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Sample records for accident sequence precursor

  1. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 2 models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.; Rempe, J.L. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Accident Sequence Precursor program pursues the ultimate objective of performing risk significant evaluations on operational events (precursors) occurring in commercial nuclear power plants. To achieve this objective, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is supporting the development of simple probabilistic risk assessment models for all commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) in the U.S. Presently, only simple Level 1 plant models have been developed which estimate core damage frequencies. In order to provide a true risk perspective, the consequences associated with postulated core damage accidents also need to be considered. With the objective of performing risk evaluations in an integrated and consistent manner, a linked event tree approach which propagates the front end results to back end was developed. This approach utilizes simple plant models that analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude and timing of a radioactive release to the environment, and calculate the consequences for a given release. Detailed models and results from previous studies, such as the NUREG-1150 study, are used to quantify these simple models. These simple models are then linked to the existing Level 1 models, and are evaluated using the SAPHIRE code. To demonstrate the approach, prototypic models have been developed for a boiling water reactor, Peach Bottom, and a pressurized water reactor, Zion.

  2. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  3. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 1 models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattison, M.B.; Thatcher, T.A.; Knudsen, J.K.; Schroeder, J.A.; Siu, N.O. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-03-01

    INEL has been involved in the development of plant-specific Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) models for the past two years. These models were developed for use with the SAPHIRE suite of PRA computer codes. They contained event tree/linked fault tree Level 1 risk models for the following initiating events: general transient, loss-of-offsite-power, steam generator tube rupture, small loss-of-coolant-accident, and anticipated transient without scram. Early in 1995 the ASP models were revised based on review comments from the NRC and an independent peer review. These models were released as Revision 1. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has sponsored several projects at the INEL this fiscal year to further enhance the capabilities of the ASP models. Revision 2 models incorporates more detailed plant information into the models concerning plant response to station blackout conditions, information on battery life, and other unique features gleaned from an Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation quick review of the Individual Plant Examination submittals. These models are currently being delivered to the NRC as they are completed. A related project is a feasibility study and model development of low power/shutdown (LP/SD) and external event extensions to the ASP models. This project will establish criteria for selection of LP/SD and external initiator operational events for analysis within the ASP program. Prototype models for each pertinent initiating event (loss of shutdown cooling, loss of inventory control, fire, flood, seismic, etc.) will be developed. A third project concerns development of enhancements to SAPHIRE. In relation to the ASP program, a new SAPHIRE module, GEM, was developed as a specific user interface for performing ASP evaluations. This module greatly simplifies the analysis process for determining the conditional core damage probability for a given combination of initiating events and equipment failures or degradations.

  4. Core damage frequency estimation using accident sequence precursor data: 1990--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, H.F.

    1998-12-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) ongoing Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques to assess the potential for severe core damage (henceforth referred to simply as core damage) based on operating events. The types of operating events considered include accident sequence initiators, safety equipment failures, and degradation of plant conditions that could increase the probability that various postulated accident sequences occur. Such operating events potentially reduce the margin of safety available for prevention of core damage an thus can be considered as precursors to core damage. The current process for identifying, analyzing, and documenting ASP events is described in detail in Vanden Heuval et al. The significance of a Licensee Event Report (LER) event (or events) is measured by means of the conditional probability that the event leads to core damage, the so-called conditional core damage probability or, simply, CCDP. When the first ASP study results were published in 1982, it covered the period 1969--1979. In addition to identification and ranking of precursors, the original study attempted to estimate core damage frequency (CDF) based on the precursor events. The purpose of this paper is to compare the average annual CDF estimates calculated using the CCDP sum, Cooke-Goossens, Bier, and Abramson estimators for various reactor classes using the combined ASP data for the four years, 1990--1993. An important outcome of this comparison is an answer to the persistent question regarding the degree and effect of the positive bias of the CCDP sum method in practice. Note that this paper only compares the estimators with each other. Because the true average CDF is unknown, the estimation error is also unknown. Therefore, any observations or characterizations of bias are based on purely theoretical considerations.

  5. Low-power and shutdown models for the accident sequence precursor (ASP) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattison, M.B.; Thatcher, T.A.; Knudsen, J.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been using full-power. Level 1, limited-scope risk models for the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program for over fifteen years. These models have evolved and matured over the years, as have probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and computer technologies. Significant upgrading activities have been undertaken over the past three years, with involvement from the Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR), Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), and several national laboratories. Part of these activities was an RES-sponsored feasibility study investigating the ability to extend the ASP models to include contributors to core damage from events initiated with the reactor at low power or shutdown (LP/SD), both internal events and external events. This paper presents only the LP/SD internal event modeling efforts.

  6. NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process and the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank; Lutomski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the implementation of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), as well as the evaluation of In-Flight Investigations (IFI) and Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) data for the identification of unrecognized accident potentials on the International Space Station.

  7. Study on Nuclear Accident Precursors Using AHP and BBN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the nuclear accident reports used to indicate the implicit precursors which are not easily quantified as underlying factors. The current Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA is capable of quantifying the importance of accident causes in limited scope. It was, therefore, difficult to achieve quantifiable decision-making for resource allocation. In this study, the methodology which facilitates quantifying these precursors and a case study were presented. First, four implicit precursors have been obtained by evaluating the causality and hierarchy structure of various accident factors. Eventually, it turned out that they represent the lack of knowledge. After four precursors are selected, subprecursors were investigated and their cause-consequence relationship was implemented by Bayesian Belief Network (BBN. To prioritize the precursors, the prior probability is initially estimated by expert judgment and updated upon observations. The pair-wise importance between precursors is calculated by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the results are converted into node probability tables of the BBN model. Using this method, the sensitivity and the posterior probability of each precursor can be analyzed so that it enables making prioritization for the factors. We tried to prioritize the lessons learned from Fukushima accident to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methodology.

  8. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents, 1986: A status report: Main report and Appendixes A,B, and C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minarick, J W; Harris, J D; Austin, P N; Cletcher, J W; Hagen, E W

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor Program reviews licensee event reports of operational events that have occurred at LWRs to identify and categorize precursors to potential severe core-damage accidents. Accident sequences considered in the study are those associated with inadequate core cooling. Accident sequence precursors are events that are important elements in such sequences. Such precursors could be infrequent initiating events or equipment failures that, when coupled with one or more postulated events, could result in a plant condition with inadequate core cooling. Originally proposed in the Risk Assessment Review Group Report (Lewis Committee report) in 1978, the study - subsequently named the Accident Sequence Precursor Program - was initiated at the Nuclear Operations Analysis Center in 1979. Earlier reports by the program involved assessment of events that occurred in 1969-1981 and 1984-1985. The present report involves the assessment of events that occurred during 1986. A nuclear plant has safety systems for mitigating the consequences of accidents or off-normal initiating events that may occur during the course of plant operation. These systems are built to high-quality standards and are redundant; nonetheless, they have a nonzero probability of failing or being in a failed state when required to operate. This report uses LERs and other plant data, estimated system unavailabilities, the expected average frequency of initiating events (LOFWs, LOOPs, LOCAs), and event details to evaluate the potential impact of the following two situations.

  9. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  10. HTGR severe accident sequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.; Kornegay, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic, fission product transport, and atmospheric dispersion calculations are presented for hypothetical severe accident release paths at the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Off-site radiation exposures are calculated for assumed release of 100% of the 24 hour post-shutdown core xenon and krypton inventory and 5.5% of the iodine inventory. The results show conditions under which dose avoidance measures would be desirable and demonstrate the importance of specific release characteristics such as effective release height. 7 tables.

  11. NASA Accident Precursor Analysis Handbook, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank; Everett, Chris; Hall, Anthony; Insley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    accident precursors by evaluating anomaly occurrences for their system safety implications and, through both analytical and deliberative methods used to project to other circumstances, identifying those that portend more serious consequences to come if effective corrective action is not taken. APA builds upon existing safety analysis processes currently in practice within NASA, leveraging their results to provide an improved understanding of overall system risk. As such, APA represents an important dimension of safety evaluation; as operational experience is acquired, precursor information is generated such that it can be fed back into system safety analyses to risk-inform safety improvements. Importantly, APA utilizes anomaly data to predict risk whereas standard reliability and PRA approaches utilize failure data which often is limited and rare.

  12. An Accident Precursor Analysis Process Tailored for NASA Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank; Stamatelatos, Michael; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    Accident Precursor Analysis (APA) serves as the bridge between existing risk modeling activities, which are often based on historical or generic failure statistics, and system anomalies, which provide crucial information about the failure mechanisms that are actually operative in the system and which may differ in frequency or type from those in the various models. These discrepancies between the models (perceived risk) and the system (actual risk) provide the leading indication of an underappreciated risk. This paper presents an APA process developed specifically for NASA Earth-to-Orbit space systems. The purpose of the process is to identify and characterize potential sources of system risk as evidenced by anomalous events which, although not necessarily presenting an immediate safety impact, may indicate that an unknown or insufficiently understood risk-significant condition exists in the system. Such anomalous events are considered accident precursors because they signal the potential for severe consequences that may occur in the future, due to causes that are discernible from their occurrence today. Their early identification allows them to be integrated into the overall system risk model used to intbrm decisions relating to safety.

  13. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1992, a status report; Volume 18: Appendices B, C, D, E, F, and G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-01

    This document is part of a report which documents 1992 operational events selected as accident sequence precursors. This report describes the 27 precursors identified from the 1992 licensee event reports. It also describe containment-related events; {open_quote}interesting{close_quote} events; potentially significant events that were considered impractical to analyze; copies of the licensee event reports which were cited in the cases above; and comments from the licensee and NRC in response to the preliminary reports.

  14. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1997 -- A status report. Volume 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Muhlheim, M.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This report describes the five operational events in 1997 that affected five commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1997 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those events that could be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1996 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events.

  15. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  16. Fukushima Accident: Sequence of Events and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Edward C.

    2011-10-01

    The Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power station suffered a devastating Richter 9.0 earthquake followed by a 14.0 m tsunami on 11 March 2011. The subsequent loss of power for emergency core cooling systems resulted in damage to the fuel in the cores of three reactors. The relief of pressure from the containment in these three reactors led to sufficient hydrogen gas release to cause explosions in the buildings housing the reactors. There was probably subsequent damage to a spent fuel pool of a fourth reactor caused by debris from one of these explosions. Resultant releases of fission product isotopes in air were significant and have been estimated to be in the 3 . 7 --> 6 . 3 ×1017 Bq range (~10 MCi) for 131I and 137Cs combined, or approximately one tenth that of the Chernobyl accident. A synopsis of the sequence of events leading up to this large release of radioactivity will be presented, along with likely scenarios for stabilization and site cleanup in the future. Some aspects of the isotope monitoring programs, both locally and at large, will also be discussed. An assessment of radiological health risk for the plant workers as well as the general public will also be presented. Finally, the impact of this accident on design and deployment of nuclear generating stations in the future will be discussed.

  17. Radiative heat transfer modelling in a PWR severe accident sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magali Zabiego; Florian Fichot [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - BP 3 - 13115 Saint-paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pablo Rubiolo [Westinghouse Science and Technology - 1344 Beulah Road - Pittsburgh - PA 15235 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The present study is devoted to the estimation of the radiative heat transfers during a severe accident sequence in a Pressurized Water Reactor. In such a situation, the residual nuclear power released by the fuel rods can not be evacuated and heats up the core. As a result, the cylindrical rods and the structures initially composing the core undergo a degradation process: swelling, breaking or melting of the rods and structures and eventual collapse to form a heap of fragments called a debris bed. As the solid matrix loses its original shape, the core geometry continuously evolves from standing, regularly-spaced cylinders to a non-homogeneous system including deformed remaining rods and structures and debris particles. To predict this type of sequence, the ICARE/CATHARE software [1] is developed by IRSN. Since the temperatures can reach values greater than 3000 K, it was of major interest to provide the code with an accurate radiative transfer model usable whatever the geometry of the system. Considering the size of a reactor core compared to the mean penetration length of radiation, the core can be seen as an optically thick medium. This observation led us to use the diffusion approximation to treat the radiation propagation. In this approach, the radiative flux is calculated in a way similar to thermal conduction: q{sub r} = [K{sub e}].{nabla}T where [K{sub e}] is the equivalent conductivity tensor of the system accounting for thermal and radiative transfer. An homogenization technique is applied to estimate the equivalent conductivity. Given the temperature level, the radiative contribution to the equivalent conductivity tensor quickly becomes dominant. This model was described earlier in [2] in which it was shown that an equivalent conductivity can be continuously calculated in the system when the geometry evolves from standing regular cylinder rods to swollen or broken ones, surrounded or not by a film of liquid materials, to

  18. Development of NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process Through Application on the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Gaspare; Groen, Frank; Hamlin, Teri; Youngblood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Accident Precursor Analysis (APA) serves as the bridge between existing risk modeling activities, which are often based on historical or generic failure statistics, and system anomalies, which provide crucial information about the failure mechanisms that are actually operative in the system. APA docs more than simply track experience: it systematically evaluates experience, looking for under-appreciated risks that may warrant changes to design or operational practice. This paper presents the pilot application of the NASA APA process to Space Shuttle Orbiter systems. In this effort, the working sessions conducted at Johnson Space Center (JSC) piloted the APA process developed by Information Systems Laboratories (ISL) over the last two years under the auspices of NASA's Office of Safety & Mission Assurance, with the assistance of the Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Shuttle & Exploration Analysis Branch. This process is built around facilitated working sessions involving diverse system experts. One important aspect of this particular APA process is its focus on understanding the physical mechanism responsible for an operational anomaly, followed by evaluation of the risk significance of the observed anomaly as well as consideration of generalizations of the underlying mechanism to other contexts. Model completeness will probably always be an issue, but this process tries to leverage operating experience to the extent possible in order to address completeness issues before a catastrophe occurs.

  19. An evaluation of spindle-shaft seizure accident sequences for the Schenck Dynamic Balancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, T.F.; Fischer, S.R.

    1998-11-01

    This study was conducted at the request of the USDOE/AL Dynamic Balancer Project Team to develop a set of representative accident sequences initiated by rapid seizure of the spindle shaft of the Schenck dynamic balancing machine used in the mass properties testing activities in Bay 12-60 at the Pantex Plant. This Balancer is used for balancing reentry vehicles. In addition, the study identified potential causes of possible spindle-shaft seizure leading to a rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly. These accident sequences extend to the point that the reentry vehicle either remains in stable condition on the balancing machine or leaves the machine with some translational and rotational motion. Fault-tree analysis was used to identify possible causes of spindle-shaft seizure, and failure modes and effects analysis identified the results of shearing of different machine components. Cause-consequence diagrams were used to help develop accident sequences resulting from the possible effects of spindle-shaft seizure. To make these accident sequences physically reasonable, the analysts used idealized models of the dynamics of rotating masses. Idealized physical modeling also was used to provide approximate values of accident parameters that lead to branching down different accident progression paths. The exacerbating conditions of balancing machine over-speed and improper assembly of the fixture to the face plate are also addressed.

  20. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1994, a status report. Volume 22: Appendix I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Nine operational events that affected eleven commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) during 1994 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by computer-screening the 1994 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those that could be potential precursors. Candidate precursors were then selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1981 and 1984--1993 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for events. This document is bound in two volumes: Vol. 21 contains the main report and Appendices A--H; Vol. 22 contains Appendix 1.

  1. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1995 A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ten operational events that affected 10 commercial light-water reactors during 1995 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1995 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to identify those events that could potentially be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events.

  2. Scram discharge volume break studies accident sequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, R.M.; Hodge, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a summary of a report describing the predicted response of Unit 1 at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant to a hypothetical small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) outside of containment. The accident studied would be initiated by a break in the scram discharge volume (SDV) piping when it is pressurized to full reactor vessel pressure as a normal consequence of a reactor scram. If the scram could be reset, the scram outlet valves would close to isolate the SDV and the piping break from the reactor vessel. However, reset is possible only if the conditions that caused the scram have cleared; it has been assumed in this study that the scram signal remains in effect over a long period of time.

  3. Prediction of viral microRNA precursors based on human microRNA precursor sequence and structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiva; Ansari, Faraz A; Scaria, Vinod

    2009-08-20

    MicroRNAs (small approximately 22 nucleotide long non-coding endogenous RNAs) have recently attracted immense attention as critical regulators of gene expression in multi-cellular eukaryotes, especially in humans. Recent studies have proved that viruses also express microRNAs, which are thought to contribute to the intricate mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions. Computational predictions have greatly accelerated the discovery of microRNAs. However, most of these widely used tools are dependent on structural features and sequence conservation which limits their use in discovering novel virus expressed microRNAs and non-conserved eukaryotic microRNAs. In this work an efficient prediction method is developed based on the hypothesis that sequence and structure features which discriminate between host microRNA precursor hairpins and pseudo microRNAs are shared by viral microRNA as they depend on host machinery for the processing of microRNA precursors. The proposed method has been found to be more efficient than recently reported ab-initio methods for predicting viral microRNAs and microRNAs expressed by mammals.

  4. Probabilistic methods for identification of significant accident sequences in loop-type LMFBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, K M.A.

    1983-06-01

    The aim of the Probabilistic Accident Progression Analysis (PAPA) described herein is to establish a framework for better use of the probability measure; first, as a basis for deterministic calculations, and second, as a part of a comprehensive method for risk assessment in its own right. The achievement of this goal rests on: (1) improvements in the existing approaches for acquisition and analysis of accident sequences; (2) defining a new measure of probabilistic importance that aids in the ranking of sequences of highly uncertain events; and (3) implementation of new techniques for quantification of dependent failures of similar components. The existing techniques related to the above three topics are discussed and the state of the art is reviewed. The PAPA approach is described. The techniques of PAPA are applied to a class of Protected Transients (transients in which the reactor is successfully shutdown) in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The results of the application of these techniques are described.

  5. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences.

  6. Calculation of absorbed doses to water pools in severe accident sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A methodology is presented for calculating the radiation dose to a water pool from the decay of uniformly distributed nuclides in that pool. Motivated by the need to accurately model radiolysis reactions of iodine, direct application is made to fission product sources dissolved or suspended in containment sumps or pools during a severe nuclear reactor accident. Two methods of calculating gamma absorption are discussed - one based on point-kernal integration and the other based on Monte Carlo techniques. Using least-squares minimization, the computed results are used to obtain a correlation that relates absorbed dose to source energy and surface-to-volume ratio of the pool. This correlation is applied to most relevant fission product nuclides and used to actually calculate transient sump dose rate in a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) severe accident sequence.

  7. Severe accident improvements for Carem-25 to arrest reactor vessel meltdown sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poier Baez, L.E.; Nunez Mac Leod, J.E.; Baron, J.H. [Cuyo National University, Engineering Faculty, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    Given an accident sequence, that leads to sustained uncovering of the core, the progression of core damage involves several complex phenomena. The progression of these phenomena can lead to a breach of the reactor vessel followed by the discharge of molten core materials to the containment. Advanced nuclear reactor designs, such as the CAREM reactor, include several improvements related to safety issues either enhancing the passive safety functions or allowing plant operators more time to undertake different management actions against radioactive releases to the environment. In the development of the nuclear power plant CAREM, the possibility of including a passive metallic in-vessel container in its design is being considered, to arrest the reactor pressure vessel meltdown sequence during a core damaging event, and thereof prevent its failure. The paper comprises the first analyses, via numerical simulation, for the conceptual design of such a container type; furthermore, the paper addresses simulation model characteristics helping to establish geometrical dimensions, materials and container compatibility with power plant engineering features. The paper also presents the first model developed to analyze the complex relocation phenomena in the core of CAREM during a severe accident sequence caused by a loss of coolant. The PC version of MELCOR 1.8.4 code has been used to predict the transient behavior of core parameters. MELCOR is a fully integrated relatively fast running code that models the progression of accidents in light water reactor power plants. This paper presents reactor variables behavior during the first hours of the event being studied, giving preliminary conclusions about the use and capability of a metallic in-vessel core catcher. (authors)

  8. Sequence conservation and combinatorial complexity of Drosophila neural precursor cell enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzin Alexander

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of highly conserved sequences within cis-regulatory regions can serve as a valuable starting point for elucidating the basis of enhancer function. This study focuses on regulation of gene expression during the early events of Drosophila neural development. We describe the use of EvoPrinter and cis-Decoder, a suite of interrelated phylogenetic footprinting and alignment programs, to characterize highly conserved sequences that are shared among co-regulating enhancers. Results Analysis of in vivo characterized enhancers that drive neural precursor gene expression has revealed that they contain clusters of highly conserved sequence blocks (CSBs made up of shorter shared sequence elements which are present in different combinations and orientations within the different co-regulating enhancers; these elements contain either known consensus transcription factor binding sites or consist of novel sequences that have not been functionally characterized. The CSBs of co-regulated enhancers share a large number of sequence elements, suggesting that a diverse repertoire of transcription factors may interact in a highly combinatorial fashion to coordinately regulate gene expression. We have used information gained from our comparative analysis to discover an enhancer that directs expression of the nervy gene in neural precursor cells of the CNS and PNS. Conclusion The combined use EvoPrinter and cis-Decoder has yielded important insights into the combinatorial appearance of fundamental sequence elements required for neural enhancer function. Each of the 30 enhancers examined conformed to a pattern of highly conserved blocks of sequences containing shared constituent elements. These data establish a basis for further analysis and understanding of neural enhancer function.

  9. Transcription factor binding sites are highly enriched within microRNA precursor sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriyapongsa Jittima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors are thought to regulate the transcription of microRNA genes in a manner similar to that of protein-coding genes; that is, by binding to conventional transcription factor binding site DNA sequences located in or near promoter regions that lie upstream of the microRNA genes. However, in the course of analyzing the genomics of human microRNA genes, we noticed that annotated transcription factor binding sites commonly lie within 70- to 110-nt long microRNA small hairpin precursor sequences. Results We report that about 45% of all human small hairpin microRNA (pre-miR sequences contain at least one predicted transcription factor binding site motif that is conserved across human, mouse and rat, and this rises to over 75% if one excludes primate-specific pre-miRs. The association is robust and has extremely strong statistical significance; it affects both intergenic and intronic pre-miRs and both isolated and clustered microRNA genes. We also confirmed and extended this finding using a separate analysis that examined all human pre-miR sequences regardless of conservation across species. Conclusions The transcription factor binding sites localized within small hairpin microRNA precursor sequences may possibly regulate their transcription. Transcription factors may also possibly bind directly to nascent primary microRNA gene transcripts or small hairpin microRNA precursors and regulate their processing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Guillaume Bourque (nominated by Jerzy Jurka, Dmitri Pervouchine (nominated by Mikhail Gelfand, and Yuriy Gusev.

  10. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1994, a status report. Volume 21: Main report and appendices A--H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Nine operational events that affected eleven commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) during 1994 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by computer-screening the 1994 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those that could be potential precursors. Candidate precursors were then selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1981 and 1984--1993 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for events. This document is bound in two volumes: Vol. 21 contains the main report and Appendices A--H; Vol. 22 contains Appendix 1.

  11. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1992, A status report. Volume 17, Main report and Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.F.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Cross-Dial, A.E.; Morris, R.H.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dolan, B.W.; Jansen, J.M.; Minarick, J.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lau, W.; Salyer, W.D. [Reliability and Performance Associates (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Twenty-seven operational events with conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage of 1.0 {times} 10E-06 or higher occurring at commercial light-water reactors during 1992 are considered to be precursors to potential core damage. These are described along with associated significance estimates, categorization, and subsequent analyses. The report discusses (1) the general rationale for this study, (2) the selection and documentation of events as precursors, (3) the estimation and use of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage to rank precursor events, and (4) the plant models used in the analysis process.

  12. A major protein precursor of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) byssus: deduced sequence and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K E; Waite, J H

    1998-04-01

    The zebra mussel is a nonindigenous invader of North American lakes and rivers and one of the few freshwater bivalve molluscs having a byssus--a sclerotized organ used by the mussel for opportunistic attachment to hard surfaces. We have sequenced a foot-specific cDNA whose composite protein sequence was deduced from a series of overlapping but occasionally nonidentical cDNA fragments. The overall deduced sequence matches tryptic peptides from a major byssal precursor protein--Dreissena polymorpha foot protein 1 (Dpfp1). The calculated mass of Dpfp1 is 49 kDa; but this is known to be extensively hydroxylated and O-glycosylated during maturation. Purified native Dpfp1 analyzed using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry with time-of-flight indicates that the protein occurs as at least two size variants with masses of 48.6 and 54.5 kDa. In all probability, the sequence variants reported in this study are related to the larger mass variant. Dpfp1 has a block copolymer-like structure defined by two consensus motifs that are sharply segregated into domains. The N-terminal side of Dpfp1 has 22 tandem repeats of a heptapeptide consensus (P-[V/E]-Y-P-[T/S/delta]-[K/Q]-X); the C-terminal side has 16 repeats of a tridecapeptide motif (K-P-G-P-Y-D-Y-D-G-P-Y-D-K). Both consensus repeats are unique, with some limited homology to other proteins functioning in tension: marine mussel adhesives, plant extensins, titin, and trematode eggshell precursors.

  13. Isolation and amino acid sequence of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tensen, C P; Verhoeven, A H; Gaus, G; Janssen, K P; Keller, R; Van Herp, F

    1991-01-01

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is synthesized as part of a larger preprohormone in which the sequence of CHH is N-terminally flanked by a peptide for which the name CPRP (CHH precursor-related peptide) is proposed. Both CHH and CPRP are present in the sinus gland, the neurohemal organ of neurosecretory cells located in the eyestalk of decapod crustaceans. This paper describes the isolation and sequence analysis of CPRPs isolated from sinus glands of the crab Carcinus maenas, the crayfish Orconectes limosus and the lobster Homarus americanus. The published sequence of "peptide H" isolated from the land crab, Cardisoma carnifex, has now been recognized as a CPRP in this species. Sequence comparison reveals a high level of identity for the N-terminal region (residues 1-13) between all four peptides, while identity in the C-terminal domain is high between lobster and crayfish CPRP on the one hand, and between both crab species on the other. Conserved N-terminal residues include a putative monobasic processing site at position 11, which suggests that CPRP may be a biosynthetic intermediate from which a potentially bioactive decapeptide can be derived.

  14. Trending analysis of precursor events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC) identifies and categorizes operational events at nuclear power plants in terms of the potential for core damage. The ASP analysis has been performed on yearly basis and the results have been published in the annual reports. This paper describes the trends in initiating events and dominant sequences for 459 precursors identified in the ASP Program during the 1969-94 period and also discusses a comparison with dominant sequences predicted in the past Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies. These trends were examined for three time periods, 1969-81, 1984-87 and 1988-94. Although the different models had been used in the ASP analyses for these three periods, the distribution of precursors by dominant sequences show similar trends to each other. For example, the sequences involving loss of both main and auxiliary feedwater were identified in many PWR events and those involving loss of both high and low coolant injection were found in many BWR events. Also, it was found that these dominant sequences were comparable to those determined to be dominant in the predictions by the past PRAs. As well, a list of the 459 precursors identified are provided in Appendix, indicating initiating event types, unavailable systems, dominant sequences, conditional core damage probabilities, and so on. (author)

  15. A probability risk assessment for MACSTOR/KN-400 during an air inlet blockage accident sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, J.H.; Jae, M. [Hanyang Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Sungdong-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, C. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Yusong-Gu, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The safety assessment framework for evaluating the spent fuel dry storage facility during the air inlet blockage accident composing of three phases has been established and applied to an interim storage system. They include the analysis of the failure probability of a basket and a cylinder, the accident modeling of spent fuel dry storage facility and the accident consequence assessments. The first phase of the analysis calculated the module failure probability by modeling of the basket and the cylinder, which is major element for containing radioactive substances. The second phase includes a modeling of spent fuel dry storage facility. At this phase, the probability that radioactive substances are released to outside when the initial event happens has been calculated by the construction of the event tree methods against a various elements which affects the air inlet blockage accident. At the third phase of releasing radioactive substances, the radiation damage to affect neighborhood and storage facility worker using MACCS2 code has been evaluated quantitatively. (author)

  16. ASTEC V2.0 reactor applications on French PWR 900 MWe accident sequences and comparison with MAAP4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, Virginie; Azarian, Garo; Ducousso, Erik; Gandrille, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.gandrille@areva.com

    2014-06-01

    In the frame of the SARNET Severe Accident Network of Excellence an important task of partners is the assessment of the ASTEC integral code, considered today as the European reference code for evaluation of the source term. A code-to-code comparison between ASTEC V2.0 rev1 and MAAP 4.0.7 code versions has been performed by AREVA NP SAS on a French PWR 900 MWe. Two transients have been analyzed, focussing on in-vessel phenomena: total loss of feedwater (H2 sequence in the French nomenclature) and total loss of onsite and offsite power (H3 sequence). The detailed analysis shows an overall good agreement between both code results on thermal-hydraulics, hydrogen production and core degradation phenomena.

  17. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  18. Molecular cloning, sequencing and tissue expression of vasotocin and isotocin precursor genes from Ostariophysian catfishes: Phylogeny and evolutionary considerations in teleosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putul eBanerjee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic and neutral neurohypophyseal (NH nonapeptides have evolved from vasotocin (VT by a gene duplication at the base of the gnathostome lineage. In teleosts, VT and IT are the basic and neutral peptides, respectively. In the present study, VT and IT precursor genes of Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus (Siluriformes, Ostariophysi were cloned and sequenced. The channel catfish Icatalurus punctatus NH precursor sequences were obtained from EST database. The catfish NH sequences were used along with the available Acanthopterygii and other vertebrate NH precursor sequences to draw phylogenetic inference on the evolutionary history of the teleost NH peptides. Synteny analysis of the NH gene loci in various teleost species was done to complement the phylogenetic analysis. In H. fossilis, the NH transcripts were also sequenced from the ovary. The cloned genes and the deduced precursor proteins showed conserved characteristics of the NH nonapeptide precursors. The genes are expressed in brain and ovary (follicular envelope of H. fossilis with higher transcript abundance in the brain. The addition of the catfish sequences in the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the VT and IT precursors of the species-rich superorders of teleosts have a distinct phylogenetic history with the Acanthopterygii VT and IT precursors sharing a less evolutionary distance and the Ostariophysi VT and IT having a greater evolutionary distance. The genomic location of VT and IT precursors, and synteny analysis of the NH loci lend support to the phylogenetic inference and suggest a footprint of fish- specific whole genome duplication (3R and subsequent diploidization in the NH loci. The VT and IT precursor genes are most likely lineage-specific paralogs resulting from differential losses of the 3R NH paralogs in the two superorders. The independent yet consistent retention of VT and IT in the two superorders might be directed by a stringent ligand-receptor selectivity.

  19. Determination of the Specificity Landscape for Ribonuclease P Processing of Precursor tRNA 5' Leader Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Courtney N; Zhao, Jing; Lin, Hsuan-Chun; Anderson, David R; Jankowsky, Eckhard; Harris, Michael E

    2016-08-19

    Maturation of tRNA depends on a single endonuclease, ribonuclease P (RNase P), to remove highly variable 5' leader sequences from precursor tRNA transcripts. Here, we use high-throughput enzymology to report multiple-turnover and single-turnover kinetics for Escherichia coli RNase P processing of all possible 5' leader sequences, including nucleotides contacting both the RNA and protein subunits of RNase P. The results reveal that the identity of N(-2) and N(-3) relative to the cleavage site at N(1) primarily control alternative substrate selection and act at the level of association not the cleavage step. As a consequence, the specificity for N(-1), which contacts the active site and contributes to catalysis, is suppressed. This study demonstrates high-throughput RNA enzymology as a means to globally determine RNA specificity landscapes and reveals the mechanism of substrate discrimination by a widespread and essential RNA-processing enzyme.

  20. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  1. Large-scale information entropy analysis of important sites in mature and precursor miRNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In order to find evidence of consistent sequence conservation or the base correlation degree in miRNA,some important sites in the sequences of reported miRNA and their precursors(pre-miRNA) were investigated via information entropy analysis.Twelve different groups of sites were obtained from special locations(head,tail) in miRNAs of different sources according to taxonomy(animal,plant and virus) and then analyzed by measuring the single base information redundancy(D1(L)) and the adjacent base related information redundancy(D2(L)).The results showed that D2(L) has more information than D1(L),though D1(L) changes roughly consistently with D2(L) in each group.Viral pre-miRNAs are more conservative than those belonging to animals or plants.In addition,U is dominant in most sites compared with other nucleotides.It was also found that in the middle of several groups,there were sites where miRNAs were cut down from pre-miRNAs by Enzyme Dicer which were significantly conservative.This phenomenon shows that the conservatism is an aspect of the of miRNA and may be involved in the recognition and cutting by the Dicer.Those results provided another perspective for understanding more about the primary structure of pre-miRNA.

