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Sample records for accessory middle cerebral

  1. Unusual hemodynamic stroke related to an accessory middle cerebral artery: The usefulness of fusion images from three-dimensional angiography

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    Kei Noguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic stroke associated with an anomaly of the middle cerebral artery (MCA is a rare occurrence. The diagnosis is very difficult when there are steno-occlusive lesions associated with an accessory middle cerebral artery (AMCA. Case Description: A 77-year-old female with hypertension and hyperlipidemia experienced repeated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs of motor aphasia and dysarthria. Although angiography showed only left intracranial occlusion, the fusion images of three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3-D DSA showed complex steno-occlusive lesions and an AMCA related with the TIA. The cerebral blood flow (CBF to the left frontal lobe was supplied by the AMCA, via the anterior communicating artery from the right internal carotid artery. The left temporal and parietal lobes were supplied by the stenotic MCA, via the left posterior communicating artery from the left posterior cerebral artery. Single-photon emission computed tomography showed a marked decrease in CBF to both the left frontal and temporal lobes. A left superficial temporal artery (STA-to-left MCA double anastomosis was performed, in which each branch of the STA supplied branches of the AMCA and MCA. Conclusion: This is the first reported case of ischemic stroke in a patient with an AMCA. The exact diagnosis could be made only by using fusion images of 3-D DSA, which were useful for understanding the complicated CBF pattern and for the choice of recipient artery in bypass surgery.

  2. Microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery

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    Pai S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery (MCA is of particular interest to the cerebrovascular surgeon. The purpose of this study was to define the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA and its various branches in the Indian population. Methods: Ten MCAs were studied from five cadaveric brain specimens. The authors studied the outer diameter, length, branches, perforators and site of these on the main trunk (M1, the division of the main trunk, the secondary trunks and their various cortical branches using the operating microscope under 5-20x magnification. Results: The outer diameter of the MCA main trunk ranges from 2.5 to 4 mm with a mean of 3.35 mm. The superolateral branches consisted of polar temporal artery and anterior temporal artery that had a common origin and sometimes the uncal artery or the accessory uncal artery. Perforators or lenticulostriate arteries were seen in the inferomedial surface all along the length of M1. Eight bifurcations and two trifurcations were noted. Cortical branches and their origin are discussed. Conclusion: Although the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA in Indian population correlated with the findings in the western literature, some structural and statistical variations were noted.

  3. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

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    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T;

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  4. Recirculation usually precedes malignant edema in middle cerebral artery infarcts

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    Nielsen, T H; Ståhl, N; Schalén, W;

    2012-01-01

    In patients with large middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts, maximum brain swelling leading to cerebral herniation and death usually occurs 2-5 days after onset of stroke. The study aimed at exploring the pattern of compounds related to cerebral energy metabolism in infarcted brain tissue....

  5. Middle cerebral artery variations detected by magnetic resonance angiography

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    Uchino, A.; Kato, A.; Takase, Y.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Saga (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-04-01

    Middle cerebral artery (MCA) variations are found incidentally on cranial magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Our goal was to examine the incidence and types of MCA variations detected by MRA. Between April 1996 and March 1999, cranial MRA was performed in 432 cases at our institution. Most of the patients examined had or were suspected to have cerebrovascular disease. After excluding 7 patients with moyamoya disease, we retrospectively reviewed 425 MRA results. A 1.5-T scanner was used in all studies, and maximum-intensity projection images obtained using the three-dimensional time-of-flight technique were displayed stereoscopically. In the 425 patients MRA revealed 16 anomalous MCAs, including 9 duplicated MCAs, 5 accessory MCAs, and 2 fenestrated MCAs, which is a rate of 3.8%. Thus, although the clinical significance is not great, we found a relatively high incidence of anomalous MCAs on MRA. We stress that knowledge and recognition of these variations are useful and important during the interpretation of cranial MRA. (orig.)

