.; Yao, Z., E-mail: 12hy1@queensu.ca [Queen' s University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Kingston, ON (Canada); Kirk, M.A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Argonne, IL (United States); Daymond, M.R. [Queen' s University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    In situ heavy ion irradiation with 1 MeV Kr{sup 2+} was carried out to study irradiation induced phase change and atomic lattice defects in theβ phase of Zr Excel alloy. No decomposition of β-Zr was observed under irradiation at either 200 {sup o}C or 450 {sup o}C. However, ω-Zr particles experienced shape change and shrinkage associated enrichment of Fe in the β/ω interface at 200 {sup o}C irradiation but not at 450 {sup o}C. The defect evolution in the β-phase was examined with single phase Zr-20Nb alloy. It was found that dislocation loops with Burgers vector 1/2<111> and <001> both present in β-Zr under room temperature irradiation. (author)

  11. Chronic low-dose UVA irradiation induces local suppression of contact hypersensitivity, Langerhans cell depletion and suppressor cell activation in C3H/HeJ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestak, Rosa; Halliday, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that chronic low-dose solar-simulated UV radiation could induce both local and systemic immunosuppression as well as tolerance to a topically applied hapten. In this study, we have used a chronic low-dose UV-irradiation protocol to investigate the effects of UVA on the skin immune system of C3H/HeJ mice. Irradiation with UVA+B significantly suppressed the local and systemic primary contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to the hapten 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene. Furthermore, UVA+B reduced Langerhans cell (LC) and dendritic epidermal T cell (DETC) densities in chronically UV-irradiated mice. Ultraviolet A irradiation induced local, but not systemic, immunosuppression and reduced LC (32%) but not DETC from the epidermis compared to the shaved control animals. Treatment of mice with both UVA+B and UVA radiation also induced an impaired secondary CHS response, and this tolerance was transferable with spleen cells. (Author)

  12. Inhibition of Cartilage Acidic Protein 1 Reduces Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced-Apoptosis through P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Ji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ultraviolet B (UVB irradiation can easily induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs and further lead to various eye diseases including cataract. Here for the first time, we investigated the role of cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1 gene in UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Methods: Three groups of HLECs were employed including model group, empty vector group, and CRTAC1 interference group. Results: After UVB irradiation, the percentage of primary apoptotic cells was obviously fewer in CRTAC1 interference group. Meanwhile, inhibition of CRTAC1 also reduced both reactive oxygen species (ROS production and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, but the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm was increased in HLECs. Further studies indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and total antioxidative (T-AOC level were significantly increased in CRTAC1-inhibited cells, while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were significantly decreased. ELISA analysis of CRTAC1-inhibited cells showed that the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were significantly decreased, but the concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10 was significantly increased. Western blot analyses of eight apoptosis-associated proteins including Bax, Bcl-2, p38, phospho-p38 (p-p38, Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2, phospho-JNK1/2 (p-JNK1/2, calcium-sensing receptor (CasR, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII indicated that the inhibition of CRTAC1 alleviated oxidative stress and inflammation response, inactivated calcium-signaling pathway, p38 and JNK1/2 signal pathways, and eventually reduced UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Conclusion: These results provided new insights into the mechanism of cataract development, and demonstrated that CRTAC1 could be a potentially novel target for cataract treatment.

  13. Inhibition of Cartilage Acidic Protein 1 Reduces Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced-Apoptosis through P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinghong; Rong, Xianfang; Li, Dan; Cai, Lei; Rao, Jun; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation can easily induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) and further lead to various eye diseases including cataract. Here for the first time, we investigated the role of cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) gene in UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Three groups of HLECs were employed including model group, empty vector group, and CRTAC1 interference group. After UVB irradiation, the percentage of primary apoptotic cells was obviously fewer in CRTAC1 interference group. Meanwhile, inhibition of CRTAC1 also reduced both reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, but the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was increased in HLECs. Further studies indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total antioxidative (T-AOC) level were significantly increased in CRTAC1-inhibited cells, while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly decreased. ELISA analysis of CRTAC1-inhibited cells showed that the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly decreased, but the concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was significantly increased. Western blot analyses of eight apoptosis-associated proteins including Bax, Bcl-2, p38, phospho-p38 (p-p38), Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2), phospho-JNK1/2 (p-JNK1/2), calcium-sensing receptor (CasR), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) indicated that the inhibition of CRTAC1 alleviated oxidative stress and inflammation response, inactivated calcium-signaling pathway, p38 and JNK1/2 signal pathways, and eventually reduced UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. These results provided new insights into the mechanism of cataract development, and demonstrated that CRTAC1 could be a potentially novel target for cataract treatment. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Transfer of accidentally released radionuclides in agricultural systems (TARRAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Maubert, Colle; Rauret, G.; Grandison, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this project is to contribute to the reliability of radiological assessment methods and establish a scientific base for the design of post-accident countermeasures. Three main aspects are considered in this project: A simulated accidental source term is used and the behaviour of aerosol deposits containing Sr, Cs and Ag isotopes are followed in some European soil-crop systems; the modification of radionuclide transfer rates through the food chain by well established food processing techniques is studied for Sr, Cs, Co and Ru; the project includes a study on the specific mediterranean diet and transfer data that are compared with currently used generic parameters. Seven contributions of the project for the reporting period are presented. (R.P.) 11 figs., 12 tabs

  15. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF ACCIDENTAL FLOOD WAVES PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorand Catalin STOENESCU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this article describes a modern modeling methodology of the propagation of accidental flood waves in case a dam break; this methodology is applied in Romania for the first time for the pilot project „Breaking scenarios of Poiana Uzului dam”. The calculation programs used help us obtain a bidimensional calculation (2D of the propagation of flood waves, taking into consideration the diminishing of the flood wave on a normal direction to the main direction; this diminishing of the flood wave is important in the case of sinuous courses of water or with urban settlements very close to the minor river bed. In the case of Poiana Uzului dam, 2 scenarios were simulated with the help of Ph.D. Eng. Dan Stematiu, plausible scenarios but with very little chances of actually producing. The results were presented as animations with flooded surfaces at certain time steps successively.

  16. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at IPNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, M.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose rates ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2,850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem

  17. Nuclear power: Accidental releases - principles of public health action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report is based on the collective knowledge and experience of the members of a Working Group, convened by WHO in collaboration with the Government of Belgium in Brussels on 23-27 November 1981, to discuss and appraise the different actions that might be taken following accidental radioactive releases from nuclear plants. It does not provide detailed technical data, but broadly surveys the rational basis for decision-making, indicating the present position as assessed by members of the Working Group. Four major disciplines (radiological protection, health physics, environmental science and technology, and human biology) and three main professional categories (physicians, engineers and physicists) were represented, providing a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to the topic. The purpose of this report is to give guidance to national authorities on how to develop the capacity to take action in a nuclear emergency

  18. Dose mortality relationships: implications for hypothetical accidental releases from FBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of the findings detailed in the most recent of a series of radiological studies of a liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (Kelly, G.N. Simmonds, J.R. Smith, H. and Stather, J.W., The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity to the dose-effect relationships adopted for early biological effects, Harwell, National Radiological Protection Board, NRPB-R87. London, HMSO (1979)). The results have indicated those areas where effort might be most profitably directed to improve the reliability of the predicted consequences. The composition of the released activity has been shown to have a marked influence on the sensitivity of the predicted consequences, and application of simple supportive medical treatment has a potential for reducing the predicted consequences by factors of up to an order of magnitude, depending on the composition of the release. (UK)

  19. Medicina legal: concepto pericial en un accidente de trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Uribe Cualla

    1935-03-01

    Full Text Available En la comunicación número 2249 de fecha 24 de noviembre de 1935, de la Oficina General del Trabajo, se dice lo siguiente: "Con carácter devolutivo y constante de 20 fojas útiles, me permito enviar a Ud. el expediente relacionado con la reclamación del señor S. G., por un accidente de trabajo, con el objeto de que esa ilustrada Oficina se sirva emitir su concepto sobre el caso del señor G. El Ministerio de Guerra niega la indemnización porque según dictamen de los Oficiales de Sanidad del Ejército, la lesión de G. no ha dejado incapacidad permanente, sino que es una incapacidad simulada.

  20. Brugada syndrome unmasked by accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjcec, Darko; Bergovec, Mijo; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien; Raguz, Miroslav; Pavlovic, Sonja; Jespersen, Thomas; Castella, Vincent; Keller, Dagmar I; Abriel, Hugues

    2007-10-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene SCN5A can cause Brugada syndrome (BrS), which is an inherited form of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient, with no previous medical history, who had ventricular fibrillation after accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors. His electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a typical type-1 BrS pattern that persisted after the acute event. Genetic investigations allowed the identification of a novel SCN5A mutation leading to a frame-shift and early termination of the channel protein. Biochemical and cellular electrophysiology experiments confirmed the loss-of-function of the mutant allele. The patient was implanted with a cardioverter/defibrillator.

  1. MULTIORGAN INJURY AFTER ACCIDENTAL POISONING WITH AUTUMN CROCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazd Lešničar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. A case of accidental poisoning with autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale that was misinterpreted for wild garlic (Allium ursinum is presented. Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be easily wrongly identified especially before blooming period as they have similar, pointed leaves.Results. Considering anamnestic data, clinical picture and laboratory findings in 43-yr-old female, a poisoning with the colchicine plant alkaloid was suspected. Later, it was confirmed by toxicology analyses (chromatography and spectrometry of the collected serum and urine samples. Severe initial gastrointestinal disorders progressed into ileus, bone-marrow suppression and multi-organ failure.Conclusions. After the patient had received a symptomatic treatment with granulocyte-directed growth factor and a suitable antibiotic therapy for secondary infection, she recovered within three weeks from the onset of condition. The most persistent problem was alopecia. The disease did not entailed any permanent sequellae which was confirmed 3 years after the patient was considered cured.

  2. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehryar Taghavi Gilani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  3. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Mehryar Taghavi; Zirak, Nahid; Razavi, Majid

    2014-10-01

    Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution) was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF) reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  4. Accidental intraoral formalin injection: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dandriyal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution. This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics.

  5. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, M.A. [Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Human Biochemistry, Uninversity of Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schnitman, M. [Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, French Hospital C.Milstein, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper we present the consequences of an accidental occupational radiation exposure at a local hospital in Buenos Aires. Control at a local radiology service showed the lack of correct shielding in the X-ray equipment. The physicians and technicians (14 persons) exposed to radiation during 12 months were examined. The survey shows that: a) In 11 out of 14 radiation-exposed patients nodular goiter developed and an additional patient had diffuse goiter which means a goiter incidence of 85.7%; b) In 5 of the nodular goiter patients an increase in the size or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up period. No cancer was detected by FNA; c) Hypothyroidism was observed in 3/14 patients, and an additional patient had an abnormal TRH-TSH test, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism; and d) Increased circulating antithyroid antibodies were found in one of the hypothyroid patients

  6. Control of radiation sources and general regulations for accidental situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimani, A.

    1998-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents caused by application of radiation sources the Tunisian O.N.P.C. established straightforward strategy made up of 3 phases: prevention, planning and intervention. Civil Protection conducts prevention studies of all radiation sources by examining normal application conditions as well as possible accidental situations. It keeps up with scientific, technical and statistical aspects of radiation risks, elaborates specific plans and programs for intervention operations and cooperates with administrative and security services as well as international organisations. The O.N.P.C. established a model intervention plan based on observation (according to preliminary information), evaluation of the situation (according to the head of operation) intervention (specialized units) and post intervention (testing of personnel)

  7. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Torres, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem

  8. Analysis of nano-sized irradiation-induced defects in Fe-base materials by means of small angle neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, G.

    2008-12-01

    Thermonuclear fusion of light atoms is considered since decades as an unlimited, safe and reliable source of energy that could eventually replace classical sources based on fossil fuel or nuclear fuel. Fusion reactor technology and materials studies are important parts of the fusion energy development program. For the time being, the most promising materials for structural applications in the future fusion power reactors are the Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steels for which the greatest technology maturity has been achieved, i.e., qualified fabrication routes, welding technology and a general industrial experience are almost available. The most important issues concerning the future use of RAFM steels in fusion power reactors are derived from their irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons that are the product, together with 3.5 MeV helium ions, of the envisaged fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium nuclei. Indeed, exposure of metallic materials to intense fluxes of 14 MeV neutrons will result in the formation of severe displacement damage (about 20-30 dpa per year) and high amounts of helium, which are at the origin of significant changes in the physical and mechanical properties of materials, such as hardening and embrittlement effects. This PhD Thesis work was aimed at investigating how far the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) technique could be used for detecting and characterizing nano-sized irradiation-induced defects in RAFM steels. Indeed, the resolution limit of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is about 1 nm in weak beam TEM imaging, and it is usually thought that a large number of irradiation-induced effects have a size below 1 nm in RAFM steels and that these very small defects actually contribute to the irradiation-induced hardening and embrittlement of RAFM steels occurring at irradiation temperatures below about 400 °C. The aim of this work was achieved by combining SANS experiments on unirradiated and irradiated specimens

  9. Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

    2012-02-10

    The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  10. Performance test of a portable TLD system for accidental doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihelic, M.; Stuhec, M.; Mitic, D.; Vekic, B.; Miljanic, S.; Ban, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A portable TLD measuring system was constructed at the J. Stefan Institute many years ago, motivated by the thread of a catastrophic nuclear event. It was designed for fast measurements in accidental dosimetry mainly for military and civil protection use. The system consists of a robust portable measuring unit built for measurements in field conditions, sized about 40 cm in diameter and weighting 5 kg. Dosimeters are based on CaF 2 :Mn ceramic tablets closed in water resistant plastic housings. In original design producer assured measuring range from cGy to kGy. Specially designed energy compensating filters are used to satisfy requirements for energy response from 0,1 to 3 MeV. Stability of readings is maintained with the temperature stabilized light source. Measuring time for manually driven heating-reading cycle of one dosimeter is about 30 sec. Many systems of the type with sets of dosimeters were stored unused for some years in depositories of different institutions. Modernization of equipment in last years raised questions of applicability of such measurement systems for contemporary needs. The system was thus tested in a secondary standards dosimetry laboratory for compliance with up to date requirements for accidental individual monitoring. Dosimeter characteristics as repeatability, linearity and directional response were of particular interest. As a result of the tests, technical improvements are suggested to extent systems measuring capabilities in order to meet new standards. Possibilities of its use in different fields of dosimetry are discussed, where quick in field measurements of high doses is required as for example in medicine or in civil protection motivated by the new threads of terrorist attacks. (author)

  11. Management options in the food chain for accidental radionuclide deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2005-12-01

    Finland with four other countries participated in the European Union's network project FARMING in 2000 - 2004. The aim of the project was to invite participants from each country representing the food supply chain in a stakeholder group and advance with the groups the networking in building preparedness for accidental contamination of the food production systems. The task of the groups was to evaluate the practicability of management options suggested for reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, and for disposal of waste generated in implementation of these options. The criteria for practicability were effectiveness in reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, technical feasibility, capacity, costs for implementation, secondary costs for waste disposal, socio-economic impact, and acceptability concerning ecology and protection of environment and landscape. Practicable management options aimed at sustainable restoration of food production systems after accidental contamination. The Finnish stakeholder group represented farm production, processing industry, food marketing, catering, advisor organisations for households and agriculture, consumers, nature conservation, the media, experts on environmental impact and authorities responsible for production, safety and security of foodstuffs, food supply and feedstuffs. The group was expected to examine the effect of the Finnish, and, also more generally, northern production conditions on the practicability of the suggested management options. The stakeholder group members first familiarized themselves with intervention after accidental contamination of a large milk production area and thereafter with practicability of individual management options. The evaluation was based on the group members' complementary expertise that very well covered the chain 'from field to fork' whether the issue was related to legislation, production methods, logistics, environmental impacts, or the issues of consumers and

  12. On the accuracy, uniqueness and implication of dimensionless accidental relations between fundamental constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahran, M.; Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman-OK,

    2002-01-01

    Ibrahim et al(1) found an accidental formula relating the gravitational coupling constant, the electromagnetic fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio. This work comments on such relation, in particular it studies the accuracy, uniqueness and unification implication of such accidental relation.(author)

  13. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  14. Accidental Durotomy in Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Frequency, Risk Factors, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Helge Klingler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the frequency, risk factors, and management of accidental durotomy in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF. Methods. This single-center study retrospectively investigates 372 patients who underwent MIS TLIF and were mobilized within 24 hours after surgery. The frequency of accidental durotomies, intraoperative closure technique, body mass index, and history of previous surgery was recorded. Results. We identified 32 accidental durotomies in 514 MIS TLIF levels (6.2%. Analysis showed a statistically significant relation of accidental durotomies to overweight patients (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2; P=0.0493. Patient age older than 65 years tended to be a positive predictor for accidental durotomies (P=0.0657. Mobilizing patients on the first postoperative day, we observed no durotomy-associated complications. Conclusions. The frequency of accidental durotomies in MIS TLIF is low, with overweight being a risk factor for accidental durotomies. The minimally invasive approach seems to minimize durotomy-associated complications (CSF leakage, pseudomeningocele because of the limited dead space in the soft tissue. Patients with accidental durotomy can usually be mobilized within 24 hours after MIS TLIF without increased risk. The minimally invasive TLIF technique might thus be beneficial in the prevention of postoperative immobilization-associated complications such as venous thromboembolism. This trial is registered with DRKS00006135.

  15. An accidental death due to electric grinder: Dupatta as a strangulation hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Herald D′Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidents could occur at home in any age group. Accidental ligature strangulation in adults could be prevented. We are reporting a case of a woman who died in her kitchen due to accidental strangulation by her dupatta while working with the electric grinder. This case highlights the need to educate the people about the safety and potential hazards of these machines.

  16. An accidental death due to electric grinder: Dupatta as a strangulation hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Herald D′Souza; Vina R Vaswani; Kishor Kumar Badiadka; Venkat Krishna Shenoy; Boban Babu

    2013-01-01

    Accidents could occur at home in any age group. Accidental ligature strangulation in adults could be prevented. We are reporting a case of a woman who died in her kitchen due to accidental strangulation by her dupatta while working with the electric grinder. This case highlights the need to educate the people about the safety and potential hazards of these machines.

  17. Accidental childhood poisoning in Calabar at the turn of the 20 th ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Accidental poisoning is a preventable cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Therefore, knowledge of the common causative agents is necessary in order to create awareness among caregivers towards its prevention. Objectives: To document the pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Calabar from ...