  2. Using BAC transgenesis in zebrafish to identify regulatory sequences of the amyloid precursor protein gene in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakes Leighcraft A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding DNA in and around the human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP gene that is central to Alzheimer’s disease (AD shares little sequence similarity with that of appb in zebrafish. Identifying DNA domains regulating expression of the gene in such situations becomes a challenge. Taking advantage of the zebrafish system that allows rapid functional analyses of gene regulatory sequences, we previously showed that two discontinuous DNA domains in zebrafish appb are important for expression of the gene in neurons: an enhancer in intron 1 and sequences 28–31 kb upstream of the gene. Here we identify the putative transcription factor binding sites responsible for this distal cis-acting regulation, and use that information to identify a regulatory region of the human APP gene. Results Functional analyses of intron 1 enhancer mutations in enhancer-trap BACs expressed as transgenes in zebrafish identified putative binding sites of two known transcription factor proteins, E4BP4/ NFIL3 and Forkhead, to be required for expression of appb. A cluster of three E4BP4 sites at −31 kb is also shown to be essential for neuron-specific expression, suggesting that the dependence of expression on upstream sequences is mediated by these E4BP4 sites. E4BP4/ NFIL3 and XFD1 sites in the intron enhancer and E4BP4/ NFIL3 sites at −31 kb specifically and efficiently bind the corresponding zebrafish proteins in vitro. These sites are statistically over-represented in both the zebrafish appb and the human APP genes, although their locations are different. Remarkably, a cluster of four E4BP4 sites in intron 4 of human APP exists in actively transcribing chromatin in a human neuroblastoma cell-line, SHSY5Y, expressing APP as shown using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiments. Thus although the two genes share little sequence conservation, they appear to share the same regulatory logic and are regulated by a similar set of transcription

  3. Correlation between sequence conservation and structural thermodynamics of microRNA precursors from human, mouse, and chicken genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shengqi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that microRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs have considerably more stable secondary structures than other native RNAs (tRNA, rRNA, and mRNA and artificial RNA sequences. However, pre-miRNAs with ultra stable secondary structures have not been investigated. It is not known if there is a tendency in pre-miRNA sequences towards or against ultra stable structures? Furthermore, the relationship between the structural thermodynamic stability of pre-miRNA and their evolution remains unclear. Results We investigated the correlation between pre-miRNA sequence conservation and structural stability as measured by adjusted minimum folding free energies in pre-miRNAs isolated from human, mouse, and chicken. The analysis revealed that conserved and non-conserved pre-miRNA sequences had structures with similar average stabilities. However, the relatively ultra stable and unstable pre-miRNAs were more likely to be non-conserved than pre-miRNAs with moderate stability. Non-conserved pre-miRNAs had more G+C than A+U nucleotides, while conserved pre-miRNAs contained more A+U nucleotides. Notably, the U content of conserved pre-miRNAs was especially higher than that of non-conserved pre-miRNAs. Further investigations showed that conserved and non-conserved pre-miRNAs exhibited different structural element features, even though they had comparable levels of stability. Conclusions We proposed that there is a correlation between structural thermodynamic stability and sequence conservation for pre-miRNAs from human, mouse, and chicken genomes. Our analyses suggested that pre-miRNAs with relatively ultra stable or unstable structures were less favoured by natural selection than those with moderately stable structures. Comparison of nucleotide compositions between non-conserved and conserved pre-miRNAs indicated the importance of U nucleotides in the pre-miRNA evolutionary process. Several characteristic structural elements were

  4. Tuning the morphology, luminescence and magnetic properties of hexagonal-phase NaGdF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals via altering the addition sequence of the precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuwen; Xia, Donglin; Zhao, Ruimin; Zhu, Hao; Zhu, Yiru; Xiong, Yuda; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Hexagonal-phase NaGdF4: Yb, Er upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs) with tunable morphology and properties were successfully prepared via a thermal decomposition method. The influences of the adding sequence of the precursors on the morphology, chemical composition, luminescence and magnetic properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), upconversion (UC) spectroscopy, and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It was found that the resulting nanocrystals, with different sizes ranging from 24 to 224 nm, are in the shape of spheres, hexagonal plates and flakes; moreover, the composition percentage of Yb3+-Er3+ and Gd3+ ions was found to vary in a regular pattern with the adding sequence. Furthermore, the intensity ratios of emission colors (f g/r, f g/p), and the magnetic mass susceptibility of hexagonal-phase NaGdF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals change along with the composition of the nanocrystals. A positive correlation between the susceptibility and f g/r of NaGdF4: Yb, Er was proposed. The decomposition processes of the precursors were investigated by a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The result indicated that the decomposition of the resolved lanthanide trifluoroacetate is greatly different from lanthanide trifluoroacetate powder. It is of tremendous help to recognize the decomposition process of the precursors and to understand the related reaction mechanism.

  5. The coding sequence of amyloid-beta precursor protein APP contains a neural-specific promoter element.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collin, R.W.J.; Martens, G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The amyloid-beta precursor protein APP is generally accepted to be involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Since its physiological role is still unclear, we decided to study the function of APP via stable transgenesis in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. However, the application of constructs

  6. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 3: Appendixes C-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J. [and others

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the Appendices for the Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment and Storage Facilities for Waste Generated by the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. The main report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  7. Identification of Desirable Precursor Properties for Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoto, Chigozie K.; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice; Aindow, Mark

    2011-06-01

    In solution precursor plasma spray chemical precursor solutions are injected into a standard plasma torch and the final material is formed and deposited in a single step. This process has several attractive features, including the ability to rapidly explore new compositions and to form amorphous and metastable phases from molecularly mixed precursors. Challenges include: (a) moderate deposition rates due to the need to evaporate the precursor solvent, (b) dealing on a case by case basis with precursor characteristics that influence the spray process (viscosity, endothermic and exothermic reactions, the sequence of physical states through which the precursor passes before attaining the final state, etc.). Desirable precursor properties were identified by comparing an effective precursor for yttria-stabilized zirconia with four less effective candidate precursors for MgO:Y2O3. The critical parameters identified were a lack of major endothermic events during precursor decomposition and highly dense resultant particles.

  8. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  9. An Analysis of Station Blackout Sequences Using MELCOR1.8.5 Code for the Severe Accident Analysis DB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been constructing severe accident analysis database (DB) under a National Nuclear R and D Program. Especially, MAAP (commercial code being widely used for industries) DB for many scenarios including station blackout (SBO) has been completed up to now. This report shows the analysis results for SBO scenarios using MELCOR code. These results will be used for the degree of completion after being compared with MAAP results. The developing strategy of MELCOR code is the same with that of MAAP DB. For the generation of data set, the Korean standard nuclear power plant (KSNP) has been selected as a reference plant and the eight SBO scenarios are chosen to be analyzed based on the PSA results (these eight scenarios accounted for 99 percent of occurrence frequency of total 197 SBO scenarios). Both thermal hydraulics (T/H) and source term analysis have been performed using MELCOR version 1.8.5 for the chosen scenarios. But only major T/H variables treated in the MAAP report are listed among the generated data set, which shows the characteristics of each scenario. These SBO results together with those of the other initiating events (to be analyzed in the future) will be used as inputs for DB construction and special value will be found in the comparing and complimentary process with MAAP DB

  10. 严重事故条件下堆芯升温模拟%Simulation of Core Heating up During Severe Accident Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳赟; 樊普

    2012-01-01

    The core heating up of API000 reactor during a severe accident sequence was simulated numerically by FLUENT. The objective was to study the uniformity of the heating up after the uncover but before significant melting of the core in more detail than that was possible using integral severe accident codes and obtain the temperature of shroud and baffle, also to assess the MAAP core heating up calculation. The results show that before significant core damaging, the shroud and baffle have melted causing an side relocation of the debris. Furthermore, the MAAP calculation of core heating up is also acceptable.%使用FLUENT计算流体程序数值模拟了AP1000在严重事故条件下的堆芯升温过程,目的是对堆芯裸露后并在其显著熔化前对堆芯升温的均匀程度进行比一体化事故程序MAAP更为详尽的研究,进行围筒和吊篮温度分析,同时评估MAAP程序堆芯升温计算结果.分析结果表明:在堆芯显著熔化时刻,堆芯围筒和吊篮已熔化,因此熔融堆芯将从侧面迁移进入下封头,同时对比证明MAAP程序关于堆芯升温的计算结果也是可接受的.

  11. Internal event analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. Accident sequence quantification and results; Analisis de eventos internos para la Unidad 1 de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde. Cuantificacion de secuencias de accidente y resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta B, A.; Aguilar T, O.; Nunez C, A.; Lopez M, R. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, 03000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1994-07-01

    The Level 1 results of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant PRA are presented in the {sup I}nternal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant, CNSNS-TR 004, in five volumes. The reports are organized as follows: CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 1: Introduction and Methodology. CNSNS-TR4 Volume 2: Initiating Event and Accident Sequences. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 3: System Analysis. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 4: Accident Sequence Quantification and Results. CNSNS-TR 005 Volume 5: Appendices A, B and C. This volume presents the development of the dependent failure analysis, the treatment of the support system dependencies, the identification of the shared-components dependencies, and the treatment of the common cause failure. It is also presented the identification of the main human actions considered along with the possible recovery actions included. The development of the data base and the assumptions and limitations in the data base are also described in this volume. The accident sequences quantification process and the resolution of the core vulnerable sequences are presented. In this volume, the source and treatment of uncertainties associated with failure rates, component unavailabilities, initiating event frequencies, and human error probabilities are also presented. Finally, the main results and conclusions for the Internal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant are presented. The total core damage frequency calculated is 9.03x 10-5 per year for internal events. The most dominant accident sequences found are the transients involving the loss of offsite power, the station blackout accidents, and the anticipated transients without SCRAM (ATWS). (Author)

  12. Transcriptional and translational mapping and nucleotide sequence analysis of a vaccinia virus gene encoding the precursor of the major core polypeptide 4b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosel, J; Moss, B

    1985-12-01

    We prepared antiserum that reacted with a major core polypeptide of approximately 62,000 daltons (62K polypeptide), designated 4b, and its 74K precursor, designated P4b. A cell-free translation product of vaccinia virus late mRNA that comigrated with P4b was specifically immunoprecipitated. The late mRNA encoding P4b hybridized to restriction fragments derived from the left end of the HindIII A fragment and to a lesser extent from the right side of the HindIII D fragment. A polypeptide that comigrated with P4a, the precursor of another major core polypeptide, was synthesized by mRNA that hybridized to DNA segments upstream of the P4b gene. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of the P4b gene revealed an open reading frame, entirely within the HindIII A fragment, that was sufficient to encode a 644-amino-acid polypeptide of 73K. The 5' end of the P4b mRNA was located at or just above the translational initiation site.

  13. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  14. Discovery of precursor and mature microRNAs and their putative gene targets using high-throughput sequencing in pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Noor Hydayaty Md; Ong, Wen Dee; Redwan, Raimi Mohamed; Latip, Mariam Abd; Kumar, S Vijay

    2015-10-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, resulting in the silencing of target mRNA transcripts through mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. MiRNAs play significant roles in various biological and physiological processes in plants. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in pineapple, the model tropical non-climacteric fruit, remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a complete list of pineapple mature miRNAs obtained from high-throughput small RNA sequencing and precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) obtained from ESTs. Two small RNA libraries were constructed from pineapple fruits and leaves, respectively, using Illumina's Solexa technology. Sequence similarity analysis using miRBase revealed 579,179 reads homologous to 153 miRNAs from 41 miRNA families. In addition, a pineapple fruit transcriptome library consisting of approximately 30,000 EST contigs constructed using Solexa sequencing was used for the discovery of pre-miRNAs. In all, four pre-miRNAs were identified (MIR156, MIR399, MIR444 and MIR2673). Furthermore, the same pineapple transcriptome was used to dissect the function of the miRNAs in pineapple by predicting their putative targets in conjunction with their regulatory networks. In total, 23 metabolic pathways were found to be regulated by miRNAs in pineapple. The use of high-throughput sequencing in pineapples to unveil the presence of miRNAs and their regulatory pathways provides insight into the repertoire of miRNA regulation used exclusively in this non-climacteric model plant.

  15. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  16. Identification of protein N-termini in Cyanophora paradoxa cyanelles: Transit peptide composition and sequence determinants for precursor maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eKöhler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glaucophyta, rhodophyta and chloroplastida represent the three main evolutionary lineages that diverged from a common ancestor after primary endosymbiosis. Comparative analyses between members of these three lineages are a rich source of information on ancestral plastid features. We analyzed the composition and the cleavage site of cyanelle transit peptides from the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa by terminal amine labelling of substrates (TAILS, and compared their characteristics to those of representatives of the chloroplastida. Our data show that transit peptide architecture is similar between members of these two lineages. This entails a comparable modular structure, an overrepresentation of serine or alanine and similarities in the amino acid composition around the processing peptidase cleavage site. The most distinctive difference is the overrepresentation of phenylalanine in the N-terminal 1-10 amino acids of cyanelle transit peptides. A quantitative proteome analysis with periplasm-free cyanelles identified 42 out of 262 proteins without the N-terminal phenylalanine, suggesting that the requirement for phenylalanine in the N-terminal region is not absolute. Proteins in this set are on average of low abundance, suggesting that either alternative import pathways are operating specifically for low abundance proteins or that the gene model annotation is incorrect for proteins with fewer EST sequences. We discuss these two possibilities and provide examples for both interpretations.

  17. Report of the US Department of Energy's team analyses of the Chernobyl-4 Atomic Energy Station accident sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-11-01

    In an effort to better understand the Chernobyl-4 accident of April 26, 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) formed a team of experts from the National Laboratories including Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The DOE Team provided the analytical support to the US delegation for the August meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and to subsequent international meetings. The DOE Team has analyzed the accident in detail, assessed the plausibility and completeness of the information provided by the Soviets, and performed studies relevant to understanding the accident. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  18. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  19. Unravelling the complete genome sequence of Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7T and novel insights in the catabolism of the xenobiotic polythioester precursor 3,3'-dithiodipropionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Hiessl, Sebastian; Schuldes, Jörg; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7(T) is a remarkable betaproteobacterium because of its extraordinary ability to use the synthetic disulfide 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid (DTDP) as the sole carbon source and electron donor for aerobic growth. One application of DTDP is as a precursor substrate for biotechnically synthesized polythioesters (PTEs), which are interesting non-degradable biopolymers applicable for plastics materials. Metabolic engineering for optimization of PTE production requires an understanding of DTDP conversion. The genome of A. mimigardefordensis strain DPN7(T) was sequenced and annotated. The circular chromosome was found to be composed of 4,740,516 bp and 4112 predicted ORFs, whereas the circular plasmid consisted of 23,610 bp and 24 predicted ORFs. The genes participating in DTDP catabolism had been characterized in detail previously, but knowing the complete genome sequence and with support of Tn5: :mob-induced mutants, putatively involved transporter proteins and a transcriptional regulator were also identified. Most probably, DTDP is transported into the cell by a specific tripartite tricarboxylate transport system and is then cleaved by the disulfide reductase LpdA, sulfoxygenated by the 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenase Mdo, activated by the CoA ligase SucCD and desulfinated by the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-like desulfinase AcdA. Regulation of this pathway is presumably performed by a transcriptional regulator of the xenobiotic response element family. The excessive sulfate that is inevitably produced is secreted by the cells by a unique sulfate exporter of the CPA (cation : proton antiporter) superfamily.

  20. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  1. Expression of PROKR1 and PROKR2 in human enteric neural precursor cells and identification of sequence variants suggest a role in HSCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Ruiz-Ferrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The enteric nervous system (ENS is entirely derived from neural crest and its normal development is regulated by specific molecular pathways. Failure in complete ENS formation results in aganglionic gut conditions such as Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR. Recently, PROKR1 expression has been demonstrated in mouse enteric neural crest derived cells and Prok-1 was shown to work coordinately with GDNF in the development of the ENS. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present report, ENS progenitors were isolated and characterized from the ganglionic gut from children diagnosed with and without HSCR, and the expression of prokineticin receptors was examined. Immunocytochemical analysis of neurosphere-forming cells demonstrated that both PROKR1 and PROKR2 were present in human enteric neural crest cells. In addition, we also performed a mutational analysis of PROKR1, PROKR2, PROK1 and PROK2 genes in a cohort of HSCR patients, evaluating them for the first time as susceptibility genes for the disease. Several missense variants were detected, most of them affecting highly conserved amino acid residues of the protein and located in functional domains of both receptors, which suggests a possible deleterious effect in their biological function. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that not only PROKR1, but also PROKR2 might mediate a complementary signalling to the RET/GFRα1/GDNF pathway supporting proliferation/survival and differentiation of precursor cells during ENS development. These findings, together with the detection of sequence variants in PROKR1, PROK1 and PROKR2 genes associated to HSCR and, in some cases in combination with RET or GDNF mutations, provide the first evidence to consider them as susceptibility genes for HSCR.

  2. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  3. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  4. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  5. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  6. The Role of the Coprecipitation Sequence of Salt Precursors on the Genesis of Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 Catalysts: Synthesis, Characterization and Activity for Low Temperature Shift Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Figueiredo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 catalysts for the low-temperature water-gas shift reaction were prepared using methods of direct and reverse coprecipitation. The catalysts obtained were characterized by DRX, TPR, XPS, N2O chemisorption, Hg-Porosimetry and BET surface area. It was observed that the precipitation sequence of the precursors led to significant differences in values of copper dispersion and consequently in the activity of the catalyst for the water-gas shift reaction.

  7. TMI-2 accident: core heat-up analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardron, K.H.; Cain, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes NSAC study of reactor core thermal conditions during the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The study focuses primarily on the time period from core uncovery (approximately 113 minutes after turbine trip) through the initiation of sustained high pressure injection (after 202 minutes). The transient analysis is based upon established sequences of events; plant data; post-accident measurements; interpretation or indirect use of instrument responses to accident conditions.

  8. Complex variations during a caldera-forming Plinian eruption, including precursor deposits, thick pumice fallout, co-ignimbrite breccias and climactic lag breccias: The 184 ka Lower Pumice 1 eruption sequence, Santorini, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, J. M.; Cas, R. A. F.; Druitt, T. H.; Folkes, C. B.

    2016-09-01

    The 184 ka Lower Pumice 1 eruption sequence records a complex history of eruption behaviours denoted by two significant eruptive phases: (1) a minor precursor (LP1-Pc) and (2) a major Plinian phase (LP1-A, B, C). The precursor phase produced 13 small-volume pyroclastic fallout, surge and flow deposits, which record the transition from a dominantly magmatic to a phreatomagmatic eruptive style, and exhibit a normal (dacite to andesitic-dacite) to reverse (andesitic-dacite to dacite) compositional zonation of juvenile pyroclasts in the stratigraphy. Incipient bioturbation and variability in unit thickness and lithology reflect multiple time breaks and highlight the episodic nature of volcanism prior to the main Plinian eruption phase. The Plinian magmatic eruption phase is defined by three major stratigraphic divisions, including a basal pumice fallout deposit (LP1-A), an overlying valley-confined ignimbrite (LP1-B) and a compositionally zoned (rhyodacite to basaltic andesite) lithic-rich lag breccia (LP1-C), which caps the sequence. This sequence records the initial development of a buoyant convective eruption column and the transition to eruption column and catastrophic late-stage caldera collapse events. Similarities in pyroclast properties (i.e., chemistry, density), between the Plinian fallout (LP1-A) and pyroclastic flow (LP1-B) deposits, indicate that changes in magma properties exerted no influence on the dynamics and temporal evolution of the LP1 eruption. Conversely, lithic breccias at the base of the LP1-B ignimbrite suggest that the transition from a buoyant convective column to column collapse was facilitated by mechanical erosion of the conduit system and/or the initiation of caldera collapse, leading to vent widening, an increase in magma discharge rate and the increased incorporation of lithics into the eruption column, causing mass overload. Lithic-rich lag breccia deposits (LP1-C), which cap the eruption sequence, record incremental, high

  9. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  10. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

    1988-09-01

    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  11. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix XI. Analysis of comments on the draft WASH-1400 report. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning comments on reactor safety by governmental agencies and civilian organizations; reactor safety study methodology; consequence model; probability of accident sequences; and various accident conditions.

  12. Summary of a workshop on severe accident management for BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastenberg, W.E. [ed.; Apostolakis, G.; Jae, M.; Milici, T.; Park, H.; Xing, L.; Dhir, V.K.; Lim, H.; Okrent, D.; Swider, J.; Yu, D. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering

    1991-11-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or alternative resources, systems and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of strategies there may be several options available to the operator; and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrument behavior during an accident. During the period September 26--28, 1990, a workshop was held at the University of California, Los Angeles, to address these uncertainties for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This report contains a summary of the workshop proceedings.

  13. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  14. Accidents - personal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  15. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  16. A framework for the assessment of severe accident management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastenberg, W.E. [ed.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering] [and others

    1993-09-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or altemative resources, systems and actors to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of severe accident management strategies, there may be several options available to the operator, and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrumentation behavior during an accident. A framework based on decision trees and influence diagrams has been developed which incorporates such criteria as feasibility, effectiveness, and adverse effects, for evaluating potential severe accident management strategies. The framework is also capable of propagating both data and model uncertainty. It is applied to several potential strategies including PWR cavity flooding, BWR drywell flooding, PWR depressurization and PWR feed and bleed.

  17. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, D.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. An application of probabilistic safety assessment methods to model aircraft systems and accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1998-08-01

    A case study modeling the thrust reverser system (TRS) in the context of the fatal accident of a Boeing 767 is presented to illustrate the application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment methods. A simplified risk model consisting of an event tree with supporting fault trees was developed to represent the progression of the accident, taking into account the interaction between the TRS and the operating crew during the accident, and the findings of the accident investigation. A feasible sequence of events leading to the fatal accident was identified. Several insights about the TRS and the accident were obtained by applying PSA methods. Changes proposed for the TRS also are discussed.

  19. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation.

  20. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  1. Development of the Severe Accident Analysis DB for the Severe Accident Management Expert System (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This report contains analysis methodologies and calculation results of 5 initiating events of the severe accident analysis database system. The Ulchin 3,4 NPP has been selected as reference plants. Based on the probabilistic safety analysis of the corresponding plant, 54 accident scenarios, which was predicted to have more than 10-10 /ry occurrence frequency, have been analyzed as base cases for the Large loss of Coolant sequence database. The functions of the severe accident analysis database system will be to make a diagnosis of the accident by some input information from the plant symptoms, to search a corresponding scenario, and finally to provide the user phenomenological information based on the pre-analyzed results. The MAAP 4.06 calculation results in this report will be utilized as input data to develop the database system

  2. Structural insights into the assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit in vivo: functional role of S5 and location of the 17S rRNA precursor sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhixiu; Guo, Qiang; Goto, Simon; Chen, Yuling; Li, Ningning; Yan, Kaige; Zhang, Yixiao; Muto, Akira; Deng, Haiteng; Himeno, Hyouta; Lei, Jianlin; Gao, Ning

    2014-05-01

    The in vivo assembly of ribosomal subunits is a highly complex process, with a tight coordination between protein assembly and rRNA maturation events, such as folding and processing of rRNA precursors, as well as modifications of selected bases. In the cell, a large number of factors are required to ensure the efficiency and fidelity of subunit production. Here we characterize the immature 30S subunits accumulated in a factor-null Escherichia coli strain (∆rsgA∆rbfA). The immature 30S subunits isolated with varying salt concentrations in the buffer system show interesting differences on both protein composition and structure. Specifically, intermediates derived under the two contrasting salt conditions (high and low) likely reflect two distinctive assembly stages, the relatively early and late stages of the 3' domain assembly, respectively. Detailed structural analysis demonstrates a mechanistic coupling between the maturation of the 5' end of the 17S rRNA and the assembly of the 30S head domain, and attributes a unique role of S5 in coordinating these two events. Furthermore, our structural results likely reveal the location of the unprocessed terminal sequences of the 17S rRNA, and suggest that the maturation events of the 17S rRNA could be employed as quality control mechanisms on subunit production and protein translation.

  3. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of 5′Flanking Region and Exon of Inhibin α Precursor Gene in Goats%山羊抑制素α前体基因5′侧翼区及外显子的克隆和序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何远清; 马晓珂; 张春霞

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between inihibin (INH) α precursor gene and seasonal reproduction of goats, and investigate the evolutionary conservation of INHα precursor gene. [Method] Cloning and sequence analysis of 5′ flanking region and exon of inihibinα (INHα) precursor gene in twenty ewes between non-seasonal estrous breed (Haimen goats) and seasonal estrous breed (Anhui white goats) was analyzed in this study. [Result] Compared with Anhui white goats, INHα precursor gene in Haimen goats had three SNP but no amino acid change, while its nucleotide homology was 99.7% and amino acid homology was 100%. The nucleotide homology of INHα precursor gene in goat, cattle, pig, person, chicken, horse, rat and dog ranged from 12.7% to 96.5%. [Conclusion] INHα precursor gene tends to be highly conserved in species, and any change of nucleotide and amino acid maybe directly influence the function of the whole gene coding and regulation.

  4. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  5. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  6. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  7. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  8. MELCOR simulation of postulated severe accidents in OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seongn Yeon; Kim Sung Joong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwan Yeol; Park, Jong Hwa [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Since the Fukushima accident in 2011, severe accidents of a nuclear power plant have been a target of big debate whether the defense in depth philosophy applied to current nuclear system is still vigorous enough to ensure the protection of the operators and the public. Thus an accurate prediction of severe accident has become a critical task for the nuclear engineers with reliable employment of Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA). According to a recent PRA result, Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) without safety injection and Station Black Out (SBO) show high probability of proceeding to severe accidents. Thus, these accident scenarios need to be evaluated properly with reliable prediction tools. Song and Ahn analyzed SBO sequences in KSNP using MELCOR 1.8.5. Park and Song examined SBLOCA scenarios based on the PSA of KNSP using MAAP 4.06. Their studies utilized severe accident database. In continuation of the further analysis, several scenarios of postulated SBO and SBLOCA in OPR1000 are investigated using the severe accident database and MELCOR 1.8.6.

  9. Alternative Selection of β-Site APP-Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1) Cleavage Sites in Amyloid β-Protein Precursor (APP) Harboring Protective and Pathogenic Mutations within the Aβ Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ayano; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2016-11-11

    β-Site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) cleaves amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) at the bond between Met(671) and Asp(672) (β-site) to generate the carboxyl-terminal fragment (CTFβ/C99). BACE1 also cleaves APP at another bond between Thr(681) and Gln(682) (β'-site), yielding CTFβ'/C89. Cleavage of CTFβ/C99 by γ-secretase generates Aβ(1-XX), whereas cleavage of CTFβ'/C89 generates Aβ(11-XX). Thus, β'-site cleavage by BACE1 is amyloidolytic rather than amyloidogenic. β' cleavage of mouse APP is more common than the corresponding cleavage of human APP. We found that the H684R substitution within human Aβ, which replaces the histidine in the human protein with the arginine found at the corresponding position in mouse, facilitated β' cleavage irrespective of the species origin of BACE1, thereby significantly increasing the level of Aβ(11-XX) and decreasing the level of Aβ(1-XX). Thus, amino acid substitutions within the Aβ sequence influenced the selectivity of alternative β- or β'-site cleavage of APP by BACE1. In familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), the APP gene harbors pathogenic variations such as the Swedish (K670N/M671L), Leuven (E682K), and A673V mutations, all of which decrease Aβ(11-40) generation, whereas the protective Icelandic mutation (A673T) increases generation of Aβ(11-40). Thus, A673T promotes β' cleavage of APP and protects subjects against AD. In addition, CTFβ/C99 was cleaved by excess BACE1 activity to generate CTFβ'/C89, followed by Aβ(11-40), even if APP harbored pathogenic mutations. The resultant Aβ(11-40) was more metabolically labile in vivo than Aβ(1-40). Our analysis suggests that some FAD mutations in APP are amyloidogenic and/or amyloidolytic via selection of alternative BACE1 cleavage sites.

  10. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  11. A Study on the Operation Strategy for Combined Accident including TLOFW accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Gook Young [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-10-15

    It is difficult for operators to recognize the necessity of a feed-and-bleed (F-B) operation when the loss of coolant accident and failure of secondary side occur. An F-B operation directly cools down the reactor coolant system (RCS) using the primary cooling system when residual heat removal by the secondary cooling system is not available. The plant is not always necessary the F-B operation when the secondary side is failed. It is not necessary to initiate an F-B operation in the case of a medium or large break because these cases correspond to low RCS pressure sequences when the secondary side is failed. If the break size is too small to sufficiently decrease the RCS pressure, the F-B operation is necessary. Therefore, in the case of a combined accident including a secondary cooling system failure, the provision of clear information will play a critical role in the operators' decision to initiate an F-B operation. This study focuses on the how we establish the operation strategy for combined accident including the failure of secondary side in consideration of plant and operating conditions. Previous studies have usually focused on accidents involving a TLOFW accident. The plant conditions to make the operators confused seriously are usually the combined accident because the ORP only focuses on a single accident and FRP is less familiar with operators. The relationship between CET and PCT under various plant conditions is important to decide the limitation of initiating the F-B operation to prevent core damage.

  12. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  13. A database system for the management of severe accident risk information, SARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, K. I.; Kim, D. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce main features and functions of a PC Windows-based database management system, SARD, which has been developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for automatic management and search of the severe accident risk information. Main functions of the present database system are implemented by three closely related, but distinctive modules: (1) fixing of an initial environment for data storage and retrieval, (2) automatic loading and management of accident information, and (3) automatic search and retrieval of accident information. For this, the present database system manipulates various form of the plant-specific severe accident risk information, such as dominant severe accident sequences identified from the plant-specific Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and accident sequence-specific information obtained from the representative severe accident codes (e.g., base case and sensitivity analysis results, and summary for key plant responses). The present database system makes it possible to implement fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for various accident sequences, and in turn it can be used for the support of the Level 2 PSA of similar plants and for the development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies.

  14. Development of the severe accident risk information database management system SARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Kim, Dong Ha

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to introduce essential features and functions of a severe accident risk information management system, SARD (Severe Accident Risk Database Management System) version 1.0, which has been developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, and database management and data retrieval procedures through the system. The present database management system has powerful capabilities that can store automatically and manage systematically the plant-specific severe accident analysis results for core damage sequences leading to severe accidents, and search intelligently the related severe accident risk information. For that purpose, the present database system mainly takes into account the plant-specific severe accident sequences obtained from the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs), base case analysis results for various severe accident sequences (such as code responses and summary for key-event timings), and related sensitivity analysis results for key input parameters/models employed in the severe accident codes. Accordingly, the present database system can be effectively applied in supporting the Level 2 PSA of similar plants, for fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for the specific plant whose information was previously stored in the database system, and development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies.

  15. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  16. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  17. [Drowning accidents in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krandick, G; Mantel, K

    1990-09-30

    This is a report on five boys aged between 1 and 5 years who, after prolonged submersion in cold water, were treated at our department. On being taken out of the water, all the patients were clinically dead. After 1- to 3-hour successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a rectal temperature of about 27 degrees C, they were rewarmed at a rate of 1 degree/hour. Two patients died within a few hours after the accident. One patient survived with an apallic syndrome, 2 children survived with no sequelae. In the event of a water-related accident associated with hypothermia, we consider suitable resuscitation to have preference over rewarming measures. The most important treatment guidelines and prognostic factors are discussed.

  18. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  19. RENEB accident simulation exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Materials and methods: Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results ob...

  20. The Presence of Modifiable Residues in the Core Peptide Part of Precursor Nisin Is Not Crucial for Precursor Nisin Interactions with NisB- and NisC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khusainov, Rustem; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2013-01-01

    Precursor nisin is a model posttranslationally modified precursor lantibiotic that can be structurally divided into a leader peptide sequence and a modifiable core peptide part. The nisin core peptide clearly plays an important role in the precursor nisin - nisin modification enzymes interactions, s

  1. Interface requirements to couple thermal hydraulics codes to severe accident codes: ICARE/CATHARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camous, F.; Jacq, F.; Chatelard, P. [IPSN/DRS/SEMAR CE-Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance (France)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    In order to describe with the same code the whole sequence of severe LWR accidents, up to the vessel failure, the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety has performed a coupling of the severe accident code ICARE2 to the thermalhydraulics code CATHARE2. The resulting code, ICARE/CATHARE, is designed to be as pertinent as possible in all the phases of the accident. This paper is mainly devoted to the description of the ICARE2-CATHARE2 coupling.

  2. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  3. Learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van

    2014-01-01

    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  4. [Practical management of CPB accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoix, J-P; Fenet, L; Provenchere, S

    2012-05-01

    Accident of CPB is a reality. It is important to be prepared for discussion with the family, with the hospital administration, eventually with the justice. But we have also to support perfusionnist and anesthetic team in charge of the patient during accident.

  5. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the ...

  6. Desktop Severe Accident Graphic Simulator Module for CANDU6 : PSAIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. Y.; Song, Y. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The ISAAC ((Integrated Severe Accident Analysis Code for CANDU Plant) code is a system level computer code capable of performing integral analyses of potential severe accident progressions in nuclear power plants, whose main purpose is to support a Level 2 probabilistic safety assessment or severe accident management strategy developments. The code has the capability to predict a severe accident progression by modeling the CANDU6- specific systems and the expected physical phenomena based on the current understanding of the unique accident progressions. The code models the sequence of accident progressions from a core heatup, pressure tube/calandria tube rupture after an uncovery from inside and outside, a relocation of the damaged fuel to the bottom of the calandria, debris behavior in the calandria, corium quenching after a debris relocation from the calandria to the calandria vault and an erosion of the calandria vault concrete floor, a hydrogen burn, and a reactor building failure. Along with the thermal hydraulics, the fission product behavior is also considered in the primary system as well as in the reactor building.

  7. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  8. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  9. Typologie des Accidents Cyclistes

    OpenAIRE

    Amoros, Emmanuelle; BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Hours, Martine

    2015-01-01

    L'usage du vélo est en hausse en ville ; cette pratique est encouragée dans le cadre du développement durable et de la lutte contre la sédentarité. Pour accompagner cela, il faut réduire les risques d'accident, et pour ce faire, mieux les connaître. Nous utilisons le Registre des victimes de la circulation routière du Rhône, basé sur les services hospitaliers (dont les urgences) ; il est quasi-exhaustif : env. 1100 blessés à vélo/an versus 120 dans les données officielles. L'ensemble des cycl...

  10. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  11. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  12. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  13. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  14. Accident management information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself.

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  16. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R

    1997-08-01

    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

  17. Precursors of extreme increments

    CERN Document Server

    Hallerberg, S; Holstein, D; Kantz, H; Hallerberg, Sarah; Altmann, Eduardo G.; Holstein, Detlef; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    We investigate precursors and predictability of extreme events in time series, which consist in large increments within successive time steps. In order to understand the predictability of this class of extreme events, we study analytically the prediction of extreme increments in AR(1)-processes. The resulting strategies are then applied to predict sudden increases in wind speed recordings. In both cases we evaluate the success of predictions via creating receiver operator characteristics (ROC-plots). Surprisingly, we obtain better ROC-plots for completely uncorrelated Gaussian random numbers than for AR(1)-correlated data. Furthermore, we observe an increase of predictability with increasing event size. Both effects can be understood by using the likelihood ratio as a summary index for smooth ROC-curves.

  18. Effects of rhythmic precursors on perception of stress/syllabicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilp, Christian E.; Kluender, Keith R.

    2005-09-01

    Rhythmic structure is a common property of many environmental sounds including speech. Here, perceptual effects of preceding rhythmic context are assessed in experiments employing edited words for which perceived stress/syllabicity are assessed. A series of edited naturally spoken words varying perceptually from ``polite'' to ``plight,'' was created by deleting initial-vowel glottal pulses from a recording of ``polite.'' Words were identified following nonspeech precursor sequences having either trochaic (strong-weak) or iambic (weak-strong) rhythmic patterns. Precursors consisted of a harmonic spectrum (-6-dB/octave slope) filtered by four sinusoidally modulated single-pole filters. Trochaic (strong-weak) and iambic (weak-strong) rhythmic patterns were created by varying amplitude, pitch, and duration in successive segments (akin to beats) of the precursors. Precursors were comprised of two to six repetitions of these patterns. Following trochaic precursors, listeners were more likely to report hearing ``polite'' (iambic). This pattern of results indicates that perception did not assimilate to precursor pattern, consistent with rhythmic expectancy. Instead, perception shifted in a way that contrasts with precursor temporal pattern. Additional results with precursors that are more and less like speech are being conducted to further understand how auditory perception adjusts for temporal and spectral regularities. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  19. Precursor flares in OJ 287

    OpenAIRE

    Pihajoki, P.; Valtonen, M.; Zola, S.; Liakos, A.; Drozdz, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Provencal, J.; Nilsson, K.; Berdyugin, A.; Lindfors, E.; Reinthal, R.; Sillanpää, A.; Takalo, L.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied three most recent precursor flares in the light curve of the blazar OJ 287 while invoking the presence of a precessing binary black hole in the system to explain the nature of these flares. Precursor flare timings from the historical light curves are compared with theoretical predictions from our model that incorporate effects of an accretion disk and post-Newtonian description for the binary black hole orbit. We find that the precursor flares coincide with the secondary black...