  6. Multiple cerebral aneurysms of middle cerebral artery. Case report

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    D.A. Nica1, Tatiana Rosca1, A. Dinca2, M. Stroi3, Mirela Renta4, A.V. Ciurea5

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cerebral aneurysms present awide variation in incidence with averages of13% at angiographic studies and 22.7% atautopsy.High blood pressue, cigarette smoking,stress and possible also age and female sexseem to be risk factors for multipleintracranial aneurysms (MIAn in patientsof working age who have suffered asubarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH.Aneurysms were situated on the same sidein one-third of the patients with twoaneurysms and the most common site wasthe middle cerebral artery (MCA. Tomanage these challenging lesionsneurosurgeons must use all availableinnovations and advances, includingdiagnostic, technical and perioperativeadjuncts. The author presents a case ofmiddle age female, with two saccularaneurysms situated on the same side (rightMCA, who was operated in our clinic, 20days after first SAH episode, I grade onHunt/Hess scale. The angio MRI wasperformed before, and control DSangiography after operation. After pterionalapproach, the author used themagnification, microsurgical technics,temporal clip, and two permanent Yasargilcurved clips. A postoperative good recoveryenable the patient go to work and drive onemonth later.

  7. Mechanical and vasomotor properties of piglet isolated middle cerebral artery

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    Eriksen, Vibeke Ramsgaard; Abdolalizadeh, Bahareh; Trautner, Simon;

    2016-01-01

    Piglets are often used as experimental models for studying cerebrovascular responses in newborn infants. However, the mechanical characteristics of piglets’ middle cerebral arteries (MCA) are not well characterized. Additionally, the vessels’ response to dopamine, the most commonly used vasopress...

  8. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during rowing

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    Secher, Niels Henry; Pott, F; Knudsen, L.;

    1997-01-01

    original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler......original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler...

  9. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and plasma catecholamines during exercise

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    Pott, F; Jensen, K; Hansen, H;

    1996-01-01

    During dynamic exercise, mean blood velocity (Vmean) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) demonstrates a graded increase to work rate and reflects regional cerebral blood flow. At a high work rate, however, vasoactive levels of plasma catecholamines could mediate vasoconstriction of the MCA...

  10. Anatomical variations of the lateral nasal wall: The secondary and accessory middle turbinates.

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    El-Shazly, A E; Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Cabay, J; Lefebvre, P P

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the current anatomical and clinical study was to audit our cases of patients who presented with secondary and/or accessory middle turbinates during a two-year period. We investigated the incidence and the clinical impact of these variations. Twenty-eight patients, 19 males and 9 females with a mean age of 41.5 years, representing different ethnic origins, were diagnosed with double middle turbinates based on endoscopic examination. Of those, 92.8% had a main symptom of refractory frontal headache. A secondary nasal symptom was sensation of blocked nose. Patients who underwent endoscopic surgery (n = 13) for reduction of the extra turbinate, reported significant symptom scores improvement (P < 0.0001) of frontal headache and blocked nose, from means of 9.07 ± 0.26 and 8.57 ± 1.39 to 1 ± 0.31, and 1.42 ± 0.35, respectively. Our results indicate that double middle turbinates may be encountered in rhinology practice (2%). Clinically they may present with refractory headache and blocked nose. Endoscopic surgical approach seems to be an effective way of improving the symptoms.

  11. Effect of labetalol on cerebral blood flow and middle cerebral arterial flow velocity in healthy volunteers

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    Schroeder, T; Schierbeck, Jens; Howardy, P;

    1991-01-01

    in normotensive subjects. Neither does it affect CO2 reactivity. The uniform results obtained with the two methods suggest TCD as a usable alternative to conventional CBF technique in the assessment of cerebral vasoactivity of various drugs in subjects with a normal cerebral circulation.......The effect of labetalol, a combined alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, on the cerebral circulation was investigated in 7 normotensive subjects. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with the intravenous 133Xe method and mean flow velocity (Vmean) in the middle cerebral artery was determined...

