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Sample records for accident consequences analysis

  1. Accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, W.; Cooper, P.J.; Underwood, B.Y.; Peckover, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The essential elements of an analysis of the radiological consequences of accidental atmospheric releases from nuclear plant are identified and the modelling approaches currently used briefly outlined. For the model description attention is focused on the techniques used within the context of a probabilistic risk assessment. This is followed by a brief outline of current research and development work in the field, allowing an indication of the nature of the next generation of consequence assessment methods. (author)

  2. Consequence analysis of depressurization accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The consequences of the depressurization accidents for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor are investigated. A consequence model is developed that is used to delineate the parameters that are important to the consequence calculations. A numerical example of the calculational technique is given

  3. The system development of consequence analysis for army nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wei; Zuo Li; Chen Xianbo; Qu Yantao; Yang Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Through the analysis of the assessment technique and the function characteristics of related system, domestic nuclear facilities accident consequence, assessment technique for army nuclear accident consequence was studied and the difference between the two evaluation methods were also compared. On this basis, the function, the application and the optimization of a software system that was developed for army was discussed. All of these will provide suggestion for the nuclear weapon accident consequence assessment. (authors)

  4. Hanford Waste Tank Bump Accident and Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-06-20

    This report provides a new evaluation of the Hanford tank bump accident analysis and consequences for incorporation into the Authorization Basis. The analysis scope is for the safe storage of waste in its current configuration in single-shell and double-shell tanks.

  5. An uncertainty analysis using the NRPB accident consequence code Marc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.; Crick, M.J.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an uncertainty analysis of MARC calculations of the consequences of accidental releases of radioactive materials to atmosphere. A total of 98 parameters describing the transfer of material through the environment to man, the doses received, and the health effects resulting from these doses, was considered. The uncertainties in the numbers of early and late health effects, numbers of people affected by countermeasures, the amounts of food restricted and the economic costs of the accident were estimated. This paper concentrates on the results for early death and fatal cancer for a large hypothetical release from a PWR

  6. PERSPECTIVES ON A DOE CONSEQUENCE INPUTS FOR ACCIDENT ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Thoman, D.C.; Lowrie, J.; Keller, A.

    2008-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) accident analysis for establishing the required control sets for nuclear facility safety applies a series of simplifying, reasonably conservative assumptions regarding inputs and methodologies for quantifying dose consequences. Most of the analytical practices are conservative, have a technical basis, and are based on regulatory precedent. However, others are judgmental and based on older understanding of phenomenology. The latter type of practices can be found in modeling hypothetical releases into the atmosphere and the subsequent exposure. Often the judgments applied are not based on current technical understanding but on work that has been superseded. The objective of this paper is to review the technical basis for the major inputs and assumptions in the quantification of consequence estimates supporting DOE accident analysis, and to identify those that could be reassessed in light of current understanding of atmospheric dispersion and radiological exposure. Inputs and assumptions of interest include: Meteorological data basis; Breathing rate; and Inhalation dose conversion factor. A simple dose calculation is provided to show the relative difference achieved by improving the technical bases

  7. Accident consequence calculations for project W-058 safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Accident consequence analyses have been performed for Project W-058, the Replacement Cross Site Transfer System. using the assumption and analysis techniques developed for the Tank Remediation Waste system Basis for Interim Operation. most potential accident involving the FISTS are bounded by the TWRS BIO analysis. However, the spray leak and pool leak scenarios require revised analyses since the RCSTS design utilizes larger diameter pipe and higher pressures than those analyzed in the TWRS BIO. Also the volume of diversion box and vent station are larger than that assumed for the valve pits in the TWRS BIO, which effects results of sprays or spills into the pits. the revised analysis for the spray leak is presented in Section 2, for the above ground spill in Section 3, for the presented in Section 2, for the above ground spill in Section 3, for the subsurface spill forming a pool in Section 4, and for the subsurface pool remaining subsurface in Section 5. The conclusion from these sections are summarized below

  8. Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Bounding Flammable Gas Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Carro, C A

    2003-01-01

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank The calculation applies reasonably conservation input parameters in accordance with DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A, guidance. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from Office of River Protection.

  9. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysisclose quotes, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,close quotes was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model

  10. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.; Abrahmson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ''other''. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk

  11. Health effects estimation code development for accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, O.; Homma, T.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a computer code system for nuclear reactor accident consequence analysis, two computer codes have been developed for estimating health effects expected to occur following an accident. Health effects models used in the codes are based on the models of NUREG/CR-4214 and are revised for the Japanese population on the basis of the data from the reassessment of the radiation dosimetry and information derived from epidemiological studies on atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The health effects models include early and continuing effects, late somatic effects and genetic effects. The values of some model parameters are revised for early mortality. The models are modified for predicting late somatic effects such as leukemia and various kinds of cancers. The models for genetic effects are the same as those of NUREG. In order to test the performance of one of these codes, it is applied to the U.S. and Japanese populations. This paper provides descriptions of health effects models used in the two codes and gives comparisons of the mortality risks from each type of cancer for the two populations. (author)

  12. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  13. Uncertainty analysis in calculations of a road accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefous, S.; Brenot, J.; Hubert, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper develops a concrete situation witch is the search for an evacuation distance in case of a road accident implying a chlorine tank. The methodological aspect is how implementing uncertainty analysis in deterministic models with random parameters. The study demonstrates a great dispersion in the results. It allows to establish satisfactory decision rules and a hierarchy on parameters witch is useful to define priorities in the search for information and to improve the treatment of these parameters. (authors). 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Aspects of risk analysis application to estimation of nuclear accidents and tests consequences and intervention management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.F.; Hedemann-Jensen, P.; Rolevich, I.V.; Schneider, T.S.; Sobolev, B.G.

    1996-01-01

    For assessment of accident consequences and a post-accident management a risk analysis methodology and data bank (BARD) with allowance for radiation and non-radiation risk causes should be developed and used. Aspects of these needs and developments are considered. Some illustrative results of health risk estimation made with BARD for the Bryansk region territory with relatively high radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident are presented

  15. Environmental decision support system on base of geoinformational technologies for the analysis of nuclear accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, T.C.; Maigan, M.; Arutyunyan, R.V.; Bolshov, L.A.; Demianov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    The report deals with description of the concept and prototype of environmental decision support system (EDSS) for the analysis of late off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents and analysis, processing and presentation of spatially distributed radioecological data. General description of the available software, use of modem achievements of geostatistics and stochastic simulations for the analysis of spatial data are presented and discussed

  16. Aspects of uncertainty analysis in accident consequence modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1981-01-01

    Mathematical models are frequently used to determine probable dose to man from an accidental release of radionuclides by a nuclear facility. With increased emphasis on the accuracy of these models, the incorporation of uncertainty analysis has become one of the most crucial and sensitive components in evaluating the significance of model predictions. In the present paper, we address three aspects of uncertainty in models used to assess the radiological impact to humans: uncertainties resulting from the natural variability in human biological parameters; the propagation of parameter variability by mathematical models; and comparison of model predictions to observational data

  17. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models.

  18. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Grupa, J.B. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models.

  19. Critical analysis of accident scenario and consequences modelling applied to light-water reactor power plants for accident categories beyond the design basis accident (DBA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brofferio, C.; Cagnetti, P.; Ferrara, V.; Manilia, E.; Pietrangeli, G.; Sennis, C.

    1985-01-01

    A critical analysis and sensitivity study of the modelling of accident scenarios and environmental consequences are presented, for light-water reactor accident categories beyond the standard design-basis-accident category. The first chapter, on ''source term'' deals with the release of fission products from a damaged core inventory and their migration within the primary circuit and the reactor containment. Particular attention is given to the influence of engineering safeguards intervention and of the chemical forms of the released fission products. The second chapter deals with their release to the atmosphere, transport and wet or dry deposition, outlining relevant partial effects and confronting short-duration or prolonged releases. The third chapter presents a variability analysis, for environmental contamination levels, for two extreme hypothetical scenarios, evidencing the importance of plume rise. A numerical plume rise model is outlined

  20. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis of the Whole Program Package COSYMA (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhardt, J.; Jones, J.A.; Goossens, L.H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The overall uncertainty analysis of the program package COSYMA for assessing the radiological consequences of nuclear accidents builds on the results of a series of individual uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of its submodules. A set of 186 model parameters was identified which contribute most to the uncertainties of endpoints. Probabilistic accident consequence assessments with 144 weather sequences were performed for each of 300 sample sets derived from the uncertainty distributions of these parameters by Latin hypercube sampling. The evaluation of the results provided confidence bounds for the complementary cumulative frequency distributions of endpoints for three different source terms covering a wide range of release fractions. Concluding sensitivity analyses identified the most important model parameters responsible for the uncertainties of endpoints. (author)

  1. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of food pathway results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the food pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 87 imprecisely-known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing season dose, crop long-term dose, milk growing season dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, area dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, condemnation area, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: fraction of cesium deposition on grain fields that is retained on plant surfaces and transferred directly to grain, maximum allowable ground concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 for production of crops, ground concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137 and I-131 at which the disposal of milk will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, ground concentrations of Cs-134, I-131 and Sr-90 at which the disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, rate of depletion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the root zone, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, transfer of Cs-137 from soil to pasture, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, and the transfer of cesium, iodine and strontium from animal feed to milk

  2. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of food pathway results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the food pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 87 imprecisely-known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing-season dose, crop long-term dose, milk growing-season dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, area dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, condemnation area, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: fraction of cesium deposition on grain fields that is retained on plant surfaces and transferred directly to grain, maximum allowable ground concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 for production of crops, ground concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137 and I-131 at which the disposal of milk will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, ground concentrations of Cs-134, I-131 and Sr-90 at which the disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, rate of depletion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the root zone, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, transfer of Cs-137 from soil to pasture, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, and the transfer of cesium, iodine and strontium from animal feed to milk

  3. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of food pathway results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the food pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 87 imprecisely-known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing season dose, crop long-term dose, milk growing season dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, area dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, condemnation area, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: fraction of cesium deposition on grain fields that is retained on plant surfaces and transferred directly to grain, maximum allowable ground concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 for production of crops, ground concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137 and I-131 at which the disposal of milk will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, ground concentrations of Cs-134, I-131 and Sr-90 at which the disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, rate of depletion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the root zone, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, transfer of Cs-137 from soil to pasture, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, and the transfer of cesium, iodine and strontium from animal feed to milk.

  4. Accident Damage Analysis Module (ADAM) – Technical Guidance, Software tool for Consequence Analysis calculations

    OpenAIRE

    FABBRI LUCIANO; BINDA MASSIMO; BRUINEN DE BRUIN YURI

    2017-01-01

    This report provides a technical description of the modelling and assumptions of the Accident Damage Analysis Module (ADAM) software application, which has been recently developed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) to assess physical effects of an industrial accident resulting from an unintended release of a dangerous substance

  5. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of early exposure results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; McKay, M.D.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the early health effects associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 34 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: number of early fatalities, number of cases of prodromal vomiting, population dose within 10 mi of the reactor, population dose within 1000 mi of the reactor, individual early fatality probability within 1 mi of the reactor, and maximum early fatality distance. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: scaling factor for horizontal dispersion, dry deposition velocity, inhalation protection factor for nonevacuees, groundshine shielding factor for nonevacuees, early fatality hazard function alpha value for bone marrow exposure, and scaling factor for vertical dispersion

  6. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of chronic exposure results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C; Johnson, J.D; Rollstin, J.A; Shiver, A.W; Sprung, J.L

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the chronic exposure pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 75 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing-season dose, crop long-term dose, water ingestion dose, milk growing-season dose, long-term groundshine dose, long-term inhalation dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, total latent cancer fatalities, area-dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, population-dependent cost, total economic cost, condemnation area, condemnation population, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: dry deposition velocity, transfer of cesium from animal feed to milk, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meet, ground concentration of Cs-134 at which the disposal of milk products will be initiated, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, maximum allowable ground concentration of Sr-90 for production of crops, fraction of cesium entering surface water that is consumed in drinking water, groundshine shielding factor, scale factor defining resuspension, dose reduction associated with decontamination, and ground concentration of I-131 at which disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season. Reducing the uncertainty in the preceding variables was found to substantially reduce the uncertainty in the

  7. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of chronic exposure results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the chronic exposure pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 75 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing season dose, crop long-term dose, water ingestion dose, milk growing season dose, long-term groundshine dose, long-term inhalation dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, total latent cancer fatalities, area-dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, population-dependent cost, total economic cost, condemnation area, condemnation population, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: dry deposition velocity, transfer of cesium from animal feed to milk, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, ground concentration of Cs-134 at which the disposal of milk products will be initiated, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, maximum allowable ground concentration of Sr-90 for production of crops, fraction of cesium entering surface water that is consumed in drinking water, groundshine shielding factor, scale factor defining resuspension, dose reduction associated with decontamination, and ground concentration of 1-131 at which disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season

  8. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  9. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertain assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  10. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for deposited material and external doses. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Boardman, J. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, J.A. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA deposited material and external dose models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on deposited material and external doses, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  11. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on early health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  12. Accident consequence analysis models applied to licensing process of nuclear installations, radioactive and conventional industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, Murillo; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Jordao, Elizabete

    2002-01-01

    The industrial accidents happened in the last years, particularly in the eighty's decade, had contributed in a significant way to call the attention to government authorities, industry and society as a whole, demanding mechanisms for preventing episodes that could affect people's safety and environment quality. Techniques and methods already thoroughly used in the nuclear, aeronautic and war industries were then adapted for performing analysis and evaluation of the risks associated to other industrial activities, especially in the petroleum, chemistry and petrochemical areas. Some models for analyzing the consequences of accidents involving fire and explosion, used in the licensing processes of nuclear and radioactive facilities, are presented in this paper. These models have also application in the licensing of conventional industrial facilities. (author)

  13. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of the joint effort was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. Experts developed their distributions independently. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. To validate the distributions generated for the dispersion code input variables, samples from the distributions and propagated through the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the first of a three-volume document describing the project.

  14. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, appendices A and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A.; Hora, S.C.; Lui, C.H.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Helton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the second of a three-volume document describing the project and contains two appendices describing the rationales for the dispersion and deposition data along with short biographies of the 16 experts who participated in the project

  15. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the second of a three-volume document describing the project and contains two appendices describing the rationales for the dispersion and deposition data along with short biographies of the 16 experts who participated in the project.

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A.; Hora, S.C.; Lui, C.H.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Helton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of the joint effort was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. Experts developed their distributions independently. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. To validate the distributions generated for the dispersion code input variables, samples from the distributions and propagated through the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the first of a three-volume document describing the project

  17. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [eds.

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  18. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Toshimitsu

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  19. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses

  20. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  1. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis of the Early Health Effects Module in the COSYMA Package (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupa, J.B.; Hasemann, I.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of models that are used to calculate the risk from early health effects due to exposure to a large dose of radiation from radioactive materials has been investigated. Early health effects are radiation diseases that occur within six weeks after the exposure. The present investigation provides data needed for subsequent analysis of the accuracy of estimates of the risks from nuclear power plant accidents (accident consequence assessments). By means of a formal expert elicitation procedure, for a limited number of exposure cases, a set of data has been obtained that quantifies the accuracy of risk estimates for early health effects. These data have been implemented in the generic models for calculating the risk and the accuracy of the calculated risk. These generic models are currently applied in accident consequence assessments. (author)

  2. RASCAL [Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis]: A screening model for estimating doses from radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Athey, G.F.; Sakenas, C.A.; McKenna, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis (RASCAL) is a new MS-DOS-based dose assessment model which has been written for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use during response to radiological emergencies. RASCAL is designed to provide crude estimates of the effects of an accident while the accident is in progress and only limited information is available. It has been designed to be very simple to use and to run quickly. RASCAL is unique in that it estimates the source term based on fundamental plant conditions and does not rely solely on release rate estimation (e.g., Ci/sec of I-131). Therefore, it can estimate consequences of accidents involving unmonitored pathways or projected failures. RASCAL will replace the older model, IRDAM. 6 refs

  3. Degraded core accidents for the Sizewell PWR A sensitivity analysis of the radiological consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Clarke, R H; Ferguson, L; Haywood, S M; Hemming, C R; Jones, J A

    1982-01-01

    The radiological impact of degraded core accidents postulated for the Sizewell PWR was assessed in an earlier study. In this report the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to variation in the values of a number of important parameters is investigated for one of the postulated accidental releases. The parameters subjected to sensitivity analyses are the dose-mortality relationship for bone marrow irradiation, the energy content of the release, the warning time before the release to the environment, and the dry deposition velocity for airborne material. These parameters were identified as among the more important in determining the uncertainty in the results obtained in the initial study. With a few exceptions the predicted consequences were found to be not very sensitive to the parameter values investigated, the range of variation in the consequences for the limiting values of each parameter rarely exceeded a factor of a few and in many cases was considerably less. The conclusions reached are, however, p...

  4. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G.

  5. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G

  6. Cost per severe accident as an index for severe accident consequence assessment and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Kampanart; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Takahara, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Accident emphasizes the need to integrate the assessments of health effects, economic impacts, social impacts and environmental impacts, in order to perform a comprehensive consequence assessment of severe accidents in nuclear power plants. “Cost per severe accident” is introduced as an index for that purpose. The calculation methodology, including the consequence analysis using level 3 probabilistic risk assessment code OSCAAR and the calculation method of the cost per severe accident, is proposed. This methodology was applied to a virtual 1,100 MWe boiling water reactor. The breakdown of the cost per severe accident was provided. The radiation effect cost, the relocation cost and the decontamination cost were the three largest components. Sensitivity analyses were carried out, and parameters sensitive to cost per severe accident were specified. The cost per severe accident was compared with the amount of source terms, to demonstrate the performance of the cost per severe accident as an index to evaluate severe accident consequences. The ways to use the cost per severe accident for optimization of radiation protection countermeasures and for estimation of the effects of accident management strategies are discussed as its applications. - Highlights: • Cost per severe accident is used for severe accident consequence assessment. • Assessments of health, economic, social and environmental impacts are included. • Radiation effect, relocation and decontamination costs are important cost components. • Cost per severe accident can be used to optimize radiation protection measures. • Effects of accident management can be estimated using the cost per severe accident

  7. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident.

  8. OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS WITH BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN CLINICAL ANALYSIS LABORATORY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Azevedo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accidents involving biological material can cause diseases to the professional healthcare and also bring psychosocial effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the accidents occurring with biological material with professional of clinical laboratories of Sinop-MT. Data were collected by a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic and health variables. 21 (87.5% of respondents stated that they never suffered any kind of accident. One of the injured workers reported that there was involvement in your emotional life. It is observed underreporting of occupational accidents by employees affected, making it difficult to increase research on the subject and actions about the problem.

  9. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment. Volume 3, Appendices C, D, E, F, and G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the third of a three-volume document describing the project and contains descriptions of the probability assessment principles; the expert identification and selection process; the weighting methods used; the inverse modeling methods; case structures; and summaries of the consequence codes

  10. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment. Volume 3, Appendices C, D, E, F, and G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the third of a three-volume document describing the project and contains descriptions of the probability assessment principles; the expert identification and selection process; the weighting methods used; the inverse modeling methods; case structures; and summaries of the consequence codes.

  11. Consequence analysis of core meltdown accidents in liquid metal fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, S.D.; Hahn, D.

    2001-01-01

    Core disruptive accidents have been investigated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) as part of work to demonstrate the inherent and ultimate safety of the conceptual design of the Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor(KALIMER), a 150 Mw pool-type sodium cooled prototype fast reactor that uses U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel. In this study, a simple method was developed using a modified Bethe-Tait method to simulate the kinetics and hydraulic behavior of a homogeneous spherical core over the period of the super-prompt critical power excursion induced by the ramp reactivity insertion. Calculations of energy release during excursions in the sodium-voided core of the KALIMER were subsequently performed using the method for various reactivity insertion rates up to 100 $/s, which has been widely considered to be the upper limit of ramp rates due to fuel compaction. Benchmark calculations were made to compare with the results of more detailed analysis for core meltdown energetics of the oxide fuelled fast reactor. A set of parametric studies was also performed to investigate the sensitivity of the results on the various thermodynamics and reactor parameters. (author)

  12. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1990-10-01

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  13. Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)- Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, D.

    1986-09-01

    The causes and consequences of the nuclear accident at Chernobylsk-4 reactor are shortly described. The informations were provided by Russian during the specialist meeting, carried out at seat of IAEA. The Russian nuclear panorama; the site, nuclear power plant characteristics and sequence of events; the immediate measurements after accident; monitoring/radioactive releases; environmental contamination and ecological consequences; measurements of emergency; recommendations to increase the nuclear safety; and recommendations of work groups, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  15. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoechel, A.

    1988-01-01

    After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG) [de

  16. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  17. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Abrahmson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilbert, E.S. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ``other``. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk.

  18. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Orihiko; Homma, Toshimitsu; Matsuzuru, Hideo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi

    1991-02-01

    A first version of models has been developed for predicting the number of occurrences of health effects induced by radiation exposure in nuclear reactor accidents. The models are based on the health effects models developed originally by Harvard University (NUREG/CR-4214). These models are revised on the basis of the new information on risk estimates by the reassessment of the radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The models deal with the following effects: (1) early effects models for bone marrow, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, thyroid, skin and reproductive organs, using the Weibull function, (2) late somatic effects models including leukemia and cancers of breast, lungs, thyroid, gastrointestinal tract and so forth, on the basis of the information derived from epidemiological studies on the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (3) models for late and developmental effects due to exposure in utero. (author)

  19. Radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Improved health effects models have been developed for assessing the early effects, late somatic effects and genetic effects that might result from low-LET radiation exposures to populations following a major accident in a nuclear power plant. All the models have been developed in such a way that the dynamics of population risks can be analyzed. Estimates of life years lost and the duration of illnesses were generated and a framework recommended for summarizing health impacts. Uncertainty is addressed by providing models for upper, central and lower estimates of most effects. The models are believed to be a significant improvement over the models used in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Reactor Safety Study, and they can easily be modified to reflect advances in scientific understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation

  20. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ''other.'' The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs

  1. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. (Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (USA). School of Public Health)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and other.'' The category, other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs.

  2. Validating accident consequence assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorsson, C.; Kelly, G.N.; Nixon, W.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare the predictions of participating codes for a range of postulated accidental releases and to assess the significance of any differences observed. Seven codes from various countries participated in the exercise: ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), MECA2 (Spain) and OSCAAR (Japan). They calculated a wide range of consequences, for example: collective doses, early and late health effects, economic costs and the effect of countermeasures on people and agriculture. In each case, the probability distributions predicted by the codes were compared. (author)

  3. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  4. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis of the Food Chain Module in the COSYMA Package (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Jones, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the uncertainty analysis of the food chain module of COSYMA and the uncertainty distributions on the input parameter values for the food chain model provided by the expert panels that were used for the analysis. Two expert panels were convened, covering the areas of soil and plant transfer processes and transfer to and through animals. The aggregated uncertainty distributions from the experts for the elicited variables were used in an uncertainty analysis of the food chain module of COSYMA. The main aim of the module analysis was to identify those parameters whose uncertainty makes large contributions to the overall uncertainty and so should be included in the overall analysis. (author)

  5. Health consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, Roland

    2011-10-01

    The author first outlines that no exposure of mankind to environmental risks has been as exhaustively and continuously studied as that resulting from ionizing radiations. Apart from lethal effects, he describes non lethal cell lesions which are induced in tissues: mutations and modifications of gene expressions, either directly under the effect of radiation, or by water hydrolysis, or indirectly through a biochemical response to these initial events. Then, the author evokes the controversy about Chernobyl: according to scientists, there is no relationship between the health degradation (human morbidity and mortality) and fallouts whereas activist groups state that there is. The author then evokes that the WHO and the IAEA were accused to lie about the issue of victims and health consequences. He outlines that UNSCEAR reports are a reference for radio-biologists, and that the 2011 report confirmed the conclusions of the 2006 report. He comments some published data, notably those on the acute irradiation syndrome (ARS), on carcinogenic effects (essentially thyroid cancers for children, as there is no clear nor admitted relationship for other forms of cancer), on other pathologies. Finally, the author briefly discusses the issue of crisis management, the information about Fukushima, and the issue of Chernobyl fallouts in France

  6. Biological and medical consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latarjet, R.

    1988-01-01

    The study of the medical and biological consequences of the nuclear accidents is a vast program. The Chernobyl accident has caused some thirty deceases: Some of them were rapid and the others occurred after a certain time. The particularity of these deaths was that the irradiation has been associated to burns and traumatisms. The lesson learnt from the Chernobyl accident is to treat the burn and the traumatism before treating the irradiation. Contrary to what the research workers believe, the first wave of deaths has passed between 15 and 35 days and it has not been followed by any others. But the therapeutic lesson drawn from the accident confirm the research workers results; for example: the radioactive doses band that determines where the therapy could be efficacious or not. the medical cares dispensed to the irradiated people in the hospital of Moscow has confirmed that the biochemical equilibrium of proteinic elements of blood has to be maintained, and the transfusion of the purified elements are very important to restore a patient to health, and the sterilization of the medium (room, food, bedding,etc...) of the patient is indispensable. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an international cooperation for providing enough sterilized rooms and specialists in the irradiation treatment. The genetic consequences and cancers from the Chernobyl accident have been discussed. It is impossible to detect these consequences because of their negligible percentages. (author)

  7. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2003-01-01

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  8. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  9. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Sabino, J.F.; Ayala Jimenez, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  10. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar T he lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is

  11. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  12. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramoutar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  13. Scientometric analysis of the means of scientific communication of the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonova, N.O.; Kulyinyich, G.V.; Pavlyichenko, Yu.V.; Gorvan', A.Je.; Zakrut'ko, L.Yi.; Novgorods'ka, L.M.; Byilan, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper evaluation of the structure and trends in the development of the Ukrainian scientific communication tools on the medical consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident using bibliometric methods has been given. The main developers of methodical documents are allocated, the dynamics of the distribution of methodical references, information letters and innovations is estimated. The importance of scientific communications tools in dissemination and use of new medical knowledge is demonstrated

  14. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  15. Evaluation of nuclear accidents consequences. Risk assessment methodologies, current status and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    General description of the structure and process of the probabilistic methods of assessment the external consequences in the event of nuclear accidents is presented. attention is paid in the interface with Probabilistic Safety Analysis level 3 results (source term evaluation) Also are described key issues in accident consequence evaluation as: effects evaluated (early and late health effects and economic effects due to countermeasures), presentation of accident consequences results, computer codes. Briefly are presented some relevant areas for the applications of Accident Consequence Evaluation

  16. Analysis of containment performance and radiological consequences under severe accident conditions for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    A severe accident study was conducted to evaluate conservatively scoped source terms and radiological consequences to support the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Conceptual Safety Analysis Report (CSAR). Three different types of severe accident scenarios were postulated with a view of evaluating conservatively scoped source terms. The first scenario evaluates maximum possible steaming loads and associated radionuclide transport, whereas the next scenario is geared towards evaluating conservative containment loads from releases of radionuclide vapors and aerosols with associated generation of combustible gases. The third scenario follows the prescriptions given by the 10 CFR 100 guidelines. It was included in the CSAR for demonstrating site-suitability characteristics of the ANS. Various containment configurations are considered for the study of thermal-hydraulic and radiological behaviors of the ANS containment. Severe accident mitigative design features such as the use of rupture disks were accounted for. This report describes the postulated severe accident scenarios, methodology for analysis, modeling assumptions, modeling of several severe accident phenomena, and evaluation of the resulting source term and radiological consequences.

  17. Analysis of containment performance and radiological consequences under severe accident conditions for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    A severe accident study was conducted to evaluate conservatively scoped source terms and radiological consequences to support the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Conceptual Safety Analysis Report (CSAR). Three different types of severe accident scenarios were postulated with a view of evaluating conservatively scoped source terms. The first scenario evaluates maximum possible steaming loads and associated radionuclide transport, whereas the next scenario is geared towards evaluating conservative containment loads from releases of radionuclide vapors and aerosols with associated generation of combustible gases. The third scenario follows the prescriptions given by the 10 CFR 100 guidelines. It was included in the CSAR for demonstrating site-suitability characteristics of the ANS. Various containment configurations are considered for the study of thermal-hydraulic and radiological behaviors of the ANS containment. Severe accident mitigative design features such as the use of rupture disks were accounted for. This report describes the postulated severe accident scenarios, methodology for analysis, modeling assumptions, modeling of several severe accident phenomena, and evaluation of the resulting source term and radiological consequences

  18. Environmental consequences of releases from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1990-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of a four-year Nordic cooperation program in the area of consequence assessment of nuclear accidents with large releases to the environment. This program was completed in 1989. Related information from other research programs has also been described, so that many chapters of the report reflect the current status in the respective areas, in addition to containing the results of the Nordic program. (author) 179 refs

  19. Research on consequence analysis method for probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear fuel facilities (5). Evaluation method and trial evaluation of criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yuichi; Abe, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Ken; Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Arisawa, Jun; Hayami, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    A special committee of 'Research on the analysis methods for accident consequence of nuclear fuel facilities (NFFs)' was organized by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) under the entrustment of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The committee aims to research on the state-of-the-art consequence analysis method for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of NFFs, such as fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities. The objectives of this research are to obtain information useful for establishing quantitative performance objectives and to demonstrate risk-informed regulation through qualifying issues needed to be resolved for applying PSA to NFFs. The research activities of the committee were mainly focused on the consequence analysis method for postulated accidents with potentially large consequences in NFFs, e.g., events of criticality, spill of molten glass, hydrogen explosion, boiling of radioactive solution and fire (including the rapid decomposition of TBP complexes), resulting in the release of radioactive materials to the environment. The results of the research were summarized in a series of six reports, which consist of a review report and five technical ones. In this report, the evaluation methods of criticality accident, such as simplified methods, one-point reactor kinetics codes and quasi-static method, were investigated and their features were summarized to provide information useful for the safety evaluation of NFFs. In addition, several trial evaluations were performed for a hypothetical scenario of criticality accident using the investigated methods, and their results were compared. The release fraction of volatile fission products in a criticality accident was also investigated. (author)

  20. The Fukushima accident: radiological consequences and first lessons. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about the Fukushima accident, its radiological consequences and the first lessons learnt. Sixteen presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Accident progress and first actions (Thierry Charles, IRSN); 2 - Conditions and health monitoring of the Japanese intervention teams (Bernard Le Guen, EDF); 3 - The Intra Group action after the Fukushima accident (Michel Chevallier, Groupe Intra; Frederic Mariotte, CEA); 4 - Processing of effluents (Georges Pagis, Areva); 5 - Fukushima accident: impact on the terrestrial environment in Japan (Didier Champion, IRSN); 6 - Consequences of the Fukushima accident on the marine environment (Dominique Boust, IRSN); 7 - Territories decontamination perspectives (Pierre Chagvardieff, CEA); 8 - Actions undertaken by Japanese authorities (Florence Gallay, ASN); 9 - Japanese population monitoring and health stakes (Philippe Pirard, InVS); 10 - Citizen oversight actions implemented in Japan (David Boilley, ACRO); 11 - Implementation of ICRP's (International Commission on Radiological Protection) recommendations by Japanese authorities: first analysis (Jacques Lochard, CIPR); 12 - Control of Japan imported food stuff (David Brouque, DGAL); 13 - Questions asked by populations in France and in Germany (Florence-Nathalie Sentuc, GRS; Pascale Monti, IRSN); 14 - Labour law applicable to French workers working abroad (Thierry Lahaye, DGT); 15 - Protection of French workers working in Japan, Areva's experience (Patrick Devin, Areva); 16 - Fukushima accident experience feedback and post-accident nuclear doctrine (Jean-Luc Godet, ASN)

  1. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs

  2. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  3. Robustness of an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of early exposure results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; McKay, M.D.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the early health effects associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The following results were obtained in tests to check the robustness of the analysis techniques: two independent Latin hypercube samples produced similar uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results; setting important variables to best-estimate values produced substantial reductions in uncertainty, while setting the less important variables to best-estimate values had little effect on uncertainty; similar sensitivity analysis results were obtained when the original uniform and loguniform distributions assigned to the 34 imprecisely known input variables were changed to left-triangular distributions and then to right-triangular distributions; and analyses with rank-transformed and logarithmically-transformed data produced similar results and substantially outperformed analyses with raw (i.e., untransformed) data

  4. Processing Expert Judgements in Accident Consequence Modelling (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    In performing uncertainty analysis a distribution on the code input parameters is required. The construction of the distribution on the code input parameters for the joint CEC/USNRC Accident Consequence Code Uncertainty Analysis using Expert Judgement is discussed. An example from the food chain module is used to illustrate the construction. Different mathematical techniques have been developed to transform the expert judgements into the required format. Finally, the effect of taking account of correlations in performing uncertainty analysis is investigated. (author)

  5. Cosyma a new programme package for accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    1991-01-01

    This report gives details of a new programme package for accident consequence assessment, prepared under the CEC's Maria programme (Methods for assessing the radiological impact of accidents) initiated in 1982 to review and build on the nuclear accident consequence assessment methods in use within the European Community

  6. Environmental consequences of releases from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1990-03-01

    The report presents the results of a four-year Nordic cooperation project (AKTU-200). The results have impact upon many facets of accident consequence assessment, ranging from new computational tools to recommendations concerning food preparation methods to be utilized in a fallout situation. Some of the subprojects have approached areas where little or no research has been performed previously, like the project on winter conditions, the project on the physico/chemical form of radionuclides in the Chernobyl fallout, and the project on resuspension. The conclusion from the first of these projects is that the impact of an accident or fallout situation occuring during winter may be considerable smaller than in a similar situation during summer conditions. The most important conclusion from the second of these projects is that bioavailability of radiocesium in soil is significantly lower than that of radiocesium in plant material taken up via the roots. In the third project is was found that the resuspension factor is several orders of magnitude lower than the values traditionally cited, and that resuspension is a local phenomenon in a majority of weather conditions. The development of large-scale testing of mitigating actions to prevent uptake of radiocesium in animals in a fallout situation is also one of the projects where new ground has been sucessfully broken. 189 refs., 89 figs., 55 tabs

  7. A comparison of the consequences of the design basis accident of the Greek Research Reactor with those of a serious realistic accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, J.G.; Anoussis, J.N.

    1985-12-01

    An analysis of the radiological consequences of the design basis and the coolant flow blockage accidents of the Greek Research Reactor is presented. The results indicate that the consequences of the coolant flow blockage accident are practically trivial being 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding consequences of the design basis accident. (author)

  8. Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)-Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, D.

    1986-07-01

    Facts, project data, hypothesis, calculations, evaluations, monitoring, standard requirements and several considerations, related to causes, effects and consequences of Chernobylsk-4 accident. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Nuclear Accidents: Consequences for Human, Society and Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Bolshov; R. V. Arutyunyan; I. I. Linge; I. L. Abalkina

    2016-01-01

    The article examines radiation and hygienic regulations with regard to the elimination of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident in the context of relationships with other aspects, primarily socio-economic and political factors. This experience is reasonable to take into account when defining criteria in other regulatory fields, for example, in radioactive waste classification and remediation of areas. The article presents an analysis of joint features and peculiarities of nuclear acciden...

  10. Assessment of off-site consequences of nuclear accidents (MARIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report is given of a workshop held in Luxembourg in 1985 on methods for assessing the off-site radiological consequences of nuclear accidents (MARIA). The sessions included topics such as atmospheric dispersion; foodchain transfer; urban contamination; demographic and land use data; dosimetry, health effects, economic and countermeasures models; uncertainty analysis; and application of probabilistic risk assessment results as input to decision aids. (U.K.)

  11. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu; Ashizawa, Kiyoto

    1997-01-01

    An International Conference entitled 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident' was held at the Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996. The aim of conference was to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It was concluded that a highly significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among those persons in the affected areas who were children in 1986 is the only clear evidence to data of a public health impact of radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident and both temporal and geographical distributions clearly indicate a relationship of the increase in incidence to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. To clarify the relationship between thyroid cancer and radioactive fallout more clearly, a long term prospective study (case-control/cohort) should be conducted in the highly risk groups and the analysis of accurate estimation of exposure dose to external and/or internal radiation is needed. (author)

  12. Medical consequences of a nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, S.E.; Reizenstein, P.; Stenke, L.

    1987-01-01

    The report gives background information concerning radiation and the biological medical effects and damages caused by radiation. The report also discusses nuclear power plant accidents and efforts from the medical service in the case of a nuclear power plant accident. (L.F.)

  13. The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The accidental release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR led to widespread contamination over Europe. The pattern of the contamination was determined by the weather conditions which occurred during the days when the release was continuing. Actual levels depended on a number of factors including the distance and direction from Chernobyl, rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud and local conditions such as topography. The highest levels of radioactivity have been found in parts of Scandanavia, which was affected by the early stages of the release, and in areas where it rained during the passage of the plume e.g. in parts of Italy, Greece and West Germany. Following the release of radionuclides to atmosphere people will be irradiated by a number of different routes. While the cloud is overhead people will be exposed to external irradiation from material in the cloud and internal irradiation following inhalation of the material. Radionuclides are removed from the cloud during transit and deposited on the ground. People are then exposed by other routes, notably external irradiation from the deposited material and the transfer of material through the terrestrial environment to foods consumed by people. These four exposure pathways are the most important in estimating the radiation doses received by the European population due to the Chernobyl accident. Environmental data are required to estimate the radiation doses. Such data are collected in all European countries by national authorities following the Chernobyl accident. In East Europe measurement data supplied by the national authorities were supplemented by information obtained by using the British embassies. The Embassies were supplied with instruments to measure external γ dose rates and they also collected food samples for analysis at NRPB. Various countermeasures were introduced in different countries to reduce exposure. These measures included restrictions on

  14. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanin, D.I.; Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T.; Jow, Hong-Nian

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previous CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. This document, Volume 1, the Users's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems

  15. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, H.N.; Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T.; Rollstin, J.A.; Chanin, D.I.

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs

  16. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jow, H.N.; Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollstin, J.A.; Chanin, D.I.; Jow, H.N.