  18. Night work, long work weeks, and risk of accidental injuries. A register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann D; Hannerz, Harald; Møller, Simone V

    2017-01-01

    of the European Labour Force Survey from 1999-2013. The current study was based on 150 438 participants (53% men and 47% women). Data on accidental injuries were obtained at individual level from national health registers. We included all 20-59-year-old employees working ≥32 hours a week at the time...... of the interview. We used Poisson regression to estimate the relative rates (RR) of accidental injuries as a function of night work or long work weeks (>40 hours per week) adjusted for year of interview, sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), industry, and weekly working hours or night work. Age, sex and SES were....... No associations were found between long work weeks (>40 hours) and accidental injuries. Conclusion: We found a modest increased risk of accidental injuries when reporting night work. No associations between long work weeks and risk of accidental injuries were observed. Age, sex and SES showed no trends when...

  19. FACTORES DE RIESGO QUE OCASIONAN ACCIDENTES LABORALES EN EL PERSONAL DE ENFERMERÍA DE UNA CLÍNICA ACREDITADA DE LA CIUDAD DE AREQUIPA, 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    GARCIA SUTTA, PATRICIA CONCEPCION

    2014-01-01

    FACTORES DE RIESGO CONCEPTUALIZACIÓN TIPOS RIESGOS NO MECÁNICOS RUIDOS RADIACIONES IONIZANTES ILUMINACIÓN CALOR FRÍO RIESGOS FÍSICOS MECÁNICOS RIESGOS QUÍMICOS RIESGOS ERGONÓMICOS POSTURA RIESGOS BIOLÓGICOS CARGA DE TRABAJO LABORAL DEFINICIÓN ACCIDENTES LABORALES ACCIDENTE CAUSAS BÁSICAS Y CAUSAS INMEDIATAS ACCIDENTES LABORALES CAUSAS DE LOS ACCIDENTES TIPOS DE ACCIDENTE TIPOS DE ACCIDENTES LABORALES

  20. Factores de riesgo asociados a los accidentes en el hogar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Arlaes Yero

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico retrospectivo (caso-control sobre accidentes en el hogar ocurridos en la población de dos consultorios de médicos de familia del área centro en el municipio Sancti Spiritus, durante el año 1996. Se tuvo en cuenta la ocurrencia de estos eventos en la población general, la incidencia estuvo representada por 77 casos y se escogió como grupo control el resto de la población. Como resultado se observó que los accidentes del hogar (AH son más frecuentes en mujeres en edades avanzadas, con una distribución temporal mayor en el cuarto trimestre del año. Los AH fueron más frecuentes en los individuos que ingieren psicofármacos en las edades extremas de la vejez. El horario de ocurrencia más frecuente fue el de la tarde; y los lugares, la cocina y el patio. Como tipo de lesión predominó la contusión y la herida. Se concluyó además que la presencia de factores predisponentes constituyen riesgo de gran magnitud en la aparición de los AHAn analytical retrospective study (case-control about home accidents occurred among the population of 2 family physician’s offices in the central area of the municipality of Sancti Spiritus, during 1996, was conducted. The occurrence of such events in the general population was taken into account. Incidence was represented by 77 cases and the rest of the population was chosen as a control group. As a result, it was observed that home accidents were more frequent in aged women, with a greater temporary distribution in the fourth trimester of the year. Home accidents took place more frequently in those individuals taking psychotropic drugs a extreme advanced ages. Most of the accidents occurred in the afternoon, and the kitchen and the backyard were the commonest places. Contusions and wounds were the predominant injuries. It was concluded that the presence of predisposing factors is a high risk for the occurrence of home accidents

  1. La prevención de accidentes (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Everyone prefers to work in those organizations where their dignity of human beings is respected. One of the most efficient means at the disposal of any firm, to improve the morale of the individual employees, and to establish a spirit of cooperation between the individual and the firm, is to set up a program of accident benefit. It will avoid direct and indirect losses due to working accidents, as analyzed in a previous article, and it will make it possible to improve total performance of each worker, since he will work in a more favorable environment, free from worry about potential danger to his person. It is almost impossible to describe in detail all those items that should be taken into account in a safety program. None the less, and as an indication of their diversity, some sources of danger are mentioned in this chapter, which are closely connected with human safety, such as public curiosity, travelling from one place to another, cleanliness and order.Todas las personas prefieren desempeñar sus tareas en aquellas organizaciones que tienen hacia ellos las consideraciones correspondientes a un ser humano. Uno de los medios más eficaces a disposición de cualquier empresa para elevar la moral del individuo y para crear un lazo de cooperación común entre el individuo y la empresa, es la de llevar a cabo un programa de prevención de accidentes, programa que redundará en el doble fruto: evitar las pérdidas directas e indirectas causadas por los accidentes de trabajo que se detallaron en un trabajo anterior, y conseguir aumentar el rendimiento del operario al hacerle un ambiente más grato por la preocupación que se demuestra hacia su persona. Es casi imposible detallar todos aquellos puntos que se deben tener en cuenta en un programa de seguridad; sin embargo, y como exponente de su diversidad, se señalan en este capítulo algunas causas, que, sin estar ligadas directamente con el trabajo individual, no obstante se encuentran

  2. Detecting spatiotemporal clusters of accidental poisoning mortality among Texas counties, U.S., 1980 – 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Ann

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental poisoning is one of the leading causes of injury in the United States, second only to motor vehicle accidents. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the rates of accidental poisoning mortality have been increasing in the past fourteen years nationally. In Texas, mortality rates from accidental poisoning have mirrored national trends, increasing linearly from 1981 to 2001. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are spatiotemporal clusters of accidental poisoning mortality among Texas counties, and if so, whether there are variations in clustering and risk according to gender and race/ethnicity. The Spatial Scan Statistic in combination with GIS software was used to identify potential clusters between 1980 and 2001 among Texas counties, and Poisson regression was used to evaluate risk differences. Results Several significant (p Conclusion The findings of the present study provide evidence for the existence of accidental poisoning mortality clusters in Texas, demonstrate the persistence of these clusters into the present decade, and show the spatiotemporal variations in risk and clustering of accidental poisoning deaths by gender and race/ethnicity. By quantifying disparities in accidental poisoning mortality by place, time and person, this study demonstrates the utility of the spatial scan statistic combined with GIS and regression methods in identifying priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  3. Dental pain as a risk factor for accidental acetaminophen overdose: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jody; Heard, Kennon J; Carlson, Catherine; Lange, Chad; Mitchell, Garrett

    2011-11-01

    Patients frequent take acetaminophen to treat dental pain. One previous study found a high rate of overuse of nonprescription analgesics in an emergency dental clinic. The purpose of this study is to determine if patients with dental pain are more likely to be treated for accidental acetaminophen poisoning than patients with other types of pain. We conducted a case-control study at 2 urban hospitals. Cases were identified by chart review of patients who required treatment for accidental acetaminophen poisoning. Controls were self-reported acetaminophen users taking therapeutic doses identified during a survey of emergency department patients. For our primary analysis, the reason for taking acetaminophen was categorized as dental pain or not dental pain. Our primary outcome was the odds ratio of accidental overdose to therapeutic users after adjustment for age, sex, alcoholism, and use of combination products using logistic regression. We identified 73 cases of accidental acetaminophen poisoning and 201 therapeutic users. Fourteen accidental overdose patients and 4 therapeutic users reported using acetaminophen for dental pain. The adjusted odds ratio for accidental overdose due to dental pain compared with other reasons for use was 12.8 (95% confidence interval, 4.2-47.6). We found that patients with dental pain are at increased risk to accidentally overdose on acetaminophen compared with patients taking acetaminophen for other reasons. Emergency physicians should carefully question patients with dental pain about overuse of analgesics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, Mario A.; Schnitman, M.A.; Buenos Aires Univ.; Hospital Frances, Buenos Aires

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: During a control of the safety measures at the Radiology Service in a local hospital in Buenos Aires, a lack of an appropriate shielding in the X-ray equipment was detected. Methods and Materials: Therefore studies were performed in the group of physicians and technicians exposed and in an age and sex matched group of non-exposed physicians and technicians. Check-ups included thyroid sonography, circulating thyroid hormones, TSH and thyroid antibodies. The exposed group included 9 females and 5 males, while the non-exposed group comprised 8 females and 5 males. Results: No thyroid abnormalities were found in the non-exposed patients. On the contrary in the exposed cohort in 11 out of 14 patients nodular goiter was diagnosed, while an additional patient presented diffuse goiter. In 5 out of the 12 patients with goiter, nodule growth or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up. Four patients presented changes in thyroid function: two had elevated basal TSH with increased titters of anti TPO antibodies in one, while another showed an abnormal TRH-TSH test. A fourth patient had low total T 4 values. Other abnormalities included: sperm abnormalities in 2 out of the 5 males, dry-eye syndrome in other two, mammary nodules in one female and a basocellular epithelioma in another one. Conclusions: accidental irradiation leads to thyroid abnormalities, such as the appearance of nodules and alterations in thyroid function. (author)

  5. Accidental over-exposure from dental X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B G [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1976-07-01

    A description is given of an unusual dental X-ray procedure which resulted in accidental over-exposure both to the dentist and to several of his patients when a short-circuit was present in newly-installed equipment. The short-circuit by-passed the exposure control and energized the tube for certain orientations of the X-ray tube. The dentist left the patients, who wore protective aprons, to initiate the exposure themselves, using the control button. Although the warning lights were on, the dentist was not present in the room during the exposure, and the over-exposures were only detected when the developed X-ray films were found to be completely blackened. A reconstruction of the procedure enabled estimates to be made of the dose equivalents to the dentist's body and to the skin of the head, the eyes and the gonads of the patients. The dentist had overlooked several of basic principles recommended in the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons against Ionizing Radiations from Medical and Dental Use (1972). It is pointed out that incidents involving failure of dental equipment (usually the timer mechanism) are not infrequent.

  6. Effectiveness of cleanup criteria relative to an accidental nuclear release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of an accidental nuclear release, the associated long-term radiological risks would result primarily from ground contamination pathways. Cleanup of the contaminated ground surfaces is a necessary step toward reducing the radiological risk to the general population. Ideally, the radiological risk decreases as the level of cleanup effort increases; however, as the cleanup criterion (i.e., the required contaminant concentration after cleanup) becomes more stringent, the cleanup effort may become prohibitively costly. This study examines several factors that are important in determining the effectiveness of the cleanup criteria for selected radionuclides: (a) annual individual dose commitment (mrem/yr), (b) total population environmental dose commitment (person-rem), and (c) total area (km 2 ) requiring cleanup following an accident. To effectively protect the general population, the benefits of cleanup should be weighed against the potentially large increase in cleanup area (and the associated costs) as the cleanup criterion becomes more stringent. The effectiveness of cleanup will vary, depending largely on site-specific parameters such as population density and agricultural productivity as well as on the amount and type of radionuclide released. Determination of an optimum cleanup criterion should account for all factors, including a comprehensive cost/benefit analysis

  7. Forecasting accidental marine pollution drift: the French operational plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.; Poitevin, J.; Tiercelin, C.; Marchand, M.

    1998-01-01

    In case of accidental marine pollution, Cedre and Meteo-France, within the framework of their own public service missions, provide assistance to the French authorities in charge of pollution response. Meteo-France has developed a numerical marine oil pollution transport model, named MOTHY, designed to simulate the transport of oil in three dimensions. A hydrodynamic ocean model is linked to an oil spill model including current shear, vertical movements and fate of the oil. The use of a global atmospheric model for atmospheric forcing enables world-wide application of the model. This oil spill response system has been operational since February 1994. In case of marine pollution, Meteo-France send meteorological forecasts and oil spill drift forecasts to Cedre. In return, by its experimentations and interventions on actual pollution, Cedre is contributing to the improvement and validation of the model. New developments, exercises and training are conducted jointly. This paper summarizes the key features of MOTHY and presents some examples of model applications. (author)

  8. Accidental ovarian autograft after a laparoscopic surgery: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, G; Quintana, R; Rueda-Leverone, N G; Vighi, S

    1997-08-01

    To report an autograft of ovarian tissue in the incision of the surgical trocar during laparoscopic surgery and to assess the potentiality of grafting of ovarian parenchyma in nonpelvic tissue in humans. A case report. Instituto de Fertilidad y Ginecología de Buenos Aires (IFER), Buenos Aires, Argentina. Infertile patient undergoing surgery due to an endometriotic cyst of the left ovary. Laparoscopic cystectomy. Accidental retention of a portion of the capsule and adjacent ovarian tissue of the endometrioma in SC cellular tissue. Months after surgery, a SC tumor was formed under the surgical incision. It was subsequently excised. Observation of tumor growth during menstrual cycles and ovulation induction; anatomopathologic study of the tissue after its extirpation. The tumor grew spontaneously in the periovulatory period and during treatments of ovulation induction. The anatomopathologic report of the tumor, removed 15 months after the first surgery, revealed functioning ovarian tissue with vessels of neoformation. This is the first description of autografted ovarian tissue in humans. We describe that the ovary can maintain its ovulatory function even in the absence of its pedicel. Also, we suggest that extirpation of surgical material through the incision of the trocar is not recommended, as the possibility of "sowing" or of autografts may occur.

  9. Pre-accidental situations highlighted by RECUPERARE method and data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matahri, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    RECUPERARE method has been developed for operating feedback analysis and built on the French Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) principles. It is used to study the causes of human errors or technical failures occurred in French PWRs and the recovery process of events. Based on an event classification (6 categories) model according to the nature of the link between failure and recovery, the identified and recorded data are: the causes of the defects (technical, human, organizational) and the context in which they appear; the factors of the recovery performance (depending on technical and organizational aspects); a chronological analysis, designed to collect delays between failures and their detection/recovery for each event. About 3600 events reported in French PWRs (1997-2003) had been reviewed through this model. Initially, the weight of factors and the most important factors, which influenced the detection and recovery delay, are defined. For this purpose, the regression Partial Least Square (PLS) is used. Then, to link RECUPERARE results with pre-accidental data, conditional probabilities of events linked between them by a cause and effect relationship are calculated. For this, the Bayesian method with the Bayesian network is built with the PLS obtained results and applied. This constitutes a first approach to take into account in HRA the human and organizational factors highlighted by operating feedback. (author)

  10. Taking in account of contextual parameters in post accidental radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Maubert, H.; Bernie, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The consequences on agricultural or breeding products of a radioactive accidental release are strongly linked to the context in which radioactive deposits occur: for example conditions of deposition in relation with agricultural and feeding schedules. These contextual parameters lead to a variation of results given by models greater than transfer factors uncertainties. For example, cow milk contamination stretches on several decades during the months following deposit as a function of feeding practices. In the same way, if a wheat plant receives the deposit during grain development, harvested grains will have a contamination level 10 3 to 10 4 times higher that if deposition occurs before the growing stage. To create a decision support system like the ASTRAL software, the need to realize a modelling of these contextual parameters has been encountered. Moreover, to help experts for evaluations, default informations relative to agricultural and breeding practices for France are given through databases. However, in case of a real accident, it would be important to re-initialize these contextual parameters which change from year to year, in order to obtain more precise assessments. (authors)

  11. Wind field forecast for accidental release of radiative materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Ling; Chen Jiayi; Cai Xuhui

    2003-01-01

    A meso-scale wind field forecast model was designed for emergency environmental assessment in case of accidental release of radiative materials from a nuclear power station. Actual practice of the model showed that it runs fast, has wind field prediction function, and the result given is accurate. With meteorological data collected from weather stations, and pre-treated by a wind field diagnostic model, the initial wind fields at different times were inputted as initial values and assimilation fields for the forecasting model. The model, in turn, worked out to forecast meso-scale wind field of 24 hours in a horizontal domain of 205 km x 205 km. And then, the diagnostic model was employed again with the forecasting data to obtain more detail information of disturbed wind field by local terrain in a smaller domain of 20.5 km x 20.5 km, of which the nuclear power station is at the center. Using observation data in January, April, July and October of 1996 over the area of Hangzhou Bay, wind fields in these 4 months were simulated by different assimilation time and number of the weather stations for a sensitive test. Results indicated that the method used here has increased accuracy of the forecasted wind fields. And incorporating diagnostic method with the wind field forecast model has greatly increased efficiency of the wind field forecast for the smaller domain. This model and scheme have been used in Environmental Consequence Assessment System of Nuclear Accident in Qinshan Area

  12. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  13. Assessment of accidental refinery wastewater discharge: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amitava [University of Calcutta, Department of Chemical Engineering, Kolkata (India)

    2011-04-15

    The physicochemical qualities of an accidental discharge of refinery liquid waste, water, and soil sediment of that effluent-receiving water body (canal) were investigated. Analyses of the discharge, qualities of water, and sediment of the canal showed high parametric concentrations. Investigations revealed that the discharge took place form the spent caustic that was generated from the caustic wash tower of Fluidized Catalytic Cracker of the refinery. A simple but realistic model was suggested for the remediation of sediments of the canal with an estimated cost of about US $1.86 million. Recommendations were made to prevent such discharges and to revise thoroughly the Indian effluent discharge standards in force for petroleum oil refinery. Subsequently, revised standards were notified under Indian guidelines. Interestingly, cyanide besides many other parameters was introduced into these standards. Furthermore, Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) was also stipulated as an emission parameter from the waste water treatment plants. Concentration- and mass-based standards thus promulgated were stricter than the existing standards. (orig.)

  14. Calidad de vida de cuidadores de adultos con accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INNA ELIDA FLÓREZ TORRES

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la calidad de vida de los cuidadores familiares de adultos con secuelas de accidente cerebrovascular, en Cartagena, Colombia. Método: estudio descriptivo cuantitativo realizado durante el segundo semestre de 2008. Muestra no probabilística por conveniencia de 97 cuidadores. Se empleó el instrumento propuesto por Ferrell et ál. Para valorar cada uno de los bienestares que integran la calidad de vida se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y coeficiente de variación. Resultados: el grupo de cuidadores presentó en el bienestar físico un promedio de 11,1 con relación al máximo puntaje, lo que indica el peor estado de salud; los bienestares psicológico y social tuvieron promedios de 48,8 y 21,9, respectivamente, con menor afectación. El mejor estado se halló en el bienestar espiritual, con promedio de 22,6. Conclusiones: la experiencia de ser cuidador modifica de manera importante la calidad de vida de las personas; los cuidadores, como fuente importante de cuidado informal, requieren apoyo de los sistemas de salud y, como parte de este, de los profesionales de enfermería.

  15. Pre-accidental situations highlighted by RECUPERARE method and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matahri, N.