  12. Migraine pain associated with middle cerebral artery dilatation

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    Friberg, L; Olesen, J; Iversen, H K

    1991-01-01

    The combination of measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood velocity in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) by transcranial doppler sonography was used to investigate cerebrovascular involvement in migraine. Ten migraine patients with unilateral headache were studied during...... dilatation on the headache side. Sumatriptan predominantly had effects on the distended artery, which suggests that the 5-HT receptor system has a role in the pathogenesis of migraine....

  13. Middle cerebral artery stenosis associated with moyamoya pattern collateralization

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    Randall Edgell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Moyamoya disease is a well described phenomenon presenting with terminal internal carotid artery occlusion and rete pattern of collateralization around the occlusion. The development of moyamoya-like collaterals secondary to isolated middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion and the natural history of this entity in Caucasians have not been well described. Methods: Cerebral angiograms and CT angiograms performed between August 2004 and August of 2006 demonstrating moyamoya collateralization at a single US center were retrospectively reviewed. All cases of middle cerebral artery stenosis associated with a rete pattern of collateralization were included in this series. Demographic, clinical, and angiographic data were obtained. Results: There were 3 cases of middle cerebral artery stenosis associated with a moyamoya pattern of collateralization. The average age of the patients was 36 years old, 2 were male, and all were Caucasian. All patients presented with ischemic symptoms. The average degree of stenosis was 91%. No stenosis was seen in the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries or elsewhere in the intracranial vasculature. Conclusion: We describe a moyamoya-like pattern of anastomosis associated with isolated severe middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion in Caucasians.

  14. Pericallosal lipoma and middle cerebral artery aneurysm: a coincidence?

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    Sommet, Julie; Schiff, Manuel; Evrard, Philippe [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Department of Paediatric Neurology and Metabolic Diseases, Paris Cedex 19 (France); Blanc, Raphael [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Elmaleh-Berges, Monique [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Paris (France)

    2010-08-15

    Intracranial lipomas are rare congenital malformations that can often be seen in association with other brain malformations; agenesis or dysgenesis of the corpus callosum is the most frequently associated brain anomaly. They are usually pericallosal asymptomatic midline lesions. Intracranial lipomas associated with a non-contiguous cerebral aneurysm are extremely rare. We report an infant with partial agenesis of the corpus callosum and pericallosal lipoma associated with cerebral haemorrhage due to a distal middle cerebral artery aneurysm. Such an association is probably not fortuitous and could suggest a pathogenic relationship. (orig.)

  15. Schizencephaly with occlusion or absence of middle cerebral artery

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    Fernandez-Bouzas, A.; Harmony, T.; Santiago-Rodriguez, E.; Ricardo-Garcell, J.; Fernandez, T.; Avila-Acosta, D. [Instituto de Neurobiologia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) Campus Juriquilla, Juriquilla, QRO (Mexico)

    2006-03-15

    In a study of 160 infants with prenatal and/or perinatal risk factors for brain damage, we observed three cases of schizencephaly. All cases were unilateral, and the clefts had open lips. In two cases, magnetic resonance angiography showed occlusion or absence of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on the affected side. Two of the patients, including one with absent flow in the MCA of the affected side, had ipsilateral cerebellar atrophy. (orig.)

  16. Multi-modal assessment of neurovascular coupling during cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion using remote middle cerebral artery occlusion

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    Sutherland, Brad A; Fordsmann, Jonas C; Martin, Chris;

    2016-01-01

    how neurovascular coupling is affected hyperacutely during cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion. We have developed a remote middle cerebral artery occlusion model in the rat, which enables multi-modal assessment of neurovascular coupling immediately prior to, during and immediately following reperfusion....... Male Wistar rats were subjected to remote middle cerebral artery occlusion, where a long filament was advanced intraluminally through a guide cannula in the common carotid artery. Transcallosal stimulation evoked increases in blood flow, tissue oxygenation and neuronal activity, which were diminished...... by middle cerebral artery occlusion and partially restored during reperfusion. These evoked responses were not affected by administration of the thrombolytic alteplase at clinically used doses. Evoked cerebral blood flow responses were fully restored at 24 h post-middle cerebral artery occlusion indicating...