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projections, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management

  18. Nuclear Accidents: Consequences for Human, Society and Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Bolshov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines radiation and hygienic regulations with regard to the elimination of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident in the context of relationships with other aspects, primarily socio-economic and political factors. This experience is reasonable to take into account when defining criteria in other regulatory fields, for example, in radioactive waste classification and remediation of areas. The article presents an analysis of joint features and peculiarities of nuclear accidents in the industry and energy sectors. It is noted that the scale of global consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is defined by the large-scale release of radioactivity into the environment, as well as an affiliation of the nuclear installation with the energy sector. Large-scale radiation accidents affect the most diverse spheres of human activities, what, in its turn, evokes the reverse reaction from the society and its institutions, including involvement of political means of settlement. If the latter is seeing for criteria that are scientifically justified and feasible, then the preconditions for minimizing socio-economic impacts are created. In other cases, political decisions, such as nuclear units’ shutdown and phasing out of nuclear energy, appear to be an economic price which society, as a whole and a single industry sector, pay to compensate the negative public response. The article describes fundamental changes in approaches to ensure nuclear and radiation safety that occurred after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Multiple and negative consequences of the Chernobyl accident for human and society are balanced to some extent by a higher level of operational safety, emergency preparedness, and life-cycle safety. The article indicates that harmonization and ensuring consistency of regulations that involve different aspects of nuclear and radiation safety are important to implement practical solutions to the nuclear legacy problems. The

  19. Epidemiological analysis of data on participants of liquidating the consequences of ChNPP accident that live in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyb, A.F.; Ivanov, V.K.; Ajrapetov, S.A.; Gashp, E.A.; Maksyutov, M.A.; Rozhkov, O.V.; Stadnik, O.E.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Saakyan, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    To provide for long-term, automatized, personal registration of individuals that have been exposed to radiation as a result of ChNPP accident and their children; radiation doses as well as the participants health and alterations in health State register (SR) has been compiled. SR-multilevel system covering all regions of the country includes 3 subsystems relating to organization-and-medical provision; mathematical software and radiation monitoring. The current status of SR for the Russian Federation has been demonstrated; stochastic effects of radiation influence as well as the dynamics of the basic criteria of disease incidence have been evaluated. 2 refs.; 12 figs

  20. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Nedvecktaite, T.; Filistovic, V.

    1997-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  1. The Chernobyl accident: Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Two explosions, one immediately following the other, in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union signaled the worst disaster ever to befall the commercial nuclear power production industry. This accident, which occurred at 1:24 a.m. on April 26, 1986, resulted from an almost incredible series of operational errors associated, ironically, with an attempt to enhance the capability of the reactor to safely accommodate station blackout accidents (i.e., accidents arising from a loss of station electrical power). Disruption of the core, due to a prompt criticality excursion, resulted in the destruction of the core vault and reactor building and the sudden dispersal of about 3% of the fuel from the core region into the environment. Lesser but significant releases of radioactivity continued through May 6, 1986, before attempts to certain the radioactivity and cool the remnants of the core were successful. The amount and composition of material released in the course of the accident remain somewhat uncertain, and inconsistencies in the release estimates are evident. The Soviet estimates, in addition to the dispersal of about 3% of the fuel, include complete release of the noble gas core inventory, 20% of the fission product iodine inventory, 15% of the tellurium inventory, and 10 to 13% of the fission product cesium inventory. The iodine and cesium release estimates are not consistent with the noble gas values, and are as much as a factor of two less than some estimates made by experts outside the Soviet Union

  2. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  3. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johns, Jesse [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  4. Method for consequence calculations for severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, F.

    1988-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Swedish State Power Board. The report contains a calculation of radiation doses in the surroundings caused by a theoretical core meltdown accident at Ringhals reactor No 3/4. The accident sequence chosen for the calcualtions was a release caused by total power failure. The calculations were made by means of the PLUCON4 code. A decontamination factor of 500 is used to account for the scrubber effect. Meteorological data for two years from the Ringhals meteorological tower were analysed to find representative weather situations. As typical weather, Pasquill D, was chosen with a wind speed of 10 m/s, and as extreme weather, Pasquill E, with a wind speed of 2 m/s. 19 refs. (author)

  5. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  6. Cesium-137: psychological and social consequences of the Goiania's accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, Suzana; Costa Neto, Sebastiao Benicio da

    1995-01-01

    The book care for radioactive accident occurred in 1987 in Goiania - brazilian city. The accident had origin by the hospitable equipment incorrect handling which contained a stainless steel capsule, in which interior there was cesium-137 chloride. The main boarded aspects are: psychological and social aspects verified after the accident; psychological and social analysis of population of Goiania three years after the accident; essay on the pertinence of Luscher's abbreviate test in psychological evaluation of the radioactive accident victims of Goiania; and psychological and mobile evaluation of intra-uterus children exposed to the radiation with cesium-137

  7. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece - Report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    In this report a realistic estimate of the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some realistic estimations for the population doses and the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  8. Radiological attacks and accidents. Medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuta, Hidenari

    2007-01-01

    Probability of the occurrence of radiological attacks appears to be elevated after the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11 in 2001. There are a lot of scenarios of radiological attack: simple radiological device, radiological disperse device (RDD or dirty bomb), attacks against nuclear reactor, improvised nuclear device, and nuclear weapons. Of these, RDD attack is the most probable scenario, because it can be easily made and can generate enormous psychological and economic damages. Radiological incidents are occurring to and fro in the world, including several cases of theft to nuclear facilities and unsuccessful terrorist attacks against them. Recently, a former Russian spy has allegedly been killed using polonium-210. In addition, serious radiological accidents have occurred in Chernobyl, Goiania, and Tokai-mura. Planning, preparation, education, and training exercise appear to be essential factors to cope with radiological attacks and accidents effectively without feeling much anxiety. Triage and psychological first aid are prerequisite to manage and provide effective medial care for mass casualties without inducing panic. (author)

  9. Accident consequence assessment and siting criteria development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The methodology developed is based on assessing the average over a large spectrum of meteorological conditions whole body collective dose resulting from a severe reference accident. The assessment of this dose is performed by code CRAC.GAEC, the Greek A.E.C. version of code CRAC2. The collective dose, which is chosen as a measure of the social radiation risk, is compared to the dose corresponding to a level of social risk encountered historically in energy production as a whole. The outcome of the comparison can be the determination of one or more sectors of acceptable sites for a set of specific conditions considered, such as the reactor characteristics. The present approach was aimed to deal with the problems stemming from the demographic idiomorphy of Greece, where one third of the country's population is concentrated in Athens, with the rest of the country exhibiting small population densities. One of the applications of the methodology developed concerned the identification of acceptable sites near Athens. For these sites the risk from the reference severe accident of a standard reactor to the over three millions inhabitants of Athens is less tan the risk corresponding to the same population that is due to energy production

  10. The analysis outlining the occurrence and consequences of accidents in the work environment of the firefighters employed by the State Fire Service in Poland in 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Agata; Gotlib, Joanna; Gałązkowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Due to the specifics of their work and to being exposed to a wide range of hazards, firefighters working for the State Fire Service (SFS) face the risk of work-related accidents more often than members of other occupational groups. The aim of this paper is to analyze the occurrence and consequences of accidents in the work environment of the SFS officers in Poland between the years 2008-2013. The material analyzed is based on aggregate data collected by the Headquarters of the State Fire Service. Figures regarding accidents in the period between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2013 show that 8518 work-related accidents occurred in that period and 8635 people were injured. The data shows that neither the number of accidents nor their frequency indicator underwent any significant fluctuations over the 6 years under consideration. The group that is most exposed to accidents on duty in the profession includes active firefighters serving in rescue and fire extinguishment divisions. According to the data, the greatest number of trauma incidents in the SFS between the years 2008-2013 occurred during sporting activities. The predominant cause of these was inappropriate behavior or the lack of proper care. The most frequent injuries sustained during the accidents were broken or fractured bones and sprained joints. Accidents on duty occur significantly more often when firefighters are at their stations, during sporting classes, exercises or maneuvers, than in the course of actual rescue operations. The firefighters of the State Fire Services are insufficiently prepared for their sporting activities. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis of the Late Health Effects Module in the COSYMA Package (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Wakeford, R.; Little, M.; Muirhead, C.; Hasemann, I.; Jones, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The uncertainty analysis is described of the late health effects module of COSYMA, describing both the methods of obtaining distributions on the input parameters and the results of the analysis. The uncertainty distributions on the input parameter values were obtained using formal expert judgement elicitation techniques. The aim of the module analysis was to identify those parameters whose uncertainty makes major contributions to the overall uncertainty, and which should be included in the final analysis of the whole COSYMA package. (author)

  12. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis of the Atmospheric Dispersion and Deposition Module in the COSYMA Package (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasler-Sauer, J.; Jones, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The uncertainty analysis is described of the atmospheric dispersion and deposition module of COSYMA, describing both the methods of obtaining distributions on the input parameters and the results of the analysis. The uncertainty distributions on the input parameter values were obtained using formal techniques of expert judgement elicitation. The aim of the module analysis was to identify those parameters whose uncertainty makes major contributions to the overall uncertainty, and which should be included in the final analysis of the whole COSYMA system. (author)

  13. Accident consequence calculations for project W-058 safetyanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1997-06-10

    Accident consequence analyses have been performed for Project W-058, the Replacement Cross Site Transfer System. using the assumption and analysis techniques developed for the Tank Remediation Waste system Basis for Interim Operation. most potential accident involving the FISTS are bounded by the TWRS BIO analysis. However, the spray leak and pool leak scenarios require revised analyses since the RCSTS design utilizes larger diameter pipe and higher pressures than those analyzed in the TWRS BIO. Also the volume of diversion box and vent station are larger than that assumed for the valve pits in the TWRS BIO, which effects results of sprays or spills into the pits. the revised analysis for the spray leak is presented in Section 2, for the above ground spill in Section 3, for the presented in Section 2, for the above ground spill in Section 3, for the subsurface spill forming a pool in Section 4, and for the subsurface pool remaining subsurface in Section 5. The conclusion from these sections are summarized below.

  14. Economic Analysis of Accident Law

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Shavell

    2003-01-01

    Accident law is the body of legal rules governing the ability of victims of harm to sue and to collect payments from those who injured them. This paper contains the chapters on accident law from a general, forthcoming book, Foundations of Economic Analysis of Law (Harvard University Press, 2003). The analysis is first concerned (chapters 2-4) with the influence of liability rules on incentives to reduce accident risks. Then consideration of accident law is broadened (chapter 5) to reflect the...

  15. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 μSv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  16. Transfrontier consequences to the population of Greece of large scale nuclear accidents: a preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, J.G.; Catsaros, Nicolas.

    1985-06-01

    In this report the consequences to the population of Greece from hypothetical large scale nuclear accidents at the Kozlodui (Bulgaria) nuclear power station are estimated under some simplifying assumptions. Three different hypothetical accident scenarios - the most serious for pressurized water reactors - are examined. The analysis is performed by the current Greek version of code CRAC2 and includes health and economic consequences to the population of Greece. (author)

  17. Incidence Probability of Delayed Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghani, A.H.; El-Naggar, A.M.; El-Kadi, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    During the first international Conference on the long -term consequences of the Chernobyl disaster in 1995 at Kiev, and also during the 1996 International Conference at Vienna, Summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the data regarding the delayed health consequences were mainly related to thyroid cancer, hereditary disorders, general morbidity, mortality and psychological disturbances. Contrary to expectations, the incidences of Leukemia and Soft Tissue tumors were similar to the spontaneous incident. The expected delayed effects, however, among the accident survivors, the liquidators and populations resident in contaminated areas would show higher incidence probability to Leukemia. These population groups have been continuously exposed to low level radiation both externally and internally. Application of the new ICRP concept of radiation-induced Detriment, and the Nominal Probability Coefficient for Cancer and hereditary effects for both workers and populations are used as the rationale to calculate the incidence probability of occurrence of delayed health effects of the Chernobyl accidents

  18. Probabilistic Assessment of Severe Accident Consequence in West Bangka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarko; Su'ud, Zaki

    2017-07-01

    Probabilistic dose assessment for severe accident condition is performed for West Bangka area. Source-term from WASH-1400 reactor analysis is used as a conservative release scenario for 1000 MWe PWR. Seven groups of isotopes are used in the simulation based on core inventory and release fraction. Population distribution for Muntok district and the area within a 100 km radius is obtained from 2014 data. Meteorological data is provided through cyclic sampling from a database containing two-year site-specific hourly records in 2014-2015 periods. PC-COSYMA segmented plume dispersion code is used to investigate the assumed the consequence of the accident scenario. The result indicates that early or deterministic effect is important for areas close the release point while long-term or stochastic effect is related to population distribution and covers area of up to 100 km from the release point. The mean annual expected values for early mortality and late mortality for the population within 100 km radius from Muntok site are 2.38×10-4 yr -1 and 1.33×10-3 yr -1 respectively.

  19. Accident analysis in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.E. da

    1981-01-01

    The way the philosophy of Safety in Depth can be verified through the analysis of simulated accidents is shown. This can be achieved by verifying that the integrity of the protection barriers against the release of radioactivity to the environment is preserved even during accident conditions. The simulation of LOCA is focalized as an example, including a study about the associated environmental radiological consequences. (Author) [pt

  20. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph.

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m -2 ), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 μSv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before

  1. The accident of Chernobylsk-4 reactor and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report deals with the particulars of the accident as communicated by the Soviet delegation at an IAEA meeting by the and of August 1986. It was stated that the consequences emanated from the inherent instability of the design of the reactor, the deviation from the safety rules by the operators and the lack of a sight reactor containment. (G.B.)

  2. Dispersion parameters: impact on calculated reactor accident consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    Much attention has been given in recent years to the modeling of the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants released from a point source. Numerous recommendations have been made concerning the choice of appropriate dispersion parameters. A series of calculations has been performed to determine the impact of these recommendations on the calculated consequences of large reactor accidents. Results are presented and compared in this paper.

  3. Consequences of Fukushima 11032011 - Radiological consequences from the nuclear accidents in Fukushima on 11 March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    On 11 March 2011 at 14.46 the strongest earthquake ever recorded in Japan struck the Pacific coast in front of Fukushima. The earthquake and the following tsunami damaged the nuclear power plants in Fukushima Dai-ichi to such an extent that the Japanese government declared the state of catastrophic accident with degree 7 according to the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). At Fukushima Dai-ichi there were 6 boiling water reactors (BWR), a storage pool for spent fuel assemblies and a dry cask storage. 12 km apart at Fukushima Dai-ni there were 4 more BWR. At the moment of the earthquake the reactors 1 to 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi, as well as the 4 reactors at Fukushima Dai-ni, were at full power, while the reactors 4 to 6 of Fukushima Dai-ichi were shut down for revision. From 12 March 2011 on, fairly large quantities of radioactive materials were released from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors with meaningful consequences on the population in the near neighbourhood. The irradiation from the radioactivity bearing clouds, the ingestion and inhalation, and the deposit of radioactive materials on the ground threatened the population. The inhabitants of large areas had to be evacuated. Furthermore, radioactive materials contaminated the drinking water, the sea water and finally the plants and animals, i.e. the food chain of the people living there. The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) continuously proceeded with the evaluation of the situation in Japan and a specialists' team made a detailed analysis of the accident, with emphasis on the human and organisational factors and on the lessons learned from this. The present report describes the present knowledge about the radiological consequences of the accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi on the population in the neighbourhood and on the staff at the power plant, until October 2011. First, the unrolling of the accident and its consequences on the plant site are analysed according to international

  4. Synthesis on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berniolles, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    The author first outlines and comments the differences between the BWR and PWR reactors: notably, BWRs used in Japan exhibit many defects the French PWRs do not have. Thus, a transposition of the Fukushima accident to a French nuclear power plant is not possible. As far as PWRs are concern, Three Mile Island remains the reference in terms of severe accident. On another hand, natural disasters in Japan have no equivalent in France. The author outlines the failures and inertia made by the actors in charge of nuclear issues and which resulted in the Fukushima accidents, just like in Chernobyl: they are therefore qualified of manmade disasters. He comments the various actions undertaken by engineers and technicians in Fukushima, and the consequences of the accident in terms of radioactive releases. He comments the present knowledge on biological effects of radiations with reference to past situations (Hiroshima, Chernobyl). He comments the health consequences of the Fukushima accident in relationship with radionuclide measurement. He also comments the health status of technicians working in the power plant, and finally proposes a brief overview of major problems which are still to be solved

  5. The Fukushima accident and its consequences. Facts, explanations and comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes an overview of the present situation in the different reactors of the Fukushima power station and discusses its control by the operator. It also describes what went on, the causes of the accident, and what occurred on the accident day (earthquake, tsunami, flooding). It discusses whether some mistakes regarding the design and the protection of reactors could explain the accident. It presents the various measures which have been immediately implemented to protect the populations and to confine the accident. It proposes an assessment of damages for the ground and marine environment in terms of contamination. It addresses the consequences of the released radioactivity on population health and on personnel intervening within the site. It discusses the restoration perspectives for contaminated areas and the possible return of evacuated population. Then, it describes the different phases for the station dismantling. It evokes the issue of fallouts beyond Japan and in Europe, outlines some lessons learned from the accident and new safety measures to be implemented in France. It discusses how nuclear risk management is organised in France and its efficiency. It addresses the consequences for the development of nuclear energy in the world

  6. Consequences for Germany arising from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station resulted in additional radiation exposure in Germany in the range of variance of the natural background exposure. Adequate measures were taken, and recommendations expressed, to ensure that the additional radiation exposures remained within the range of variation also in regions with higher exposures. The epidemiological studies conducted after the accident indicated no detectable health impacts as a consequence of the additional exposures. A Radiation Protection Provision Act passed in the meantime has helped to repair the inadequacies recognized during the event in the areas of environmental radioactivity monitoring and provisions for such occurrences (limits, measures to be taken). (orig.) [de

  7. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

  8. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next

  9. OFFSITE RADIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCE CALCULATION FOR THE BOUNDING MIXING OF INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS ACCIDENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding mixing of incompatible materials accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in Appendix A of DOE-STD-3009. The bounding accident is an inadvertent addition of acid to a waste tank. The calculated offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline. Revision 4 updates the analysis to consider bulk chemical additions to single shell tanks (SSTs)

  10. Nuclear installations abroad the accident risks and their potential consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turvey, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper endeavors to assess the threat to Ireland from severe accidents at civil nuclear installations. Among the various types of nuclear installations worldwide, reactors and reprocessing plants are considered to be the most threatening and so the paper focuses on these. The threat is assumed to be a function of the risk of severe accidents at the above types of installations and the probability of unfavourable weather conditions carrying the radioactive releases to Ireland. Although nuclear installations designed in eastern Europe and Asia are less safe than others, the greatest threat to Ireland arises from nearby installations in the UK. The difficulty of measuring the probabilities and consequences of severe nuclear accidents at nuclear installations in general is explained. In the case of the UK installations, this difficulty is overcome to some degree by using values of 'tolerable' risk adopted by the national nuclear regulator to define the radiotoxic releases from nuclear accidents. These are used as input to atmospheric dispersion models in which unfavourable weather conditions for Ireland are assumed and radiation doses are calculated to members of the Irish public. No countermeasures, such as sheltering, are assumed. In the worst cast scenario no deaths would be expected in Ireland in the immediate aftermath of the accident however, an increase in cancers over a period of 25 years or so would be expected assuming present-day models for the effect of low level radiation are valid

  11. Estimated consequences from severe spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnish, J.J.; Monette, F.; LePoire, D.; Biwer, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    The RISKIND software package is used to estimate radiological consequences of severe accident scenarios involving the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. Radiological risks are estimated for both a collective population and a maximally exposed individual based on representative truck and rail cask designs described in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) modal study. The estimate of collective population risk considers all possible environmental pathways, including acute and long-term exposures, and is presented in terms of the 50-y committed effective dose equivalent. Radiological risks to a maximally exposed individual from acute exposure are estimated and presented in terms of the first year and 50-y committed effective dose equivalent. Consequences are estimated for accidents occurring in rural and urban population areas. The modeled pathways include inhalation during initial passing of the radioactive cloud, external exposure from a reduction of the cask shielding, long-term external exposure. from ground deposition, and ingestion from contaminated food (rural only). The major pathways and contributing radionuclides are identified, and the effects of possible mitigative actions are discussed. The cask accident responses and the radionuclide release fractions are modeled as described in the NRC modal study. Estimates of severe accident probabilities are presented for both truck and rail modes of transport. The assumptions made in this study tend to be conservative; however, a set of multiplicative factors are identified that can be applied to estimate more realistic conditions

  12. Accident analysis for PRC-II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yongren; Tang Gang; Wu Qing; Lu Yili; Liu Zhifeng

    1997-12-01

    The computer codes, calculation models, transient results, sensitivity research, design improvement, and safety evaluation used in accident analysis for PRC-II Reactor (The Second Pulsed Reactor in China) are introduced. PRC-II Reactor is built in big populous city, so the public pay close attention to reactor safety. Consequently, Some hypothetical accidents are analyzed. They include an uncontrolled control rod withdrawal at rated power, a pulse rod ejection at rated power, and loss of coolant accident. Calculation model which completely depict the principle and process for each accident is established and the relevant analysis code is developed. This work also includes comprehensive computing and analyzing transients for each accident of PRC-II Reactor; the influences in the reactor safety of all kind of sensitive parameters; evaluating the function of engineered safety feature. The measures to alleviate the consequence of accident are suggested and taken in the construction design of PRC-II Reactor. The properties of reactor safety are comprehensively evaluated. A new advanced calculation model (True Core Uncovered Model) of LOCA of PRC-II Reactor and the relevant code (MCRLOCA) are first put forward

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE FUKUSIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES BY THE POPULATION IN THE FAR EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Arkhangelskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the attitude of the population in the five regions of the Far East to the consequences of the accident at the Fukushimai nuclear power plant, as well as the issues of informing about the accident. The analysis of public opinion is based on the data obtained by anonymous questionnaire survey performed in November 2011. In spite of the rather active informing and objective information on the absence of the contamination, most of the population of the Russian Far East believes that radioactive contamination is presented in the areas of their residence, and the main cause of this contamination is the nuclear accident in Japan.

  14. A radiological accident consequence assessment system for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Lam, H.K.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the Hong Kong Radiological Accident Consequence Assessment System which would be used to assess the potential consequences of an emergency situation involving atmospheric release of radioactive material. The system has the capability to acquire real-time meteorological information from the Observatory's network of automatic stations, synoptic stations in the nearby region as well as forecast data from numerical prediction models. The system makes use of these data to simulate the transport and dispersion of the released radioactive material. The effectiveness of protective action on the local population is also modeled. The system serves as a powerful aid in the protective action recommendation processes

  15. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty - A Joint CEC/USNRC Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Julie J.; Harper, Frederick T.

    1999-01-01

    The joint USNRC/CEC consequence uncertainty study was chartered after the development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS in the U.S. and COSYMA in Europe. Both the USNRC and CEC had a vested interest in expanding the knowledge base of the uncertainty associated with consequence modeling, and teamed up to co-sponsor a consequence uncertainty study. The information acquired from the study was expected to provide understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of current models as well as a basis for direction of future research. This paper looks at the elicitation process implemented in the joint study and discusses some of the uncertainty distributions provided by eight panels of experts from the U.S. and Europe that were convened to provide responses to the elicitation. The phenomenological areas addressed by the expert panels include atmospheric dispersion and deposition, deposited material and external doses, food chain, early health effects, late health effects and internal dosimetry

  16. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty - A Joint CEC/USNRC Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Julie J.; Harper, Frederick T.

    1999-07-28

    The joint USNRC/CEC consequence uncertainty study was chartered after the development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS in the U.S. and COSYMA in Europe. Both the USNRC and CEC had a vested interest in expanding the knowledge base of the uncertainty associated with consequence modeling, and teamed up to co-sponsor a consequence uncertainty study. The information acquired from the study was expected to provide understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of current models as well as a basis for direction of future research. This paper looks at the elicitation process implemented in the joint study and discusses some of the uncertainty distributions provided by eight panels of experts from the U.S. and Europe that were convened to provide responses to the elicitation. The phenomenological areas addressed by the expert panels include atmospheric dispersion and deposition, deposited material and external doses, food chain, early health effects, late health effects and internal dosimetry.

  17. A study into the consequences of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.G.

    1987-07-01

    The nuclear industry in Britain would like to believe, and would like the general public to believe, that major accidents such as that at Chernobyl in 1986, could no happen in Britain, because the design and operating procedure have been made as safe as possible. However, because the designers and operators are human, they can make mistakes. Some of these are mentioned; errors of design, errors of maintenance or inspection and errors of judgement. In spite of protestations to the contrary, a major accident could occur at Sizewell-B reactor. Given that this a real possibility, plans should be drawn up to prepare for the situation. The study considers the possible consequences of a nuclear accident under the headings, human error, how nuclear fission works, radioactivity, the truth about Chernobyl, what patterns of reactor accident are possible, what can be done (this includes meteorological information, the issuing of potassium iodate tables, radiation monitoring and evacuation). Practical issues which should concern the local authorities, especially Wrekin Council, are discussed and a recommendation made for an environmental protection officer to be appointed to keep the matter under continuing review. (U.K.)

  18. Study on the code system for the off-site consequences assessment of severe nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sora; Mn, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The importance of severe nuclear accidents and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were brought to international attention with the occurrence of severe nuclear accidents caused by the extreme natural disaster at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. In Korea, studies on level 3 PSA had made little progress until recently. The code systems of level 3 PSA, MACCS2 (MELCORE Accident Consequence Code System 2, US), COSYMA (COde SYstem from MAria, EU) and OSCAAR (Off-Site Consequence Analysis code for Atmospheric Releases in reactor accidents, JAPAN), were reviewed in this study, and the disadvantages and limitations of MACCS2 were also analyzed. Experts from Korea and abroad pointed out that the limitations of MACCS2 include the following: MACCS2 cannot simulate multi-unit accidents/release from spent fuel pools, and its atmospheric dispersion is based on a simple Gaussian plume model. Some of these limitations have been improved in the updated versions of MACCS2. The absence of a marine and aquatic dispersion model and the limited simulating range of food-chain and economic models are also important aspects that need to be improved. This paper is expected to be utilized as basic research material for developing a Korean code system for assessing off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents.

  19. Environmental radiological consequences of a loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.C.F.

    1981-01-01

    The elaboration of a calculation model to determine safety areas, named Exclusion Zone and Low Population Zone for nuclear power plants, is dealt with. These areas are determined from a radioactive doses calculation for the population living around the NPP after occurence of a postulated ' Maximum Credible Accident' (MCA). The MCA is defined as an accident with complete loss of primary coolant and consequent fusion of a substantial portion of the reactor core. In the calculations carried out, data from NPP Angra I were used and the assumptions made were conservative, to be compatible with licensing requirements. Under the most pessimistic assumption (no filters) the values of 410m and 1000m were obtained for the Exclusion Zone and Low Population Zone radii, respectivily. (Author) [pt

  20. Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Roberto; Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de

    2009-01-01

    The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

  1. Applications of probabilistic accident consequence evaluation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Are presented the approaches and results of the application of Accident Consequence Evaluation methodologies in on emergency in the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant site and a population evaluation of a planned NPP site in the east of the country Findings on population sector weighing and assessment of effectiveness of primary countermeasures in the event of sever accidents (SST1 and PWR4 source terms) in Juragua NPP site are discussed Results on comparative risk-based evaluation of the population predicted evolution (in 3 temporal horizons: base year, 2005 year and 2050 year) for the planned site are described. Evaluation also included sector risk weighing, risk importance of small towns in the nearby of the effects on risk of population freezing and relocation of these villages

  2. Procedures Guide for Structural Expert Judgement in Accident Consequence Modelling (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, R.M.; Goossens, L.H.J.

    2000-01-01

    A protocol is outlined for using structured expert judgement to generate uncertainty data for uncertainty analyses. The use of performance based weighting as an instrument to enable optimisation of the aggregated experts' assessments is emphasised. Examples are shown from the EC/USNRC joint study on Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis. (author)

  3. Application of GIS in prediction and assessment system of off-site accident consequence for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xingyu; Shi Zhongqi

    2002-01-01

    The assessment and prediction software system of off-site accident consequence for Guangdong Nuclear Power Plant (GNARD2.0) is a GIS-based software system. The spatial analysis of radioactive materials and doses with geographic information is available in this system. The structure and functions of the GNARD system and the method of applying ArcView GIS are presented

  4. Accident Analysis and Highway Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Noorliyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, Federal Route FT050 (Jalan Batu Pahat-Kluang has undergone many changes, including the improvement of geometric features (i.e., construction of median, dedicated U-turns and additional lanes and upgrading the quality of the road surface. Unfortunately, even with these enhancements, accidents continue to occur along this route. This study covered both accident analysis and blackspot study. Accident point weightage was used to identify blackspot locations. The results reveal hazardous road locations and blackspot ranking along the route.

  5. The accident consequence model of the German safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.

    1977-01-01

    The accident consequence model essentially describes a) the diffusion in the atmosphere and deposition on the soil of radioactive material released from the reactor into the atmosphere; b) the irradiation exposure and health consequences of persons affected. It is used to calculate c) the number of persons suffering from acute or late damage, taking into account possible counteractions such as relocation or evacuation, and d) the total risk to the population from the various types of accident. The model, the underlying parameters and assumptions are described. The bone marrow dose distribution is shown for the case of late overpressure containment failure, which is discussed in the paper of Heuser/Kotthoff, combined with four typical weather conditions. The probability distribution functions for acute mortality, late incidence of cancer and genetic damage are evaluated, assuming a characteristic population distribution. The aim of these calculations is first the presentation of some results of the consequence model as an example, in second the identification of problems, which need possibly in a second phase of study to be evaluated in more detail. (orig.) [de

  6. Cross-analysis of hazmat road accidents using multiple databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Martin; Leroux, Marie-Hélène; de Marcellis-Warin, Nathalie

    2009-11-01

    Road selection for hazardous materials transportation relies heavily on risk analysis. With risk being generally expressed as a product of the probability of occurrence and the expected consequence, one will understand that risk analysis is data intensive. However, various authors have noticed the lack of statistical reliability of hazmat accident databases due to the systematic underreporting of such events. Also, official accident databases alone are not always providing all the information required (economical impact, road conditions, etc.). In this paper, we attempt to integrate many data sources to analyze hazmat accidents in the province of Quebec, Canada. Databases on dangerous goods accidents, road accidents and work accidents were cross-analyzed. Results show that accidents can hardly be matched and that these databases suffer from underreporting. Police records seem to have better coverage than official records maintained by hazmat authorities. Serious accidents are missing from government's official databases (some involving deaths or major spills) even though their declaration is mandatory.

  7. The Chernobyl accident: its causes and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident occurred during the night of April 26th. Its exact causes were only known at the end of the month of August when an international conference, proposed by the Soviets, was held in Vienna. The Chernobyl reactor, which was moderated by graphite and cooled by water, had several weak points. A crew, which was carrying-out tests, cancelled six safety devices, some of which were essential. In these conditions, the reactor went out of control and this led to two explosions and a serious fire. The fire spread to the graphite and a part of the radioactivity in the reactor escaped into the atmosphere. The consequences of this accident which were well controlled by the authorities were serious in the neighbourhood of the reactor: 31 dead, 100 000 people evacuated and contaminated soil. The radioactive cloud resulting from the accident, pushed by the wind, travelled across Europe and provoked worry everywhere. In fact, the risks from such small doses of radioactivity are not significant; an evaluation of such risks is given in this article in comparison with the effects of small doses of chemical products which although they have analogous effects are considered as being inoffensive [fr

  8. Formation of decontamination cost calculation model for severe accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Kampanart; Promping, Jiraporn; Okamoto, Koji; Ishiwatari, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, the authors developed an index “cost per severe accident” to perform a severe accident consequence assessment that can cover various kinds of accident consequences, namely health effects, economic, social and environmental impacts. Though decontamination cost was identified as a major component, it was taken into account using simple and conservative assumptions, which make it difficult to have further discussions. The decontamination cost calculation model was therefore reconsidered. 99 parameters were selected to take into account all decontamination-related issues, and the decontamination cost calculation model was formed. The distributions of all parameters were determined. A sensitivity analysis using the Morris method was performed in order to identify important parameters that have large influence on the cost per severe accident and large extent of interactions with other parameters. We identified 25 important parameters, and fixed most negligible parameters to the median of their distributions to form a simplified decontamination cost calculation model. Calculations of cost per severe accident with the full model (all parameters distributed), and with the simplified model were performed and compared. The differences of the cost per severe accident and its components were not significant, which ensure the validity of the simplified model. The simplified model is used to perform a full scope calculation of the cost per severe accident and compared with the previous study. The decontamination cost increased its importance significantly. (author)

  9. Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Yuji; Kankura, Takako; Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi.

    1988-03-01

    Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m 3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

  10. Health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broegger, Anton

    1999-01-01

    The article reviews the sequence of the accident, the radiation exposures of different population groups and various short and long term health and environmental consequences to the surroundings and to other affected areas.. Radioactivity related deaths have occurred most frequently among the rescue and cleaning up personnel. The pollution problems in Scandinavia and Norway in particular, are pointed out with emphasis on the health and environmental aspects. However, the long term consequences for the Belarus' population and the natural surroundings of Chernobyl are unknown but an increase in possibly radiation related chromosomal changes and mutations are observed and may cause various defects and species alterations as well as health problems both to human beings and the environment

  11. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesmans, B.; Auglaire, M.; Snoeck, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  12. Spent fuel pool accident analysis and accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gil; Cho, Cheon Hwey [ACT CO., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young; Sung, Joon Young; Maeng, Yun Hwan [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The spent fuel pool(SFP) in unit 4 of the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs was damaged by an extreme seismic event and subsequent flooding by a tsunami. In order to investigate a progression of spent fuel pool accident scenarios, the well-defined MELCOR 1.8.6 code input deck was prepared and validated by experimental data of the OECD/NEA Sandia Fuel Project. Based on the validated MELCOR code input, three types of spent fuel pool accident scenarios were analyzed. In the complete loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios, sensitivity studies were conducted to identify the modeling boundary conditions to initiate a zirconium fire in the spent fuel assemblies. A series of MELCOR code calculations were performed to investigate a consequence of each SFP accident scenario. Based on findings from the calculations, the recommended operator actions were proposed to manage the SFP accident progressions.

  13. Tank waste compositions and atmospheric dispersion coefficients for use in accelerated safety analysis consequence assessments. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savino, A.V.

    1995-11-01

    This topical report contains technical support information used to determine accident consequences for the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis (ASA) Interim Chapter 3, Hazard and Accident Analysis: Potential for Releases and Required Mitigation and Prevention and the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) environmental impact statement (EIS) accident consequence report. It does not determine accident consequences or describe specific accident scenarios, but instead provides generic information used to calculate radiological and toxic chemical consequences for postulated tank farms accident releases

  14. Management of medical assistance provided to participants of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident consequences liquidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paun, Grigore; Moraru, Corina; Scortesco, Victor; Vasiliev, Evghenii

    2011-01-01

    Currently in the Republic of Moldova there are 2675 people who had suffered from sequelae of Chernobyl accident. In the paper the morbidity (incidence and prevalence), disability and mortality among participants in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences for the period of 2007-2010 were studied. The analysis of morbidity among 'liquidators' during 2007-2010 in the Republic of Moldova reveals the decline of incidence and prevalence due to better monitoring, opportune diagnosis and appropriate and timely treatment. Cancer and cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death for 'liquidators'.

  15. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, H.M.; Reis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion

  16. Joint CEC/OECD(NEA) workshop on recent advances in reactor accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olast, M.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1988-01-01

    The workshop on probabilistic accident consequence assessment techniques and their applications aims at a review of the present knowledge of all the work in this field. This includes the atmospheric dispersion and deposition modelling, with comparison of the different approaches, the exposure pathways with emphasis on post-deposition processes, the health effects with emphasis on the consequences of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data re-evaluation, the countermeasures and their economic consequences, the uncertainty analysis of the models and finally the applications of these models as aids to decision making

  17. Towards more realistic assessment of reactor accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1985-07-01

    The purpose of the Nordic project described in the report has been to improve the data base used in accident consequence assessments, and also to improve the assessment models in use in the Nordic countries. The following data related questions have been dealt with: Terrestrial transfer factors, the freshwater pathways, comparison of dynamic and static calculation models for fish, and the shielding effect of buildings. The work on terrestrial transfer factors has resulted in the generation of a Nordic fallout data bank. The following experimental investigations have been performed: Natural decontamination of roofs under summer and winter conditions, deposition in urban areas, and the filter effect of buildings. Various aspects of mitigating actions have also been examined

  18. Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovic, S.; Pavlovic, S.

    1997-01-01

    A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers

  19. CEC workshop on methods for assessing the offsite radiological consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luykx, F.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1986-01-01

    On Apr 15-19, 1985, in Luxembourg, the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), in collaboration with the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), Federal Republic of Germany, and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), United Kingdom, presented a workshop on methods for assessing the offsite radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. The program consisted of eight sessions. The main conclusions, which were presented in the Round Table Session by the individual Session Chairmen, are summarized. Session topics are as follows: Session I: international developments in the field of accident consequence assessment (ACA); Session II: atmospheric dispersion; Session III: food chain models; Session IV: urban contamination; Session V: demographic and land use data; Session VI: dosimetry, health effects, economic and counter measure models; Session VII: uncertainty analysis; and Session VIII: application of probabilistic consequence models as decision aids

  20. Final report of the accident phenomenology and consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation. Spills Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brereton, S.; Shinn, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hesse, D [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (United States); Kaninich, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lazaro, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mubayi, V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Spills Working Group was one of six working groups established under the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation program. The objectives of APAC were to assess methodologies available in the accident phenomenology and consequence analysis area and to evaluate their adequacy for use in preparing DOE facility safety basis documentation, such as Basis for Interim Operation (BIO), Justification for Continued Operation (JCO), Hazard Analysis Documents, and Safety Analysis Reports (SARs). Additional objectives of APAC were to identify development needs and to define standard practices to be followed in the analyses supporting facility safety basis documentation. The Spills Working Group focused on methodologies for estimating four types of spill source terms: liquid chemical spills and evaporation, pressurized liquid/gas releases, solid spills and resuspension/sublimation, and resuspension of particulate matter from liquid spills.

  1. CINETHICA - Core accident analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1989-10-01

    A computer program for nuclear accident analysis has been developed based on the point-kinetics approximation and one-dimensional heat transfer model for reactivity feedback calculation. Hansen's method/1/ were used for the kinetics equation solution and explicit Euler method were adopted for the thermohidraulic equations. The results were favorably compared to those from the GAPOTKIN Code/2/. (author) [pt

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  3. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayer, J.E.; Clark, A.T.; Loysen, P.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Mishima, J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  4. Level of health of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margine, L.; Vicol, C.