  20. Restructuring of an Event Tree for a Loss of Coolant Accident in a PSA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ho-Gon; Han, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Hee; Jang, Seong-Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Conventional risk model using PSA (probabilistic Safety Assessment) for a NPP considers two types of accident initiators for internal events, LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) and transient event such as Loss of electric power, Loss of cooling, and so on. Traditionally, a LOCA is divided into three initiating event (IE) categories depending on the break size, small, medium, and large LOCA. In each IE group, safety functions or systems modeled in the accident sequences are considered to be applicable regardless of the break size. However, since the safety system or functions are not designed based on a break size, there exist lots of mismatch between safety system/function and an IE, which may make the risk model conservative or in some case optimistic. Present paper proposes new methodology for accident sequence analysis for LOCA. We suggest an integrated single ET construction for LOCA by incorporating a safety system/function and its applicable break spectrum into the ET. Integrated accident sequence analysis in terms of ET for LOCA was proposed in the present paper. Safety function/system can be properly assigned if its applicable range is given by break set point. Also, using simple Boolean algebra with the subset of the break spectrum, final accident sequences are expressed properly in terms of the Boolean multiplication, the occurrence frequency and the success/failure of safety system. The accident sequence results show that the accident sequence is described more detailed compared with the conventional results. Unfortunately, the quantitative results in terms of MCS (minimal Cut-Set) was not given because system fault tree was not constructed for this analysis and the break set points for all 7 point were not given as a specified numerical quantity. Further study may be needed to fix the break set point and to develop system fault tree.

  1. Generation of nonlinear vortex precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-01-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex har- monics are generated in the transmitted field due to ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provide a straightforward way of measuring precursors. By the virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical informa- tion and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity and high speed communication are required.

  2. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  3. [Accidents of fulguration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

    1976-01-01

    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous

  4. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  5. Development of Integrated Evaluation System for Severe Accident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Park, S. Y.; Park, J. H.; Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I.; Choi, Y

    2007-06-15

    The objective of the project is twofold. One is to develop a severe accident database (DB) for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power plant (OPR-1000) and a DB management system, and the other to develop a localized computer code, MIDAS (Multi-purpose IntegrateD Assessment code for Severe accidents). The MELCOR DB has been constructed for the typical representative sequences to support the previous MAAP DB in the previous phase. The MAAP DB has been updated using the recent version of MAAP 4.0.6. The DB management system, SARD, has been upgraded to manage the MELCOR DB in addition to the MAAP DB and the network environment has been constructed for many users to access the SARD simultaneously. The integrated MIDAS 1.0 has been validated after completion of package-wise validation. As the current version of MIDAS cannot simulate the anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) sequence, point-kinetics model has been implemented. Also the gap cooling phenomena after corium relocation into the RPV can be modeled by the user as an input parameter. In addition, the subsystems of the severe accident graphic simulator are complemented for the efficient severe accident management and the engine of the graphic simulator was replaced by the MIDAS instead of the MELCOR code. For the user's convenience, MIDAS input and output processors are upgraded by enhancing the interfacial programs.

  6. Cloning, expression and processing of the CP2 neuropeptide precursor of Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, F S; Alexeeva, V; Moroz, L L; Li, L; Moroz, T P; Sweedler, J V; Weiss, K R

    2001-12-01

    The cDNA sequence encoding the CP2 neuropeptide precursor is identified and encodes a single copy of the neuropeptide that is flanked by appropriate processing sites. The distribution of the CP2 precursor mRNA is described and matches the CP2-like immunoreactivity described previously. Single cell RT-PCR independently confirms the presence of CP2 precursor mRNA in selected neurons. MALDI-TOF MS is used to identify additional peptides derived from the CP2 precursor in neuronal somata and nerves, suggesting that the CP2 precursor may give rise to additional bioactive neuropeptides.

  7. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  8. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  9. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  10. PRECURSOR FLARES IN OJ 287

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihajoki, P.; Berdyugin, A.; Lindfors, E.; Reinthal, R.; Sillanpaeae, A.; Takalo, L. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Valtonen, M.; Nilsson, K. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO, University of Turku, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Zola, S.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, PL-30-244 Krakow (Poland); Liakos, A. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, University of Athens, GR 157 84 Zografos, Athens, Hellas (Greece); Drozdz, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W. [Mount Suhora Observatory, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorazych 2, PL-30-084 Krakow (Poland); Provencal, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Santangelo, M. M. M. [O.A.C. Osservatorio Astronomico di Capannori, Via di Valle, I-55060 Vorno, Capannori (Italy); Salo, H. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Chandra, S.; Ganesh, S.; Baliyan, K. S., E-mail: popiha@utu.fi [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); and others

    2013-02-10

    We have studied three most recent precursor flares in the light curve of the blazar OJ 287 while invoking the presence of a precessing binary black hole in the system to explain the nature of these flares. Precursor flare timings from the historical light curves are compared with theoretical predictions from our model that incorporate effects of an accretion disk and post-Newtonian description for the binary black hole orbit. We find that the precursor flares coincide with the secondary black hole descending toward the accretion disk of the primary black hole from the observed side, with a mean z-component of approximately z{sub c} = 4000 AU. We use this model of precursor flares to predict that precursor flare of similar nature should happen around 2020.96 before the next major outburst in 2022.

  11. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  12. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  13. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  14. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  15. Bathtub immersion accidents involving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J

    1977-02-12

    A review of 19 consecutive serious bathtub immersion accidents (11 survivals, 8 fatalities) is presented. In all instances, consciousness was lost in the water. Unlike other childhood accidents which usually show a male predominance, the sexes are equally affected. The modal age is 11 months. Six separate causes of bath drownings and near-drownings have been identified, and in 14 of the 19 accidents, two or more causes were operating concurrently. Median estimated immersion time for survivals was four minutes, and five minutes for fatalities. The median depth of water was eight inches. An 'at risk' profile for home bathtub drownings is presented; this includes the youngest or second youngest child of a large family, a family of grade 4 to 7 sociooccupational status (congalton) and a family in which routine is temporarily broken.

  16. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2006-01-01

    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Accident/. If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  17. Analysis of local subassembly accident in KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Min; Jeong, Kwan Seong; Hahn, Do Hee

    2000-10-01

    Subassembly Accidents (S-A) in the Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) may cause extensive clad and fuel melting and are thus regarded as a potential whole core accident initiator. The possibility of S-A occurrence must be very low frequency by the design features, and reactor must have specific instrumentation to interrupt the S-A sequences by causing a reactor shutdown. The evaluation of the relevant initiators, the event sequences which follow them, and their detection are the essence of the safety issue. Particularly, the phenomena of flow blockage caused by foreign materials and/or the debris from the failed fuel pin have been researched world-widely. The foreign strategies for dealing with the S-A and the associated safety issues with experimental and theoretical R and D results are reviewed. This report aims at obtaining information to reasonably evaluate the thermal-hydraulic effect of S-A for a wire-wrapped LMR fuel pin bundle. The mechanism of blockage formation and growth within a pin bundle and at the subassembly entrance is reviewed in the phenomenological aspect. Knowledge about the recent LMR subassembly design and operation procedure to prevent flow blockage will be reflected for KALIMER design later. The blockage analysis method including computer codes and related analytical models are reviewed. Especially SABRE4 code is discussed in detail. Preliminary analyses of flow blockage within a 271-pin driver subassembly have been performed using the SABRE4 computer code. As a result no sodium boiling occurred for the central 24-subchannel blockage as well as 6-subchannel blockage.

  18. Severe accident research activities at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Polina; Jobst, Matthias; Schaefer, Frank; Kliem, Soeren [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    In the frame of the nuclear safety research program of the Helmholtz Association HZDR performs fundamental and applied research to assess and to reduce the risks related to the nuclear fuel cycle and the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. One of the research topics focuses on the safety aspects of current and future reactor designs. This includes the development and application of methods for analyses of transients and postulated accidents, covering the whole spectrum from normal operation till severe accident sequences including core degradation. This paper gives an overview of the severe accident research activities at the Reactor Safety Division at the Institute of Resource Ecology.

  19. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  20. Estimates of early containment loads from core melt accidents. Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-12-01

    The thermal-hydraulic processes and corium debris-material interactions that can result from core melting in a severe accident have been studied to evaluate the potential effect of such phenomena on containment integrity. Pressure and temperature loads associated with representative accident sequences have been estimated for the six various LWR containment types used within the United States. Summaries distilling the analyses are presented and an interpretation of the results provided. 13 refs., 68 figs., 39 tabs.

  1. Risk assessment of a pressurized water reactor for Class 3-8 accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.E.

    1979-10-01

    An assessment has been made of the impact on societal risk of Class 3-8 accident sequences as defined by Appendix D to 10 CFR50. The present analysis concentrates on a pressurized water reactor and utilizes realistic assumptions when practical. Conclusions are drawn as to the relative importance of the analyzed accidents and their impact on the development of a complete societal risk curve. 65 refs., 61 figs., 37 tabs.

  2. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  3. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  4. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...

  5. New technology for accident prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Work Accidents and Professional Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Hauptmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The major accident is defined as “any event occurred, like an emission of dangerous materials or agents, which emerges from uncontrolled evolutions along the exploitation of any objective that leads to the immediate or delayed occurrence of serious dangers with impact over human health or over the environment, inside or outside the objective in which are involved one or more than one dangerous materials”.The dangerous phenomenon is a potential source of harms. In the ambit of industrial risks of accidental origins, this expression more frequently refers to physical phenomena like conflagrations, explosions, toxic gases dispersion, etc.Any accident scenario relates itself to the potential effects at the level of environmental “targets”. In the case of major accidents, we can distinguish the following categories of “targets”: human (employees of the objective, working or resident people in the nearby of the emplacement; the installation or equipments that may stay at the origin of the accidents (dangerous equipments; certain all-important equipments to ensure the safety level of the installation (critical security equipments: control rooms, civil fire brigade headquarters, etc; goods and structures situated in the installation’ environment (ground water, rivers, soil, flora, fauna.

  7. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  8. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  9. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  10. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document disc

  11. Analysing truck position data to study roundabout accident risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kamla, Jwan Jameel Shekh Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce accident risk, highway authorities prioritise maintenance budgets partly based upon previous accident history. However, as accident rates have continued to fall in most contexts, this approach has become problematic as accident ‘black spots’ have been treated and the number of accidents at any individual site has fallen. Another way of identifying sites of higher accident risk might be to identify near-miss accidents (where an accident nearly happened, but was avoided), whi...

  12. Brillouin precursors in Debye media

    CERN Document Server

    Macke, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically study the formation of Brillouin precursors in Debye media. We point out that the precursors are only visible at propagation distances such that the impulse response of the medium is essentially determined by the frequency-dependence of its absorption and is practically Gaussian. By simple convolution, we then obtain explicit analytical expressions of the transmitted waves generated by reference incident waves, distinguishing precursor and main signal by physical arguments. These expressions are in good agreement with the signals obtained in numerical or real experiments performed on water and explain some features of these signals that remained mysterious or unnoticed. In addition, we show quite generally that the shape of the Brillouin precursor appearing alone at large enough propagation distance and the law giving its amplitude as a function of this distance do not depend on the precise form of the incident wave but only on its integral properties. The incidence of a static conductivity o...

  13. Analysis of Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) of the Electric Power Research Institute has analyzed the Three Mile Island-2 accident. Early results of this analysis were a brief narrative summary, issued in mid-May 1979 and an initial version of this report issued later in 1979 as noted in the Foreword. The present report is a revised version of the 1979 report, containing summaries, a highly detailed sequence of events, a comparison of that sequence of events with those from other sources, 25 appendices, references and a list of abbreviations and acronyms. A matrix of equipment and system actions is included as a folded insert.

  14. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added.

  15. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P

    1989-12-01

    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions.

  16. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  17. Plutonium emission from the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A strong earthquake and subsequent tsunami on 11{sup th} March 2011 initiated a severe accident in units 1 to 4 of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, resulting in substantial releases of radionuclides. While much has since been published 00 environmental contamination and exposure to radio--iodine and radio-caesium, little is known about releases of plutonium and other non-volatile elements. Although the total activities of released {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs are of the same order of magnitude as of the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the contribution of little volatile elements, including Pu, is much smaller in Fukushima fallout. The reason is the different physical nature of the accident sequence which led to a release of some 10{sup -}5% of the core inventories only (to be compared with 3.5% from Chernobyl). In this contribution the available data on Pu in Fukushima fallout will be reviewed. Data sources are mainly reports and press releases by Japanese authorities and a few scientific articles. The mean ratio {sup 239+240}Pu: {sup 137}Cs in the near field around the NPP (mainly part of Fukushima prefecture and districts of adjacent prefectures) can be assumed about 3 x 10{sup -}7{sup ,} to be compared to nearly 0.01 in the vicinity of Chernobyl, down to about 3 x 10 {sup -6} in Central Europe. Isotopic ratios {sup 238}Pu: {sup 239+240} Pu are about 2.2 (0.46 and 0.035 in Chemobyl and global fallout, respectively). Activity concentrations of Fukushima- {sup 239+240} Pu in surface soil were found up to above 0.1 Bq/kg d.m. in the immediate vicinity of the Fukushima NPP and about one order of magnitude less in Fukushima city, about 60 km away. The {sup 239+240} Pu activity released into the atmosphere is roughly estimated some 10{sup 9} Bq (Chemobyl : almost 10{sup 14} Bq). (author)

  18. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  19. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light-water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled, and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 16 refs.

  20. Practical approaches in accident analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M.

    An accident analysis technique based on successive application of structural response, explosion dynamics, gas cloud formation, and plant operation failure mode models is proposed. The method takes into account the nonideal explosion characteristic of a deflagration in the unconfined cloud. The resulting pressure wave differs significantly from a shock wave and the response of structures like lamp posts and walls can differ correspondingly. This gives a more realistic insight into explosion courses than a simple TNT-equivalent approach.

  1. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1992-01-01

    During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses.

  2. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  3. WHEN MODEL MEETS REALITY – A REVIEW OF SPAR LEVEL 2 MODEL AGAINST FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhegang Ma

    2013-09-01

    The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models are a set of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the risk of operations at U.S. nuclear power plants and provide inputs to risk informed regulatory process. A small number of SPAR Level 2 models have been developed mostly for feasibility study purpose. They extend the Level 1 models to include containment systems, group plant damage states, and model containment phenomenology and accident progression in containment event trees. A severe earthquake and tsunami hit the eastern coast of Japan in March 2011 and caused significant damages on the reactors in Fukushima Daiichi site. Station blackout (SBO), core damage, containment damage, hydrogen explosion, and intensive radioactivity release, which have been previous analyzed and assumed as postulated accident progression in PRA models, now occurred with various degrees in the multi-units Fukushima Daiichi site. This paper reviews and compares a typical BWR SPAR Level 2 model with the “real” accident progressions and sequences occurred in Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3. It shows that the SPAR Level 2 model is a robust PRA model that could very reasonably describe the accident progression for a real and complicated nuclear accident in the world. On the other hand, the comparison shows that the SPAR model could be enhanced by incorporating some accident characteristics for better representation of severe accident progression.

  4. [Accidents in travellers - the hidden epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Alexander; Hatz, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The risk of malaria and other communicable diseases is well addressed in pre-travel advice. Accidents are usually less discussed. Thus, we aimed at assessing accident figures for the Swiss population, based on data of the register from 2004 to 2008 of the largest Swiss accident insurance organization (SUVA). More than 139'000 accidents over 5 years showed that 65 % of the accidents overseas are injuries, and 24 % are caused by poisoning or harm by cold, heat or air pressure. Most accidents happened during leisure activities or sports. More than one third of the non-lethal and more than 50 % of the fatal accidents happened in Asia. More than three-quarters of non-lethal accidents take place in people between 25 and 54 years. One out of 74 insured persons has an accident abroad per year. Despite of many analysis short-comings of the data set with regard to overseas travel, the figures document the underestimated burden of disease caused by accidents abroad and should affect the given pre-health advice.

  5. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  6. OVERVIEW OF MODULAR HTGR SAFETY CHARACTERIZATION AND POSTULATED ACCIDENT BEHAVIOR LICENSING STRATEGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL

    2014-06-01

    This report provides an update on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) accident analyses and risk assessments. One objective of this report is to improve the characterization of the safety case to better meet current regulatory practice, which is commonly geared to address features of today s light water reactors (LWRs). The approach makes use of surrogates for accident prevention and mitigation to make comparisons with LWRs. The safety related design features of modular HTGRs are described, along with the means for rigorously characterizing accident selection and progression methodologies. Approaches commonly used in the United States and elsewhere are described, along with detailed descriptions and comments on design basis (and beyond) postulated accident sequences.

  7. Quantifying the risk of extreme aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kumer Pial; Dey, Asim Kumer

    2016-12-01

    Air travel is considered a safe means of transportation. But when aviation accidents do occur they often result in fatalities. Fortunately, the most extreme accidents occur rarely. However, 2014 was the deadliest year in the past decade causing 111 plane crashes, and among them worst four crashes cause 298, 239, 162 and 116 deaths. In this study, we want to assess the risk of the catastrophic aviation accidents by studying historical aviation accidents. Applying a generalized Pareto model we predict the maximum fatalities from an aviation accident in future. The fitted model is compared with some of its competitive models. The uncertainty in the inferences are quantified using simulated aviation accident series, generated by bootstrap resampling and Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. PAGOSA Sample Problem. Elastic Precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weseloh, Wayne N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clancy, Sean Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    A PAGOSA simulation of a flyer plate impact which produces an elastic precursor wave is examined. The simulation is compared to an analytic theory for the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state and an elastic-perfectly-plastic strength model.

  9. Injuries to pedestrians in road traffic accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, R. M.; Turner, W H; Duthie, R. B.; Wilde, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Although there have been many reports on injuries to occupants of cars in road traffic accidents, there have been few prospective studies of injuries to pedestrians in such accidents. For this reason a two year prospective study of pedestrians in road traffic accidents in the Oxford region was carried out. The incidence of death in pedestrians was significantly higher than in car occupants or motorcyclists. The principal determinant of death was the weight of the vehicle concerned. The most c...

  10. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  11. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  12. Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

    1999-09-19

    The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

  13. Aerospace Accident - Injury Autopsy Data System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aerospace Accident Injury Autopsy Database System will provide the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) Aerospace Medical Research Team (AMRT) the ability to...

  14. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  15. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J. L. [Rempe and Associates, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knudson, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lutz, R. J. [Lutz Nuclear Safety Consultant, LLC, Asheville, NC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure that critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that

  16. Accident Management in VVER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Auria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the investigation study on accident management in VVER-1000 reactor type conducted in the framework of a European Commission funded project. The mentioned study involved both experimental and computational fields. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the main findings from the execution of a wide-range analysis focused on AM in VVER-1000 with main regard to the qualification of computational tools and the proposal for an optimal AM strategy for this kind of NPP.

  17. The effectiveness of using pictures in teaching young children about burn injury accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsueh-Fen; Lin, Fang-Suey; Chang, Chien-Ju

    2015-11-01

    This study utilized the "story grammar" approach (Stein and Glenn, 1979) to analyze the within-corpus differences in recounting of sixty 6- and 7-year-old children, specifically whether illustrations (5-factor accident sequence) were or were not resorted to as a means to assist their narration of a home accident in which a child received a burn injury from hot soup. Our investigation revealed that the message presentation strategy "combining oral and pictures" better helped young children to memorize the story content (sequence of events leading to the burn injury) than "oral only." Specifically, the content of "the dangerous objects that caused the injury", "the unsafe actions that people involved took", and "how the people involved felt about the severity of the accident" differed significantly between the two groups.

  18. [Multiple injuries in mass accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondrák, E

    1984-01-01

    The treatment starts with reanimation, managing the shock, followed by life-saving surgery on the central nervous system, chest, abdomen, large blood vessels and the uropoietic system. From the very beginning the therapy should be conducted on an intradisciplinary basis, first with the anaesthesiologist, later with other specialists as required. Once the patient's life has been saved, treatment of eyes, hands and systematic attention to extremities should follow. Shock has to be managed within 24 hours. Luxations of large joints should be reposed on the date of injury, open fractures closed, all fractures immobilized in favourable position. No extension should be applied in patients suffering from brain injuries; fractures of the femur should be fixed surgically by a second team in the course of the neurosurgical operation. A stomatologist's assistance makes general anaesthesia possible even with fractures of the jaw. In mass accidents the therapeutic plan for the polytraumatized should be fixed on the following day. A mass accident involving 35 injured treated within two and a half hours demonstrates this procedure in 7 polytraumatized persons.

  19. Correspondence model of occupational accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Conte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter

  20. Outline of the Desktop Severe Accident Graphic Simulator Module for OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. Y.; Ahn, K. I. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This paper introduce the desktop severe accident graphic simulator module (VMAAP) which is a window-based severe accident simulator using MAAP as its engine. The VMAAP is one of the submodules in SAMEX system (Severe Accident Management Support Expert System) which is a decision support system for use in a severe accident management following an incident at a nuclear power plant. The SAMEX system consists of four major modules as sub-systems: (a) Severe accident risk data base module (SARDB): stores the data of integrated severe accident analysis code results like MAAP and MELCOR for hundreds of high frequency scenarios for the reference plant; (b) Risk-informed severe accident risk data base management module (RI-SARD): provides a platform to identify the initiating event, determine plant status and equipment availability, diagnoses the status of the reactor core, reactor vessel and containment building, and predicts the plant behaviors; (c) Severe accident management simulator module (VMAAP): runs the MAAP4 code with user friendly graphic interface for input deck and output display; (d) On-line severe accident management guidance module (On-line SAMG); provides available accident management strategies with an electronic format. The role of VMAAP in SAMEX can be described as followings. SARDB contains the most of high frequency scenarios based on a level 2 probabilistic safety analysis. Therefore, there is good chance that a real accident sequence is similar to one of the data base cases. In such a case, RI-SARD can predict an accident progression by a scenario-base or symptom-base search depends on the available plant parameter information. Nevertheless, there still may be deviations or variations between the actual scenario and the data base scenario. The deviations can be decreased by using a real-time graphic accident simulator, VMAAP.. VMAAP is a MAAP4-based severe accident simulation model for OPR-1000 plant. It can simulate spectrum of physical processes

  1. The presence of modifiable residues in the core peptide part of precursor nisin is not crucial for precursor nisin interactions with NisB- and NisC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem Khusainov

    Full Text Available Precursor nisin is a model posttranslationally modified precursor lantibiotic that can be structurally divided into a leader peptide sequence and a modifiable core peptide part. The nisin core peptide clearly plays an important role in the precursor nisin-nisin modification enzymes interactions, since it has previously been shown that the construct containing only the nisin leader sequence is not sufficient to pull-down the nisin modification enzymes NisB and NisC. Serines and threonines in the core peptide part are the residues that NisB specifically dehydrates, and cysteines are the residues that NisC stereospecifically couples to the dehydrated amino acids. Here, we demonstrate that increasing the number of negatively charged residues in the core peptide part of precursor nisin, which are absent in wild-type nisin, does not abolish binding of precursor nisin to the modification enzymes NisB and NisC, but dramatically decreases the antimicrobial potency of these nisin mutants. An unnatural precursor nisin variant lacking all serines and threonines in the core peptide part and an unnatural precursor nisin variant lacking all cysteines in the core peptide part still bind the nisin modification enzymes NisB and NisC, suggesting that these residues are not essential for direct interactions with the nisin modification enzymes NisB and NisC. These results are important for lantibiotic engineering studies.

  2. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  3. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  4. Soluble Precursor Route to Polyanilines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    condensation were not successful, but further work produced polymer under the following conditions: Synthesis Diketone I (2.40 g, 10.0 mmol) in 10 mL...goal of producing a processible form of the conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI), the Phase I program concentrated on development of the synthesis of...extension of the original research to a Phase II effort. Diketone - Diamine Polycondensation Towards a Soluble PAni Precursor To achieve the

  5. Radiological accidents balance in medicine; Bilan des accidents radiologiques en medecine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs.

  6. Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caples, Linda Griffin

    1992-01-01

    Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

  7. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  8. Global estimates of fatal occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, J

    1999-09-01

    Data on occupational accidents are not available from all countries in the world. Furthermore, underreporting, limited coverage by reporting and compensation schemes, and non-harmonized accident recording and notification systems undermine efforts to obtain worldwide information on occupational accidents. This paper presents a method and new estimated global figures of fatal accidents at work by region. The fatal occupational accident rates reported to the International Labour Office are extended to the total employed workforce in countries and regions. For areas not covered by the reported information, rates from other countries that have similar or comparable conditions are applied. In 1994, an average estimated fatal occupational accident rate in the whole world was 14.0 per 100,000 workers, and the total estimated number of fatal occupational accidents was 335,000. The rates are different for individual countries and regions and for separate branches of economic activity. In conclusion, fatal occupational accident figures are higher than previously estimated. The new estimates can be gradually improved by obtaining and adding data from countries where information is not yet available. Sectoral estimates for at least key economic branches in individual countries would further increase the accuracy.

  9. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost

  10. Accidents of bus drivers : an epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.I. Pokorny (Mirko); D.H.J. Blom (Dick)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractIn the history of accident research much emphasis has been laid on general statistics, different types of case studies concentrating on various personal factor-s, circumstantial influences etc. Often, in certain waves, the unequal initial liability theory (the accident proneness concept;

  11. An introduction to serious nuclear accident chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Russell St. John Foreman

    2015-01-01

    A review of the chemistry occurring inside a nuclear power plant during a serious reactor accident is presented. This includes some aspects of the behavior of nuclear fuel, its cladding, cesium and iodine. This review concentrates on the chemistry of an accident in a water-cooled reactor loaded with uranium dioxide or mixed metal oxide fuel.

  12. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  13. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  14. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  15. [Clinical examinations for the traffic accident patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Masahito

    2008-11-30

    Traffic accident is a leading cause of unintentional death and about six-thousands annually died in Japan. As about one-million of persons suffer from traffic injuries, most of them seek medical attention. Therefore, medical staffs have to find the injuries accurately and treat immediately. Furthermore, the cause of accident should also be considered; why the accident was occurred, human error of the driver? To solve these problems, clinical examinations were needed. Medical staffs have to understand the characteristics of the traffic injuries: severe and multiple blunt injuries, popular injuries can be estimated with considering the pattern of the accident. Because some of the accidents are occurred when the driver is under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, screening of these subjects should be performed. Because the public is largely unaware of the preventable nature of traffic injuries, in addition to diagnose and treat accurately, we medical staffs have to attend on the primary prevention of the traffic injuries.

  16. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  17. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  18. PKP precursors : Implications for global scatterers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waszek, Lauren; Thomas, Christine; Deuss, Arwen

    2015-01-01

    Precursors to the core phase PKP are generated by scattering of seismic energy from heterogeneities in the mantle. Here we examine a large global data set of PKP precursors in individual seismograms and array data, to better understand scattering locations. The precursor amplitudes from individual s

  19. TITAN: a computer program for accident occurrence frequency analyses by component Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasushi [Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Tamaki, Hitoshi [Department of Safety Research Technical Support, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanai, Shigeru [Fuji Research Institute Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    In a plant system consisting of complex equipments and components for a reprocessing facility, there might be grace time between an initiating event and a resultant serious accident, allowing operating personnel to take remedial actions, thus, terminating the ongoing accident sequence. A component Monte Carlo simulation computer program TITAN has been developed to analyze such a complex reliability model including the grace time without any difficulty to obtain an accident occurrence frequency. Firstly, basic methods for the component Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to obtain an accident occurrence frequency, and then, the basic performance such as precision, convergence, and parallelization of calculation, is shown through calculation of a prototype accident sequence model. As an example to illustrate applicability to a real scale plant model, a red oil explosion in a German reprocessing plant model is simulated to show that TITAN can give an accident occurrence frequency with relatively good accuracy. Moreover, results of uncertainty analyses by TITAN are rendered to show another performance, and a proposal is made for introducing of a new input-data format to adapt the component Monte Carlo simulation. The present paper describes the calculational method, performance, applicability to a real scale, and new proposal for the TITAN code. In the Appendixes, a conventional analytical method is shown to avoid complex and laborious calculation to obtain a strict solution of accident occurrence frequency, compared with Monte Carlo method. The user's manual and the list/structure of program are also contained in the Appendixes to facilitate TITAN computer program usage. (author)

  20. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  1. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  2. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  3. "What--me worry?" "Why so serious?": a personal view on the Fukushima nuclear reactor accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Infrequently, it seems that a significant accident precursor or, worse, an actual accident, involving a commercial nuclear power reactor occurs to remind us of the need to reexamine the safety of this important electrical power technology from a risk perspective. Twenty-five years since the major core damage accident at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, the Fukushima reactor complex in Japan experienced multiple core damages as a result of an earthquake-induced tsunami beyond either the earthquake or tsunami design basis for the site. Although the tsunami itself killed tens of thousands of people and left the area devastated and virtually uninhabitable, much concern still arose from the potential radioactive releases from the damaged reactors, even though there was little population left in the area to be affected. As a lifelong probabilistic safety analyst in nuclear engineering, even I must admit to a recurrence of the doubt regarding nuclear power safety after Fukushima that I had experienced after Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This article is my attempt to "recover" my personal perspective on acceptable risk by examining both the domestic and worldwide history of commercial nuclear power plant accidents and attempting to quantify the risk in terms of the frequency of core damage that one might glean from a review of operational history.

  4. AMYPdb: A database dedicated to amyloid precursor proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delamarche Christian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Misfolding and aggregation of proteins into ordered fibrillar structures is associated with a number of severe pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease, prion diseases, and type II diabetes. The rapid accumulation of knowledge about the sequences and structures of these proteins allows using of in silico methods to investigate the molecular mechanisms of their abnormal conformational changes and assembly. However, such an approach requires the collection of accurate data, which are inconveniently dispersed among several generalist databases. Results We therefore created a free online knowledge database (AMYPdb dedicated to amyloid precursor proteins and we have performed large scale sequence analysis of the included data. Currently, AMYPdb integrates data on 31 families, including 1,705 proteins from nearly 600 organisms. It displays links to more than 2,300 bibliographic references and 1,200 3D-structures. A Wiki system is available to insert data into the database, providing a sharing and collaboration environment. We generated and analyzed 3,621 amino acid sequence patterns, reporting highly specific patterns for each amyloid family, along with patterns likely to be involved in protein misfolding and aggregation. Conclusion AMYPdb is a comprehensive online database aiming at the centralization of bioinformatic data regarding all amyloid proteins and their precursors. Our sequence pattern discovery and analysis approach unveiled protein regions of significant interest. AMYPdb is freely accessible 1.

  5. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  6. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  7. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... States vessel wherever such casualty or accident occurs; or (3) With respect to a foreign tank vessel... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  8. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  9. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  10. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  11. Ruthenium release from fuel in accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, G.; Marchetto, C.; Plumecocq, W. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR and LIMSI, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2010-07-01

    During a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident, fission products may be released from the fuel matrix and then reach the containment building and the environment. Ruthenium is a very hazardous fission product that can be highly and rapidly released in some accident scenarios. The impact of the atmosphere redox properties, temperature, and fuel burn-up on the ruthenium release is discussed. In order to improve the evaluation of the radiological impact by accident codes, a model of the ruthenium release from fuel is proposed using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. In addition, a model of fuel oxidation under air is described. Finally, these models have been integrated in the ASTEC accident code and validation calculations have been performed on several experimental tests. (orig.)

  12. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucheron, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. [Severe parachuting accident. Analysis of 122 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, U; Mischkowsky, T

    1993-06-01

    Based on a population of 122 severely injured patients the causes of paragliding accidents and the patterns of injury are analyzed. A questionnaire is used to establish a sport-specific profile for the paragliding pilot. The lower limbs (55.7%) and the lower parts of the spine (45.9%) are the most frequently injured parts of the body. There is a high risk of multiple injuries after a single accident because of the tremendous axial power. The standard of equipment is good in over 90% of the cases. Insufficient training and failure to take account of geographical and meteorological conditions are the main determinants of accidents sustained by paragliders, most of whom are young. Nevertheless, 80% of our patients want to continue paragliding. Finally some advice is given on how to prevent paragliding accidents and injuries.

  14. The Chornobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.J. [ed.; Poyarkov, V.; Bar`yakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.; Kholosha, V.; Shestopalov, V.

    1999-10-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chornobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chornobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chornobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  15. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  16. Review of methodology for accident consequence assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Watson, E.C.

    1978-09-01

    This report reviews current methodologies for reactor accident consequence analysis and describes areas where modifications are warranted. Methodologies reviewed are: (1) Models in Regulatory Guides 1.109, 1.111 and 1.113 used for evaluation of compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I; (2) Models in Regulatory Guides used for evaluation of consequences from accidents of Classes 3-8; (3) Models for evaluation of Class 9 accidents presented in the Reactor Safety Study; and (4) Models in the Liquid Pathway Generic Study. The review is designed to aid in the ultimate goal of selection of a comprehensive set of models to extend the Class 9 methodology of the Reactor Safety Study to the analysis of Classes 3-8 accidents.

  17. The epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    of bicyclists and risk situations. The findings should make a basis for preventive programmes in order to decrease the number and severity of bicyclists collision accidents. Data from the emergency room in a 2 year period was combined with data from questionnaires. The study group consisted of 1021 bicyclists...... group of accidents were the collisions with the 'soft' road users (bicyclists, mopeds, and pedestrians) and another group were the collisions with the 'hard' road users (motor vehicles, motorcycles). Preventive measures have to be directed at both these groups of accidents. To decrease the number...... of collision accidents with motor vehicles it is necessary to separate the bicyclists from the 'hard road traffic' especially at crossings. Preventive measures must also be directed at the bicyclists. Information must be given to warn the bicyclists against the risks, not only for collisions with motor...

  18. Personality characteristics of the child accident repeater

    OpenAIRE

    Manheimer, Dean I.; Mellinger, Glen D

    1997-01-01

    From 8874 boys and girls aged 4 to 18 in Berkeley-Oakland, California, 684 were selected to represent high-, intermediateor low-accident-liability children, based on records of medically attended injuries. Using data from intensive interviews with mothers supplemented with school records, we found a statistically significant relation between accident liability and indexes of extraversion, daring, roughhousing, and other traits tending to expose children to hazards. Similar relations held for ...