    2006-01-01

    RECUPERARE method has been developed for operating feedback analysis and built on the French Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) principles. It is used to study the causes of human errors or technical failures occurred in French PWRs and the recovery process of events. Based on an event classification (6 categories) model according to the nature of the link between failure and recovery, the identified and recorded data are: the causes of the defects (technical, human, organizational) and the context in which they appear; the factors of the recovery performance (depending on technical and organizational aspects); a chronological analysis, designed to collect delays between failures and their detection/recovery for each event. About 3600 events reported in French PWRs (1997-2003) had been reviewed through this model. Initially, the weight of factors and the most important factors, which influenced the detection and recovery delay, are defined. For this purpose, the regression Partial Least Square (PLS) is used. Then, to link RECUPERARE results with pre-accidental data, conditional probabilities of events linked between them by a cause and effect relationship are calculated. For this, the Bayesian method with the Bayesian network is built with the PLS obtained results and applied. This constitutes a first approach to take into account in HRA the human and organizational factors highlighted by operating feedback. (author)

  16. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafihelan Javad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed.

  17. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  18. Prolonged Toxic Encephalopathy following Accidental 4-Aminopyridine Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ballesta Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP is a drug that is used to improve motor fatigue in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS. Medication error can occur, as commercial preparation may not be available in some countries. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old woman with progressive MS presented with status epilepticus. She was receiving 4-AP for more than 3 years. The symptoms started soon after the ingestion of a single pill that was supposed to contain 10 mg 4-AP, but further investigations revealed that each pill had been inadvertently prepared with an 100 mg 4-AP concentration. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU for appropriate management (orotracheal intubation, sedation, and antiepileptic drugs. The first electroencephalogram (EEG showed abundant irregular spike-waves on the left central regions. Neurological condition gradually improved from day 7, while the EEG did not reveal any more electrical seizures but was still consistent with toxic encephalopathy. The patient stayed in the ICU until day 13. At discharge from the rehabilitation ward (2.5 months later, the patient had not yet recovered her previous cognitive and functional condition. Conclusion. A single 100 mg 4-AP accidental overdose may cause serious immediate complications, with a slow and incomplete neurological recovery.

  19. Radioprotection of whole-body γ-irradiation-induced alteration in some haematological parameters by cysteine, vitamin E and their combination in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, A.A.; Hassan, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Radioprotective effect of cysteine, vitamin E and their combination on γ-irradiation-induced alteration in some haematological parameters in male rats has been studied 24 and 48 hrs after whole-body γ-irradiation at a dose level of 7.5 Gy. The results of this study reveal that γ-irradiation caused a significant decrease in red blood cells (RBCs) count with insignificant change in hemoglobin level, 24 and 48 hrs postirradiation, γ-irradiated rats showed as well a progressive decrease in their blood ATP, and serum-SH levels with a significant increase in blood glutathione (GSH) level. Administration of cysteine or vitamin E preceeding γ-radiation exposure gave a significant radioprotection to the above haematological parameters. However, combination of both agents afforded a better protection, so that most of the measured parameters were restored to the pre-irradiated values. Finally, the data demonstrate that the radioprotection provided by combined adminsistration of vitamin E and cysteine is feasible and perhaps, even more efficient against radiation injury to RBCs. This will appreciate the usage of such combination in protecting the patient during radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  20. First-principles investigation of neutron-irradiation-induced point defects in B4C, a neutron absorber for sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yan; Yoshida, Katsumi; Yano, Toyohiko

    2018-05-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a leading candidate neutron absorber material for sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactors owing to its excellent neutron-capture capability. The formation and migration energies of the neutron-irradiation-induced defects, including vacancies, neutron-capture reaction products, and knocked-out atoms were studied by density functional theory calculations. The vacancy-type defects tend to migrate to the C–B–C chains of B4C, which indicates that the icosahedral cage structures of B4C have strong resistance to neutron irradiation. We found that lithium and helium atoms had significantly lower migration barriers along the rhombohedral (111) plane of B4C than perpendicular to this plane. This implies that the helium and lithium interstitials tended to follow a two-dimensional diffusion regime in B4C at low temperatures which explains the formation of flat disk like helium bubbles experimentally observed in B4C pellets after neutron irradiation. The knocked-out atoms are considered to be annihilated by the recombination of the close pairs of self-interstitials and vacancies.

  1. Investigation of irradiation induced inter-granular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility on austenitic stainless steels for PWR by simulated radiation induced segregation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, Toshio; Fujimoto, Koji; Kanasaki, Hiroshi; Iwamura, Toshihiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago R and D Center, Takasago, Hyogo (Japan); Nakada, Shizuo; Ajiki, Kazuhide [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Urata, Sigeru [General Office of Nuclear and Fossil Power Production, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    An Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) has not been found in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). However, the authors have investigated on the possibility of IASCC so as to be able to estimate the degradation of PWR plants up to the end of their lifetime. In this study, the authors melted the test alloys whose bulk compositions simulated the grain boundary compositions of irradiated Type 304 and Type 316 CW stainless steels. Low chromium, high nickel and silicon (12%Cr-28%Ni-3%Si) steel showed high susceptibility to PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking) by SSRT (Slow Strain Rate Tensile) test in simulated PWR primary water. PWSCC susceptibility of the test steels increases with a decrease of chromium content and a increase of nickel and silicon contents. The aged test steel included coherent M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides with matrices at the grain boundaries showed low PWSCC susceptibility. This tendency is in very good agreement with that of the PWSCC susceptibility of nickel based alloys X-750 and 690. From these results, if there is the possibility of IASCC for austenitic stainless steels in PWRs, in the future, the IASCC shall be caused by the PWSCC as a result of irradiation induced grain boundary segregation. (author)

  2. Preparation and electrical-property characterization of poly(vinyl chloride)-derived carbon nanosheet by ion beam irradiation-induced carbon clustering and carbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Kim, Hyo-Sub; Hwang, In-Tae; Lee, Hong-Joon; Shin, Junhwa; Choi, Jae-Hak

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrated that carbon nanosheet (CNS) can easily be produced by a room-temperature, solid-state proton irradiation-induced clustering of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films followed by carbonization. The results of the optical, chemical, and structural analyses revealed that oxidized and sp2-hybridized carbon clusters were effectively created in the PVC thin film by combined dehydrochlorination and inter-coupling reactions during proton irradiation. This was further converted to pseudo-hexagonally-structured nano-crystalline CNS with 2-D symmetry and metallic transporting character by high-temperature treatment. As a result, the CNS exhibited a very high electrical conductivity (587 S/cm) without a significant change in their thickness, a low surface roughness (0.36 nm), and a high work function (5.11 eV). These findings demonstrate that the radiation-based approach opens new avenues for the design and development of 2-D CNS as a graphene allotrope for the application of electronic devices, including field-effect transistors, electric heating devices, biosensors, supercapacitors, and fuel cells.

  3. High-resolution electron microscopy study of electron-irradiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transition in α-SiC single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, H.; Mori, H.; Sakata, T.

    1992-01-01

    An electron-irradiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous (CA) transition in α-SiC has been studied by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The irradiation-produced damage structure was examined as a function of dose of electrons by taking high-resolution maps extending from the unirradiated crystalline region to the completely amorphized region. In the intermediate region between those two regions, that is in the CA transition region, the damage structure was essentially a mixture of crystalline and amorphous phases. The volume fraction of the amorphous phase was found to increase with increasing dose of electrons and no discrete crystalline-amorphous interface was observed in the CA transition region. These facts indicate the heterogeneous and gradual nature of the CA transition. In the transition region close to the unirradiated crystalline region, a sort of fragmentation of the crystal lattice was observed to occur, crystallites with slightly different orientations with respect to the parent crystal were formed owing to the strain around the dispersed local amorphous regions. In the transition region close to the amorphized region, these crystallites were reduced in size and were embedded in an amorphous matrix. This damage structure is the result of the increased volume fraction of the amorphous phase. In the completely amorphized region, no lattice fringes were recognized in the HREM images. The atomistic process of the CA transition is discussed on the basis of the present results and those from previous studies. (Author)

  4. Recruitment of Gr1(+)CD11b (+)F4/80 (+) population in the bone marrow and spleen by irradiation-induced pulmonary damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanasegaran, Suganya; Ito, Sachiko; Nishio, Naomi; Uddin, Mohammad Nizam; Sun, Yang; Isobe, Ken-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury is a kind of sterile inflammation, which may lead to morbidity and mortality. The mechanism by which ionizing radiation activate the immune system is not well understood. In the present study, we have investigated the immunological responses induced by local irradiation-induced damage in mouse lung. The left lungs of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated at a high dose of 100 Gy. The histology of the lungs and spleen showed evidences of alveolar inflammation and congestion at 2 weeks after X-ray treatment. Also, prominent increase in cells expressing the cell surface markers, Gr(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) and Ly6C(+) Ly6G(+) were observed 2 weeks after X-ray treatment (100 Gy). Gr1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cell depletion by clodronate treatment reversed the histological effects and also failed to recruit Gr(+)CD11b(+) cells or F4/80(+) cells caused by irradiation. The origin of recruited Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells was found to be a mixed resident and recruited phenotype.

  5. Ion irradiation induced order-to-disorder transformations in δ-phase Sc4-xZr3+xO12+x/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Wang, Y.Q.; Tang, M.; Valdez, J.A.; Sickafus, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of stoichiometry on crystal structure transformations in derivative fluorite compounds known as delta (δ) phase. In this study, polycrystalline δ-phase ceramic pellets were prepared with stoichiometries given by Sc 4-x Zr 3+x O 12+x/2 (x = 0, 0.77 and 1.20) . The pressed and polished pellets were then irradiated under cryogenic conditions with 200 keV Ne + ions to fluences ranging from 1-5 x 10 14 Ne/cm 2 . An order-to-disorder (O-D) transformation was observed for all compositions, as determined using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). However, the transformation threshold dose was found to systematically decrease with increasing ZrO 2 content: ∼0.2, ∼0.16, and ∼0.08 dpa for Sc 4-x Zr 3+x O 12+x/2 with x = 0, 0.77, and 1.20, respectively. These irradiation-induced phase transformation results are discussed in terms of the crystal structure of the δ-phase.

  6. Identification of equilibrium and irradiation-induced defects in nuclear ceramics: electronic structure calculations of defect properties and positron annihilation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor, Julia

    2015-01-01

    During in-pile irradiation the fission of actinide nuclei causes the creation of large amounts of defects, which affect the physical and chemical properties of materials inside the reactor, in particular the fuel and structural materials. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) can be used to characterize irradiation induced defects, empty or containing fission products. This non-destructive experimental technique involves detecting the radiation generated during electron-positron annihilation in a sample and deducing the properties of the material studied. As positrons get trapped in open volume defects in solids, by measuring their lifetime and momentum distributions of the annihilation radiation, one can obtain information on the open and the chemical environments of the defects. In this work electronic structure calculations of positron annihilation characteristics were performed using two-component density functional theory (TCDFT). To calculate the momentum distributions of the annihilation radiation, we implemented the necessary methods in the open-source ABINIT program. The theoretical results have been used to contribute to the identification of the vacancy defects in two nuclear ceramics, silicon carbide (SiC) and uranium dioxide (UO 2 ). (author) [fr

  7. Study on expression of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2 in γ-ray irradiation-induced thymus lymphoma in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Dingde; Chen Qi; Han Ling; Cai Jianming; Li Bailong; Huang Yuecheng; Gao Jianguo; Sun Suping

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of SH2 domain containing-protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2 in γ-ray irradiation-induced thymus lymphoma in mice. Methods: Altogether 338 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into irradiation groups and controls. Irradiation groups which were irradiated with γ-rays included canceration groups confirmed with histology and uncanceration groups. The controls were fed synchronistically with irradiation groups. The expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 was detected with Western blot in thymus cells. Results: The expression of SHP-1 in canceration groups was much higher than that in uncanceration groups and controls significantly, while the expression of SHP-2 in canceration groups was higher than that in uncanceration groups and controls. When authors detected the expression of SHP-2 with Western blot, the authors found another protein with a molecular weight of 55x10 3 , which expression in canceration groups was higher than that in uncanceration groups and controls. Conclusion: The expression of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2 is significantly increased in canceration groups, suggesting that SHP-1 and SHP-2 may be related with γ-ray induced thymus lymphoma in mice. Further research is expected on the relationship between development of cancer and SHP-1 and SHP-2

  8. The effect of the antipsoriatic drug metabolite etretin (Ro 10-1670) on UVB irradiation induced changes in the metabolism of arachidonic acid in human keratinocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, Kari; Jansen, C.T.; Puustinen, Tapio

    1986-01-01

    [ 14 C]Arachidonic acid was avidly incorporated into human keratinocytes in culture and following exposure to UVB irradiation of 9 mJ/cm 2 (erythemally effective, EE) substantial amounts of 14 C-radiolabel were released from the cells. The release of radiolabel was accompanied by a decrease in the labelling of phosphatidylethanolamine whereas the labelling of triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters was increased. Keratinocytes produced significant amounts of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and following UVB irradiation of 9 mJ/cm 2 (EE) the formation of prostaglandin E 2 was increased. Etretin (Ro 10-1670), the active metabolite of the antipsoriatic drug etretinate (Ro 10-9359), affected significantly neither the total release of radiolabel induced by UVB nor the formation of prostaglandin E 2 . However, in the presence of etretin the UVB irradiation induced transfer of [ 14 C]arachidonic acid into triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters was not increased as much as in the corresponding experiments without etretin. On the basis of the present study it appears that etretin dose not interfere with the release of arachidonic acid in amounts which could be related to the therapeutic effects of the combination of retinoids with UVB irradiation (Re-UVB) in the treatment of psoriasis. (author)

  9. The effect of the initial microstructure in terms of sink strength on the ion-irradiation-induced hardening of ODS alloys studied by nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Binghuang; Heintze, Cornelia; Bergner, Frank; Ulbricht, Andreas; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Oñorbe, Elvira; de Carlan, Yann; Wang, Tieshan

    2017-11-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-Cr alloys are promising candidates for structural components in nuclear energy production. The small grain size, high dislocation density and the presence of particle matrix interfaces may contribute to the improved irradiation resistance of this class of alloys by providing sinks and/or traps for irradiation-induced point defects. The extent to which these effects impede hardening is still a matter of debate. To address this problem, a set of alloys of different grain size, dislocation density and oxide particle distribution were selected. In this study, three-step Fe-ion irradiation at both 300 °C and 500 °C up to 10 dpa was used to introduce damage in five different materials including three 9Cr-ODS alloys, one 14Cr-ODS alloy and one 14Cr-non-ODS alloy. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and nanoindentation testing were applied, the latter before and after irradiation. Significant hardening occurred for all materials and temperatures, but it is distinctly lower in the 14Cr alloys and also tends to be lower at the higher temperature. The possible contribution of Cr-rich α‧-phase particles is addressed. The impact of grain size, dislocation density and particle distribution is demonstrated in terms of an empirical trend between total sink strength and hardening.

  10. Irradiation-induced modification of the material parameters in magnesium-doped lithium niobate; Bestrahlungsinduzierte Modifikation der Materialparameter in Magnesiumdotiertem Lithiumniobat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentjens, Lena

    2010-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis the material properties of lithium niobate are directedly influenced by the irradiation with {sup 3}He ions with an energy of 40 MeV. In the first part the irradiation-induced material changes are intensively studied. Long-time stable changes of the refractive index are measured in the range of up to 6.10{sup -3}, which depend on the radiation dose and exhibit until now no saturation behaviour. Accompanied is this change by an also dose-dependent deformation as well as a brownish change of color of the crystals. Furthermore a by several orders of magnitude increased electrical dark- and photoconductivity, which depends on the ion dose and exhibits until now also no saturation behaviour. An effect independent on the ion dose is the reduction of the coercive field strength by about 10%. Furthermore it was stated the quantity of the effects not only depends on the absolute dose, but also on the irradiation direction in view of the crystallographic c-axis. The second part of this thesis deals with the generation of microscopic structures in lithium niobate. By an ion microbeam respectively a shiftable slit aperture the fabrication of refractive-index gratings is pursued. Grating with periodicity lengths in the range of 12-160 {mu}m could until now be detected and promise in comparison with photorefractive gratings the advance of larger stability.

  11. Thymosin alpha 1 (Ta-1) induction of spleen cell proliferation and production of interleukin 2 (IL2) after irradiation-induced depression of systematic cellular immunity (SCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.C.; Revie, D.R.; Oliver, J.H.; Hasslinger, B.J.; Suter, C.M.; Blanchard, C.L.; Goldstein, A.L.; Chretien, P.B.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the effects of Ta-1 on recovery from irradiation induced depression of SCI, C3H mice were given 400 rads (240kV) on each of 3 alternate days via head, chest and pelvic portals and assays performed 2 days after the last exposure. Compared with shams, total spleen cell counts and production of IL2, total peripheral blood lymphocyte and T-cell levels, and delayed type hypersensitivity to oxazolone (DTH-O) were all similarly depressed in the three portal groups (p < .0001). Following optimum doses of Ta-1, administered daily starting with the first day of irradiation, DTH-O in the head and chest groups was restored, but in the pelvic group was only partially corrected. Changes in total spleen cell counts and IL2 production paralleled and covaried with DTH-O (p < .0001). The results offer IL2 induced lymphocyte proliferation as a reparative mechanism after radiation-induced depression of SCI. The incomplete restoration of SCI in the pelvic group suggests that generation of IL2-producing spleen cells by Ta-1 requires pelvic and other bone marrow lymphocyte precursors

  12. Fact Sheet: Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Accidental Release Prevention / Risk Management Plan Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is required to publish regulations and guidance for chemical accident prevention at facilities that pose the greatest risk of harm from accidental releases of regulated flammable and toxic substances above threshold quantities.

  13. Individual dose due to radioactivity accidental release from fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Baojie [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Ni, Muyi, E-mail: muyi.ni@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Wei, Shiping [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Conservative early dose of different unit fusion radioactivity release were assessed. • Data of accident level in INES for fusion reactor were proposed. • Method of environmental restoration time after fusion accident was proposed. • The maximum possible accident level for ITER like fusion reactor is 6. • We need 34–52 years to live after the fusion hypothetical accident. - Abstract: As an important index shaping the design of fusion safety system, evaluation of public radiation consequences have risen as a hot topic on the way to develop fusion energy. In this work, the comprehensive public early dose was evaluated due to unit gram tritium (HT/HTO), activated dust, activated corrosion products (ACPs) and activated gases accidental release from ITER like fusion reactor. Meanwhile, considering that we cannot completely eliminate the occurrence likelihood of multi-failure of vacuum vessel and tokamak building, we conservatively evaluated the public radiation consequences and environment restoration after the worst hypothetical accident preliminarily. The comparison results show early dose of different unit radioactivity release under different conditions. After further performing the radiation consequences, we find it possible that the hypothetical accident for ITER like fusion reactor would result in a level 6 accident according to INES, not appear level 7 like Chernobyl or Fukushima accidents. And from the point of environment restoration, we need at least 69 years for case 1 (1 kg HTO and 1000 kg dust release) and 34–52 years for case 2 (1 kg HTO and 10kg–100 kg dust release) to wait the contaminated zone drop below the general public safety limit (1mSv per year) before it is suitable for human habitation.