    2009-01-01

    During the period of 1986-1988 about 3,000 Moldova citizens took part in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences elimination. In this article the level of morbidity, disability and mortality among Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation participants is analyzed. As a result of analysis of medical documentation and statistical data was revealed that the sickness rate among disaster fighters 2,3 times higher than general sickness rate of the population in Moldova. Disability in this category is at average of 73 per cent as opposed to the overall index for the population of Moldova - 4,4%, this means it is 17 times higher. Mortality among the participants of the accident at Chernobyl NPP is 6 times higher of general data. The participants of the breakdown elimination of Chernobyl accident consequences are equal in their right with the participants and invalids of war and with the disabled workers. Medical and social security of this group is regulated by the legislation of the Republic of Moldova

  5. Categorizing accident sequences in the external radiotherapy for risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School (KINGS), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    This study identifies accident sequences from the past accidents in order to help the risk analysis application to the external radiotherapy. This study reviews 59 accidental cases in two retrospective safety analyses that have collected the incidents in the external radiotherapy extensively. Two accident analysis reports that accumulated past incidents are investigated to identify accident sequences including initiating events, failure of safety measures, and consequences. This study classifies the accidents by the treatments stages and sources of errors for initiating events, types of failures in the safety measures, and types of undesirable consequences and the number of affected patients. Then, the accident sequences are grouped into several categories on the basis of similarity of progression. As a result, these cases can be categorized into 14 groups of accident sequence. The result indicates that risk analysis needs to pay attention to not only the planning stage, but also the calibration stage that is committed prior to the main treatment process. It also shows that human error is the largest contributor to initiating events as well as to the failure of safety measures. This study also illustrates an event tree analysis for an accident sequence initiated in the calibration. This study is expected to provide sights into the accident sequences for the prospective risk analysis through the review of experiences.

  6. Categorizing accident sequences in the external radiotherapy for risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghyun

    2013-06-01

    This study identifies accident sequences from the past accidents in order to help the risk analysis application to the external radiotherapy. This study reviews 59 accidental cases in two retrospective safety analyses that have collected the incidents in the external radiotherapy extensively. Two accident analysis reports that accumulated past incidents are investigated to identify accident sequences including initiating events, failure of safety measures, and consequences. This study classifies the accidents by the treatments stages and sources of errors for initiating events, types of failures in the safety measures, and types of undesirable consequences and the number of affected patients. Then, the accident sequences are grouped into several categories on the basis of similarity of progression. As a result, these cases can be categorized into 14 groups of accident sequence. The result indicates that risk analysis needs to pay attention to not only the planning stage, but also the calibration stage that is committed prior to the main treatment process. It also shows that human error is the largest contributor to initiating events as well as to the failure of safety measures. This study also illustrates an event tree analysis for an accident sequence initiated in the calibration. This study is expected to provide sights into the accident sequences for the prospective risk analysis through the review of experiences.

  7. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

  8. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS [MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System] input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N; Rollstin, J.A.; Helton, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs

  9. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Helton, J.C. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  10. RADIATION-HYGIENIC AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE СHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: RESULTS AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An article is devoted to the analysis of the radiation situation in the dynamics during the years since the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. Data on the scope of activities fulfilled for the assessment of the territories radioactive contamination levels and foodstuffs contamination levels, on the values of the exposure doses for the population living on the contaminated territories, on the medical and socio-psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Basic norms and principles, used during the protective measures development and introduction, are considered, their effectiveness is demonstrated. Mistakes emerged during protective measures implementation are analyzed, the prognosis of the population exposure dose values for the 70-year period since the accident and main directions of activities for the contaminated territories remediation and normal life conditions restoration for the population at these territories are presented.

  11. An assessment of the radiological consequences of accidents in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, N.L.D.

    1992-01-01

    This work analyses the radiological consequences of accidents in two types of research reactors: a 5 MWt open pool reactor and a 50 MWt PWR reactor. Two siting cases have been considered: the reactor located near to a large population center and sited in a rural area. The influence of several factors such as source term, meteorological conditions and population distribution have been considered in the present analysis. (author)

  12. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  13. Radiation accidents with global consequences for the population. Problems of risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.; Doncheva, B.; Stoilova, S.; Miloslavov, V.; Tsenova, T.; Novkirishki, V.

    1987-01-01

    The theoretical problems concerning the delayed impacts as a result of considerable radiation accidents are discussed. The attention is paid to the maximum individual doses which are relatively low but many people are affected. In these cases, the risk evaluation is based on the cancerogenesis, genetic and teratogenetic consequences among the concerned population. The main equation of the linear threshold-free model 'dose effect' is subjected to analysis. Considering the real prognostic importance of this equation the following recommendations are made: further observation on epidemic diseases; investigation of teratogenetic consequences in connection with the radiation doses obtained during the antenatal development; radiation-hygienic standardization of the oral absorbtion of radionuclides for short and long periods of time; effective equivalent dose determination according to the irradiated organ or tissue (mammary glands, lungs, red marrow, gonads, skin); necessity of national system for in time announcement of radiation accidents, as well as suitable control of the internal and the external irradiation

  14. The comparative analysis of traumas and poisonings incidence and mortality rates from them at workers and men-employees, workers of the nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electri

    OpenAIRE

    Birukov A.P.; Tukov A.R.; Kleeva N.A.; Kapitonova N.V.

    2013-01-01

    The study aims the estimation of incidence of traumas and poisonings, and mortality from them at workers of the Russian nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station, in view of their social structure. Material and methods. Carrying out this research, we used the information base of the Register of the persons exposed by radiation after the Chernobyl accident. There had been registered as of January, 1, 1...

  15. [The indicators of biological age and accelerated aging in liquidators of the consequences of radiation accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchkova, E I; Alishev, N V

    2011-01-01

    The biological age (BA) of the majority of the liquidators of the consequences of the radiation accidents in the Navy and of the liquidators of the Chernobyl' APS accident exceeds the medium standard and the DBA (due BA). The index of the BA can be a characteristic of the influence of the social-hygienic factors on the health condition of the Special Risk Subunit--the liquidators of the consequences of the radiation accidents. It was established, that the radiation influence concerns to the factors dramatically increasing the BA and the rate of senescence of the liquidators of the consequences of the radiation accidents.

  16. Applicability of simplified human reliability analysis methods for severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, R.; St Germain, S. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Banaseanu, G.; Chatri, H.; Akl, Y. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Most contemporary human reliability analysis (HRA) methods were created to analyse design-basis accidents at nuclear power plants. As part of a comprehensive expansion of risk assessments at many plants internationally, HRAs will begin considering severe accident scenarios. Severe accidents, while extremely rare, constitute high consequence events that significantly challenge successful operations and recovery. Challenges during severe accidents include degraded and hazardous operating conditions at the plant, the shift in control from the main control room to the technical support center, the unavailability of plant instrumentation, and the need to use different types of operating procedures. Such shifts in operations may also test key assumptions in existing HRA methods. This paper discusses key differences between design basis and severe accidents, reviews efforts to date to create customized HRA methods suitable for severe accidents, and recommends practices for adapting existing HRA methods that are already being used for HRAs at the plants. (author)

  17. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-09-15

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  18. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  19. causes and consequences of commercial motorcycle accidents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    motorcycle riders involved in accident and personnel of traffic law enforcement agencies, was used in the study. ... Recklessness of commercial motorcycle riders accounted for 28 percent of accidents and 30 percent of ... enforcement of rules governing the use of motorcycle, such as the compulsory use of helmets and wing.

  20. Severe accident analysis to verify the effectiveness of severe accident management guidelines for large pressurized heavy water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokhale, O.S., E-mail: onkarsg@barc.gov.in; Mukhopadhyay, D., E-mail: dmukho@barc.gov.in; Lele, H.G., E-mail: hglele@barc.gov.in; Singh, R.K., E-mail: rksingh@barc.gov.in

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The progression of severe accident initiated from high pressure scenario of station black out has been analyzed using RELAP5/SCDAP. • The effectiveness of SAMG actions prescribed has been established through analysis. • The time margin available to invoke the SAMG action has been specified. - Abstract: The pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) contains both inherent and engineered safety features that help the reactor become resistant to severe accident and its consequences. However in case of a low frequency severe accident, despite the safety features, procedural action should be in place to mitigate the accident progression. Severe accident analysis of such low frequency event provides insight into the accident progression and basis to develop the severe accident management guidelines (SAMG). Since the order of uncertainty in the progression path of severe accident is very high, it is necessary to study the consequences of the SAMG actions prescribed. The paper discusses severe accident analysis for large PHWRs for multiple failure transients involving a high pressure scenario (initiation event like SBO with loss of emergency core cooling system and loss of moderator cooling). SAMG actions prescribed for such a scenario include water injection into steam generator, calandria vessel or calandria vault at different stages of accident. The effectiveness of SAMG actions prescribed has been investigated. It is found that there is sufficient time margin available to the operator to execute these SAMG actions and the progression of severe accident is arrested in all the three cases.

  1. The consequences from liquid pathways after a reactor meltdown accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemczyk, S.J.; Adams, K.G.; Murfin, W.B.; Ritchie, L.T.; Eppel, E.W.; Johnson, J.D.

    1981-06-01

    The potential radiological impact of a core-melt accident on the human population has been investigated. In particular, the radiation dose received from radioactivity which could reach the population via liquid pathways has been considered. Radioactivity could be released directly to the hydrosphere after a core-melt accident as a result of melt-through of the containment basemat followed by any of three processes: (1) leaching of the melt debris; 2 escape of sumpwater through the hole formed by the melt (or from passage out of the containment by an alternate route); and 3) depressurization of the containment atmosphere through the melt hole. The three types of releases would differ primarily in their rates, their magnitudes and their radioactive compositions. Both the containment atmosphere and the sumpwater releases would occur relatively rapidly. However, most of the radionuclides present in these two releases in substantial quantities would be expected to be rather short-lived. Therefore, such releases could have a significant impact at a specific site only if the travel times of the important radionuclides to the human population were small. In contrast, leaching of radionuclides from the melt debris would be expected to occur relatively slowly. Most of the long-lived isotopes would be expected to be found primarily in the melt debris. Consequently, even though this release occurred relatively slowly, the impact could still be significant. In contrast to the situation for releases to the atmosphere, accidents corresponding to the most probable RSS (Reactor Safety Study) meltdown categories would result in the largest releases to the hydrosphere. Furthermore, substantial amounts of radioactivity would generally be expected to be released to the hydrosphere during any meltdown accident involving complete melt-through of the containment basemat. On the basis of subsurface hydrologies alone, sites range from those that essentially preclude any impacts to the human

  2. Health state of children-descendants of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etsko, L.; Stratulat, P.; Vasilos, L.; Arameh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency analysis of stochastic clinical effects of ionizing radiation - malignant neoplasms, endocrine abnormalities and congenital malformations was performed. For revealing dependence of prevalence marker pathology from various environmental factors, morbidity of children-descendants of the cleaners of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences was compared to those in Moldavian children (under official data) and children from ecologically adverse areas of the republic. The comparative analysis has shown that the pathology at these children does not differ from those at other children from the republic and may be consider as ecopathology. (authors)

  3. Radiological consequences of accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    In this report, an analysis of the radiological consequences of potential accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is presented. The results presented should be seen as coarse estimates of possible radiological consequences of a canister being stuck in a borehole during disposal rather than being the results of a full safety analysis. In the concept for deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel developed by Sandia National Laboratories, the fuel is assumed to be encapsulated in mild steel canisters and stacked between 3 and 5 km depth in boreholes that are cased with perforated mild steel casing tubes. The canisters are joined together by couplings to form strings of 40 canisters and lowered into the borehole. When a canister string has been emplaced in the borehole, a bridge plug is installed above the string and a 10 metres long concrete plug is cast on top of the bridge plug creating a floor for the disposal of the next sting. In total 10 canister strings, in all 400 canisters, are assumed to be disposed of at between 3 and 5 kilometres depth in one borehole. An analysis of potential accidents during the disposal operations shows that the potentially worst accident would be that a canister string is stuck above the disposal zone of a borehole and cannot be retrieved. In such a case, the borehole may have to be sealed in the best possible way and abandoned. The consequences of this could be that one or more leaking canisters are stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater. In the case of a leaking canister being stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater, the potential radiological consequences are likely to be dominated by the release of the so-called Instant Release Fraction (IRF) of the radionuclide inventory, i.e. the fraction of the radionuclides that as a consequence of the in-core conditions are present in the annulus between the fuel pellets and the cladding or on the grain boundaries of the UO{sub 2} matrix

  4. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

    1997-12-31

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  5. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation: Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Book, S.; Buncher, C.; Denniston, C.; Gilbert, E.; Hahn, F.; Hertzberg, V.; Maxon, H.; Scott, B.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Two-parameter Weibull hazard functions are recommended for estimating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid and ''other''. The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Linear and linear-quadratic models are also recommended for assessing genetic risks. Five classes of genetic disease -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocation and multifactorial diseases --are considered. In addition, the impact of radiation-induced genetic damage on the incidence of peri-implantation embryo losses is discussed. The uncertainty in modeling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of all model parameters. Data are provided which should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk. 22 refs., 14 figs., 51 tabs.

  6. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation: Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Book, S.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Two-parameter Weibull hazard functions are recommended for estimating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid and ''other''. The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Linear and linear-quadratic models are also recommended for assessing genetic risks. Five classes of genetic disease -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocation and multifactorial diseases --are considered. In addition, the impact of radiation-induced genetic damage on the incidence of peri-implantation embryo losses is discussed. The uncertainty in modeling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of all model parameters. Data are provided which should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk. 22 refs., 14 figs., 51 tabs

  7. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

  8. Accident analysis in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.; Bousbia-Salah, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The incomplete understanding of the complex mechanisms connected with the interaction between thermal-hydraulic and neutron kinetics still challenges the design and the operation of nuclear reactors and imposes the adoption of conservatism in the evaluation of safety limits. The recent availability of powerful computer and computational techniques together with the continuing increase in operational experience suggests the revisiting of those areas and the identification of design/operation requirements that can be relaxed. So far, almost all of the safety analyses of research reactors have been performed using conservative computational tools such as channel codes but, nowadays, the application of Best-Estimate (BE) methods constitutes a real necessity. The global aim of the current work is an attempt to apply the best-estimate system thermal-hydraulic code Relap5. For this purpose, the generic IAEA research reactor Benchmark problem is re-considered for proving the adequacy of the available computational tools. Within the same framework, one of the most severe accident categories that may occur during a research reactor lifetime is also considered. This is related to a total and partial blockage of the cooling channel of a single Fuel Assembly. Such event constitutes a stern scenario for this type of reactor since it may lead to local dryout and eventually to the loss of the fuel assembly integrity. The study constitutes the first step of a larger work, which consists in performing a 3D simulation using the Best Estimate coupled code technique. To demonstrate the suitability of the technique, the loss of Shutdown Heat Removal accident in a MTR pool type research reactor is analysed. The accident occurs when the passive shutdown natural convection cooling system is failing for instance due to the rupture of an experimental beam tube. The accident will lead to a partial core uncovering. Although most of the research investigations in the world

  9. Consequences assesment for a nuclear accident scenario at Cernavoda - NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.; Angelescu, T.

    2004-01-01

    In a nuclear incident, considerable planning is necessary to reduce to manageable levels the types of decisions leading to effective responses as regards the public protection in such an event. One of the most important parts of an emergency response plan is the computerized system which allows to predict the accident radiological impact and to provide information in a manageable and effective form for evaluating alternative countermeasure strategies in the various stages of an accident. The PC-COSYMA results for early containment failure of CANDU reactor are presented. The deterministic health effects rising from nuclear accident situation are also presented. As source term we have used the core inventory obtained with ORIGEN computer code. The essential input parameters for PC-COSYMA computer code are also done. (authors)

  10. Functional status of thyroid of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators after 10 years after disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators' complaints is carried out and their clinical surveillance is conducted as well. Pronounced disorders of neuro-immune-endocrine system of the liquidators majority and ahill reflex latency half-period prolongation have been observed. By data of ultrasonic study the majority of examined ones have thyroid hyperplasia without features of chronic autoimmune inflammation and formation of adenomatous knots. Thyroid levels of hormone concentration are reduced. There is direct dependence between hormones levels and irradiation dose. The is concluded, that in delayed period after irradiation by low doses the hypo-function status of thyroid is observing

  11. Assessment of risk, damage and severity of consequences of accident into storage for LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzenova, Zlatina

    2016-12-01

    In this work an accident scenario in store for LPG is considered and consequences - forming a toxic cloud of vapor, fire and blast are modeled through models built into the software product ALOHA. The risk assessment of contamination with certain concentration is done, provided that it is an accident. Definitions for model mixture and risk assessment using geometric probability are introduced.

  12. Prevention of "simple accidents at work" with major consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The concept ‘‘simple accidents’’ is understood as traumatic events with one victim. In the last 10 years many European countries have seen a decline in the number of fatalities, but there still remain many severe accidents at work. In the years 2009–2010 in European countries 2.0–2.4 million occu...

  13. Guidelines for calculation of atmospheric dispersion and radiological consequences of design basis reactor accidents - Severe accident calculation guidelines, EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, R.; Schmitz, B.M.; Horn, M.

    1999-01-01

    The activities carried out within the (reduced) project period (1. Sept. until 31. Dec. 1998) for coordinated harmonization between France and Germany, of guidelines for calculation of the radiological consequences of a severe reactor accident, are summarized. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Methodology for the containment, source term, consequence, and risk integration analyses. Volume 1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, E.D.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Harper, F.T.; Helton, J.C.; Murfin, W.B.; Hora, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    NUREG-1150 examines the risk to the public from five nuclear power plants. The NUREG-1150 plant studies are Level III probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and, as such, they consist of four analysis components: accident frequency analysis, accident progression analysis, source term analysis, and consequence analysis. This volume summarizes the methods utilized in performing the last three components and the assembly of these analyses into an overall risk assessment. The NUREG-1150 analysis approach is based on the following ideas: (1) general and relatively fast-running models for the individual analysis components, (2) well-defined interfaces between the individual analysis components, (3) use of Monte Carlo techniques together with an efficient sampling procedure to propagate uncertainties, (4) use of expert panels to develop distributions for important phenomenological issues, and (5) automation of the overall analysis. Many features of the new analysis procedures were adopted to facilitate a comprehensive treatment of uncertainty in the complete risk analysis. Uncertainties in the accident frequency, accident progression and source term analyses were included in the overall uncertainty assessment. The uncertainties in the consequence analysis were not included in this assessment. A large effort was devoted to the development of procedures for obtaining expert opinion and the execution of these procedures to quantify parameters and phenomena for which there is large uncertainty and divergent opinions in the reactor safety community

  15. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Methodology for the containment, source term, consequence, and risk integration analyses; Volume 1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, E.D.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Murfin, W.B. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States)

    1993-12-01

    NUREG-1150 examines the risk to the public from five nuclear power plants. The NUREG-1150 plant studies are Level III probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and, as such, they consist of four analysis components: accident frequency analysis, accident progression analysis, source term analysis, and consequence analysis. This volume summarizes the methods utilized in performing the last three components and the assembly of these analyses into an overall risk assessment. The NUREG-1150 analysis approach is based on the following ideas: (1) general and relatively fast-running models for the individual analysis components, (2) well-defined interfaces between the individual analysis components, (3) use of Monte Carlo techniques together with an efficient sampling procedure to propagate uncertainties, (4) use of expert panels to develop distributions for important phenomenological issues, and (5) automation of the overall analysis. Many features of the new analysis procedures were adopted to facilitate a comprehensive treatment of uncertainty in the complete risk analysis. Uncertainties in the accident frequency, accident progression and source term analyses were included in the overall uncertainty assessment. The uncertainties in the consequence analysis were not included in this assessment. A large effort was devoted to the development of procedures for obtaining expert opinion and the execution of these procedures to quantify parameters and phenomena for which there is large uncertainty and divergent opinions in the reactor safety community.

  16. The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

  17. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded

  18. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW) [de

  19. Chemical considerations in severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Kress, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Study presented the first systematic attempt to include fission product physicochemical effects in the determination of expected consequences of hypothetical nuclear reactor power plant accidents. At the time, however, the data base was sparse, and the treatment of fission product behavior was not entirely consistent or accurate. Considerable research has since been performed to identify and understand chemical phenomena that can occur in the course of a nuclear reactor accident, and how these phenomena affect fission product behavior. In this report, the current status of our understanding of the chemistry of fission products in severe core damage accidents is summarized and contrasted with that of the Reactor Safety Study

  20. Problems of softening the Chernobyl accident consequences. Proceedings of the International seminar. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the International seminar on the Problems to soften the Chernobyl accident consequences held by the International Association of Dissemination of Knowledge and the Russian branch of the Society on the Dissemination of Knowledge in Bryansk in 1993. The proceedings of the seminar deal with the study of scientific and practical activity linked with the elimination of the Chernobyl accident effects. Main theoretical concepts used as the basis of the elaborated regulations are presented, as well; ways and techniques to soften the consequences of the Chernobyl accident to decontaminate the affected territories and to protect the population health are discussed

  1. A methodology for radiological accidents analysis in industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C.A. da.

    1990-01-01

    A critical review of 34 published severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, that happened in 15 countries, from 1960 to 1988, was performed. The most frequent causes, consequences and dose estimation methods were analysed, aiming to stablish better procedures of radiation safety and accidents analysis. The objective of this work is to elaborate a radiological accidents analysis methodology in industrial gamma radiography. The suggested methodology will enable professionals to determine the true causes of the event and to estimate the dose with a good certainty. The technical analytical tree, recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency to perform radiation protection and nuclear safety programs, was adopted in the elaboration of the suggested methodology. The viability of the use of the Electron Gamma Shower 4 Computer Code System to calculate the absorbed dose in radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, mainly at sup(192)Ir radioactive source handling situations was also studied. (author)

  2. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  3. One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. Safety analysis of accident localization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A complex safety analysis of accident localization system of Ignalina NPP was performed. Calculation results obtained, results of non-destruct ing testing and experimental data of reinforced concrete testing of buildings does not revealed deficiencies of buildings of accident localization system at unit 1 of Ignalina NPP. Calculations were performed using codes NEPTUNE, ALGOR, CONTAIN

  5. HANFORD WASTE TANK BUMP ACCIDENT & CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2005-02-22

    Postulated physical scenarios leading to tank bumps were examined. A combination of a substantial supernatant layer depth, supernatant temperatures close to saturation, and high sludge temperatures are required for a tank bump to occur. Scenarios postulated at various times for sludge layers lacking substantial supernatant, such as superheat within the layer and fumarole formation leading to a bump were ruled out.

  6. Analysis of reactivity accidents in PWR'S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camous, F.; Chesnel, A.

    1989-12-01

    This note describes the French strategy which has consisted, firstly, in examining all the accidents presented in the PWR unit safety reports in order to determine for each parameter the impact on accident consequences of varying the parameter considered, secondly in analyzing the provisions taken into account to restrict variation of this parameter to within an acceptable range and thirdly, in checking that the reliability of these provisions is compatible with the potential consequences of transgression of the authorized limits. Taking into consideration violations of technical operating specifications and/or non-observance of operating procedures, equipment failures, and partial or total unavailability of safety systems, these studies have shown that fuel mechanical strength limits can be reached but that the probability of occurrence of the corresponding events places them in the residual risk field and that it must, in fact, be remembered that there is a wide margin between the design basis accidents and accidents resulting in fuel destruction. However, during the coming year, we still have to analyze scenarios dealing with cumulated events or incidents leading to a reactivity accident. This program will be mainly concerned with the impact of the cases examined relating to dilution incidents under normal operating conditions or accident operating conditions

  7. A simple assessment scheme for severe accident consequences using release parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Kampanart, E-mail: kampanarts@tint.or.th [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, 16 Vibhavadi-Rangsit Rd., Latyao, Chatuchak, 10900 (Thailand); Okamoto, Koji [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear accident consequence index can assess overall consequences of an accident. • Correlations between the index and release parameters are developed. • Relation between the index and release amount follows power function. • The exponent of the power function is the key to the relation. - Abstract: Nuclear accident consequence index (NACI) which can assess the overall consequences of a severe accident on people and the environment is developed based on findings from previous studies. It consists of three indices: radiation effect index, relocation index and decontamination index. Though the NACI can cover large range of consequences, its assessment requires extensive resources. The authors then attempt to simplify the assessment, by investigating the relations between the release parameters and the NACI, in order to use the release parameters for severe accident consequence assessment instead of the NACI. NACI and its components increase significantly when the release amount is increased, while the influences of the release period and the release starting time on the NACI are nearly negligible. Relations between the release amount and the NACI and its components follow simple power functions (y = ax{sup b}). The exponent of the power functions seems to be the key to the relations. The exponent of the relation between the release amount and the NACI was around 0.8–1.0 when the release amount is smaller than 100 TBq, and it increased to around 1.3–1.4 when the release amount is equal to or larger than 100 TBq.

  8. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-01

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe - in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  9. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe, in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  10. Elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The actions taken for the decontamination of the equipments and compartments of the nuclear power plant after the Chernobylsk reactor accident are presented. As a result of these actions the contamination levels of the surfaces have been reduced from 10 6 to 2000-8000 β-part/(cm 2 .min) and gamma radiation levels dropped from 10-600 mR/h to 2-10 mR/h. As a result of the power plant site decontamination the overall gamma level around the first unit was reduced to 20-30 mR/h. The actions taken for the decontamination of the 30 km zone and the prospects for its return to economic activity are also presented

  11. A few seconds to have an accident, a long time to recover: consequences for road accident victims from the ESPARR cohort 2 years after the accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Charlène; Charnay, Pierrette; Tardy, Hélène; Chossegros, Laetitia; Carnis, Laurent; Hours, Martine

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the consequences of a road accident in adults, taking account of the type of road user, and to determine predictive factors for consequences at 2 years. Prospective follow-up study. The cohort was composed of 1168 victims of road traffic accidents, aged ≥16 years. Two years after the accident, 912 victims completed a self-administered questionnaire. Weighted logistic regression models were implemented to compare casualties still reporting impact related to the accident versus those reporting no residual impact. Five outcomes were analysed: unrecovered health status, impact on occupation or studies, on familial or affective life, on leisure or sport activities and but also the financial difficulties related to the accident. 46.1% of respondents were motorised four-wheel users, 29.6% motorised two-wheel (including quad) users, 13.3% pedestrians (including inline skate and push scooter users) and 11.1% cyclists. 53.3% reported unrecovered health status, 32.0% persisting impact on occupation or studies, 25.2% on familial or affective life, 46.9% on leisure or sport activities and 20.2% still had accident-related financial difficulties. Type of user, adjusted on age and gender, was linked to unrecovered health status and to impact on leisure or sport activities. When global severity (as measured by NISS) was integrated in the previous model, type of user was also associated with impact on occupation or studies. Type of user was further associated with impact on occupation or studies and on leisure or sport activities when global severity and the sociodemographic data obtained at inclusion were taken into account. It was not, however, related to any of the outcomes studied here, when the models focused on the injured body region. Finally, type of road user did not seem, on the various predictive models, to be related to financial difficulties due to the accident or to impact on familial or affective life. Overall, victims

  12. A parametric study of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) Input Values for the Predicted Health Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, So Ra; Min, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk

    2016-01-01

    The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2, MACCS2, has been the most widely used through the world among the off-site consequence analysis codes. MACCS2 code is used to estimate the radionuclide concentrations, radiological doses, health effects, and economic consequences that could result from the hypothetical nuclear accidents. Most of the MACCS model parameter values are defined by the user and those input parameters can make a significant impact on the output. A limited parametric study was performed to identify the relative importance of the values of each input parameters in determining the predicted early and latent health effects in MACCS2. These results would not be applicable to every case of the nuclear accidents, because only the limited calculation was performed with Kori-specific data. The endpoints of the assessment were early- and latent cancer-risk in the exposed population, therefore it might produce the different results with the parametric studies for other endpoints, such as contamination level, absorbed dose, and economic cost. Accident consequence assessment is important for decision making to minimize the health effect from radiation exposure, accordingly the sufficient parametric studies are required for the various endpoints and input parameters in further research

  13. Experience with psychological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzunov, V.A.; Druzhinin, A.M.; Druzhinina, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the image of radiation menance. Basic differences in image parameters are revealed for some population groups. The psychological levels of the image are regarded as psychological phenomena. Some specific psychological consequences of mental regression are outlined in the paper

  14. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from around the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic

  15. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from a round the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic. Refs, figs, tabs

  16. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri

    2013-01-01

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO 1 and NISA 2 that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident

  17. Impact of source terms on distances to which reactor accident consequences occur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostmeyer, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates of the distances over which reactor accident consequences might occur are important for development of siting criteria and for emergency response planning. This paper summarizes the results of a series of CRAC2 calculations performed to estimate these distances. Because of the current controversy concerning the magnitude of source terms for severe accidents, the impact of source term reductions upon distance estimates is also examined

  18. Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Prister, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

  19. Economic consequences assessment for scenarios and actual accidents do the same methods apply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for estimating the economic consequences of major technological accidents, and their corresponding computer codes, are briefly presented with emphasis on the basic choices. When applied to hypothetic scenarios, those methods give results that are of interest for risk managers with a decision aiding perspective. Simultaneously the various costs, and the procedures for their estimation are reviewed for some actual accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl,..). These costs are used in a perspective of litigation and compensation. The comparison of the methods used and cost estimates obtained for scenarios and actual accidents shows the points of convergence and discrepancies that are discussed

  20. Consequences of radioactive fallout - Experience acquired from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzko Alexandre

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents considerations on the nature of protection measures which were taken following the Chernobyl accident. Six methods used in Belarus aiming at reducing the radionuclide concentration in soils are listed which resulted in a reduction by a factor of 1.5 to 2 of the contamination levels in different agricultural products after 1986. A table is given showing the continuous decrease between 1986 and 1991 in the amount of sold meat and milk on market having doses exceeding the admissible values. In 1994 an increase in the ratio of contaminated products is explained as being due to investment reduction and to augmentation of transfer coefficients produced by an extremely hot summer. In conclusion it is stressed that lifting and removing the superficial layers of contaminated soils proved to be an inefficient method of decontaminating vast areas. Certain lands will not be cultivated for long as no protective action can be conducted to get them returned to agriculture. If one forgives for an instant the natural decay it seems that never one can get rid of the radioactivity. An artificial reduction methods should be supported by an international experience in the field

  1. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  2. RADIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bebeshko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the position of a 25-years’ experience to overcome the health effects of Chernobyl the dynamics of the radiation environment, the first summarizing at the international level (1988, the results of completed research and practical monitoring are analyzed. Cohort of acute radiation syndrome (ARS survivors under medical observation at the S.I. "Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" is the largest. Within the 25 years the functional state of the major organs and body systems, and metabolic homeostasis for this category of persons were studied, a comprehensive assessment of their health, mental and physical performance were given, and risk factors and peculiarities of stochastic and non-stochastic pathology courses were identified, as well as a system of rehabilitation patients after ARS was developed. ARS survivors are suffering from chronic diseases of internal organs and systems (from 5-7 to 10-12 diagnoses at the same time. A correlation between acute radiation effects and specific HLA phenotypes were revealed. The dynamics of the immune system recovery after irradiation was studied. The role and prognostic value of telomere length and programmed cell death of lymphocytes in the formation of the cellular effects of ionizing radiation were determined for the first time. Differences between spontaneous and radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemias were found. Dose-dependent neuropsychiatric, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging deviations were identified after irradiation at doses above 0.3 Sv. It was shown that the lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers with doses 350 – 690 mGy can induce "the bystander effect" in the non-irradiated cells even after 19 years after exposure. The rates of cancer incidence and mortality of victims, the lessons and key problems to be solved in the third decade after the Chernobyl accident are considered.

  3. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucheron, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Reactivity accident analysis in MTR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldman, R.M.; Vertullo, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is the analysis of reactivity transients in MTR cores with LEU and HEU fuels. The analysis includes the following aspects: the phenomenology of the principal events of the accident that takes place, when a reactivity of more than 1$ is inserted in a critical core in less than 1 second. The description of the accident that happened in the RA-2 critical facility in September 1983. The evaluation of the accident from different points of view: a) Theoretical and qualitative analysis; b) Paret Code calculations; c) Comparison with Spert I and Cabri experiments and with post-accident inspections. Differences between LEU and HEU RA-2 cores. (Author)

  5. Economic consequences of major accidents in the industrial plants: The case of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraix, J.

    1989-09-01

    These last years, newspapers head-lines have reported various accidents (Mexico City, Bhopal, Chernobyl, ...) which have drawn attention to the fact that the major technological risk is now a reality and that, undoubtedly, industrial decision-makers ought to integrate it into their preoccupations. In addition to the sometimes considerable human problems such accidents engender, their economic consequences may be such that they become significant on a national or even international scale. The aim of the present paper is to analyse these economic effects by using the particular context of a nuclear power plant. The author has deliberately limited his subject to the consequences of a major accident, that is to say a sudden event, theoretically unforeseen and beyond man's control. The qualification major means an accident of which the consequences extend far beyond the industrial plant itself. The direct and indirect economic consequences are analysed from the responsibility point of view as well as from the national and international community's point of view. A paragraph explains how the coverage of the costs can rely on the cooperation of a number of parties: responsible company, state, insurers, customers, etc. The study is broadly based on the experience resulting from the two major accidents which happened in the nuclear industry these last years (Three Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986) and makes use of more theoretical considerations, for example in the field of the economic evaluation of human life. (author). 58 refs, 2 figs, 12 tabs

  6. Incorporation of advanced accident analysis methodology into safety analysis reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    The IAEA Safety Guide on Safety Assessment and Verification defines that the aim of the safety analysis should be by means of appropriate analytical tools to establish and confirm the design basis for the items important to safety, and to ensure that the overall plant design is capable of meeting the prescribed and acceptable limits for radiation doses and releases for each plant condition category. Practical guidance on how to perform accident analyses of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is provided by the IAEA Safety Report on Accident Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants. The safety analyses are performed both in the form of deterministic and probabilistic analyses for NPPs. It is customary to refer to deterministic safety analyses as accident analyses. This report discusses the aspects of using the advanced accident analysis methods to carry out accident analyses in order to introduce them into the Safety Analysis Reports (SARs). In relation to the SAR, purposes of deterministic safety analysis can be further specified as (1) to demonstrate compliance with specific regulatory acceptance criteria; (2) to complement other analyses and evaluations in defining a complete set of design and operating requirements; (3) to identify and quantify limiting safety system set points and limiting conditions for operation to be used in the NPP limits and conditions; (4) to justify appropriateness of the technical solutions employed in the fulfillment of predetermined safety requirements. The essential parts of accident analyses are performed by applying sophisticated computer code packages, which have been specifically developed for this purpose. These code packages include mainly thermal-hydraulic system codes and reactor dynamics codes meant for the transient and accident analyses. There are also specific codes such as those for the containment thermal-hydraulics, for the radiological consequences and for severe accident analyses. In some cases, codes of a more general nature such

  7. Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhko, A.V.; Masyakin, V.B.; Vlasova, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

  8. Reduction of the number of accidents by means of detailed analysis of reasons for the occurring of road accidents on the all-purpose motorways

    OpenAIRE

    Vyrozhemsky, V.; Bondar, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important issues for the road sector in Ukraine is the reduction of the number of road accidents on the all-purpose motorways. The given analysis results in statistical data on road accidents and the burden of the consequences for the period of 1991 2005. To solve the problem of reduction of the number of road accidents it will help to create road sector database on road accidents for the statistical analysis of accidents aiming to develop measures on their reduction, evaluate...

  9. Radiological consequences in Denmark from a severe reactor accident in the Ignalina power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Damkjaer, A.; Nielsen, F.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nonboel, E.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    1996-05-01

    The radiological consequences in Denmark are assessed, following a hypothetical severe reactor accident in the Lithuanian nuclear power plant at Ignalina. The release of radionuclides and subsequent spreading in the atmosphere is initially assumed to be similar in magnitude to that of the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Ignalina power plant is modelled as a stochastic process, and a probability distribution is estimated for the deposition on Danish territory, based on the deposition pattern of radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. At the 1% probability level of the atmospheric transport and deposition, the collective radiation dose to the Danish population amounts to 100,000 manSv, assuming the accident to happen in the summer months shortly before harvest. The most important pathway for radiation dose to the population will be ingestion of contaminated food,and restrictions on foodstuff are likely to be required. (au) 15 tabs., 7 ills., 28 refs

  10. Improvement of accident dose consequences simulation software for nuclear emergency response applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.-H.; Shih Chunkuan; Jiang, S.-C.; Weng, T.-L.

    2008-01-01

    This study integrated the nuclear power plant simulation software, PCTRAN, with an atmospheric diffusion model to efficiently evaluate a nuclear power plant accident and its off-site dose consequences. PCTRAN, with its user-friendly interface, provides a fast simulation scheme that can simulate many kinds of nuclear power plant accidents. Once accident initiation events are activated in the software, the plant parameters are calculated and displayed via animations on the user interface. Based on the simulated plant conditions, the radioactive materials considered in the software may be released from the plant to the environment. In this study, a dispersion algorithm, including a modified atmospheric diffusion model and its programming method, is proposed such that PCTRAN satisfies the application requirements to be used to plan nuclear emergency responses. First, the modified atmospheric diffusion model handles the variations of meteorological conditions (wind direction, wind velocity, and stability category) during a nuclear power plant accident simulation. Furthermore, the proposed programming method promotes calculation capability and efficiency by reducing the computational burden. For demonstration purposes, a postulated accident event was simulated for the Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan. The overall accident evolution, whole plant response, and off-site dose consequences could be predicted much earlier than what actually occurs. The thyroid and whole body dose rates (and their accumulations) as a function of accident time are displayed on the map within the emergency planning zone (EPZ). The influence of the accident on the off-site area can thus be estimated earlier, and the emergency classification can be determined by referring to the emergency action levels (EALs) for a quick nuclear emergency response

  11. Fukushima, one year later. Initial analyses of the accident and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The earthquake of magnitude 9 of March 11, 2011 with an epicenter 80 km east of the Japanese island of Honshu, and the subsequent tsunami, severely affected the region of Tohoku, with major consequences for its population and infrastructure. Devastating the site of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, these natural events were the cause of the core meltdowns of three nuclear reactors and the loss of cooling of several spent fuel pools. Explosions also occurred in reactor buildings 1 through 4 due to hydrogen produced during fuel degradation. Very significant radioactive releases into the environment took place. The accident was classified level 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). This report provides an assessment and perspective on the information gathered by IRSN during the first twelve months following the disaster in an effort to understand the condition of the installations, evaluate the releases and analyze and evaluate the consequences of the accident on workers and the impact on the population and the environment. On the basis of available information, the report provides an initial analysis of the chain of events. It should be noted that a year after the accident, the full sequence of events is still not understood. Operating experience feedback from the 1979 Three Mile Island accident in the United States, in which reactor core damage was not confirmed until 1986, suggests that it may be several years before a detailed scenario can be constructed of the accident that led to radioactive releases. It will require access to the damaged installations. The situation at the site remains dangerous (reactor pressure vessels and containments are not leak-tight, diffuse releases, etc.). If it has significantly improved as a result of the significant resources deployed by the Tokyo Electro Power Company (TEPCO) to regain control of the installations, this effort must continue over the long term to begin evacuation of fuel from pools (in two

  12. Offsite Radiological Consequence Calculation for the Bounding Mixing of Incompatible Materials Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Sandgren, K R

    2003-01-01

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding mixing of incompatible materials accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. Conservative input parameters were applied in accordance with the guidance provided. The calculated offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from the Office of River Protection.