  19. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J (eds.) (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Agrenius, Lennart (ed.) (Agrenius Ingenjoersbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident.

  20. Pressure Load Analysis during Severe Accidents for the Evaluation of Late Containment Failure in OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. Y.; Ahn, K. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The MAAP code is a system level computer code capable of performing integral analyses of potential severe accident progressions in nuclear power plants, whose main purpose is to support a level 2 probabilistic safety assessment or severe accident management strategy developments. The code employs lots of user-options for supporting a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The present application is mainly focused on determining an estimate of the containment building pressure load caused by severe accident sequences. Key modeling parameters and phenomenological models employed for the present uncertainty analysis are closely related to in-vessel hydrogen generation, gas combustion in the containment, corium distribution in the containment after a reactor vessel failure, corium coolability in the reactor cavity, and molten-corium interaction with concrete. The phenomenology of severe accidents is extremely complex. In this paper, a sampling-based phenomenological uncertainty analysis was performed to statistically quantify uncertainties associated with the pressure load of a containment building for a late containment failure evaluation, based on the key modeling parameters employed in the MAAP code and random samples for those parameters. Phenomenological issues surrounding the late containment failure mode are highly complex. Included are the pressurization owing to steam generation in the cavity, molten corium-concrete interaction, late hydrogen burn in the containment, and the secondary heat removal availability. The methodology and calculation results can be applied for the optimum assessment of a late containment failure model. The accident sequences considered were a loss of coolant accidents and loss of offsite accidents expected in the OPR-1000 plant. As a result, uncertainties addressed in the pressure load of the containment building were quantified as a function of time. A realistic evaluation of the mean and variance estimates provides a more complete

  1. Development of accident management technology and computer codes -A study for nuclear safety improvement-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Jae, Moo Sung; Jo, Young Gyun; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Jae Hwan; Ha, Jae Ju; Kang, Dae Il; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Si Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    We have surveyed new technologies and research results for the accident management of nuclear power plants. And, based on the concept of using the existing plant capabilities for accident management, both in-vessel and ex-vessel strategies were identified and analyzed. When assessing accident management strategies, their effectiveness, adverse effects, and their feasibility must be considered. We have developed a framework for assessing the strategies with these factors in mind. We have applied the developed framework to assessing the strategies, including the likelihood that the operator correctly diagnoses the situation and successfully implements the strategies. Finally, the cavity flooding strategy was assessed by applying it to the station blackout sequence, which have been identified as one of the major contributors to risk at the reference plant. The thermohydraulic analyses with sensitivity calculations have been performed using MAAP 4 computer code. (Author).

  2. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2, Book 2: Accident model document: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-15

    This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.

  3. Severe accident risks from external events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the early development of design requirements for seismic events in USA early developing nuclear electric generating fleet.Notable safety studies,including WASH-1400,Sandia Siting Study and the NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk study,are briefly reviewed in terms of their relevance to extreme accidents arising from seismic and other severe accident initiators.Specific characteristic about the nature of severe accidents in nuclear power plant (NPP) are reviewed along with present day state-of-art analysis methodologies (methods for estimation of leakages and consequences of releases (MELCOR) and MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS)) that are used to evaluate severe accidents and to optimize mitigative and protective actions against such accidents.It is the aim of this paper to make nuclear operating nations aware of the risks that accompany a much needed energy resource and to identify some of the tools,techniques and landmark safety studies that serve to make the technology safer and to maintain vigilance and adequate safety culture for the responsible management of this valuable but unforgiving technology.

  4. FUNDING OF ACCIDENT INSURANCE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gamankova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of financial provision of public and private accident insurance. Analyzes the methodology of forming insurance premium rates in private accident insurance. The study examines the practice of reforming the financial security of the state social insurance against accidents. The results show need to implement scientifically proven approach to determining premium rates in the state social insurance based on mathematical statistics and actuarial calculations to ensure that such conditions on the one hand, can insure the risk, and the other - to provide the insurer the ability to perform insurance obligations' commitments. One of the promising areas of improvement Accident Insurance determines to define increasing the role of the private sector to create and attraction of investments, financing, reduce costs, and provision of insurance services on insurance against accidents at a qualitatively higher level. The results show the need to consider the usefulness of a mixed provision of services to accident insurance under state or non-state system, and the viability and effectiveness of the combination of these systems.

  5. CURRENT FACTORS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B AMINMAN SOUR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.
    Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809 at the time of study (1997-1998. Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.
    Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old, students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.
    Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.

     

  6. Severe accident analysis in a two-loop PWR nuclear power plant with the ASTEC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek, Sinisa; Amizic, Milan; Grgic, Davor [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

    2013-12-15

    The ASTEC/V2.0 computer code was used to simulate a hypothetical severe accident sequence in the nuclear power plant Krsko, a 2-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant. ASTEC is an integral code jointly developed by Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN, France) and Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS, Germany) to assess nuclear power plant behaviour during a severe accident. The analysis was conducted in 2 steps. First, the steady state calculation was performed in order to confirm the applicability of the plant model and to obtain correct initial conditions for the accident analysis. The second step was the calculation of the station blackout accident with a leakage of the primary coolant through degraded reactor coolant pump seals, which was a small LOCA without makeup capability. Two scenarios were analyzed: one with and one without the auxiliary feedwater (AFW). The latter scenario, without the AFW, resulted in earlier core damage. In both cases, the accident ended with a core melt and a reactor pressure vessel failure with significant release of hydrogen. In addition, results of the ASTEC calculation were compared with results of the RELAP5/SCDAPSIM calculation for the same transient scenario. The results comparison showed a good agreement between predictions of those 2 codes. (orig.)

  7. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, Marjan

    2002-12-01

    The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

  8. Analysis of root causes of major hazard precursors (hydrocarbon leaks) in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnem, Jan Erik, E-mail: jev@preventor.n [Preventor AS/University of Stavanger, Rennebergstien 30, 4021 Stavanger (Norway); Hestad, Jon Andreas [Safetec Nordic AS, Bergen (Norway); Kvaloy, Jan Terje [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger (Norway); Skogdalen, Jon Espen [Department of Industrial Economics, Risk Management and Planning, University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    The offshore petroleum industry in Norway reports major hazard precursors to the authorities, and data are available for the period 1996 through 2009. Barrier data have been reported since 2002, as have data from an extensive questionnaire survey covering working environment, organizational culture and perceived risk among all employees on offshore installations. Several attempts have been made to analyse different data sources in order to discover relations that may cast some light on possible root causes of major hazard precursors. These previous attempts were inconclusive. The study presented in this paper is the most extensive study performed so far. The data were analysed using linear regression. The conclusion is that there are significant correlations between number of leaks and safety climate indicators. The discussion points to possible root causes of major accidents.

  9. High burnup effects on fuel behaviour under accident conditions: the tests CABRI REP-Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Franz; Papin, Joelle

    A large, performance based, knowledge and experience in the field of nuclear fuel behaviour is available for nominal operation conditions. The database is continuously completed and precursor assembly irradiations are performed for testing of new materials and innovative designs. This procedure produces data and arguments to extend licencing limits in the permanent research for economic competitiveness. A similar effort must be devoted to the establishment of a database for fuel behaviour under off-normal and accident conditions. In particular, special attention must be given to the so-called design-basis-accident (DBA) conditions. Safety criteria are formulated for these situations and must be respected without consideration of the occurrence probability and the risk associated to the accident situation. The introduction of MOX fuel into the cores of light water reactors and the steadily increasing goal burnup of the fuel call for research work, both experimental and analytical, in the field of fuel response to DBA conditions. In 1992, a significant programme step, CABRI REP-Na, has been launched by the French Nuclear Safety and Protection Institute (IPSN) in the field of the reactivity initiated accident (RIA). After performing the nine experiments of the initial test matrix it can be concluded that important new findings have been evidenced. High burnup clad corrosion and the associated degradation of the mechanical properties of the ZIRCALOY4 clad is one of the key phenomena of the fuel behaviour under accident conditions. Equally important is the evidence that transient, dynamic fission gas effects resulting from the close to adiabatic heating introduces a new explosive loading mechanism which may lead to clad rupture under RIA conditions, especially in the case of heterogeneous MOX fuel.

  10. Exploring Environmental Effects of Accidents During Marine Transport of Dangerous Goods by Use of Accident Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Hans Gottberg; Haastrup, P.; Petersen, H J Styhr

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most...

  11. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bunt, R. [Southern Nuclear, Atlanta, GA (United States); Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ellison, Paul B. [GE Power and Water, Duluth, GA (United States); Francis, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gabor, John D. [Erin Engineering, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Linthicum, R. [Exelon Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Luangdilok, W. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lutz, R. [PWR Owners Group (PWROG); Paik, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Plys, M. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wachowiak, R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  12. Study of safety features and accident scenarios in a fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M., E-mail: nakamura.makoto@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Tobita, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Gulden, W. [Fusion for Energy, c/o EFDA Garching and Max-Plank-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching D-85748 (Germany); Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa 235-8523 (Japan); Someya, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Sakamoto, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Araki, T.; Matsumiya, H.; Ishii, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa 235-8523 (Japan); Utoh, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Takase, H. [IFERC Project Team, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Hayashi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Satou, A.; Yonomoto, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Federici, G. [Fusion for Energy, c/o EFDA Garching and Max-Plank-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching D-85748 (Germany); Okano, K. [IFERC Project Team, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: This paper reports progress in the fusion DEMO safety research conducted under the Broader Approach DEMO Design Activities; Hazards of a reference DEMO concept have been assessed; Reference accident event sequences in the reference DEMO in this study have been analyzed based on the master logic diagram (MLD) and the functional failure mode and effect analysis (FFMEA) techniques; Accident events of particular concern in the DEMO have been selected based on the MLD and FFMEA analysis. Abstract: After the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, a need for assuring safety of fusion energy has grown in the Japanese (JA) fusion research community. DEMO safety research has been launched as a part of Broader Approach DEMO Design Activities (BA-DDA). This paper reports progress in the fusion DEMO safety research conducted under BA-DDA. Safety requirements and evaluation guidelines have been, first of all, established based on those established in the Japanese ITER site invitation activities. The radioactive source terms and energies that can mobilize such source terms have been assessed for a reference DEMO concept. This concept employs in-vessel components that are cooled by pressurized water and built of a low activation ferritic steel (F82H), contains solid pebble beds made of lithium-titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) and beryllium–titanium (Be{sub 12}Ti) for tritium breeding and neutron multiplication, respectively. It is shown that unlike the energies expected in ITER, the enthalpy in the first wall/blanket cooling loops is large compared to the other energies expected in the reference DEMO concept. Reference accident event sequences in the reference DEMO in this study have been analyzed based on the Master Logic Diagram and Functional Failure Mode and Effect Analysis techniques. Accident events of particular concern in the DEMO have been selected based on the event sequence analysis and the hazard assessment.

  13. Potential for containment leak paths through electrical penetration assemblies under severe accident conditions. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebrell, W.

    1983-07-01

    The leakage behavior of containments beyond design conditions and knowledge of failure modes is required for evaluation of mitigation strategies for severe accidents, risk studies, emergency preparedness planning, and siting. These studies are directed towards assessing the risk and consequences of severe accidents. An accident sequence analysis conducted on a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Mark I (MK I), indicated very high temperatures in the dry-well region, which is the location of the majority of electrical penetration assemblies. Because of the high temperatures, it was postulated in the ORNL study that the sealants would fail and all the electrical penetration assemblies would leak before structural failure would occur. Since other containments had similar electrical penetration assemblies, it was concluded that all containments would experience the same type of failure. The results of this study, however, show that this conclusion does not hold for PWRs because in the worst accident sequence, the long time containment gases stabilize to 350/sup 0/F. BWRs, on the other hand, do experience high dry-well temperatures and have a higher potential for leakage.

  14. 小麦tae-MIR156前体基因的克隆及其靶基因TaSPL17多态性分析%Cloning of tae-MIR156 precursor gene and sequence polymorphisms of tae-miR156 targeted TaSPL17

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞; 张斌; 毛新国; 李昂; 孙美荣; 景蕊莲

    2014-01-01

    Squamosa-promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes, encoding plant-specific transcription factors, play an important role in plant development. Some members of the SBP-box gene family are regulated by miR156. In this study, we cloned the tae-MIR156 precursor gene, which could form a stem loop after its transcription. Sequence analysis showed that TaSPL3 and TaSPL17 had putative targets of tae-miR156 among the ten wheat SBP-box genes. The diploid donor species of hexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum, genome AABBDD), i.e., Triticum urartu (AA) UR209 and Aegilops spel-toides Y2001 (SS, closely related to BB) possessed more than one copy of SPL17 (SPL17-A1, SPL17-A2 and SPL17-A3 from Triticum urartu;SPL17-B1, SPL17-B2 and SPL17-B3 from Aegilops speltoides), while Aegilops tauschii (DD) Ae38 only possessed one (SPL17-D). The identities between nucleotide sequences of SPL17-A2 and SPL17-B2, SPL17-A3 and SPL17-B3 or SPL17-D were higher than 99%. They were highly similar with the sequence of TaSPL17 in common wheat cultivars Chinese Spring, Hengguan 35 and Shuangfengshou. These genes might originate from a common ancestor and were highly conserved in the process of evolution. The target site of tae-miR156 in TaSPL17 was also highly conserved in two subgroups consisted of accessions with diverse spike number per plant and genetic background.%Squamosa-promoter binding protein (SBP)-box基因是植物特有的一类转录因子,广泛参与植物生长发育,其部分成员受miR156调控。文章克隆了小麦(Triticum aestivum) tae-MIR156前体基因,转录后能够形成茎环结构。小麦10个SBP-box基因中,仅TaSPL3和TaSPL17在编码区存在tae-miR156识别位点。SPL17在普通小麦的 A 基因组供体种乌拉尔图小麦(Triticum urartu, AA) UR209和 B 基因组供体种拟斯卑尔脱山羊草(Aegilops speltoides, BB) Y2001中均为多拷贝(SPL17-A1、SPL17-A2和SPL17-A3;SPL17-B1、SPL17-B2和SPL17-B3),在D基

  15. The Interrelationships of Mathematical Precursors in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the interrelations among cognitive precursors across quantitative, linguistic, and spatial attention domains that have been implicated for math achievement in young children. The dimensionality of the quantity precursors was evaluated in 286 kindergarteners via latent variable techniques, and the contribution of precursors…

  16. Rapid synthesis of macrocycles from diol precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Magnus; Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    A method for the formation of synthetic macrocycles with different ring sizes from diols is presented. Reacting a simple diol precursor with electrophilic reagents leads to a cyclic carbonate, sulfite or phosphate in a single step in 25-60% yield. Converting the cyclization precursor to a bis-ele...

  17. Developement of integrated evaluation system for severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, H. D.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Choi, Y.; Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I.; Park, J. H

    2005-04-01

    The scope of the project includes four activities such as construction of DB, development of data base management tool, development of severe accident analysis code system and FP studies. In the construction of DB, level-1,2 PSA results and plant damage states event trees were mainly used to select the following target initiators based on frequencies: LLOCA, MLOCA, SLOCA, station black out, LOOP, LOFW and SGTR. These scenarios occupy more than 95% of the total frequencies of the core damage sequences at KSNP. In the development of data base management tool, SARD 2.0 was developed under the PC microsoft windows environment using the visual basic 6.0 language. In the development of severe accident analysis code system, MIDAS 1.0 was developed with new features of FORTRAN-90 which makes it possible to allocate the storage dynamically and to use the user-defined data type, leading to an efficient memory treatment and an easy understanding. Also for user's convenience, the input (IEDIT) and output (IPLOT) processors were developed and implemented into the MIDAS code. For the model development of MIDAS concerning the FP behavior, the one dimensional thermophoresis model was developed and it gave much improvement to predict the amount of FP deposited on the SG U-tube. Also the source term analysis methodology was set up and applied to the KSNP and APR1400.

  18. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  19. Predicting road accidents: Structural time series approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the model for occurrence of road accidents in Malaysia between the years of 1970 to 2010 was developed and throughout this model the number of road accidents have been predicted by using the structural time series approach. The models are developed by using stepwise method and the residual of each step has been analyzed. The accuracy of the model is analyzed by using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the best model is chosen based on the smallest Akaike information criterion (AIC) value. A structural time series approach found that local linear trend model is the best model to represent the road accidents. This model allows level and slope component to be varied over time. In addition, this approach also provides useful information on improving the conventional time series method.

  20. A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

    2000-05-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

  1. Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.

    1984-03-01

    The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

  2. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  3. Internal Accident Report: fill it out!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    It is important to report all accidents, near-misses and dangerous situations so that they can be avoided in the future.   Reporting these events allows the relevant services to take appropriate action and implement corrective and preventive measures. It should be noted that the routing of the internal accident report was recently changed to make sure that the people who need to know are informed. Without information, corrective action is not possible. Without corrective action, there is a risk that the events will recur. As soon as you experience or see something amiss, fill out an internal accident report! If you have any questions the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. The HSE Unit

  4. Agricultural implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2016-01-01

    More than 4 years has passed since the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Immediately after the accident, 40 to 50 academic staff of the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Tokyo created an independent team to monitor the behavior of the radioactive materials in the field and their effects on agricultural farm lands, forests, rivers, animals, etc. When the radioactive nuclides from the nuclear power plant fell, they were instantly adsorbed at the site where they first touched; consequently, the fallout was found as scattered spots on the surface of anything that was exposed to the air at the time of the accident. The adsorption has become stronger over time, so the radioactive nuclides are now difficult to remove. The findings of our study regarding the wide range of effects on agricultural fields are summarized in this report. PMID:27538845

  5. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-06

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  6. Reduction of precursor decay anomaly in single crystal lithium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yukio

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal that the precursor decay anomaly in single crystal lithium fluoride is reduced by Sano's decay curve [Y. Sano, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7616 (1999)], which is much smaller in slope than Asay's decay curve [J. R. Asay, G. R. Fowles, G. E. Duvall, M. H. Miles, and R. F. Tinder, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2132 (1972)]. To this end, strain, particle, velocity, and stress in a precursor and near the leading edge of the follower changing with time along Sano's decay curve are first analyzed quantitatively. The analysis verified the existence of degenerate contraction waves I and II and a subrarefaction wave R', and the decay process [Y. Sano, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3746 (1995)] caused in sequence by evolving followers C, I, II, R', Rb. Next, inequalities relating decay rates qualitatively to plastic strain rates at the leading edge of the follower, which are derived using the properties of the followers, are incorporated into the analysis. Calculation results showed that the plastic strain rates were reduced by low decay rates. This indicates that the precursor decay anomaly might be greatly reduced by Sano's decay curve.

  7. MDCT findings in sports and recreational accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K (Dept. of Radiology, Toeoeloe Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email: frank.bensch@hus.fi

    2011-12-15

    Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved

  8. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Medford, G.T. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.

  9. Annotation of novel neuropeptide precursors in the migratory locust based on transcript screening of a public EST database and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Loof Arnold

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For holometabolous insects there has been an explosion of proteomic and peptidomic information thanks to large genome sequencing projects. Heterometabolous insects, although comprising many important species, have been far less studied. The migratory locust Locusta migratoria, a heterometabolous insect, is one of the most infamous agricultural pests. They undergo a well-known and profound phase transition from the relatively harmless solitary form to a ferocious gregarious form. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of this phase transition are not fully understood, but it is undoubtedly that neuropeptides are involved. However, neuropeptide research in locusts is hampered by the absence of genomic information. Results Recently, EST (Expressed Sequence Tag databases from Locusta migratoria were constructed. Using bioinformatical tools, we searched these EST databases specifically for neuropeptide precursors. Based on known locust neuropeptide sequences, we confirmed the sequence of several previously identified neuropeptide precursors (i.e. pacifastin-related peptides, which consolidated our method. In addition, we found two novel neuroparsin precursors and annotated the hitherto unknown tachykinin precursor. Besides one of the known tachykinin peptides, this EST contained an additional tachykinin-like sequence. Using neuropeptide precursors from Drosophila melanogaster as a query, we succeeded in annotating the Locusta neuropeptide F, allatostatin-C and ecdysis-triggering hormone precursor, which until now had not been identified in locusts or in any other heterometabolous insect. For the tachykinin precursor, the ecdysis-triggering hormone precursor and the allatostatin-C precursor, translation of the predicted neuropeptides in neural tissues was confirmed with mass spectrometric techniques. Conclusion In this study we describe the annotation of 6 novel neuropeptide precursors and the neuropeptides they encode from the

  10. Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Accident Safety Design for High Speed Elevator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawiwat Veeraklaew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been many elevators exist in buildings for such a long time; however, an accident might happen as a free fall due to lacks of maintenance or some other accident such as firing. Although this situation is rarely occurred, many people are still concerned about it. The question here is how to make passengers to feel safe and confident when they are using an elevator, especially, high speed elevator. This problem is studied here in this paper as a free fall spring-mass-damper system with the stiffness and damping coefficient can be computed as minimum jerk of the system with given constraints on trajectories.

  12. Lessons learned from early criticality accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1996-06-01

    Four accidents involving the approach to criticality occurred during the period July, 1945, through May, 1996. These have been described in the format of the OPERATING EXPERIENCE WEEKLY SUMMARY which is distributed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety. Although the lessons learned have been incorporated in standards, codes, and formal procedures during the last fifty years, this is their first presentation in this format. It is particularly appropriate that they be presented in the forum of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project Workshop closest to the fiftieth anniversary of the last of the four accidents, and that which was most instrumental in demonstrating the need to incorporate lessons learned.

  13. LESSONS LEARNED FROM A RECENT LASER ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Michael; /SLAC

    2011-01-26

    A graduate student received a laser eye injury from a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser beam while adjusting a polarizing beam splitter optic. The direct causes for the accident included failure to follow safe alignment practices and failure to wear the required laser eyewear protection. Underlying root causes included inadequate on-the-job training and supervision, inadequate adherence to requirements, and inadequate appreciation for dimly visible beams outside the range of 400-700nm. This paper describes how the accident occurred, discusses causes and lessons learned, and describes corrective actions being taken.

  14. Preparation of precursor for stainless steel foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiang-yang; LI Shan-ni; LI Jie; LIU Ye-xiang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of polyurethane sponge pretreatment and slurry compositions on the slurry loading in precursor were discussed, and the,performances of stainless steel foams prepared from precursors with different slurry loadings and different particle sizes of the stainless steel powder were also investigated. The experimental results show that the pretreatment of sponge with alkaline solution is effective to reduce the jam of cells in precursor and ensure the slurry to uniformly distribute in sponge, and it is also an effective method for increasing the slurry loading in precursor; the mass fraction of additive A and solid content in slurry greatly affect the slurry loading in precursor, when they are kept in 9%-13% and 52%-75%, respectively, the stainless steel foam may hold excellent 3D open-cell network structure and uniform muscles; the particle size of the stainless steel powder and the slurry loading in precursor have great effects on the bending strength, apparent density and open porosity of stainless steel foam; when the stainless steel powder with particle size of 44 tan and slurry loading of 0.5 g/cm3 in precursor are used, a stainless steel foam can be obtained, which has open porosity of 81.2%, bending strength of about 51.76 MPa and apparent density of about 1.0 g/cm3.

  15. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  16. A Lambda-Max of consistency test in Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) for weights of road accidents causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Liana; Abdullah, Lazim

    2013-04-01

    In the new global economy, road accident has become continuing issue in Malaysia without precise solution on searching the weights and ranks of the causes contributing to road accident. The statistical of road accident fatalities in worldwide are generally persist on increasing from day to day. Thus, the aim of the paper is to purpose fuzzy multi criteria decision making (MCDM) to evaluate causes option with respect to road accident problem. The fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) is applied to conduct the relative weights priority related to causes associated with road accident, testing the consistency test of matrix pair-wise comparison of criterion and alternatives by proposed method of Lambda-Max and normalization of weights vectors via Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method as a sequence to rank the weights priority factors. The triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs) were applied to handle vagueness and imprecision of the data in fuzzy MCDM. Empirical results are determined by using linguistic variables data via interview with the decision makers. The results demonstrate the capability of the causes contributed to road accident in Malaysia.

  17. Regulatory research of the PWR severe accident information needs and instrumentation availability for hydrogen control and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae-Hong; Park, Gun-Chul; Suh, Kune Y.; Kang, Yun-Moon; Lee, Un-Jang; Oh, Se-Chul; Lee, Jin-Yong [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    During the current research period, we have set forth the methodology for identification of a severe accident, developed a framework for hydrogen management decision trees, and analyzed the literature on hydrogen management and experimental data for hydrogen bum. Specifically, we have summarized me results for information needs in a severe accident obtained in the U.S. and other countries, and applied the methodology to the reference plant YGN 3 and 4 as part of severe accident management. We have also examined the existing instruments in terms of their availability and survivability during a severe accident, and identified additionally needed information needs and instruments. We have identified dominant accident sequences for me reference plant YGN 3 and 4 to construct decision trees, and extracted available data from the IPE study of the plant. Based upon the data we have performed preliminary study on the decision tree and decision node. Last, we have examined various mechanisms for hydrogen generation and reIevant experimental data to predict me amount of hydrogen generation and governing factors in me process. We have also reviewed the hydrogen generation related models in the severe accident analysis.

  18. Synthesis and structures of metal chalcogenide precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Duraj, Stan A.; Eckles, William E.; Andras, Maria T.

    1990-01-01

    The reactivity of early transition metal sandwich complexes with sulfur-rich molecules such as dithiocarboxylic acids was studied. Researchers recently initiated work on precursors to CuInSe2 and related chalcopyrite semiconductors. Th every high radiation tolerance and the high absorption coefficient of CuInSe2 makes this material extremely attractive for lightweight space solar cells. Their general approach in early transition metal chemistry, the reaction of low-valent metal complexes or metal powders with sulfur and selenium rich compounds, was extended to the synthesis of chalcopyrite precursors. Here, the researchers describe synthesis, structures, and and routes to single molecule precursors to metal chalcogenides.

  19. Atomic Layer Deposition from Dissolved Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanlin; Döhler, Dirk; Barr, Maïssa; Oks, Elina; Wolf, Marc; Santinacci, Lionel; Bachmann, Julien

    2015-10-14

    We establish a novel thin film deposition technique by transferring the principles of atomic layer deposition (ALD) known with gaseous precursors toward precursors dissolved in a liquid. An established ALD reaction behaves similarly when performed from solutions. "Solution ALD" (sALD) can coat deep pores in a conformal manner. sALD offers novel opportunities by overcoming the need for volatile and thermally robust precursors. We establish a MgO sALD procedure based on the hydrolysis of a Grignard reagent.

  20. Biological effects of ionizing radiations. Radiological accident from Goiania, GO, Brazil; Efeitos biologicos das radiacoes ionizantes. Acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Emico, E-mail: emico.okuno@if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF-USP), SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    This article presents the fundaments of radiation physics, the natural and artificial sources, biological effects, radiation protection. We also examine the sequence of events that resulted in Goiania accident with a source of caesium-137 from abandoned radiotherapy equipment and its terrible consequences. (author)

  1. A smart phone-based pocket fall accident detection, positioning, and rescue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kau, Lih-Jen; Chen, Chih-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    We propose in this paper a novel algorithm as well as architecture for the fall accident detection and corresponding wide area rescue system based on a smart phone and the third generation (3G) networks. To realize the fall detection algorithm, the angles acquired by the electronic compass (ecompass) and the waveform sequence of the triaxial accelerometer on the smart phone are used as the system inputs. The acquired signals are then used to generate an ordered feature sequence and then examined in a sequential manner by the proposed cascade classifier for recognition purpose. Once the corresponding feature is verified by the classifier at current state, it can proceed to next state; otherwise, the system will reset to the initial state and wait for the appearance of another feature sequence. Once a fall accident event is detected, the user's position can be acquired by the global positioning system (GPS) or the assisted GPS, and sent to the rescue center via the 3G communication network so that the user can get medical help immediately. With the proposed cascaded classification architecture, the computational burden and power consumption issue on the smart phone system can be alleviated. Moreover, as we will see in the experiment that a distinguished fall accident detection accuracy up to 92% on the sensitivity and 99.75% on the specificity can be obtained when a set of 450 test actions in nine different kinds of activities are estimated by using the proposed cascaded classifier, which justifies the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  3. Violent deaths among composers (accidents, drownings and murders)

    OpenAIRE

    Breitenfeld, Darko; Vodanović, Marijo; Akrap, Ankica; Juran, Dominik; Kranjčec, Darko; Vuksanović, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we described different accidents, drowning and murders as the main cause of death among 145 composers. We included accidents (48 composers), drowning (26 composers) and murders (71 composers) which were mainly fatal, and premature. Accidents are the third leading cause of deaths today. Murders were often during the wars and revolutions (World War I, II, French, Russian revolution). We mentioned all of the etiologies of these accidents, drowning and murders according to the c...

  4. Long-Term Station Blackout Accident Analyses of a PWR with RELAP5/MOD3.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Prošek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress tests performed in Europe after accident at Fukushima Daiichi also required evaluation of the consequences of loss of safety functions due to station blackout (SBO. Long-term SBO in a pressurized water reactor (PWR leads to severe accident sequences, assuming that existing plant means (systems, equipment, and procedures are used for accident mitigation. Therefore the main objective was to study the accident management strategies for SBO scenarios (with different reactor coolant pumps (RCPs leaks assumed to delay the time before core uncovers and significantly heats up. The most important strategies assumed were primary side depressurization and additional makeup water to reactor coolant system (RCS. For simulations of long term SBO scenarios, including early stages of severe accident sequences, the best estimate RELAP5/MOD3.3 and the verified input model of Krško two-loop PWR were used. The results suggest that for the expected magnitude of RCPs seal leak, the core uncovery during the first seven days could be prevented by using the turbine-driven auxiliary feedwater pump and manually depressurizing the RCS through the secondary side. For larger RCPs seal leaks, in general this is not the case. Nevertheless, the core uncovery can be significantly delayed by increasing RCS depressurization.

  5. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Alves Rudelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%. Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%, and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%. In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places.

  6. Severe Accident Test Station Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing safety margins in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents is currently the focus of a number of international R&D programs. The current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system is particularly susceptible since the Zr-based cladding experiences rapid oxidation kinetics in steam at elevated temperatures. Therefore, alternative cladding materials that offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012. This report summarizes the capabilities of the SATS and provides an overview of the oxidation kinetics of several candidate cladding materials. A suggested baseline for evaluating ATF candidates is a two order of magnitude reduction in the steam oxidation resistance above 1000ºC compared to Zr-based alloys. The ATF candidates are categorized based on the protective external oxide or scale that forms during exposure to steam at high temperature: chromia, alumina, and silica. Comparisons are made to literature and SATS data for Zr-based alloys and other less-protective materials.

  7. ANS severe accident program overview & planning document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) severe accident document was developed to provide a concise and coherent mechanism for presenting the ANS SAP goals, a strategy satisfying these goals, a succinct summary of the work done to date, and what needs to be done in the future to ensure timely licensability. Guidance was received from various bodies [viz., panel members of the ANS severe accident workshop and safety review committee, Department of Energy (DOE) orders, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for ALWRs and advanced reactors, ACRS comments, world-wide trends] were utilized to set up the ANS-relevant SAS goals and strategy. An in-containment worker protection goal was also set up to account for the routine experimenters and other workers within containment. The strategy for achieving the goals is centered upon closing the severe accident issues that have the potential for becoming certification issues when assessed against realistic bounding events. Realistic bounding events are defined as events with an occurrency frequency greater than 10{sup {minus}6}/y. Currently, based upon the level-1 probabilistic risk assessment studies, the realistic bounding events for application for issue closure are flow blockage of fuel element coolant channels, and rapid depressurization-related accidents.

  8. Diving Accidents. Analyses of Underlying Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Nitrogen narcosis 3 0.3 bad gas 3 0.3 Total 1,036 100.1 1,033 100.2 Another factor of potential relevance in mishap occurrence was the time of day...exposure air, and nitrogen -oxygen equivalent air were all at relatively high risk of terminating in a mishap. Accident rates for the other variables

  9. Accidents with biological material in workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonice Andréa Alves Cavalcante

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the accidents with biological material occurred among workers of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009. Secondary data were collected in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System by exporting data to Excel using Tabwin. Among the types of occupational accidents reported in the state, the biological accidents (no. = 1,170 accounted for 58.3% with a predominance of cases among nurses (48.6%. The percutaneous exposure was the most frequent occurrence and the circumstances of the accidents were related to the handling of sharps and the most common organic material was blood (63.5%. More than 50% of the workers were vaccinated against hepatitis B, but without information regarding the evaluation of vaccine response. The study revealed the need of improvement in the quality of the information, once the sub-entries and inconsistencies make the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System less trustworthy in the characterization of the affected workers.

  10. [Current situation of accidents in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Zinser, José Valente

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of traffic accidents is of concern. About 1.2 million people die every year on the roadways and about 20 to 50 million suffer from non-lethal trauma. Countries with low or medium incomes have higher rates of lethality by traffic accidents (21.5 and 19.5 per 100,000 habitants, respectively) than countries with higher incomes (10.3 per 100,000). It is estimated that the cost of traffic accidents in countries that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), escalate to rates that are between 2-5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). According to data from the health sector in Mexico, these rates are equivalent to 1.3 of GDR The WHO foresees that traffic accident traumas will rise to be the third cause of mortality in 2030. Because of the high complexity of the transport sector, it is necessary that the Transport and Communication Ministry works in a multidisciplinary and intersectorial fashion to ensure that the land transportation systems operate effectively in accordance with national economic development and the quality of life of the Mexican people.

  11. Chernobyl accident. [Radiation monitoring in UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    A brief report is given of the implications for the UK from the radioactivity released during the Chernobyl accident. Results of radio-activity monitoring around the UK are given and the additional radiation doses to the UK population are evaluated.

  12. Speed Variance and Its Influence on Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Nicholas J.; Gadirau, Ravi

    A study was conducted to investigate the traffic engineering factors that influence speed variance and to determine to what extent speed variance affects accident rates. Detailed analyses were carried out to relate speed variance with posted speed limit, design speeds, and other traffic variables. The major factor identified was the difference…

  13. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We compared the rate of fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis (MS) with that of the general population. The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry and covered all 10174 persons in whom MS was diagnosed during the period 1953...

  14. Analysis of Credible Accidents for Argonaut Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, S. C.; Kathern, R. L.; Robkin, M. A.