  17. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and cerebral blood flow and O2 uptake during dynamic exercise

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    Madsen, P L; Sperling, B K; Warming, T

    1993-01-01

    Results obtained by the 133Xe clearance method with external detectors and by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) suggest that dynamic exercise causes an increase of global average cerebral blood flow (CBF). These data are contradicted by earlier data obtained during less-well-defined conditions....... To investigate this controversy, we applied the Kety-Schmidt technique to measure the global average levels of CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during rest and dynamic exercise. Simultaneously with the determination of CBF and CMRO2, we used TCD to determine mean maximal flow velocity...... in the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean). For values of CBF and MCA Vmean a correction for an observed small drop in arterial PCO2 was carried out. Baseline values for global CBF and CMRO2 were 50.7 and 3.63 ml.100 g-1.min-1, respectively. The same values were found during dynamic exercise, whereas a 22% (P

  18. Gene expression profiling in the human middle cerebral artery after cerebral ischemia

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    Vikman, P; Edvinsson, L

    2006-01-01

    MCA samples distributing to the ischemic area, 7-10 days post-stroke. The gene expression was examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microarray, proteins were studied with immunohistochemistry. We investigated genes previously shown to be upregulated in animal models of cerebral...... with microarray and seven genes chosen for further investigation with real-time PCR; ELK3, LY64, Metallothionin IG, POU3F4, Actin alpha2, RhoA and smoothelin. Six of these were regulated the same way when confirming array expression with real-time PCR. Gene expression studies in the human MCA leading......We have investigated the gene expression in human middle cerebral artery (MCA) after ischemia. Ischemic stroke affects the perfusion in the affected area and experimental cerebral ischemia results in upregulation of vasopressor receptors in the MCA leading to the ischemic area. We obtained human...

  19. Migraine pain associated with middle cerebral artery dilatation

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    Friberg, L; Olesen, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1991-01-01

    The combination of measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood velocity in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) by transcranial doppler sonography was used to investigate cerebrovascular involvement in migraine. Ten migraine patients with unilateral headache were studied during...... returned to normal after treatment with sumatriptan and recovery. Since rCBF in the MCA supply territory was unaffected, the lower velocity can be explained only by dilatation of the MCA. The mean MCA diameter increase was estimated to be 20%. Thus, headache was associated with intracranial large arterial...... dilatation on the headache side. Sumatriptan predominantly had effects on the distended artery, which suggests that the 5-HT receptor system has a role in the pathogenesis of migraine....

  20. MRI evaluation of leptomeningeal anastomosis in middle cerebral artery occlusion

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    Katsumata, Yasushi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-05-01

    In steno-occlusive disease of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), there may be some discrepancy between the MRA and MRI findings, because the collateral flow via leptomeningeal anastomosis (LMA) from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) to the MCA cannot be demonstrated in MRA. There is no simple method to evaluate the LMA non-invasively. We hypothesized that LMA could be identified as signal loss by flow void, so that the more LMA develops, the more the signal loss increases. We studied 18 patients with occlusive or markedly stenotic disease of the MCA, diagnosed by MRA. Although no collateral flow was demonstrated in MRA, several low signal spots suggesting flow void were noted in various degrees on the surface of the middle frontal gyrus, the border zone between the ACA and the MCA. These low signal spots were suspected to be LMA, and this was confirmed by angiography in 3 cases. Compared with the contralateral hemisphere, the spots were graded as ''-1'' (fewer), ''0'' (equal), ''+1'' (more), ''+2'' (markedly more). The number of Grades -1, 0, +1 and +2 was 0, 6, 5 and 7, respectively. MRI revealed infarct in the perforator territory in 16/18 cases. Cortical infarct was seen in 5/6 cases of Grade 0, 1/5 cases of Grade +1, and 0/7 cases of Grade +2. In Grade +1 and +2 cases, the cortex was spared by collateral flow via LMA, presumably. This result suggests that the flow void in the vicinity of the middle frontal gyrus may predict the development of LMA and the size of the infarct. (author)