  13. Anthropotechnological analysis of industrial accidents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, M. C.; de Almeida, I. M.; Monteau, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Labour has been attempting to modify the norms used to analyse industrial accidents in the country. For this purpose, in 1994 it tried to make compulsory use of the causal tree approach to accident analysis, an approach developed in France during the 1970s, without having previously determined whether it is suitable for use under the industrial safety conditions that prevail in most Brazilian firms. In addition, opposition from Brazilian employers has blocked the proposed changes to the norms. The present study employed anthropotechnology to analyse experimental application of the causal tree method to work-related accidents in industrial firms in the region of Botucatu, São Paulo. Three work-related accidents were examined in three industrial firms representative of local, national and multinational companies. On the basis of the accidents analysed in this study, the rationale for the use of the causal tree method in Brazil can be summarized for each type of firm as follows: the method is redundant if there is a predominance of the type of risk whose elimination or neutralization requires adoption of conventional industrial safety measures (firm representative of local enterprises); the method is worth while if the company's specific technical risks have already largely been eliminated (firm representative of national enterprises); and the method is particularly appropriate if the firm has a good safety record and the causes of accidents are primarily related to industrial organization and management (multinational enterprise). PMID:10680249

  14. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  16. Analysis of multiple tank car releases in train accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Liu, Chang; Hong, Yili

    2017-10-01

    There are annually over two million carloads of hazardous materials transported by rail in the United States. The American railroads use large blocks of tank cars to transport petroleum crude oil and other flammable liquids from production to consumption sites. Being different from roadway transport of hazardous materials, a train accident can potentially result in the derailment and release of multiple tank cars, which may result in significant consequences. The prior literature predominantly assumes that the occurrence of multiple tank car releases in a train accident is a series of independent Bernoulli processes, and thus uses the binomial distribution to estimate the total number of tank car releases given the number of tank cars derailing or damaged. This paper shows that the traditional binomial model can incorrectly estimate multiple tank car release probability by magnitudes in certain circumstances, thereby significantly affecting railroad safety and risk analysis. To bridge this knowledge gap, this paper proposes a novel, alternative Correlated Binomial (CB) model that accounts for the possible correlations of multiple tank car releases in the same train. We test three distinct correlation structures in the CB model, and find that they all outperform the conventional binomial model based on empirical tank car accident data. The analysis shows that considering tank car release correlations would result in a significantly improved fit of the empirical data than otherwise. Consequently, it is prudent to consider alternative modeling techniques when analyzing the probability of multiple tank car releases in railroad accidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proceedings of the first international conference 'The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaoglou, A.; Desmet, G.; Kelly, G.N.; Menzel, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10 th anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10 th anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support Systems

  18. Summary of the consequences for the environment of the Chernobyl accident; Synthese sur les consequences environnementales de l`accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciffroy, P.

    1996-08-01

    The main conclusions on the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the former Soviet Union can be summarised as follows: the long term radioactive contamination of the environment can essentially be put down to Cs and Sr and, to a lesser degree, transuranic elements. In the short term, the radioactive iodine fall-out plays a fundamental role; in the countries of the former Soviet Union, it is estimated that 29,300 and 10,200 km{sup 2} of the surface area of the land are respectively contaminated by over 185 and 555 kBq.m{sup -2}. Approximately 1,064,000 people live in areas contaminated by more than 185 kBq.m{sup -2}; acute radioactive fall-out effects have occurred in the 30 km exclusion zone, essentially witnessed by the death of numerous conifers. On average, it will take about twenty years for half the Cs to disappear from the top 10 cm of soil; the level of contamination of food products varies greatly according to soil type. However, we can consider that milk, berries and mushrooms were the most critical foods in the years immediately following the accident and that some of the agricultural counter-measures taken have proved very useful in containing the contamination of food products. Because of the massive iodine leakage, the worst affected organ in the body during the months following the accident was the thyroid gland. In the months following the accident, the presence of radioactive elements on the surface of vegetables which were subsequently eaten proved to be the main source of human contamination; after a rapid fall off in external dose received by the population during the first year, it is now decreasing much more slowly. This phenomenon is mainly due to the very long-life of the radioactive caesium in the soil; approximately 90 % of the total internal dose for the 70 years following the accident have already been received by the local population. The external dose level will be reduced fairly slowly and we can assess that

  19. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L.

    2000-12-01

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  20. Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liasko, L.I.; Souchkevitch, G.N.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1α) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

  1. Two decades of radiological accidents direct causes, roots causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozental Jose de Julio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Practically all Countries utilize radioisotopes in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. The extent to which ionizing radiation practices are employed varies considerably, depending largely upon social and economic conditions and the level of technical skills available in the country. An overview of the majority of practices and the associated hazards will be found in the Table IV to VII of this document. The practices in normal and abnormal operating conditions should follow the basic principles of radiation protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources, considering the IAEA Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series 120 and the IAEA Recommendation of the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, Safety Series Nº 115. The Standards themselves underline the necessity to be able to predict the radiological consequences of emergency conditions and the investigations that should need to be done. This paper describes the major accidents that had happened in the last two decades, provides a methodology for analyses and gives a collection of lessons learned. This will help the Regulatory Authority to review the reasons of vulnerabilities, and to start a Radiation safety and Security Programme to introduce measurescapable to avoid the recurrence of similar events. Although a number of accidents with fatalities have caught the attention of the public in recent year, a safety record has accompanied the widespread use of radiation sources. However, the fact that accidents are uncommon should not give grounds for complacency. No radiological accident is acceptable. From a radiation safety and security of the sources standpoint, accident investigation is necessary to determine what happened, why, when, where and how it occurred and who was (were involved and responsible. The investigation conclusion is an important process toward alertness and feedback to avoid careless attitudes by improving the comprehension

  2. Consequences of tritium release to water pathways from postulated accidents in a DOE production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Olson, R.L.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    A full-scale PRA of a DOE production reactor has been completed that considers full release of tritium as part of the severe accident source term. Two classes of postulated reactor accidents, a loss-of-moderator pumping accident and a loss-of-coolant accident, are used to bound the expected dose consequence from liquid pathway release. Population doses from the radiological release associated with the two accidents are compared for aqueous discharge and atmospheric release modes. The expectation values of the distribution of possible values for the societal effective dose equivalent to the general public, given a tritium release to the atmosphere, is 2.8 person-Sv/PBq (9.9 x 10 -3 person-rem/Ci). The general public drinking water dose to downstream water consumers is 6.5 x 10 -2 person-Sv/Pbq (2.4 x 10 -4 person-rem/Ci) for aqueous releases to the surface streams eventually reaching the Savannah River. Negligible doses are calculated for freshwater fish and saltwater invertebrate consumption, irrigation, and recreational use of the river, given that an aqueous release is assumed to occur. Relative to the balance of fission products released in a hypothetical severe accident, the tritium-related dose is small. This study suggests that application of regional models (1610 km radius) will indicate larger dose consequences from short-term tritium release to the atmosphere than from comparable tritium source terms to water pathways. However, the water pathways assessment is clearly site-specific, and the overall aqueous dose will be dependent on downstream receptor populations and uses of the river

  3. The comparative analysis of traumas and poisonings incidence and mortality rates from them at workers and men-employees, workers of the nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birukov A.P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims the estimation of incidence of traumas and poisonings, and mortality from them at workers of the Russian nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station, in view of their social structure. Material and methods. Carrying out this research, we used the information base of the Register of the persons exposed by radiation after the Chernobyl accident. There had been registered as of January, 1, 1998: liquidators of 1986-1987 years — 12882 people (men — 84,3%, liquidators of 1988-1990 years —2313 people (men — 88,3%. There had been presented parameters of case rate and mortality of men, separately workers and employees of the given cohort. Results. Lower level of traumas and poisonings incidence at employees had been revealed (2-2,4 times lower, than at the workers, the mortality of traumas and poisonings at employees were also 1,1-2,9 times lower (on the average — in 2,0 times is revealed. The alcoholism essentially raises a traumatism at liquidators. The traumatism above at the liquidators, suffering a chronic alcoholism, in 1,9-3,3 times. The distinctions in coefficients of the mortality from traumas and poisonings and the incidence by them for age groups of the men-liquidators were revealed. Conclusion. The essential difference in parameters of men-liquidators' health, workers of the nuclear industry, and workers shows that a social factor renders significant influence on health of a studied contingent of persons. Age features in many respects define value of parameters of incidence of traumas and poisonings and death rates from them a studied contingent. In radiation epidemiological researches it is necessary to consider biological and social factors necessarily.

  4. The usefulness of time-dependent reactor accident consequence modelling for emergency response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, H.G.; Jacob, P.; Mueller, H.; Proehl, G.

    1989-01-01

    After major releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere fast reaction of authorities will be necessary to inform the public of potential consequences and to consider and optimize mitigating actions. These activities require availability of well designed computer models, adequate and fast measurements and prior training of responsible persons. The quantitative assessment models should be capable of taking into account of actual atmospheric dispersion conditions, actual deposition situation (dry, rain, snow, fog), seasonal status of the agriculture, food processing and distribution pathways, etc. In this paper the usefulness of such models will be discussed, their limitations, the relative importance of exposure pathways and a selection of important methods to decrease the activity in food products after an accident. Real-time reactor accident consequence models should be considered as a condition sine qua non for responsible use of nuclear power for electricity production

  5. German offsite accident consequence model for nuclear facilities: further development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1985-01-01

    The German Offsite Accident Consequence Model - first applied in the German Risk Study for nuclear power plants with light water reactors - has been further developed with the improvement of several important submodels in the areas of atmospheric dispersion, shielding effects of houses, and the foodchains. To aid interpretation, the presentation of results has been extended with special emphasis on the presentation of the loss of life expectancy. The accident consequence model has been further developed for application to risk assessments for other nuclear facilities, e.g., the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (SNR-300) and the high temperature gas cooled reactor. Moreover the model have been further developed in the area of optimal countermeasure strategies (sheltering, evacuation, etc.) in the case of the Central European conditions. Preliminary considerations has been performed in connection with safety goals on the basis of doses

  6. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and

  7. Bounding Accident Analysis for LLNL BSL-3 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-09-14

    The conclusion of this evaluation is that the consequence estimates in the EA can be reproduced using a public-accessible Gaussian plume-dispersion model and conservative modeling assumptions consistent with the accident scenario postulated in the EA. Also, the potential consequences to the public for the postulated accident would be far below the minimum infectious dose of one organism.

  8. Patterns and consequences of inadequate sleep in college students: substance use and motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J; Bramoweth, Adam D

    2010-06-01

    We examined college sleep patterns and consequences using a cross-sectional design. We found that students get insufficient sleep and frequently use medication and alcohol as sleep aids, use stimulants as alertness aids, and fall asleep at the wheel, or have motor vehicle accidents due to sleepiness. Future studies should focus on effective interventions for sleep in college students. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Developments in modelling the economic impact of Off-site accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.M.; Robinson, C.A.; Faude, D.

    1991-01-01

    Models for assessing the economic consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity have application both in accident consequence codes and in decision aiding computer systems for use in emergency response. Such models may be applied in emergency planning, and studies in connection with the siting, design and licensing of nuclear facilities. Several models for predicting economic impact have been developed, in Europe and the US, and these are reviewed. A new model, called COCO-1 (Cost of Consequences Off-site), has been developed under the CEC MARIA programme and the features of the model are summarised. The costs calculated are a measure of the benefit foregone as a result of the accident, and in addition to tangible monetary costs the model attempts to include costs arising from the effect of the accident on individuals, for instance the disruption caused by the loss of homes. COCO-1 includes the cost of countermeasures, namely evacuation, relocation, sheltering, food restrictions and decontamination, and also the cost of health effects in the exposed population. The primary quantity used in COCO-1 to measure the economic value of land subject to restrictions on usage is Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Examples of default data included in the model are presented, as are the results of an illustrative application. The limitations of COCO-1 are discussed, and areas where further data are needed are identified

  10. Limitations of systemic accident analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casandra Venera BALAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of system theory, the description of complex accidents is not limited to the analysis of the sequence of events / individual conditions, but highlights nonlinear functional characteristics and frames human or technical performance in relation to normal functioning of the system, in safety conditions. Thus, the research of the system entities as a whole is no longer an abstraction of a concrete situation, but an exceeding of the theoretical limits set by analysis based on linear methods. Despite the issues outlined above, the hypothesis that there isn’t a complete method for accident analysis is supported by the nonlinearity of the considered function or restrictions, imposing a broad vision of the elements introduced in the analysis, so it can identify elements corresponding to nominal parameters or trigger factors.

  11. Studies of criticality accidents in solution carried out in the SILENE reactor: phenomenology, consequences, intervention practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbry, F.

    1983-01-01

    A consistent program of studies of criticality accidents in enriched uranium solutions was conducted and allowed a great number of instructions to be used on the understanding of the phenomena. The various effects can be better quantified in the future in light of the results acquired. While it appeared that an accidental situation will not result in catastrophic consequences, it is necessary to not underestimate the significance of the risk, its consequences, the impact which it would have on the public and the effort accomplished should allow us to more precisely define the principles and rules of a realistic policy of prevention and intervention in the matter

  12. Preliminary results of consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident using Thai meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K.; Lawawirojwong, S.; Promping, J.

    2017-06-01

    Consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident is one of the important elements of the risk assessment of a nuclear power plant. It is widely known that the meteorological conditions can significantly influence the outcomes of such assessment, since it determines the results of the calculation of the radionuclide environmental transport. This study aims to assess the impacts of the meteorological conditions to the results of the consequence assessment. The consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is used for the assessment. The results of the consequence assessment using Thai meteorological data are compared with those using Japanese meteorological data. The Thai case has following characteristics. Low wind speed made the radionuclides concentrate at the center comparing to the Japanese case. The squalls induced the peaks in the ground concentration distribution. The evacuated land is larger than the Japanese case though the relocated land is smaller, which is attributed to the concentration of the radionuclides near the release point.

  13. The radiological assessment system for consequence analysis - RASCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis, Version 2.1 (RASCAL 2.1) has been developed for use during a response to radiological emergencies. The model estimates doses for comparison with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and thresholds for acute health effects. RASCAL was designed to be used by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel who report to the site of a nuclear accident to conduct an independent evaluation of dose and consequence projections and personnel who conduct training and drills on emergency responses. It allows consideration of the dominant aspects of the source term, transport, dose, and consequences. RASCAL consists of three computational tools: ST-DOSE, FM-DOSE, and DECAY. ST-DOSE computes source term, atmospheric transport, and dose to man from accidental airborne releases of radionuclides. The source-term calculations are appropriate for accidents at U.S. power reactors. FM-DOSE computes doses from environmental concentrations of radionuclides in the air and on the ground. DECAY computes radiological decay and daughter in-growth. RASCAL 2.1 is a DOS application that can be run under Windows 3.1 and 95. RASCAL has been the starting point for other accident consequence models, notably INTERRAS, an international version of RASCAL, and HASCAL, an expansion of RASCAL that will model radiological, biological, and chemical accidents

  14. Analysis and evaluation of the nuclear criticality accident in JCO CO. LTD in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hua; Liu Xinhua; Li Bing

    2001-01-01

    The author describes JCO criticality accident situation including the background, process chronology and emergency countermeasures taken of the accident and its radiation consequence. The analysis about the direct and root causes of the accident and some conclusions are also showed. The direct cause of the accident is the use of geometrically unsafe process equipment and personnel violation. However, the root cause is lack of efficient technical management. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize the criticality safety in nuclear fuel cycle installations and enhance safety culture of regulatory and operational personnel

  15. Fukushima, one year after. First analyses of the accident and of its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report proposes assessments and discussions of knowledge gathered by the IRSN during the first twelve months following the Fukushima accident to understand the status of the installations, to assess the releases, and to analyse and assess the consequences of the accident on workers and the impact on the population and environment. After a description of a boiling water reactor (general description, confinement barriers, safeguard systems), and of the earthquake, the authors describe and comment the consequences for several reactors (Fukushima-Dai-ini, Onagawa, Tokai, Higashidoru and Hamaoka). Then, they more precisely describe the Fukushima-Dai-ichi accident by distinguishing different periods (first two weeks, next three weeks, after the 17 of April). They analyse and comment the environmental impact in Japan (atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases, ground contamination, impact of radioactive fallouts, contamination of the marine environment, and predictable impact on marine and ground ecosystems). They describe the actions undertaken to protect the population and in terms of post-accidental management, comment assessments of the dosimetric and health impact (workers and population exposure). They finally discuss the long range impact

  16. Guide for licensing evaluations using CRAC2: A computer program for calculating reactor accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.E.; Roussin, R.W.; Gilpin, H.

    1988-12-01

    A version of the CRAC2 computer code applicable for use in analyses of consequences and risks of reactor accidents in case work for environmental statements has been implemented for use on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Data General MV/8000 computer system. Input preparation is facilitated through the use of an interactive computer program which operates on an IBM personal computer. The resulting CRAC2 input deck is transmitted to the MV/8000 by using an error-free file transfer mechanism. To facilitate the use of CRAC2 at NRC, relevant background material on input requirements and model descriptions has been extracted from four reports - ''Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences,'' Version 2, NUREG/CR-2326 (SAND81-1994) and ''CRAC2 Model Descriptions,'' NUREG/CR-2552 (SAND82-0342), ''CRAC Calculations for Accident Sections of Environmental Statements, '' NUREG/CR-2901 (SAND82-1693), and ''Sensitivity and Uncertainty Studies of the CRAC2 Computer Code,'' NUREG/CR-4038 (ORNL-6114). When this background information is combined with instructions on the input processor, this report provides a self-contained guide for preparing CRAC2 input data with a specific orientation toward applications on the MV/8000. 8 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Methods and codes for assessing the off-site Consequences of nuclear accidents. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.; Luykx, F.

    1991-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities, within the framework of its 1980-84 radiation protection research programme, initiated a two-year project in 1983 entitled methods for assessing the radiological impact of accidents (Maria). This project was continued in a substantially enlarged form within the 1985-89 research programme. The main objectives of the project were, firstly, to develop a new probabilistic accident consequence code that was modular, incorporated the best features of those codes already in use, could be readily modified to take account of new data and model developments and would be broadly applicable within the EC; secondly, to acquire a better understanding of the limitations of current models and to develop more rigorous approaches where necessary; and, thirdly, to quantify the uncertainties associated with the model predictions. This research led to the development of the accident consequence code Cosyma (COde System from MAria), which will be made generally available later in 1990. The numerous and diverse studies that have been undertaken in support of this development are summarized in this paper, together with indications of where further effort might be most profitably directed. Consideration is also given to related research directed towards the development of real-time decision support systems for use in off-site emergency management

  18. The unique field experiments on the assessment of accident consequences at industrial enterprises of gas-chemical complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, N.S.; Trebin, I.S.; Sorokovikova, O.

    1998-01-01

    Sour natural gas fields are the unique raw material base for setting up such large enterprises as gas chemical complexes. The presence of high toxic H 2 S in natural gas results in widening a range of dangerous and harmful factors for biosphere. Emission of such gases into atmosphere during accidents at gas wells and gas pipelines is of especial danger for environment and first of all for people. Development of mathematical forecast models for assessment of accidents progression and consequences is one of the main elements of works on safety analysis and risk assessment. The critical step in development of such models is their validation using the experimental material. Full-scale experiments have been conducted by the All-Union Scientific-Research institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technology (VNIIGAZ) for grounding of sizes of hazard zones in case of the severe accidents with the gas pipelines. The source of emergency gas release was the working gas pipelines with 100 mm dia. And 110 km length. This pipeline was used for transportation of natural gas with significant amount of hydrogen sulphide. During these experiments significant quantities of the gas including H 2 S were released into the atmosphere and then concentrations of gas and H 2 S were measured in the accident region. The results of these experiments are used for validation of atmospheric dispersion models including the new Lagrangian trace stochastic model that takes into account a wide range of meteorological factors. This model was developed as a part of computer system for decision-making support in case of accident release of toxic gases into atmosphere at the enterprises of Russian gas industry. (authors)

  19. Reactor accident analysis and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Reactor Management Division of Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute has, so far, adopted, modified and developed quite a number of large programs for nuclear core analysis. During the course of this work, it was found necessary to employ some standard subroutines for handling data, input procedures, core memory management and search files. Many programs share lots of common subroutines and/or functions with other programs. Above all, some of them are in lack of transmittal. During the installation of big codes for CYBER computer, it has drawn our keen attention that many elementary subroutines are heavily machine-dependent and that their conversion is extremely difficult. After having collected and modified the subroutines to fit in different codes, it was finally named KINEP (KAERI Improved Nuclear Environmental Package). KINEP has been proved to be convenient even for smaller programs for general purpose. The KINEP includes about one hundred subroutines to facilitate data handling, operator communications, storage allocation, decimal input, file maintence and scratch I/O. (Author)

  20. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-01

    This report describes the possible environmental consequences for Norway due to a hypothetical accident at the Sellafield complex in the UK. The scenario considered involves an explosion and fire at the B215 facility resulting in a 1 % release of the total HAL (Highly Active liquor) inventory of radioactive waste with a subsequent air transport and deposition in Norway. Air transport modelling is based on real meteorological data from October 2008 with wind direction towards Norway and heavy precipitation. This weather is considered to be quite representative as typical seasonal weather. Based on this weather scenario, the estimated fallout in Norway will be ∼ 17 P Bq of caesium-137 which is 7 times higher than the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The modelled radioactive contamination is linked with data on transfer to the food chain and statistics on production and hunting to assess the consequences for foodstuffs. The investigation has been limited to the terrestrial environment, focussing on wild berries, fungi, and animals grazing unimproved pastures (i.e. various types of game, reindeer, sheep and goats). The predicted consequences are severe - especially in connection to sheep and goat production. Up to 80 % of the lambs in Norway could be exceeding the food intervention levels for radiocaesium the first years after the fallout, with 30-40 % likely to be above for many years. There will, consequently, be a need for extensive countermeasures in large areas for years or even decades involving several hundred thousand animals each year. Large consequences are also expected for reindeer husbandry - the first year in particular due to the time of fallout which is just prior to winter slaughter. The consequences will be most sever for reindeer herding in middle and southern parts of Norway, but problems may reach as far north as Finnmark where we find the majority of Norwegian reindeer production. The consequences for game will mostly depend on the regional

  1. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report describes the possible environmental consequences for Norway due to a hypothetical accident at the Sellafield complex in the UK. The scenario considered involves an explosion and fire at the B215 facility resulting in a 1 % release of the total HAL (Highly Active liquor) inventory of radioactive waste with a subsequent air transport and deposition in Norway. Air transport modelling is based on real meteorological data from October 2008 with wind direction towards Norway and heavy precipitation. This weather is considered to be quite representative as typical seasonal weather. Based on this weather scenario, the estimated fallout in Norway will be approx 17 P Bq of caesium-137 which is 7 times higher than the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The modelled radioactive contamination is linked with data on transfer to the food chain and statistics on production and hunting to assess the consequences for foodstuffs. The investigation has been limited to the terrestrial environment, focussing on wild berries, fungi, and animals grazing unimproved pastures (i.e. various types of game, reindeer, sheep and goats). The predicted consequences are severe - especially in connection to sheep and goat production. Up to 80 % of the lambs in Norway could be exceeding the food intervention levels for radiocaesium the first years after the fallout, with 30-40 % likely to be above for many years. There will, consequently, be a need for extensive countermeasures in large areas for years or even decades involving several hundred thousand animals each year. Large consequences are also expected for reindeer husbandry - the first year in particular due to the time of fallout which is just prior to winter slaughter. The consequences will be most sever for reindeer herding in middle and southern parts of Norway, but problems may reach as far north as Finnmark where we find the majority of Norwegian reindeer production. The consequences for game will mostly depend on the

  2. Nuclear accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant. History, events and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berniolles, Jean Marc

    2011-01-01

    Written few weeks after the accident, this article first recalls the circumstances (earthquake and tsunami), and then describes the accidental process within the primary vessels of the Fukushima Dai-ichi number 1, 2 and 3 reactors. The author then describes the interventions which aimed at cooling these three reactors, the problem faced for the storage of used fuels, and then the sequence of accidents: loss of cooling means leading to an explosion, problems faced in the different storage pools. He describes the various steps of recovery (primary cooling, electricity supply), discusses the consequences in terms of radioactivity releases in the plant environment with a comparison with Chernobyl, and also in terms of nature and quantity of radioactive elements. He comments radioactivity controls and measurements, evacuation measures, measurements performed by the IAEA, measurements of sea radioactivity, and the establishment of maps of ground radioactivity around the plant. He discusses the perspectives associated with these measurements for the surroundings of the Fukushima site

  3. Consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to the feeding of infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.

    1987-01-01

    In view of the persisting and understandable fear of parents with regard to radioactivity in the food of their babies as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Commission on Nutrition of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Kinderheilkunde (German Society of Pediatrics) and the Strahlenschutzkommission have published a statement. According to this statement, the maximum permissible level of radioactivity in commercial baby food has been fixed by the EC to be 370 Bq/kg. The dietetic food industry itself has fixed a maximum for its products which is only a tenth of the radioactivity level permitted by the EC directive. The milk powders for infants tested since the reactor accident contained no measurable radioactivity or only very low amounts of Cs 134 or Cs 137, correspondung to a maximum of 25 Bq/kg in the product. Late damage to health is not to be expected. (orig./ECB) [de

  4. Synthesis of the models used in France for the evaluation of the consequences of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate the consequences of an atmospheric release in case of an accident on a nuclear installation, different predictive models have been developed by the organizations involved in the management of the crisis. These models are of different numerical complexity: precalculated graphs, gaussian puff models or 3D models. The harmonization of these models, the definition of their use, notably in the first phases of the accident (predictive and real-time phases) have been discussed in a working group including representants of the utility, the safety authorities and the Meteorological Office. The reflexions of the group, the models already operational, those still under discussion and their use in the different technical crisis centers are presented

  5. Increase of soil radioactivity in Cologne as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppenau, S.

    1986-01-01

    The increase of soil radioactivity in Cologne has been measured in a private garden with a relatively simple device suitable for use in schools. By sheer accident, the author had measured a gamma spectrum of the soil on April 4, 1986, and thus had a pre-accident spectrum available for comparison with the one made on May 10, 1986. The comparison has been made using the Cs-137 spectrum. Analysis has been made using a 4K multichannel analyser with automatic dead-time correction, added to an APPLE IIe. (DG) [de

  6. Development of Severe Accident Containment Analysis Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Min; Seo, Jea-Uk; Lee, Dea-Young; Park, Soon-Ho; Lee, Jae-Gwon; Lee, Jin-Yong; Lee, Byung-Chul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In safety viewpoint, the pressure and temperature of the containment is the important parameters, of course, the local hydrogen concentration is also the parameter of the major concern because of its flammability and the risk of the detonation. In addition, there are possibilities of occurrence of other relevant phenomena following the reactor core melting such as DCH(direct containment heating) due to HPME(high pressure melt ejection), steam explosion due to fuel-coolant interaction in the reactor cavity and molten core concrete interaction at the late stage. It is important to predict the containment responses during a severe accident by a reasonable accuracy for establishing of effective mitigation strategies and preparation of the safety features required. In this paper, the overview of the SACAP development status is presented. SACAP is developed so as to be able to analyze, so called, Ex-Vessel severe accident phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, combustible gas burn, direct containment heating, steam explosion and molten core-concrete interaction. At the parallel time, SACAP and In-Vessel analysis module named CSPACE are processed for integration through MPI communication coupling. Development of the integrated severe accident analysis code system will be completed in following one year to make the code revision zero to be released.

  7. Categorizing accident sequences in the external radiotherapy for risk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jonghyun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study identifies accident sequences from the past accidents in order to help the risk analysis application to the external radiotherapy. Materials and Methods This study reviews 59 accidental cases in two retrospective safety analyses that have collected the incidents in the external radiotherapy extensively. Two accident analysis reports that accumulated past incidents are investigated to identify accident sequences including initiating events, failure of safety measures, and co...

  8. Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in 1986 and 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1988-01-01

    In the accident consequence assessment (ACA) area there is extensive cooperation between the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden), performed within the Nordic Safety Program, and partially funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, via the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. One of the 17 projects in the ACA-related program area is concerned with the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. This paper is limited to describing conditions in Norway. There are areas in Norway where the Chernobyl fallout is >100 kBq/m 2 , and the total amount of radiocesium deposited over Norway is estimated by the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene to be 6% of the radiocesium released from the reactor. The areas where ground concentrations are highest are mostly in sparsely populated mountain areas. These areas are, however, important in connection with several nutritional pathways, notably, sheep, goats, reindeer, and freshwater fish. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information on mitigating actions and economic consequences of the deposited radioactive materials to Norwegian agriculture in the 1986-87 and 1987-88 slaughtering periods

  9. The environmental restoration in the management of radiological accidents with off site consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, C.; Montero, M.; Moraleda, M.; Diaz, J.; Claver, F.; Valles, O.; Rodriguez, N.; Gutierrez, J.

    1998-01-01

    Radiological accidents are among the potential cases of environmental contamination that could have consequences on the health of the population. These accidents, associated with an increase in the level of radiological exposure surpassing the natural background, have been investigated in greater depth than other conventional accidents. This investigation has included the evaluation of their probability, magnitude and consequences in order to establish safety norms. Nevertheless, the social perception of this type of risk appears to be disproportionately high. The development of a comprehensible and adequate standardized system for the evaluation of the radiological risk and the applicability of corrective actions to reduce this type of risk at local level, will undoubtedly contribute to increase the public confidence in the advised options for the restoration of environments contaminated with the long lived radionuclides. This system should consider the local specificity of each contaminated place, and take into account the associated unwanted consequences for each option. This paper presents the first results of a system to help the decision makers in the quantitative evaluation of the radiological risk produced by long lived radionuclides Cs 137, Cs 134 and Sr 90 spread over urban, agricultural and semi-natural environments and the applicable options to reduce it. The evaluation of these applicable options is made considering the reduction of dose that can be reached, the monetary costs and the significant associated secondary effects if there are any. All these factors are integrated for a time period depending on the half-life of the contaminants and on their strength and distribution on the scenario when intervention is being planned. (authors)

  10. Medico-demographic criteria in estimating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linge, I.I.; Melikhova, I.A.; Pavlovski, O.

    1997-01-01

    Correct comparison of population statistics in affected and unaffected areas prior to and after the accident allows to detect any noticeable deviations in basic medico-demographic parameters in contaminated territories from common trends. In view of that when in 1990 in Nuclear Safety Institute a start has been made on construction of an information support system for government and regional executives to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster a specialized data bank on demography and medical statistics (MDBD) was created. 12 refs, 7 figs, 8 tabs

  11. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.; Smorodintseva, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a critical analysis of the available data on causes and consequences of radiation accidents (RA), a classification of RA by severity (five groups of accidents) according to biomedical consequences and categories of exposed personnel is proposed. A RA is defined and its main characteristics are described. Methods of RA prevention are proposed, as is a plan of specific measures to deal with RA in accordance with the proposed classification

  12. Radiological consequences of Chernobyl accident: UN scientific committee on effects of atomic radiation confirms earlier IAEA assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document informs about a new report by the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) to the UN General Assembly containing an evaluation of the consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl accident, and which concludes that 'there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure fourteen years after the accident'. The conclusions of the UNSCEAR report are similar to those arrived at by the International Conference 'One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident', organized by the IAEA in Vienna in 1996

  13. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  14. Epidemiological studies in Russia about the consequences of the Chernobyl APS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabzev, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    The final purpose of all efforts to study and mitigate the consequences of the accident at the 4th reactor of the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS) is protection of health of the people who were more or less exposed to radiation action. This situation has not analogs in terms of scale and character. Certain experience was accumulated earlier through the studies of biological and medical effects of atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other radiation catastrophes, diagnostic and therapeutic application of radiation, and the control of health state of professionals in atomic industries. However, these experiences can be used just partially in the assessment and the forecast of possible negative after-effects of the Chernobyl accident for the present and future generations. The long-term irradiation of a lage number of population at low doses is to be considered the principal peculiarity of the Chernobyl accident. The medical activities are complicated significantly by the absence of verifiable individual dosimetric information, natural or forced migration of the population, insufficient development of radiation epidemiology, complicated social-economic situation in the country, and other factors which are inevitable at large-scaled catastrophes. Besides, many fundamental questions related to biological effects of action of low doses of ionizing radiation are still being studied. (J.P.N.)

  15. Knowledge resources on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in the INIS Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negeri, B.

    2005-07-01

    Literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains 19872 bibliographic records and 8400 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to 04/2005. A bibliometric study of these records was made to generate statistical summaries that characterise, in general terms, the intellectual content of the records and the nature of the records in terms of its major bibliographic attributes. Environmental aspects and human health constitute the two dominant subjects with a respective contribution of 49% and 38%. The rest is evenly divided among legal aspects, reactor safety and socio-economic impacts of the accident. The three countries that are most affected by the accident, namely Ukraine, Russian Federation and Belarus contributed 44% of the total input. 57% of the literature analysed are conference papers and reports while 25% are journal articles. Most of the documents were written in English (47%) and in Russian (36%). Seven percent of the publications were written in German. (author)

  16. Application of accident progression event tree technology to the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility SAR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandyberry, M.D.; Baker, W.H.; Wittman, R.S.; Amos, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    The Accident Analysis in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has recently undergone an upgrade. Non-reactor SARs at SRS (and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites) use probabilistic techniques to assess the frequency of accidents at their facilities. This paper describes the application of an extension of the Accident Progression Event Tree (APET) approach to accidents at the SRS DWPF. The APET technique allows an integrated model of the facility risk to be developed, where previous probabilistic accident analyses have been limited to the quantification of the frequency and consequences of individual accident scenarios treated independently. Use of an APET allows a more structured approach, incorporating both the treatment of initiators that are common to more than one accident, and of accident progression at the facility

  17. Analysis of labor accidents in Brazil, 2004-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Everton Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Current research synthesizes epidemiological data on morbo- mortality by labor accidents in the Brazilian population and gives a cross- section of these accidents in Brazil between 2004 and 2007. Current descrip- tive and exploratory analysis uses databases of thePublic Health Ministry on labor accidents. In fact, 465.700 and 653.090 labor accidents were notified respectively in 2004 and 2007, with a trend towardsan increase in number. The state of Santa Catarina was t...

  18. Research activities about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, T.

    1998-03-01

    The 12th anniversary is coming soon of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the former USSR on April 26, 1986. Many issues are, however, still unresolved about the radiological impacts on the environment and people due to the Chernobyl accident. This report contains the results of an international collaborative project about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, carried out from November 1995 to October 1997 under the research grant of the Toyota foundation. Collaborative works were promoted along with the following 5 sub-themes: 1) General description of research activities in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the accident. 2) Investigation of the current situation of epidemiological studies about Chernobyl in each affected country. 3) Investigation of acute radiation syndrome among inhabitants evacuated soon after the accident from the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl NPS. 4) Overview of social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident in each affected country. 5) Preparation of special reports of interesting studies being carried out in each affected country. The 27 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOPELIC, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

  20. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CROWE, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

  1. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

  2. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-03-23

    This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  3. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOPELIC, S.D.

    1999-02-25

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  4. Techniques and decision making in the assessment of off-site consequences of an accident in a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Guide is intended to complement the IAEA's existing technical guidance on emergency planning and preparedness by providing information and practical guidance related to the assessment of off-site consequences of an accident in a nuclear or radioactive materials installation and to the decision making process in implementing protective measures. This Guide contains information on emergency response philosophy, fundamental factors affecting accident consequences, principles of accident assessment, data acquisition and handling, systems, techniques and decision making principles. Many of the accident assessment concepts presented are considerably more advanced than some of those that now pertain in most countries. They could, if properly interpreted, developed and applied, significantly improve emergency response in the early and intermediate phases of an accident. Furthermore, they are considered to be applicable to a broad range of serious nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. The extent of their application is governed by both the scale of the accident and by the availability of preplanned resources for accident assessment and emergency response. 68 refs, 28 figs, 14 tabs

  5. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence determination of a waste tank criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusich, R.M. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for criticality consequences for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Criticality scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided

  6. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the evaporator dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, R.D. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for evaporator dump consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Evaporator Dump scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided

  7. Energy Analysis of Road Accidents Based on Close-Range Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Morales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and low-cost approach for energy analysis of road accidents using images obtained using consumer-grade digital cameras and smartphones. The developed method could be used by security forces in order to improve the qualitative and quantitative analysis of traffic accidents. This role of the security forces is crucial to settle arguments; consequently, the remote and non-invasive collection of accident related data before the scene is modified proves to be essential. These data, taken in situ, are the basis to perform the necessary calculations, basically the energy analysis of the road accident, for the corresponding expert reports and the reconstruction of the accident itself, especially in those accidents with important damages and consequences. Therefore, the method presented in this paper provides the security forces with an accurate, three-dimensional, and scaled reconstruction of a road accident, so that it may be considered as a support tool for the energy analysis. This method has been validated and tested with a real crash scene simulated by the local police in the Academy of Public Safety of Extremadura, Spain.

  8. [Delayed medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Armenia. Assessment of life quality and accelerated biological aging of accident liquidators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganesian, N M; Davidian, N R; Gevorkian, E G; Karapetian, A G; Miridzhanian, M I; Asrian, K V

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, some final results of 25-year investigations carried out in Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine and Burns MH RA (SCRMB) on the Armenian cohort of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators are shown. These results show that health conditions of the liquidators became worse during the whole observation period. A considerable development of both pathological states atypical of radiation damages and diseases, which may be considered as radiation-induced ones, was determined. Rise of the sickness rate of almost all organism systems, first of all, nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive ones, was observed. In 70% of liquidators the main disease was primarily detected after working on CNPP. In the intervening years, the average number of diagnoses per 1 liquidator increased from 1.5 in 1987 to 7-8 in the recent time. In addition to the detected diseases, particular functional shifts in neuropsychological and vegetative status of the liquidators were observed. The overwhelming majority of them have increased tonicity of the sympathetic vegetative nervous system, asthenic and depressive syndromes occurring in the form of weakness, somnolence, mood instability, mental capacity decrease, and memory defects. In the paper, the results of investigations aimed at clarification of changes in biological aging processes of the liquidators and assessment of their "life quality" features in terms of physical, psychical and social welfare are considered. Biological aged-related passportization in a definite part of liquidators elucidated an accelerated aging rate. The studies were performed with the help of SF-36 inquirer and indicated that health status aggravation of the liquidators also affected their life satisfaction. The "life quality" indices of the liquidators significantly concede the overall average standards by both physical health and psychical and social welfare scales.

  9. Analysis of accidents at the LPR (Radiochemical Processes Laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, F.; Boutet, L.I.