    1981-04-01

    Five areas of potential accidents have been evaluated for the Argonaut-UTR reactors. They are: • insertion of excess reactivity • catastrophic rearrangement of the core • explosive chemical reaction • graphite fire • fuel-handling accident. A nuclear excursion resulting from the rapid insertion of the maximum available excess reactivity would produce only 12 MWs which is insufficient to cause fuel melting even with conservative assumptions. Although precise structural rearrangement of the core would create a potential hazard, it is simply not credible to assume that such an arrangement would result from the forces of an earthquake or other catastrophic event. Even damage to the fuel from falling debris or other objects is unlikely given the normal reactor structure. An explosion from a metal-water reaction could not occur because there is no credible source of sufficient energy to initiate the reaction. A graphite fire could conceivably create some damage to the reactor but not enough to melt any fuel or initiate a metal-water reaction. The only credible accident involving offsite doses was determined to be a fuel-handling accident which, given highly conservative assumptions, would produce a whole-body dose equivalent of 2 rem from noble gas immersion and a lifetime dose equivalent commitment to the thyroid of 43 rem from radioiodines.

  15. Inventory of socioeconomic costs of work accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, J.; Greef, M. de

    2002-01-01

    The European Commission has prioritised the need to develop knowledge of the economic and social costs arising from occupational accidents and illnesses in their communication about a new Community strategy on safety and health at work for 2002-06. This report from the Agency aims to contribute to t

  16. Neuropeptide-like precursor 4 is uniquely expressed during pupal diapause in the flesh fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization comparing brains from diapausing and nondiapausing pupae of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, suggested that the gene encoding neuropeptide-like precursor 4 (Nplp4) was uniquely expressed during diapause. We have sequenced the full-length cDNA encoding Npl...

  17. "Design and application of a data-independent precursor and product ion repository."

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalassinos, K.; Vissers, J.P.; Tenzer, S.; Levin, Y.; Thompson, J.W.; Daniel, D.; Mann, D.; Delong, M.R.; Moseley, M.A.; America, A.H.P.; Ottens, A.K.; Cavey, G.S.; Efstathiou, G.; Scrivens, J.H.; Langridge, J.I.; Geromanos, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    The functional design and application of a data-independent LC-MS precursor and product ion repository for protein identification, quantification, and validation is conceptually described. The ion repository was constructed from the sequence search results of a broad range of discovery experiments i

  18. Utilization of accident databases and fuzzy sets to estimate frequency of HazMat transport accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuanhua; Keren, Nir; Mannan, M Sam

    2009-08-15

    Risk assessment and management of transportation of hazardous materials (HazMat) require the estimation of accident frequency. This paper presents a methodology to estimate hazardous materials transportation accident frequency by utilizing publicly available databases and expert knowledge. The estimation process addresses route-dependent and route-independent variables. Negative binomial regression is applied to an analysis of the Department of Public Safety (DPS) accident database to derive basic accident frequency as a function of route-dependent variables, while the effects of route-independent variables are modeled by fuzzy logic. The integrated methodology provides the basis for an overall transportation risk analysis, which can be used later to develop a decision support system.

  19. Progress in molecular precursors for electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhro, W.E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Molecular-precursor chemistry provides an essential underpinning to all electronic-materials technologies, including photovoltaics and related areas of direct interest to the DOE. Materials synthesis and processing is a rapidly developing field in which advances in molecular precursors are playing a major role. This article surveys selected recent research examples that define the exciting current directions in molecular-precursor science. These directions include growth of increasingly complex structures and stoichiometries, surface-selective growth, kinetic growth of metastable materials, growth of size-controlled quantum dots and quantum-dot arrays, and growth at progressively lower temperatures. Continued progress in molecular-precursor chemistry will afford precise control over the crystal structures, nanostructures, and microstructures of electronic materials.

  20. Rational design of precursors for oxide ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apblett, A.W.; Georgieva, G. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The use of molecular species as precursors for inorganic materials has received considerable attention in recent years. As a result, metal-organic precursors are becoming increasingly sophisticated as particular decomposition mechanisms and specific stoichiometry are integrated into their design. The authors have pursued both of these design aspects for the development of low-temperature precursors for mono- and bi-metallic oxide materials. Thus, a great variety of metal complexes with 2- and 3-oximinocarboxylic acids, acyloin oximes, 2,4-diols, and diacetone alcohol have been prepared and their thermal behavior investigated. The results of this investigation and their application to the preparation of a variety of metal, oxide ceramics, will be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to precursors for alumina, titania, zirconia, perovskite-phase ferroelectric materials, and ferrites.

  1. Precursor Parameter Identification for IGBT Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precursor parameters have been identified to enable development of a prognostic approach for insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT). The IGBT were subjected to...

  2. Facial trauma among victims of terrestrial transport accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio d'Avila; Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega Barbosa; Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino; Lorena Marques da Nóbrega; Patrícia Meira Bento; Efigênia Ferreira e Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In developing countries, terrestrial transport accidents - TTA, especially those involving automobiles and motorcycles - are a major cause of facial trauma, surpassing urban violence. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional census study attempted to determine facial trauma occurrence with terrestrial transport accidents etiology, involving cars, motorcycles, or accidents with pedestrians in the northeastern region of Brazil, and examine victims' socio-demographic characteri...

  3. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.236-70 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 636.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (APR 2004) (a) General....

  4. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52.236-13 Section 52.236-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident...

  5. Concussion in Motor Vehicle Accidents: The Concussion Identification Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Motor Vehicle Accidents; TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury); Brain Contusion; Brain Injuries; Cortical Contusion; Concussion Mild; Cerebral Concussion; Brain Concussion; Accidents, Traffic; Traffic Accidents; Traumatic Brain Injury With Brief Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With no Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With Loss of Consciousness

  6. [Fatal electric arc accidents due to high voltage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Hansjürg; Wirth, Ingo

    2004-01-01

    The frequency of electric arc accidents has been successfully reduced owing to preventive measures taken by the professional association. However, the risk of accidents has continued to exist in private setting. Three fatal electric arc accidents caused by high voltage are reported with reference to the autopsy findings.

  7. 49 CFR 178.345-8 - Accident damage protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or more than 2 inches from the point of attachment to the tank must have accident damage protection... accident damage protection device; or (iii) Attached to the cargo tank in accordance with the requirements... damaged in an accident could result in a loss of lading from the cargo tank must be protected by...

  8. The case for research into the zero accident vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Aaltonen, M.; Wybo,J.L.; Saari, J.; Kines, P.; Beeck, R. op de

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper is written out of a concern. We noticed that many companies with a good safety reputation have adopted a zero accident vision, yet there is very little scientific research in this field. The zero accident vision addresses the accidents causing deaths and severe injuries among c

  9. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

  10. Severe Accident Test Station Design Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Mary A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yan, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Keiser, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the ORNL severe accident test station (SATS) is to provide a platform for evaluation of advanced fuels under projected beyond design basis accident (BDBA) conditions. The SATS delivers the capability to map the behavior of advanced fuels concepts under accident scenarios across various temperature and pressure profiles, steam and steam-hydrogen gas mixtures, and thermal shock. The overall facility will include parallel capabilities for examination of fuels and irradiated materials (in-cell) and non-irradiated materials (out-of-cell) at BDBA conditions as well as design basis accident (DBA) or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. Also, a supporting analytical infrastructure to provide the data-needs for the fuel-modeling components of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program will be put in place in a parallel manner. This design report contains the information for the first, second and third phases of design and construction of the SATS. The first phase consisted of the design and construction of an out-of-cell BDBA module intended for examination of non-irradiated materials. The second phase of this work was to construct the BDBA in-cell module to test irradiated fuels and materials as well as the module for DBA (i.e. LOCA) testing out-of-cell, The third phase was to build the in-cell DBA module. The details of the design constraints and requirements for the in-cell facility have been closely captured during the deployment of the out-of-cell SATS modules to ensure effective future implementation of the in-cell modules.

  11. Risk assessment of severe accident-induced steam generator tube rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the basis, results, and related risk implications of an analysis performed by an ad hoc working group of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the containment bypass potential attributable to steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) induced by severe accident conditions. The SGTR Severe Accident Working Group, comprised of staff members from the NRC`s Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) and Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), undertook the analysis beginning in December 1995 to support a proposed steam generator integrity rule. The work drew upon previous risk and thermal-hydraulic analyses of core damage sequences, with a focus on the Surry plant as a representative example. This analysis yielded new results, however, derived by predicting thermal-hydraulic conditions of selected severe accident scenarios using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, flawed tube failure modeling, and tube failure probability estimates. These results, in terms of containment bypass probability, form the basis for the findings presented in this report. The representative calculation using Surry plant data indicates that some existing plants could be vulnerable to containment bypass resulting from tube failure during severe accidents. To specifically identify the population of plants that may pose a significant bypass risk would require more definitive analysis considering uncertainties in some assumptions and plant- and design-specific variables. 46 refs., 62 figs., 37 tabs.

  12. Quantification of severe accident source terms of a Westinghouse 3-loop plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Min [Department of Engineering and System Science, and Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec II, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mlee@mail.ess.nthu.edu.tw; Ko, Y.-C. [Department of Engineering and System Science, and Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec II, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2008-04-15

    Integrated severe accident analysis codes are used to quantify the source terms of the representative sequences identified in PSA study. The characteristics of these source terms depend on the detail design of the plant and the accident scenario. A historical perspective of radioactive source term is provided. The grouping of radionuclides in different source terms or source term quantification tools based on TID-14844, NUREG-1465, and WASH-1400 is compared. The radionuclides release phenomena and models adopted in the integrated severe accident analysis codes of STCP and MAAP4 are described. In the present study, the severe accident source terms for risk quantification of Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant of Taiwan Power Company are quantified using MAAP 4.0.4 code. A methodology is developed to quantify the source terms of each source term category (STC) identified in the Level II PSA analysis of the plant. The characteristics of source terms obtained are compared with other source terms. The plant analyzed employs a Westinghouse designed 3-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with large dry containment.

  13. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...... principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...

  14. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J. [Dept. of Labor, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  15. Comparative Assessment of Severe Accidents in the Chinese Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Burgherr, P.; Spiekerman, G.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazek, J.; Cheng, L

    2003-03-01

    This report deals with the comparative assessment of accidents risks characteristic for the various electricity supply options. A reasonably complete picture of the wide spectrum of health, environmental and economic effects associated with various energy systems can only be obtained by considering damages due to normal operation as well as due to accidents. The focus of the present work is on severe accidents, as these are considered controversial. By severe accidents we understand potential or actual accidents that represent a significant risk to people, property and the environment and may lead to large consequences. (author)

  16. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

    2007-01-01

    yearly rate of cyclist accidents on one hand and roundabout geometry, age and traffic volume (vehicles and cyclists) on the other. We related all roundabout cyclist accidents recorded by the hospital emergency department of the town of Odense, Denmark, through the years 1999-2003 (N = 171) to various...... geometric features, age and traffic volume of all roundabouts on the Danish island of Funen (N = 88). Cyclist and vehicle volumes turned out to be significant predictors in most of our models-the higher the volumes, the more accidents. Moreover, potential vehicle speed was a significant predictor, and so...... was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the significance...

  17. Decision Tree Model for Non-Fatal Road Accident Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Ellisya Sapri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-fatal road accident injury has become a great concern as it is associated with injury and sometimes leads to the disability of the victims. Hence, this study aims to develop a model that explains the factors that contribute to non-fatal road accident injury severity. A sample data of 350 non-fatal road accident cases of the year 2016 were obtained from Kota Bharu District Police Headquarters, Kelantan. The explanatory variables include road geometry, collision type, accident time, accident causes, vehicle type, age, airbag, and gender. The predictive data mining techniques of decision tree model and multinomial logistic regression were used to model non-fatal road accident injury severity. Based on accuracy rate, decision tree with CART algorithm was found to be more accurate as compared to the logistic regression model. The factors that significantly contribute to non-fatal traffic crashes injury severity are accident cause, road geometry, vehicle type, age and collision type.

  18. Improvement of severe accident analysis method for KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Song Won; Cho, Youn Soo [Korea Radiation Technology Institute Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The objective of this study is preparation of MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck for KSNP and simulation of some major severe accidents. The contents of this project are preparation of MELCOR 1.8.5 base input deck for KSNP to understand severe accident phenomena and to assess severe accident strategy, preparation of 20 cell containment input deck to simulate the distribution of hydrogen and fission products in containment, simulation of some major severe accident scenarios such as TLOFW, SBO, SBLOCA, MBLOCA, and LBLOCA. The method for MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck preparation can be used to prepare the input deck for domestic PWRs and to simulate severe accident experiments such as ISP-46. Information gained from analyses of severe accidents may be helpful to set up the severe accident management strategy and to develop regulatory guidance.

  19. The accident in Fukushima. Preliminary report on the accident progress in the nuclear power plants as a consequence of the earth quake on 11th March 2011; Der Unfall in Fukushima. Zwischenbericht zu den Ablaeufen in den Kernkraftwerken nach dem Erdbeben vom 11. Maerz 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghoff, Stefan; Brueck, Benjamin; Kilian-Huelsmeyer, Yvonne; Maqua, Michael; Mildenberger, Oliver; Quester, Claudia; Stahl, Thorsten; Thuma, Gernot; Wetzel, Norbert; Wild, Volker

    2011-08-15

    The preliminary report on the accident progress in the nuclear power plants as a consequence of the earth quake on 11th March 2011 describes the chronologic sequence of the accident in the different units of the power plant. The measures for mitigation of the accident impact at the site of Fukushima Daiichi and Fukushima Daini included the efforts to reach and maintain stable plant conditions. The issue radiological situation includes an estimation of the air-borne radionuclide release, the contamination of the environment and the sea water, measures for protection of the public. The lessons learned following the NISA and IAEA fact finding missions and the open questions are summarized.

  20. Estimating the frequency of nuclear accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Suvrat

    2016-01-01

    We used Bayesian methods to compare the predictions of probabilistic risk assessment -- the theoretical tool used by the nuclear industry to predict the frequency of nuclear accidents -- with empirical data. The existing record of accidents with some simplifying assumptions regarding their probability distribution is sufficient to rule out the validity of the industry's analyses at a very high confidence level. We show that this conclusion is robust against any reasonable assumed variation of safety standards over time, and across regions. The debate on nuclear liability indicates that the industry has independently arrived at this conclusion. We pay special attention to the Indian situation, where we show that the existing operating experience provides insufficient data to make any reliable claims about the safety of future reactors. We briefly discuss some policy implications.

  1. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  2. Accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, T Y; Umar, R S; Azhar, A A; Ahmad, M M; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S

    2000-03-01

    This study examines the accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of motorcyclists who are at higher fatality risk and subsequently be the targeted group for the fatality-reduction countermeasures. A total of 412 motorcycle crash victims with serious or fatal injuries were analysed. The results showed that the injured motorcyclists were predominant young, novice riders of less than 3 years licensure and male. A fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a larger engine capacity motorcycle, collision with a heavy vehicle, head on collision, and collision at a non-junction road. In contrast, a non-fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a small engine capacity motorcycle, collision with another motorcycle or passenger car, junction accidents, and side or rear collisions.

  3. Accident prevention in SME using ORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    Risk perception in SMEs is normally low, and this is closely related to the fact that the chance of a mall enterprise experiencing a serious accident is very small compared to companies that employ a large workforce. This is a fact even though the SMEs together have a higher accident frequency...... compared with large enterprises. To reach the SMEs we must find a way of supporting them, because they normally have neither the time nor the resources to acquire the knowledge and awareness necessary for working with their own safety. The Occupational Risk Model (ORM) developed by the Dutch Workgroup...... safety in SMEs, as the project also focuses on management factors that can motivate the SMEs to increase their risk awareness and own initiatives. The project is now half way through the project period....

  4. On Hobbes’s distinction of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupoli Agostino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.

  5. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S

    2005-01-01

    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  6. Loss of Coolant Accident Analysis Methodology for SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, K. H.; Lee, G. H.; Yang, S. H.; Yoon, H. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, H. C

    2006-02-15

    The analysis methodology on the Loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA's) for SMART-P is described in this report. SMART-P is an advanced integral type PWR producing a maximum thermal power of 65.5 MW with metallic fuel. LOCA's are hypothetical accidents that would result from the loss of reactor coolant, at a rate in excess of the capability of the reactor coolant makeup system, from breaks in pipes in the reactor coolant pressure boundary up to and including a break equivalent in size to the double-ended rupture of the largest pipe in the reactor coolant system. Since SMART-P contains the major primary circuit components in a single Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the possibility of a large break LOCA (LBLOCA) is inherently eliminated and only the small break LOCA is postulated. This report describes the outline and acceptance criteria of small break LOCA (SBLOCA) for SMART-P and documents the conservative analytical model and method and the analysis results using the TASS/SMR code. This analysis method is applied in the SBLOCA analysis performed for the ECCS performance evaluation which is described in the section 6.3.3 of the safety analysis report. The prediction results of SBLOCA analysis model of SMART-P for the break flow, system's pressure and temperature distributions, reactor coolant distribution, single and two-phase natural circulation phenomena, and the time of major sequence of events, etc. should be compared and verified with the applicable separate and integral effects test results. Also, it is required to set-up the feasible acceptance criteria applicable to the metallic fueled integral reactor of SMART-P. The analysis methodology for the SBLOCA described in this report will be further developed and validated as the design and licensing status of SMART-P evolves.

  7. BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    A comparison has been made between BMX bicycle accidents and those occurring when children ride other types of bicycle. The injuries sustained are compared to see if the clinical impressions that BMX are more dangerous, and produce more facial injuries, are correct. This was found not to be true as half the children involved rode BMX bicycles, and the injuries sustained were similar to those occurring to non BMX riders. BMX riders had a lower proportion of serious injuries than riders of raci...

  8. The dominance of accidents caused by banalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    Most prevention analysis is focused on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, crashes in transportation systems, lack of oxygen, or chemical poisoning. In the industrial world, these kinds of risk still lead to incidents with huge consequences, albeit very seldom...... as an example of how much information such systems can offer in general for the work of accident prevention in more traditional and common enterprises....

  9. [Violence and accidents among older and younger adults: evidence from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2011-11-01

    Data from the Brazilian Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) in 2009 were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, outcomes, and types of accidents and violence treated at 74 sentinel emergency services in 23 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. The analysis included 25,201 individuals aged > 20 years (10.1% > 60 years); 89.3% were victims of accidents and 11.9% victims of violence. Hospitalization was the outcome in 11.1% of cases. Compared to the general population, there were more men and non-white individuals among victims of accidents, and especially among victims of violence. As compared to younger adults (20-59 years), accidents and violence against elderly victims showed less association with alcohol, a higher proportion of domestic incidents, more falls and pedestrian accidents, and aggression by family members. Policies for the prevention of accidents and violence should consider the characteristics of these events in the older population.

  10. Accident prevention in a contextual approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Many recommendations on how to establish an accident prevention program do exist. The aim of many agencies is to promote the implementation of these recommendations in enterprises. The discussion has mainly focused on incentives either in the form of an effective enforcement of the law or as a fo......Many recommendations on how to establish an accident prevention program do exist. The aim of many agencies is to promote the implementation of these recommendations in enterprises. The discussion has mainly focused on incentives either in the form of an effective enforcement of the law...... or as a focus on developing the insurance system to establish (economic) motivation. This paper suggests a more elaborated theoretical approach emphasising a differentiated understanding of the external and internal actors and how these relations form the actions of the actors. The theoretical components...... of such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning actions...

  11. Calculation reliability in vehicle accident reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    The reconstruction of vehicle accidents is subject to assessment in terms of the reliability of a specific system of engineering and technical operations. In the article [26] a formalized concept of the reliability of vehicle accident reconstruction, defined using Bayesian networks, was proposed. The current article is focused on the calculation reliability since that is the most objective section of this model. It is shown that calculation reliability in accident reconstruction is not another form of calculation uncertainty. The calculation reliability is made dependent on modeling reliability, adequacy of the model and relative uncertainty of calculation. All the terms are defined. An example is presented concerning the analytical determination of the collision location of two vehicles on the road in the absence of evidential traces. It has been proved that the reliability of this kind of calculations generally does not exceed 0.65, despite the fact that the calculation uncertainty itself can reach only 0.05. In this example special attention is paid to the analysis of modeling reliability and calculation uncertainty using sensitivity coefficients and weighted relative uncertainty.

  12. Risk Estimation Methodology for Launch Accidents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Daniel James; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Bechtel, Ryan D.

    2014-02-01

    As compact and light weight power sources with reliable, long lives, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) have made space missions to explore the solar system possible. Due to the hazardous material that can be released during a launch accident, the potential health risk of an accident must be quantified, so that appropriate launch approval decisions can be made. One part of the risk estimation involves modeling the response of the RPS to potential accident environments. Due to the complexity of modeling the full RPS response deterministically on dynamic variables, the evaluation is performed in a stochastic manner with a Monte Carlo simulation. The potential consequences can be determined by modeling the transport of the hazardous material in the environment and in human biological pathways. The consequence analysis results are summed and weighted by appropriate likelihood values to give a collection of probabilistic results for the estimation of the potential health risk. This information is used to guide RPS designs, spacecraft designs, mission architecture, or launch procedures to potentially reduce the risk, as well as to inform decision makers of the potential health risks resulting from the use of RPSs for space missions.

  13. Accident analyses in nuclear power plants following external initiating events and in the shutdown state. Final report; Unfallanalysen in Kernkraftwerken nach anlagenexternen ausloesenden Ereignissen und im Nichtleistungsbetrieb. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, Horst; Kowalik, Michael; Mildenberger, Oliver; Hage, Michael

    2016-06-15

    The work which is documented here provides the methodological basis for improvement of the state of knowledge for accident sequences after plant external initiating events and for accident sequences which begin in the shutdown state. The analyses have been done for a PWR and for a BWR reference plant. The work has been supported by the German federal ministry BMUB under the label 3612R01361. Top objectives of the work are: - Identify relevant event sequences in order to define characteristic initial and boundary conditions - Perform accident analysis of selected sequences - Evaluate the relevance of accident sequences in a qualitative way The accident analysis is performed with the code MELCOR 1.8.6. The applied input data set has been significantly improved compared to previous analyses. The event tree method which is established in PSA level 2 has been applied for creating a structure for a unified summarization and evaluation of the results from the accident analyses. The computer code EVNTRE has been applied for this purpose. In contrast to a PSA level 2, the branching probabilities of the event tree have not been determined with the usual accuracy, but they are given in an approximate way only. For the PWR, the analyses show a considerable protective effect of the containment also in the case of beyond design events. For the BWR, there is a rather high probability for containment failure under core melt impact, but nevertheless the release of radionuclides into the environment is very limited because of plant internal retention mechanisms. This report concludes with remarks about existing knowledge gaps and with regard to core melt sequences, and about possible improvements of the plant safety.

  14. Investigation of an accident in a resins manufacturing site: the role of accelerator on polymerisation of methyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Valeria; Snee, Tim; Maschio, Giuseppe

    2014-04-15

    This paper analyzes the effect of an accelerator on the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA). This study is based on the results of an investigation of an accident in a manufacturing site for resins located in the United Kingdom. As sequence of event to cause the accident the following was assumed: during an unattended batch process a runaway undesired polymerisation of methyl methacrylate occurred, generating rapid vaporisation of monomer, which in contact with an ignition source, led to an explosion followed by a fire. Since no initiator for the polymerisation reaction had been jet added to the blend, it was supposed that the accelerator contributed to the onset of the undesired polymerisation. The accelerator involved in the accident t has therefore been tested by differential scanning calorimetry and adiabatic calorimetry. The experimental data allowed the authors to prove the hypothesis made and to define safety ranges for the polymerisation reaction.

  15. The Fukushima major accident. Seismic, nuclear and medical considerations; L'accident majeur de Fukushima. Considerations sismiques, nucleaires et medicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, Alain; Friedel, Jacques; Brezin, Edouard; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Courtillot, Vincent; Dercourt, Jean; Jaupart, Claude; Le Pichon, Xavier; Poirier, Jean-Paul; Salencon, Jean; Tapponnier, Paul; Dautray, Robert; Taquet, Philippe; Blanchet, Rene; Le Mouel, Jean-Louis; Chapron, Jean-Yves; Fanon, Joelle [Academie des sciences, 23, quai de Conti, 75006 Paris (France); BARD, Pierre-Yves [Observatoire des sciences de l' Univers de l' universite de Grenoble (France); Bernard, Pascal; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Armijo, Rolando; Shapiro, Nikolai; Tait, Steve [Institut de physique du globe de Paris (France); Cara, Michel [ecole et Observatoire des sciences de la Terre de l' universite de Strasbourg (France); Madariaga, Raul [ecole normale superieure, 45, rue d' Ulm / 29, rue d' Ulm, F-75230 Paris cedex 05 (France); Pecker, Alain [Academie des technologies, Grand Palais des Champs Elysees - Porte C - Avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt - 75008 Paris (France); Schindele, Francois [CEA-DAM, Arpajon (France); Douglas, John [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude-Guillemin - BP 36009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-07-01

    The first part of this voluminous report addresses mega-earthquakes and mega-tsunamis: scientific data, case of France (West Indies and metropolitan France), and socioeconomic aspects (governance, regulation, para-seismic protection). The second part deals with the nuclear accident at Fukushima: event sequence, situation of the nuclear industry in France after Fukushima, fuel cycle and future opportunities. The third part addresses health and environmental consequences. Each part is completed by a large number of documents in which some specific aspects are more precisely reported, commented and discussed

  16. Fessenheim plant - Report on the complementary safety assessment of nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima accident; Fessenheim - Rapport d'evaluation complementaire de la surete des installations nucleaires au regard de l'accident de Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This CSA (Complementary Safety Assessment) analyses the robustness of the Fessenheim plant to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident and proposes a series of improvements. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond the level for which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accident sequence. Safety is not only a matter of design or of engineered systems, it is also a matter of organization. So issues like EDF's crisis organization, the organization of radiation protection, and work organization via subcontracting are also taken into consideration. The creation of a nuclear rapid action force (FARN) is proposed: this will be a national emergency force made up of specialized teams equipped to intervene in less than 24 hours on a nuclear site hit by an accident. This report is divided into 8 main chapters: 1) features of the site, 2) earthquake risk, 3) flooding risk, 4) risks due to other extreme natural disasters, 5) the loss of electrical power supplies and of heat sink, 6) management of severe accidents (accidents with core melt), 7) task subcontracting policy, 8) synthesis and list of improvements. 4 following appendices review: EDF's crisis organization, the FARN, radiation protection organization and accidental event trees. (A.C.)

  17. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in

  18. Ranking of severe accident research priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinges, B. [Gesell Anlagen and Reaktorsicherheit GRS mbH, D-50667 Cologne (Germany); Journeau, C. [CEA Cadarache, DEN STRI LMA, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France); Haste, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst, NES LTH, OVGA 312, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Meyer, L.; Tromm, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Trambauer, K. [GRS mbH, Forschungsgelande, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of the SARNET network are to define common research programmes in the field of severe accidents and to develop common computer tools and methodologies for safety assessment in this field. To reach these objectives, one of the work packages, named 'Severe Accident Research Priorities' (SARP), aimed at reviewing and reassessing the priorities of research issues as a basis to harmonize and to re-orient research programmes, to define new ones, and to close - if possible - resolved issues on a common basis. The work was performed in close collaboration with 8 participating institutions, led by GRS, representing technical safety organisations, industry and utilities (IRSN, CEA, EDF, FZK, GRS, KTH, TUS, VTT). This action made use notably of (1) the outcomes of the EURSAFE project in the 5. Framework Programme, i. e. the Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRT) on severe accidents, (2) the results of the validation and benchmarking activities on ASTEC, (3) the results of reactor calculations carried out in the other SARNET tasks, and (4) the outcome of the research performed in the three thematic sub-domains of SARNET (corium, containment and source term). The main outcome of EURSAFE was a list of 21 topics which included recommendations for experimental programmes and code developments. This list formed the basis of the work in SARP. Also the methodology applied in EURSAFE to consider both the risk potential and the severe accident issues where large uncertainties still subsist was adopted. The analyses of the progress of research and development activities considered whether (1) any research issue was resolved due to reduction of uncertainties or gain of scientific insights, (2) any new issue had to be added to the list of needed research, (3) any new process or phenomenon had to be included in the general PIRT list taking into account the safety relevance and the lack of knowledge, and (4) any new accident management program has to be

  19. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

    2007-03-01

    Roundabouts are known to result in fewer traffic accidents than traditional intersections. However, this is to a lesser degree true for bicycles than for vehicles. In this paper, we aimed at establishing statistical relationships through Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses between yearly rate of cyclist accidents on one hand and roundabout geometry, age and traffic volume (vehicles and cyclists) on the other. We related all roundabout cyclist accidents recorded by the hospital emergency department of the town of Odense, Denmark, through the years 1999-2003 (N=171) to various geometric features, age and traffic volume of all roundabouts on the Danish island of Funen (N=88). Cyclist and vehicle volumes turned out to be significant predictors in most of our models-the higher the volumes, the more accidents. Moreover, potential vehicle speed was a significant predictor, and so was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the significance of speed and traffic volume for traffic accidents with more than one partner involved. The 48 single cyclist accidents were significantly related to the traffic volume of cyclists only. Due to our limited number of observations, the models should be regarded as indicative.

  20. Occupational Accidents: A Perspective of Pakistan Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauha Hussain Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that the construction industry is one of the notorious industry having higher rate of fatalities and injuries. Resulting in higher financial losses and work hour losses, which are normally faced by this industry due to occuptional accidents. Construction industry has the highest occupational accidents rate recorded throughout the world after agriculture industry. The construction work site is often a busy place having an incredibly high account of activities taking place, where everyone is moving in frenzy having particular task assigned. In such an environment, occupational accidents do occur. This paper gives information about different types of occupational accidents & their causes in the construction industry of Pakistan. A survey has been carried out to identify the types of occupational accidents often occur at construction site. The impact of each occupational accident has also been identified. The input from the different stakeholders involved on the work site was analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight method. The findings of this research show that ?fall from elevation, electrocution from building power and snake bite? are the frequent occupational accidents occur within the work site where as ?fall from elevation, struck by, snake bite and electrocution from faulty tool? are the occupational accident with high impact within the construction industry of Pakistan. The results also shows the final ranking of the accidents based on higher frequency and higher impact. Poor Management, Human Element and Poor Site Condition are found as the root causes leading to such occupational accidents. Hence, this paper

  1. Morbidity Caused by Accidents in Children under Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Dorta Figueredo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accidents or unintentional injuries are a global health problem. In addition, they are considered as one of the leading causes of morbidity in children. Objective: To describe the morbidity caused by accidents in children under the age of five years in the V Health Area in Cienfuegos. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Area V Polyclinic, Cienfuegos, aimed at analyzing the morbidity caused by accidents (from June to November 2008 in children from zero to five years who belonged to consultations 3, 4, 23 and 25 of that health area. The demographic variables, type of accident, cause, place of occurrence, adult presence at the time of the accident, request for medical assistance, as well as risk factors were analyzed. Results: 40.2% of the population studied had accidents and the accident frequency rate reached 48.2%. Children aged two, three and less than one year were the most affected as well as males. Falls, burns and foreign body aspiration were the most frequent accidents, occurring mostly at home. Conclusions: Unfortunately adults are not doing everything possible to reduce the occurrence of accidents. They need to be more active in the child vigilance and the elimination of potential triggering factors of the accident.

  2. Sonic Hedgehod y comportamiento de precursores neuroepiteliales

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Recio Moreno, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    En los estadios tempranos del desarrollo embrionario, el cerebro tiene dos componentes fundamentales: fluido cerebroespinal embrionario (E-CSF) y precursores neuroepiteliales. En esta investigación nos centraremos en explicar la influencia de un factor de transcripción, sonic hedgehog (SHH), presente en el E-CSF, sobre el comportamiento de los precursores neuroepiteliares. Empleamos técnicas de Wester-Blot para demostrar la presencia de SHH en el E-CSF y técnicas de cultivo organotípico de...

  3. Accident source terms for boiling water reactors with high burnup cores.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Powers, Dana Auburn; Leonard, Mark Thomas

    2007-11-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide the technical basis for development of recommendations for updates to the NUREG-1465 Source Term for BWRs that will extend its applicability to accidents involving high burnup (HBU) cores. However, a secondary objective is to re-examine the fundamental characteristics of the prescription for fission product release to containment described by NUREG-1465. This secondary objective is motivated by an interest to understand the extent to which research into the release and behaviors of radionuclides under accident conditions has altered best-estimate calculations of the integral response of BWRs to severe core damage sequences and the resulting radiological source terms to containment. This report, therefore, documents specific results of fission product source term analyses that will form the basis for the HBU supplement to NUREG-1465. However, commentary is also provided on observed differences between the composite results of the source term calculations performed here and those reflected NUREG-1465 itself.

  4. Severe Accident Scoping Simulations of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Accident-tolerant fuels (ATFs) are fuels and/or cladding that, in comparison with the standard uranium dioxide Zircaloy system, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a considerably longer time period while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations [1]. It is important to note that the currently used uranium dioxide Zircaloy fuel system tolerates design basis accidents (and anticipated operational occurrences and normal operation) as prescribed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Previously, preliminary simulations of the plant response have been performed under a range of accident scenarios using various ATF cladding concepts and fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel. Design basis loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) and station blackout (SBO) severe accidents were analyzed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for boiling water reactors (BWRs) [2]. Researchers have investigated the effects of thermal conductivity on design basis accidents [3], investigated silicon carbide (SiC) cladding [4], as well as the effects of ATF concepts on the late stage accident progression [5]. These preliminary analyses were performed to provide initial insight into the possible improvements that ATF concepts could provide and to identify issues with respect to modeling ATF concepts. More recently, preliminary analyses for a range of ATF concepts have been evaluated internationally for LOCA and severe accident scenarios for the Chinese CPR1000 [6] and the South Korean OPR-1000 [7] pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In addition to these scoping studies, a common methodology and set of performance metrics were developed to compare and support prioritizing ATF concepts [8]. A proposed ATF concept is based on iron-chromium-aluminum alloys (FeCrAl) [9]. With respect to enhancing accident tolerance, FeCrAl alloys have substantially slower oxidation kinetics compared to the zirconium alloys typically employed. During a severe accident, Fe

  5. Processing Pisum sativum seed storage protein precursors in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGLIJUN; CDOMONEY; 等

    1990-01-01

    The profile of polypeptides separated by SDS-PAGE from seed of major crop species such as pea(Pisum sativum) is complex,resulting from cleavage (processing) of precursors expressed from multiple copies of genes encoding vicilin and legumin,the major storage globulins.Translation in vitro of mRNAs hybridselected from mid-maturation pea seed RNAs by defined vicilin and legumin cDNA clones provided precursor molecules that were cleaved in vitro by a cell-free protease extract obtained from similar stage seed;the derived polypeptides were of comparable sizes to those observed in vivo.The feasibility of transcribing mRNA in vitro from a cDNA clone and cleavage in vitro of the derived translation products was established for a legumin clone,providing a method for determining polypeptide products of an expressed sequence.This approach will also be useful for characterising cleavage site requirements since modifications an readily be introduced at the DNA level.