  14. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  15. Nuclear power: Accidental releases - practical guidance for public health action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The disaster at Chernobyl, USSR, has caused a major crisis of confidence in nuclear safety, and highlighted the need for comprehensive contingency planning for - and emergency response to - such accidents. This report gives practical guidance on how the authorities should deal with an accident in any type of nuclear installation, whether it involves accidental releases to the air or into water. It is based on principles developed in a previous WHO report published in 1984. It summarizes the range of accidents for which plans need to be made to protect the public, the measures to be taken and the levels of dose at which they should be applied. It indicates how to measure the levels of exposure and what are the most likely routes of exposure. It then outlines the problems faced by public health authorities and medical practitioners, and the administrative arrangements that will have to be made. The example used is of a standard pressurized light water reactor of the type currently used for electricity generation, but many of the features will be common to other nuclear installations as well. This report is addressed to those organizations and individuals responsible for public health in the event of a nuclear accident. It will also be of use to those medical practitioners who are not administratively responsible in an accident, but who may need to be aware of the consequences and of the action to be taken in the aftermath of an accident. Coordination is vital between the public health administration and the organizations with direct responsibilities in the event of an accident, and this report is essential reading for them all. 29 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  16. Night work, long work weeks, and risk of accidental injuries. A register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ann D; Hannerz, Harald; Møller, Simone V; Dyreborg, Johnny; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2017-11-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the association between night work or long work weeks and the risk of accidental injuries and (ii) test if the association is affected by age, sex or socioeconomic status. Methods The study population was drawn from the Danish version of the European Labour Force Survey from 1999-2013. The current study was based on 150 438 participants (53% men and 47% women). Data on accidental injuries were obtained at individual level from national health registers. We included all 20-59-year-old employees working ≥32 hours a week at the time of the interview. We used Poisson regression to estimate the relative rates (RR) of accidental injuries as a function of night work or long work weeks (>40 hours per week) adjusted for year of interview, sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), industry, and weekly working hours or night work. Age, sex and SES were included as two-way interactions. Results We observed 23 495 cases of accidental injuries based on 273 700 person years at risk. Exposure to night work was statistically significantly associated with accidental injuries (RR 1.11, 99% CI 1.06-1.17) compared to participants with no recent night work. No associations were found between long work weeks (>40 hours) and accidental injuries. Conclusion We found a modest increased risk of accidental injuries when reporting night work. No associations between long work weeks and risk of accidental injuries were observed. Age, sex and SES showed no trends when included as two-way interactions.

  17. Concept of radiological, medical and social protection of the population of Russia affected by accidental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osechinski, I.V.; Ivanov, E.V.; Ramzaev, P.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Main principles of population radiation protection from various accidental exposure, including the Chernobyl accident, have been implemented in officially approved Concept ''On radiological, medical, social protection and rehabilitation of the Russian Federation population affected by accidental radiation exposure''. The concept includes basic principles of radiation protection, designation of regional radionuclide contaminated territories, records and registers of exposed persons, health protection and rehabilitation, socio-economic and legal aspects

  18. Risk assessment for stonecutting enterprises Accidental risks in the course of petroleum production and stone extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, A. J.; Timofeeva, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the assessment of accidental risks occurring at the works engaged in stone extracting and petroleum production. Two basic kinds of accidents common for stone extracting and petroleum production have been chosen to be discussed in the part under consideration. The most dangerous accidental situation characteristic for a stone milling line is an unsanctioned explosion, UE, of blasting agents used for the development of stone deposits. The analysis of a risk occurrence in certain accidental situations is to be carried out. With reference to petroleum extraction, a combustibles and lubricants (C & L) explosion is the most dangerous of characteristic accidental situations. To reveal the most probable causes of accidental situations to be realized, a graph of cause and effect relations has been constructed for each of the accidental situations most probable causes to real situation of an accident. Disasters of a natural origin are the most probable causes of unsanctioned explosions at the deposits of stone raw materials. Technology related natural disasters are the most probable causes of unsanctioned explosions to be realized at multiple well platforms engaged in petroleum production.

  19. Individual housing-based socioeconomic status predicts risk of accidental falls among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Euijung; Juhn, Young J; Wheeler, Philip H; Hathcock, Matthew A; Wi, Chung-Il; Olson, Janet E; Cerhan, James R; Takahashi, Paul Y

    2017-07-01

    Accidental falls are a major public health concern among people of all ages. Little is known about whether an individual-level housing-based socioeconomic status measure is associated with the risk of accidental falls. Among 12,286 Mayo Clinic Biobank participants residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, subjects who experienced accidental falls between the biobank enrollment and September 2014 were identified using ICD-9 codes evaluated at emergency departments. HOUSES (HOUsing-based Index of SocioEconomic Status), a socioeconomic status measure based on individual housing features, was also calculated. Cox regression models were utilized to assess the association of the HOUSES (in quartiles) with accidental fall risk. Seven hundred eleven (5.8%) participants had at least one emergency room visit due to an accidental fall during the study period. Subjects with higher HOUSES were less likely to experience falls in a dose-response manner (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.76 for comparing the highest to the lowest quartile). In addition, the HOUSES was positively associated with better health behaviors, social support, and functional status. The HOUSES is inversely associated with accidental fall risk requiring emergency care in a dose-response manner. The HOUSES may capture falls-related risk factors through housing features and socioeconomic status-related psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of a Case Involving Accidental Irradiation of a Human Being; Estudio de un Caso de Irradiacion Humana Accidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beninson, D.; Placer, A.; Vander Elst, E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1969-10-15

    A description is given of an accident involving extremely uneven irradiation (ranging from 50 rads to 1.7 Mrads), in which a worker carried a {sup 137}Cs source belonging to an industrial gamma radiography unit in his trouser pockets for a total period of 18 hours on 3 and 4 May 1968. Low irradiation of the haematopoietic and gastrointestinal organs inhibited the occurrence of the acute syndrome. The front of the thighs, the inguinoscrotal region, and to a lesser extent the hands, were the areas most affected by lesions. The radiation doses delivered to the affected areas were estimated from biological radiation dosimetry parameters (the extent and chronological order of some of the lesions) and from experimental data on the dose as a function of distance and depth of the tissues, obtained by reconstructing the accident with a phantom and a set of thermoluminescent dosimeters. The paper describes the appearance a few days later of wet radiation dermatitis covering areas which gradually grew until they reached approximately the limit represented by the 1000 rads isodose line. Progression of the radiation dermatitis was complete towards the end of May. At the beginning of June dry epidermal desquamation extending approximately as far as the 500 rads line was observed. With the passage of time there occurred muscular atrophy of both legs and extensive oedema of the inguinoscrotal area. The appearance of extensive femoral haemorrhages in November 1968 and January 1969 made it necessary to amputate first the lower left limb, and then the right. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood confirms the low doses absorbed by the blood system (about 50 rads). A summary of results of the analyses made is given, together with comments on the prognosis of the patient's development, based on the distribution of the radiation dose received. (author) [Spanish] Se describe un accidente de irradiacion fuertemente inhomogenea (del orden de 50 rad a 1,7 Mrad) en el

  1. Bilateral subdural hematoma secondary to accidental dural puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Ramírez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 25-year-old woman, who received epidural analgesia for labor pain and subsequently presented post-dural puncture headache. Conservative treatment was applied and epidural blood patch was performed. In the absence of clinical improvement and due to changes in the postural component of the headache, a brain imaging test was performed showing a bilateral subdural hematoma.The post-dural puncture headache is relatively common, but the lack of response to established medical treatment as well as the change in its characteristics and the presence of neurological deficit, should raise the suspicion of a subdural hematoma, which although is rare, can be lethal if not diagnosed and treated at the right time. Resumo: Apresentamos o caso clínico de uma paciente de 25 anos de idade, na qual uma técnica peridural foi realizada durante o trabalho de parto e posteriormente apresentou cefaleia com características de cefaleia pós-punção dural. Foi iniciado tratamento conservador e tampão de sangue peridural. Devido a ausência de melhora clínica e à mudança do componente postural da cefaleia, decidiu-se realizar um exame de imagem cerebral que demostrou a presença de hematoma subdural bilateral.A cefaleia pós-punção dural é relativamente frequente, mas a falta de resposta ao tratamento médico instaurado, assim como a mudança em suas características e a presença de foco neurológico, devem levantar a suspeita de presença de um hematoma subdural que, embora infrequente, pode chegar a ser devastador se não for diagnosticado e tratado oportunamente. Keywords: Accidental dural puncture, Epidural analgesia, Post-dural puncture headache, Subdural hematoma, Epidural blood patch, Palavras chave: Dura-Máter, Analgesia epidural, Cefaleia pós-punção dural, Hematoma subdural, Placa de sangue epidural

  2. Daily, weekly and annual patterns in children's accidental sport injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinberg, Alain; Reinberg, Olivier; Mechkouri, Mohamed; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H

    2018-05-01

    Details of serious injuries to children ≤16 yrs. of age that necessitated urgent surgical intervention by the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland were recorded into a database registry. Some 15 110 entries listed the precise time of injury, and 3114 (20.6%) of these resulted from participating in sport-associated activities. Time-of-day, day-of-week and month-of-year differences in the total number of children's accidental sport injuries (CASI) were validated. Time-of-day patterns were substantiated for "All Sports", for both boys and girls 5-16 yrs. of age, with more boys than girls experiencing incidents at almost every clock hour. Moreover, they were substantiated for this age group for each of the six different considered individual and team CASI categories - Physical Exercises at School; Bicycle Riding; Roller Skating and Skateboarding; Snow Skiing, Sledding, and Tobogganing; Soccer; and Basketball - for which sample sizes were sufficiently large (n > 230) to perform statistical assessment by ANOVA, t-test and/or cosinor analyses. CASI happened primarily between 06:00 and 17:00 h and rarely evening or overnight. Features - specific clock-time and number of peaks and troughs - of the CASI daily curve pattern of the individual six sport categories differed somewhat; nonetheless, excess or greatest number of CASI typically happened between 12:00 and 14:00 h, even when summertime and other scheduled school and family vacation periods were taken into account. Time-of-day and day-of-week patterns in the boy/girl sex ratio were also validated, with midday and Friday/Saturday peaks, respectively. We hypothesize the prominent 24 h patterns of CASI of 5-16 yr. olds, in particular, are representative of a combination of several determinants. These include exogenous periodic and cyclic environmental and sociocultural phenomena, genetic sex-related traits, plus endogenous circadian cognitive and physiologic rhythms

  3. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-01-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats

  4. Early life hormetic treatments decrease irradiation-induced oxidative damage, increase longevity, and enhance sexual performance during old age in the Caribbean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Early life events can have dramatic consequences on performance later in life. Exposure to stressors at a young age affects development, the rate of aging, risk of disease, and overall lifespan. In spite of this, mild stress exposure early in life can have beneficial effects on performance later in life. These positive effects of mild stress are referred to as physiological conditioning hormesis. In our current study we used anoxia conditioning hormesis as a pretreatment to reduce oxidative stress and improve organismal performance, lifespan, and healthspan of Caribbean fruit flies. We used gamma irradiation to induce mild oxidative damage in a low-dose experiment, and massive oxidative damage in a separate high-dose experiment, in pharate adult fruit flies just prior to adult emergence. Irradiation-induced oxidative stress leads to reduced adult emergence, flight ability, mating performance, and lifespan. We used a hormetic approach, one hour of exposure to anoxia plus irradiation in anoxia, to lower post-irradiation oxidative damage. We have previously shown that this anoxic-conditioning treatment elevates total antioxidant capacity and lowers post-irradiation oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. In this study, conditioned flies had lower mortality rates and longer lifespan compared to those irradiated without hormetic conditioning. As a metric of healthspan, we tracked mating both at a young age (10 d) and old age (30 d). We found that anoxia-conditioned male flies were more competitive at young ages when compared to unconditioned irradiation stressed male flies, and that the positive effects of anoxic conditioning hormesis on mating success were even more pronounced in older males. Our data shows that physiological conditioning hormesis at a young age, not only improves immediate metrics of organismal performance (emergence, flight, mating), but the beneficial effects also carry into old age by reducing late life oxidative damage and improving lifespan and

  5. Systemic transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the regeneration of irradiation-induced salivary gland damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yol Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cell-based therapy has been reported to repair or restore damaged salivary gland (SG tissue after irradiation. This study was aimed at determining whether systemic administration of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs can ameliorate radiation-induced SG damage. METHODS: hAdMSCs (1 × 10(6 were administered through a tail vein of C3H mice immediately after local irradiation, and then this infusion was repeated once a week for 3 consecutive weeks. At 12 weeks after irradiation, functional evaluations were conducted by measuring salivary flow rates (SFRs and salivation lag times, and histopathologic and immunofluorescence histochemistry studies were performed to assay microstructural changes, apoptosis, and proliferation indices. The engraftment and in vivo differentiation of infused hAdMSCs were also investigated, and the transdifferentiation of hAdMSCs into amylase-producing SG epithelial cells (SGCs was observed in vitro using a co-culture system. RESULTS: The systemic administration of hAdMSCs exhibited improved SFRs at 12 weeks after irradiation. hAdMSC-transplanted SGs showed fewer damaged and atrophied acinar cells and higher mucin and amylase production levels than untreated irradiated SGs. Immunofluorescence TUNEL assays revealed fewer apoptotic cells in the hAdMSC group than in the untreated group. Infused hAdMSCs were detected in transplanted SGs at 4 weeks after irradiation and some cells were found to have differentiated into SGCs. In vitro, a low number of co-cultured hAdMSCs (13%-18% were observed to transdifferentiate into SGCs. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that hAdMSCs have the potential to protect against irradiation-induced cell loss and to transdifferentiate into SGCs, and suggest that hAdMSC administration should be viewed as a candidate therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced SG damage.

  6. Melatonin may play a role in modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression levels to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, Mehran; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Shirazi, Alireza; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Bazzaz, Javad Tavakkoly; Ghazi-khansari, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    The close relationship between free radicals effects and apoptosis process has been proved. Melatonin has been reported as a direct free radical scavenger. We investigated the capability of melatonin in the modification of radiation-induced apoptosis and apoptosis-associated upstream regulators expression in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. Rats were irradiated with a single whole body Cobalt 60-gamma radiation dose of 8 Gy at a dose rate of 101 cGy/min with or without melatonin pretreatments at different concentrations of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into eight groups of control, irradiation-only, vehicle-only, vehicle plus irradiation, 10 mg/kg melatonin alone, 10 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation, 100 mg/kg melatonin alone and 100 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation. Rats were given an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of melatonin or the same volume of vehicle alone 1 h prior to irradiation. Blood samples were taken 4, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation for evaluation of flow cytometric analysis of apoptotic lymphocytes using Annexin V/PI assay and measurement of bax and bcl-2 expression using quantitative real-time PCR (RT 2 qPCR). Irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation showed an increase in the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes significantly different from control group (P < 0.01), while melatonin pretreatments in a dose-dependent manner reduced it as compared with the irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation groups (P < 0.01) in all time points. This reduced apoptosis by melatonin was related to the downregulation of bax, upregulation of bcl-2, and therefore reduction of bax/bcl-2 ratio. Our results suggest that melatonin in these doses may provide modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression as well as bax/bcl-2 ratio to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis.

  7. SSR marker analysis on genetic variation of M3 from maize inbred lines 48-2 and R08 after irradiation inducement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Shi Haichun; Ke Yongpei; Yuan Jichao; Yu Xuejie

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing the biological effects and the genetic variations of maize mutagenic progenies is important to facilitate effective selections and utilization of the mutants. In this study, the genetic variation of 103 mutagenic progenies of M 3 lines of inbred lines 48-2 and R08 with 60 Co γ-rays inducement were evaluated with SSR molecular markers. The results indicated that, the amplitude of polymorphism information content (PIC) of the 48-2 and R08 M 3 lines ranged 0.307 ∼ 0.948 and 0.108 ∼ 0.955, with an average of 0.762 and 0.701, respectively. The amplitude of genetic diversity indexes (H') ranged 0.552 ∼ 2.830 and 0.254 ∼ 3.309, with an average of 1.830 and 1.777, respectively. The average value of genetic similarity coefficient of the 49 M 3 lines of 48-2 with its check (M673) was 0.8194. However, the average value of genetic similarity coefficient of the M 3 lines of R08 with its check (M487) was 0.8373. Based on the genetic similarity coefficient, inbred lines 48-2, R08 and their 101 M 3 lines were clustered in 7 and 5 populations respectively. This phenomenon indicated that massive genetic variation could appear in progenies due to irradiation. The strengthen of selection and utilization of mutants based on the breeding objectives and in accordance with the feature and regularity on genetic variations of main characteristics of mutant lines in various populations could be enhanced in breeding program, to some extent, which can increase the breeding efficiency of irradiation induced mutation in maize. (authors)

  8. Mono and sequential ion irradiation induced damage formation and damage recovery in oxide glasses: Stopping power dependence of the mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, A.H.; Monnet, I.; Toulemonde, M.; Bouffard, S.; Jegou, C.; Peuget, S.

    2016-01-01

    Simple and complex borosilicate glasses were irradiated with single and double ion beams of light and heavy ions over a broad fluence and stopping power range. As a result of the heavy ion irradiation (U, Kr, Au), the hardness was observed to diminish and saturate after a decrease by 35 ± 1%. Unlike slow and swift heavy ion irradiation, irradiation with light ions (He,O) induced a saturation hardness decrease of 18 ± 1% only. During double ion beam irradiation; where glasses were first irradiated with a heavy ion (gold) and then by a light ion (helium), the light ion irradiation induced partial damage recovery. As a consequence of the recovery effect, the hardness of the pre-irradiated glasses increased by 10–15% depending on the chemical composition. These results highlight that the nuclear energy loss and high electronic energy loss (≥4 keV/nm) result in significant and similar modifications whereas light ions with low electronic energy loss (≤1 keV/nm) result in only mild damage formation in virgin glasses and recovery in highly pre-damaged glasses. These results are important to understand the damage formation and recovery in actinide bearing minerals and in glasses subjected to self-irradiation by alpha decays. - Highlights: • Behavior of glasses strongly depends on the electronic energy loss (Se) of the ions. • High Se (≥4 keV/nm) induces large changes in comparison to lower Se values. • Apart from mild damage formation, low Se causes recovery of pre-existing damage. • Alpha induced partial recovery of the damage would occur in nuclear waste glasses.