    1987-01-01

    Accidents are defined as not planned events that may result in the emission of significative quantities of radioactive materials to the environment. The pilot plant has been specifically designed to prevent this type of accidents but there still exists the possibility that one or more accidents can be produced during the plant life. In a first phase, the emission of radionuclides to the environment were evaluated for 13 credible accidents. In a second phase, by means of the calculation program SEDA, specially adapted to this purpose, the critical doses of critical group were calculated for each accident. Due to the small capacity of the pilot plant and the long cooling period of treated fuel, it is concluded that the radiological consequences for the external environment are of very small magnitude. In this way, without need of developing complex fault- or event-trees, it is shown that any of the accidents falls into the non acceptable zone of Farmer diagram. (Author)

  10. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix VI. Calculation of reactor accident consequences. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the radioactive releases from the containment following accidents; radioactive inventory of the reactor core; atmospheric dispersion; reactor sites and meteorological data; radioactive decay and deposition from plumes; finite distance of plume travel; dosimetric models; health effects; demographic data; mitigation of radiation exposure; economic model; and calculated results with consequence model.

  11. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix VI. Calculation of reactor accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the radioactive releases from the containment following accidents; radioactive inventory of the reactor core; atmospheric dispersion; reactor sites and meteorological data; radioactive decay and deposition from plumes; finite distance of plume travel; dosimetric models; health effects; demographic data; mitigation of radiation exposure; economic model; and calculated results with consequence model

  12. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR

  13. Analysis on Dangerous Source of Large Safety Accident in Storage Tank Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Li, Ying; Xie, Tiansheng; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Xueyuan

    2018-01-01

    The difference between a large safety accident and a general accident is that the consequences of a large safety accident are particularly serious. To study the tank area which factors directly or indirectly lead to the occurrence of large-sized safety accidents. According to the three kinds of hazard source theory and the consequence cause analysis of the super safety accident, this paper analyzes the dangerous source of the super safety accident in the tank area from four aspects, such as energy source, large-sized safety accident reason, management missing, environmental impact Based on the analysis of three kinds of hazard sources and environmental analysis to derive the main risk factors and the AHP evaluation model is established, and after rigorous and scientific calculation, the weights of the related factors in four kinds of risk factors and each type of risk factors are obtained. The result of analytic hierarchy process shows that management reasons is the most important one, and then the environmental factors and the direct cause and Energy source. It should be noted that although the direct cause is relatively low overall importance, the direct cause of Failure of emergency measures and Failure of prevention and control facilities in greater weight.

  14. An analysis of the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.L.; Siddal, E.

    1980-09-01

    Starting with a systematic analysis of the chain of events that took place during the Three Mile Island accident, the authors assess the significance of the four distinct phases of the accident. Inferences that can be drawn with respect to the safety of CANDU reactors are discussed. A rational reaction to the accident is suggested, and several factors are shown not to have played an important part, contrary to public impressions. The authors point out that over-reaction to the accident could detract from public safety. The Canadian response to the accident is discussed. (auth)

  15. Preliminary safety analysis of the PWR with accident-tolerant fuels during severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yapei; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng; Liu, Tong; Deng, Yongjun; Huang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of severe accident scenarios for a PWR fueled with ATF system is performed. • A large-break LOCA without ECCS is analyzed for the PWR fueled with ATF system. • Extended SBO cases are discussed for the PWR fueled with ATF system. • The accident-tolerance of ATF system for application in PWR is illustrated. - Abstract: Experience gained in decades of nuclear safety research and previous nuclear accidents direct to the investigation of passive safety system design and accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) system which is now becoming a hot research point in the nuclear energy field. The ATF system is aimed at upgrading safety characteristics of the nuclear fuel and cladding in a reactor core where active cooling has been lost, and is preferable or comparable to the current UO 2 –Zr system when the reactor is in normal operation. By virtue of advanced materials with improved properties, the ATF system will obviously slow down the progression of accidents, allowing wider margin of time for the mitigation measures to work. Specifically, the simulation and analysis of a large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) without ECCS and extended station blackout (SBO) severe accident are performed for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) loaded with ATF candidates, to reflect the accident-tolerance of ATF

  16. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  17. Analysis of Aircraft Crash Accident for WETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This report applies the methodology of DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'', to the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at LANL. Straightforward application of that methodology shows that including local helicopter flights with those of all other aircraft with potential to impact the facility poses a facility impact risk slightly in excess of the DOE standard's threshold--10 -6 impacts per year. It is also shown that helicopters can penetrate the facility if their engines impact that facility's roof. However, a refinement of the helicopter impact analysis shows that penetration risk of the facility for all aircraft lies below the DOE standard's threshold. By that standard, therefore, the potential for release of hazardous material from the facility as a result of an aircraft crashing into the facility is negligible and need not be analyzed further

  18. Development of economic consequence methodology for process risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadakbar, Omid; Khan, Faisal; Imtiaz, Syed

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive methodology for economic consequence analysis with appropriate models for risk analysis of process systems is proposed. This methodology uses loss functions to relate process deviations in a given scenario to economic losses. It consists of four steps: definition of a scenario, identification of losses, quantification of losses, and integration of losses. In this methodology, the process deviations that contribute to a given accident scenario are identified and mapped to assess potential consequences. Losses are assessed with an appropriate loss function (revised Taguchi, modified inverted normal) for each type of loss. The total loss is quantified by integrating different loss functions. The proposed methodology has been examined on two industrial case studies. Implementation of this new economic consequence methodology in quantitative risk assessment will provide better understanding and quantification of risk. This will improve design, decision making, and risk management strategies. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzunov, V.; Omelyanetz, N.; Strapko, N.; Ledoschuck, B.; Krasnikova, L.; Kartushin, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

  20. The program system UFOMOD for assessing the consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Burkart, K.; Hasemann, I.; Matzerath, C.; Panitz, H.J.; Steinhauer, C.

    1988-10-01

    The programm system UFOMOD is a completely new accident consequence assessment (ACA) code. Its structure and modelling is based on the experience gained from applications of the old UFOMOD code during and after the German Risk Study - Phase A, the results of scientific investigations performed within the ongoing Phase B and the CEC-project MARIA, and the requirements resulting from the extended use of ACAs to help in decision-making. One of the most important improvements is the introduction of different trajecotry models for describing atmospheric dispersion in the near range and at larger distances. Emergency actions and countermeasures modelling takes into account recommendations of international commissions. The dosimetric models contain completely new age-, sex- and time-dependent data of dose-conversion factors for external and internal radiation; the ingestion pathway is modelled to consider seasonal dependencies. New dose-risk-relationships for stochastic and non-stochastic health effects are implemented; a special algorithm developed for ACA codes allows individual and collective leukemia and cancer risks to be presented as a function of time after the accident. According to the modular structure of the new program system UFOMOD, an easy access to parameter values and the results of the various submodels exists what facilitates sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (orig.) [de

  1. A model for the calculation of the off-site economic consequences of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, E.; Alonso, A.

    1988-01-01

    The off-site economic cost of nuclear reactor accidents will depend on the countermeasures adopted to reduce its radiological impact. The assessment of the direct costs of emergency countermeasures (evacuation, early relocation and food disposal) as well as those of long-term protective actions (food disposal, decontamination or interdiction) is the objective of a model under development, with the sponsorship of the CEC Radiation Protection Programme, called MECA (Model for assessing the Economic Consequences of Accidents). The meteorological and socio-economical peculiarities of each site studied will be taken into account, by means of a flexible meteorological sampling scheme, which considers the geographical distribution of population and economic centers, and a data-base, compatible with the existing European grid, that contains the population distribution and the economic characteristics of the environs of the site to be studied with more detail near the reactor. The paper summarizes the particular models which will be included in MECA and shows the importance of site-specific adaptable modelling for economic risk evaluation

  2. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bunt, R. [Southern Nuclear, Atlanta, GA (United States); Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ellison, Paul B. [GE Power and Water, Duluth, GA (United States); Francis, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gabor, John D. [Erin Engineering, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Linthicum, R. [Exelon Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Luangdilok, W. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lutz, R. [PWR Owners Group (PWROG); Paik, C. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Plys, M. [Fauske and Associates, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rempe, J. [Rempe and Associates LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wachowiak, R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  3. Development of MAAP5.0.3 Spent Fuel Pool Model for Severe Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ro [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    After the Fukushima accident, the severe accident phenomena in the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) have been the great issues in the nuclear industry. Generally, during full power operation status, the decay heat of the spent fuel in the SFP is not high enough to cause the severe accident that is the say, the melting of fuel and fuel rack. In addition to this, the SFP of the PWR is not isolated within the containment like the SFP of the old BWR plant, there are so many possible measures to prevent and mitigate severe accidents in the SFP. On the other hand, in the low power shutdown status (fuel refueling), all the core is transferred into the SFP during the refueling period. At this period, if some accidents happen such as the loss of SFP cooling and the failure of SFP integrity then the accidents may be developed into severe accident because the decay heat is high enough. So, the analysis of severe accidents in the SFP during low power shutdown state is greatly affected to the establishment of the major strategies in the severe accident management guideline (SAMG). However, the status of the domestic technical background for those analyses is very weak. it is known that the decay heat of the spent fuel in the SFP is not high enough to cause the severe accident qualitatively. However, there are some possibilities that can cause the severe accidents in the SFP if the loss of SFP cooling and integrity happens simultaneously. The severe accident phenomena in SFP themselves are not much different from those in the containment. However, since the structure of SFP cannot be isolated during the accidents like the containment, the consequence can be extremely significant. So, in terms of the establishment of the severe accident management strategy, it is necessary that the quantitative analysis for the severe accident progression in the SFP should be performed. In this study, the general behavior which can be appeared during the severe accidents in the SFP was analyzed using the

  4. Depressurization as an accident management strategy to minimize the consequences of direct containment heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Golden, D.W.; Chambers, R.; Miller, J.D.; Hallbert, B.P.; Dobbe, C.A.

    1990-10-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) have identified severe accidents for nuclear power plants that have the potential to cause failure of the containment through direct containment heating (DCH). Prevention of DCH or mitigation of its effects may be possible using accident management strategies that intentionally depressurize the reactor coolant system (RCS). The effectiveness of intentional depressurization during a station blackout TMLB' sequence was evaluated considering the phenomenological behavior, hardware performance, and operational performance. Phenomenological behavior was calculated using the SCDAP/RELAP5 severe accident analysis code. Two strategies to mitigate DCH by depressurization of the RCS were considered. One strategy, called early depressurization, assumed that the reactor head vent and pressurizer power-operated relief valves (PORVs) were latched open at steam generator dryout. The second strategy, called late depression, assumed that the head vent and PORVs were latched open at a core exit temperature of ∼922 K (1200 degree F). Depressurization of the RCS to a low value that may mitigate DCH was predicted prior to reactor pressure vessel breach for both early and late depressurization. The strategy of late depressurization is preferred over early depressurization because there are greater opportunities to recover plant functions prior to core damage and because failure uncertainties are lessened. 22 refs., 38 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Depressurization as an accident management strategy to minimize the consequences of direct containment heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Golden, D.W.; Chambers, R.; Miller, J.D.; Hallbert, B.P.; Dobbe, C.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) have identified severe accidents for nuclear power plants that have the potential to cause failure of the containment through direct containment heating (DCH). Prevention of DCH or mitigation of its effects may be possible using accident management strategies that intentionally depressurize the reactor coolant system (RCS). The effectiveness of intentional depressurization during a station blackout TMLB' sequence was evaluated considering the phenomenological behavior, hardware performance, and operational performance. Phenomenological behavior was calculated using the SCDAP/RELAP5 severe accident analysis code. Two strategies to mitigate DCH by depressurization of the RCS were considered. One strategy, called early depressurization, assumed that the reactor head vent and pressurizer power-operated relief valves (PORVs) were latched open at steam generator dryout. The second strategy, called late depression, assumed that the head vent and PORVs were latched open at a core exit temperature of {approximately}922 K (1200{degree}F). Depressurization of the RCS to a low value that may mitigate DCH was predicted prior to reactor pressure vessel breach for both early and late depressurization. The strategy of late depressurization is preferred over early depressurization because there are greater opportunities to recover plant functions prior to core damage and because failure uncertainties are lessened. 22 refs., 38 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Characteristic of stochastic effects in participants of the Chernobyl nuclear accident consequences liquidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, Liubov; Bahnarel, Ion; Coretchi, Lilia; Samotiia, Eugenia; Chirca, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    870 patients - participants in diminishing of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident were clinical investigated, immunological, cytogenetic and oncological. The clinical investigation indicates the prevalence of large polymorphism of nervous, heart-vascular and gastric-intestinal system, which was accompanied by circulatory disorder of the vegetative nervous system. The aberrations of T-lymphocytes immunofenotype and tendency to T-/cell immunity insufficiency have been revealed with monoclonal antibodies to CD19 + , CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + , CDHLA DR + and CD16 + . Cytogenetic research of the lymphocyte cultures of periferal blood revealed the high level of genomic, chromosomal and chromatid type aberration. The structure of tumors has the appropriate profile, but not identical with the Chisinau populations, for the same period 1991-2009. (authors)

  7. Accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators: Simulations, consequences of accidents and protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozhdin, A.; Mokhov, N.; Parker, B.

    1994-02-01

    The consequences of an accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators and colliders of the next generation range from the mundane to rather dramatic, i.e., from superconducting magnet quench, to overheating of critical components, to a total destruction of some units via explosion. Specific measures are required to minimize and eliminate such events as much as practical. In this paper we study such accidents taking the Superconducting Supercollider complex as an example. Particle tracking, beam loss and energy deposition calculations were done using the realistic machine simulation with the Monte-Carlo codes MARS 12 and STRUCT. Protective measures for minimizing the damaging effects of prefire and misfire of injection and extraction kicker magnets are proposed here

  8. The radiological consequences in the USSR from the Chernobyl accident: Description of the scheme of implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, Mona

    2004-01-01

    After October 1989 the Government of the USSR requested the IAEA to organize an international assessment of the 'concept which the USSR has evolved to enable the population to live safely in areas affected by radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps taken in these areas to safeguard the health of the population'. The IAEA responded positively to this request for special assistance. The IAEA is carried out an extensive international project involving over 100 experts who assessed the human health and environmental consequences in the affected areas of Byelorussia, the Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, and evaluate measures taken by Soviet authorities to protect the population and the environment

  9. The consequences of radioactive contamination of forest ecosystems due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Shcheglova, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of forests on the radionuclide primary distribution in different components of the contaminated ecosystems is considered by the example of Chernobyl accident. A basic mathematical model is developed describing 137 Cs biogeochemical cycling under conditions of quasi-steady state radionuclide redistribution in the ecosystem. Forest ecosystems are proved to diminish radionuclide migration in the environment, and forest should be regarded as an important sanitary factor. The contribution of contaminated forests and forest products to the total irradiation dose to local population is estimated. Special countermeasures are elaborated in order to diminish unfavorable consequences of forest radioactive contamination. A long-term dynamics of radioactive situation in the forest ecosystems in forecasted and further studies on the subject are drafted

  10. [Injured cyclists and bicycle passengers. A prospective study of the causes of accidents, accident patterns and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bødtker, S; Kramhøft, M; Lind, J

    1990-08-20

    In a one-year prospective investigation in 1985, all bicycle accidents in Denmark were registered. The circumstances of the accident were recorded. All injuries were classified in the AIS and the ISS scales. After one year, the patients were contacted and sick leave and sequelae were registered. A total of 576 patients (320 men and 256 women), were treated after bicycle accidents. Bicycle accidents were seen most frequently in the ages from 5 to 19 years. The accidents were distributed uniformly over the week and occurred most frequently in the summer. 392 of the accidents were single-accidents, and the majority had used a bicycle-track if possible. Collision with other road users and bad road conditions were responsible for 41%, and defects in the bicycle for 9%, mainly on handlebars, front fork, front wheel, gear and chain. Two were admitted dead, and 114 were admitted to hospital (20%) for median four days. Eleven per cent had sustained serious lesions (fractures or lesions of the head). 556 had an AIS-score less or equal to three and un 387 the AIS-score was one. 561 had an ISS-score less than ten, five between ten and 75 and two had 75. Eight patients could not be classified. The patients AIS score is determined as the highest score of an injured region. AIS score of 6 is fatal. The ISS score is the addition of the square of the 3 highest AIS values. ISS of 75 is fatal. AIS is thus a value of the most serious lesion and ISS is a value of how traumatized the patient is.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Analysis of severe accidents in pressurized heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    Certain very low probability plant states that are beyond design basis accident conditions and which may arise owing to multiple failures of safety systems leading to significant core degradation may jeopardize the integrity of many or all the barriers to the release of radioactive material. Such event sequences are called severe accidents. It is required in the IAEA Safety Requirements publication on Safety of the Nuclear Power Plants: Design, that consideration be given to severe accident sequences, using a combination of engineering judgement and probabilistic methods, to determine those sequences for which reasonably practicable preventive or mitigatory measures can be identified. Acceptable measures need not involve the application of conservative engineering practices used in setting and evaluating design basis accidents, but rather should be based on realistic or best estimate assumptions, methods and analytical criteria. Recently, the IAEA developed a Safety Report on Approaches and Tools for Severe Accident Analysis. This publication provides a description of factors important to severe accident analysis, an overview of severe accident phenomena and the current status in their modelling, categorization of available computer codes, and differences in approaches for various applications of severe accident analysis. The report covers both the in- and ex-vessel phases of severe accidents. The publication is consistent with the IAEA Safety Report on Accident Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants and can be considered as a complementary report specifically devoted to the analysis of severe accidents. Although the report does not explicitly differentiate among various reactor types, it has been written essentially on the basis of available knowledge and databases developed for light water reactors. Therefore its application is mostly oriented towards PWRs and BWRs and, to a more limited extent, they can be only used as preliminary guidance for other types of reactors

  12. [Retrospective analysis of 44 childhood drowning accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Caroline; Siekmeyer, Werner; Siekmeyer, Manuela; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland

    2010-07-01

    Worldwide, drowning is the second leading cause of unintentional death and the leading cause of cardiovascular failure for children [1-3]. The number of near-drownings, where the incident is survived for at least 24 hours, is assumed to be four times as high [5]. In the years 1994 until 2008 there were 44 cases of drowning treated at the children's department of the University of Leipzig. This number shows that even in a medical centre drowning incidents are only occasional incidents. Therefore it is important to know the sequelae and handlings to be able to react in case of an emergency. A total of 44 children suffering a drowning accident within the last 48 hours who were treated during the period of 01.01.1994 through 30.06.2008 at the Children's Centre at the University of Leipzig. A retrospective analysis using a structured questionnaire was done. Social demographic data, accident progress, clinical results and progress as well as outcome of the cases were investigated. During the analysed period in the median three children were treated each year after drowning incidents. Clustering in the summer and winter months and on the weekends was recognizable. The median age was 3.33 years and the group of high risk were children aged 1-3 years, especially boys. Sixty percent of the children came from stable social backgrounds. Half of the children suffered from drowning in created swimming pools or ponds, the rest in natural waters, public pools and sources of water in the household. The median submersion lasted 2 minutes. Correlation of submersions below 1 minute with a good, and submersions above 10 minutes with a negative outcome was shown. A Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 3 points (n = 15) and pupils without light reaction (n = 14) were associated with a lethal outcome or residual neurological deficits. Looking at the laboratory values, correlation between severe acidotic pH-values with a very low base excess, high blood sugar as well as high lactate values and a

  13. Analysis and research status of severe core damage accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The Severe Core Damage Research and Analysis Task Force was established in Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, in May, 1982 to make a quantitative analysis on the issues related with the severe core damage accident and also to survey the present status of the research and provide the required research subjects on the severe core damage accident. This report summarizes the results of the works performed by the Task Force during last one and half years. The main subjects investigated are as follows; (1) Discussion on the purposes and necessities of severe core damage accident research, (2) proposal of phenomenological research subjects required in Japan, (3) analysis of severe core damage accidents and identification of risk dominant accident sequences, (4) investigation of significant physical phenomena in severe core damage accidents, and (5) survey of the research status. (author)

  14. Source term analysis for a nuclear submarine accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Hugron, J.J.M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A source term analysis has been conducted to determine the activity release into the environment as a result of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident aboard a visiting nuclear-powered submarine to a Canadian port. This best-estimate analysis considers the fractional release from the core, and fission product transport in the primary heat transport system, primary containment (i.e. reactor compartment) and submarine hull. Physical removal mechanisms such as vapour and aerosol deposition are treated in the calculation. Since a thermalhydraulic analysis indicated that the integrity of the reactor compartment is maintained, release from the reactor compartment will only occur by leakage; however, it is conservatively assumed that the secondary containment is not isolated for a 24-h period where release occurs through an open hatch in the submarine hull. Consequently, during this period, the activity release into the atmosphere is estimated as 4.6 TBq, leading to a maximum individual dose equivalent of 0.5 mSv at 800 metres from the berthing location. This activity release is comparable to that obtained in the BEREX TSA study (for a similar accident scenario) but is four orders of magnitude less than that reported in the earlier Davis study where, unrealistically, no credit had been taken for the containment system or for any physical removal processes. (author)

  15. Social aspects in evaluation of health status of subjects who participated in liquidation of radiation accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukov, A.R.; Kleev, N.A.; Shafranskij, I.L.

    2000-01-01

    The morbidity rate of the Russian atomic industry workers, the liquidators of ChNPP accident consequences and their future life span shorting with an account of their social status are evaluated. Tentative and standard morbidity values were calculated with an account of various social groups of the liquidators. Intensive values of the man-year losses were used in the methodology for evaluating the vital potential losses. The study results indicated considerable morbidity difference in certain diseases by the persons of various social groups, who took part in liquidation of the ChNPP accident consequences [ru

  16. An assessment of the radiological consequences of releases to groundwater following a core-melt accident at the Sizewell PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.

    1984-03-01

    In the extremely unlikely event of a degraded core accident at the proposed Sizewell PWR it is theoretically possible for the core to melt through the containment, after which activity could enter groundwater directly or as a result of subsequent leaching of the core in the ground. The radiological consequences of such an event are analysed and compared with the analysis undertaken by the NRPB for the corresponding releases to atmosphere. It is concluded that the risks associated with the groundwater route are much less important than those associated with the atmospheric route. The much longer transport times in the ground compared with those in the atmosphere enable countermeasures to be taken, if necessary, to restrict doses to members of the public to very low levels in the first few years following the accident. The entry of long-lived radionuclides into the sea over very long timescales results in the largest contribution to population doses, but these are delivered at extremely low dose rates which would be negligible compared with background exposure. (author)

  17. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weighted Severity Index (WSI) was created based on these factors/drivers. Also, Density-based Clustering for Traffic Accident Risk (DBCTAR) was carried out to assist in ascertaining the distribution of Black Spots Severity (BSS). Results obtained include: shortestpath analysis, service area analysis, accident spot severity ...

  18. Analysis of local subassembly accident in KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Min; Jeong, Kwan Seong; Hahn, Do Hee

    2000-10-01

    Subassembly Accidents (S-A) in the Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) may cause extensive clad and fuel melting and are thus regarded as a potential whole core accident initiator. The possibility of S-A occurrence must be very low frequency by the design features, and reactor must have specific instrumentation to interrupt the S-A sequences by causing a reactor shutdown. The evaluation of the relevant initiators, the event sequences which follow them, and their detection are the essence of the safety issue. Particularly, the phenomena of flow blockage caused by foreign materials and/or the debris from the failed fuel pin have been researched world-widely. The foreign strategies for dealing with the S-A and the associated safety issues with experimental and theoretical R and D results are reviewed. This report aims at obtaining information to reasonably evaluate the thermal-hydraulic effect of S-A for a wire-wrapped LMR fuel pin bundle. The mechanism of blockage formation and growth within a pin bundle and at the subassembly entrance is reviewed in the phenomenological aspect. Knowledge about the recent LMR subassembly design and operation procedure to prevent flow blockage will be reflected for KALIMER design later. The blockage analysis method including computer codes and related analytical models are reviewed. Especially SABRE4 code is discussed in detail. Preliminary analyses of flow blockage within a 271-pin driver subassembly have been performed using the SABRE4 computer code. As a result no sodium boiling occurred for the central 24-subchannel blockage as well as 6-subchannel blockage.

  19. TOXRISK, Toxic Gas Release Accident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.E.; Chanin, D.I.; Shiver, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: TOXRISK is an interactive program developed to aid in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room habitability in the event of a nearby toxic material release. The program uses a model which is consistent with the approach described in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.78. Release of the gas is treated as an initial puff followed by a continuous plume. The relative proportions of these as well as the plume release rate are supplied by the user. Transport of the gas is modeled as a Gaussian distribution and occurs through the action of a constant velocity, constant direction wind. Great flexibility is afforded the user in specifying the release description, meteorological conditions, relative geometry of the accident and plant, and the plant ventilation system characteristics. Two types of simulation can be performed: multiple case (parametric) studies and probabilistic analyses. Upon execution, TOXRISK presents a menu, and the user chooses between the Data Base Manager, the Multiple Case program, and the Probabilistic Study Program. The Data Base Manager provides a convenient means of storing, retrieving, and modifying blocks of data required by the analysis programs. The Multiple Case program calculates resultant gas concentrations inside the control room and presents a summary of information that describes the event for each set of conditions given. Optimally, a time history profile of inside and outside concentrations can also be produced. The Probabilistic Study program provides a means for estimating the annual probability of operator incapacitation due to toxic gas accidents on surrounding transportation routes and storage sites. 2 - Method of solution: Dispersion or diffusion of the gas during transport is described by modified Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficients

  20. Research activity about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activity to assist its sufferers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Koide, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Keiji

    1998-01-01

    Due to the Chernobyl Accident in April 1986, a series of serious radiological consequences were brought in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The former Soviet Union and the authorities in the world such as IAEA, however, have been denying serious health consequences among the people around Chernobyl since the beginning of the accident. On the other hand, a lot of works indicating serious health effects of the accident have been reported by scientists in these affected countries although they are not well known in the western countries. Since 1993, under the research grant of the Toyota foundation, we have continued a cooperative program to investigate research activities in these countries about the Chernobyl accident and to look into data and information that were not known so far. The information concerning the social system and activity to assist the sufferers from the accident has been also overviewed, including legal aspects of the Chernobyl problem. Here we are presenting an outline of our cooperation activity and our work concerning dose estimation for the inhabitants around the Chernobyl NPS at the first stage after the accident. The results of our estimation suggest that at least several hundreds of inhabitants received radiation dose exceeding 1 Sv before their evacuation. The whole reports of our cooperation program will be published in English and in Japanese in the next year. (author)

  1. Model review and evaluation for application in DOE safety basis documentation of chemical accidents - modeling guidance for atmospheric dispersion and consequence assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Woodarad, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hanna, S. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hesse, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Huang, J. -C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lewis, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mazzola, C. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Defense Programs (DP), Office of Engineering and Operations Suppon, established the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (AP AC) Methodology Evaluation Program to identify and evaluate methodologies and computer codes to support accident phenomenological and consequence calculations for both radiological and nonradiological materials at DOE facilities and to identify development needs. The program is also intended to define and recommend "best or good engineering/safety analysis practices" to be followed in preparing ''design or beyond design basis" assessments to be included in DOE nuclear and nonnuclear facility safety documents. The AP AC effort is intended to provide scientifically sound and more consistent analytical approaches, by identifying model selection procedures and application methodologies, in order to enhance safety analysis activities throughout the DOE complex.

  2. A cluster analysis on road traffic accidents using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Sabariah; Baragona, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of traffic road accidents is increasingly important because of the accidents cost and public road safety. The availability or large data sets makes the study of factors that affect the frequency and severity accidents are viable. However, the data are often highly unbalanced and overlapped. We deal with the data set of the road traffic accidents recorded in Christchurch, New Zealand, from 2000-2009 with a total of 26440 accidents. The data is in a binary set and there are 50 factors road traffic accidents with four level of severity. We used genetic algorithm for the analysis because we are in the presence of a large unbalanced data set and standard clustering like k-means algorithm may not be suitable for the task. The genetic algorithm based on clustering for unknown K, (GCUK) has been used to identify the factors associated with accidents of different levels of severity. The results provided us with an interesting insight into the relationship between factors and accidents severity level and suggest that the two main factors that contributes to fatal accidents are "Speed greater than 60 km h" and "Did not see other people until it was too late". A comparison with the k-means algorithm and the independent component analysis is performed to validate the results.

  3. Health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.; Catlin, R.J.; Anspaugh, L.

    1987-06-01

    An assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Northern Hemisphere is presented in this report. It relies heavily on the USSR report presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency. There are gaps in present knowledge and, in some areas, uncertainties may never be completely resolved. What is clearly apparent at this time, however, is that on a large regional scale, the estimates of collective dose have a reasonable level of confidence. The associated potential health impacts have also been projected, together with a range of estimates. A brief description of the tragic consequences to the heroic firefighting and rescue personnel is also provided, and valuable insights regarding acute exposures are developed. Much early effort was expended on estimation of the source term, especially for radiocesium and radioiodine. Several independent analyses are presented that are in reasonable agreement. Atmospheric transport of the radioactive material and its subsequent deposition provide a documented ''umbrella'' of the distributions that form the basic integration of this assessment. The estimates of radiological doses to selected Northern Hemisphere populations were employed in developing an integrated risk assessment of potential latent health effects using the most current models, parameters and risk coefficients. The estimates presented include lower- and upper-bound values, as well as the ''best'' or most realistic ranges. While many scientists believe that minuscule increases in risks to large populations are impossible to prove, it is essential that the magnitude of these possible risks be presented, if only to put an upper limit on the situation. It must be emphasized that while these are ''potential'' health effects, the values presented represent our best current assessment of the health and environmental detriment caused by the Chernobyl accident. 72 refs., 37 figs., 91 tabs

  4. Research and managing institutions in Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasvit, O.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents temporal changes of the national organizations in managing the Chernobyl accident and its activities. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine started its activity from the first days after the accident. In 1990 a special executive body, the State committee of Chernobyl Affairs was established in Ukraine to manage the whole activity to overcome the Chernobyl problems. In 1991 it was rearranged into the Ministry of Chernobyl Affairs. In 1996 a new Ministry of Ukraine on Emergences and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe(MEA) was founded on the basis of the Min. Chernobyl and Headquarters Staff of Civil Defence. The National Commission on Radiological Protection of Ukraine (NCRPU) belongs to the Parliament structure. NCRPU is responsible for approval of radiological safety standards and derived regulations. Very often the regulation approved are stricter than the international recommendations. There is an essential lack of attention within the Parliament to the activity of NCRPU. Ministry of Health is responsible for all kinds of medical care for the people suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe. In order to provide permanent medical service, a nation-wide scheme has been worked out. Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine is the leading scientific institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences. The State scientific Center of Environmental Radio geochemistry was created in 1996 on the basis of the two departments of the Institute of Geochemistry. The Center was created in order to improve coordination and managing of scientific researches on the behavior of artificial and natural radionuclides and chemical substances in the environment etc.. The Chernobyl Scientific-Technical center for International Research was created in March,1996. The Ukrainian Scientific Hygienic Center of Ministry of Health was created in 1989 and included two institutions. The subjects, the direction of research works

  5. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident - the radioecological database Redac of the French-German initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville-Cavelin, G.; Biesold, H.; Chabanyuk, V.

    2004-01-01

    The French-German Initiative for Chernobyl (FGI), implemented by IRSN and GRS from 1997 until the end of 2003, included the 'Project on the Radioecological Consequences of the Accident'. The most relevant fields of radioecology and post-accidental aspects have been studied, such as radionuclides transfers to plants, to animals, by surface runoff, in the aquatic environment and in the urban environment, wastes management and countermeasures. The main goal was to collect and harmonise, from Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, the highest possible amount of data and results on these different topics. These data have been verified, validated and organized in a common geo-referenced database REDAC (Radioecological Database After Chernobyl). For linking the different data, maps of initial and present contamination by 137 Cs and 90 Sr have been drawn up and relevant environmental non-radioactive data have been included. The operational database built will also allow the management of the wastes disposal sites. Countermeasures used after the accident for urban areas, natural and agricultural environment, have been described and classified. A methodology for evaluating their effectiveness has been developed. This database constitutes a tool for the development and validation of operational, assessment and explicative models. This allows the quantification and assessment of radionuclide transfer in the different compartments of ecosystems. So the main parameters influencing the transfers can be identified. REDAC should be completed by further investigations, for example on transuranic elements and extended to larger geographical zones. The database should also be combined with others provided by different organisations (IAEA, IRSN, UIR, ). (author)

  6. Analysis of nuclear accidents and associated problems relevant to public perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naschi, G.; Petrangeli, G.

    1993-01-01

    The analytical study of nuclear accidents, even if they are limited in number, forms a significant part of the vast discipline of industrial plant risk analysis. The retrospective analysis of the causes and various elements which contributed to the evolution of real accidents, as well as, the evaluation of the consequences and lessons learned, constitute a bank of information which, when suitably elaborated through a process of rational synthesis, can strongly influence the preparation of safety normatives, plant design specifications, environmental impacts assessments, and the perception of risk. This latter aspect is gaining importance today as growing public awareness and sensitivity towards the development and use of new technologies now bear heavily on new plant decision making. This paper examines how the public perception of risk regarding nuclear energy has been influenced by the events surrounding the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island accidents and the way in which information dissemination concerning these accidents was handled by mass media

  7. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.

    1999-09-09

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  8. Have the consequences of reactor accidents for the population been well assessed? Six questions to the experts in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Peter

    2016-07-15

    Six questions to the experts in the field are posed: (1) Why is the assessment of accident consequences not separated in long-term and peak exposure? (2) Why is the exposure due to I-131 seen critical mainly in regard to the thyroid? (3) Do you have any reliable relations of health risk versus peak exposure? (4) Why do you not abolish the LNT assumption and replace it with a threshold model? (5) Why do you include indirect, psycho-somatic effects in assessing the consequences of reactor accidents when this is not customary with accidents with often more casualties? (6) How can the number of Chernobyl-assigned thyroid cancers have risen from some 600 about to some 4,000 today, when the latency period is in the range of 4 to 5 years?.

  9. Indonesian Sea Accident Analysis (Case Study From 2003 – 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya Dewanto, Y.; Faturachman, D.

    2018-03-01

    There are so many accidents in sea transportation in Indonesia. Most of the accidents happen because of low concern aspects of the safety and security of the crew. In sailing, a man as transport users to interact with the ship and the surrounding environment (including other ships, cruise lines, ports, and the situation of local conditions). These interactions are sometimes very complex and related to various aspects of. Aware of the multiplicity of aspects related to the third of these factors, seeking the safety of cruise through a reduction in the number of accidents and the risk of death and serious injuries due to accidents and goods transported is certainly not enough attempted through mono-sector approach, but rather takes a multi-sector approach to the efforts. In this paper, we described the Indonesian Sea Transportation accident analysis for eleven years divided into four items: total of ship accident type, ship accident factor, total of casualties, region of ship accidents. All data founded from Marine Court (Mahkamah Pelayaran). From that 4 items we can find Indonesia Sea Accident Analysis from 2003-2013.

  10. Study on the possible consequences of a severe accident in a Swiss nuclear power plant on the drinking water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustohalova, Veronika; Kueppers, Christian; Claus, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The study on the possible consequences of a severe accident in a Swiss nuclear power plant on the drinking water supply covers the following issues: estimation of possible source terms and radioactive materials release rates, airborne water contamination, water contamination by direct pollution, consequences for the drinking water supply, emergency measures in case of a drinking water contamination, routine surveillance of surface and ground water and improvement possibilities in nuclear power plants.

  11. Human reliability data, human error and accident models--illustration through the Three Mile Island accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bot, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Our first objective is to provide a panorama of Human Reliability data used in EDF's Safety Probabilistic Studies, and then, since these concepts are at the heart of Human Reliability and its methods, to go over the notion of human error and the understanding of accidents. We are not sure today that it is actually possible to provide in this field a foolproof and productive theoretical framework. Consequently, the aim of this article is to suggest potential paths of action and to provide information on EDF's progress along those paths which enables us to produce the most potentially useful Human Reliability analyses while taking into account current knowledge in Human Sciences. The second part of this article illustrates our point of view as EDF researchers through the analysis of the most famous civil nuclear accident, the Three Mile Island unit accident in 1979. Analysis of this accident allowed us to validate our positions regarding the need to move, in the case of an accident, from the concept of human error to that of systemic failure in the operation of systems such as a nuclear power plant. These concepts rely heavily on the notion of distributed cognition and we will explain how we applied it. These concepts were implemented in the MERMOS Human Reliability Probabilistic Assessment methods used in the latest EDF Probabilistic Human Reliability Assessment. Besides the fact that it is not very productive to focus exclusively on individual psychological error, the design of the MERMOS method and its implementation have confirmed two things: the significance of qualitative data collection for Human Reliability, and the central role held by Human Reliability experts in building knowledge about emergency operation, which in effect consists of Human Reliability data collection. The latest conclusion derived from the implementation of MERMOS is that, considering the difficulty in building 'generic' Human Reliability data in the field we are involved in, the best

  12. Health consequences of road accidents: insights from local health authority registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoncello, C; Furlan, P; Baldovin, T; Marcolongo, A; Casale, P; Cocchio, S; Buja, A; Baldo, V

    2013-01-01

    Road accidents are a major public health problem that affect all age groups but their impact is most striking among the young. The aim of this study is to quantify the burden of road traffic injuries, their mortality and direct in-patient economic costs and to identify the age classes at highest risk for severe road traffic injuries, through analysis of data collected by information systems of an Italian Local Health Authority. The study was conducted in a Local Health Authority of Veneto Region. Injured people were selected from Emergency Department (2006-2010). Data were linked to the Hospital Information System for hospital admissions and to the Mortality Registry to check 30-day mortality. The direct costs associated to hospitalizations were estimated through Diagnosis Related Group reimbursement rates. Multivariate analysis was performed using hospitalization and mortality as the dependent variables and gender, age, day of week when accident occurred as the independent variables. Traffic injury, hospitalization and mortality incidence rates were calculated by gender and age per 100,000 residents per year. The road traffic injuries were 9,192, decreasing from 2,112 in 2006 to 1,980 in 2010. Among injured persons 55.3% were male (68.1% among 15-19 age class); 41.7% young people aged 15-34 years (43.9% among male, 39.0% among female). Total hospitalisation rate was 5.9%. Overall mortality rate was 0.3% (0.9% among aged 65 or older). The cost of hospital admission was euro 2,742,505 (hospitalization mean cost euro 5,097). Risk of hospitalization and death was higher in male, in elderly and during week end. Young people aged 15-19 had the highest incidence of visits (2,258.4 per 100,000) and high hospitalisation weekend and mortality rates (respectively 101.5 and 8.5). Analysis at local level, using current data sources, permits to estimate the burden of injuries caused by road-traffic, to describe the characteristics of injured persons and finally to estimate

  13. Fire-accident analysis code (FIRAC) verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, B.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Fenton, D.L.; Smith, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    The FIRAC computer code predicts fire-induced transients in nuclear fuel cycle facility ventilation systems. FIRAC calculates simultaneously the gas-dynamic, material transport, and heat transport transients that occur in any arbitrarily connected network system subjected to a fire. The network system may include ventilation components such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers. These components are connected to rooms and corridors to complete the network for moving air through the facility. An experimental ventilation system has been constructed to verify FIRAC and other accident analysis codes. The design emphasizes network system characteristics and includes multiple chambers, ducts, blowers, dampers, and filters. A larger industrial heater and a commercial dust feeder are used to inject thermal energy and aerosol mass. The facility is instrumented to measure volumetric flow rate, temperature, pressure, and aerosol concentration throughout the system. Aerosol release rates and mass accumulation on filters also are measured. We have performed a series of experiments in which a known rate of thermal energy is injected into the system. We then simulated this experiment with the FIRAC code. This paper compares and discusses the gas-dynamic and heat transport data obtained from the ventilation system experiments with those predicted by the FIRAC code. The numerically predicted data generally are within 10% of the experimental data

  14. Analysis of construction accidents in Turkey and responsible parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürcanli, G Emre; Müngen, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Construction is one of the world's biggest industry that includes jobs as diverse as building, civil engineering, demolition, renovation, repair and maintenance. Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards. This study analyzes 1,117 expert witness reports which were submitted to criminal and labour courts. These reports are from all regions of the country and cover the period 1972-2008. Accidents were classified by the consequence of the incident, time and main causes of the accident, construction type, occupation of the victim, activity at time of the accident and party responsible for the accident. Falls (54.1%), struck by thrown/falling object (12.9%), structural collapses (9.9%) and electrocutions (7.5%) rank first four places. The accidents were most likely between the hours 15:00 and 17:00 (22.6%), 10:00-12:00 (18.7%) and just after the lunchtime (9.9%). Additionally, the most common accidents were further divided into sub-types. Expert-witness assessments were used to identify the parties at fault and what acts of negligence typically lead to accidents. Nearly two thirds of the faulty and negligent acts are carried out by the employers and employees are responsible for almost one third of all cases.