  6. Development and test results of the Realtime Severe Accident Model 5 (RSAM5) based on the MAAP5 For the Kori 1 simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Hyuk; Lee, Myeong Soo [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Real Time Severe Accident Model (RSAM) in the Kori simulator employs the standard MAAP 5.01.1101 code (which is defined as MAAP 5.01) plus several statically linked libraries that interface with the simulator environment. The physical phenomena that can be envisioned inside the reactor vessel, the reactor coolant system (RCS), and the containment during severe accidents are comprehensively modeled by the MAAP5 code. The MAAP5 code has been known to be a reliable tool for understanding the sequence of events that occur during severe LWR accidents, evaluating the consequences of the failure of emergency systems, assessing the effects of operator interventions, and investigating the influence of design features of the RCS, containment, and safety systems on the accident consequences. The purpose of this paper is to describe the modeling of the Kori Unit 1 nuclear plant with the MAAP5 code and major outputs in the event of the SBO, SBO + SGTR, SBO + LBLOCA.

  7. Radiological consequence assessments of degraded core accident scenarios derived from a generic Level 2 PSA of a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Jun; Tomita, Kenichi; Muramatsu, Ken [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-12-01

    The radiological consequence assessments have been made of postulated core damage accidents with source terms derived from a generic Level 2 PSA of a BWR carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The source terms used were for the five core damage accident sequences with the drywell and wetwell failure cases, the release control case by venting of the containment and the accident termination case by the containment spray. The radiological consequences have been assessed for individual dose, collective dose, individual risk of early health effects and individual risk of late health effects by a probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, OSCAAR developed in JAERI. Following conclusions were obtained for the assumed source terms. In case of the over pressure failures of the primary containment vessel, the early fatalities can be mitigated through the implementation of early countermeasures, and the late cancer fatalities remains small. For the release control and accident termination cases, the individual and collective doses to the public can be reduced without any countermeasures due to the release reduction of the volatile radionuclides such as iodine and cesium. (author)

  8. Carbon fibers: precursor systems, processing, structure, and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Erik; Steudle, Lisa M; Ingildeev, Denis; Spörl, Johanna M; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2014-05-19

    This Review gives an overview of precursor systems, their processing, and the final precursor-dependent structure of carbon fibers (CFs) including new developments in precursor systems for low-cost CFs. The following CF precursor systems are discussed: poly(acrylonitrile)-based copolymers, pitch, cellulose, lignin, poly(ethylene), and new synthetic polymeric precursors for high-end CFs. In addition, structure-property relationships and the different models for describing both the structure and morphology of CFs will be presented.

  9. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  10. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  11. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Jürgen; Janek, Katharina; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis. It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class(7S) globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma notes during the roasting process. To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma components, we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography. The cocoa-specific aroma precursor fractions were characterised by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and the determination of their amino acid sequences by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).

  12. Cross-Correlation Earthquake Precursors in the Hydrogeochemical and Geoacoustic Signals for the Kamchatka Peninsula

    CERN Document Server

    Ryabinin, G V; Polyakov, Yu S; Timashev, S F

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new type of earthquake precursor based on the analysis of correlation dynamics between geophysical signals of different nature. The precursor is found using a two-parameter cross-correlation function introduced within the framework of flicker-noise spectroscopy, a general statistical physics approach to the analysis of time series. We consider an example of cross-correlation analysis for water salinity time series, an integral characteristic of the chemical composition of groundwater, and geoacoustic emissions recorded at the G-1 borehole on the Kamchatka peninsula in the time frame from 2001 to 2003, which is characterized by a sequence of three groups of significant seismic events. We found that cross-correlation precursors took place 27, 31, and 35 days ahead of the strongest earthquakes for each group of seismic events, respectively. At the same time, precursory anomalies in the signals themselves were observed only in the geoacoustic emissions for one group of earthquakes.

  13. Accelerated evolution of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide precursor gene during human origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yin-Qiu; Qian, Ya-Ping; Yang, Su

    2005-01-01

    a strong functional constraint during the course of evolution. However, through comparative sequence analysis, we demonstrated that the PACAP precursor gene underwent an accelerated evolution in the human lineage since the divergence from chimpanzees, and the amino acid substitution rate in humans...... is at least seven times faster than that in other mammal species resulting from strong Darwinian positive selection. Eleven human-specific amino acid changes were identified in the PACAP precursors, which are conserved from murine to African apes. Protein structural analysis suggested that a putative novel...... neuropeptide might have originated during human evolution and functioned in the human brain. Our data suggested that the PACAP precursor gene underwent adaptive changes during human origin and may have contributed to the formation of human cognition. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Jun...

  14. SCENARIO OF AN ACCIDENT OF SOIL DAMS IN CASE OF WATER SPILL OVER A DAM CREST BY USING FAULT TREE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Dmitriy Viktorovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scenario of a hydrodynamic accident of water flow over a crest of a soil dam is considered by the method of fault tree analysis, for which the basic reasons and controlled diagnostic indicators of an accident have been defined. Logical operators “AND”/”OR” were used for creation of a sequence of logically connected events, leading to an undesired event in the scenario of accident. The scenario of the accident was plotted in case of three basic reasons - an excessive settling of a dam crest, an excess flood, an inoperable spillway, taking into account the sequence of the events’ development and with observance of the necessary conditions leading to an accident. “Technical” reasons were observed in the present scenario, force majeure events were not considered. The provided scenario of the accident consists of two branches of events’ development: the left one that depends on an upstream level, and the right one that depends on settling of a dam crest. In each of the considered events an accident “the water spill over a crest of a soil dam” is possible only in case of execution of two different conditions at the same time, i.e. in case of an appropriate upstream level and the appropriate mark of a crest of a soil dam. The conditions of the accident are defined by diagnostic indices - the upstream level and settling of a dam crest, which at the same time are safety criteria of the hydraulic structure for soil dams. They allow defining the technical condition of the construction. Four possible technical conditions are suggested for the definition of technical statuses - normative, operable, limited operable, abnormal. Criteria of safety are the boundaries of the state: for loading and impact - it is the upstream level, for geometrical compliance of the construction - it is a dam crest mark.

  15. Sedimentary porphyrins: Correlations with biological precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callot, H.J.; Ocampo, R.; Albrecht, P. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France))

    Over the past 6 years several sedimentary porphyrins (petroporphyrins, geoporphyrins) were correlated for the first time with biological precursors specific for classes of organisms (algae, photosynthetic bacteria (Chlorobiaceae)). This article discusses the various examples of correlations and the methods that led to these conclusions (isolation of pure porphyrins, structure determination using spectroscopic techniques, total synthesis, isotope measurements).

  16. Janus microgels produced from functional precursor polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Sebastian; Romanowsky, Mark B; Weitz, David A

    2010-09-21

    Micrometer-sized Janus particles of many kinds can be formed using droplet microfluidics, but in existing methods, the microfluidic templating is strongly coupled to the material synthesis, since droplet solidification occurs through rapid polymerization right after droplet formation. This circumstance limits independent control of the material properties and the morphology of the resultant particles. In this paper, we demonstrate a microfluidic technique to produce functional Janus microgels from prefabricated, cross-linkable precursor polymers. This approach separates the polymer synthesis from the particle gelation, thus allowing the microfluidic droplet templating and the functionalization of the matrix polymer to be performed and controlled in two independent steps. We use microfluidic devices to emulsify semidilute solutions of cross-linkable, chemically modified or unmodified poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) precursors and solidify the drops via polymer-analogous gelation. The resultant microgel particles exhibit two distinguishable halves which contain most of the modified precursors, and the unmodified matrix polymer separates these materials. The spatial distribution of the modified precursors across the particles can be controlled by the flow rates during the microfluidic experiments. We also form hollow microcapsules with two different sides (Janus shells) using double emulsion droplets as templates, and we produce Janus microgels that are loaded with a ferromagnetic additive which allows remote actuation of the microgels.

  17. Milk proteins as precursors of bioactive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dziuba

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk proteins, a source of bioactive peptides, are the subject of numerous research studies aiming to, among others, evaluate their properties as precursors of biologically active peptides. Physiologically active peptides released from their precursors may interact with selected receptors and affect the overall condition and health of humans. By relying on the BIOPEP database of proteins and bioactive peptides, developed by the Department of Food Biochemistry at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (www.uwm.edu.pl/biochemia, the profiles of potential activity of milk proteins were determined and the function of those proteins as bioactive peptide precursors was evaluated based on a quantitative criterion, i.e. the occurrence frequency of bioactive fragments (A. The study revealed that milk proteins are mainly a source of peptides with the following types of activity: antihypertensive (Amax = 0.225, immunomodulating (0.024, smooth muscle contracting (0.011, antioxidative (0.029, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors (0.148, opioid (0.073, opioid antagonistic (0.053, bonding and transporting metals and metal ions (0.024, antibacterial and antiviral (0.024, and antithrombotic (0.029. The enzymes capable of releasing bioactive peptides from precursor proteins were determined for every type of activity. The results of the experiment indicate that milk proteins such as lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, β-casein and κ-casein hydrolysed by trypsin can be a relatively abundant source of biologically active peptides.

  18. Sol-gel precursors and products thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Scott C.; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Weisner, Ulrich B.

    2017-02-14

    The present invention provides a generalizable single-source sol-gel precursor capable of introducing a wide range of functionalities to metal oxides such as silica. The sol-gel precursor facilitates a one-molecule, one-step approach to the synthesis of metal-silica hybrids with combinations of biological, catalytic, magnetic, and optical functionalities. The single-source precursor also provides a flexible route for simultaneously incorporating functional species of many different types. The ligands employed for functionalizing the metal oxides are derived from a library of amino acids, hydroxy acids, or peptides and a silicon alkoxide, allowing many biological functionalities to be built into silica hybrids. The ligands can coordinate with a wide range of metals via a carboxylic acid, thereby allowing direct incorporation of inorganic functionalities from across the periodic table. Using the single-source precursor a wide range of functionalized nanostructures such as monolith structures, mesostructures, multiple metal gradient mesostructures and Stober-type nanoparticles can be synthesized. ##STR00001##

  19. School Violence: Prevalence, Precursors, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaanna

    2002-01-01

    Reviews types of school violence students confront, including a frequent precursor thereto: bullying. Discusses positive and negative aspects of current approach to school violence prevention such as surveillance, zero-tolerance policies, anti-bullying programs. Describes components of model school violence-prevention program. (Contains 38…

  20. Occupational accidents involving biological material among public health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, Mônica Bonagamba; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive research aimed to recognize the occurrence of work accidents (WA) involving exposure to biological material among health workers at Public Health Units in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. A quantitative approach was adopted. In 2004, 155 accidents were notified by means of the Work Accident Communication (WAC). Sixty-two accidents (40%) involved exposure to biological material that could cause infections like Hepatitis and Aids. The highest number of victims (42 accidents) came from the category of nursing aids and technicians. Needles were responsible for 80.6% of accidents and blood was the biological material involved in a majority of occupational exposure cases. This subject needs greater attention, so that prevention measures can be implemented, which consider the peculiarities of the activities carried out by the different professional categories.

  1. Explaining and predicting workplace accidents using data-mining techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, T., E-mail: trivas@uvigo.e [Dpto. Ingenieria de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.I. Minas, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Paz, M., E-mail: mpaz.minas@gmail.co [Dpto. Ingenieria de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.I. Minas, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Martin, J.E., E-mail: jmartin@cippinternacional.co [CIPP International, S.L. Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Parcela 43, Oficina 11, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Matias, J.M., E-mail: jmmatias@uvigo.e [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, E.T.S.I. Minas, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Garcia, J.F., E-mail: jgarcia@cippinternacional.co [CIPP International, S.L. Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Parcela 43, Oficina 11, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Taboada, J., E-mail: jtaboada@uvigo.e [Dpto. Ingenieria de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.I. Minas, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Current research into workplace risk is mainly conducted using conventional descriptive statistics, which, however, fail to properly identify cause-effect relationships and are unable to construct models that could predict accidents. The authors of the present study modelled incidents and accidents in two companies in the mining and construction sectors in order to identify the most important causes of accidents and develop predictive models. Data-mining techniques (decision rules, Bayesian networks, support vector machines and classification trees) were used to model accident and incident data compiled from the mining and construction sectors and obtained in interviews conducted soon after an incident/accident occurred. The results were compared with those for a classical statistical techniques (logistic regression), revealing the superiority of decision rules, classification trees and Bayesian networks in predicting and identifying the factors underlying accidents/incidents.

  2. Identification of MicroRNA Precursors with Support Vector Machine and String Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Xu; Fei Li; Qiu-Feng Sun

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one family of short (21-23 nt) regulatory non-coding RNAs processed from long (70-110 nt) miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs). Identifying true and false precursors plays an important role in computational identification of miRNAs. Some numerical features have been extracted from precursor sequences and their secondary structures to suit some classification methods; however, they may lose some usefully discriminative information hidden in sequences and structures. In this study, pre-miRNA sequences and their secondary structures are directly used to construct an exponential kernel based on weighted Levenshtein distance between two sequences. This string kernel is then combined with support vector machine (SVM) for detecting true and false pre-miRNAs. Based on 331 training samples of true and false human pre-miRNAs, 2 key parameters in SVM are selected by 5-fold cross validation and grid search, and 5 realizations with different 5-fold partitions are executed. Among 16 independent test sets from 3 human, 8 animal, 2 plant, 1 virus, and 2 artificially false human pre-miRNAs, our method statistically outperforms the previous SVM-based technique on 11 sets, including 3 human, 7 animal, and 1 false human pre-miRNAs. In particular, premiRNAs with multiple loops that were usually excluded in the previous work are correctly identified in this study with an accuracy of 92.66%.

  3. Factors Associated with Road Accidents among Brazilian Motorcycle Couriers

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Daniela Wosiack; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Soares,Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias,Thais Aidar de Freitas; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with reports of road accidents, among motorcycle couriers in two medium-sized municipalities in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by motorcycle couriers that had worked for at least 12 months in this profession. The outcomes analyzed were reports on accidents and serious accidents over the 12 months prior to the survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of logistic regression were carried ou...

  4. Study of Spanish mining accidents using data mining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sanmiquel Pera, Lluís; Rossell Garriga, Josep Maria; Vintró Sánchez, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Mining is an economic sector with a high number of accidents. Mines are hazardous places and workers can suffer a wide variety of injuries. Utilizing a database composed of almost 70,000 occupational accidents and fatality reports corresponding to the decade 2003–2012 in the Spanish mining sector, the paper analyzes the main causes of those accidents. To carry out the study, powerful statistical tools have been applied, such as Bayesian classi¿ers, decision trees or contingency t...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF RUNWAY ACCIDENT HAZARDS IN NIGERIA AVIATION SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabi...

  6. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  7. Severe Accidents in the Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Spiekerman, G.; Dones, R

    1998-11-01

    A comprehensive database on severe accidents, with main emphasis on the ones associated with the energy sector, has been established by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Fossil energy carriers, nuclear power and hydro power are covered in ENSAD (Energy related Severe Accident Database), and the scope of work includes all stages of the analysed energy chains, i.e. exploration, extraction, transports, processing, storage and waste disposal. The database has been developed using a wide variety of sources. As opposed to the previous studies the ambition of the present work has been, whenever feasible, to cover a relatively broad spectrum of damage categories of interest. This includes apart from fatalities also serious injuries, evacuations, land or water contamination, and economic losses. Currently, ENSAD covers 13,914 accidents, of which 4290 are energy related, and 1943 are considered as severe accidents. Significant effort has been directed towards the examination of the relevance of the worldwide accident records to the Swiss specific conditions, particularly in the context of nuclear and hydro power. For example, a detailed investigation of large dam failures and their consequences was carried out. Generally, while Swiss specific aspects are emphasised, the major part of the collected and analysed data, as well as the insights gained, are considered to be of general interest. In particular, three sets of the aggregated results are provided based on world wide occurrence, on OECD countries, and on non OECD countries, respectively. Significant differences exist between the aggregated, normalised damage rates assessed for the various energy carriers: On the world wide basis, the broader picture obtained by coverage of full energy chains leads to aggregated immediate fatality rates being much higher for the fossil fuels than what one would expect if power plants only were considered. The highest rates apply to LPG, followed by hydro, oil, coal, natural gas and

  8. Analysis of traffic accidents in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlekić Snežana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Violent health damages of different origin (accidents, murders, suicides in children and youth are one of the main causes of death and disabilities in this group of population in most countries. Objective: Objective of our paper was to analyze all related factors of traffic accidents involving children and to propose adequate measures of their prevention. Method: The analysis of fatal traffic accidents of children and youth aged to 18 years on the territory of Belgrade, within the period from 1998 to 2002. Results: In relation to other forms of violent death, the traffic mortality rate in children and youth holds the leading position, accounting for 56.9% with pedestrians as the most frequent category (57.4%. The most frequent age was between 7 and 9 years (46.8% and the boys were more frequently injured than the girls. It was established that the majority of children (51.9% was either running across the street outside the pedestrian/ zebra crossings or they were carelessly running out in the street, especially in April, July, August and September. More than a half of them (55.5%, predominantly school children, were injured by the end of working week, on Thursday and Friday. Conclusion: Results of our research have shown that the traffic education of children in our region is inadequate. Due to the abovementioned, it is primarily necessary to establish long-term and permanent education of this category of population. In addition, some public investments in the City infrastructure will be required in order to reduce the risk of traffic injuries in children.

  9. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2015-08-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  11. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2016-10-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  12. Trend of Elevator-Related Accidents in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. Methods: In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003 in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organization (TSFO that is officially and solely responsible to conduct rescue missions of civilians in Tehran. Results: The number of elevator accidents has increased steadily during the four year study period. During these four years here was a positive upward trend for serious injuries and mortality resulting from elevator accidents. Technical problems were the main cause with 74.5%, followed by power loss and overcapacity riding with 11.5% and 7.9%respectively. Sixty-three individuals sustained serious injury and 15 people died as a result of elevator accidents. The number of accidents was significantly higher in summer (x2=18.32, P=0.032 and a considerable proportion of incidences (54%, 947 cases out of 1819 occurred between 5 and 12 pm. Conclusions: Establishment of an organization to inspect the settings, maintenance, and repair of elevators is necessary

  13. Cellular phones and traffic accidents: an epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, J M; Marshall, J R

    1996-03-01

    Using epidemiological case-control design and logistic regression techniques, this study examined the association of cellular phone use in motor vehicles and traffic accident risk. The amount of time per month spent talking on a cellular phone and 18 other driver inattention factors were examined. Data were obtained from: (1) a case group of 100 randomly selected drivers involved in accidents within the past 2 years, and (2) a control group of 100 randomly selected licensed drivers not involved in accidents within the past 10 years. Groups were matched on geographic residence. Approximately 13% (N = 7) of the accident and 9% (N = 7) of the non-accident group reported use of cellular phones while driving. Data was obtained from Department of Motor Vehicles accident reports and survey information from study subjects. We hypothesized that increased use of cellular phones while driving was associated with increased odds of a traffic accident. Results indicated that talking more than 50 minutes per month on cellular phones in a vehicle was associated with a 5.59-fold increased risk in a traffic accident. The combined use of cellular phones and motor and cognitive activities while driving were also associated with increased traffic accident risk. Readers should be cautioned that this study: (1) consists of a small sample, (2) reveals statistical associations and not causal relationships, and (3) does not conclude that talking on cellular phones while driving is inherently dangerous.

  14. Analysis on relation between safety input and accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Qing-guo; ZHANG Xue-mu; LI Chun-hui

    2007-01-01

    The number of safety input directly determines the level of safety, and there exists dialectical and unified relations between safety input and accidents. Based on the field investigation and reliable data, this paper deeply studied the dialectical relationship between safety input and accidents, and acquired the conclusions. The security situation of the coal enterprises was related to the security input rate, being effected little by the security input scale, and build the relationship model between safety input and accidents on this basis, that is the accident model.

  15. Development of severe accident management and training support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sub; Kim, Ko Ryo; Jung, Won Dae; Ha, Jae Joo

    2001-04-01

    Recently, the overall severe accident management strategy is under development according to the logical flow of severe accident management guidelines in some foreign countries. In Korea, the basis of severe accident management strategy is established due to the development of Korean severe accident guideline. In the straining system, the professional information as well as the general information for severe accident should be provided to the related personnel and the function of prior simulation for plant behavior according to strategy execution should be required. Korean severe accident management guideline is chosen as the basis logic for development of support system for decision-support and training related with execution of severe accident strategy. The training simulator is developed for prior expectation of plant behavior and the severe accident computer code, MELCOR, is utilized as the engine, and it is possible to operate equipments necessary for execution of severe accident management guidelines. And also, the graphical interface is developed to provide the plant status and provide status change of major equipments dynamically.

  16. Modeling accident frequency in Denmark for improving road safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Kaplan, Sigal

    Traffic accidents result in huge costs to society in terms of death, injury, lost productivity, and property damage. The main objective of the current study is the development of an accident frequency model that predicts the expected number of accidents on a given road segment, provided...... concerning police recorded accidents, link characteristics of the road network, traffic volumes from the national transport models are merged to estimate the model. Spatial correlation between road sections is taken into account for correcting for unobserved correlation between contiguous locations....

  17. The classic. Review article: Traffic accidents. 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherne, H

    2013-09-01

    This Classic Article is a translation of the original work by Prof. Harald Tscherne, Der Straßenunfall [Traffic Accidents]. An accompanying biographical sketch of Prof. Tscherne is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3011-x . An online version of the original German article is available as supplemental material. The Classic Article is reproduced with permission from Brüder Hollinek & Co. GesmbH, Purkersdorf, Austria. The original article was published in Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966;116:105-108. (Translated by Dr. Roman Pfeifer.).

  18. Accounting for the cost of occupational accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.

    2004-01-01

    consequences for the company. This, however, presents some challenges due to the current set up of many management accounting systems. The paper explores these issues in the context of the Systematic Accident Cost Analysis (SACA) project, which was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business...... and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. It focused on developing and testing a method for the evaluation of the occupational costs and how this might be linked to management accounting and control systems....

  19. Analysis of FY79 Army Aircraft Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    materiel failure/ malfunction 1. A accident. taskerrr (E) s Jb prforanc whch evited The acronym for the 3W approach to the Investigation, fro tht rquied y... lulli , It t , 1AZ" l iil~ i ..-... lI :.].,;.’,, - ,- S !5U" i_ ’ , o ’o , "% ", . #.,""" ".’ - "-’.’’’’-. "" " "’ ."- " " " II I S.7 44’ * U 11 Imem <I

  20. Postulated accident scenarios in weapons disassembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.S. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of three postulated accident scenarios for weapons disassembly is provided in the paper. The first deals with a tetrahedral configuration of four generic pits; the second, an infinite planar array of generic pits with varying interstitial water density; and the third, a spherical shell with internal mass suspension in water varying the size and mass of the shell. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon transport code MCNP4A. Preliminary calculations pointed to a need for higher resolution of small pit separation regimes and snapshots of hydrodynamic processes of water/plutonium mixtures.

  1. Traffic accident or dumping? - Striking results of a traffic accident reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerger, Eric; Bayer, Ronny; Gärtner, Tobias; Dreßler, Jan; Ondruschka, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    An atypical traffic accident scenario should be investigated directly at the crash site from all concerned professions, especially police men, forensic pathologists and technical experts, to get a personal overview and impression of the situation and the opportunity for interdisciplinary discussion. We present the rare case of a fatal traffic accident on a German motorway which was initially thought to be an accidental discovery of dumping a corpse. Based on autopsy findings, the technical investigation and the accident reconstruction, this case was solved as a spectacular form of a collision between a pedestrian and a bonnet-front car, which was not described elsewhere in scientific literature to the best of our knowledge. The pedestrian was hit in an upright body position, was lifted up by the car, smashed the windscreen and flew over the car with several body rotations. His flight curve ends directly at the roof of the car during brake processing, where the body touched the roof, smashed the rear-window and landed in the trunk. Based on the technical investigation, the driver of the car was not able to hide the accident. However, the pedestrian could have avoided the collision if he did not cross the motorway on foot.

  2. A Python analytical pipeline to identify prohormone precursors and predict prohormone cleavage sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Southey

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides and hormones are signaling molecules that support cell-cell communication in the central nervous system. Experimentally characterizing neuropeptides requires significant efforts because of the complex and variable processing of prohormone precursor proteins into neuropeptides and hormones. We demonstrate the power and flexibility of the Python language to develop components of an bioinformatic analytical pipeline to identify precursors from genomic data and to predict cleavage as these precursors are en route to the final bioactive peptides. We identified 75 precursors in the rhesus genome, predicted cleavage sites using support vector machines and compared the rhesus predictions to putative assignments based on homology to human sequences. The correct classification rate of cleavage using the support vector machines was over 97% for both human and rhesus data sets. The functionality of Python has been important to develop and maintain NeuroPred (http://neuroproteomics.scs.uiuc.edu/neuropred.html, a user-centered web application for the neuroscience community that provides cleavage site prediction from a wide range of models, precision and accuracy statistics, post-translational modifications, and the molecular mass of potential peptides. The combined results illustrate the suitability of the Python language to implement an all-inclusive bioinformatics approach to predict neuropeptides that encompasses a large number of interdependent steps, from scanning genomes for precursor genes to identification of potential bioactive neuropeptides.

  3. A python analytical pipeline to identify prohormone precursors and predict prohormone cleavage sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southey, Bruce R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptides and hormones are signaling molecules that support cell-cell communication in the central nervous system. Experimentally characterizing neuropeptides requires significant efforts because of the complex and variable processing of prohormone precursor proteins into neuropeptides and hormones. We demonstrate the power and flexibility of the Python language to develop components of an bioinformatic analytical pipeline to identify precursors from genomic data and to predict cleavage as these precursors are en route to the final bioactive peptides. We identified 75 precursors in the rhesus genome, predicted cleavage sites using support vector machines and compared the rhesus predictions to putative assignments based on homology to human sequences. The correct classification rate of cleavage using the support vector machines was over 97% for both human and rhesus data sets. The functionality of Python has been important to develop and maintain NeuroPred (http://neuroproteomics.scs.uiuc.edu/neuropred.html), a user-centered web application for the neuroscience community that provides cleavage site prediction from a wide range of models, precision and accuracy statistics, post-translational modifications, and the molecular mass of potential peptides. The combined results illustrate the suitability of the Python language to implement an all-inclusive bioinformatics approach to predict neuropeptides that encompasses a large number of interdependent steps, from scanning genomes for precursor genes to identification of potential bioactive neuropeptides.

  4. Human Proinsulin C-peptide from a Precursor Overexpressed in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang-Bin HUANG; Jun REN; You-Shang ZHANG; Jiang LI; Xin GAO; Jiu-Ru SUN; Yi LU; Tao FENG; Jian FEI; Da-Fu CUI; Qi-Chang XIA

    2006-01-01

    In this article we report the production of human proinsulin C-peptide with 31 amino acid residues from a precursor overexpressed in Pichia pastoris. A C-peptide precursor expression plasmid containing nine C-peptide genes in tandem was constructed and used to transform P. pastoris. Transformants with a high copy number of the C-peptide precursor gene integrated into the chromosome of P. pastoris were selected. In high-density fermentation in a 300 liter fermentor using a simple culture medium composed mainly of salt and methanol, the C-peptide precursor was overexpressed to a level of 2.28 g per liter. A simple procedure was established to purify the expression product from the culture medium. The purified C-peptide precursor was converted into C-peptide by trypsin and carboxypeptidase B joint digestion. The yield of C-peptide with a purity of 96% was 730 mg per liter of culture. The purified C-peptide was characterized by mass spectrometry, N- and C-terminal amino acid sequencing, and sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  5. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    Hazard perception is the ability to read the road and is closely related to involvement in traffic accidents. It consists of both cognitive and behavioral components. Within the cognitive component, visual attention is an important function of driving whereas driving behavior, which represents the behavioral component, can affect the hazard perception of the driver. Motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable types of road user. The primary purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the correlation of different subtypes of visual attention and driving violation behaviors and their effect on hazard perception between accident-free and accident-involved motorcycle riders. Sixty-three accident-free and 46 accident-involved motorcycle riders undertook four neuropsychological tests of attention (Digit Vigilance Test, Color Trails Test-1, Color Trails Test-2, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), filled out the Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) Questionnaire, and viewed a road-user-based hazard situation with an eye-tracking system to record the response latencies to potentially dangerous traffic situations. The results showed that both the divided and selective attention of accident-involved motorcycle riders were significantly inferior to those of accident-free motorcycle riders, and that accident-involved riders exhibited significantly higher driving violation behaviors and took longer to identify hazardous situations compared to their accident-free counterparts. However, the results of the regression analysis showed that aggressive driving violation CMRDV score significantly predicted hazard perception and accident involvement of motorcycle riders. Given that all participants were mature and experienced motorcycle riders, the most plausible explanation for the differences between them is their driving style (influenced by an undesirable driving attitude), rather than skill deficits per se. The present study points to the importance of

  6. Dna Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  7. Porosity effects during a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazares R, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Posgrado en Energia y Medio Ambiente, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Espinosa P, G.; Vazquez R, A., E-mail: ricardo-cazares@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this work is to study the behaviour of porosity effects on the temporal evolution of the distributions of hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly where a stream of steam is flowing. The analysis considers the fuel element without mitigation effects. The mass transfer phenomenon considers that the hydrogen generated diffuses in the steam by convection and diffusion. Oxidation of the cladding, rods and other components in the core constructed in zirconium base alloy by steam is a critical issue in LWR accident producing severe core damage. The oxygen consumed by the zirconium is supplied by the up flow of steam from the water pool below the uncovered core, supplemented in the case of PWR by gas recirculation from the cooler outer regions of the core to hotter zones. Fuel rod cladding oxidation is then one of the key phenomena influencing the core behavior under high-temperature accident conditions. The chemical reaction of oxidation is highly exothermic, which determines the hydrogen rate generation and the cladding brittleness and degradation. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model. The Boussinesq approximation was applied in the momentum equations for multicomponent flow analysis that considers natural convection due to buoyancy forces, which is related with thermal and hydrogen concentration effects. The numerical simulation was carried out in an averaging channel that represents a core reactor with the fuel rod with its gap and cladding and cooling steam of a BWR. (Author)

  8. MELCOR modeling of Fukushima unit 2 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevon, Tuomo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    A MELCOR model of the Fukushima Daiichi unit 2 accident was created in order to get a better understanding of the event and to improve severe accident modeling methods. The measured pressure and water level could be reproduced relatively well with the calculation. This required adjusting the RCIC system flow rates and containment leak area so that a good match to the measurements is achieved. Modeling of gradual flooding of the torus room with water that originated from the tsunami was necessary for a satisfactory reproduction of the measured containment pressure. The reactor lower head did not fail in this calculation, and all the fuel remained in the RPV. 13 % of the fuel was relocated from the core area, and all the fuel rods lost their integrity, releasing at least some volatile radionuclides. According to the calculation, about 90 % of noble gas inventory and about 0.08 % of cesium inventory was released to the environment. The release started 78 h after the earthquake, and a second release peak came at 90 h. Uncertainties in the calculation are very large because there is scarce public data available about the Fukushima power plant and because it is not yet possible to inspect the status of the reactor and the containment. Uncertainty in the calculated cesium release is larger than factor of ten.

  9. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Denning, Richard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic event Energetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolant Entrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached cladding Rates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodium Surface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclides Thermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphere Reactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  10. Road Traffic Accidents: A Wild Life Exterminator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiseh Kavandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Once commonly traced in various parts of Southwest Asia, the Iranian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, a disparagingly endangered cheetah subspecies, seems to have been driven to extinction. Restricted to its only remained appropriate habitat, The Iranian cheetah has barely survived in Iran's Dasht-e Kavir plateau. Throughout the 1970s, about 200 cheetahs were estimated to live in seven protected areas in Iran (1. Nevertheless, the figures dramatically declined to 50 and 60 individuals in 2005–2006. Over ten years, Iranian researchers captured images of 76 individual cheetahs using 80 camera traps implanted throughout the Dasht-e Kavir plateau (2. Disappointingly in 2011, camera traps captured only 20 individuals in the protected areas (2, 3. What adds insult to the injury is knowing the fact that two-thirds of cheetah deaths in 2012–2013 were due to road accidents(4.      Beside the human fatalities and injuries, road traffic accidents remain as serious threats for wildlife. Although numerous measures are taken to hinder the extinction of this subspecies, efforts should be concentrated on long-term planning at both national and international levels to raise awareness and promote willingness to address this ongoing yet controllable damage.

  11. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.

  12. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kogler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%. The majority of the injured persons were male (86%, over 40-years-old (86% with an agricultural or forestry education (91%. The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69% and on afternoons during the working week (79%. The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55% and the loss of control (73% during their operation (60% and harvesting work (63%. The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81% to the upper and lower extremities (66%. The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work.

  13. The biosynthesis of Caryophyllaceae-like cyclic peptides in Saponaria vaccaria L. from DNA-encoded precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Janet A; Nowak, Goska; Reed, Darwin W; Balsevich, J John; Reaney, Martin J T; Arnison, Paul G; Covello, Patrick S

    2011-08-01

    Cyclic peptides (CPs) are produced in a very wide range of taxa. Their biosynthesis generally involves either non-ribosomal peptide synthases or ribosome-dependent production of precursor peptides. Plants within the Caryophyllaceae and certain other families produce CPs which generally consist of 5-9 proteinogenic amino acids. The biological roles for these CPs in the plant are not very clear, but many of them have activity in mammalian systems. There is currently very little known about the biosynthesis of CPs in the Caryophyllaceae. A collection of expressed sequence tags from developing seeds of Saponaria vaccaria was investigated for information about CP biosynthesis. This revealed genes that appeared to encode CP precursors which are subsequently cyclized to mature CPs. This was tested and confirmed by the expression of a cDNA encoding a putative precursor of the CP segetalin A in transformed S. vaccaria roots. Similarly, extracts of developing S. vaccaria seeds were shown to catalyze the production of segetalin A from the same putative (synthetic) precursor. Moreover, the presence in S. vaccaria seeds of two segetalins, J [cyclo(FGTHGLPAP)] and K [cyclo(GRVKA)], which was predicted by sequence analysis, was confirmed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sequence analysis also predicts the presence of similar CP precursor genes in Dianthus caryophyllus and Citrus spp. The data support the ribosome-dependent biosynthesis of Caryophyllaceae-like CPs in the Caryophyllaceae and Rutaceae.