  9. Melatonin may play a role in modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression levels to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, Mehran [Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Faculty of Paramedicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mihandoost, Ehsan, E-mail: mihandoost.e@gmail.com [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirazi, Alireza [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepehrizadeh, Zargham [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bazzaz, Javad Tavakkoly [Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghazi-khansari, Mahmoud [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The close relationship between free radicals effects and apoptosis process has been proved. Melatonin has been reported as a direct free radical scavenger. We investigated the capability of melatonin in the modification of radiation-induced apoptosis and apoptosis-associated upstream regulators expression in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. Rats were irradiated with a single whole body Cobalt 60-gamma radiation dose of 8 Gy at a dose rate of 101 cGy/min with or without melatonin pretreatments at different concentrations of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into eight groups of control, irradiation-only, vehicle-only, vehicle plus irradiation, 10 mg/kg melatonin alone, 10 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation, 100 mg/kg melatonin alone and 100 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation. Rats were given an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of melatonin or the same volume of vehicle alone 1 h prior to irradiation. Blood samples were taken 4, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation for evaluation of flow cytometric analysis of apoptotic lymphocytes using Annexin V/PI assay and measurement of bax and bcl-2 expression using quantitative real-time PCR (RT{sup 2}qPCR). Irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation showed an increase in the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes significantly different from control group (P < 0.01), while melatonin pretreatments in a dose-dependent manner reduced it as compared with the irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation groups (P < 0.01) in all time points. This reduced apoptosis by melatonin was related to the downregulation of bax, upregulation of bcl-2, and therefore reduction of bax/bcl-2 ratio. Our results suggest that melatonin in these doses may provide modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression as well as bax/bcl-2 ratio to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis.

  10. Accidentes de trabajo fatales y violencia interpersonal en Brasil, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Sousa Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se estima la mortalidad proporcional por accidentes de trabajo provocados por violencia interpersonal en Brasil, entre 2000 y 2010. Se analizaron los datos del Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad, basados en los informes estadísti- cos de defunción del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, los cuales incluyen un campo para el registro de accidentes de trabajo que debe ser completado en toda defunción por causas externas. Se identificaron 1.368.732 casos de defunciones por causas externas, 31.576 (2,3% por accidentes de trabajo y solo 226 (0,02% por accidentes de trabajo con violen- cia interpersonal. Cerca del 80% de los informes estadísticos de defunción no tenían el campo “accidente de trabajo” completado. La mayor cantidad de casos ocurrió entre hom- bres (94,3% de 25-34 años, con nivel de escolaridad medio, ubicados en la región sudeste y noreste, que trabajan principalmente en la producción de bienes y servicios industriales y la actividad agropecuaria. La mayoría de los casos fueron causados por armas de fuego, seguidos por armas blancas, con un aumento relativo de estos últimos en el período estu- diado. Los resultados sugieren un gran subregistro de diagnósticos que reconocen la rela- ción con el trabajo. Se hace necesaria una mejor capacitación en el llenado de los informes estadísticos, así como estudios que cuantifiquen el subregistro de accidentes de trabajo y accidentes de trabajo con violencia interpersonal.

  11. Results of dose calculations for NET accidental and normal operation releases of tritium and activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Hasemann, I.

    1992-08-01

    This report documents conditions, data and results of dose calculations for accidental and normal operation releases of tritium and activation products, performed within the NET subtask SEP2.2 ('NET-Benchmark') of the European Fusion Technology Programme. For accidental releases, the computer codes UFOTRI and COSYMA for assessing the radiological consequences, have been applied for both deterministic and probabilistic calculations. The influence on dose estimates of different release times (2 minutes / 1 hour), two release heights (10 m / 150 m), two chemical forms of tritium (HT/HTO), and two different model approaches for the deposition velocity of HTO on soil was investigated. The dose calculations for normal operation effluents were performed using the tritium model of the German regulatory guidelines, parts of the advanced dose assessment model NORMTRI still under development, and the statistical atmospheric dispersion model ISOLA. Accidental and normal operation source terms were defined as follows: 10g (3.7 10 15 Bq) for accidental tritium releases, 10 Ci/day (3.7 10 11 Bq/day) for tritium releases during normal operation and unit releases of 10 9 Bq for accidental releases of activation products and fission products. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania's Experience 1979-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Balmert

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014.Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49 from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates.Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35-44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton.The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35-44.

  13. Comparison of intracranial computed tomographic (CT) findings in pediatric abusive and accidental head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hymel, K.P.; Rumack, C.M.; Hay, T.C.; Strain, J.D.; Jenny, C.

    1997-01-01

    Background. Child abuse specialists rely heavily on diagnostic neuroimaging. Objectives. Study objectives were: (1) to compare the frequencies of six specific intracranial CT abnormalities in accidental and non-accidental pediatric head trauma, and (2) to assess interobserver agreement regarding these CT findings. Materials and methods. Three pediatric radiologists blindly and independently reviewed cranial CT scans of pediatric patients who sustained closed head trauma between 1991 and 1994. All patients were less than 4 years of age. Study cases included thirty-nine (50 %) with non-accidental head trauma and thirty-nine (50 %) with accidental head trauma. Each scan was evaluated for the presence or absence of the following six intracranial findings: (1) interhemispheric falx hemorrhage, (2) subdural hemorrhage, (3) large (non-acute) extra-axial fluid, (4) basal ganglia edema, (5) posterior fossa hemorrhage, and (6) frontal-parietal shearing tear(s). Interobserver agreement was calculated as the percentage of total cases in which all reviewers agreed a specific CT finding was present or absent. Diagnosis required independent agreement by all three pediatric radiologists. The frequencies of these six intracranial CT abnormalities were compared between the two study groups by Chi-square analysis and Fisher's exact test. Results. Interobserver agreement between radiologists was greater than 80 % for all lesions evaluated, with the exception of frontal-parietal shearing tear(s). Interhemispheric falx hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, large (non-acute) extra-axial fluid, and basal ganglia edema were discovered significantly more frequently in non-accidental trauma (P ≤.05). Conclusion. Although not specific for child abuse, discovery of these intracranial CT abnormalities in young patients should prompt careful evaluation of family and injury circumstances for indicators of non-accidental trauma. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Irradiation-induced up-regulation of HLA-E on macrovascular endothelial cells confers protection against killing by activated natural killer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Riederer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apart from the platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31, endoglin (CD105 and a positive factor VIII-related antigen staining, human primary and immortalized macro- and microvascular endothelial cells (ECs differ in their cell surface expression of activating and inhibitory ligands for natural killer (NK cells. Here we comparatively study the effects of irradiation on the phenotype of ECs and their interaction with resting and activated NK cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Primary macrovascular human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs only express UL16 binding protein 2 (ULBP2 and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I chain-related protein MIC-A (MIC-A as activating signals for NK cells, whereas the corresponding immortalized EA.hy926 EC cell line additionally present ULBP3, membrane heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1 (CD54 and HLA-E. Apart from MIC-B, the immortalized human microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC, resembles the phenotype of EA.hy926. Surprisingly, primary HUVECs are more sensitive to Hsp70 peptide (TKD plus IL-2 (TKD/IL-2-activated NK cells than their immortalized EC counterpatrs. This finding is most likely due to the absence of the inhibitory ligand HLA-E, since the activating ligands are shared among the ECs. The co-culture of HUVECs with activated NK cells induces ICAM-1 (CD54 and HLA-E expression on the former which drops to the initial low levels (below 5% when NK cells are removed. Sublethal irradiation of HUVECs induces similar but less pronounced effects on HUVECs. Along with these findings, irradiation also induces HLA-E expression on macrovascular ECs and this correlates with an increased resistance to killing by activated NK cells. Irradiation had no effect on HLA-E expression on microvascular ECs and the sensitivity of these cells to NK cells remained unaffected. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These data emphasize that an irradiation-induced

  15. Study of a High-Yield Cellulase System Created by Heavy-Ion Irradiation-Induced Mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger and Mixed Fermentation with Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Hong; Li, Wen-Jian; Liu, Jing; Hu, Wei; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Dong, Miao-Yin; Wang, Yu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the efficiency of 12C6+ irradiation of Aspergillus niger (A. niger) or mutagenesis via mixed Trichoderma viride (T. viride) culturing as well as a liquid cultivation method for cellulase production via mixed Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei) and A. niger culture fermentation. The first mutagenesis approach was employed to optimize yield from a cellulase-producing strain via heavy-ion mutagenesis and high-throughput screening, and the second was to effectively achieve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulase from a mixed culture of mutant T. viride and A. niger. We found that 12C6+-ion irradiation induced changes in cellulase biosynthesis in A. niger but had no effect on the time course of the synthesis. It is notable that the exoglucanases (CBH) activities of A. niger strains H11-1 and H differed (6.71 U/mL vs. 6.01 U/mL) and were significantly higher than that of A. niger mutant H3-1. Compared with strain H, the filter paper assay (FPA), endoglucanase (EG) and β-glucosidase (BGL) activities of mutant strain H11-1 were increased by 250.26%, 30.26% and 34.91%, respectively. A mixed culture system was successfully optimized, and the best ratio of T. reesei to A. niger was 5:1 for 96 h with simultaneous inoculation. The BGL activity of the mixed culture increased after 72 h. At 96 h, the FPA and BGL activities of the mixed culture were 689.00 and 797.15 U/mL, respectively, significantly higher than those of monocultures, which were 408.70 and 646.98 U/mL for T. reesei and 447.29 and 658.89 U/mL for A. niger, respectively. The EG activity of the mixed culture was 2342.81 U/mL, a value that was significantly higher than that of monocultures at 2206.57 U/mL for T. reesei and 1727.62 U/mL for A. niger. In summary, cellulose production and hydrolysis yields were significantly enhanced by the proposed combination scheme. PMID:26656155

  16. Study of a High-Yield Cellulase System Created by Heavy-Ion Irradiation-Induced Mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger and Mixed Fermentation with Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the efficiency of 12C6+ irradiation of Aspergillus niger (A. niger or mutagenesis via mixed Trichoderma viride (T. viride culturing as well as a liquid cultivation method for cellulase production via mixed Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei and A. niger culture fermentation. The first mutagenesis approach was employed to optimize yield from a cellulase-producing strain via heavy-ion mutagenesis and high-throughput screening, and the second was to effectively achieve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulase from a mixed culture of mutant T. viride and A. niger. We found that 12C6+-ion irradiation induced changes in cellulase biosynthesis in A. niger but had no effect on the time course of the synthesis. It is notable that the exoglucanases (CBH activities of A. niger strains H11-1 and H differed (6.71 U/mL vs. 6.01 U/mL and were significantly higher than that of A. niger mutant H3-1. Compared with strain H, the filter paper assay (FPA, endoglucanase (EG and β-glucosidase (BGL activities of mutant strain H11-1 were increased by 250.26%, 30.26% and 34.91%, respectively. A mixed culture system was successfully optimized, and the best ratio of T. reesei to A. niger was 5:1 for 96 h with simultaneous inoculation. The BGL activity of the mixed culture increased after 72 h. At 96 h, the FPA and BGL activities of the mixed culture were 689.00 and 797.15 U/mL, respectively, significantly higher than those of monocultures, which were 408.70 and 646.98 U/mL for T. reesei and 447.29 and 658.89 U/mL for A. niger, respectively. The EG activity of the mixed culture was 2342.81 U/mL, a value that was significantly higher than that of monocultures at 2206.57 U/mL for T. reesei and 1727.62 U/mL for A. niger. In summary, cellulose production and hydrolysis yields were significantly enhanced by the proposed combination scheme.

  17. Accidental bound states in the continuum in an open Sinai billiard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilipchuk, A.S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 660080 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Sadreev, A.F., E-mail: almas@tnp.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-19

    The fundamental mechanism of the bound states in the continuum is the full destructive interference of two resonances when two eigenlevels of the closed system are crossing. There is, however, a wide class of quantum chaotic systems which display only avoided crossings of eigenlevels. As an example of such a system we consider the Sinai billiard coupled with two semi-infinite waveguides. We show that notwithstanding the absence of degeneracy bound states in the continuum occur due to accidental decoupling of the eigenstates of the billiard from the waveguides. - Highlights: • Bound states in the continuum in open chaotic billiards occur to accidental vanishing of coupling of eigenstate of billiard with waveguides.

  18. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. External contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Di Trano, J.L.; Gisone, P.

    1998-01-01

    The document represents a guide for the external decontamination of persons accidentally radio contaminated due to the use, production or transport of radioactive materials. The general conditions, from the medical point of view, to be kept in mind, in the event of accidental overexposures as decontamination treatment and the handling of samples are detailed throughout report. The external contamination without injury in skin or with wound its considered. The distribution of measures and responsibilities for the therapy of the irradiated patients with radioactive materials are enumerated. The preparations of decontaminate solutions are detailed in this work. Moreover, forms for the reception, physical evaluation of the patient and external contamination are presented. (author)

  19. 50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES document? 23.52 Section 23.52 Wildlife and...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Application..., or accidentally destroyed CITES document? (a) Purpose. A Management Authority may issue a duplicate...

  20. Patterns of accidental deaths in Kuwait: a retrospective descriptive study from 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kandary, Nadia; Al-Waheeb, Salah

    2015-03-28

    Accidents are a preventable cause of death. Unfortunately it accounts for a large number of deaths in many societies. In Kuwait, road traffic accidents (RTA) is the leading cause of death in young people. The study investigated the patterns of accidental deaths in Kuwait, one of the Gulf States which incorporates a wide variety of multi-ethnic communities. The study was retrospective from 2003-2009. Data of forensic cases were collected from the general department of criminal evidence (GDCE) in the ministry of interior (MOI).We attempted to find out causes of accidental death and the prevelance of each cause. Furthermore, the relationship of demographic factors (eg. Age, sex, marital status and nationality) with each cause of accidental death in Kuwait were studied. The material of this study constituted a total of 4886 reported accidental deaths referred for Medico-legal examination. Road traffic accidents was by far the most prevalent cause of death (64.6%) followed by fall from height (13.1%). Poisoning and mine explosions were amongst the least common causes. The government of Kuwait needs to take strong measures to promote safety in the workplace and households by educational campaigns.

  1. Coincidence-counting corrections for accidental coincidences, set dead time and intrinsic dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An equation is derived for calculating the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting, taking into account dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The corrections allow for the extension of the set dead time in the p channel by the intrinsic dead time. Experimental verification shows improvement over a previous equation. (author)

  2. International conference and workshop on modeling and mitigating the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This conference was held September 26--29, 1995 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials. Attention is focused on air dispersion of vapors. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  3. [Risk of acute hepatic insufficiency in children due to chronic accidental overdose of paracetamol (acetaminophen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameleers-Snijders, P.; Hogeveen, M.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Kramers, C.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Two girls aged 4 and 3 years, respectively, experienced acute liver failure due to accidental ingestion of supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol (90 mg/kg/day or more). Recognition of chronic paracetamol intoxication as a cause of acute hepatic failure is often delayed. It is important to consider

  4. Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chi-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

  5. radionuclides modelling dispersion of in the atmosphere for continuous discharges and accidental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teyeb, Malika

    2011-01-01

    The study of the dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere is the subject of a physical and numerical modeling of the phenomenon of dispersion. This work aims to study the atmospheric dispersion of accidental releases and continuous, from the possible establishment of a nuclear pressurized water reactor in the potential in Bizerte and Skhira.

  6. Consequences of a double-ended severance of a steam generator tube and accidental development scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.V.; Titov, V.F.; Poplavskii, V.M.; Baklushin, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    The results of theoretical analysis for accidental sequences in a modular steam generator are presented. The most probable water leak development in sodium in case of steam generator emergency stop faults is examined. In all schemes the reactor safety is preserved [fr

  7. El recuerdo de los accidentes de tráfico: Memoria de los testigos

    OpenAIRE

    Diges Junco, Margarita; Manzanero, Antonio L.

    1995-01-01

    En este trabajo se trata la recogida de datos subjetivos originados por las personas presentes en el accidente, una cuestión de vital importancia en la investigación de éstos y cuya exactitud depende de dos factores principales: la honestidad y la memoria de la persona que los proporciona.

  8. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in

    Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of

    the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis

    per se. The reference to the

  9. INTERNAL BALLOON TAMPONADE - A NONSURGICAL METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF ACCIDENTALLY PLACED SHEATHS FROM THE SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDIJK, RB; DENHEIJER, P; DEMUINCK, E; LIE, KI

    One of the possible complications of subclavian vein puncture is accidental puncture of the subclavian artery. If this is not noted immediately after the puncture, insertion of a large bore sheath in the subclavian artery is likely to follow. We describe our experience with a new method that enables

  10. Clinical study of lesions caused by accidental local exposure to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menoux, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    During the last few years the radiopathology service of the Curie Foundation has admitted more than a hundred patients who were followed and treated for irradiation or suspected irradiation after a work accident. Accidents followed by clinical symptoms account for about half the cases examined. Some of these clinical signs were benign whereas others developed very seriously, all possible conditions between these two extremes being represented. This report neglects cases of high total exposure and deals only with those of partial irradiation where local symptoms predominate, usually at the distal extremities of the upper limbs and exceptionally at the root or distal extremity of the lower limbs. Six clinical cases were selected as particularly revealing and are discussed below: accidental exposure of both hands to an iridium-192 source; chronic exposure to X-rays (left hand and right lower half-lip); accidental exposure of the right hand and antero-external face of the right thigh to a iridium-192 source; acute accidental exposure of the left hand to X-rays emitted under 50 kV; accidental exposure of both hands to cobalt-60 radiation; radiolesions of the left lower limb following a critical power excursion (gamma rays and neutrons) [fr

  11. An advanced model for spreading and evaporation of accidentally released hazardous liquids on land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijssenaar-Buhre, I.J.M.; Sterkenburg, R.P.; Wijnant-Timmerman, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    Pool evaporation modelling is an important element in consequence assessment of accidentally released hazardous liquids. The evaporation rate determines the amount of toxic or flammable gas released into the atmosphere and is an important factor for the size of a pool fire. In this paper a

  12. An advanced model for spreading and evaporation of accidentally released hazardous liquids on land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijssenaar-Buhre, I.J.M.; Wijnant-Timmerman, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Pool evaporation modelling is an important element in consequence assessment of accidentally released hazardous liquids. The evaporation rate determines the amount of toxic or flammable gas released into the atmosphere and is an important factor for the size of a pool fire. In this paper a

  13. Non-accidental dettol poisoning in a 3 day old neonate : a rare form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-26

    Feb 26, 2015 ... non-accidental poisoning with dettol® in a neonate. This report presents ... health facility located in Kano city; pregnancy, labour and delivery .... risks undetected as it nearly happened in our index pa- tient. It is equally ... P O, Saliu R O, Adafalu M O. Infanticide in ... hood Non-food poisoning in. Aminu Kano ...