  15. Analysis of Construction Accidents in Turkey and Responsible Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    GÜRCANLI, G. Emre; MÜNGEN, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Construction is one of the world’s biggest industry that includes jobs as diverse as building, civil engineering, demolition, renovation, repair and maintenance. Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards. This study analyzes 1,117 expert witness reports which were submitted to criminal and labour courts. These reports are from all regions of the country and cover the period 1972–2008. Accidents were classified by the consequence of the incident, time and main causes of the accident, construction type, occupation of the victim, activity at time of the accident and party responsible for the accident. Falls (54.1%), struck by thrown/falling object (12.9%), structural collapses (9.9%) and electrocutions (7.5%) rank first four places. The accidents were most likely between the hours 15:00 and 17:00 (22.6%), 10:00–12:00 (18.7%) and just after the lunchtime (9.9%). Additionally, the most common accidents were further divided into sub-types. Expert-witness assessments were used to identify the parties at fault and what acts of negligence typically lead to accidents. Nearly two thirds of the faulty and negligent acts are carried out by the employers and employees are responsible for almost one third of all cases. PMID:24077446

  16. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarkog, A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Alexakhin, R. [Russian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Arkhipov, N.P. [Scientific and Technical Centre of the RIA `Pripyat` (Ukraine); Johansson, K.-J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-07-01

    In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems.

  17. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Aarkog, A.; Alexakhin, R.; Anspaugh, L.; Arkhipov, N.P.; Johansson, K.-J.

    1996-07-01

    In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems

  18. A flexible tool for calculating the consequences of a hypothetical nuclear accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Tabet

    Full Text Available The paper presents a parametric model, implemented on a personal computer, for calculating contamination and doses following a hypothetical nuclear accident. The model is embedded in the high level environment of Mathematica and uses the Gaussian solution for the plume structure at short and medium distances and a wedge-like behaviour for long distances calculation. Along with the usual effects, like the influence of a local wet ground deposition or the corrections due to build-up, the model deals also with other aspects, such as the long distance behaviour of the plume, by taking into account random wind direction variations. A rather sophisticated approach is used, in particular, when evaluating food contamination and doses, allowing also for consideration of a possible ban of food consumption. Several tens of functions are on hand of the user who can take full advantage of the very flexible tools introduced in the recent version 7 of Mathematica. Some examples of the power of the tool are shown with reference to the radiological consequences of an hypothetical accidental release in a EPR reactor.

  19. Environmental contamination following the Chernobyl accident and some ecological consequences of this contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izrael, Yu.A.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements and scientific research results of natural environment contamination after the Chernobyl accident and ecological consequences of this contamination are presented. In April--May 1986 unique scientific results to evaluate the scale of radioactive effects were obtained. Areas of full estrangement zone (about 100 km 2 ) and also of immediate population evacuation were determined.The isotope content of contamination was analyzed in detail. It is shown how open-quotes long rangeclose quotes contaminated areas by the most volatile of the long-lived radionuclides (Cs 137 ) were formed. An area contamination map by the long-lived isotopes, i.e., Cs 137 , Sr 90 and Pu 239,240 is presented.The migration question of different isotopes in natural environments (by surface waters and wind migration), their penetration into vegetation and possibilities of penetration along food chains to animals and man are considered. Several stress effects on natural ecosystems adjacent to nuclear station are described. Finally, some aspects of man's radiation ecology are discussed

  20. General situation of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinsky, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident on April 26, 1986, epidemiological analyses of data point to impressive deterioration of the health of the people affected by radionuclide contamination in the environment. This deterioration of population health embraces a broad spectrum of diseases. Epidemiological prediction of the rate of thyroid cancer in children near Chernobyl seems strikingly compatible with a real increase. But there is a tendency to consider the morbidity augmentation as a result having been associated with the factors of non-radioactive origin (chemical compounds, heavy metals and mainly social-psychological syndrome development). The Chernobyl catastrophe has implied a heavy burden for Ukraine: pollution of air, water, soils and vegetation in all ecosystems, late radiological effects in the health of people, losses of arable land and forest, necessity of mass-evacuation from thousands of settlements in the contaminated regions, severe psychological shock for millions of people, and painful suffering of unexpected life tragedies. Eleven years after, this tragic event with its causes and consequence brings one to very important conclusions concerning moral aspects of human relations within the nuclear society, as well as interactions between the society and the environment. (J.P.N.)

  1. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haukkala, A.; Eraenen, L.

    1994-10-01

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.)

  2. Application of forensic image analysis in accident investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verolme, Ellen; Mieremet, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Forensic investigations are primarily meant to obtain objective answers that can be used for criminal prosecution. Accident analyses are usually performed to learn from incidents and to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Although the primary goal may be different, the steps in which information is gathered, interpreted and weighed are similar in both types of investigations, implying that forensic techniques can be of use in accident investigations as well. The use in accident investigations usually means that more information can be obtained from the available information than when used in criminal investigations, since the latter require a higher evidence level. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of forensic techniques for accident investigations by presenting a number of cases from one specific field of expertise: image analysis. With the rapid spread of digital devices and new media, a wealth of image material and other digital information has become available for accident investigators. We show that much information can be distilled from footage by using forensic image analysis techniques. These applications show that image analysis provides information that is crucial for obtaining the sequence of events and the two- and three-dimensional geometry of an accident. Since accident investigation focuses primarily on learning from accidents and prevention of future accidents, and less on the blame that is crucial for criminal investigations, the field of application of these forensic tools may be broader than would be the case in purely legal sense. This is an important notion for future accident investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Traffic Accident, System Model and Cluster Analysis in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Vlčková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many often frequented topics as normal journalism, so the professional public, is the problem of traffic accidents. This article illustrates the orientation of considerations to a less known context of accidents, with the help of constructive systems theory and its methods, cluster analysis and geoinformation engineering. Traffic accident is reframing the space-time, and therefore it can be to study with tools of technology of geographic information systems. The application of system approach enabling the formulation of the system model, grabbed by tools of geoinformation engineering and multicriterial and cluster analysis.

  4. Consequences of the Fukushima accident on Germany's energy policy; Bilan des consequences de l'accident de Fukushima sur la politique energetique allemande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidez, J. [Ambassade de France, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Germany is the country that most quickly reacted to the Fukushima accident by adopting a 3 month long moratory on its own law on reactor service life extension. This moratory led to the immediate stopping of the 7 oldest nuclear power reactors. An ethical commission, set just after the accident, concluded in end May, that Germany has the opportunity to replace nuclear energy with technologies less hazardous for the society and recommended a complete withdrawal from nuclear power in 10 years. The first resistance tests performed on German reactors showed that the 7 reactors concerned by the moratory have an inferior standard of protection against plane crashes. An energy law passed on the 30. June 2011 imposes that: -) the 7 reactors concerned by the moratory will be definitely closed, -) renewable energies will be developed massively (particularly offshore wind power), and -) new gas and coal power plant will have to assure the transition. German nuclear industry faces a huge reorganization and expects a loss of 11.000 jobs. (A.C.)

  5. Hygienic evaluation of radiation consequences after the Chernobyl accident in highly populated areas of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachev, I.I.; Tkachenko, N.V.; Markelova, L.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses radiation exposure to the people in the Ukraine as a result of the Chernobyl accident. As a result of this accident all Ukrainian regions have been heavily contaminated, even though the contamination density obtained in different regions are considerably different. Soils have become contaminated and plants grown in the soils transfer radionuclides to people

  6. The relationship between alcohol and traffic accidents an actuarial analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelker, G.

    1970-01-01

    This analysis deals with the accident chances of the excessive drinkers, moderate drinkers and non-drinkers. The Swedish motor insurance results for total abstainers are compared to the average policyholders.

  7. ADAM: An Accident Diagnostic,Analysis and Management System - Applications to Severe Accident Simulation and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavisca, M.J.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Esmaili, H.; Schulz, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Accident Diagnostic, Analysis and Management (ADAM) computer code has been developed as a tool for on-line applications to accident diagnostics, simulation, management and training. ADAM's severe accident simulation capabilities incorporate a balance of mechanistic, phenomenologically based models with simple parametric approaches for elements including (but not limited to) thermal hydraulics; heat transfer; fuel heatup, meltdown, and relocation; fission product release and transport; combustible gas generation and combustion; and core-concrete interaction. The overall model is defined by a relatively coarse spatial nodalization of the reactor coolant and containment systems and is advanced explicitly in time. The result is to enable much faster than real time (i.e., 100 to 1000 times faster than real time on a personal computer) applications to on-line investigations and/or accident management training. Other features of the simulation module include provision for activation of water injection, including the Engineered Safety Features, as well as other mechanisms for the assessment of accident management and recovery strategies and the evaluation of PSA success criteria. The accident diagnostics module of ADAM uses on-line access to selected plant parameters (as measured by plant sensors) to compute the thermodynamic state of the plant, and to predict various margins to safety (e.g., times to pressure vessel saturation and steam generator dryout). Rule-based logic is employed to classify the measured data as belonging to one of a number of likely scenarios based on symptoms, and a number of 'alarms' are generated to signal the state of the reactor and containment. This paper will address the features and limitations of ADAM with particular focus on accident simulation and management. (authors)

  8. Stochastic Consequence Analysis for Waste Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEY, B.E.

    2000-05-31

    This analysis evaluates the radiological consequences of potential Hanford Tank Farm waste transfer leaks. These include ex-tank leaks into structures, underneath the soil, and exposed to the atmosphere. It also includes potential misroutes, tank overflow

  9. Stochastic Consequence Analysis for Waste Leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEY, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    This analysis evaluates the radiological consequences of potential Hanford Tank Farm waste transfer leaks. These include ex-tank leaks into structures, underneath the soil, and exposed to the atmosphere. It also includes potential misroutes, tank overflow

  10. Accident at the Chernobyl AES and its consequences. Data prepared for the International Atomic Energy Agency Expert Conference (25-29 August 1986, Vienna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant describes the plant and associated RBMK-1000 reactors and gives a chronology of the development of the accident. The causes of the accident are discussed as well as an analysis of the process of development of the accident. Also discussed are measures adopted to increase power plant safety and prevent development of similar accidents

  11. Radiological consequence analysis of a repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Buchheim, B.; Hoop, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    One of the methods under consideration for the disposal of radioactive wastes is emplacement in a repository within deep, continental formations. This paper presents the experience gained in developing a methodology to make an assessment of the radiological consequences both for normal operation and for possible accident situations for a specific repository design in a salt dome at Gorleben in Germany , designed to accommodate all categories of radioactive waste. Radionuclide release scenarios were derived from a systematic analysis of the facility design and proposed operational procedure. Where necessary simple numerical models for such topics as direct radiation exposure from waste containers, release and transport of radionuclides, radiolysis, heat transfer, creep and impact were developed to give a first estimate of the radiological consequences due to radionuclide releases. (author)

  12. Development of Methodology for Spent Fuel Pool Severe Accident Analysis Using MELCOR Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Tae; Shin, Jae-Uk [RETech. Co. LTD., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kwang-Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The general reason why SFP severe accident analysis has to be considered is that there is a potential great risk due to the huge number of fuel assemblies and no containment in a SFP building. In most cases, the SFP building is vulnerable to external damage or attack. In contrary, low decay heat of fuel assemblies may make the accident processes slow compared to the accident in reactor core because of a great deal of water. In short, its severity of consequence cannot exclude the consideration of SFP risk management. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has performed the consequence studies of postulated spent fuel pool accident. The Fukushima-Daiichi accident has accelerated the needs for the consequence studies of postulated spent fuel pool accidents, causing the nuclear industry and regulatory bodies to reexamine several assumptions concerning beyond-design basis events such as a station blackout. The tsunami brought about the loss of coolant accident, leading to the explosion of hydrogen in the SFP building. Analyses of SFP accident processes in the case of a loss of coolant with no heat removal have studied. Few studies however have focused on a long term process of SFP severe accident under no mitigation action such as a water makeup to SFP. USNRC and OECD have co-worked to examine the behavior of PWR fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions in a spent fuel rack. In support of the investigation, several new features of MELCOR model have been added to simulate both BWR fuel assembly and PWR 17 x 17 assembly in a spent fuel pool rack undergoing severe accident conditions. The purpose of the study in this paper is to develop a methodology of the long-term analysis for the plant level SFP severe accident by using the new-featured MELCOR program in the OPR-1000 Nuclear Power Plant. The study is to investigate the ability of MELCOR in predicting an entire process of SFP severe accident phenomena including the molten corium and concrete reaction. The

  13. Probabilistic Accident Progression Analysis with application to a LMFBR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method for probabilistic analysis of accident sequences in nuclear power plant systems referred to as ''Probabilistic Accident Progression Analysis'' (PAPA) is described. Distinctive features of PAPA include: (1) definition and analysis of initiator-dependent accident sequences on the component level; (2) a new fault-tree simplification technique; (3) a new technique for assessment of the effect of uncertainties in the failure probabilities in the probabilistic ranking of accident sequences; (4) techniques for quantification of dependent failures of similar components, including an iterative technique for high-population components. The methodology is applied to the Shutdown Heat Removal System (SHRS) of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant during its short-term (0 -2 . Major contributors to this probability are the initiators loss of main feedwater system, loss of offsite power, and normal shutdown

  14. Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) - MELCOR Crosswalk: Phase II Analyzing a Partially Recovered Accident Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Nathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Faucett, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haskin, Troy Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luxat, Dave [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Geiger, Garrett [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Codella, Brittany [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Following the conclusion of the first phase of the crosswalk analysis, one of the key unanswered questions was whether or not the deviations found would persist during a partially recovered accident scenario, similar to the one that occurred in TMI - 2. In particular this analysis aims to compare the impact of core degradation morphology on quenching models inherent within the two codes and the coolability of debris during partially recovered accidents. A primary motivation for this study is the development of insights into how uncertainties in core damage progression models impact the ability to assess the potential for recovery of a degraded core. These quench and core recovery models are of the most interest when there is a significant amount of core damage, but intact and degraded fuel still remain in the cor e region or the lower plenum. Accordingly this analysis presents a spectrum of partially recovered accident scenarios by varying both water injection timing and rate to highlight the impact of core degradation phenomena on recovered accident scenarios. This analysis uses the newly released MELCOR 2.2 rev. 966 5 and MAAP5, Version 5.04. These code versions, which incorporate a significant number of modifications that have been driven by analyses and forensic evidence obtained from the Fukushima - Daiichi reactor site.

  15. Case for integral core-disruptive accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, L.B.; Bell, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Integral analysis is an approach used at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to cope with the broad multiplicity of accident paths and complex phenomena that characterize the transition phase of core-disruptive accident progression in a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor. The approach is based on the combination of a reference calculation, which is intended to represent a band of similar accident paths, and associated system- and separate-effect studies, which are designed to determine the effect of uncertainties. Results are interpreted in the context of a probabilistic framework. The approach was applied successfully in two studies; illustrations from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor licensing assessment are included

  16. Impact of spatial kinetics in severe accident analysis for a large HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    The impact on spatial kinetics on the analysis of severe accidents initiated by the unprotected withdrawal of one or more control rods is investigated for a large heavy water reactor. Large inter- and intra-assembly power shifts are observed, and the importance of detailed geometrical modeling of fuel assemblies is demonstrated. Neglect of space-time effects is shown to lead to erroneous estimates of safety margins, and of accident consequences in the event safety margins are exceeded. The results and conclusions are typical of what would be expected for any large, loosely coupled core

  17. Toxic release consequence analysis tool (TORCAT) for inherently safer design plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariff, Azmi Mohd; Zaini, Dzulkarnain

    2010-01-01

    Many major accidents due to toxic release in the past have caused many fatalities such as the tragedy of MIC release in Bhopal, India (1984). One of the approaches is to use inherently safer design technique that utilizes inherent safety principle to eliminate or minimize accidents rather than to control the hazard. This technique is best implemented in preliminary design stage where the consequence of toxic release can be evaluated and necessary design improvements can be implemented to eliminate or minimize the accidents to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) without resorting to costly protective system. However, currently there is no commercial tool available that has such capability. This paper reports on the preliminary findings on the development of a prototype tool for consequence analysis and design improvement via inherent safety principle by utilizing an integrated process design simulator with toxic release consequence analysis model. The consequence analysis based on the worst-case scenarios during process flowsheeting stage were conducted as case studies. The preliminary finding shows that toxic release consequences analysis tool (TORCAT) has capability to eliminate or minimize the potential toxic release accidents by adopting the inherent safety principle early in preliminary design stage.

  18. Effect of the Duration Time of a Nuclear Accident on Radiological Health Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyojoon Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the effect of duration time of a nuclear accident on the radiation dose of a densely populated area and the resulting acute health effects. In the case of nuclear accidents, the total emissions of radioactive materials can be classified into several categories. Therefore, the release information is very important for the assessment of risk to the public. We confirmed that when the duration time of the emissions are prolonged to 7 hours, the concentrations of radioactive substances in the ambient air are reduced by 50% compared to that when the duration time of emission is one hour. This means that the risk evaluation using only the first wind direction of an accident is very conservative, so it has to be used as a screening level for the risk assessment. Furthermore, it is judged that the proper control of the emission time of a nuclear accident can minimize the health effects on residents.

  19. Human exposure to radiation following the release of radioactivity from a reactor accident: a quantitative assessment of the biological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Stather, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a biological basis upon which to assess the consequences of the exposure of a population to radioactivity released after a reactor accident. Depending upon the radiation dose, both early and late somatic damage could occur in the exposed population and hereditary effects may occur in their descendants. The development of dose-effect relationships has been based upon the limited amount of information available on humans, supplemented by data obtained from experiments on animals. (author)

  20. Elimination of the consequences of radiation accidents at the Mayak production association in the 1950s and 1960s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozhko, E.G.; Romanov, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the consequences of radiation accidents happened at Mayak production association located in Chelyabinsk region, Urals, Russia, and countermeasures applied for reduction of radiation exposure of local population. The assessment of the efficiency of countermeasures based on the averted dose criterion is presented. It is stated that the most efficient measures on prevention of the population exposure were relocation of the population and construction of the Techa Reservoir Cascade. (author)

  1. A critical review of Jan Beyea's report: A study of some of the consequences of hypothetical reactor accidents at Barsebaeck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoerup, H.L.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Pejtersen, V.; Lundtang Petersen, E.; Petersen, T.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Heikel Vinther, F.

    1978-04-01

    This report contains a critical review of Jan Beyea's report: A study of some of the consequences of hypothetical reactor accidents at Barsebaeck (Princeton University, January 1978). Unreasonable assumptions concerning dry deposition, plume rise, meteorological considerations, dose-response relationship and probability distributions were found in the report. It is found that the conclusions of the Beyea report are the result of a mathematical exercise rather than the results of a realistic risk evaluation for Barsebaeck. (author)

  2. Summary of the consequences for safety which result from the Three-Mile-Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, D.

    1982-01-01

    The paper focusses on the Three-Mile-Island (TMI) accident in terms of reactor safety, and describes the first stage of the event's course (the first 2 hours and 18 minutes), the second stage (up to 16 hours after accident onset) and the stage till ultimate transition to stationary cooling. Conclusions are drawn for plant design and control room concepts. In conclusion, problems of staff training for critical situations are discussed. (HAG) [de

  3. The psychological results of the consequence of the ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamatov, V.A.; Volodina, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    The ChNPP accident grought about the following stress reactions among the exposed population registered: psychosomatic reactions (headaches, gastro-intestinal tract disorders pains in the heart etc.), psychoemotional reactions (panic, sleep disturbance, restlessness etc.), behaviour reaction (aggressiveness, apathy) the whole structure of the human psychic is stated to have been affected by the Chernobyl' accident. The changes in the emotion-and-will sphere appear most distinctly. 2 tab

  4. RADIATION HYGIENIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NPP AND THE TASKS OF THEIR MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the role and results of activities of Rospotrebnadzor bodies and institutions in the field of ensuring population radiation protection during various periods since accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiation hygienic characterization of territories affected by radioactive contamination from the accident, population exposure dose range, issues of ensuring radiological well-being of population and ways of their solution are being presented in the paper.

  5. Analysis of hypothetical LMFBR whole-core accidents in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, D.R.; Deitrich, L.W.; Brown, N.W.; Waltar, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    Methods used for analysis of material behaviour, accident phenomenology and integrated accident calculations are reviewed. Applications of these methods to hypothetical LOF and TOP accidents are discussed. Recent results obtained from applications to FFTF and CRBRP are presented. (author)

  6. The radiological accident of Goiania and its consequences for the development of law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, N.M.F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The radiological accident of Goiania and its repercussions caused intense debate in Brazilian society, which extended to the legislative sphere. One of the principal outcomes of this debate was the inclusion in the new Brazilian Constitutional Charter of legal provisions covering the control of nuclear energy and of radiation sources. Internationally, the 1986 Vienna Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency were invoked following the accident and proved to be effective in facilitating international co-operation and solidarity to deal with the aftermath of the accident. A number of international treaties on assistance in the event of nuclear accidents, the management of radioactive waste and the management of spent fuel are currently in force. The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste, adopted in 1997, is the most recent treaty promoting the sustainability of nuclear activities. Looking ahead, an international legal framework is needed to build upon and improve the principles of a culture of radiation safety. (author)

  7. Radiological Consequences Analysis for Abnormal Condition on NPPs 1000 MWe by Using Radcon Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande Mande Udiyani; Sri Kuntjoro

    2009-01-01

    The operation of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) in Indonesia to anticipates rare of energy will generate various challenges, especially about NPPs safety. So installation organizer of nuclear must provide scientific argument to safety NPPs, one of them is by providing document of safety analysis. Calculation of radiological consequences after abnormal condition applies on generic PWR-1000 power reactor. Calculation is done by using program package RadCon (Radiological Consequences Model), with postulate condition is based on DBA (Design Basis Accident). Calculation of dispersion of radionuclide concentration is using PC-COSYMA as input data for RadCon. Simulation for radiological consequences analysis uses by site data sample. Analysis result shows that maximum receiving of internal - externals radiological consequence for short term and long-term below 1 km radius area is below the limit acceptably effective dose for a member of the public as a result of an accident which should not exceed 5 mSv (ICRP 1990). (author)

  8. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  9. Evaluation of atmospheric dispersion/consequence models supporting safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Lazaro, M.A.; Woodard, K.

    1996-01-01

    Two DOE Working Groups have completed evaluation of accident phenomenology and consequence methodologies used to support DOE facility safety documentation. The independent evaluations each concluded that no one computer model adequately addresses all accident and atmospheric release conditions. MACCS2, MATHEW/ADPIC, TRAC RA/HA, and COSYMA are adequate for most radiological dispersion and consequence needs. ALOHA, DEGADIS, HGSYSTEM, TSCREEN, and SLAB are recommended for chemical dispersion and consequence applications. Additional work is suggested, principally in evaluation of new models, targeting certain models for continued development, training, and establishing a Web page for guidance to safety analysts

  10. C.E.C. research on environmental consequences of nuclear accidents - policy and programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Graziani, G.

    1988-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has given a new impact to the actions of the Commission of the European Communities on Radiation Protection. During the last year the Council of Ministers has adopted: - a decision on early information exchange between Member States and the Commission in the event of a radiological emergency, - a decision on the adhesion of the Community to the International Conventional on early notification of nuclear accidents, - a regulation on a first set of maximum permissible levels of radioactivity in foodstuffs following a nuclear accident, - a special regulation on radioactivity levels of imported agricultural products for the next two years. Several other decisions are in preparation, such as the completion of the regulation of radioactivity in foodstuffs, the revision of the basic safety standards, a directive on the information of the public in the case of an accident, etc.. Scientific research supports the Commission policy by providing the scientific background and rationale for decisions and recommendations. The shared-cost 1985-1989 Radiation Protection Programme was underway at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and several running actions were modified to account for the new situation

  11. Chemistry of fission products for accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    Current knowledge concerning the chemical state of the fission product elements during the development of accidents in water reactor systems is reviewed in this paper. The fission product elements which have been considered are Cs, I, Te, Sr and Ba but aspects of the behavior of Mo, Ru and the lanthanides are also discussed. Some features of the reactions of the various species of these elements with other components of the reactor systems are described. The importance of having an adequate knowledge of thermodynamic data and phase equilibria of relatively simple systems in order to interpret experimental observations on complex multi-component systems is stressed

  12. 10 years from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident: consequences and lesson learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Published jointly by the Czech State Office for Nuclear Safety and the Czech National Radiation Protection Institute, the publication gives a succinct account of the cause of the Chernobyl accident and its impact on the former Soviet Union, and concentrates on the effects of the accident on the Czech Republic. The topics dealt with in this respect include, among others: radionuclide contents of foods with particular emphasis on milk products for babies, assessment of surface contamination of the Czech Republic due to the accident, internal contamination of the population as determined by whole-body measurements, assessment of the effective dose equivalents from external irradiation and effective dose equivalent commitments from internal irradiation, cesium radioisotopes in natural ecosystems, and the use of post-Chernobyl monitoring to test radionuclide migration models within the IAEA VAMP programme. (P.A.). 12 tabs., 30 figs., 64 refs

  13. Evaluation of food chain transfer data for use in accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Kirton, J.A.; Mitchell, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    Input data for the food chain transport component of radiological assessment models are summarised in the context of the sources of information available prior to the Chernobyl accident and those derived after the accident. Particular attention is devoted to interception and retention soil-to-plant, and plant-to-animal transfer, and to the applicability of environmental data to both equilibrium and time-dependent models. It is argued that much of the current uncertainty in parameter values for use in radiological assessment models reflects lack of understanding of processes involved in the various stages of transfer of radionuclides to man. The Chernobyl accident highlighted this lack of fundamental knowledge and illustrated a number of areas where further research and model development is justified. These areas are identified and suggestions given for appropriate research to support model development

  14. The influence of the natural environment on the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauby, A.

    1989-01-01

    Much work has been done in the agri-food field on the evaluation of the health implications of a nuclear accident. Much less has been done on environmental dynamics. Research on the behaviour of radioactive deposits from the Chernobyl accident, however, has revealed the importance of natural conditions for the transfer of radionuclides in the environment. In particular, two phases have been observed. In the first, which lasts until a point of equilibrium is reached in the environment, radionuclides follow the water cycle. The second phase unfolds following the incorporation of ruthenium and cesium in soil and sediment. Certain environmental factors (natural ecosystems, relief, etc.) and the different meteorological conditions (climate and season) should be investigated in more detail. Better understanding of the effect of natural conditions could be used to predict, in time and space, any specific risks arising during nuclear accidents whether located near or far [fr

  15. Overview of SAMPSON code development for LWR severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has developed a severe accident analysis code 'SAMPSON'. SAMPSON's distinguishing features include inter-connected hierarchical modules and mechanistic models covering a wide spectrum of scenarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical severe accident events. Each module included in the SAMPSON also runs independently for analysis of specific phenomena assigned. The OECD International Standard Problems (ISP-45 and 46) were solved by the SAMPSON for code verifications. The analysis results showed fairly good agreement with the test results. Then, severe accident phenomena in typical PWR and BWR plants were analyzed. The PWR analysis result showed 56 hours as the containment vessel failure timing, which was 9 hours later than one calculated by MELCOR code. The BWR analysis result showed no containment vessel failure during whole accident events, whereas the MELCOR result showed 10.8 hours. These differences were mainly due to consideration of heat release from the containment vessel wall to atmosphere in the SAMPSON code. Another PWR analysis with water injection as an accident management was performed. The analysis result showed that earlier water injection before the time when the fuel surface temperature reached 1,750 K was effective to prevent further core melt. Since fuel surface and fluid temperatures had spatial distribution, a careful consideration shall be required to determine the suitable location for temperature measurement as an index for the pump restart for water injection. The SAMPSON code was applied to the accident analysis of the Hamaoka-1 BWR plant, where the pipe ruptured due to hydrogen detonation. The SAMPSON had initially been developed to run on a parallel computer. Considering remarkable progress of computer hardware performance, as another version of the SAMPSON code, it has recently been modified so as to run on a single processor. The improvements of physical models, numerical

  16. Consequences in the pumps operation during a large loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.A. dos; Sabundjian, G.

    1991-08-01

    The event of living on or turning off the operation of the Reactor Cooling Pumps - RCPs, in the case of a Loss of Coolant Accident - LOCA, has been a reason of a lot of studies after the Three Mile Island 2 accident. Thus, it was investigated a large break LOCA in the cold leg of Angra 1, with the RELAP4/MOD5 Code during the blowdown. The attained results indicated that the best performance of the core was in the case where the RCPs had been turned off in the beginning of the transient, when compared with different operation conditions of the RCPs. (author)

  17. Consequence analysis and probabilistic safety analysis of Angra-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.C.F.

    1987-07-01

    A methodology for determining the environmental consequences in the site of nuclear power plants, is presented. The methodology obtains as final result the 'S' site matrix, which represents the probabilities of health damage. Two types of healt damages were analysed: the early fatalities and injury. The damages are calculated from the determination of radiation doses which the population in surrounding of the site could be submitted, in the case of severe accident with the core meltdown. The accidents are defined from an initial event, leading to the failure of reactor containment. The results presented the same magnitude order when they were compared with ones obtained in studies of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. The Angra-1 was adopted as reference reactor and the CRAC-2 computer code was used. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M.; Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph.

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  19. Proceedings of the Seminar on Methods and Codes for Assessing the off-site consequences of nuclear accidents. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.; Luykx, F.

    1991-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities, within the framework of its 1980-84 radiation protection research programme, initiated a two-year project in 1983 entitled 'methods for assessing the radiological impact of accidents' (Maria). This project was continued in a substantially enlarged form within the 1985-89 research programme. The main objectives of the project were, firstly, to develop a new probabilistic accident consequence code that was modular, incorporated the best features of those codes already in use, could be readily modified to take account of new data and model developments and would be broadly applicable within the EC; secondly, to acquire a better understanding of the limitations of current models and to develop more rigorous approaches where necessary; and, thirdly, to quantify the uncertainties associated with the model predictions. This research led to the development of the accident consequence code Cosyma (COde System from MAria), which will be made generally available later in 1990. The numerous and diverse studies that have been undertaken in support of this development are summarized in this paper, together with indications of where further effort might be most profitably directed. Consideration is also given to related research directed towards the development of real-time decision support systems for use in off-site emergency management

  20. Analysis of effects of calandria tube uncovery under severe accident conditions in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Currie, T.C.; Atkinson, J.C.; Dick, R.

    1983-01-01

    A study is being undertaken for the Atomic Energy Control Board to assess the thermal and hydraulic behaviour of CANDU reactor cores under accident conditions more severe than those normally considered in the licensing process. In this paper, we consider the effects on a coolant channel of the uncovery of a calandria tube by moderator boil-off following a LOCA in a Bruce reactor unit in which emergency cooling is ineffective and the moderator heat sink is impaired by the failure of the moderator cooling system. Calandria tube uncovery and its immediate consequences, as described here, constitute only one part of the entire accident sequence. Other aspects of this sequence as well as results of the analysis of the other accident sequences studied will be described in the final report on the project and in later papers

  1. Methods for air cleaning system design and accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methods, in the form of a handbook and five computer codes, that can be used for nuclear facility air cleaning system design and accident analysis. Four of the codes were developed primarily at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and one was developed in France. Tools such as these are used to design ventilation systems in the mining industry but do not seem to be commonly used in the nuclear industry. For example, the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook is an excellent design reference, but it fails to include information on computer codes that can be used to aid in the design process. These computer codes allow the analyst to use the handbook information to form all the elements of a complete system design. Because these analysis methods are in the form of computer codes they allow the analyst to investigate many alternative designs. In addition, the effects of many accident scenarios on the operation of the air cleaning system can be evaluated. These tools originally were intended for accident analysis, but they have been used mostly as design tools by several architect-engineering firms. The Cray, VAX, and personal computer versions of the codes, an accident analysis handbook, and the codes availability will be discussed. The application of these codes to several design operations of nuclear facilities will be illustrated, and their use to analyze the effect of several accident scenarios also will be described

  2. Analysis of the consequences of 'thermite' reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorio, Daniel; Cincotta, Daniel O.; Camacho, Esteban F.; Bruno, Hernan R.; Boero, Norma L.

    1999-01-01

    The mixture of Al-U 3 O 8 is not in a state of chemical equilibrium, and at temperatures of between 850 degree C and 1000 degree C, it reacts exo thermally. This is known, in corresponding bibliography, as a 'Thermite reaction'. This mixture is used in the manufacturing of the plate-type fuel used in research reactors. It has been pointed out that the release of energy caused by this type of reactions might represent a risk in case of accidents in this type of reactor. Conclusions, in general, tend to indicate that no such risk exists, although no concrete assurance is given that this is the case, and this fact, therefore, leaves room for doubt. The objective of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of what happens to a fuel plate when it is subjected to thermite reaction. We will, furthermore, analyze the consequences of the release of energy generated by this type of reaction within the core of the reactor, clearly defining the problem for this type of fuel and this kind of reactor

  3. Analysis of the 1957-58 Soviet nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabalka, J.R.; Eyman, L.D.; Auerbach, S.I.

    1979-12-01

    The occurrence of a Soviet accident in the winter of 1957-58, involving the atmospheric release of reprocessed fission wastes (cooling time approximately 1-2 yrs.), appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the USSR radioecology literature. Due to the high population density in the affected region (Cheliabinsk Province in the highly industrialized Urals Region) and the reported level of /sup 90/Sr contamination , the event probably resulted in the evacuation and/or resettlement of the human population from a significant area (100-1000 km/sup 2/). The resulting contamination zone is estimated to have contained approximately 10/sup 6/ Ci of /sup 90/Sr (reference radionuclide); a relatively small fraction of the total may have been dispersed as an aerosol. Although a plausible explanation for the incident exists (i.e., use of now-obsolete waste storage-/sup 137/Cs isotope separation techniques), it is not yet possible, based on the limited information presently available, to completely dismiss this phenomenon as a purely historical event. It seems imperative that we have a complete explanation of the causes and consequences of this incident. Soviet experience gained in application of corrective measures would be invaluable to the rest of the world nuclear community.

  4. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  5. The cause-consequence data base: a retrieval system for records pertaining to accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamoto, H.; Inoue, K.; Sawaragi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal to store in a data base important paragraphs from reports of investigations into many types of accidents. The data base is to handle not only reports on TMI, but also reports on other events at nuclear reactors, chemical plant explosions, earthquakes, hurricanes, fires, and so forth. (author)

  6. Emergency Responses and Health Consequences after the Fukushima Accident; Evacuation and Relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, A; Ohira, T; Maeda, M; Yasumura, S; Tanigawa, K

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was a compounding disaster following the strong earthquake and huge tsunami. The direct health effects of radiation were relatively well controlled considering the severity of the accident, not only among emergency workers but also residents. Other serious health issues include deaths during evacuation, collapse of the radiation emergency medical system, increased mortality among displaced elderly people and public healthcare issues in Fukushima residents. The Fukushima mental health and lifestyle survey disclosed that the Fukushima accident caused severe psychological distress in the residents from evacuation zones. In addition to psychiatric and mental health problems, there are lifestyle-related problems such as an increase proportion of those overweight, an increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia and changes in health-related behaviours among evacuees; all of which may lead to an increased cardiovascular disease risk in the future. The effects of a major nuclear accident on societies are diverse and enduring. The countermeasures should include disaster management, long-term general public health services, mental and psychological care, behavioural and societal support, in addition to efforts to mitigate the health effects attributable to radiation. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consequences of major nuclear accidents on wild fauna and flora: dosimetric assessments remain a weakness to establish robust conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As about hundred of studies have been undertaken after the major nuclear accidents (Chernobyl and Fukushima) to study the consequences of these accidents on wild flora and fauna, notably on the effects of low doses of ionizing radiations, it appears that some of them reported noticeable effects due to extremely low doses. Such findings put knowledge in radiobiology into question again. This note aims at discussing the importance of the quality of dosimetric assessments for any study performed 'in natura'. It seems that the ambient external dose rate is not systematically a good indicator of the dose or dose rate absorbed by a living organism in radio-contaminated environment. This note outlines the problem related to the spatial heterogeneity of the radioactive contamination, that some statistic methods are not always adapted to data set quality. It briefly indicates other factors which may affect the quality of data set obtained during in situ studies

  8. 10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengfelder, E.; Demidschik, E.; Demidschik, J.; Becker, K.; Rabes, H.; Birukowa, L.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) [de

  9. Comparison of the foodchain transport models of WASH-1400 and MARC using the accident consequence model UFOMOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, C.