  14. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed...... functional nanoporous polymers based on nanoporous 1,2- polybuatdiene 1,2-PB, which is derived from a 1,2-PB-b-PDMS diblock copolymer precursor. As a result, nanoporous 1,2-PB with pores decorated of polyacrylates, sulfonated polymers and poly(ethylene glycol) are created. A method of vapor phase deposition...... has also been generated to obtain nanoporous polymers with functional coatings on pore walls. Vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole is performed to incorporate an ultra thin film of polypyrrole into nanoporous 1,2-PB. The preliminary test shows that nanoporous 1,2-PB gains conductivity. Generally...

  15. Electromagnetic Whistler Precursors at Supercritical Interplanetary Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of electromagnetic precursor waves, identified as whistler mode waves, at supercritical interplanetary shocks using the Wind search coil magnetometer. The precursors propagate obliquely with respect to the local magnetic field, shock normal vector, solar wind velocity, and they are not phase standing structures. All are right-hand polarized with respect to the magnetic field (spacecraft frame), and all but one are right-hand polarized with respect to the shock normal vector in the normal incidence frame. Particle distributions show signatures of specularly reflected gyrating ions, which may be a source of free energy for the observed modes. In one event, we simultaneously observe perpendicular ion heating and parallel electron acceleration, consistent with wave heating/acceleration due to these waves.

  16. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. B., E-mail: guozhipku@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Gwahangno 113, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Lu [SEEE, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang, X. G. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-15

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ω{sub pre}∼x{sup 1/3}ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in}{sup 2/3}n, with x position in radial direction, ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in} strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.

  17. [Presentation of the Lunar Precursor Robotics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP) is the host program for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate's (ESMD) lunar robotic precursor missions to the Moon. The program includes two missions, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). Both missions will provide the required lunar information to support development and operations of those systems required for Human lunar return. LPRP is developing a lunar mapping plan, Called the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project, to create the capability to archive and present all data from LRO, LCROSS, historical lunar missions, and international lunar missions for future mission planning and operations. LPRP is also developing its educational and public outreach activities for the Vision for Space Exploration's first missions. LPRP is working closely with the Science Mission Directorate as their lunar activities come into focus.

  18. Calculations of precursor propagation in dispersive dielectrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Larry Donald

    2003-08-01

    The present study is a numerical investigation of the propagation of electromagnetic transients in dispersive media. It considers propagation in water using Debye and composite Rocard-Powles-Lorentz models for the complex permittivity. The study addresses this question: For practical transmitted spectra, does precursor propagation provide any features that can be used to advantage over conventional signal propagation in models of dispersive media of interest? A companion experimental study is currently in progress that will attempt to measure the effects studied here.

  19. PRECURSORS OF EARTHQUAKES: VLF SIGNALSIONOSPHERE IONOSPHERE RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ULAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available lot of people have died because of earthquakes every year. Therefore It is crucial to predict the time of the earthquakes reasonable time before it had happed. This paper presents recent information published in the literature about precursors of earthquakes. The relationships between earthquakes and ionosphere are targeted to guide new researches in order to study further to find novel prediction methods.

  20. Analysis of Early Severe Accident Initiated by LBLOCA for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xing-Wei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to simulate an early Severe Accident (SA scenario more detail through transferring the thermal-hydraulic status of the plant predicted by RELAP5 computer code to SA Program (SAP. Based on the criterion of date extract time, the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic calculation data is extracted to form a file for SAP input card at 1477K of cladding surface. Relying on the thermal-hydraulic boundary parameters calculated by RELAP5 code, analysis of early SA initiated by the Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LBLOCA without mitigation measures for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant (QSP-II performed by SAP through finding the key events of accident sequence, estimating the amount of hydrogen generation and oxidation behavior of the cladding and evaluating the relocation order of the materials collapsed in the central region of the core. The results of this study are expected to improve the SA analysis methodology more detail through analyzing early SA scenario.

  1. Modelling of HTR Confinement Behaviour during Accidents Involving Breach of the Helium Pressure Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Fontanet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of HTRs requires the performance of a thorough safety study, which includes accident analyses. Confinement building performance is a key element of the system since the behaviour of aerosol and attached fission products within the building is of an utmost relevance in terms of the potential source term to the environment. This paper explores the available simulation capabilities (ASTEC and CONTAIN codes and illustrates the performance of a postulated HTR vented confinement under prototypical accident conditions by a scoping study based on two accident sequences characterized by Helium Pressure Boundary breaches, a small and a large break. The results obtained indicate that both codes predict very similar thermal-hydraulic responses of the confinement both in magnitude and timing. As for the aerosol behaviour, both codes predict that most of the inventory coming into the confinement is eventually depleted on the walls and only about 1% of the aerosol dust is released to the environment. The crosscomparison of codes states that largest differences are in the intercompartmental flows and the in-compartment gas composition.

  2. Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. W. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  3. Precursor lesions of invasive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreer, Ingrid [Breast Center, University Hospital Kiel, Kiel (Germany)]. E-mail: ischreer@email.uni-kiel.de; Luettges, Jutta [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Kiel, Kiel (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The increasing application of mammography, mainly in screening programs for the early detection of breast cancer, and the high technical standard of imaging has resulted in the detection of clinically occult breast tumors. Considering that only diagnosis at an early stage will be able to change the prognosis of breast cancer, this diagnostic challenge appears to be the most exciting field in both breast imaging and breast pathology. Especially the precursor lesions need to be diagnosed and defined precisely to understand their prognostic significance. In imaging, the morphologic appearance of precursor lesions is usually neither typical nor pathognomonic. They have to be assessed histologically using percutaneous interventions. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated various genetic alterations in the ductal epithelium, with the earliest onset in atypical ductal hyperplasia. The recent WHO classification, which is based on molecular data and histopathological features, attempts to define in particular the precursor lesions and low grade intraductal carcinomas. The clinical importance of the various grades has to be assessed. Intimate cooperation between diagnostic radiologist and pathologist is essential.

  4. Precursor lesions of invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreer, Ingrid; Lüttges, Jutta

    2005-04-01

    The increasing application of mammography, mainly in screening programs for the early detection of breast cancer, and the high technical standard of imaging has resulted in the detection of clinically occult breast tumors. Considering that only diagnosis at an early stage will be able to change the prognosis of breast cancer, this diagnostic challenge appears to be the most exciting field in both breast imaging and breast pathology. Especially the precursor lesions need to be diagnosed and defined precisely to understand their prognostic significance. In imaging, the morphologic appearance of precursor lesions is usually neither typical nor pathognomonic. They have to be assessed histologically using percutaneous interventions. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated various genetic alterations in the ductal epithelium, with the earliest onset in atypical ductal hyperplasia. The recent WHO classification, which is based on molecular data and histopathological features, attempts to define in particular the precursor lesions and low grade intraductal carcinomas. The clinical importance of the various grades has to be assessed. Intimate cooperation between diagnostic radiologist and pathologist is essential.

  5. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perrone

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979–2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8–5.9 tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  6. Disinfection byproduct formation from lignin precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Guanghui; Kim, Junsung; Reckhow, David A

    2014-10-15

    Lignin is the most abundant aromatic plant component in terrestrial ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine the contribution of lignin residues in natural water to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water. We investigated the formation of different classes of DBPs from lignin model compounds, lignin polymers, and humic substances using two common disinfection techniques, chlorination and chloramination. The contributions of lignin to the overall formation of DBPs from these organic products were determined based on the observed abundances of individual lignin phenols and their DBP yields. Model lignin phenols generally produced higher trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) yields than chloroform and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) during chlorination. Lignin phenols generally produced higher DBP yields but lower percentages of unknown total organic halogen compared to bulk humic substances and lignin polymers. The relative significance of lignin phenols as chlorination DBP precursors generally follows the order of TCAA > DCAA&chloroform. The relative significance of lignin phenols to DBP formation by chloramination follows the order: TCAA > DCAA&DCAN > chloroform. Overall, lignin phenols are more important as TCAA precursors than as chloroform and DCAA precursors.

  7. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  8. Accident rates for heavy truck-tractors in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, D; Campbell, K L; Green, P E

    1993-06-01

    Accident rates of heavy truck-tractors are modelled using log-linear methods. The accident data used are a census of truck-tractor involvements in Michigan from May 1987 to April 1988. Travel data used to calculate the rates were produced by a survey of truck-tractors in Michigan covering the same time period. Both the accident and travel data were limited to Michigan-registered tractors operating in Michigan. Log-linear models of casualty and property-damage-only accident rates were developed using number of trailers, road type, area type, and time of day as predictor variables. Overall, differences between tractors with one and two trailers were not significant. Tractors with no trailers (bobtails) have significantly higher accident rates. Characteristics of the operating environment were found to have larger effects on the accident rate than tractor configuration (except for the bobtail). Rates varied by a factor of up to 6.8, depending on the road type. Casualty accident risk at night was 1.4 times the risk during the day. The risk of a casualty accident in rural areas was 1.6 times that of urban areas.

  9. The survey of occupational accidents in Yazd gas agency (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Khoshakhlagh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence of coordinated and professional safety system to prevent occurrence of accidents and potential hazards seem to be essential in installing networks of gas distribution projects. Objective: To survey work-related accidents and safety performance indices in project implementation unit of Yazd gas agency. Methods: This analytical study was conducted on 197 of workforce in Yazd gas agency in 2013 that were selected by census and they were male. Demographic and accident information were gathered using a self-made questionnaire and face- to- face interview, and required information obtained from dossier to determine the safety performance indicators. Safety performance indicators were calculated in separately of 13 types occupations in project implementation unit of gas agency and data were analyzed using T-test. Findings: The highest accident frequency and severity rate were related to digging occupation and then metal line welding. Consequences of accidents were cuts (%56.7 and soreness (%14.9. The causes of accidents were related to uselessness of personal protective equipment (%25.2 and lack of precision in the task (%19.3. The highest rate of accident was observed among the age group 20-29 years with work experience of 4-6 years. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study and the risk of gas processes, it seems to be necessary the implementation of integrated management systems and training of workers about safety rules to improve the safety culture and prevent accidents.

  10. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOPELIC, S.D.

    1999-02-25

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  12. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety and accident prevention. 401.17 Section 401.17 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In...

  13. 32 CFR 256.7 - Accident potential zone guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident potential zone guidelines. 256.7 Section 256.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.7 Accident potential zone...

  14. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    , attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders...

  15. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  16. Evaluation of Accident Frequencies at the Canister Storage Bldg (CSB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS, T.B.

    2000-03-20

    By using simple frequency calculations and fault tree logic, an evaluation of the design basis accident frequencies at the Canister Storage Building has been performed. The following are the design basis accidents: Mechanical damage of MCO; Gaseous release from the MCO; MCO internal hydrogen deflagration; MCO external hydrogen deflagration; Thermal runaway reactions inside the MCO; and Violation of design temperature criteria.

  17. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Selioukov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  18. A COMPARISON OF SOME STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ROAD ACCIDENT ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OPPE, S INST ROAD SAFETY RES, SWOV

    1992-01-01

    At the TRRL/SWOV Workshop on Accident Analysis Methodology, heldin Amsterdam in 1988, the need to establish a methodology for the analysis of road accidents was firmly stated by all participants. Data from different countries cannot be compared because there is no agreement on research methodology,

  19. Prediction of vehicle traffic accidents using Bayesian networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of vehicle accidents occur in Iran and result thousands of deaths, injuries and material damage in country. Various factors such as driver characteristics, road characteristics, vehicle characteristics and atmospheric conditions affect the injuries severity of these accidents. In order to reduce the number and severity of these accidents, their analysis and prediction is essential. Currently, the accidents related data are collected which can be used to predict and prevent them. New technologies have enabled humans to collect the large volume of data in continuous and regular ways. One of these methods is to use Bayesian networks. Using the literature review, in this study a new method for analysis and prediction of vehicle traffic accidents is presented. These networks can be used for classification of traffic accidents, hazardous locations of roads and factors affecting accidents severity. Using of the results of the analysis of these networks will help to reduce the number of accidents and their severity. In addition, we can use the results of this analysis for developing of safety regulations.

  20. Transport Accident Costs and the Value of Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koornstra, Matthijs; Evans, Andrew; Glansdorp, Cees;

    The publication descibes a study of costs of passenger transport accident by road, rail, air and sea. It is argued that "willingness to pay" theory should be preferred to "human capital" theory in valuations of life and limb. The total costs of passenger transport accidents in the EU is estimated...

  1. Fatal aviation accidents in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, F W; Kernbach-Wighton, G; Kampmann, H; Koops, E; Püschel, K; Tröger, H D; Kleemann, W J

    2001-06-01

    So far no national or regional studies have been published in Germany regarding the number of fatal aviation accidents and results of autopsy findings. Therefore, we evaluated all fatal aviation accidents occurring in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996. A total of 96 aviation accidents occurred in this period involving 73 aeroplanes. The crashes resulted in the death of 154 people ranging in age from 19 to 68 years. The greatest number of victims in a single crash of an aircraft was (n=7). Other types of fatal accidents were crashes of aircraft and helicopter while on the ground (n=5), hot-air balloons (n=2), parachutes (n=10), hang glider accidents (n=5) and the striking of a bystander by a model airplane. Autopsies were performed on 68 of the 154 victims (44.2%), including 39 of the 73 pilots (53.4%). Some of the autopsies yielded findings relevant to the cause of the accident: gunshot wounds, the presence of alcohol or drugs in blood and preexisting diseases. Our findings emphasize the need for autopsy on all aviation accident victims, especially pilots, as this is the only reliable method to uncover all factors contributing to an accident.

  2. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  3. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed o

  4. Work pressure is major cause of accidents at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.

    2004-01-01

    The work-related accident rate in the Netherlands is 6.4%. The highest rates were found in the construction and agricultural sectors and in the police force. Workers subject to heavy work and work pressure are shown to have an accident rate up to five times greater than for workers who seldom or nev

  5. Cause Analysis of Wuhan Tianheng Building Pile Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The geological condition and the original structure feature and foundation design of Wuhan Tianheng building are described. The accident appearance of pile foundation in the construction execution of work is illustrated. The generating source of this pile foundation accident is analyzed in great details.``

  6. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-03-23

    This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  7. Predicting Severity and Duration of Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model system to predict severity and duration of traffic accidents by employing Ordered Probit model and Hazard model, respectively. The models are estimated using traffic accident data collected in Jilin province, China, in 2010. With the developed models, three severity indicators, namely, number of fatalities, number of injuries, and property damage, as well as accident duration, are predicted, and the important influences of related variables are identified. The results indicate that the goodness-of-fit of Ordered Probit model is higher than that of SVC model in severity modeling. In addition, accident severity is proven to be an important determinant of duration; that is, more fatalities and injuries in the accident lead to longer duration. Study results can be applied to predictions of accident severity and duration, which are two essential steps in accident management process. By recognizing those key influences, this study also provides suggestive results for government to take effective measures to reduce accident impacts and improve traffic safety.

  8. A review of accidents and injuries to road transport drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copsey, N.; Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Schmitz-Felten, E.; Verjans, M.

    2010-01-01

    This review presents reports of work-related road transport accidents, near misses, and other effects relating to ill health that give details concerning the causes and effects of the accidents. The main focus of the report is on road transport activities that take place on the public highway; howev

  9. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident…

  10. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that renders further use of the item...

  11. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping...) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that...

  12. Secretory expression of α single-chain insulin precursor in yeast and its conversion into human insulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友尚; 胡红明; 蔡若蓉; 冯佑民; 朱尚权; 贺潜斌; 唐月华; 徐明华; 许英镐; 张新堂; 刘滨; 梁镇和

    1996-01-01

    A synthetic single-chain porcine insulin precursor (PIP) gene and an α-mating factor leader sequence (αMFL) gene obtained by the PCR method are inserted between the promoter and 3’-terminating sequence of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH1 in plasmid pVT102-U to form plasmid pVT102-U/α MFL-PIP. The single-chain insulin precursor is expressed and secreted to the culture medium by Saccharomyces cererisiae transformed by pVT102-U/αMFL-PIP. The precursor is purified and converted into human insulin by tryptic transpeptidation. The purified human insulin is fully active and can be crystallized. The overall yield of human insulin is 25 mg per liter of culture medium.

  13. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the frequency of general aviation airplane accidents and accident rates on the basis of aircraft certification to determine whether or not differences in aircraft certification rules had an influence on accidents. In addition, the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports were analyzed to determine whether there were differences in the qualitative data for the different certification categories. The certification categories examined were: Federal Aviation Regulations Part 23, Civil Air Regulations 3, Light Sport Aircraft, and Experimental-Amateur Built. The accident causes examined were those classified as: Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, Engine Failure, and Structural Failure. Airworthiness certification categories represent a wide diversity of government oversight. Part 23 rules have evolved from the initial set of simpler design standards and have progressed into a comprehensive and strict set of rules to address the safety issues of the more complex airplanes within the category. Experimental-Amateur Built airplanes have the least amount of government oversight and are the fastest growing segment. The Light Sport Aircraft category is a more recent certification category that utilizes consensus standards in the approval process. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured under simpler rules but modifying these airplanes has become lengthy and expensive. The study was conducted using a mixed methods methodology which involves both quantitative and qualitative elements. A Chi-Square test was used for a quantitative analysis of the accident frequency among aircraft certification categories. Accident rate analysis of the accidents among aircraft certification categories involved an ANCOVA test. The qualitative component involved the use of text mining techniques for the analysis of the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports. The Chi

  14. Behavior of road accidents: Structural time series approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Arsad, Zainudin

    2014-12-01

    Road accidents become a major issue in contributing to the increasing number of deaths. Few researchers suggest that road accidents occur due to road structure and road condition. The road structure and condition may differ according to the area and volume of traffic of the location. Therefore, this paper attempts to look up the behavior of the road accidents in four main regions in Peninsular Malaysia by employing a structural time series (STS) approach. STS offers the possibility of modelling the unobserved component such as trends and seasonal component and it is allowed to vary over time. The results found that the number of road accidents is described by a different model. Perhaps, the results imply that the government, especially a policy maker should consider to implement a different approach in ways to overcome the increasing number of road accidents.

  15. Designing of an emergency call system for traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Ekşi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In our country, many people have been seriously injured or died in traffic accidents. Fatal accidents often occur because of not complying with traffic rules or carelessness. Except these driver mistakes, heavy injuries can result in deaths because of emergency aid teams failing to arrive to accident scene in time. In this study, an accident emergency call system is designed to help injured people's treatment as soon as possible by notifying emercengy team automatically in accidents. The designed system sends messages, including information such as vehicle location, exploding airbag number, vehicle model, age and registration plate, to emergency aid team using GPS module at the moment of crashed vehicle's airbag explosion.

  16. New procedure for declaring accidents resulting in bodily injuries

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of personnel that, according to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 3), entitled “Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and incapacity for work”, accidents resulting in bodily injuries and presumed to be of an occupational nature should, under normal circumstances, be declared within 10 working days of the accident having occurred, accompanied by a medical certificate. In an effort to streamline procedures, occupational accident declarations should be made via EDH using the “declaration of occupational accident” electronic form. For the declaration of non-occupational accidents resulting in bodily injuries of members of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), a new paper form has been elaborated that can be downloaded from the CHIS website and is also available from the UNIQA Helpdesk in the Main Building. If you encounter technical difficulties with these new ...

  17. SARNET: Severe accident research network of excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiol, T.; Van Dorsselaere, J. P. [IRSN, DPAM, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France); Chaumont, B. [IRSN, DSR, SAGR, F-92262 Fontenay Aux Roses (France); Haste, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst, NES, LTH, OVGA 312, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Journeau, Ch. [CEA Cadarache, DEN, STRI, LMA, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France); Meyer, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sehgal, Bal Raj [KTH, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Schwinges, Bernd [Gesell Anlagen and Reaktorsicherheit GRS mbH, D-50667 Cologne (Germany); Beraha, D. [GRS mbH, Forschungsgelande, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Annunziato, A. [Commiss European Communities, JRC, IPSC, I-21020 Ispra, VA (Italy); Zeyen, R. [Commiss European Communities, JRC IE, IRSN DPAM DIR, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France)

    2010-07-01

    Fifty-one organisations network in SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network of Excellence) their research capacities in order to resolve the most important pending issues for enhancing, with regard to Severe Accidents (SA), the safety of existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). This project. co-funded by the European Commission (EC) under the 6. Framework Programme, has been defined in order to optimise the use of the available means and to constitute sustainable research groups in the European Union. SARNET tackles the fragmentation that may exist between the different national R and D programmes, in defining common research programmes and developing common computer tools and methodologies for safety assessment. SARNET comprises most of the organisations involved in SA research in Europe, plus Canada. To reach these objectives, all the organisations networked in SARNET contributed to a joint Programme of Activities, which consisted of: Implementation of an advanced communication tool for accessing all project information, fostering exchange of information, and managing documents; Harmonization and re-orientation of the research programmes, and definition of new ones; Analysis of the experimental results provided by research programmes in order to elaborate a common understanding of relevant phenomena; Development of the ASTEC code (integral computer code used to predict the NPP behaviour during a postulated SA), which capitalizes in terms of physical models the knowledge produced within SARNET; Development of Scientific Databases in which all the results of research programmes are stored in a common format (DATANET); Development of a common methodology for Probabilistic Safety Assessment of NPPs; Development of short courses and writing a textbook on Severe Accidents for students and researchers; Promotion of personnel mobility amongst various European organisations. This paper presents the major achievements after four and a half years of operation of the

  18. Optimization of the Severe Accident Management Strategy for Domestic Plants and Validation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.; Koo, K. M.; Park, R. J.; Hong, S. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. T.; Ha, K. S.; Kang, K. H

    2007-04-15

    nuclear power plants, a technical basis report and computational aid tools were developed in parallel with the experimental and analytical works for the resolution of the uncertain safety issues. ELIAS experiments were carried out to quantify the boiling heat removal rate at the upper surface of a metallic layer for precise evaluations on the effect of a late in-vessel coolant injection. T-HERMES experiments were performed to examine the two-phase natural circulation phenomena through the gap between the reactor vessel and the insulator in the APR1400. Detailed analyses on the hydrogen control in the APR1400 containment were performed focused on the effect of spray system actuation on the hydrogen burning and the evaluation of the hydrogen behavior in the IRWST. To develop the technical basis report for the severe accident management, analyses using SCDAP/RELAP5 code were performed for the accident sequences of the OPR1000. Based on the experimental and analytical results performed in this study, the computational aids for the evaluations of hydrogen flammability in the containment, criteria of the in-vessel corium cooling, criteria of the external reactor vessel cooling were developed. An ASSA code was developed to validate the signal from the instrumentations during the severe accidents and to process the abnormal signal. Since ASSA can perform the signal processing from the direct input of the nuclear power plant during the severe accident, it can be platform of the computational aids. In this study, the ASSA was linked with the computaional aids for the hydrogen flammability.

  19. ECONOMIC COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH MOTORBIKE ACCIDENTS IN KATHMANDU, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diksha Sapkota

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents, considered as global tragedies, are in increasing trend however, the safety situation is very severe in developing countries incurring substantial amount of human, economic and social costs. Motorcycle crashes, the commonest form, occur mostly on economically active population. However, there is limited coverage of studies on economic burden of motorcycle crashes. This study aims to estimate the total cost and DALYs lost due to motorbike accidents among victims of Kathmandu Valley.Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among the patients having history of motorbike accidents within past twelve months and at least 3 months from the date of data collection. Interview was conducted using proforma among 100 victims of accidents and their care giver in case of death from November 15, 2014 to May 15, 2015. Cost estimation of motorbike accident was done based on human capital approach. Data collection tool was pretested and collected data were analyzed by SPSS and Microsoft excel. Results: Males (79% belonging to the economically productive age group shared the highest proportion among total accidents victims. Most common reason for accidents was reported to be poor road condition (41%. Indirect cost was found to be significantly higher than direct costs highlighting its negative impact on economy of family and nation due to productivity loss. Total Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs lost per person was found to be 490 years and national estimation showed large burden of motorbike accidents due to huge DALY loss.Conclusions: For low resource countries like Nepal, high economic costs of motorbike accidents can pose additional burden to the fragile health system. These accidents can be prevented, and their consequences can be alleviated. There is an urgent need for reinforcement of appropriate interventions and legislation to decrease the magnitude of it and its associated grave

  20. Raconter Accident nocturne de Patrick Modiano Raconter Accident nocturne de Patrick Modiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurate Kaminskas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modiano affirme que chaque roman marque un pas en avant dans la réalisation de son oeuvre. « J’ai l’impression qu’à chaque livre je me suis débarrassé d’un truc pour essayer d’accéder à d'autres choses », explique-t-il dans un entretien avec Laurence Liban. Qu’en est-il donc pour Accident nocturne ?Modiano affirme que chaque roman marque un pas en avant dans la réalisation de son oeuvre. « J’ai l’impression qu’à chaque livre je me suis débarrassé d’un truc pour essayer d’accéder à autre chose », explique-t-il dans un entretien avec Laurence Liban. Qu’en est-il donc pour Accident nocturne ?

  1. Expression of feline immunodeficiency virus gag and env precursor proteins in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and their use in immunodiagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Verschoor, E.J.; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Egberink, H.F.; Hesselink, W.; Ronde, A. de

    1993-01-01

    The gag and env genes of the feline immunodeficiency virus strain UT113 were cloned into a baculovirus transfer vector. The recombinant plasmids were used to create recombinant baculoviruses that expressed either the gag or the env precursor protein in insect cells (Sf9 cells). Leader sequence cleav

  2. MELCOR accident analysis for ARIES-ACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul W. Humrickhouse; Brad J. Merrill

    2012-08-01

    We model a loss of flow accident (LOFA) in the ARIES-ACT1 tokamak design. ARIES-ACT1 features an advanced SiC blanket with LiPb as coolant and breeder, a helium cooled steel structural ring and tungsten divertors, a thin-walled, helium cooled vacuum vessel, and a room temperature water-cooled shield outside the vacuum vessel. The water heat transfer system is designed to remove heat by natural circulation during a LOFA. The MELCOR model uses time-dependent decay heats for each component determined by 1-D modeling. The MELCOR model shows that, despite periodic boiling of the water coolant, that structures are kept adequately cool by the passive safety system.

  3. Socioeconomic deprivation and accident and emergency attendances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scantlebury, Rachel; Rowlands, Gillian; Durbaba, Stevo;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Demand for England's accident and emergency (A&E) services is increasing and is particularly concentrated in areas of high deprivation. The extent to which primary care services, relative to population characteristics, can impact on A&E is not fully understood. AIM: To conduct...... a detailed analysis to identify population and primary care characteristics associated with A&E attendance rates, particularly those that may be amenable to change by primary care services. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study used a cross-sectional population-based design. The setting was general practices.......1, B = 547.3 [95% CI = 418.6 to 676.0]). The final model explained 34.4% of the variation in A&E attendance rates, mostly due to factors that could not be modified by primary care services. CONCLUSION: Demographic characteristics were the strongest predictors of A&E attendance rates. Primary care...

  4. Aortoiliac occlusive disease masquerading as cerebrovascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandeesh B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortoiliac occlusion is an unusual but potentially catastrophic condition causing acute limb ischemia and associated with early and high rates of mortality and morbidity. It is caused by either embolic occlusion of the infra renal aorta at the bifurcation or beyond or thrombosis of the abdominal aorta and its large terminal branches. Neurological symptoms are rare manifestation of acute aortoiliac occlusion and when neurological symptoms predominate, patients are mistakenly considered to have cerebrovascular event. We present a 60-year-old man with atherosclerotic thrombotic occlusion of the left common iliac artery causing acute painful monoplegia. We mistook the acute monoplegia due to acute limb ischemia for cerebrovascular accident. Pathologic examination revealed a firm thrombus occluding the origin of left common iliac artery and extending along the length of the vessel. Acute aortic iliac occlusion can masquerade as a cerebrovascular stroke and a thorough clinical evaluation and imaging studies allow early diagnosis and instituting life-saving treatment timely.

  5. Prevention of accidents in SME’s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    we developed a method to observe and document the activities and risks in small enterprises, on the basis of the Dutch study. The co-operation between the Dutch and Danish projects has resulted in a very useful web-based risk assessment tool, which towards June 2009 will be accessible in Dutch...... in a series of small enterprises covering observations of about 120 man-days. These observations demonstrated that maintaining barriers against accidents can only partly be managed by the employer. Especially in enterprises with employees normally working outside the establishment, the daily safety assessment....... The results of the Danish project is an application of the Dutch findings to describe what risks and safety barriers are most important for small enterprises in some industry sectors and jobs. Based on this knowledge, we can formulate requirements for, 1) what can and should the employer take care of; 2) what...

  6. Guidelines for accident prevention and emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1993-05-01

    This report reviews recent developments in the guidelines on chemical accident prevention, risk assessment, and management of chemical emergencies, principally in the United States and Europe, and discusses aspects of their application to developing countries. Such guidelines are either in the form of laws or regulations promulgated by governments, or of recommendations from international, professional, or non governmental organizations. In many cases, these guidelines specify lists of materials of concern and methods for evaluating safe usage of these materials and recommend areas of responsibility for different organizations; procedures to be included in planning, evaluation, and response; and appropriate levels of training for different classes of workers. Guidelines frequently address the right of communities to be informed of potential hazards and address ways for them to participate in planning and decision making.

  7. [Diagnosis and treatment of diving accidents. New German guidelines for diving accidents 2014-2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüttner, B; Wölfel, C; Liedtke, H; Meyne, K; Werr, H; Bräuer, T; Kemmerer, M; Schmeißer, G; Piepho, T; Müller, O; Schöppenthau, H

    2015-06-01

    In 2015 the German Society for Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine (GTÜM) and the Swiss Underwater and Hyperbaric Medical Society (SUHMS) published the updated guidelines on diving accidents 2014-2017. These multidisciplinary guidelines were developed within a structured consensus process by members of the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (DIVI), the Sports Divers Association (VDST), the Naval Medical Institute (SchiffMedInst), the Social Accident Insurance Institution for the Building Trade (BG BAU), the Association of Hyperbaric Treatment Centers (VDD) and the Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (DGAUM). This consensus-based guidelines project (development grade S2k) with a representative group of developers was conducted by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany. It provides information and instructions according to up to date evidence to all divers and other lay persons for first aid recommendations to physician first responders and emergency physicians as well as paramedics and all physicians at therapeutic hyperbaric chambers for the diagnostics and treatment of diving accidents. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose and the following key action statements: on-site 100% oxygen first aid treatment, still patient positioning and fluid administration are recommended. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) recompression remains unchanged the established treatment in severe cases with no therapeutic alternatives. The basic treatment scheme recommended for diving accidents is hyperbaric oxygenation at 280 kPa. For quality management purposes there is a need in the future for a nationwide register of hyperbaric therapy.

  8. ACR-1000 design provisions for severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, N.K.; Santamaura, P.; Shapiro, H.; Snell, V.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: popovn@aecl.ca

    2006-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) developed the Advanced CANDU Reactor-700 (ACR-700) as an evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6 reactor. As a further advancement of the ACR design, AECL is currently developing the ACR-1000 for the Canadian and international market. The ACR-1000 is aimed at producing electrical power for a capital cost and a unit-energy cost significantly less than that of the current generation of operating nuclear plants, while achieving enhanced safety features, shorter construction schedule, high plant capacity factor, improved operations and maintenance, and increased operating life. The reference ACR-1000 plant design is based on an integrated two-unit plant, using enriched fuel and light-water coolant, with each unit having a nominal gross output of about 1200 MWe. The ACR-1000 design meets Canadian regulatory requirements and follows established international practice with respect to severe accident prevention and mitigation. This paper presents the ACR-1000 features that are designed to mitigate limited core damage and severe core damage states, including core retention within vessel, core damage termination, and containment integrity maintenance. While maintaining existing structures of CANDU reactors that provide inherent prevention and retention of core debris, the ACR-1000 design includes additional features for prevention and mitigation of severe accidents. Core retention within vessel in CANDU-type reactors includes both retention within fuel channels, and retention within the calandria vessel. The ACR-1000 calandria vessel design permits for passive rejection of decay heat from the moderator to the shield water. Also, the calandria vessel is designed for debris retention by minimizing penetrations at the bottom periphery and by accommodating thermal and weight loads of the core debris. The ACR-1000 containment is required to withstand external events such as earthquakes, tornados, floods and aircraft crashes

  9. Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900°C or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

  10. Retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dicentric chromosome aberrations technique scoring of aberrations in metaphases prepared from human lymphocytes is most commonly used. This is considered as a reliable technique because the sample is extracted from the individual human body itself. There are other techniques in biological dosimetry such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using translocations, premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and micronucleus assay. However the minimum detectable doses (MDD) are relatively high and sample preparation time is also relatively longer. Therefore, there is limitation in use of these techniques for the purpose of triage in a short time in case of emergency situation relating large number of persons. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique is based on the signal from unpaired electrons such as free radicals in irradiated materials especially tooth enamel, however it has also limitation for the purpose of triage because of difficulty of sample taking and its high MDD. Recently as physical methods, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique have been attracted due to its lower MDD and simplicity of sample preparation. Density of the trapped charges is generally proportional to the radiation dose absorbed and the intensity of emitting light is also proportional to the density of trapped charges, thus it can be applied to measure radiation dose retrospectively. In this presentation, TL and OSL techniques are going to introduced and discussed as physical methods for retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges especially in electronic component materials. As a tool for dose reconstruction for emergency situation, thermoluminescece and optically stimulated luminescence techniques which are based on trapped charges during exposure of material are introduced. These techniques have several advantages such as high sensitivity, fast evaluation and ease to sample collection over common biological dosimetry and EPR

  11. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Helton, J.C. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  12. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  13. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, an severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation was confirmed by further tests at high temperatures, as well as by finite-element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation was confirmed by finite-element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate-sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure was developed and validated by tests under various temperature and pressure loadings that can occur during postulated severe accidents.

  14. Factors associated with road accidents among Brazilian motorcycle couriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Daniela Wosiack; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Soares, Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with reports of road accidents, among motorcycle couriers in two medium-sized municipalities in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by motorcycle couriers that had worked for at least 12 months in this profession. The outcomes analyzed were reports on accidents and serious accidents over the 12 months prior to the survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of logistic regression were carried out to investigate factors that were independently associated with the outcomes. Seven hundred and fifty motorcycle couriers, of mean age 29.5 years (standard deviation = 8.1 ), were included in the study. Young age (18 to 24 years compared to ≥ 25 years, odds ratio [OR] = 1.77) speeding (OR = 1.48), and use of cell phones while driving (OR = 1.43) were factors independently associated with reports of accidents. For serious accidents, there was an association with alternation of work shifts (OR = 1.91) and speeding (OR = 1.67). The characteristics associated with accidents-personal (young age), behavioral (use of cell phones while driving and speeding), and professional (speeding and alternation of work shifts)-reveal the need to adopt wide-ranging strategies to reduce these accidents, including better work conditions for these motorcyclists.