  14. Accidental Entry of Fish into Throat While Bathing in a Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipta Kumar Parida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While fish bones are common foreign bodies in the throat, a whole live fish in the pharynx is very rare. We report a case where a whole fish accidentally entered the throat of a 52-year-old male, where it became lodged causing throat pain and dysphagia. The fish was removed as an emergency procedure.

  15. Non-accidental dettol poisoning in a 3 day old neonate : a rare form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, Dettol® Antiseptic Solution poisoning is an uncommon occurrence in all age groups. In a registered child specialist clinic in Kano, a three – day old neonate presented with clinical features believed initially to be due to neonatal seizures and sepsis, but which turned out to be due to non-accidental dettol® ...

  16. Toxic vapor concentrations in the control room following a postulated accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, J.

    1979-05-01

    An acceptable method is presented for calculating the vapor concentrations in a control room as a function of time after a postulated accidental release. Included are the mathematical formulas for computing the rates of vaporization and evaporation of liquid spills, the vapor dispersion in air, and the control room air exchange. A list of toxic chemicals and their physical properties is also given

  17. Suicide and accidental deaths in children and adolescents in England and Wales, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, Kirsten; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle M; Shaw, Jenny; Appleby, Louis; Kapur, Nav

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the impact of narrative verdicts on suicide statistics among 10-19-year-olds; to identify the number and rate of suicide and accidental deaths, particularly in 10-14-year-olds. National cohort study. England and Wales. Mid-year population estimates from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) were used to calculate rates per 100,000 population for suicide (undetermined and suicide verdicts) and accidental deaths (poisoning, hanging) for those aged 10-14 and 15-19. Trends in rates over time (2001-2010) were investigated using Poisson regression. Interaction tests were carried out to determine differences in trends between the two time periods (2001-2005 and 2006-2010). There were 1523 suicides (2.25/100,000). Suicide rates were highest in those aged 15-19 years (4.04/100,000) and in males (3.14/100,000). Between 2001 and 2010, rates significantly decreased among those aged 15-19 years (incidence rate-ratio (IRR): 0.95; 95% CI 0.93 to 0.97), with no change in rates of accidental deaths (IRR: 1.01, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.07). However, there was a significant interaction between the two time periods for accidental poisonings (2001-2005: IRR: 0.79 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.91); 2006-2010: IRR: 1.01 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.15), interaction p=0.012) and accidental hangings (2001-2005: IRR: 0.93 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.14); 2006-2010: IRR: 1.25 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.49), interaction=0.01) Undetermined deaths significantly decreased among females aged 15-19 yeras (IRR: 0.93; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.98). There were no significant trends among 10-14-year-olds. Rates of suicide are higher among older adolescents and males. There was a significant fall in suicide rates in males aged 15-19 years that was not accounted for by changes in rates of accidental death. The absence of a significant trend in suicide or accidental deaths in those aged 10-14 years may have been the result of small numbers. However, monitoring should continue to identify longitudinal trends in all young people.

  18. Accidental falls in hospitalized children: an analysis of the vulnerabilities linked to the presence of caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, A; Sobrero, M; Sperlinga, L; Tibaldi, L; Sasso, L

    2010-06-01

    This study stemmed from the data gathered by a research conducted by the coordinator of the Department of Healthcare Services and a group of nurses involved in a research on accidental falls in hospitalized children at the "G. Gaslini" Children's Hospital and Scientific Research Institute in Genoa, Italy. The first retrospective study evaluated the accidental falls in hospitalized children referred to the three-year period 2003-2006, while the second perspective study, referred to the trimester March-May 2007, found that the main cause of falls in children was parent's distraction. The method adopted in the first phase of our study was a proactive risk analysis (The Basics of Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis), identified in the first place by the VA National Centre for Patient Safety and applied to the "Child and parent hospital admission process". This proactive risk analysis has proven to be very effective in preventing the risk of accidental falls in hospitalized children through effective communication and educational interventions. The second phase of our study consisted of two Focus Groups for accidental traumatic events. The analysis of the results of the study showed how effective communication is instrumental, not only to have a better awareness of the children and their parents during their stay in hospital, but also to implement educational sessions on prevention to reduce the risk of accidental traumatic events. The present study contributes to improve safety and the quality of care by motivating nurses to keep their attention high on falls in hospitalized children, by monitoring and the development of new risk assessment tools.

  19. Aplasia Ras homologue member Ⅰ overexpression inhibits tumor growth and induces apoptosis through inhibition of PI3K/Akt survival pathways in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kaishan; Wang, Shuanke; Yang, Yong; Kang, Xuewen; Wang, Jing; Han, Hua

    2015-09-01

    Aplasia Ras homologue member Ⅰ (ARHI), an imprinted tumor-suppressor gene, is downregulated in various types of cancer. However, the expression, function and specific mechanisms of ARHI in human osteosarcoma (OS) cells remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of ARHI on OS cell proliferation and apoptosis and its associated mechanism. In the study, ARHI mRNA and protein levels were markedly downregulated in OS cells compared with the human osteoblast precursor cell line hFOB1.19. By generating stable transfectants, ARHI was overexpressed in OS cells that had low levels of ARHI. Overexpression of ARHI inhibited cell viability and proliferation and induced apoptosis. However, caspase‑3 activity was not changed by ARHI overexpression. In addition, phosphorylated Akt protein expression decreased in the ARHI overexpression group compared to that in the control vector group. The knockdown of ARHI also resulted in the promotion of cell proliferation and the attenuation of apoptosis in MG‑63 cells. Additionally, ARHI silencing increased the level of p‑Akt. The present results indicate that ARHI inhibits OS cell proliferation and may have a key role in the development of OS.

  20. Aspergillosis in immunocompromised children acute myeloid leukemia and bone marrow aplasia.: Report of two cases Aspergilose em crianças imunocomprometidas com leucemia mielóide aguda e aplasta de medula óssea: Registro de 2 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zilda de Aquino

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of Aspergillosis in immunocompromised children are reported. Both were caused by Aspergillns flavus. Early diagnosis and treatment led to the remission of the process. One patient had acute myeloid leukemia; the fungus was isolated from the blood. The other patient with bone marrow aplasia, presented an invasive aspergillosis of the paranasal sinuses with dissemination of fungal infection; the diagnosis was obtained by histology and culture of biopsied tissue from a palatal ulceration.No presente trabalho são registrados dois casos de aspergilose em crianças imunocomprometidas. O estudo micológico completo identificou Aspergillus flavus como agente dos dois processos. A presença cada vez mais frequente da aspergilose invasiva deve-se ao número crescente de pacientes imunocomprometidos, muitos com hemopatias graves submetidos à quimioterapia. O diagnóstico precoce em um dos casos possibilitou remissão do processo. Tratava-se de paciente com leucemia mielóide aguda, tendo sido isolado o fungo do sangue circulante. O segundo caso evoluiu para óbito, com infecção fúngica generalizada.

  1. A case of recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia during remission associated with acute pure red cell aplasia and hemophagocytic syndrome due to human parvovirus B19 infection successfully treated by steroid pulse therapy with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Shimada, Asami; Imai, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 47-year-old man diagnosed as having autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in April 2011. He also had a congenital chromosomal abnormality, a balanced translocation. Treatment with prednisolone (PSL) 60 mg/day resulted in resolution of the AIHA, and the treatment was completed in November 2011. While the patient no longer had anemia, the direct and indirect Coombs tests remained positive. In May 2013, he developed recurrent AIHA associated with acute pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) caused by human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection. Tests for anti-erythropoietin and anti-erythropoietin receptor antibodies were positive. Steroid pulse therapy resulted in resolution of the AIHA, PRCA, as well as HPS. The serum test for anti-erythropoietin antibodies also became negative after the treatment. However, although the serum was positive for anti-HPV B19 IgG antibodies, the patient continued to have a low CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4, B19 infection (HPV B19 DNA remained positive), suggesting the risk of recurrence and bone marrow failure.

  2. A tree branch instead of a ligature: an unusual accidental hanging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadysinghe, Amal Nishantha; Sivasubramanium, Murugupillai; Jayasooriya, Rankothge Pemasiri

    2017-12-01

    A unique case of accidental hanging due to compression of the neck of an adult by the branches of a coffee tree is reported. The decedent was a 42-year-old male who was found dead in a semi prone position on a slope. His neck was lodged in a wedge formed by two branches of a coffee tree, with his legs angled downwards on the slope. Autopsy revealed two friction abrasions located horizontally on either side of the front of the neck, just above the larynx. The findings were compatible with compression of the neck by the branches of the tree, with the body weight of the decedent contributing to compression. Subsequent complete autopsy examination confirmed the cause of death as hanging. Following an inquest the death was ruled to be accidental.

  3. A study on fire design accidental loads for aluminum safety helidecks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jin Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The helideck structure must satisfy the safety requirements associated with various environmental and accidental loads. Especially, there have been a number of fire accidents offshore due to helicopter collision (take-off and/or landing in recent decades. To prevent further accidents, a substantial amount of effort has been directed toward the management of fire in the safety design of offshore helidecks. The aims of this study are to introduce and apply a procedure for quantitative risk assessment and management of fires by defining the fire loads with an applied example. The frequency of helicopter accidents are considered, and design accidental levels are applied. The proposed procedures for determining design fire loads can be efficiently applied in offshore helideck development projects.

  4. Analyses of postulated accidental releases of UF6 inside process buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Neto, Jose Messias de; Nunes, Beatriz Guimaraes; Dias, Cristiane

    2009-01-01

    Uranium Hexafluoride is a material used in the various processes which comprise the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication). Confinement of UF 6 is a very important safety requirement since this material is highly reactive and presents safety hazards to humans. The present paper discusses the safety relevant aspects of accidental releases of UF 6 inside process confinement buildings. Postulated accidental scenarios are analyzed and their consequences evaluated. Implant releases rates are estimated using computer code predictions. A time dependent homogeneous compartment model is used to predict concentrations of UF 6 , hydrogen fluoride and uranyl fluoride inside a confinement building, as well as to evaluate source terms released to the atmosphere. These source terms can be used as input to atmospheric dispersion models to evaluate consequences to the environment. The results can also be used to define adequate protective measures for emergency situations. (author)

  5. Accidental cut-throat injuries from the broken windshield of an auto rickshaw: Two unusual cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Rajanikanta; Dhaka, Shivani; Sharma, Munish; Bakshi, Mantaran Singh; Murty, O P; Sikary, Asit Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Accidental cut-throat injuries are extremely rare and usually involve a sharp-edged weapon. In this paper, two cases of a cut-throat wound to two auto-rickshaw drivers are presented where the broken windshield of the auto-rickshaws was responsible for the wounds. In both the cases, fatal incised wounds were present over the neck, cutting the soft tissue along with the major vessels. The death occurred due to exsanguination caused by neck-vessel injury in one case and trachea along with neck-vessel injury in the second case. Although the wounds on the neck initially suggested homicide, they were found to have occurred accidentally as a result of a road traffic accident involving a head-on collision of auto rickshaws. The injuries were inflicted by the shattered glass of the windshield.

  6. Accidental poisoning with Veratrum album mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilotta, Irene; Brvar, Miran

    2010-11-01

    Veratrum album (white or false hellebore) is a poisonous plant containing steroidal alkaloids that cause nausea, vomiting, headache, visual disturbances, paresthesia, dizziness, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension, and syncope. It is regularly mistaken for Gentiana lutea (yellow gentian). We report accidental poisoning with V. album mistaken for Allium ursinum (wild garlic), a wild plant used in soups and salads in Central Europe. Four adults (24-45 years) accidentally ingested V. album mistaken for A. ursinum in self-prepared salads and soups. Within 15-30 min of ingestion they developed nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. At the same time dizziness, tingling, dimmed and jumping vision, transient blindness, and confusion appeared. On arrival at the ED, all patients had sinus bradycardia and hypotension. Following treatment the patients were discharged well 24-48 h after ingestion. In patients presenting with gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiovascular symptoms a history of wild plant ingestion suggests possible poisoning with V. album mistaken for wild garlic.

  7. Commitment of involved actors in the preparation of accidental and post-accident situations: European experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.

    2010-01-01

    The author briefly describes some approaches developed within the EURANOS European research programme between 2004 and 2009 which aims at promoting the building up of a European network (NERIS) for the management of nuclear accidental and post-accident situations. Notably, he comments the experiment which took place in the Montbeliard district where two types of radiological events have been modelled and simulated: an accident in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant with two scenarios of release, and a transportation accident with a release of radioactive caesium 137. He also evokes the Norwegian experience and some other actions in Finland, Great-Britain, Spain and Slovakia where reflections on the management of accidental and post-accident situations or crisis exercises have been organized

  8. Clinical Profile of Acute Accidental Poisoning Among Children- A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Khatoon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity is a frequent but avoidable cause of morbidity and mortality in children especially in developing countries, including India. Present study assesses their pattern with relation to different age groupings. This retrospective study was conducted among all hospitalised paediatric victims of acute accidental poisoning at the King George Medical University; Lucknow during 2010 -11. Their history, baseline characteristics, clinical course and outcome was studied. Most children were male of less than three years with 4% overall mortality. Kerosene oil was implicated in most cases. Childhood poisoning is commonest during 1-3 years with a male preponderance. Household poisons; especially kerosene oil was responsible for most cases which was consumed accidentally. Parents must be educated and warned to keep these toxic ingredients safely in suitable containers and out of reach of their beloved children. Keywords: Forensic Science, Paediatric, Acute Poisoning, Kerosene, Outcome.

  9. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling accidental releases of tritium in the environment: application as an excel spreadsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dizes, S.; Tamponnet, C.

    2004-01-01

    An application as an Excel spreadsheet of the simplified modelling approach of tritium transfer in the environment developed by Tamponnet (2002) is presented. Based on the use of growth models of biological systems (plants, animals, etc.), the two-pool model (organic tritium and tritiated water) that was developed estimates the concentration of tritium within the different compartments of the food chain and in fine the dose to man by ingestion in the case of a chronic or accidental release of tritium in a river or the atmosphere. Data and knowledge have been implemented on Excel using the object-oriented programming language VisualBasic (Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0). The structure of the conceptual model and the Excel sheet are first briefly exposed. A numerical application of the model under a scenario of an accidental release of tritium in the atmosphere is then presented. Simulation results and perspectives are discussed. (author)

  11. Modelling accidental releases of carbon 14 in the environment: application as an excel spreadsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dizes, S.; Tamponnet, C.

    2004-01-01

    An application as an Excel spreadsheet of the simplified modelling approach of carbon 14 transfer in the environment developed by Tamponnet (2002) is presented. Based on the use of growth models of biological systems (plants, animals, etc.), the one-pool model (organic carbon) that was developed estimates the concentration of carbon 14 within the different compartments of the food chain and in fine the dose to man by ingestion in the case of a chronic or accidental release of carbon 14 in a river or the atmosphere. Data and knowledge have been implemented on Excel using the object-oriented programming language VisualBasic (Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0). The structure of the conceptual model and the Excel sheet are first briefly exposed. A numerical application of the model under a scenario of an accidental release of carbon 14 in the atmosphere is then presented. Simulation results and perspectives are discussed. (author)

  12. External hazards in the PRA of Olkiluoto 1 and 2 NPP units - Accidental oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunturivuori, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Oil transports in Finnish territorial waters have increased significantly during the last 10 years. The Gulf of Finland is at this moment a very important route of oil being transported from Russia to the Western Europe. Although the number of accidental oil spills is decreasing in amount and in size, there is a growing concern of their effects to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The amounts of oil transported on the Gulf of Bothnia are much smaller than on the Gulf of Finland. However, accidental oil spills have occurred also there, the size and amount of which are smaller, though. Accidental oil spills are often a result of grounding of a ship or collision of two ships, and often occur during harsh weather conditions like storm or dense fog. However, also coastal oil depots may break, the oil of which may spread over wide distances on the sea. The modelling of initiating events resulting from accidental oil spills includes oil spill response actions performed by the regional rescue services, alarming of the oil spill by the emergency response centre to the NPP rescue services and spill response by the NPPs rescue services. It is unclear what the consequences are if drifted oil would enter the coolant water tunnels. The effect of different oil types to the operation of the safety-related service water systems and components are being assessed. In the ultimate case, an oil spill would clog the inlet channels thus failing the ultimate heat sink of the NPP units. The licensee is evaluating what is the optimal way to operate the NPP units in the case that an oil slick is threatening the plant to ensure reactor core cooling and RHR. The continued operation of, and especially the cooling of, at least one auxiliary feedwater pump is critical in the mitigation of the initiating event. Strategies, like reversing the water flow of the cooling water channels or closing of the cooling water channels, are being evaluated. (authors)

  13. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorically and physically relevant. First, the metaphorical dimension of the city places refugees and their negotiation of space into the realm of the normal and the possible, contrary to prevailing not...

  14. Youth versus adult "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Quatman, Carmen E; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-10-01

    Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as "accidental" if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4,111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p injuries (n = 2,565) showed that the oldest categories (19-22 and 23-30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to "dropping" and "pinching" in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines.

  15. Current controversies in the interpretation of non-accidental head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspan, Tim

    The field of non-accidental injury (NAI) has been the subject of a number of theories and hypotheses of variable merit. Concerning injuries that occur within the intracranial compartment, much research has been undertaken to investigate the cause of SDH and parenchymal brain injury. Much, however, remains contentious, particularly regarding the medicolegal aspects of suspected child abuse. Issues that present the greatest challenges will be addressed. (orig.)

  16. Current controversies in the interpretation of non-accidental head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspan, Tim [Imaging Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    The field of non-accidental injury (NAI) has been the subject of a number of theories and hypotheses of variable merit. Concerning injuries that occur within the intracranial compartment, much research has been undertaken to investigate the cause of SDH and parenchymal brain injury. Much, however, remains contentious, particularly regarding the medicolegal aspects of suspected child abuse. Issues that present the greatest challenges will be addressed. (orig.)