    1985-04-01

    Within the frame of the contract with the European Community 'Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents' (CEC-MARIA) comparative accident consequence assessments were performed with the computer code UFOMOD, replacing the currently implemented foodchain transport model of the WASH-1400 study by the dynamic transport model of the MARC methodology. The calculations were based on the release category FK2 of the German Risk Study with meteorological data representing four different regions of the Federal Republic of Germany. The study of seasonal variations was carried out with the MARC data for four representative times of deposition with an agricultural practice adopted in the UK. In this report the differences are presented which are observed in the potential doses due to ingestion, the areas affected by food-bans and the late health effects when using both models and taking the influence of seasonal effects into account. (orig.) [de

  10. Risks and consequences of a hypothetical radiological accident on nuclear powered submarine traversing Suez canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Egypt has unique problem in Suez Canal, although there are, a number of radioactive Cargos traveling through the Canal which includes new and spent reactor fuel and about 100 metric tons of uranium hexafluoride each year, under the regulatory control of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, there is, still a major problem concerning the passage of a number of nuclear powered vessels and submarines passing through the canal several times each year. The passage of these vessels and submarines has a political situation and not under the regulatory control of the Egyptian regulatory body. In spite of all precautions that are taken, in the nuclear powered vessels and submarines from the point of view of the rugged design of the reactor plant, multiple safety systems and operation with exceptional consideration for safety. Although of all of these a potential for a serious accident may does arise, even though, its probability is minimal. The Government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to cope with any radiological accidents, which may arise inside the country. Suez Canal lies in the north east of Egypt, and passes through a zone of considerable business, agriculture and industrial activities. The zone consists of three populated provinces, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez. According to Suez Canal authority regulations it is not allowed for these vessels and submarines to be landed in port. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to discuss a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident aboard a nuclear powered submarine occurred during its passage in the Suez Canal. Such an accident will produce a radioactive cloud containing a number of radioactive materials. In such type of accidents contamination and causality zones, could extend to several kilometers. The different phases of the accident are going to be discussed and analyzed. The emergency actions taken during the accident phases are going to be presented. The

  11. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs

  12. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  13. Status of safety technology for radiological consequence assessment of postulated accidents in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, Canoga Park, California, 29 July--31 July 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    State-of-the-art capabilities are examined for prediction and mitigation of radiological consequences of postulated LMFBR accidents. The following topics are treated: radioactive source terms, sodium reactions, aerosol behavior, radiological dose assessment, and engineered safeguards. (U.S.)

  14. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.; Bovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure

  15. Severe accident analysis code Sampson for impact project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroshi, Ujita; Takashi, Ikeda; Masanori, Naitoh [Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation, Advanced Simulation Systems Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Four years of the IMPACT project Phase 1 (1994-1997) had been completed with financial sponsorship from the Japanese government's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. At the end of the phase, demonstration simulations by combinations of up to 11 analysis modules developed for severe accident analysis in the SAMPSON Code were performed and physical models in the code were verified. The SAMPSON prototype was validated by TMI-2 and Phebus-FP test analyses. Many of empirical correlation and conventional models have been replaced by mechanistic models during Phase 2 (1998-2000). New models for Accident Management evaluation have been also developed. (author)

  16. Hydrogen Trailer Storage Facility (Building 878). Consequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banda, Z.; Wood, C.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This consequence analysis documents the impact that a hydrogen accident could have to employees, the general public, and nearby facilities. The computer model ARCHIE was utilized to determine discharge rates, toxic vapor dispersion analyses, flammable vapor cloud hazards, explosion hazards, and flame jets for the Hydrogen Trailer Storage Facility located at Building 878. To determine over pressurization effects, hand calculations derived from the Department of the Air Force Manual, ``Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions,`` were utilized. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce the Lower Flammability and the Lower Detonation Levels are 1,721 feet and 882 feet, respectively. The greatest distance at which 10.0 psi overpressure (i.e., total building destruction) is reached is 153 feet.

  17. Modification of MELCOR for severe accident analysis of candidate accident tolerant cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Brad J., E-mail: brad.merrill@inl.gov; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M., E-mail: shannon.bragg-sitton@inl.gov; Humrickhouse, Paul W., E-mail: paul.humrickhouse@inl.gov

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) systems are currently under development for LWRs. • Many performance analysis tools are specifically developed for UO{sub 2}–Zr alloy fuel. • Modifications were made to the MELCOR code for candidate ATF cladding. • Preliminary analysis results for SiC and FeCrAl cladding concepts are presented. - Abstract: A number of materials are currently under development as candidate accident tolerant fuel and cladding for application in the current fleet of commercial light water reactors (LWRs). The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry’s success. Enhancing the accident tolerance of light water reactors became a topic of serious discussion following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal for the development of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) systems for LWRs is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness, and economics of commercial nuclear power. Designed for use in the current fleet of commercial LWRs, or in reactor concepts with design certifications (GEN-III+), to achieve their goal enhanced ATF must endure loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer period of time than the current fuel system, while maintaining or improving performance during normal operation. Many available nuclear fuel performance analysis tools are specifically developed for the current UO{sub 2}–Zirconium alloy fuel system. The MELCOR severe-accident analysis code, under development at the Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico (SNL-NM) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is one of these tools. This paper describes modifications

  18. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France. Dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L

    2000-12-15

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  19. Cognitive systems engineering analysis of the JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Fumiya; Yamaguchi, Yukichi

    2000-01-01

    The JCO Criticality Accident is analyzed with a framework based on cognitive systems engineering. With the framework, analysis is conducted integrally both from the system viewpoint and actors viewpoint. The occupational chemical risk was important as safety constraint for the actors as well as the nuclear risk, which is due to criticality accident, to the public and to actors. The inappropriate actor's mental model of the work system played a critical role and several factors (e.g. poor training and education, lack of information on criticality safety control in the procedures and instructions, and lack of warning signs at workplace) contributed to form and shape the mental model. Based on the analysis, several countermeasures, such as warning signs, information system for supporting actors and improved training and education, are derived to prevent such an accident. (author)

  20. Development of the criticality accident analysis code, AGNES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Ken

    1989-01-01

    In the design works for the facilities which handle nuclear fuel, the evaluation of criticality accidents cannot be avoided even if their possibility is as small as negligible. In particular in the system using solution fuel like uranyl nitrate, solution has the property easily becoming dangerous form, and all the past criticality accidents occurred in the case of solution, therefore, the evaluation of criticality accidents becomes the most important item of safety analysis. When a criticality accident occurred in a solution fuel system, due to the generation and movement of radiolysis gas voids, the oscillation of power output and pressure pulses are observed. In order to evaluate the effect of criticality accidents, these output oscillation and pressure pulses must be calculated accurately. For this purpose, the development of the dynamic characteristic code AGNES (Accidentally Generated Nuclear Excursion Simulation code) was carried out. The AGNES is the reactor dynamic characteristic code having two independent void models. Modified energy model and pressure model, and as the benchmark calculation of the AGNES code, the results of the experimental analysis on the CRAC experiment are reported. (K.I.)

  1. RESPONSIBILITY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHER: CONSEQUENCES OF THE LEGAL CLAIMS IN ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Silva Piñeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Being physical education an area that collects some case law, and that the professionalization required studies specifically, a review of appeals and complaints concerning accidents in school physical education, including sessions inside and outside. It was studied the sense of judicial and administrative resolutions about school accidents in physical education in Spain between 1988-2012, and its effects on physical education professionals. Most opinions and judgments studied the claims were rejected for various reasons, among them the casuality and risk taking, although there are outstanding judgments, blaming the teacher for not being present in class and for not preventing situations. The administration usually paid, although in some cases the teacher also participates.

  2. Bounding Radionuclide Inventory and Accident Consequence Calculation for the 1L Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, Charles T. IV [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    A bounding radionuclide inventory for the tungsten of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) IL Target is calculated. Based on the bounding inventory, the dose resulting from the maximum credible incident (MCI) is calculated for the maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOl). The design basis accident involves tungsten target oxidation following a loss of cooling accident. Also calculated for the bounding radionuclide inventory is the ratio to the LANSCE inventory threshold for purposes of inventory control as described in the target inventory control policy. A bounding radionuclide inventory calculation for the lL Target was completed using the MCNPX and CINDER'90 codes. Continuous beam delivery at 200 {micro}A to 2500 mA{center_dot}h was assumed. The total calculated activity following this irradiation period is 205,000 Ci. The dose to the MEOI from the MCI is 213 mrem for the bounding inventory. The LANSCE inventory control threshold ratio is 132.

  3. Bounding Radionuclide Inventory and Accident Consequence Calculation for the 1L Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Charles T. IV

    2011-01-01

    A bounding radionuclide inventory for the tungsten of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) IL Target is calculated. Based on the bounding inventory, the dose resulting from the maximum credible incident (MCI) is calculated for the maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOl). The design basis accident involves tungsten target oxidation following a loss of cooling accident. Also calculated for the bounding radionuclide inventory is the ratio to the LANSCE inventory threshold for purposes of inventory control as described in the target inventory control policy. A bounding radionuclide inventory calculation for the lL Target was completed using the MCNPX and CINDER'90 codes. Continuous beam delivery at 200 (micro)A to 2500 mA·h was assumed. The total calculated activity following this irradiation period is 205,000 Ci. The dose to the MEOI from the MCI is 213 mrem for the bounding inventory. The LANSCE inventory control threshold ratio is 132.

  4. Character of protective clothes contamination of the personnel participated in the efforts to eliminate the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klochkov, V.N.; Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Vas'kin, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    The results of investigation of radioactive contamination of protective clothes made of cotton and mixed materials for personnel participated in elimination of the Chernobyl accident consequences are described. Radionuclide composition of clothes contamination before and after decontamination, as well as the values of decontamination coefficients, which are much lower than calculated ones, are presented. Clothes contamination is shown to be caused by difficulty soluble particles of irradiated uranium fuel. The contamination radionuclide composition changes a little as a result of decontamination: decrease only the total quantity of radionuclide substances, but contribution of every radionuclide remains unchanced. During decontamination particles of irradiated uranium fuel are removed from material without solution in the decontaminating solution

  5. Estimation of expected number of accidents and workforce unavailability through Bayesian population variability analysis and Markov-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas Moura, Márcio das; Azevedo, Rafael Valença; Droguett, Enrique López; Chaves, Leandro Rego; Lins, Isis Didier

    2016-01-01

    Occupational accidents pose several negative consequences to employees, employers, environment and people surrounding the locale where the accident takes place. Some types of accidents correspond to low frequency-high consequence (long sick leaves) events, and then classical statistical approaches are ineffective in these cases because the available dataset is generally sparse and contain censored recordings. In this context, we propose a Bayesian population variability method for the estimation of the distributions of the rates of accident and recovery. Given these distributions, a Markov-based model will be used to estimate the uncertainty over the expected number of accidents and the work time loss. Thus, the use of Bayesian analysis along with the Markov approach aims at investigating future trends regarding occupational accidents in a workplace as well as enabling a better management of the labor force and prevention efforts. One application example is presented in order to validate the proposed approach; this case uses available data gathered from a hydropower company in Brazil. - Highlights: • This paper proposes a Bayesian method to estimate rates of accident and recovery. • The model requires simple data likely to be available in the company database. • These results show the proposed model is not too sensitive to the prior estimates.

  6. Severe accident analysis using MARCH 1.0 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.C.F.

    1987-09-01

    The description and utilization of the MARCH 1.0 computer code, which aim to analyse physical phenomena associated with core meltdown accidents in PWR type reactors, are presented. The primary system is modeled as a single volume which is partitioned into a gas (steam and hydrogen) region and a water region. March predicts blowdown from the primary system in single phase. Based on results of the probabilistic safety analysis for the Zion and Indian Point Nuclear Power Plants, the S 2 HFX sequence accident for Angra-1 reactor is studied. The S 2 HFX sequence means that the loss of coolant accident occurs through small break in primary system with bot total failures of the reactor safety system and containment in yours recirculation modes, leading the core melt and the containment failure due to overpressurization. The obtained results were considered reasonable if compared with the results obtained for the Zion and Indian Point nuclear power plants. (Author) [pt

  7. Analysis on the severe accidents in KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Jae; Cheong, Y. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Cheon, E. J. [PlaGen, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-11-15

    The establishment of regulatory and approval systems for KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) has been demanded as the facility is targeted to be completed in the year of 2005. Such establishment can be achieved by performing adequate and in-depth analyses on safety issues covering radiological and chemical hazard materials, radiation protection, high vacuum, very low temperature, etc. The loss of coolant accidents and the loss of vacuum accident in fusion facilities have been introduced with summary of simulation results that were previously reported for ITER and JET. Computer codes that are actively used for accident simulation research are examined and their main features are briefly described. It can be stated that the safety analysis is indispensable to secure the safety of workers and individual members of the public as well as to establish the regulatory and approval systems for KSTAR tokamak.

  8. The development of a severe accident analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Dong; Cho, S. W.; Park, J. H.; Hong, S. W.; Hwang, M. K.; Kim, D. H.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, S. D.; Nho, K. M.

    1997-07-01

    For prevention and mitigation of the containment failure during severe accident, the study is focused on the severe accident phenomena, especially, the ones occurring inside the cavity in an effect to improve existing models and develop analytical tools for the assessment of severe accidents. For hydrogen control, the analysis of hydrogen concentration in the containment and visualization for the concentration in the cell were performed. The computer code to predict combustion flame characteristic was also developed. the analytical model for the expansion phase of vapor explosion was developed and verified with the experimental results. The corium release fraction model from the cavity with the capture volume was developed and applied to the power plants. Pre-test calculation was performed for molten corium concrete interaction study and the crust formation process, heat transfer characteristics of the crust, and the sensitivity study using MELCOR code was carried out. A stress analysis code using finite element method for the reactor vessel lower head failure analysis was developed and the effect by gap formation between molten corium and vessel was analyzed. Through the international program of PHEBUS-FP and participation in the software development, the study on fission products release and transportation in the software development, the study on fission products release and transportation and aerosol deposition were performed. The system for severe accident analysis codes, CONTAIN and MELCOR codes etc., under the cooperation with USNRC were also established by installing in workstation and applying to experimental results and real plants. (author). 116 refs., 31 tabs., 59 figs

  9. Use of fuel failure correlations in accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, L.D.; Baars, R.E.; Waltar, A.E.

    1975-05-01

    The MELT-III code for analysis of a Transient Overpower (TOP) accident in an LMFBR is briefly described, including failure criteria currently applied in the code. Preliminary results of calculations exploring failure patterns in time and space in the reactor core are reported and compared for the two empirical fuel failure correlations employed in the code. (U.S.)

  10. Consequence Analysis of the MHTGR and PBMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Yang, Joon Eon; Lee, Won Jae

    2006-01-01

    The probabilistic safety assessment of the VHTR design provides a systematic analysis to identify and quantify all risks that the plant imposes to the operators, general public, and the environment and thus demonstrates compliance to regulatory risk criteria. During the preliminary conceptual design of VHTR in Korea, both block- and pebble type-fuel are considered. Therefore, the consequence analysis of VHTR using both types of fuel were made in order to obtain the basic insights for the classification of events and the formation of the PSA framework of the VHTR

  11. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Kellerer, A.M.; Bazyka, D.

    2006-01-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  12. Updated action plan for the implementation of measures as a consequence of the Fukushima reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The action plan of the German government concerning the measures following the Fukushima reactor accident include the decision on the future of nuclear power in Germany, safety analyses, investigations and measures for nuclear power plants in a national frame, investigations in an international frame, planning for the implementation of CNS (Convention on nuclear safety) topics 1-3, i.e. measures to increase the robustness in German nuclear power plants, and the planning of implementation of further measures (CNS topics 4-6).

  13. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Monitoring of congenital malformations in Kaluga region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzeev, G.G.; Kalabushkin, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    The study concentrates on the genetic after-effects of the Chernobyl accident in some districts of Kaluga's region. The frequencies and range of congenital malformations, prematurely death-rate in the radionuclear polluted districts were compared with the control districts. Prematurely death-rate in compared regions is the same. The increase of the congenital malformation frequency is revealed in one the polluted districts (256/10000) as compared with the control one (27/10000). We assume that the observed effect is mainly connected with the professional activity of the population. 11 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Development of hydrogeological modelling approaches for assessment of consequences of hazardous accidents at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumynin, V.G.; Mironenko, V.A.; Konosavsky, P.K.; Pereverzeva, S.A.

    1994-07-01

    This paper introduces some modeling approaches for predicting the influence of hazardous accidents at nuclear reactors on groundwater quality. Possible pathways for radioactive releases from nuclear power plants were considered to conceptualize boundary conditions for solving the subsurface radionuclides transport problems. Some approaches to incorporate physical-and-chemical interactions into transport simulators have been developed. The hydrogeological forecasts were based on numerical and semi-analytical scale-dependent models. They have been applied to assess the possible impact of the nuclear power plants designed in Russia on groundwater reservoirs

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs

  16. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  17. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  18. Upgrading the safety toolkit: Initiatives of the accident analysis subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Chung, D.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception, the Accident Analysis Subgroup (AAS) of the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) has been a leading organization promoting development and application of appropriate methodologies for safety analysis of US Department of Energy (DOE) installations. The AAS, one of seven chartered by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group, has performed an oversight function and provided direction to several technical groups. These efforts have been instrumental toward formal evaluation of computer models, improving the pedigree on high-use computer models, and development of the user-friendly Accident Analysis Guidebook (AAG). All of these improvements have improved the analytical toolkit for best complying with DOE orders and standards shaping safety analysis reports (SARs) and related documentation. Major support for these objectives has been through DOE/DP-45

  19. Assessment of accident risks in the CRBRP. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-01

    Appendices to Volume I include core-related accident-sequence definition, CRBRP risk-assessment sequence-probability determinations, failure-probability data, accident scenario evaluation, radioactive material release analysis, ex-core accident analysis, safety philosophy and design features, calculation of reactor accident consequences, sensitivity study, and risk from fires.

  20. 40 CFR 68.22 - Offsite consequence analysis parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parameters. 68.22 Section 68.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.22 Offsite consequence... limit. A lower flammability limit as provided in NFPA documents or other generally recognized sources...

  1. Managing Errors to Reduce Accidents in High Consequence Networked Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganter, J.H.

    1999-02-01

    Computers have always helped to amplify and propagate errors made by people. The emergence of Networked Information Systems (NISs), which allow people and systems to quickly interact worldwide, has made understanding and minimizing human error more critical. This paper applies concepts from system safety to analyze how hazards (from hackers to power disruptions) penetrate NIS defenses (e.g., firewalls and operating systems) to cause accidents. Such events usually result from both active, easily identified failures and more subtle latent conditions that have resided in the system for long periods. Both active failures and latent conditions result from human errors. We classify these into several types (slips, lapses, mistakes, etc.) and provide NIS examples of how they occur. Next we examine error minimization throughout the NIS lifecycle, from design through operation to reengineering. At each stage, steps can be taken to minimize the occurrence and effects of human errors. These include defensive design philosophies, architectural patterns to guide developers, and collaborative design that incorporates operational experiences and surprises into design efforts. We conclude by looking at three aspects of NISs that will cause continuing challenges in error and accident management: immaturity of the industry, limited risk perception, and resource tradeoffs.

  2. Geographic Disparities in Liver Availability: Accidents of Geography, or Consequences of Poor Social Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, K; Zhang, G; Hanto, D W

    2017-09-01

    Recently, a redistricting proposal intended to equalize Model for End-stage Liver Disease score at transplant recommended expanding liver sharing to mitigate geographic variation in liver transplantation. Yet, it is unclear whether variation in liver availability is arbitrary and a disparity requiring rectification or reflects differences in access to care. We evaluate the proposal's claim that organ supply is an "accident of geography" by examining the relationship between local organ supply and the uneven landscape of social determinants and policies that contribute to differential death rates across the United States. We show that higher mortality leading to greater availability of organs may in part result from disproportionate risks incurred at the local level. Disparities in public safety laws, health care infrastructure, and public funding may influence the risk of death and subsequent availability of deceased donors. These risk factors are disproportionately prevalent in regions with high organ supply. Policies calling for organ redistribution from high-supply to low-supply regions may exacerbate existing social and health inequalities by redistributing the single benefit (greater organ availability) of greater exposure to environmental and contextual risks (e.g. violent death, healthcare scarcity). Variation in liver availability may not be an "accident of geography" but rather a byproduct of disadvantage. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Medical consequences of the Kyshtym radiation accident of 29 September 1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldakov, L.A.; Demin, S.N.; Dibobes, I.K.; Kosenko, M.M.; Panteleyev, L.I.; Romanov, G.N.; Skryabin, A.M.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Shvedov, V.L.; Shukhovtsev, B.I.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the accidental release of long-lived radionuclides, the gamma-radiation dose rate in the near zone of the trail reached tens of cGy per hour and, in a number of populated areas in the open countryside, 0.1 c Gy x hour -1 . The evacuation of 10 730 people reduced the possible radiation doses by 2-24 times. Examination of people who had received the highest effective dose equivalents prior to evacuation (2.3-52 cSv) revealed, in the first two years, instability in leukocytes and thrombocytes (used as indicators), but this did not exceed normal fluctuations. The structure of morbidity and mortality among the adult and child populations and the incidence of congenital pathology and infant mortality do not differ from the control. The proportion of families with children born of parents aged between 10 and 30 at the time of the accident does not differ from the same indicators for the whole of the USSR, and, in the case of those aged between 0 and 9 years at the time of the accident, this proportion is 5-10% lower than control values, although the number of people who married is considerably higher than in the control group. In addition, the standardized birthrate coefficients in the study group (31.8 x 10 -3 ) are considerably higher than in the control group (18.4 x 10 -3 ). (author)

  4. Estimation of health in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning-up participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.G.; Kovalenko, A.N.; Chomazjuk, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    Over 11 years period of health observation of Chernobyl Accident's victims permits to make some conclusions. Quantitative changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, changes in ultrastructural organization of hemopoietic cells, disturbance of proliferative activity of hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells in clean-up workers testify to alterations of functional properties of hemopoiesis. There are high level of T- helpers, early appearance regenerated T-cells, which simultaneously express surface antigens of helpers and supressors, synchronization of proliferative cycle of immunocompetentive cells in these patients. Oppressing of antioxidant protection, stable changes of hormonal maintenance of adaptation and reproduction processes, disturbance of feedback mechanism between effector glands and hypophysis, significant rise of polyamines were determined. Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of health disruptions at victims. Neural and psychological diseases, suicidal cases, trauma, death in automobile accidents are rank second and third in structure of morbidity. In structure of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases dominated chronic obstructive bronchitis. The adrenergic tonus of vegetative nervous system was seen. The peculiarity of rehabilitation measures is complexness and continuity in-patients, out-patients service and providing facilities in health resorts. (author)

  5. Proceedings of the first part of a joint OECD(NEA)/CEC workshop on recent advances in reactor accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The first part of the Joint Workshop, organised by the NEA, is focused on the progress achieved in the work of CSNI's GRECA (Group of Experts on Accident Consequences). The program is composed of the following papers. Session 1: characteristics of the Chernobyl release and fallout that affect transport and behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment; Chernobyl accident and hot particles in the fallout; radionuclides associated with colloids and particles in the Chernobyl fallout; source term in the Chernobyl accident; long range transport of radionuclides; parameters in consequence calculations for an urban area. Session 2: review of evaluations concerning radionuclide transfer to foodstuffs via plants in view of the data available after the Chernobyl accident; GRECA review of Chernobyl data on transfer to animal products; Chernobyl accident radiometric data (Cs-137 in fresh water fishes of north Italy lakes); distribution of Cs-137 in water sediment and fish in the Ijsselmeer (Netherlands); uptake in the human body resulting from the Chernobyl accident; radioactivity of people in the nordic countries following the Chernobyl accident; preparations for an international study to evaluate long-range transport models against the Chernobyl accident

  6. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  7. Wet weather highway accident analysis and skid resistance data management system (volume II : user's manual).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The objectives and scope of this research are to establish an effective methodology for wet weather accident analysis and to develop a database management system to facilitate information processing and storage for the accident analysis process, skid...

  8. Wet weather highway accident analysis and skid resistance data management system (volume I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The objectives and scope of this research are to establish an effective methodology for wet weather accident analysis and to develop a database management system to facilitate information processing and storage for the accident analysis process, skid...

  9. Predicting the frequency of accidents in port areas by developing vvent trees from historical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ronza, Andrea; Félez, S; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Carol Llopart, Sergi; Vílchez Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim

    2003-01-01

    The historical analysis of 828 accidents in port areas, which have been selected from a database, has been used to identify the sequences of the accidents. Processing these data has allowed the event trees and the probability of the various accident scenarios to be determined. By using these event trees and figures detailing the frequency of the events that initiated the accidents, as taken from various authors, the frequency of the accidents has been determined.

  10. Cofrentes NPP activities on PSA and severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J.; Borondo, L.; Garcia, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Cofrentes NPP (CNPP) has developed a Level 1 PSA with the following scope: analysis of internal events, with the reactor initially operating at power, internal and external flooding risk analysis; internal fire risk analysis; reliability analysis of the containment heat removal and containment isolation systems. Level 1 CNPP-PSA results reveal that total core damage frequency in CNPP is less than other similar BWR/6 plants. The CNPP-PSA related activities and applications being carried out currently are: adjusting of MAAP 3.0B, revision 10, on VAX and PC; acquisition of MAAP 4; development of Level1/Level2-PSA interface; seismic site categorization for the IPEEE; prioritization of motor operated valves related to GL-89/10, complementary analysis for exemption to some 10CFR50 App. J requirements; Q-List grading; reliability-centered maintenance; maintenance rule support; on-line maintenance support, off-line risk-monitor development, PSA applicability to the 10CFR50 App. R requirements, analysis of the frequency of mis-oriented fuel bundle event, etc. About severe accident management, CNPP, as part of the Spanish-BWROG, is currently analyzing the generic products of the US-BWROG AMG in order to generate their specific ones. Also, in this group BWR, the development of tools to simulate accident scenarios beyond core damage will be studied and a training process oriented to warrant the optimum use of new EOP/AMG in accident scenarios will be implemented

  11. Evaluation of release amount of radioactivity from Chernobyl accident and of resulting radiological consequence in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxing

    1987-01-01

    Three kinds of methods are used to evaluate the release amount from Chernoby1 RBMK-1000 reactor accident, i.e. (1) estimation by comparison with Windscale accident; (2) estimation in terms of the stock in the core; and (3) estimation according to the available monitoring data form adjacent countries such as Poland and Finland. The results obtained are as follows: the release of I-131 was 0.1-1.5 EBq, which is approximately 4-50% of the stock in the core; the release amount of Ru-103 was comparable to that of Cs-137, both approximately 5-10% of that of I-131; the volatile nuclides such as Mo-99, Ru-103, Te-132, Cs-137 etc., were in the order of 0.4 EBq; involatile nuclides were 0.2 EBq; noble gases and other fission products 10 EBq; and the total amount released was about 20 EBq, which taken together 8% of the stock in the core. The radioactive cloud cluster passed through over the area of China in the beginning of May. It was estimated that the total amount of I-131 in air over China area was about 1.6 PB q , Cs-137 about 0.3 PB q , Ru-103 about 0.2 PB q ; the total fallout in the area of China was about 3 PB q for I-131, about 0.1 PB q for Cs-137, about 0.3 PB q for Ru-103. The resulting effective dose equavalent commitment to critical group individual was about 60 μSv, collective effective dose equavalent commitment received by the population of China was about 1 x 10 4 man.Sv

  12. Preclosure radiological safety analysis for accident conditions of the potential Yucca Mountain Repository: Underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.W.; Sit, R.C.; Zavoshy, S.J.; Jardine, L.J.; Laub, T.W.

    1992-06-01

    This preliminary preclosure radiological safety analysis assesses the scenarios, probabilities, and potential radiological consequences associated with postulated accidents in the underground facility of the potential Yucca Mountain repository. The analysis follows a probabilistic-risk-assessment approach. Twenty-one event trees resulting in 129 accident scenarios are developed. Most of the scenarios have estimated annual probabilities ranging from 10 -11 /yr to 10 -5 /yr. The study identifies 33 scenarios that could result in offsite doses over 50 mrem and that have annual probabilities greater than 10 -9 /yr. The largest offsite dose is calculated to be 220 mrem, which is less than the 500 mrem value used to define items important to safety in 10 CFR 60. The study does not address an estimate of uncertainties, therefore conclusions or decisions made as a result of this report should be made with caution

  13. Cassini Spacecraft Uncertainty Analysis Data and Methodology Review and Update/Volume 1: Updated Parameter Uncertainty Models for the Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHEELER, TIMOTHY A.; WYSS, GREGORY D.; HARPER, FREDERICK T.

    2000-11-01

    Uncertainty distributions for specific parameters of the Cassini General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) Final Safety Analysis Report consequence risk analysis were revised and updated. The revisions and updates were done for all consequence parameters for which relevant information exists from the joint project on Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of European Communities.

  14. Severe Accident Analysis for Containment Filtered Venting System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Technology Co. Ltd, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. After TMI accident, many countries (Sweden, Germany, France) requires containment venting system like FCVS (filtered containment venting system), which can allow for the release of the over-pressure through a scrubber normally containing water and chemicals to reduce the radioactive material releases to the environment. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. This study examines the thermodynamic behavior due to different vent strategies for a large PWR during severe accidents for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant. The representative accident scenario is identified and the sensitivity analysis with varying conditions (i. e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) is conducted by using numerical simulation. The effects of venting during the severe accident with containment pressurization are examined. The accident scenarios are selected by using both of the qualitative judgement and the preliminary calculations and the sensitivity analysis on vent line size and vent initiation timing is conducted. As a result, the general trend of containment behavior due to venting can be found. Summarizing the findings, two conflict trends are found: - The maximum discharged flow rate would be higher as the vent line size and vent opening pressure increases. - The decay heat and the aerosol mass delivered to CFVS would be higher as the vent line size and vent opening pressure decreases. Regarding the flow rate, decay heat and aerosol mass are important factor for CFVS design, it would be necessary to find the optimum design specification with economical and regulatory considerations.

  15. Fault Analysis and Solution on Bucket Dropping Accident in Hoisting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overwinding was the main accident in lifting systems of coal mine and bucket dropping accident was the most serious overwinding accident. According to the cause and mechanism of the bucket dropping accident in main shaft hoisting systems, the conclusion that overloading promotion was the main cause of bucket crash accident was obtained with the fault tree analysis method. One theoretical analysis model was established in order to prevent the occurrence of overloaded bucket dropping accident. The model provided scientific basis and steps in theory for qualitative and quantitative analysis on the cause of falling bucket accident and for the study on accident prediction and prevention. This article proposed several feasible technical measures to prevent the bucket crash accident, which had important guiding significance in practical application.

  16. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  17. An Analysis of Loss of Offsite Power Sequence for the Severe Accident Analysis Database (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Dong Ha

    2006-12-15

    This report contains analysis methodologies and calculation results of loss of offsite sequences for the severe accident analysis database system. The Korean standard nuclear power plant has been selected as a reference plant. Based on the probabilistic safety analysis of the corresponding plant, Twelve accident scenarios, which was predicted to have more than 10-10 /ry occurrence frequency, have been analyzed as base cases for the loss of offsite sequence database. The functions of the severe accident analysis database system will be to make a diagnosis of the accident by some input information from the plant symptoms, to search a corresponding scenario, and finally to provide the user phenomenological information based on the pre-analyzed results. The MAAP 4.06 calculation results of loss of offsite sequence in this report will be utilized as input data of the severe accident analysis database system. This report updates and complements a previously published Technical Report.

  18. An Analysis of Medium Loss of Coolant Sequence for the Severe Accident Analysis DB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Song, Yong Mann

    2007-12-15

    This report contains analysis methodologies and calculation results of medium loss of Coolant sequences for the severe accident analysis database system. The Korean standard nuclear power plant has been selected as a reference plant. Based on the probabilistic safety analysis of the corresponding plant, 10 accident scenarios, which was predicted to have more than 10{sup -10} /ry occurrence frequency, have been analyzed as base cases for the medium loss of Coolant sequence database. The functions of the severe accident analysis database system will be to make a diagnosis of the accident by some input information from the plant symptoms, to search a corresponding scenario, and finally to provide the user phenomenological information based on the pre-analyzed results. The MAAP 4.06 calculation results in this report will be utilized as input data of the severe accident analysis database system.

  19. An Analysis of Large Loss of Coolant Sequence for the Severe Accident Analysis DB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Song, Yong Mann

    2007-12-15

    This report contains analysis methodologies and calculation results of Large loss of Coolant sequences for the severe accident analysis database system. The Korean standard nuclear power plant has been selected as a reference plant. Based on the probabilistic safety analysis of the corresponding plant, 14 accident scenarios, which was predicted to have more than 10{sup -10} /ry occurrence frequency, have been analyzed as base cases for the Large loss of Coolant sequence database. The functions of the severe accident analysis database system will be to make a diagnosis of the accident by some input information from the plant symptoms, to search a corresponding scenario, and finally to provide the user phenomenological information based on the pre-analyzed results. The MAAP 4.06 calculation results in this report will be utilized as input data of the severe accident analysis database system.

  20. An Analysis of Small Loss of Coolant Sequence for the Severe Accident Analysis Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Song, Yong Mann

    2007-12-15

    This report contains analysis methodologies and calculation results of small loss of Coolant sequences for the severe accident analysis database system. The Korean standard nuclear power plant has been selected as a reference plant. Based on the probabilistic safety analysis of the corresponding plant, 10 accident scenarios, which was predicted to have more than 10{sup -9} /ry occurrence frequency, have been analyzed as base cases for the small loss of Coolant sequence database. The functions of the severe accident analysis database system will be to make a diagnosis of the accident by some input information from the plant symptoms, to search a corresponding scenario, and finally to provide the user phenomenological information based on the pre-analyzed results. The MAAP 4.06 calculation results in this report will be utilized as input data of the severe accident analysis database system.

  1. An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Wu, Junwen; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME HEALTH INDICATORS OF VARIOUS RADIATION ACCIDENTS LIQUIDATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of comparative investigation of morbidity and immunity of liquidators of radiation accidents occurred in South Urals (Kyshtym accident, at Chernobyl NPP and nuclear submarines (NS consequences. The most evident immunity and health changes were revealed for liquidators of Chernobyl NPP accident (ChNPP. Investigations of Kyshtym accident liquidators revealed long-term immunological losses. Comparison of health indicators of Chernobyl and nuclear submarine accident liquidators reveals the possibility of combined influence of radiation and stress on the immunity and health.

  3. Improvement of Severe Accident Analysis Computer Code and Development of Accident Management Guidance for Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Ko Ryu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Choi, Young; Jin, Young Ho

    2005-03-15

    The objective of the project is to develop a generic severe accident management guidance(SAMG) applicable to Korean PHWR and the objective of this 3 year continued phase is to construct a base of the generic SAMG. Another objective is to improve a domestic computer code, ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU), which still has many deficiencies to be improved in order to apply for the SAMG development. The scope and contents performed in this Phase-2 are as follows: The characteristics of major design and operation for the domestic Wolsong NPP are analyzed from the severe accident aspects. On the basis, preliminary strategies for SAM of PHWR are selected. The information needed for SAM and the methods to get that information are analyzed. Both the individual strategies applicable for accident mitigation under PHWR severe accident conditions and the technical background for those strategies are developed. A new version of ISAAC 2.0 has been developed after analyzing and modifying the existing models of ISAAC 1.0. The general SAMG applicable for PHWRs confirms severe accident management techniques for emergencies, provides the base technique to develop the plant specific SAMG by utility company and finally contributes to the public safety enhancement as a NPP safety assuring step. The ISAAC code will be used inevitably for the PSA, living PSA, severe accident analysis, SAM program development and operator training in PHWR.

  4. Potential consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Leningrad nuclear power plant. Potential release, fallout and predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, A.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.; Bartnicki, J.; Balonov, M.

    2012-06-15

    The report describes different hypothetical accident scenarios at the Leningrad nuclear power plant for both RBMK and VVER-1200 reactors. The estimated release is combined with different meteorological scenarios to predict possible fallout of radioactive substances in Norway. For a hypothetical catastrophic accident at an RBMK reactor combined with a meteorological worst case scenario, the consequences in Norway could be considerable. Foodstuffs in many regions would be contaminated above the food intervention levels for radioactive cesium in Norway. (Author)

  5. Potential consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Leningrad nuclear power plant. Potential release, fallout and predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.; Bartnicki, J.; Balonov, M.

    2012-06-01

    The report describes different hypothetical accident scenarios at the Leningrad nuclear power plant for both RBMK and VVER-1200 reactors. The estimated release is combined with different meteorological scenarios to predict possible fallout of radioactive substances in Norway. For a hypothetical catastrophic accident at an RBMK reactor combined with a meteorological worst case scenario, the consequences in Norway could be considerable. Foodstuffs in many regions would be contaminated above the food intervention levels for radioactive cesium in Norway. (Author)

  6. A flammability and combustion model for integrated accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plys, M.G.; Astleford, R.D.; Epstein, M.

    1988-01-01

    A model for flammability characteristics and combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures is presented for application to severe accident analysis of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR's). Flammability of general mixtures for thermodynamic conditions anticipated during a severe accident is quantified with a new correlation technique applied to data for several fuel and inertant mixtures and using accepted methods for combining these data. Combustion behavior is quantified by a mechanistic model consisting of a continuity and momentum balance for the burned gases, and considering an uncertainty parameter to match the idealized process to experiment. Benchmarks against experiment demonstrate the validity of this approach for a single recommended value of the flame flux multiplier parameter. The models presented here are equally applicable to analysis of current LWR's. 21 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-01

    analysis showed that temperatures of fuel and claddings during accident are still below limitations which are in secure condition.