  1. Symptomatic isolated middle cerebral artery dissection: High resolution MR findings

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    Byon, Jung Hee; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyung Ho; Hwang, Seung Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    To perform high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI) and determine clinical features of patients with acute symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) dissection. Thirteen patients with acute symptomatic MCA dissection underwent HRMRI within 3 days after initial clinical onset. They also underwent routine brain MR imaging. HRMRI examinations included time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA), T2-weighted, T1-weighted, proton-density-weighted, and three-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequences. Conventional angiography and MRA were used as reference standard to establish the diagnosis of MCA dissection. The angiographic findings and HRMRI findings such as intimal flap, double lumen, and intramural hematoma were analyzed in this study. All patients presented cerebral ischemia (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score = 4, range = 0-18). String sign was seen on MRA in seven patients. However, double lumen was seen in all patients on HRMRI by intimal flap. High signal lesion on MPRAGE sequences around the dissection lumen due to intramural hematoma was seen in three patients. HRMRI can be used to easily detect the wall structure of MCA such as the intimal flap and double lumen in patients with acute symptomatic MCA dissection. MPRAGE can detect hemorrhage in false lumen of MCA dissection.

  2. Infra-optic Course of Both Anterior Cerebral Arteries Associated with a Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm and an Aortic Coarctation

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    Ji, Cheol; Ahn, Jae Geun; Cho, Song Mee [Catholic University, St. Paul' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    A ruptured aneurysm at the bifurcation of the left middle cerebral artery with an infra- optic course of the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries was found in a 28-year-old woman. Both abnormal anterior cerebral arteries arose from the ipsilateral internal carotid arteries, at the level of the origin of ophthalmic arteries, passed underneath the ipsilateral optic nerves and turned upward at the ventral portion of the optic chiasm. In addition, an aortic coarctation was found with the use of thoracic aortography. An infra-optic course of the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries is an extremely rare anomaly. An infra-optic course of the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries is frequently associated with cerebral aneurysms and possibly with a coarctation aorta. The clinical features, radiological findings and possible genesis of this anomaly are presented.

  3. MRI of cerebral ischaemia in rats with occlusion of the middle cerebral artery

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    Thuomas, K.AA. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Kotwica, Z. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Bergstroem, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Bolander, H. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Hillered, L. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)]|[Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Y. [Dept. of Neuropathology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Ponten, U. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Persson, L. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1991-11-01

    The development of ischaemic brain oedema caused by middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion was studied by serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in rats. Multiple spin echo sequences were used with TR = 1500 ms and TE = 30-240 ms (8 echos). Substraction images were obtained by subtracting the last three echos from the first echo. Fourteen rats were studied 3, 6, and 12 h and 1, 1.5, 3, 4, 6, and 8 days after MCA occlusion, and 2 of them also 3 and 6 weeks later. Two T2 components could be separated, a fast one representing bound water and a slow one representing free bulk water. MR showed T2 prolongation even on the first examination, and the highest values were observed 24 h after occlusion. The subsequent examinations showed a slow reduction in oedema. MR studies 3 and 6 weeks after occlusion revealed an area of very long T2, which correlated well with infarction shown by histology. The substraction images demonstrated both the infarct location and the oedematous changes in the surrounding uninfarcted tissue. MRI imaging employing T2 components and subtraction images appears to be a valuable method for observing the time course of the development and resolution of oedema in cerebral infarction. (orig.)

  4. Pharmacological and molecular comparison of K(ATP) channels in rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries

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    Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Edvinsson, Lars; Olesen, Jes;

    2006-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels play an important role in the regulation of cerebral vascular tone. In vitro studies using synthetic K(ATP) channel openers suggest that the pharmacological profiles differ between rat basilar arteries and rat middle cerebral arteries. To address this issue...