  17. Analizan partículas calientes del accidente nuclear de Palomares

    OpenAIRE

    León Dueñas, Sergio David

    2012-01-01

    Investigadores pertenecientes al Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CNA, (Universidad de Sevilla-Junta de Andalucía-CSIC) en colaboración con la Organización Internacional de la Energía Atómica (IAEA), han llevado a cabo me didas de elementos transuránicos en partículas calientes procedentes de accidentes nucleares tales como el de Thule (Groenlandia) o Palomares (España).

  18. MARC - the NRPB methodology for assessing radiological consequences of accidental releases of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.; Kelly, G.N.

    1981-12-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has developed a methodology for the assessment of the public health related consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. The methodology consists of a suite of computer programs which predict the transfer of activity from the point of release to the atmosphere through to the population. The suite of programs is entitled MARC; Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences. This report describes the overall framework and philosophy utilised within MARC. (author)

  19. [Accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite in inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Li; Jian, Xu; Baorong, Zhang; Yue, Jia; Minhua, Liu; Yilang, Luo; Jing, Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) has been widely used in clinical practice as one of the most efficient root canal irrigants. Its properties include broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and ability to dissolve necrotic tissues. However, when used improperly, NaClO can cause a series of adverse reactions, such as mucosal inflammation, irritation, or injury. This paper presents a case of accidental injection of NaClO in inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia.

  20. Management of refuelling, modifications and accidental shut-down of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document is the appendix of HAF 0300 (91) 'Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plant Operation', which was promulgated by the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) on March 2, 1994, and has the same legal effect. This appendix is applicable to establish the administrative management procedures for refuelling, modifications and accidental shut-down in the period of operation of pressurized water thermal neutron reactor of nuclear power plants. The NNSA shall be responsible for interpretation of this document

  1. Accidental Coverage of Both Renal Arteries during Infrarenal Aortic Stent-Graft Implantation: Cause and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Marcello Bracale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report a salvage maneuver for accidental coverage of both renal arteries during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. A 72-year-old female with a 6 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by endovascular means with a standard bifurcated graft. Upon completing an angiogram, both renal arteries were found to be accidentally occluded. Through a left percutaneous brachial approach, the right renal artery was catheterized and a chimney stent was deployed; however this was not possible for the left renal artery. A retroperitoneal surgical approach was therefore carried out with a retrograde chimney stent implanted to restore blood flow. After three months, both renal arteries were patent and renal function was not different from the baseline. Both endovascular with percutaneous access via the brachial artery and open retroperitoneal approaches with retrograde catheterization are feasible rescue techniques to recanalize the accidentally occluded renal arteries during EVAR.

  2. Cuidado popular de familias con un adulto mayor sobreviviente del primer accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero López-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el accidente cerebrovascular afecta a numerosas personas en el mundo y se constituye en la principal causa de muer- te. Los sobrevivientes pueden padecer discapacidad y sufrir modificaciones en las actividades cotidianas. La familia es el principal apoyo del sobreviviente y al ser parte de una misma cultura, construye acciones de cuidado en búsqueda del bienestar. Objetivo: describir las acciones del cuidado popular de las familias con un adulto mayor sobreviviente del primer accidente cerebrovascular. Método: estudio etnográfico, con observación participante y entrevistas en profundidad. Participaron siete familias bogotanas (siete adultos mayores entre los dos y diez meses posteriores al primer accidente cerebrovascular y los siete cuidadores principales respectivos. Resultados: cuidadores y adulto mayor comparten acciones de cuidado para la recuperación, relacionadas con la alimentación, el cuidado personal y la ingesta de medicamentos permeadas por la creencia religiosa, fuente de soporte y vínculo afectivo. Conclusión: conocer el cuidado popular de esta población posibilita proponer acciones culturalmente congruentes con sus valores y creencias para potencializar las ca- pacidades familiares e intermediar en los procesos de tratamiento.

  3. Measuring the visual salience of alignments by their non-accidentalness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blusseau, S; Carboni, A; Maiche, A; Morel, J M; Grompone von Gioi, R

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative approaches are part of the understanding of contour integration and the Gestalt law of good continuation. The present study introduces a new quantitative approach based on the a contrario theory, which formalizes the non-accidentalness principle for good continuation. This model yields an ideal observer algorithm, able to detect non-accidental alignments in Gabor patterns. More precisely, this parameterless algorithm associates with each candidate percept a measure, the Number of False Alarms (NFA), quantifying its degree of masking. To evaluate the approach, we compared this ideal observer with the human attentive performance on three experiments of straight contours detection in arrays of Gabor patches. The experiments showed a strong correlation between the detectability of the target stimuli and their degree of non-accidentalness, as measured by our model. What is more, the algorithm's detection curves were very similar to the ones of human subjects. This fact seems to validate our proposed measurement method as a convenient way to predict the visibility of alignments. This framework could be generalized to other Gestalts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of TSL and OSL properties of dental ceramics for accidental dosimetry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronese, Ivan; Galli, Anna; Cantone, Marie Claire; Martini, Marco; Vernizzi, Fabrizio; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Interest is increasing in the development of new methodologies for accidental dose assessment, exploiting the luminescence and dosimetric properties of objects and materials which can be usually found directly on exposed subjects and/or in the contaminated area. In this work, several types of ceramics employed for dental prosthetics restoration, including both innovative materials used as sub-frames for the construction of the inner part of dental crowns (core), and conventional porcelains used for the fabrication of the external layer (veneer), were investigated with regard to their thermally and optically stimulated luminescence (TSL and OSL respectively) properties, in view of their potential application in accidental dosimetry. The sensitivity to ionizing radiation proved to strongly depend on the type and brand of ceramic, with minimum detectable dose ranging from few mGy up to several tens of mGy. A linear dose-response was observed for most of the samples. However, the luminescence signals were characterised by a significant fading, which has to be taken into account for a reliable accidental dose assessment after a radiation exposure event.

  5. Mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlines Piña-Tornés

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en Bayamo, Cuba, en el año 2011 se realizó una revisión de los pacientes lesionados y fallecidos a causa de accidentes de tránsito, registrados en Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Se atendieron en emergencias 1365 lesionados, predominando el grupo etario de 25 a 44 años con 372 pacientes (27,3%, y el sexo masculino con 1071 (78,5%. Fallecieron 46 personas, en su mayoría del mismo grupo de edad y de sexo masculino. Los traumatismos múltiples (52,6% y cráneofaciales (34,2% fueron las localizaciones predominantes. Se destacaron los atropellos por vehículo de motor con mortalidad del 26,3%. En conclusión, la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito predomina en adultos jóvenes masculinos; cuyas consecuencias fatales son debido a traumatismos múltiples por atropellos.

  6. Atmospheric Dispersion Assessment for Potential Accidental Releases at Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Sim, Young Rok; Jung, Chul Kee; Lee, Goung Jin; Kim, Soong Pyung; Chung, Sung Tai

    2000-01-01

    XOQ DW code is currently used to assess the atmospheric dispersion for the routine releases of radioactive gaseous effluents at Yonggwang nuclear power plants. This code was developed based on XOQDOQ code and an additional code is required to assess the atmospheric dispersion for potential accidental releases. In order to assess the atmospheric dispersion for the accidental releases, XOQAR code has been developed by using PAVAN code that is based on Reg. Guide 1.145. The terrain data of XOQ DW code inputs and the relative concentrations (X/Q) of XOQ DW code outputs are used as the inputs of the XOQAR code through the interface with XOQ DW code. By using this code, the maximum values of X/Q at exclusion area and low population zone boundaries except for sea areas were assessed as 1.33 x 10 -4 and 7.66 x 10 -6 sec/m 3 , respectively. Through the development of this code, a code system is prepared for assessing the atmospheric dispersion for the accidental releases as well as the routine releases. This developed code can be used for other domestic nuclear power plants by modifying the terrain input data

  7. Investigation of post-accidental management conditions. Complete final report dated July 31, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a presentation of the process which resulted in the setting up of an investigation aimed at testing recommendations for post-accidental management, this report indicates the objectives of this investigation: to study the application of recommendations made by the CODIR-PA (Management Committee - Post-Accidental Management) to the operators of the milk sector, and to define an action plan to carry on and resume production. According to the adopted methodology, the study comprised two phases. The first one comprised an analysis of applications in the milk sector, the study of operational consequences on a zoning proposed by the CORDI-PA on the milk sector and on milk products, and the study of the acceptability and feasibility of considered options. The second phase addressed the elaboration of an action plan to carry on and resume the activity. While identifying and assessing the various risks, it identified critical issues for carrying on or resuming milk production in a contaminated territory, and defined an action plan to implement by anticipation or in the post-accidental situation

  8. Decay heat removal and transient analysis in accidental conditions in the EFIT reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandini, G.; Meloni, P.; Polidori, M.; Casamirra, M.; Castiglia, F.; Giardina, M.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a conceptual design of an industrial scale transmutation facility (EFIT) of several 100 MW thermal power based on Accelerator Driven System (ADS) is addressed in the frame of the European EUROTRANS Integral Project. In normal operation, the core power of EFIT reactor is removed through steam generators by four secondary loops fed by water. A safety-related Decay Heat Removal (DHR) system provided with four independent inherently safe loops is installed in the primary vessel to remove the decay heat by natural convection circulation under accidental conditions which lead to the Loss of Heat Sink (LOHS). In order to confirm the adequacy of the adopted solution for decay heat removal in accidental conditions, some multi-D analyses have been carried out with the SIMMER-III code. The results of the SIMMER-III code have been then used to support the RELAP5 1-D representation of the natural circulation flow paths in the reactor vessel. Finally, the thermal-hydraulic RELAP5 code has been employed for the analysis of LOHS accidental scenarios. (author)

  9. South Dakota accidental childhood deaths, 2000-2007: what can we do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svien, Lana R; Senne, Svien A; Rasmussen, Carl

    2010-05-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children around the world and are an under-recognized public health problem in the United States. The purpose of this study was to highlight the nature of the problem in South Dakota and outline interventions that have been successful in reducing childhood injuries in other states. This quantitative retrospective study examined mortality files in South Dakota for children birth to 19 years of age who died between January 1, 2000 to December 28, 2007. Although the number of deaths declined considerably from 2006 to 2007, South Dakota had the second-highest rate in the nation of childhood unintentional injury deaths from all causes between 2000-2005. The majority of deaths occurred in males and were associated with transportation-related deaths. Suffocation was the leading cause of death for newborns to age 1 year. Childhood accidental death in South Dakota is clearly a critical public health problem. Intervention efforts to reduce deaths from unintentional injuries amongst children should be targeted as the leading causes of accidental death for specific age groups and American Indian youth. Physicians, health educators and policymakers must play a role in prevention targeting the high-risk groups in addition to advocating for policy changes to protect childhood safety. More stringent child restraint laws, graduated driving laws, smoking cessation programs for parents, creation of safer sleep environments and further investigation of why a high proportion of American Indian children die accidentally in South Dakota are all warranted.

  10. Accidental sequences associated with the containment of the pressurized water nuclear installation - INAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natacci, Faustina Beatriz; Correa, Francisco

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of accidental sequences associated with the Containment is one of the most important tasks during the development of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of nuclear plants mainly because of its importance on the mitigation of consequences of severe postulated accident initiating events. This paper presents a first approach of the Containment analysis of the INAP identifying failures and events that can compromise its performance, and outlining accidental sequences and Containment end states. The initial plant damage states, which are the input for this study, are based on the event trees developed in the PSA level 1 for the INAP. It should be emphasized that since this PSA is still in a preliminary stage it is subjected to further completion. Consequently, the Containment analysis shall also be revised in order to incorporate, in an extension as complete as possible, all initial plant damage states, the corresponding event trees, and the related Containment end states. Finally, it can be concluded that the evaluation of the qualitative analysis presented herein allows a concise and broad knowledge of the qualitative analysis presented herein allows a concise and broad knowledge of the development of accidental sequences related to the Containment of the INAP. (author)

  11. Accidental strangulation in children by the automatic closing of a car window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Kailene; Piva, Jefferson Pedro; Andreolio, Cinara; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci; Rocha, Tais Sica da

    2018-03-01

    Among the main causes of death in our country are car accidents, drowning and accidental burns. Strangulation is a potentially fatal injury and an important cause of homicide and suicide among adults and adolescents. In children, its occurrence is usually accidental. However, in recent years, several cases of accidental strangulation in children around the world have been reported. A 2-year-old male patient was strangled in a car window. The patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 and presented with progressive worsening of respiratory dysfunction and torpor. The patient also presented acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute pulmonary edema and shock. He was managed with protective mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drugs and antibiotic therapy. He was discharged from the intensive care unit without neurological or pulmonary sequelae. After 12 days of hospitalization, he was discharged from the hospital, and his state was very good. The incidence of automobile window strangulation is rare but of high morbidity and mortality due to the resulting choking mechanism. Fortunately, newer cars have devices that stop the automatic closing of the windows if resistance is encountered. However, considering the severity of complications strangulated patients experience, the intensive neuro-ventilatory and hemodynamic management of the pathologies involved is important to reduce morbidity and mortality, as is the need to implement new campaigns for the education of parents and caregivers of children, aiming to avoid easily preventable accidents and to optimize safety mechanisms in cars with electric windows.

  12. Decay Heat Removal and Transient Analysis in Accidental Conditions in the EFIT Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomino Bandini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a conceptual design of an industrial-scale transmutation facility (EFIT of several 100 MW thermal power based on accelerator-driven system (ADS is addressed in the frame of the European EUROTRANS Integral Project. In normal operation, the core power of EFIT reactor is removed through steam generators by four secondary loops fed by water. A safety-related decay heat removal (DHR system provided with four independent inherently safe loops is installed in the primary vessel to remove the decay heat by natural convection circulation under accidental conditions which are caused by a loss-of-heat sink (LOHS. In order to confirm the adequacy of the adopted solution for decay heat removal in accidental conditions, some multi-D analyses have been carried out with the SIMMER-III code. The results of the SIMMER-III code have been then used to support the RELAP5 1D representation of the natural circulation flow paths in the reactor vessel. Finally, the thermal-hydraulic RELAP5 code has been employed for the analysis of LOHS accidental scenarios.

  13. Accidental ingestion of BiTine ring and a note on inefficient ring separation forceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghele ON

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Om Nemichand Baghele1, Mangala Om Baghele21Department of Periodontology, SMBT Dental College and Hospital, Sangamner, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India; 2Private General Dental Practice, Mumbai, IndiaBackground: Accidental ingestion of medium-to-large instruments is relatively uncommon during dental treatment but can be potentially dangerous. A case of BiTine ring ingestion is presented with a note on inefficient ring separation forceps.Case description: A 28-year-old male patient accidentally ingested the BiTine ring (2 cm diameter, 0.5 cm outward projections while it was being applied to a distoproximal cavity in tooth # 19. The ring placement forceps were excessively flexible; bending of the beaks towards the ring combined with a poor no-slippage mechanism led to sudden disengagement of the ring and accelerated movement towards the pharynx. We followed the patient with bulk forming agents and radiographs. Fortunately the ring passed out without any complications.Clinical implications: Checking equipment and methods is as important as taking precautions against any preventable medical emergency. It is the responsibility of the clinician to check, verify and then use any instrument/equipment.Keywords: foreign bodies/radiography, foreign bodies/complications, equipment failure, dental instrument, accidental ingestion

  14. Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisonings in Adana, Turkey: A 14-year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Darçın

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carbon monoxide (CO is often referred to as the “silent killer” because its victims cannot see it, smell it or taste it. CO is responsible for a large percentage of the accidental poisonings and deaths reported throughout the world. CO poisoning therefore is considered a serious global health threat. The aim of the present study was to describe the cases of CO poisoning in a rural areas of Adana, Turkey between 2002 and 2015 based on data collected from incident reports. Methods: The cases of accidental CO poisoning were statistically analyzed. During that period, 74 incidents occurred and 154 people were poisoned by accidental CO poisoning. Results: The results of this analysis indicate that men and adults aged ≥65 years were more likely to die from CO poisoning than others. The number of CO poisoning cases was highest during the heating season. The majority (72% of poisoning resulting in hospitalization with a life-threatening condition or death occurred within the home. Conclusion: CO poisoning is a serious danger. People must be informed about this hazard. By educating risk groups about the dangers of CO poisoning, it is possible to save many lives as well as reduce the health risks.

  15. Factors perceived as being related to accidental falls by persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsagård, Ylva; Denison, Eva; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Boström, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    This study explores and describes factors that persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) perceive as being related to accidental falls. A qualitative content analysis with primarily deductive approach was conducted using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Twelve persons with MS, and identified as fallers, were interviewed. Factors perceived to cause accidental falls that had not previously been targeted in MS populations in relation to falls were identified as divided attention, reduced muscular endurance, fatigue and heat sensitivity. Previously reported risk factors such as changed gait pattern, limited walking ability, impaired proprioception, vision and spasticity were supported. Activities involving walking, recreation and leisure, maintaining and changing body position, lifting or carrying, taking care of the home, washing the body, moving around, preparing meals and housekeeping were limited and considered to be risk activities. Supportive persons and assistive device reduced falls, and unsuitable physical environments and climate conditions induced falls. Several preventative strategies were described as partially compensating for the impairments, limitations and restrictions. Investigating accidental falls using the perspective of the patient gave important information about variables not earlier targeted in MS research.

  16. Accidental strangulation in children by the automatic closing of a car window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Kailene; Piva, Jefferson Pedro; Andreolio, Cinara; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci; da Rocha, Tais Sica

    2018-01-01

    Among the main causes of death in our country are car accidents, drowning and accidental burns. Strangulation is a potentially fatal injury and an important cause of homicide and suicide among adults and adolescents. In children, its occurrence is usually accidental. However, in recent years, several cases of accidental strangulation in children around the world have been reported. A 2-year-old male patient was strangled in a car window. The patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 and presented with progressive worsening of respiratory dysfunction and torpor. The patient also presented acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute pulmonary edema and shock. He was managed with protective mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drugs and antibiotic therapy. He was discharged from the intensive care unit without neurological or pulmonary sequelae. After 12 days of hospitalization, he was discharged from the hospital, and his state was very good. The incidence of automobile window strangulation is rare but of high morbidity and mortality due to the resulting choking mechanism. Fortunately, newer cars have devices that stop the automatic closing of the windows if resistance is encountered. However, considering the severity of complications strangulated patients experience, the intensive neuro-ventilatory and hemodynamic management of the pathologies involved is important to reduce morbidity and mortality, as is the need to implement new campaigns for the education of parents and caregivers of children, aiming to avoid easily preventable accidents and to optimize safety mechanisms in cars with electric windows.