  8. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su’ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition. The analysis showed that temperatures of fuel and claddings during accident are still below limitations which are in secure condition

  9. A comparative evaluation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident based on the internal dose of 137Cs to Japanese male adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Matsumoto, M.; Kobayashi, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident released a large quantity of radionuclides into the environment. Many measurements were carried out to assess the consequent radiation doses around the world. The measurements of subjects from different countries at a given institution can serve for the comparative evaluation of their internal doses when one apparatus is used consistently for the measurements. We have measured radiocesium body burdens of both Japanese and foreigners since the Chernobyl accident using a whole-body counter. In the occasion of 10th anniversary of the accident, we evaluated the body burdens in order to compare the internal doses among countries. 5 refs, 3 figs

  10. Effect and consequences of the reactor-accident in Chernobyl on the fish population in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luensmann, Wulf

    1986-01-01

    After the reactor-accident in Chernobyl radioactive fission products reached during the night on April 30, 1986, the south Bavarian region. They were washed out by heavy rains in the early hours of the afternoon, causing a contamination of the total biosphere. It is known from radio-ecological studies, that radionuclides concentrate in fish meat. Ionising radiation may lead to an internal radiation exposition of human beings via food chains. It was for that reason necessary to follow up the temporal development in order to prevent injuries through ionising radiation. The Bavarian Institute for Water Research started on May 5, a project in connection with fish consumption and investigated fish meat for radioactivity, originated from 3 different biotopes: a) rivers b) fish-farms c) lakes in the prealpine region. Altogether approximately 700 fishes were examined until the end of October. Fish-meat contained until the middle of May besides Cs134 and Cs137 also the short-living radionuclides J131 and Te132 (20-30 Bq/kg fresh meat). After that date could only Cs134 and Cs137 be demonstrated. Since both cesium-isotopes in the Chernobyl-fallout occur in a 1:2 ratio, only the result of Cs137 are reported

  11. Comparison of MACCS users calculations for the international comparison exercise on probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, October 1989--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymotin, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Over the past several years, the OECD/NEA and CEC sponsored an international program intercomparing a group of six probabilistic consequence assessment (PCA) codes designed to simulate health and economic consequences of radioactive releases into atmosphere of radioactive materials following severe accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs): ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this effort, two separate groups performed similar calculations using the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Results produced in the MACCS Users Group (Greece, Italy, Spain, and USA) calculations and their comparison are contained in the present report. Version 1.5.11.1 of the MACCS code was used for the calculations. Good agreement between the results produced in the four participating calculations has been reached, with the exception of the results related to the ingestion pathway dose predictions. The main reason for the scatter in those particular results is attributed to the lack of a straightforward implementation of the specifications for agricultural production and counter-measures criteria provided for the exercise. A significantly smaller scatter in predictions of other consequences was successfully explained by differences in meteorological files and weather sampling, grids, rain distance intervals, dispersion model options, and population distributions.

  12. Comparison of MACCS users calculations for the international comparison exercise on probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, October 1989--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymotin, L.

    1994-04-01

    Over the past several years, the OECD/NEA and CEC sponsored an international program intercomparing a group of six probabilistic consequence assessment (PCA) codes designed to simulate health and economic consequences of radioactive releases into atmosphere of radioactive materials following severe accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs): ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this effort, two separate groups performed similar calculations using the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Results produced in the MACCS Users Group (Greece, Italy, Spain, and USA) calculations and their comparison are contained in the present report. Version 1.5.11.1 of the MACCS code was used for the calculations. Good agreement between the results produced in the four participating calculations has been reached, with the exception of the results related to the ingestion pathway dose predictions. The main reason for the scatter in those particular results is attributed to the lack of a straightforward implementation of the specifications for agricultural production and counter-measures criteria provided for the exercise. A significantly smaller scatter in predictions of other consequences was successfully explained by differences in meteorological files and weather sampling, grids, rain distance intervals, dispersion model options, and population distributions

  13. The sensitivity of calculated doses to critical assumptions for the offsite consequences of nuclear power reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, M.P.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    This work analyzes the sensitivity of calculated doses to critical assumptions for offsite consequences following a PWR-2 accident at a nuclear power reactor. The calculations include three radiation dose pathways: internal dose resulting from inhalation, external doses from exposure to the plume, and external doses from exposure to contaminated ground. The critical parameters are the time period of integration for internal dose commitment and the duration of residence on contaminated ground. The data indicate the calculated offsite whole body dose will vary by as much as 600% depending upon the parameters assumed. When offsite radiation doses determine the size of emergency planning zones, this uncertainty has significant effect upon the resources allocated to emergency preparedness

  14. Dermatological consequences of the Cs-137 radiological accident in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Lia Candida Miranda de

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of dermatosis in individuals that had been exposed to cesium 137 during the radioactive accident in Goiania, in 1987 and detect pre-cancerous dermatosis or those predictive of low immunity. The groups were evaluated according to the intensity of radiation they had been exposed to and then compared to a control group of people not exposed to radiation. The population exposed to the cesium 137 was comprised of 109 people, who were divided into Groups I and II, according to the CNEN norms. In group I, 54 people with ≤ 20 rads exposure and/or radio lesion were included; in group II, 55 people with > 20 rads exposure were included, along with the children of group I individuals. This was a historic cohort study, that is, a retrospective study that lasted 9 years, extending from September of 1987 to August, 1996. The presence of the oncoprotein p-53 was studied in the radio lesions of 10 patients. There is no evidence of an increase in the incidence of dermatosis in the exposed groups, excepts for pyoderma in patients with radio lesions. The most frequent dermatosis were: pyoderma, pityriasis versicolor, scabies, dermatophytosis and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The results obtained were not statistically significant for the evaluation of dermatosis predictive of low immunity or precancerous lesions. The oncoprotein p-53 in individuals with radio lesion showed a 80% positivity rate and risk factor estimated in 8 times, for the test. It has proved to be useful because it represents one more option in terms of propaedeutic evaluation and suggests that one should pay close and continuous attention in order to better control the evolution of these individuals. (author)

  15. Environmental and health consequences in Japan due to the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Yuji; Kankura, Takako; Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi.

    1988-03-01

    A comprehensive review was made on the results of national monitoring program for environmental radioactivity in Japan resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR. Period of monitoring efforts covered by the present review is from 30th of April 1986 to 31st of May 1987. A radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor initially arrived in Japan on 30th of April 1986 as indicated by the elevated level of 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity in the total deposition on 30th of April and also by the increased 137 Cs body burden noted on 1st of May. Almost all the radioactive nuclides detected in the European countries were also identified in Japan. For example, the observed nuclides were: 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99m Tc, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 110m Ag, 111 Ag, 125 Sb, 127 Sb, 129m Te, 131 I, 132 Te, 132 I, 133 I, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce and 144 Ce. Among the above radionuclides, the country average concentration was determined for 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs in various environmental materials such as air, fresh water, soil, milk, leafy and root vegetables, cereals, marine products and other foodstuffs. In contrast to the sharp decline of 131 I which was negligible after a few months, 137 Cs showed a tendency to maintain its activity in foodstuffs at an appreciable level one year later. Collective effective dose equivalent and dose equivalent to thyroid in Japanese population due to 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 131 I were estimated to be around 590 man Sv and 4760 man Sv, respectively. Corresponding values for the per caput dose equivalent are 5 μSv for whole body and 40 μSv for thyroid, respectively. (author)

  16. Source term assessment, containment atmosphere control systems, and accident consequences. Report to CSNI by an OECD/NEA Group of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    CSNI Report 135 summarizes the results of the work performed by CSNI's Principal Working Group No. 4 on the Source Term and Environmental Consequences (PWG4) during the period extending from 1983 to 1986. This document contains the latest information on some important topics relating to source terms, accident consequence assessment, and containment atmospheric control systems. It consists of five parts: (1) a Foreword and Executive Summary prepared by PWG4's Chairman; (2) a Report on the Technical Status of the Source Term; (3) a Report on the Technical Status of Filtration and Containment Atmosphere Control Systems for Nuclear Reactors in the Event of a Severe Accident; (4) a Report on the Technical Status of Reactor Accident Consequence Assessment; (5) a list of members of PWG4

  17. Radiological consequence analysis for upgradation of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 from 9 to 10 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, L.A.; Raza, S.S.

    1993-12-01

    Radiological consequence analysis has been carried out for upgradation of PARR-I from 9 to 10 MW. A hypothetical loss of coolant accident resulting in core meltdown and release of fission products to the atmosphere has been analyzed. Whole body and thyroid doses have been calculated as a function of time and distance from the containment building. Based on these dose estimates, boundaries of exclusion and low population zones are assessed. (author)

  18. Power Excursion Accident Analysis of Research Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaled, S.M.; Doaa, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional neutronic code POWEX-K has been developed, and it has been coupled with the sub-channel thermal-hydraulic core analysis code SV based on the Single Mass Velocity Model. This forms the integrated neutronic/thermal hydraulics code system POWEX-K/SV for the accident analysis. The Training and Research Reactors at Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME-Reactor) has been taken as a reference reactor. The cross-section generation procedure based on WIMS. The code uses an implicit difference approach for both the diffusion equations and thermal-hydraulics modules, with reactivity feedback effects due to coolant and fuel temperatures. The code system was applied to analyzing power excursion accidents initiated by ramp reactivity insertion of 1.2 $. The results show that the reactor is inherently safe in case of such accidents i.e. no core melt is expected even if the safety rods do not fall into the core

  19. A grounded theory model for analysis of marine accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullai, Arben; Paulsson, Ulf

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to design a conceptual model for analysis of marine accidents. The model is grounded on large amounts of empirical data, i.e. the Swedish Maritime Administration database, which was thoroughly studied. This database contains marine accidents organized by ship and variable. The majority of variables are non-metric and some have never been analyzed because of the large number of values. Summary statistics were employed in the data analysis. In order to develop a conceptual model, the database variables were clustered into eleven main categories or constructs, which were organized according to their properties and connected with the path diagram of relationships. For demonstration purposes, one non-metric and five metric variables were selected, namely fatality, ship's properties (i.e. age, gross register tonnage, and length), number of people on board, and marine accidents. These were analyzed using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. The combined prediction power of the 'ship's properties' and 'number of people on board' independent variables accounted for 65% of the variance of the fatality. The model development was largely based on the data contained in the Swedish database. However, as this database shares a number of variables in common with other databases in the region and the world, the model presented in this paper could be applied to other datasets. The model has both theoretical and practical values. Recommendations for improvements in the database are also suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) of the Electic Power Research Institute is analyzing the Three Mile Island-2 accident. An early result of this analysis was a brief narrative summary, issued in mid-May 1979. The present report contains a revised version of that narrative summary, a highly detailed sequence of events, a standard reference list, a list of abbreviations and acronyms, and several appendices. The appendices serve either to describe plant features which are pertinent to the understanding of the sequence of events, or indicate how certain inferences and conclusions in the report were reached. Supplementing the appendices contained herein, additional appendices are in preparation; these will be issued when available (e.g., the appendices Hydrogen Phenomena and Operator Actions duing Initial Transient will follow later). Also in preparation is a matrix of equipment and systems actions during the accident. This report together with future supplements and a separate Core Damage Assessment report, will embody the principal results of that phase of NSAC's work which is devoted to learning and understanding what happened during the accident. Subsequent phases will concentrate on causes, lessons learned and generic remedial or preventive measures which may be appropriate

  1. Analysis of Three Mile Island - Unit 2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) of the Electric Power Research Institute is analyzing the Three Mile Island-2 accident. An early result of this analysis was a brief narrative summary, issued in mid May 1979. The present report contains a revised version of that narrative summary, a highly detailed sequence of events, a standard reference list, a list of abbreviations and acronyms, and several appendices. The appendices serve either to describe plant features which are pertinent to the understanding of the sequence of events, or indicate how certain inferences and conclusions in the report were reached. Supplementing the appendices contained herein, additional appendices are in preparation; these will be issued when available (e.g., the appendices Hydrogen Phenomena and Operator Actions during Initial Transient will follow later). Also in preparation is a matrix of equipment and systems actions during the accident. This report together with future supplements and a separate Core Damage Assessment report, will embody the principal results of that phase of NSAC work which is devoted to learning and understanding what happened during the accident. Subsequent phases will concentrate on causes, lessons learned and generic remedial or preventive measures which may be appropriate

  2. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen

    2013-09-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  3. Analysis of reactivity insertion accidents in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, C.T.M.

    1978-06-01

    A calculation model to analyze reactivity insertion accidents in a PWR reactor was developed. To analyze the nuclear power transient, the AIREK-III code was used, which simulates the conventional point-kinetic equations with six groups of delayed neutron precursors. Some modifications were made to generalize and to adapt the program to solve the proposed problems. A transient thermal analysis model was developed which simulates the heat transfer process in a cross section of a UO 2 fuel rod with Zircalloy clad, a gap fullfilled with Helium gas and the correspondent coolant channel, using as input the nulcear power transient calculated by AIREK-III. The behavior of ANGRA-i reactor was analized during two types of accidents: - uncontrolled rod withdrawal from subcritical condition; - uncontrolled rod withdrawal at power. The results and conclusions obtained will be used in the license process of the Unit 1 of the Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto. (Author) [pt

  4. A psychological analysis of the rehabilitation of the Goiania accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Neto, S.B. da

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a psycho social analysis of the consequences of the radiologic accident of Goiania-Brazil, verified especially among its direct victims. It makes clear the psychological aspects shown by the isolated victims (hospitalized and sheltered) and the psycho therapeutic processes used by the Psychology Department. After all that study, it is clear the need of specific training for health professionals necessary for the regards and multi professional and interdisciplinary attendance to the victims Goiania. It is also important a unity of institutional objectives such as essential conditions for the rehabilitation of the patients in its largest bio psycho social aspect. (author)

  5. Analysis of Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) of the Electric Power Research Institute has analyzed the Three Mile Island-2 accident. Early results of this analysis were a brief narrative summary, issued in mid-May 1979 and an initial version of this report issued later in 1979 as noted in the Foreword. The present report is a revised version of the 1979 report, containing summaries, a highly detailed sequence of events, a comparison of that sequence of events with those from other sources, 25 appendices, references and a list of abbreviations and acronyms. A matrix of equipment and system actions is included as a folded insert

  6. Nastran nonlinear dynamic transient accident analysis for FFTF reactor component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujan, R.A.; Chenault, D.M.; Go, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic transient analysis merging hand calculations and the NASTRAN structural analysis computer code was conducted for a Fast Flux Test Facility in-reactor test assembly during an extremely unlikely design basis accidental event which is considered a Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (HCDA). The finite element modeling of the problem took advantage of NASTRAN's versatility to create loads and nonlinear elements not previously found in NASTRAN's library. The structural criteria for the test assembly to withstand an HCDA stipulates that the test assembly and its spoolpiece shall remain integral with the reactor head such that missiles are not generated

  7. Legislation in Ukraine about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasvit, O.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the status and consequences of the principal laws of Ukraine concerning the problem of the Chernobyl catastrophe. The Ukrainian authorities have been giving a series of the laws after February, 1991. The system of Chernobyl Laws in Ukraine reflects the rather good intention of the Ukrainian authorities to help the people who suffered from the Chernobyl catastrophe. The system of the Laws includes more than that justified by the scientific base, that is, the combined effect of radioactive exposure and factors of non-radioactive synergism. However, after the Soviet Union collapse, it was found that the Laws were overloaded with social payments and compensations. A number of changes and additions to the Laws caused political struggles. In this situation, the radiological aspect of the problems stepped aside. The radiological survey system in Ukraine provides necessary information on annual doses to the population in the contaminated areas. Despite of the clearly observed reduction of the doses, allocation on the categories of contaminated zones has not been reviewed since 1991. According to the monitoring data, the level of radiation doses of about 50 % of all settlements does not correspond to their present status. What is very important in the present situation is to stop compulsory resettlement. It is necessary to stop to pay compensations for contaminated food products, and introduce a system of benefit to those who produce pure products on contaminated areas. It is expected that on approval of the Ukrainian Parliament it will became a new basis for reviewing of the Chernobyl Laws. The Laws and regulations of Ukraine on radiation protection are on the way to meet international basic safety standards. But there is no experience in the world of dealing with the consequences of such a wide-scale radiation catastrophe. Taking into account the fact that a certain part of the Ukrainian population have to live permanently on the radioactively

  8. Radiological consequence analysis with HEU and LEU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, W.L.; Warinner, D.K.; Matos, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A model for estimating the radiological consequences from a hypothetical accident in HEU and LEU fueled research and test reactors is presented. Simple hand calculations based on fission product yield table inventories and non-site specific dispersion data may be adequate in many cases. However, more detailed inventories and site specific data on meteorological conditions and release rates and heights can result in substantial reductions in the dose estimates. LEU fuel gives essentially the same doses as HEU fuel. The plutonium buildup in the LEU fuel does not significantly increase the radiological consequences. The dose to the thyroid is the limiting dose. 10 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  9. Radiological consequence analysis with HEU and LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.L.; Warinner, D.K.; Matos, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A model for estimating the radiological consequences from a hypothetical accident in HEU and LEU fueled research and test reactors is presented. Simple hand calculations based on fission product yield table inventories and non-site specific dispersion data may be adequate in many cases. However, more detailed inventories and site specific data on meteorological conditions and release rates and heights can result in substantial reductions in the dose estimates. LEU fuel gives essentially the same doses as HEU fuel. The plutonium buildup in the LEU fuel does not significantly increase the radiological consequences. The dose to the thyroid is the limiting dose. 10 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  10. A methodology for the estimation of the radiological consequences of a Loss of Coolant Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kereszturi, Andras; Brolly, Aron; Panka, Istvan; Pazmandi, Tamas; Trosztel, Istvan [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). MTA EK, Centre for Energy Research

    2017-09-15

    For calculation of the radiological consequences of Large Break Loss of Coolant (LBLOCA) events, a set of various computer codes modeling the corresponding physical processes, disciplines and their appropriate subsequent data exchange are necessary. For demonstrating the methodology applied in MTA EK, a LBLOCA event at shut down reactor state - when only limited configuration of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) is available - was selected. In this special case, fission gas release from a number of fuel pins is obtained from the analyses. This paper describes the initiating event and the corresponding thermal hydraulic calculations and the further physical processes, the necessary models and computer codes and their connections. Additionally the applied conservative assumptions and the Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty (B+U) evaluation applied for characterizing the pin power and burnup distribution in the core are presented. Also, the fuel behavior processes. Finally, the newly developed methodology to predict whether the fuel pins are getting in-hermetic or not is described and the the results of the activity transport and dose calculations are shown.

  11. The reactor accident in Fukushima Daiichi. The consequence of design deficiencies and inadequate safety engineering; Der Reaktorunfall in Fukushima Daiichi. Folge fehlerhafter Auslegung und unzureichender Sicherheitstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-03-15

    The reactor accident in Fukushima Daiichi is discussed in the frame of design deficiencies and inadequate safety engineering. The progress of the accident as consequence of the earthquake and the tsunami is described. The radiological situation for the public is supposed to be blow the dose limit of 20 mSv/year. The WHO and UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic radiation) did not observe acute radiation injuries. The Japanese authorities have classified the accident to 7 of the INES scale. The German Atomforum e.V. considers the safety engineering of German NPPs to be superior to the Japanese situation due to higher emergency energy supply, extensive measures to reduce the hydrogen accumulation and mitigating measures for the accident management. German NPPS are considered highly robust as the EU stress tests have shown.

  12. Results and tasks of the implementation of federal target programs aimed at overcoming the consequences of radiation accidents and catastrophes in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, N.V.

    2002-01-01

    Major results are presented on the implementation of federal target programs on overcoming the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, radiation accidents and incidents at the 'Mayak' Industrial Association, nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site in the period of 1992-2000. The status of the standards and legislation regulating the activities aimed at population protection and rehabilitation of territories is analyzed. The current state of the problem is evaluated. The proposals are laid down for major directions of the state policy of the Russian Federation in overcoming the consequences of radiation accidents for the period until 2010, and the outlook for the efforts in the above domain and the above period is given. About 130 thousand square kilometers of the territories of 20 Russian Federation subjects with a population of around 4 million people were affected by accidents at nuclear fuel cycle sites/facilities, and nuclear and hydrogen weapons tests. The accidents entailed a host of grave radioecological, medical, demographic, and socio-economic consequences, exerted a significant unfavorable impact upon the socio-economic development of the affected territories. (author)

  13. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.; Karaoglou, A.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

  14. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the in-tank fuel fire/deflageration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, R.D. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for In-Tank Fuel fire/Deflageration consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Tank Fuel Fire/Deflageration scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided

  15. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the in-tank fuel fire/deflagration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, R.D.

    1996-09-27

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for In-Tank Fuel Fire/Deflageration consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Tank Fuel Fire/Deflageration scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

  16. Analysis on the nitrogen drilling accident of Well Qionglai 1 (II: Restoration of the accident process and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfeng Meng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All the important events of the accident of nitrogen drilling of Well Qionglai 1 have been speculated and analyzed in the paper I. In this paper II, based on the investigating information, the well log data and some calculating and simulating results, according to the analysis method of the fault tree of safe engineering, the every possible compositions, their possibilities and time schedule of the events of the accident of Well Qionglai 1 have been analyzed, the implications of the logging data have been revealed, the process of the accident of Well Qionglai 1 has been restored. Some important understandings have been obtained: the objective causes of the accident is the rock burst and the induced events form rock burst, the subjective cause of the accident is that the blooie pipe could not bear the flow burden of the clasts from rock burst and was blocked by the clasts. The blocking of blooie pipe caused high pressure in wellhead, the high pressure made the blooie pipe burst, natural gas came out and flared fire. This paper also thinks that the rock burst in gas drilling in fractured tight sandstone gas zone is objective and not avoidable, but the accidents induced from rock burst can be avoidable by improving the performance of the blooie pipe, wellhead assemblies and drilling tool accessories aiming at the downhole rock burst.

  17. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix XI. Analysis of comments on the draft WASH-1400 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning comments on reactor safety by governmental agencies and civilian organizations; reactor safety study methodology; consequence model; probability of accident sequences; and various accident conditions

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of Evacuation Speed in Hypothetical NPP Accident by Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Effective emergency response in emergency situation of nuclear power plant (NPP) can make consequences be different therefore it is regarded important when establishing an emergency response plan and assessing the risk of hypothetical NPP accident. Situation of emergency response can be totally changed when NPP accident caused by earthquake or tsunami is considered due to the failure of roads and buildings by the disaster. In this study evacuation speed has been focused among above various factors and reasonable evacuation speed in earthquake scenario has been investigated. Finally, sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Evacuation scenario can be entirely different in the situation of seismic hazard and the sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Various references were investigated and earthquake evacuation model has been developed considering that evacuees may convert their evacuation method from using a vehicle to walking when they face the difficulty of using a vehicle due to intense traffic jam, failure of buildings and roads, and etc. The population dose within 5 km / 30 km have been found to be increased in earthquake situation due to decreased evacuation speed and become 1.5 - 2 times in the severest earthquake evacuation scenario set up in this study. It is not agreed that using same emergency response model which is used for normal evacuation situations when performing level 3 probabilistic safety assessment for earthquake and tsunami event. Investigation of data and sensitivity analysis for constructing differentiated emergency response model in the event of seismic hazard has been carried out in this study

  19. Integrated computer codes for nuclear power plant severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, I.; Khristov, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This overview contains a description of the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP), ICARE computer code and Source Term Code Package (STCP). STCP is used to model TMLB sample problems for Zion Unit 1 and WWER-440/V-213 reactors. Comparison is made of STCP implementation on VAX and IBM systems. In order to improve accuracy, a double precision version of MARCH-3 component of STCP is created and the overall thermal hydraulics is modelled. Results of modelling the containment pressure, debris temperature, hydrogen mass are presented. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Human error analysis of commercial aviation accidents using the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a general human error framework : originally developed and tested within the U.S. military as a tool for investigating and analyzing the human : causes of aviation accidents. Based upon ...

  1. Off-site consequences of radiological accidents: methods, costs and schedules for decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.; Harrer, B.J.; Currie, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    This report documents a data base and a computer program for conducting a decontamination analysis of a large, radiologically contaminated area. The data base, which was compiled largely through interviews with knowledgeable persons both in the public and private sectors, consists of the costs, physical inputs, rates and contaminant removal efficiencies of a large number of decontamination procedures. The computer program utilizes this data base along with information specific to the contaminated site to provide detailed information that includes the least costly method for effectively decontaminating each surface at the site, various types of property losses associated with the contamination, the time at which each subarea within the site should be decontaminated to minimize these property losses, the quantity of various types of labor and equipment necessary to complete the decontamination, dose to radiation workers, the costs for surveying and monitoring activities, and the disposal costs associated with radiological waste generated during cleanup. The program and data base are demonstrated with a decontamination analysis of a hypothetical site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 155 tabs.

  2. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 7. Environmental transport and consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Kaiser, G.D.; Runkle, G.E.; Woodard, K.

    1985-08-01

    Consequence models have been designed to assess health and economic risks from potential accidents at nuclear power plants. These models have been applied to an ever increasing variety of problems with ever increasing demands to improve modeling capabilities and provide greater realism. This course discusses the environmental transport of postulated radiological releases and the elements and purpose of accident consequence evaluation

  3. A DOE-STD-3009 hazard and accident analysis methodology for non-reactor nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAHN,JEFFREY A.; WALKER,SHARON ANN

    2000-03-23

    This paper demonstrates the use of appropriate consequence evaluation criteria in conjunction with generic likelihood of occurrence data to produce consistent hazard analysis results for nonreactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports (SAR). An additional objective is to demonstrate the use of generic likelihood of occurrence data as a means for deriving defendable accident sequence frequencies, thereby enabling the screening of potentially incredible events (<10{sup {minus}6} per year) from the design basis accident envelope. Generic likelihood of occurrence data has been used successfully in performing SAR hazard and accident analyses for two nonreactor nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. DOE-STD-3009-94 addresses and even encourages use of a qualitative binning technique for deriving and ranking nonreactor nuclear facility risks. However, qualitative techniques invariably lead to reviewer requests for more details associated with consequence or likelihood of occurrence bin assignments in the test of the SAR. Hazard analysis data displayed in simple worksheet format generally elicits questions about not only the assumptions behind the data, but also the quantitative bases for the assumptions themselves (engineering judgment may not be considered sufficient by some reviewers). This is especially true where the criteria for qualitative binning of likelihood of occurrence involves numerical ranges. Oftentimes reviewers want to see calculations or at least a discussion of event frequencies or failure probabilities to support likelihood of occurrence bin assignments. This may become a significant point of contention for events that have been binned as incredible. This paper will show how the use of readily available generic data can avoid many of the reviewer questions that will inevitably arise from strictly qualitative analyses, while not significantly increasing the overall burden on the analyst.

  4. A DOE-STD-3009 hazard and accident analysis methodology for non-reactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAHN, JEFFREY A.; WALKER, SHARON ANN

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of appropriate consequence evaluation criteria in conjunction with generic likelihood of occurrence data to produce consistent hazard analysis results for nonreactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports (SAR). An additional objective is to demonstrate the use of generic likelihood of occurrence data as a means for deriving defendable accident sequence frequencies, thereby enabling the screening of potentially incredible events ( -6 per year) from the design basis accident envelope. Generic likelihood of occurrence data has been used successfully in performing SAR hazard and accident analyses for two nonreactor nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. DOE-STD-3009-94 addresses and even encourages use of a qualitative binning technique for deriving and ranking nonreactor nuclear facility risks. However, qualitative techniques invariably lead to reviewer requests for more details associated with consequence or likelihood of occurrence bin assignments in the test of the SAR. Hazard analysis data displayed in simple worksheet format generally elicits questions about not only the assumptions behind the data, but also the quantitative bases for the assumptions themselves (engineering judgment may not be considered sufficient by some reviewers). This is especially true where the criteria for qualitative binning of likelihood of occurrence involves numerical ranges. Oftentimes reviewers want to see calculations or at least a discussion of event frequencies or failure probabilities to support likelihood of occurrence bin assignments. This may become a significant point of contention for events that have been binned as incredible. This paper will show how the use of readily available generic data can avoid many of the reviewer questions that will inevitably arise from strictly qualitative analyses, while not significantly increasing the overall burden on the analyst

  5. Hygienic estimation of protective measures on minimisation of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleshko, L.S.; Zhukovskij, V.G.; Nikiforenko, N.P.; Sushchevich, L.N.

    1998-01-01

    The basic attention at development of protective measures on decrease of individual irradiation dozes of population of the republic is directed on restriction of internal irradiation. It is reached by optimum regulation of intake radionuclides in a body with products of food, realisation nation-wide agrotechniques protective measures. The data analysis on irradiation dozes for 1988-1996, has shown the proof tendency to gradual decrease of external irradiation levels from 4,4-11,6 mSv in 1988 to 1,6-4,3 mSv in 1996. Realisation the whole complex of measures of radiation protection in 1986-1987 has allowed to achieve decrease of the thyroid dose loading of the children in 5-20 times, internal irradiation dose in 10 and more time. Since 1991 work on study of an opportunity of decrease irradiation of the population due to natural radionuclides, first of all radon and its daughter products, are conducted. Since 1992 sanitary-epidemic service fulfils works for decrease of irradiation of population due to x-ray medical procedures

  6. WIND project tests and analysis on the integrity of small size pipe under severe accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Naohiko; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro; Maruyama, Yu; Igarashi, Minoru; Hidaka, Akihide; Sugimoto, Jun

    1996-01-01

    In a severe accident of a light water reactor(LWR), fission products (FPs) released from fuel rods will be transported to the primary cooling system piping as aerosol and some of them will be deposited on the inner surface of piping. In such conditions the primary cooling system piping might be subjected to both of elevated temperature load due to decay heat of FPs and pressure load, and as a consequence the integrity of piping might be threatened. The WIND (Wide Range Piping Integrity Demonstration) Project is being performed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to investigate the FP aerosol behavior in reactor piping and the integrity of reactor piping under severe accident condition (K. Hashimoto et al., 1994, K. Hashimoto et al., 1995). In order to meet these two objectives, the Project comprises two test series: an aerosol behavior test series and a piping integrity test series. In the piping integrity test a straight stainless steel pipe is used to simulate a partial fraction of reactor piping under severe accident conditions. In parallel with conducting the tests, test analyses are performed with ABAQUS code (Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen Inc. 1989) using the test conditions to investigate the behavior of straight pipe against thermal and pressure loads. This paper describes the comparison of the scoping piping integrity test results and the analysis results with ABAQUS

  7. Quality assurance and verification of the MACCS [MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System] code, Version 1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbe, C.A.; Carlson, E.R.; Marshall, N.H.; Marwil, E.S.; Tolli, J.E.

    1990-02-01

    An independent quality assurance (QA) and verification of Version 1.5 of the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) was performed. The QA and verification involved examination of the code and associated documentation for consistent and correct implementation of the models in an error-free FORTRAN computer code. The QA and verification was not intended to determine either the adequacy or appropriateness of the models that are used MACCS 1.5. The reviews uncovered errors which were fixed by the SNL MACCS code development staff prior to the release of MACCS 1.5. Some difficulties related to documentation improvement and code restructuring are also presented. The QA and verification process concluded that Version 1.5 of the MACCS code, within the scope and limitations process concluded that Version 1.5 of the MACCS code, within the scope and limitations of the models implemented in the code is essentially error free and ready for widespread use. 15 refs., 11 tabs

  8. Review of core disruptive accident analysis for liquid-metal cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. C.; Na, B. C.; Hahn, D. H.

    1997-04-01

    Analysis methodologies of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) are reviewed. The role of CDAS in the overall safety evaluation of fast reactors has not always been well defined nor universally agreed upon. However, they have become a traditional issue in LMR safety, design, and licensing. The study is for the understanding of fast reactor behavior under CDA conditions to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features for the KALIMER developments. The methods used to analyze CDAs from initiating event to complete core disruption are described. Two examples of CDA analyses for CRBRP and ALMR are given and R and D needed for better understanding of CDA phenomena are proposed. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation.; Katsaus ydinonnettomuuksien psykologisiin seurauksiin sekae empiirinen tutkimus saeteilysuojelutoimenpiteiden vaikutuksista kaeyttaeytymiseen kuvitteelisessa tilanteessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukkala, A.; Eraenen, L. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Psychology

    1994-10-01

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.).

  10. [Spatial exploratory analysis of road accidents in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Hernández, Vladimir

    2012-05-01

    Prepare a tool for the exploratory study of road accidents in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, that exclusively applies the spatial geographical variable (location). Observational and cross-sectional study that uses a Geographic Information System to explore the spatial nature of 13 305 road accidents recorded during 2008 and 2009 in Ciudad Juarez. Indicators were constructed that approximated the transit flow and included two variables: indices of the level of urbanization and population density. The value of the global spatial autocorrelation was positive, indicating the presence of groupings that were identified through the spatial association indicators. There are road risk clusters located in areas with a high level of urbanization, low population density, and a high transit flow level. The exploratory analysis of spatial data is a phase that precedes the use of multivariate techniques with a broader scope. The application of exploratory analysis techniques in itself makes it possible to standardize spatial groupings, identify global autocorrelation, and indicate the direction of the variables under study.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2017-04-01

    Even six years passed after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident, we still have large uncertainty for atmospheric transport and deposition models, the estimate of release rate of source terms and of internal exposure from inhalation. For our better understanding and to reduce the uncertainty, we thoroughly analyzed all the published data of radionuclides such as Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133, and of radiation dose rates at many monitoring sites in eastern Japan. We also retrieved the spatio-temporal distributions of Cs-137 just after the accident by using the unique dataset of hourly radionuclides in atmospheric aerosols collected on the used filter-tapes installed in the suspended particulate matter (SPM) monitors operated at more than 100 stations in the air pollution monitoring network of Japan. The most important findings are summarized as follows. Analyzing the hourly Cs-137 concentrations at two SPM stations located within 20 km from the FD1NPP, we revealed the complicated behavior of plumes and atmospheric radionuclides near the FD1NPP just after the accident. The transport pathways to the northwestern and northern areas from the FD1NPP are clarified especially on March 12-21, 2011. Analysis of the published data clearly shows that atmospheric ratio of I-131/Cs-137 (=R) was mainly divided into two groups, one (R≦10) is for the plumes before March 21, 2011, and the other (R>100) is after that day. These two groups are consistent in all the measured sites, whether the sites are in the Fukushima prefecture or in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. These results are expected partially to identify the source term for each plume.

  12. Decontamination analysis of the NUWAX-83 accident site using DECON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This report presents an analysis of the site restoration options for the NUWAX-83 site, at which an exercise was conducted involving a simulated nuclear weapons accident. This analysis was performed using a computer program deveoped by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The computer program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are used in this report demonstrate its potential usefulness as a site restoration planning tool. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) employing a Quick-Vac option, under which selected surfaces are vacuumed before they can be rained on; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring specific methods to be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying of the cleanup standards according to expected exposure to surface

  13. Relationships between accident investigations, risk analysis, and safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms-Ringdahl, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Several different approaches to achieve safety are in common use, and examples are accident investigations (AI), risk analysis (RA), and safety management systems (SMS). The meaning of these concepts and their practical applications vary quite a lot, which might cause confusion. A summary of definitions is presented. A general comparison is made of application areas and methodology. A proposal is made how to indicate parameters of variation. At one end of the scale there are organisations, which are highly organised in respect to safety. At the other end are small companies with informal safety routines. Although the three concepts differ in a number of respects, there are many links between them which is illustrated in a model. A number of relations have been described mainly concerned with more advanced organisations. Behind the practical safety work, there are varying sets of more or less explicit explanations and theories on safety and accident causation. Depending on the theory applied, the relations between approaches can be more or less clear and essential

  14. 2. International conference. Radiobiological consequences of nuclear accidents; Russian-Norwegian Satellite Symposium on nuclear accidents, radioecology and health. Abstracts. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Materials on radiobiological effect of ionizing radiation under emergency situations are presented. The radiation contamination of environmental media after the Chernobyl NPP accident (ground, earth and water ecological systems), effect of external and internal irradiation on the inhabitants of the region are estimated. Time characteristic of radiation risk of originating tumors and genetic injuries is given

  15. Analysis of Intra-Urban Traffic Accidents Using Spatiotemporal Visualization Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani Ali; Askari Sajad

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) rank in the top ten causes of the global burden of disease and injury, and Iran has one of the highest road traffic mortality rates in the world. This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis of intra-urban traffic accidents data in metropolitan Shiraz, Iran during the period 2011-2012. It is tried to identify the accident prone zones and sensitive hours using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based spatio-temporal visualization techniques. The analysis aimed ...

  16. Specific features of RBMK severe accidents progression and approach to the accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevskij, V.P.; Nikitin, Yu.M.; Petrov, A.A.; Potapov, A.A.; Cherkashov, Yu.M.

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental construction features of the LWGR facilities (absence of common external containment shell, disintegrated circulation circuit and multichannel reactor core, positive vapor reactivity coefficient, high mass of thermally capacious graphite moderator) predetermining development of assumed heavy non-projected accidents and handling them are treated. Rating the categories of the reactor core damages for non-projected accidents and accident types producing specific grope of damages is given. Passing standard non-projected accidents, possible methods of attack accident consequences, as well as methods of calculated analysis of non-projected accidents are demonstrated [ru

  17. Site-specific meteorology identification for DOE facility accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabin, S.B.

    1995-09-01

    Currently, chemical dispersion calculations performed for safety analysis of DOE facilities assume a Pasquill D-Stability Class with a 4.5 m/s windspeed. These meteorological conditions are assumed to conservatively address the source term generation mechanism as well as the dispersion mechanism thereby resulting in a net conservative downwind consequence. While choosing this Stability Class / Windspeed combination may result in an overall conservative consequence, the level of conservative can not be quantified. The intent of this paper is to document a methodology which incorporates site-specific meteorology to determine a quantifiable consequence of a chemical release. A five-year meteorological database, appropriate for the facility location, is utilized for these chemical consequence calculations, and is consistent with the approach used for radiological releases. The hourly averages of meteorological conditions have been binned into 21 groups for the chemical consequence calculations. These 21 cases each have a probability of occurrence based on the number of times each case has occurred over the five year sampling period. A code has been developed which automates the running of all the cases with a commercially available air modeling code. The 21 cases are sorted by concentration. A concentration may be selected by the user for a quantified level of conservatism. The methodology presented is intended to improve the technical accuracy and defensability of Chemical Source Term / Dispersion Safety Analysis work. The result improves the quality of safety analyses products without significantly increasing the cost.

  18. Radionuclide analysis on bamboos following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available In response to contamination from the recent Fukushima nuclear accident, we conducted radionuclide analysis on bamboos sampled from six sites within a 25 to 980 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Maximum activity concentrations of radiocesium (134Cs and (137Cs in samples from Fukushima city, 65 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 71 and 79 kBq/kg, dry weight (DW, respectively. In Kashiwa city, 195 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the sample concentrations were in excess of 3.4 and 4.3 kBq/kg DW, respectively. In Toyohashi city, 440 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the concentrations were below the measurable limits of up to 4.5 Bq/kg DW. In the radiocesium contaminated samples, the radiocesium activity was higher in mature and fallen leaves than in young leaves, branches and culms.

  19. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the

  20. An experience of information support of the Russian federal programs of the overcoming of consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linge, I.I.; Ossipiants, I.A.; Ilushkin, I.I.; Melihova, E.I.; Blinov, B.K.; Marchenko, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1992, by a number of paragraphs of the federal programs on overcoming consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP, the measures on informational-analytic support of the federal programs were provided. Within the framework of this activity for the solution of various aspects of Chernobyl's problem central bank of generalized data and numerous information systems were created. In the report the brief description of some of them is presented. In particular the databank on radioactive situation includes the information on 12 thousand settlements of Russia which have been exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of the accident.The medico-demographic section of a databank includes information on death rate for the reasons for all subjects of Russian Federation since 1982 till the present time. The developed information systems are available to all participants of work on overcoming of consequences of the accident. There are given the examples of integral estimates in short- and long-term forecasts of development of a situation in territories suffered by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. (author)