  5. Pharmacological and molecular comparison of K(ATP) channels in rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Edvinsson, Lars; Olesen, Jes;

    2006-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels play an important role in the regulation of cerebral vascular tone. In vitro studies using synthetic K(ATP) channel openers suggest that the pharmacological profiles differ between rat basilar arteries and rat middle cerebral arteries. To address this issue....... Densitometric measurements of the Western blot signals further showed higher expression levels of Kir6.1 and SUR2B proteins in rat middle cerebral arteries than was found in rat basilar arteries. In conclusion, our in vitro pharmacological studies showed no evidence for functional endothelial K(ATP) channels...

  6. Validation of hyperintense middle cerebral artery sign in acute ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Guo; Yonggui Yang; Weiqun Yang

    2012-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of non-contrast computed tomography (CT) scans, immediately subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cerebral angiography data from 30 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke within 6 hours after symptom onset. Results showed that eleven patients developed subsequent hemorrhagic transformation at follow-up. A hyperintense middle cerebral artery sign on MRI was found in six hemorrhagic patients, all of who had acute thrombosis formation on magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography. No patients in the non-hemorrhagic group had hyperintense middle cerebral artery sign on MRI. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of the hyperintense middle cerebral artery sign on MRI T1-weighted image for subsequent hemorrhagic transformation were 54.5%, 100%, and 100% respectively. Hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign on non-contrast CT was observed in nine patients, five of who developed hemorrhagic transformation. These data suggest that hyperintense middle cerebral artery sign on MRI T1-weighted image is a highly specific and moderately sensitive indicator of subsequent hemorrhagic transformation in patients after acute ischemic stroke, and its specificity is superior to CT.

  7. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

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    Tang Huiling

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis.

  8. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. PMID:20955613

  9. Giant pediatric aneurysm treated with ligation of the middle cerebral artery with the Drake tourniquet and extracranial-intracranial bypass.

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    Lansen, T A; Kasoff, S S; Arguelles, J H

    1989-07-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysms occur infrequently in children, and the incidence of pediatric giant aneurysms is statistically in the same proportion as in adults. The management of these giant aneurysms can be treacherous. This paper presents a case of a 9-year-old boy with a giant aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery that was successfully managed by ligation of the middle cerebral artery using a Drake tourniquet with the patient awake and by augmentation of the middle cerebral artery circulation with superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis without excision of the lesion.

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and middle cerebral artery stenosis in a Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunshu Rong; Yingqi Xing; Xinmei Jiang; Juan Wang; Baoshan Gao; Jianjun Zhao; Kangding Liu

    2013-01-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme gene is a candidate gene of stroke. The present study involved 62 healthy volunteers and 148 patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis as confirmed by brain color ultrasound from a Han population in North China, and determined the peripheral blood angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The results showed that the frequencies of the DD genotype and D allele were increased in patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis, but the difference was not statistically significant compared with healthy controls. The findings of this study on the relationship between stroke genes and middle cerebral artery stenosis indicate no significant correlation between the frequencies of the DD genotype and D allele of angiotensin-converting enzyme and middle cerebral artery stenosis in this Han population from North China. In the future, studies will be carried out to investigate correlations between multiple stroke candidate gene synergy and middle cerebral artery stenosis to provide a foundation for the development of gene therapy.

  11. Computer-assisted 3D reconstruction of the terminal branches of th cerebral arteries. Pt. 2. Middle cerebral artery

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    Gloger, S. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)); Gloger, A. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)); Vogt, H. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany)); Kretschmann, H.J. (Dept. of Neuroanatomy, Hannover Medical School (Germany))

    1994-04-01

    We present a three-dimensional anatomical computer model of the terminal branches of the middle cerebral artery, acquired from equidistant serial anatomical slices of three brains. The reconstructions provide a clear picture from all angles of the complicated course of the terminal branches of the cerebral arteries, which can help to identify them on conventional angiography and magnetic resonance angiography. The arteries can also be matched with CT, MR or PET images to indicate the areas of extension of individual branches, allowing neuromorphological and functional correlations. (orig.)