  17. An atypical case of successful resuscitation of an accidental profound hypothermia patient, occurring in a temperate climate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E

    2010-03-01

    Cases of accidental profound hypothermia occur most frequently in cold, northern climates. We describe an atypical case, occurring in a temperate climate, where a hypothermic cardiac-arrested patient was successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation (ECC).

  18. Gamma irradiation-induced modifications of resins found in nuclear waste embedding processes; Modifications induites par irradiation gamma dans les differentes resines rencontrees dans le traitement des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allali, H [Faculte des Science et Techniques, Settat (Morocco); Debre, O; Lambert, M; Nsouli, B; Thomas, J P [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Collaboration: IPN-Lyon, Laboratoire d` Etude des Materiaux Plastiques et des Biomateriaux, URA 507, UCBL, Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radiactifs

    1999-12-31

    The various resins involved in nuclear waste disposal are subject to gamma irradiation-induced modifications. From Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry of Secondary ions emitted under High Energy Projectiles bombardment (HSF-SIMS) of such materials the following results are obtained: the embedding epoxy resin DGEBA-DDM does not exhibit significant bulk changes in chemical structure, whatever the dose rate and irradiation medium (air or water), at least up to 2 MGy. However, oxidation processes are well observed at the very surface. Under the same conditions Ion exchange resins to be embedded are subjected to scissions of their functional sites, leading to fixed ion release. Dehydration under irradiation is observed pointing out the crucial role of water in ion transport outside of the material. (authors)

  19. Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination of the French coastal areas - Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination in the French marine coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Charmasson, S. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM - Antenne de Radioecologie Marine, Centre Ifremer, Zone portuaire de Bregaillon, 13507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bailly du Bois, P.; Fievet, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France); Couvez, C.; Renaud, P. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/DIR (France); Didier, D. [IRSN/PRP-CRI/SESUC/BMTA (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to the most important accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the sea. This accident has underlined the importance of being able to adequately reproduce the fate of radioactive releases and to estimate their consequences for the marine environment. For its Crisis Centre, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has operational tools, in order to help experts and decision makers in case of any atmospheric accidental release and terrestrial environment contamination. The on-going project aims to develop tools to manage any marine contamination of the French coastal areas. We should be able to evaluate and anticipate the marine post-accidental situation: contaminated areas localization and contamination levels, and possible consequences. Many sites has be considered as potential source terms into the sea: the Coastal Nuclear Power Plants, the La Hague reprocessing Plant, the Brest and Toulon Military Harbours as home-ports of nuclear powered vessels, and different river mouths (Rhone River, Gironde, Loire, Seine) that could be contaminated by upstream accidental release. To achieve this goal, two complementary approaches are developed: Marine sheets and a dedicated modelling tool (STERNE). - Marine sheets aim to summarize marine environment characteristics for the different sites, identify potential stakes for human protection such as aquaculture areas, beaches, or industrial water intakes, and ecological stakes. Whenever possible, a local climatology (main currents depending on meteorological or tide conditions) that could be a support to first environmental measurement strategy is proposed. A list of available local contacts for any operational management is also provided. - The modelling tool, STERNE (Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Elements Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin), must predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination of water, marine species and sediments

  20. The study of the irradiation-induced embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels. Analysis of surveillance test specimens of a commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessel studied by three-dimensional atom probe and positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Toyama, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    The study of embrittlement of nuclear power reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is of critical importance for the safety assessment in the nuclear industry. Some origins of embrittlement are attributed to fine Cu precipitates, matrix defects, grain boundary segregation of P and late blooming phase. This review article described nanostructural observation by three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The density and sizes of Cu-rich nanoprecipitates and grain boundary segregation are sensitively detected by 3DAP, and vacancies are probed by PAS. Element analysis around vacancies and fine microstructural Cu precipitates not containing vacancies are successfully observed by a coincidence doppler broadening method. The nanostructural evolution of irradiation-induced Cu-rich nanoprecipitates (CRNPs) and vacancy clusters in surveillance test specimens of commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel welds of Doel-2 in Belgium were revealed by combining 3DAP and PAS. In both medium (0.13 wt%) and high (0.30 wt%) Cu welds, the CRNPs were found to form readily at the very beginning of the reactor lifetime. On the other hand, small vacancy clusters start appearing after the initial Cu precipitates and accumulate steadily with increasing neutron dose. The CRNPs were also observed at very low dose rate of neutrons in the test specimen of Calder Hall Reactor of Japan Atomic Power Company. The significant enhancement of these Cu precipitates results in the embrittlement in practical RPVs. At very high dose of 2.2x10 18 n/cm 2 by JMTR, the Cu precipitates were scarcely observed, and the irradiation-induced embrittlement was primarily caused from vacancy-impurity complexes and dislocation loops. (author)

  1. Accidental goodness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Anne

    In postmodern capitalist market economies, management of the single organisation is bound to be guided by several rationales, which are in conflict with each other. For some writers this perception leads to the argument, that conceptions of management should strive towards goals beyond the present...... society. For others, the handling of plural perspectives is just a management discipline. However these positions seem to share a focus on organization as a the arena for the organization of the good. The contribution looks at the management of occupational accidents as an example of striving for good...

  2. Accidental overexposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1993-03-01

    The accident frequency seems to increase rapidly, probably because of the industrial source use development. In opposition to that was noted twenty years ago, the accidents don't involve only the industrial firm or hospital wage earners but also public people. Serious accident analysis puts to the fore the defects which made them possible. The accidents due to energy production reactors are very seldom even if Chernobyl or nuclear submarine accidents have exposed about several hundreds workers to doses going beyond one gray. 78 refs. 17 figs. 14 tabs. 3 annexes

  3. Accidental Hypothermia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-03

    Physiological aspects of hypothermia. A, Ann Rev Physiol 1957; 19: 83. 241. Kearsley JH, Musso AF: Hypothermia and coma in the Wernicke- Korsakoff syndrome . Med 3...decline. Included in this group are patients with hypothalamic lesions and agenesis of the corpus callosum, termed the Shapiro Syndrome .46 1�...peculiar fIat affect is conuon. Psychomotor impairrrent resembles organic brain syndrome . 8 1� Appropriate adaptive behavior is often lacking.82 An

  4. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission

  5. Accidental Outcomes Guide Punishment in a “Trembling Hand” Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Fiery; Dreber, Anna; Wang, Ying; Costa, Jay

    2009-01-01

    How do people respond to others' accidental behaviors? Reward and punishment for an accident might depend on the actor's intentions, or instead on the unintended outcomes she brings about. Yet, existing paradigms in experimental economics do not include the possibility of accidental monetary allocations. We explore the balance of outcomes and intentions in a two-player economic game where monetary allocations are made with a “trembling hand”: that is, intentions and outcomes are sometimes mismatched. Player 1 allocates $10 between herself and Player 2 by rolling one of three dice. One die has a high probability of a selfish outcome, another has a high probability of a fair outcome, and the third has a high probability of a generous outcome. Based on Player 1's choice of die, Player 2 can infer her intentions. However, any of the three die can yield any of the three possible outcomes. Player 2 is given the opportunity to respond to Player 1's allocation by adding to or subtracting from Player 1's payoff. We find that Player 2's responses are influenced substantially by the accidental outcome of Player 1's roll of the die. Comparison to control conditions suggests that in contexts where the allocation is at least partially under the control of Player 1, Player 2 will punish Player 1 accountable for unintentional negative outcomes. In addition, Player 2's responses are influenced by Player 1's intention. However, Player 2 tends to modulate his responses substantially more for selfish intentions than for generous intentions. This novel economic game provides new insight into the psychological mechanisms underlying social preferences for fairness and retribution. PMID:19707578

  6. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  7. Numerical research of a super-large cooling tower subjected to accidental loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Lin, Feng [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Gu, Xianglin, E-mail: gxl@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Lu, Xiaoqin [Guangdong Electric Power Design Institute, Guangzhou 510660 (China)

    2014-04-01

    With the continued development of nuclear power plants, more and more super-large cooling towers are to be built in China and around the world. For the safe operation of nuclear power plants, research work has been done on the causes of collapse of cooling towers, collapse modes and the secondary disasters caused by the collapse of cooling towers. However, the collapse modes and the ground vibration induced by the collapse of cooling towers subjected to the accidental loads have not been fully understood. This paper has been focused on the modes and mechanisms behavior of the collapse of cooling towers subjected to accidental loads. Meanwhile, prediction of the ground vibration due to the collapse of the cooling towers has also been completed in a parallel project. Using dynamic finite element program LS-DYNA, a 3D finite element model for a super-large cooling tower was developed and the nonlinear material models were incorporated. In this paper, four types of accidental loads were considered to trigger the collapse or local failure of the tower, including vehicle collision, airplane impact, local explosion and missile attack. It was found that vehicle collision, missile attack and small TNT equivalent explosives (2 kg, 20 kg, 200 kg) might result in local failure of the cooling tower, however, the tower can still keep stable. On the other hand, large TNT equivalent explosives (2000 kg, 4500 kg) could cause severe damages in the inclined columns of the cooling tower, and lead to progressive collapse of the entire cooling tower. The two kinds of TNT equivalent explosives caused the same collapse mode while the collapsing duration was different. The airplane impacted at the throat of the cooling tower caused the local failure of shell structure of the tower, and then the progressive collapse of the cooling tower happened due to the gravitational action. The resulting collapse mode was different from that triggered by the local explosion.

  8. Numerical research of a super-large cooling tower subjected to accidental loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Lin, Feng; Gu, Xianglin; Lu, Xiaoqin

    2014-01-01

    With the continued development of nuclear power plants, more and more super-large cooling towers are to be built in China and around the world. For the safe operation of nuclear power plants, research work has been done on the causes of collapse of cooling towers, collapse modes and the secondary disasters caused by the collapse of cooling towers. However, the collapse modes and the ground vibration induced by the collapse of cooling towers subjected to the accidental loads have not been fully understood. This paper has been focused on the modes and mechanisms behavior of the collapse of cooling towers subjected to accidental loads. Meanwhile, prediction of the ground vibration due to the collapse of the cooling towers has also been completed in a parallel project. Using dynamic finite element program LS-DYNA, a 3D finite element model for a super-large cooling tower was developed and the nonlinear material models were incorporated. In this paper, four types of accidental loads were considered to trigger the collapse or local failure of the tower, including vehicle collision, airplane impact, local explosion and missile attack. It was found that vehicle collision, missile attack and small TNT equivalent explosives (2 kg, 20 kg, 200 kg) might result in local failure of the cooling tower, however, the tower can still keep stable. On the other hand, large TNT equivalent explosives (2000 kg, 4500 kg) could cause severe damages in the inclined columns of the cooling tower, and lead to progressive collapse of the entire cooling tower. The two kinds of TNT equivalent explosives caused the same collapse mode while the collapsing duration was different. The airplane impacted at the throat of the cooling tower caused the local failure of shell structure of the tower, and then the progressive collapse of the cooling tower happened due to the gravitational action. The resulting collapse mode was different from that triggered by the local explosion

  9. Accidental internal exposure of all groups of Chernobyl nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goussev, I.A.; Moissev, A.A.; Evtichiev, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Accidental internal exposure of Chernobyl NPP employees has started from April, 1986 and it was found to be decreased to pre-accident level at the end of 1987. Significant number of people from all groups of staff and temporary employees were measured using whole body counters situated in Clinical Department of the Institute of Biophysics, which has represented the main body for medical assistance and expertise in these people including those, who suffered from acute radiation syndrome as well as the people engaged in all kinds of works at Chernobyl NPP site. Technical characteristics of the equipment and techniques used to assess the internal exposure are given. (author)

  10. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. Internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Trano, J.L.; Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.

    1999-01-01

    This work represent a guide for the treatment of accidental intakes of radionuclides. The different phases of radioactive contamination, the transfer and non-transfer of radioisotopes, the general principles in the treatment of internal contamination and the follow-up are determined. The in vivo monitoring and the evaluation of activity level are specified in this document. The applied treatment depends on the via of intake, that is: inhalation, ingestion, and through skin. The decontamination procedures that reduce the radionuclide transfer are specified. The different drugs, used to enhance radionuclides elimination, are enumerated in this work. Considerations about the iodine prophylaxis in radiologic als accidents are considered. (author)

  11. Initiating events and accidental sequences taken into account in the CAREM reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, J.M.; Felizia, E.R.; Navarro, N.R.; Caruso, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The advance made in the nuclear security evaluation of the CAREM reactor is presented. It was carried out using the Security Probabilistic Analysis (SPA). The latter takes into account the different phases of identification and solution of initiating events and the qualitative development of event trees. The method of identification of initiating events is the Master Logical Diagram (MLD), whose deductive basis makes it appropriate for a new design like the one described. The qualitative development of the event trees associated to the identified initiating events, allows identification of those accidental sequences which are to have the security systems in the reactor. (Author) [es

  12. Muertes por enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares prevenibles - (Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de septiembre del 2013 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Más de 800,000 personas en los Estados Unidos mueren cada año a causa de enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares. Aprenda cómo controlar todos los principales factores de riesgo.  Created: 9/3/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/3/2013.

  13. Forecasting consequences of accidental release: how reliable are current assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwer, P.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on uncertainties in model output used to assess accidents. We begin by reviewing the historical development of assessment models and the associated interest in uncertainties as these evolutionary processes occurred in the United States. This is followed by a description of the sources of uncertainties in assessment calculations. Types of models appropriate for assessment of accidents are identified. A summary of results from our analysis of uncertainty is provided in results obtained with current methodology for assessing routine and accidental radionuclide releases to the environment. We conclude with discussion of preferred procedures and suggested future directions to improve the state-of-the-art of radiological assessments

  14. Insect wings as retrospective/accidental/forensic dosimeters: An optically stimulated luminescence investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakis, Nikolaos A.; Tsetine, Anastasia Th.; Kitis, George; Tsirliganis, Nestor C.

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of the radiation released during nuclear accidents or radiological terrorist events is imperative for the prediction of health effects following such an exposure. In addition, in several cases there is a need to identify the prior presence of radioactive materials at buildings or sites (nuclear forensics). To this direction, several materials have been the research object of numerous studies the last decade in an attempt to identify potentially new retrospective/accidental/forensic dosimeters. However, the studies targeting biological materials are limited and their majority is mainly focused on the luminescence behavior of human biological material. Consequently, the use of such materials in retrospective dosimetry presumes the exposure of humans in the radiation field. The present work constitutes the first attempt to seek non-human biological materials, which can be found in nature in abundance or in/on other living organisms. To this end, the present work investigates the basic optically stimulated luminescence behavior of insect wings, which exhibit several advantages compared to other materials. Insects are ubiquitous, have a short life expectancy and exhibit a low decomposition rate after their death. Findings of the present study are encouraging towards the potential use of insects' wings at retrospective/accidental/forensic dosimetry, since they exhibit linear OSL response over a wide dose range and imperceptible loss of signal several days after their irradiation when they are kept in dark. On the other hand, the calculated lower detection limit is not low enough to allow their use as emergency dosimeters when individuals are exposed to non-lethal doses. In addition, wings exhibit strong optical fading when they are exposed to daylight and thus special care should be taken during the sampling procedure in order to use the wings as accidental/forensic dosimeters, by seeking (dead) insects in dark places, such as behind furniture, equipment or in

  15. Categorización de accidentes en plantas de producción de fertilizantes

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Paz Castillo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    El presente proyecto se enmarca en el estudio y categorización de los diferentes tipos de accidentes industriales que ocurren en el ámbito de las plantas de producción de fertilizantes. En primer lugar, se tratan los conceptos de riesgo y seguridad. A continuación se detallan las características de la seguridad industrial, detallando su evolución a lo largo de la Historia para comprender finalmente el estado en el que se encuentra actualmente.

  16. The present status and recent applications of the accidental tritium assessment code UFOTRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    1999-01-01

    The computer program UFOTRI can be used for assessing the impact of accidental released tritium in the two chemical forms tritiated water vapour and tritium gas. By applying UFOTRI to potential European sites for ITER, it could be demonstrated that the main goal, the nonevacuation criteria, is fulfilled for the present release limits. Contributions in international studies together with the re-evaluation of experimental data showed that the plant sub-model as well as the soil sub-model are areas for further improvement. (author)

  17. Comparison of numerical models for calculating dispersion from accidental releases of pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, D W [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC; Cooper, R E; Baker, A J

    1982-01-01

    A modular, data-based system approach has been developed to facilitate computational simulation of multi-dimensional pollutant dispersion in atmospheric, steam, estuary, and groundwater applications. This system is used to assess effects of accidental releases of pollutants to the environment. Model sophistication ranges from simple statistical to complex three-dimensional numerical methods. The system used specifies desired degree of model sophistication from a terminal. The model used depends on the particular type of problem being solved, and on a basis of merit related to computer cost. The results of prediction for several model problems are presented.

  18. Accidentes domésticos en ancianos. Municipio Libertador. Mérida. 1993 - 1996.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Márquez, Reina; Salinas, Pedro José

    2006-01-01

    Editorial. ¡Ya tenemos símbolo, ícono o logotipo!. Now we have symbol, icono or logo!. Salinas, Pedro José Accidentes domésticos en ancianos. Municipio Libertador. Mérida. 1993-1996. Domestics accidents in elderly people. Libertador County of Mérida State. 1993-1996. Salinas, Pedro José Rojas Márquez, Reina Estrés y síntomas en personal de salud del Hospital Universitario de Los Andes. Stress and symptoms in health staff of the Hospital Universitario de Los Andes. Méri...

  19. Terapéuticas intervencionistas para el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra T. Rabadán; Luciano Sposato; Claudio Mazia

    2010-01-01

    En los últimos 20 años se han desarrollado nuevas opciones para el tratamiento y para la prevención del accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) isquémico, muchas de ellas de carácter intervencionista, tales como la endarterectomía carotídea y la trombolisis intravenosa con activador tisular del plasminógeno. La evidencia científica ha llevado a su difusión y utilización en países desarrollados mientras que en naciones emergentes se observa un retraso en su adopción. Otras modalidades terapéuticas que...

  20. Respiratuvar depression after accidental nasal ingestion of brimonidine eye drops in infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gunes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Brimonidine tartrate is an alpha-2 agonist used for glaucoma treatment. It can lead to serious poisoning symptoms when misused by children. Case report: In this case report, 3 months-old male patient with severe central nervous system depression and respiratory arrest as a result of accidentally nasal instillation of 1 cc brimonidine tartrate that benefited from mechanic ventilation and naloxone treatment was presented. Conclusion: This case report suggested, that misuse of nasal brimonidine eye drop could result in serious respiratory distress and central nervous system depression. Mechanical ventilation and naloxone administration can be useful for these patients. Keywords: Brimonidine intoxication, Nasal ingestion, Children