  15. ROAD ACCIDENT AND SAFETY STUDY IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. BANIK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.

  16. Development of Parameter Network for Accident Management Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Sukyoung; Ahemd, Rizwan; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    When a severe accident happens, it is hard to obtain the necessary information to understand of internal status because of the failure or damage of instrumentation and control systems. We learned the lessons from Fukushima accident that internal instrumentation system should be secured and must have ability to react in serious conditions. While there might be a number of methods to reinforce the integrity of instrumentation systems, we focused on the use of redundant behavior of plant parameters without additional hardware installation. Specifically, the objective of this study is to estimate the replaced value which is able to identify internal status by using set of available signals when it is impossible to use instrumentation information in a severe accident, which is the continuation of the paper which was submitted at the last KNS meeting. The concept of the VPN was suggested to improve the quality of parameters particularly to be logged during severe accidents in NPPs using a software based approach, and quantize the importance of each parameter for further maintenance. In the future, we will continue to perform the same analysis to other accident scenarios and extend the spectrum of initial conditions so that we are able to get more sets of VPNs and ANN models to predict the behavior of accident scenarios. The suggested method has the uncertainty underlain in the analysis code for severe accidents. However, In case of failure to the safety critical instrumentation, the information from the VPN would be available to carry out safety management operation.

  17. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  18. International transferability of accident modification functions for horizontal curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2013-10-01

    Studies of the relationship between characteristics of horizontal curves and accident rate have been reported in several countries. The characteristic most often studied is the radius of a horizontal curve. Functions describing the relationship between the radius of horizontal curves and accident rate have been developed in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the United States. Other characteristics of horizontal curves that have been studied include deflection angle, curve length, the presence of transition curves, super-elevation in curves and distance to adjacent curves. This paper assesses the international transferability of mathematical functions (accident modification functions) that have been developed to relate the radius of horizontal curves to their accident rate. The main research problem is whether these functions are similar, which enhances international transferability, or dissimilar, which reduces international transferability. Accident modification functions for horizontal curve radius developed in the countries listed above are synthesised. The sensitivity of the functions to other characteristics of curves than radius is examined. Accident modification functions developed in different countries have important similarities. The functions diverge with respect to accident rate in the sharpest curves.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF RUNWAY ACCIDENT HAZARDS IN NIGERIA AVIATION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi Olasunkanmi Oriola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabilistic risk assessment. The six categories of runway accident hazards are runway surface conditions, weather conditions, collision risk, aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures and human factors. The Fault Tree developed is a system of OR-gates and the weights for each hazard were derived through a domain/expert opinion. The estimated probability of occurrence of runway accident which is the top event of the Fault Tree model is 0.2624. Fault Tree Analysis; thus, identifies the most likely root causes of runway accident through importance measures. The results of the analysis show close relationship of runway accidents in Nigeria aviation sector with aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures, human factor, weather conditions and collision risk.

  20. Main: Sequences [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequences Nucleotide Sequence Nucleotide sequence of full length cDNA (trimmed sequence) kome_ine_full_seq...uence_db.fasta.zip kome_ine_full_sequence_db.zip kome_ine_full_sequence_db ...

  1. Synthesis of functional aromatic multisulfonyl chlorides and their masked precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percec, V; Bera, T K; De, B B; Sanai, Y; Smith, J; Holerca, M N; Barboiu, B; Grubbs, R B; Fréchet, J M

    2001-03-23

    The synthesis of functional aromatic bis(sulfonyl chlorides) containing an acetophenone and two sulfonyl chloride groups, i.e., 3,5-bis[4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenyl]-1-acetophenone (16), 3,5-bis(chlorosulfonyl)-1-acetophenone (17), and 3,5-bis(4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenyloxy)-1-acetophenone (18) via a sequence of reactions, involving in the last step the quantitative oxidative chlorination of S-(aryl)- N,N'-diethylthiocarbamate, alkyl- or benzyl thiophenyl groups as masked nonreactive precursors to sulfonyl chlorides is described. A related sequence of reactions was used for the synthesis of the aromatic trisulfonyl chloride 1,1,1-tris(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)ethane (24). 4-(Chlorosulfonyl)phenoxyacetic acid, 2,2-bis[[[4-(chlorosulfonyl)phenoxyacetyl]oxy]methyl]-1,3-propanediyl ester (27), 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(chlorosulfonyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (38), 5,11,17,23,29,35-hexakis(chlorosulfonyl)-37,38,39,40,41,42-hexakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[6]arene (39), 5,11,17,23,29,35,41,47-octakis(chlorosulfonyl)-49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56-octakis(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)calix[8]arene (40), 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(tert-butyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(chlorosulfonyl phenoxyacetoxy)calix[4]arene (44), 5,11,17,23,29,35-hexakis(tert-butyl)-37,38,39,40,41,42-hexakis(chlorosulfonylphenoxyacetoxy)calix[6]arene (45), and 5,11,17,23,29,35,41,47-octakis(tert-butyl)-49,40,51,52,53,54,55,56-octakis(chlorosulfonylphenoxyacetoxy)calix[8]arene (46) were synthesized by two different multistep reaction procedures, the last step of both methods consisting of the chlorosulfonation of compounds containing suitable activated aromatic positions. 2,4,6-Tris(chlorosulfonyl)aniline (47) was obtained by the chlorosulfonation of aniline. The conformation of two series of multisulfonyl chlorides i.e., 38, 39, 40 and 44, 45, 46, was investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The masked nonreactive precursor states of the functional aromatic multisulfonyl chlorides and the aromatic

  2. Large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 in E. coli by designing its thrombin-activatable precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3, a principal apoptotic effector that cleaves the majority of cellular substrates, is an important medicinal target for the treatment of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Large amounts of the protein are required for drug discovery research. However, previous efforts to express the full-length caspase-3 gene in E. coli have been unsuccessful. Results Overproducers of thrombin-activatable full-length caspase-3 precursors were prepared by engineering the auto-activation sites of caspase-3 precursor into a sequence susceptible to thrombin hydrolysis. The engineered precursors were highly expressed as soluble proteins in E. coli and easily purified by affinity chromatography, to levels of 10–15 mg from 1 L of E. coli culture, and readily activated by thrombin digestion. Kinetic evaluation disclosed that thrombin digestion enhanced catalytic activity (kcat/KM of the precursor proteins by two orders of magnitude. Conclusion A novel method for a large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 was developed by a strategic engineering to lack auto-activation during expression with amino acid sequences susceptible to thrombin, facilitating high-level expression in E. coli. The precursor protein was easily purified and activated through specific cleavage at the engineered sites by thrombin, generating active caspase-3 in high yields.

  3. Source term analyses under severe accidents for KNGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yong Mann; Park, Soo Yong

    2001-03-01

    In this study, in-containment source term for LOFW (Loss of Feed Water), which has appeared the most frequent core melt accident, is calculated and compared with NUREG-1465 source term. This study provides not only new source term data using MELCOR1.8.4 and its state-of-the-art models but also evaluating basis of KNGR design and its mitigation capability under severe accidents. As the selected accident is identical with LOFW-S17, which has been analyzed using MAAP by KEPCO with only difference of 2 SITs, mutual comparison of the results is especially expected.

  4. Modelling road accidents: An approach using structural time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the trend of road accidents in Malaysia for the years 2001 until 2012 was modelled using a structural time series approach. The structural time series model was identified using a stepwise method, and the residuals for each model were tested. The best-fitted model was chosen based on the smallest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and prediction error variance. In order to check the quality of the model, a data validation procedure was performed by predicting the monthly number of road accidents for the year 2012. Results indicate that the best specification of the structural time series model to represent road accidents is the local level with a seasonal model.

  5. Grey-Markov Model for Road Accidents Forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李相勇; 严余松; 蒋葛夫

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the forecasting precision of road accidents, by introducing Markov chains forecasting method, a grey-Markov model for forecasting road accidents is established based on grey forecasting method. The model combines the advantages of both grey forecasting method and Markov chains forecasting method, overcomes the influence of random fluctuation data on forecasting precision and widens the application scope of the grey forecasting. An application example is conducted to evaluate the grey-Markov model, which shows that the precision of the grey-Markov model is better than that of grey model in forecasting road accidents.

  6. Aviation Accidents and Stock Market Reaction: Evidence from Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Demir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral finance literature shows that a variety of mood variables affect the stock prices. Aviation accidents are uncommon that generally cause a high number of casualties. Therefore, they have a strong social repercussion in the country. This negative sentiment driven by bad mood might affect the investment decisions of investors. This study examines the effect of aviation accidents on Borsa Istanbul Index and Borsa Istanbul Transportation Index. Turkish aviation companies had only 5 serious accidents from 1990 to 2013. On the contrary to the previous findings, it is found that the aviation disasters do not have any effect on the stock market.

  7. Societal and ethical aspects of the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 was a poignant reminder that radioactive contamination of the environment has consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. Both the accident and remediation measures have resulted in serious societal impacts and raise questions about the ethical aspects of risk management. This article presents a brief review of some of these issues and compares similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:651-653. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Cooperation of mobile robots for accident scene inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H.; Harrington, J.

    1992-11-01

    A telerobotic system demonstration was developed for the Department of Energy`s Accident Response group to highlight the applications of telerobotic vehicles to accident site inspection. The proof-of- principle system employs two mobile robots, Dixie and RAYBOT, to inspect a simulated accident site. Both robots are controlled serially from a single driving station, allowing an operator to take advantage of having multiple robots at the scene. The telerobotic system is described and some of the advantages of having more than one robot present are discussed. Future plans for the system are also presented.

  9. Cooperation of mobile robots for accident scene inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H.; Harrington, J.

    1992-01-01

    A telerobotic system demonstration was developed for the Department of Energy's Accident Response group to highlight the applications of telerobotic vehicles to accident site inspection. The proof-of- principle system employs two mobile robots, Dixie and RAYBOT, to inspect a simulated accident site. Both robots are controlled serially from a single driving station, allowing an operator to take advantage of having multiple robots at the scene. The telerobotic system is described and some of the advantages of having more than one robot present are discussed. Future plans for the system are also presented.

  10. Precursors of eruptions at Vesuvius (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandone, Roberto; Giacomelli, Lisetta

    2008-04-01

    The historical record of activity of Mount Vesuvius is uncommonly long and may serve as a guide to understand precursors before the outbreak of new activity. Reposes of different lengths have been observed in the past, with long ones preceding violent explosive eruptions. Eruptions occurring during periods of permanent activity have been preceded by possible deformation of the volcanic edifice and by short duration, earthquake swarms. Otherwise they have occurred without any reported precursors. The renewal of activity after long periods, like the current one, has been preceded by unrest lasting years to weeks, as a new eruption would require connection to the surface of a reservoir at depth ranging between 6 and 4 km. Since 1944, episodic seismic swarms, have occurred with a frequency similar to that of the violent strombolian eruptions during the last period of permanent activity; they are interpreted as intrusions and arrest of magma batches into a reservoir at the same depth of that feeding past sub-plinian eruptions.

  11. Neutron-powered precursors of kilonovae

    CERN Document Server

    Metzger, Brian D; Goriely, Stephane; Kasen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The merger of binary neutron stars (NSs) ejects a small quantity of neutron rich matter, the radioactive decay of which powers a day to week long thermal transient known as a kilonova. Most of the ejecta remains sufficiently dense during its expansion that all neutrons are captured into nuclei during the r-process. However, recent general relativistic merger simulations by Bauswein and collaborators show that a small fraction of the ejected mass (a few per cent, or ~1e-4 Msun) expands sufficiently rapidly for most neutrons to avoid capture. This matter originates from the shocked-heated interface between the merging NSs. Here we show that the beta-decay of these free neutrons in the outermost ejecta powers a `precursor' to the main kilonova emission, which peaks on a timescale of a few hours following merger at U-band magnitude ~22 (for an assumed distance of 200 Mpc). The high luminosity and blue colors of the neutron precursor render it a potentially important counterpart to the gravitational wave source, t...

  12. Improvement of Severe Accident Analysis Computer Code and Development of Accident Management Guidance for Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Ko Ryu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Choi, Young; Jin, Young Ho

    2005-03-15

    The objective of the project is to develop a generic severe accident management guidance(SAMG) applicable to Korean PHWR and the objective of this 3 year continued phase is to construct a base of the generic SAMG. Another objective is to improve a domestic computer code, ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU), which still has many deficiencies to be improved in order to apply for the SAMG development. The scope and contents performed in this Phase-2 are as follows: The characteristics of major design and operation for the domestic Wolsong NPP are analyzed from the severe accident aspects. On the basis, preliminary strategies for SAM of PHWR are selected. The information needed for SAM and the methods to get that information are analyzed. Both the individual strategies applicable for accident mitigation under PHWR severe accident conditions and the technical background for those strategies are developed. A new version of ISAAC 2.0 has been developed after analyzing and modifying the existing models of ISAAC 1.0. The general SAMG applicable for PHWRs confirms severe accident management techniques for emergencies, provides the base technique to develop the plant specific SAMG by utility company and finally contributes to the public safety enhancement as a NPP safety assuring step. The ISAAC code will be used inevitably for the PSA, living PSA, severe accident analysis, SAM program development and operator training in PHWR.

  13. Precursor Mediated Synthesis of Nanostructured Silicas: From Precursor-Surfactant Ion Pairs to Structured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hesemann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanostructured anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous silica (AMS recently appeared as a new strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials. This method is based on the use of anionic surfactants together with a co-structure-directing agent (CSDA, mostly a silylated ammonium precursor. The presence of this CSDA is necessary in order to create ionic interactions between template and silica forming phases and to ensure sufficient affinity between the two phases. This synthetic strategy was for the first time applied in view of the synthesis of surface functionalized silica bearing ammonium groups and was then extended on the formation of materials functionalized with anionic carboxylate and bifunctional amine-carboxylate groups. In the field of silica hybrid materials, the “anionic templating” strategy has recently been applied for the synthesis of silica hybrid materials from cationic precursors. Starting from di- or oligosilylated imidazolium and ammonium precursors, only template directed hydrolysis-polycondensation reactions involving complementary anionic surfactants allowed accessing structured ionosilica hybrid materials. The mechanistic particularity of this approach resides in the formation of precursor-surfactant ion pairs in the hydrolysis-polycondensation mixture. This review gives a systematic overview over the various types of materials accessed from this cooperative ionic templating approach and highlights the high potential of this original strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials which appears as a complementary strategy to conventional soft templating approaches.

  14. Preliminary assessment of accident-tolerant fuels on LWR performance during normal operation and under DB and BDB accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, L. J.; Robb, K. R.; Wang, D.

    2014-05-01

    Following the severe accidents at the Japanese Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, the US Department of Energy initiated research and development on the enhancement of the accident tolerance of light water reactors by the development of fuels/cladding that, in comparison with the standard UO2/Zircaloy (Zr) system, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a considerably longer time period while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations. Analyses are presented that illustrate the impact of these new candidate fuel/cladding materials on the fuel performance at normal operating conditions and on the reactor system under DB and BDB accident conditions.

  15. Stocks and energy shocks : the impact of energy accidents on stock market value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Boersen, A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how financial market participants value energy accidents. We employ an event study to look into the response of stock markets to 209 accidents. These accidents were derived from Sovacool's (2008) database on major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It appears that the stock market in

  16. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forester, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively.

  17. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risk during mid-loop operations. Main report. Volume 6. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Neymotin, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1 which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis including internal fire and flood was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The results of the phase 2 level 2/3 study are the subject of this volume of NUREG/CR-6144, Volume 6.

  18. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    Safety has been in the focus of seafaring during the past decade that observed a gradual reduction of reported work injuries in Danish ships. The injuries are, however, unevenly distributed in the maritime workforce, depending on various factors, the nationality of seafarer among them. The aim of...... the occurrence as well as the reporting of accidents is crucial to construct effective preventive measures for risk management....... to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...... Western European seafarers compared to South East Asian (mostly Filipino) employees. The results highlight a favourable level of reported injuries in the Danish maritime sector but also point out detectable differences between groups of employees. The identification of factors that determine...

  19. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  20. Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougueroua, M; Carnis, L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this contribution is to estimate the impact of road economic conditions and mobility on traffic accidents for the case of Algeria. Using the cointegration approach and vector error correction model (VECM), we will examine simultaneously short term and long-term impacts between the number of traffic accidents, fuel consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capital, over the period 1970-2013. The main results of the estimation show that the number of traffic accidents in Algeria is positively influenced by the GDP per capita in the short and long term. It implies that a higher economic development worsens the road safety situation. However, the new traffic rules adopted in 2009 have an impact on the forecast trend of traffic accidents, meaning efficient public policy could improve the situation. This result calls for a strong political commitment with effective countermeasures for avoiding the further deterioration of road safety record in Algeria.

  1. Trauma in the elderly caused by traffic accident: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Ribeiro dos Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To describe the scientific knowledge produced about trauma in the elderly caused by traffic accidents in healthcare area studies. METHODS Integrative review of studies from 2003 to 2013 searched in LILACS, SciELO, PubMed and CINHAL databases. We used combination of the descriptors injuries, wounds and accidents, in English, Portuguese and Spanish languages. RESULTS 32 studies were selected. In the thematic analysis, three categories emerged: epidemiological data from traffic accidents involving elderly; traffic accidents with elderly pedestrians; and trauma care in the elderly. We observed increased incidence of trauma in most countries and pedestrians represented a large part of the victims. Among these, the elderly are the most vulnerable group. CONCLUSION Studies showed that trauma care in the elderly need protocols and professionals with training in gerontology specialized in trauma care services.

  2. Analysis of accidents with organic material in health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mariana; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Pinheiro, Regina Dal Castel

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective and descriptive study with a quantitative design aimed to evaluate occupational accidents with exposure to biological material, as well as the profile of workers, based on reporting forms sent to the Regional Reference Center of Occupational Health in Florianópolis/SC. Data collection was carried out through a survey of 118 reporting forms in 2007. Data were analyzed electronically. The occurrence of accidents was predominantly among nursing technicians, women and the mean age was 34.5 years. 73% of accidents involved percutaneous exposure, 78% had blood and fluid with blood, 44.91% resulted from invasive procedures. It was concluded that strategies to prevent the occurrence of accidents with biological material should include joint activities between workers and service management and should be directed at improving work conditions and organization.

  3. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang Xinxin [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2014-08-15

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow Modeling is given and a detailed presentation of the foundational means-end concepts is presented and the conditions for proper use in modelling accidents are identified. It is shown that Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used for modelling and reasoning about design basis accidents. Its possible role for information sharing and decision support in accidents beyond design basis is also indicated. A modelling example demonstrating the application of Multilevel Flow Modelling and reasoning for a PWR LOCA is presented.

  4. Prevention of "simple accidents at work" with major consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    broadly. This review identifies gaps in the prevention of simple accidents, relating to safety barriers for risk control and the management processes that need to be in place to deliver those risk controls in a continuingly effective state. The article introduces the ‘‘INFO cards’’ as a tool...... for the systematic observation of hazard sources in order to ascertain whether safety barriers and management deliveries are present. Safety management and safety culture, together with the INFO cards are important factors in the prevention process. The conclusion is that we must look at safety as a part of being...... of prevention or safety methodologies and procedures established for major accidents are applicable to simple accidents. The article goes back to basics about accidents causes, to review the nature of successful prevention techniques and to analyze what have been constraints to getting this knowledge used more...

  5. Un chercheur du CERN tué dans un accident

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The accident occured on Sunday between Collonges and Pougnu (Pays de Gex): 4 russians scientists were aboard the vehicle; the driver lost the control of the vehicle and the car made a barrel. (1/4 page)

  6. Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... plant accidents comes mainly from consuming contaminated water, milk, or foods. People may also be exposed by ...

  7. [The Fukushima nuclear accident: consequences for Japan and for us].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosche, B

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was the consequence of a preceding 2-fold natural catastrophe: the earth quake of 11 March 2011 and the subsequent tsunami. Due to favourable winds and to evacuation measures the radiation exposure to the general population in Japan as a whole and with some exceptions in the region outside the evacuation zone, too, was low. In this article the attempt is made to give an estimate of health consequences to the public. This is based upon WHO's dose estimates, knowledge of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, of the atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in Kazakhstan and on the risk of childhood leukaemia after low dose radiation exposure. For Germany, there was no radiation threat due to the accident. Nonetheless, the events in Japan made clear that the rules and standards that were developed for the case of a reactor accident need to be revised.

  8. The relationship between alcohol and traffic accidents an actuarial analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelker, G.

    1970-01-01

    This analysis deals with the accident chances of the excessive drinkers, moderate drinkers and non-drinkers. The Swedish motor insurance results for total abstainers are compared to the average policyholders.

  9. [Accidents with venomous and poisonous animals in Central Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodio, Mauro; Junghanss, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    Central Europe is largely safe from accidents with venomous and poisonous animals. The regions where European vipers are regularly found are shrinking. Today accidents with jellyfish and stings of venomous fish afflicted during leisure activities at the sea side play the dominant role. Life threatening accidents in Europe are mainly due to exotic snakes held in captivity. A system useful in daily medical practice is explained to classify and stage accidents due to poisonous and venomous animals. The important poisonous and venomous animals of Central Europe and the specific therapeutics, the antivenoms, are covered. The antivenom depot "Antivenin-CH" of the Swiss Toxicology Information Centre in Zurich and the MRITox in Munich with the antivenom registry Munich AntiVenom INdex (MAVIN) are presented.

  10. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  11. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Nuclear Physicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka Takaharu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I give an overview on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and a report on voluntary activities of Japanese nuclear physicists in this terrible event, including their major outcome.

  12. Monitoring Fallout From Fukushima, Japan After Nuclear Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, on March 23rd, 2011, following the radioactivity releases after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, the first arrival of the airborne fission products 131I in Heilongjiang province the northeast of China, were detected

  13. Scientific aspects of the Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and assessments conducted beforehand for earthquake and tsunami potential in the Pacific offshore region of the Tohoku District. The results of our investigation show that all the assessments failed to foresee the earthquake and its related tsunami, which was the main cause of the accident. Therefore, the disaster caused by the earthquake, and the accident were scientifically unforeseeable at the time. However, for a zone neighboring the reactors, a 2008 assessment showed tsunamis higher than the plant height. As a lesson learned from the accident, companies operating nuclear power plants should be prepared using even such assessment results for neighboring zones.

  14. Truckers' Poor Health: An Accident Waiting to Happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163147.html Truckers' Poor Health: An Accident Waiting to Happen? Multiple medical ... pain and diabetes -- that have been linked with poor driving performance. Truck drivers with three or more ...

  15. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T.; Jow, Hong-Nian (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previous CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. This document, Volume 1, the Users's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems.

  16. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Jow, H.N. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projections, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management.

  17. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jow, H.N.; Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Audiological profile in cases with cerebrovascular accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matlapudi Venkata Subbarao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past decades there has been increase demand of audiological complaints coinciding with neurological impairments due to cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs. Most of the cases represent inconsistent responses to acoustic stimuli or total lack of response to sound, documented as auditory agnosia. Aim: The present investigation aims at understanding of potential anatomical co-relates to the involvement of the cortical structure and the processing of auditory stimuli. Materials and Methods: A case series with convenient sampling method included eight cases (six male and two female with age range 45-55 years with CVA, were taken for this study. Of them two cases were found with lesion in right middle cerebral artery, four cases with left middle cerebral artery and two cases with left posterior cerebral artery lesion confirmed from magnetic resonance imaging scan. Audiological test battery including otoscopy, tuning fork test, pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, immittance audiometry, dichotic-diotic listening test, auditory brainstem responses, otoacoustic emissions and gap detection tests were carried out including routine ENT evaluation. Results and Conclusion: Result suggests; there is a significant difference in hearing threshold and speech perception in all the eight subjects. The findings and compromised vascular anatomy in all these cases were discussed in this article.

  19. On severe accident hydrogen behaviour in Loviisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, T. [OTO-Consulting Ay, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-02-01

    This study is related to the hydrogen management strategy of the Loviisa ice-condenser containments. A synthetic survey is conducted of the various parts of the subject by using compact `back-of-the-envelope` analysis methods. The analysed cases are consistent with the principal hydrogen management approaches proposed by the utility Imatran Voima Oy (IVO). The study begins by introduction of the Loviisa plant features and various severe accident types. Hydrogen generation characteristics are analysed mainly for the core degradation phase, but the hydrogen sources from molten fuel-coolant interactions and reflooding of a degraded core are discussed, as well. The hydrogen generation and release rates are compared with the overall gas convection and mixing conditions in order to estimate hydrogen concentrations in the containment. The natural convection currents are examined also from the scaling point of view, concerning the scaled-down VICTORIA tests of IVO. Finally, the potential for large deflagration loadings or local detonations is examined for the Loviisa containments. The study is concluded by preliminary subjective judgments about the most critical factors of the Loviisa hydrogen problematics and about any issues that may require additional confirmative research. (orig.) (47 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs.).

  20. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vinayak V; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.

  1. Material Selection for Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Lance Lewis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Alternative cladding materials to Zr-based alloys are being investigated for accident tolerance, which can be defined as > 100X improvement (compared to Zr-based alloys) in oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments at ≥ 1200°C for short times. After reviewing a wide range of candidates, current steam oxidation testing is being conducted on Mo, MAX phases and FeCrAl alloys. Recently reported low mass losses for Mo in steam at 800°C could not be reproduced. Both FeCrAl and MAX phase Ti2AlC form a protective alumina scale in steam. However, commercial Ti2AlC that was not single phase, formed a much thicker oxide at 1200°C in steam and significant TiO2, and therefore Ti2AlC may be challenging to form as a cladding or a coating. Alloy development for FeCrAl is seeking to maintain its steam oxidation resistance to 1475°C, while reducing its Cr content to minimize susceptibility to irradiation-assisted α´ formation. The composition effects and critical limits to retaining protective scale formation at > 1400°C are still being evaluated.

  2. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  3. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics.Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  4. The Tokay-Mura accident; L'accident de Tokay-Mura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andurand, R

    2000-08-01

    On the 30. september 1999 occurred a criticality accident in the fuel fabrication plant of Tokai-Mura in Japan. 49 persons were irradiated but we present the case of the most seriously injured three workers. The radiation doses that would have been received by the three operators near the incriminated container have been evaluated to 17, 10 and 3 Grays. For the operators situated at five meters from the container and that has received three Grays, the first peak of criticality has been estimated at 2.10{sup 17} fissions. The number of fissions posterior to the first peak has been estimated between 4.10{sup 17} and 5.10{sup 18}. In the three cases, the dose received by the organism has been attributed for about 40% to the neutrons and 60% to gamma radiations. The first operator presented an initial intense phase of acute irradiation syndrome. He received a graft of hematopoietic cells given by a sister of him on the sixth day, he was still alive 29 days later during the visit of the Commission, but he was in a coma and died shortly afterwards. The second victim has been equally reached by an acute irradiation syndrome, accompanied by a severe myeloid depression. At the ninth day, he received a blood graft coming from umbilical cord. He recovered a part of his own marrow, platelets excepted. He suffers from intense pains. A survival chance exists. The third victim was in an adjoining room, at about five meters far from the accident. He has been reached, but in a lower extent, by the acute irradiation syndrome and a low myeloid depression, that has decreased after a growth factors treatment. The prognosis is optimist in his case. The fact that patients have survived for the first time such a long time has revealed a very particular pathology of neutrons-gamma mixed irradiation, with an appearance of new medical problems due to the multiple failure of organs. To notice, the week before the accident, stood at Paris the 6. International conference devoted to the control

  5. MELCOR DB Construction for the Severe Accident Analysis DB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been constructing a severe accident analysis database (DB) under a National Nuclear R and D Program. In particular, an MAAP (commercial code being widely used in industries for integrated severe accident analysis) DB for many scenarios including a station blackout (SBO) has been completed. This paper shows the MELCOR DB construction process with examples of SBO scenarios, and the results will be used for a comparison with the MAAP DB

  6. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffer, L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  7. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.

    1999-09-09

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  8. Home accidents amongst elderly people: A locality study in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Gilhooly, M; Banks, P.; Barrett, W.; Wales, A.; Caldwell, S.; Macdonald, C.(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom); Dunleavy, K

    2007-01-01

    Aim The aim of this locality study was to collect information on reported and unreported accidents amongst elderly people living in one locality in Scotland. Method Postal Survey- A postal questionnaire was sent to 3,757 men and women aged 65+ years living in one locality. The questionnaire asked respondents to indicate how many accidents they had experienced in the past twelve months, plus to indicate type and location. Information was gathered on living arrangements, ethnicity,...

  9. Marine Offshore Accidents in Nigeria, Causes and Necessary Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yinkepreye L. Bebeteidoh ,Robert Poku

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the ground-breaking developments in the maritime industry and the implementation of safety-related regulations and the institution of International Safety Codes and Protocols, marine offshore accidents in Nigeria are still a serious concern for global maritime organizations as the rate of offshore accidents has not reduced to the expected level. Ensuring the consistency of offshore accident investigation reports is recognized as a significant goal in order to plainly ascertain the core causes of offshore accidents. This research work though limited due to poor response on the part of the respondents as regards to releasing some data that would have been helpful, the researchers were still able to investigate the core causes of marine offshore accidents in Nigeria’s maritime industry. With emphasis on the scope of work essentially, data was collected through the administration of a well-structured questionnaire to selected seafarers connected with the offshore oil and gas industry in Nigeria, which included Captains, engineers, deckhands, oilers and Quartermasters. The data’s collected through the administration of a self-constructed questionnaire was analyzed using the concept of the statistical tool, Chi-Square, which was considered appropriate for testing the validity and reliability of each hypothesis established in this research. The aim of this research was to determine the causes of marine offshore accidents in Nigeria, which identified that human, environmental/natural, design, and technical factors comprises the major causes of marine offshore accidents. With the findings gotten, recommendations were made which if implemented by governments and maritime organizations and adhered to by maritime operators will go a long way to reduce marine offshore accidents.

  10. Informational uncertainties of risk assessment about accidents of chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An analysis system of informational uncertainties for accidental risk assessment of chemicals is introduced. Statistical test methods and fuzzy sets method can do the quantitative analysis of the input parameters. The uncertainties of the model can be used by quantitative compared method for the leakage accidents of chemicals. The estimation of the leaking time is important for discussing accidental source term. The uncertain analyses of the release accident for pipeline gas (CO) liquid chlorine and liquid propane gas (LPG) have been discussed.

  11. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  12. Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Bounding Flammable Gas Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Carro, C A

    2003-01-01

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank The calculation applies reasonably conservation input parameters in accordance with DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A, guidance. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from Office of River Protection.

  13. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nucler Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...... for information sharing and decision support in accidents beyond design basis is also indicated. A modelling example demonstrating the application of Multilevel Flow Modelling and reasoning for a PWR LOCA is presented....

  14. Traffic Accident Analysis Using Decision Trees and Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Miao M.; Abraham, Ajith; Paprzycki, Marcin

    2004-01-01

    The costs of fatalities and injuries due to traffic accident have a great impact on society. This paper presents our research to model the severity of injury resulting from traffic accidents using artificial neural networks and decision trees. We have applied them to an actual data set obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) General Estimates System (GES). Experiment results reveal that in all the cases the decision tree outperforms the neural network. Our research analys...

  15. ACCIDENT PREDICTION MODELS FOR UNSIGNALISED URBAN JUNCTIONS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed SALIFU, MSc., PhD, MIHT, MGhIE

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide an improved method for safety appraisal in Ghana through the development and application of suitable accident prediction models for unsignalised urban junctions. A case study was designed comprising 91 junctions selected from the two most cosmopolitan cities in Ghana. A wide range of traffic and road data together with the corresponding accident data for each junction for the three-year period 1996-1998 was utilized in the model development p...

  16. Therapeutic Potential of Secreted Amyloid Precursor Protein APPsα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockett, Bruce G.; Richter, Max; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Müller, Ulrike C.

    2017-01-01

    Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by α-secretase generates an extracellularly released fragment termed secreted APP-alpha (APPsα). Not only is this process of interest due to the cleavage of APP within the amyloid-beta sequence, but APPsα itself has many physiological properties that suggest its great potential as a therapeutic target. For example, APPsα is neurotrophic, neuroprotective, neurogenic, a stimulator of protein synthesis and gene expression, and enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. While most early studies have been conducted in vitro, effectiveness in animal models is now being confirmed. These studies have revealed that either upregulating α-secretase activity, acutely administering APPsα or chronic delivery of APPsα via a gene therapy approach can effectively treat mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other disorders such as traumatic head injury. Together these findings suggest the need for intensifying research efforts to harness the therapeutic potential of this multifunctional protein.

  17. Ancient engineers' inventions precursors of the present

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the inventions and designs of ancient engineers who are the precursors of the present. The period ranges mainly from 300 B.C. to 1600 A.D. with several exceptions. Many of the oldest inventions are documented by archaeological finds, often very little known, mainly from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and reveal a surprising modernity in their conception. Most of the inventions presented in the first four parts of the book were conceived up to the late Roman Empire and may be considered as milestones, each in their respective field. The fifth part concentrates on more recent centuries. The sixth part deals with some building construction techniques. Generally, for each of the presented inventions, three elements of research and reference are provided: written documents (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings. The authors did not write this book for engineers only; hence they describe all the devices without assuming wide technical knowledge...

  18. Naphthalene and its precursors in Iomex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, S.D.; Sharma, B.K. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

    1995-05-01

    Iomex, an aromatic rich concentrate from kerosene feedstock is a potential source for production of naphthalene which has a variety of industrial applications. Four analytical procedures were standardized for compositional study of iomex according to chemical class. Hydrocarbon group type separation (saturates, mono- and diaromatics) and quantitation was reported using column chromatography, gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Data generated by these techniques are in good agreement with each other. A diaromatic fraction containing naphthalene and its precursors was studied in detail by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Capillary GC could resolve each and every component of the diaromatic fraction, whereas quantitation and characterization of 27 components were obtained by mass spectrometry. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  20. Precursors of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Linneberg, Allan; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    activity, the age- and sex adjusted odds ratio being 0.33 (95% confidence interval 0.13-0.82, P=0.016) for participants who were physically active more than 7 h/week compared with participants active 0-2 h/week. In women, macular drusen >63µm were associated with higher serum triglycerides (P=0......PURPOSE: To investigate associations of small, hard macular drusen and larger macular drusen with obesity-related risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 888 subjects aged 30-60 years characterized using anthropometric measurements and blood sample analyses. Physical activity was assessed...... cholesterol (HDL) (P=0.029) and with moderately elevated triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Precursors of AMD were associated with modifiable obesity-related risk factors, notably low physical activity with drusen >63 µm and lower serum HDL and moderately elevated serum triglycerides with 20 or more small, hard...