  12. Ruptured Dissecting Aneurysm of the Middle Cerebral Artery with Spontaneous Resolution: A Case Report

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    Ihn, Yon Kwon; Jung, Won Sang [Dept. of Radiology, St Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Dissecting aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) are known to cause cerebral infarcts in younger people and can also cause subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or intracranial hemorrhage. Bleeding caused by an isolated dissecting aneurysm of the MCA is relatively rare. We report the case of a young woman with SAH that occurred subsequent to a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the MCA which resolved spontaneously as demonstrated by angiography.

  13. Hemicraniectomy in Older Patients with Extensive Middle-Cerebral-Artery Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jüttler, Eric; Unterberg, Andreas; Woitzik, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Early decompressive hemicraniectomy reduces mortality without increasing the risk of very severe disability among patients 60 years of age or younger with complete or subtotal space-occupying middle-cerebral-artery infarction. Its benefit in older patients is uncertain. METHODS. We...

  14. Low maternal middle cerebral artery Doppler resistance indices can predict future development of pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfort, M.; Van Veen, T.; White, G. L.; Kofford, S.; Allred, J.; Postma, I.; Varner, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine if decreased resistance (vasodilatation) in the maternal middle cerebral artery (MCA) in the second trimester can predict third-trimester development of pre-eclampsia. Methods Four-hundred and five low-risk gravidas had MCA transcranial Doppler (TCD) once in the second trimest

  15. Quality of life after surgical decompression for space-occupying middle cerebral artery infarction: systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, T. van; Nederkoorn, P.J.; Worp, H.B. van der; Stam, J.; Richard, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In patients with space-occupying middle cerebral artery infarction, surgical decompression strongly reduces risk of death and increases the chance of a favorable outcome. This comes at the expense of an increase in the risk of survival with (moderately) severe disability. We

  16. Fluid Intake Related to Brain Edema in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmasaroja, Pornpatr A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence of the appropriate amount of fluid intake during the first few days after acute stroke was scarce. Concerns were raised in patients with acute malignant middle cerebral infarction, who tended to have malignant brain edema later. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of fluid intake on the occurrence of malignant brain edema in patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction. Patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction who had National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of at least 15 were included. Baseline characteristics and amount of fluid intake during the first few days were compared in patients with and without malignant brain edema. One hundred ninety-three patients were studied. Mean NIHSS score was 20. Malignant brain edema occurred in 69 patients (36%). Higher amount of fluid intake (>1650 ml or >28 ml/kg/day or >93% of daily maintenance fluid) showed a significant association with malignant brain edema (OR = 13.86, 95% CI 5.11-37.60, p value edema, 39 patients (39/65, 60%) died and only 11% (7/65 patients) had favorable outcome. High amount of fluid intake in the first few days of acute middle cerebral infarction was related to the occurrence of malignant brain edema.

  17. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in presence of low perfusion pressure increases infarct size in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Nedergaard, Majken; Schroeder, T;

    1988-01-01

    A model was set up in order to evaluate the importance of hemispheric perfusion pressure when the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is occluded in anaesthetized rats. In 6 animals the internal carotid artery (ICA) was occluded prior to ipsilateral MCA occlusion; in 17 animals the MCA only was occluded...

  18. Prognostic value of collateral circulation in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅雨晴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of the collateral circulation in patients with acute cerebral infarction after the middle cerbral artery(MCA)occlusion,and to evaluate its prognostic value.Methods Consecutive series of 118 patients with first-ever stroke after MCA occlusions subjects were retrieved from our hospital and Nanjing Stroke Registry Program between April 2010 and

  19. Therapeutic effects of different durations of acupuncture on rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is regarded as an effective therapy for cerebral ischemia. Different acupuncture manipulations and durations may result in different therapeutic effects. In the present study, the Neiguan (PC6 acupoint of rats with occluded middle cerebral arteries was needled at a fixed frequency (3 Hz with different durations, i.e., 5, 60 and 180 seconds under a twisting-rotating acupuncture method. Results showed that different durations of acupuncture had different therapeutic effects, with 60 seconds yielding a better therapeutic effect than the other two groups. This duration of treatment demonstrated rapid cerebral blood flow, encouraging recovery of neurological function, and small cerebral infarct volume. Experimental findings indicated that under 3 Hz frequency, the treatment of needling Neiguan for 60 seconds is effective for ischemic stroke

  20. ACCESSORY SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleen is a small nodule of splenic tissue found apart from main body of spleen. Other name for accessory spleen is supernumerary spleen, splenule or splenunculus. It is usually congenital failure of fusion of splenunculus found close to hilum of spleen, greater omentum, tail of pancreas. Accessory spleen is found approximately in 10% population. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study 100 cadaveric spleens obtained from routine dissection, specimens present in Department of Anatomy, Andhra Medical College, Vishakhapatnam in 3 years span, out of which 25 are foetal spleens, 75 are adult spleens. RESULTS We got 4 accessory spleens in adult and 1 in foetal spleen. CONCLUSION The knowledge of accessory spleen is medically significant. That they may result in interpretation errors in diagnostic imaging and symptoms may be continued after splenectomy.

  1. Determination of Doppler Middle Cerebral Artery Waveform Indices in Normal 20 – 40 Weeks Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vahdinia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The aim of prenatal evaluation is to prevent fetal death. One of the main methods of evaluation of fetus health before delivery is Doppler flow velocity waveform analysis of fetus vessels. Increasing of resistance in fetal circulatory system causes the preferential shunt of blood flow from non-critical organs toward critical organs such as brain. The increase in brain blood flow leads to reduction of brain vessels resistance and results in changes of fetal cerebral arteries Doppler flow velocity indices. Evaluation of Doppler wave of middle cerebral artery can predict most of the at risk fetuses in high-risk pregnancies."nIn this study we tried to obtain normal value (and their changes across the progress of pregnancy of Doppler flow velocity indices (PI, RI, S/D ratio and PSV of middle cerebral artery in 20 - 40 weeks normal pregnancies in an Iranian population and evaluate the effect of fetus heart rate according to the above mentioned indices."nPatients and Methods: In this cross section study, 400 pregnant women with normal pregnancies and gestational age between 20 to 40 weeks were studied about middle cerebral artery Doppler examination. Mothers with preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, abnormal uterine bleeding, induction ovulation, multifetal pregnancy, major fetal anomalies, history of LD or any other OCP usage and intra uterine growth retardation were excluded from the study. All cases were evaluated by gray scale ultrasonography initially and then a Doppler study of middle cerebral artery was done."nResults: According to the results of this study, with progression of pregnancy PI, RI, S/D ratio values decrease and PSV value increases in middle cerebral artery. These changes were statistically significant and were more characteristic during late weeks of pregnancy. In addition, mean fetal heart rate had been significantly reduced with pregnancy progression."nConclusion: Values of RI, PI, S/D ratio and

  2. The effect of simulated microgravity on nitrergic innervation of the middle cerebral artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadyukova, O. E.; Tarasova, O. S.; Tsvirkoun, D. V.; Buravkov, S. V.; Vinogradova, O. L.

    2005-08-01

    The present study was designed to examine the density of nitrergic perivascular nerves in rat cerebral vessels after 2-week tail suspension. Preparations of middle cerebral artery (MCA) were histochemically stained for NADPH- diaphorase. A significant decrease of density of nerves exhibiting NADPH-diaphorase activity was revealed in proximal part of MCA in post-suspension rats: 28±4 vs 49±5 points per 1002 μm2 in control. Therefore, vascular alterations under conditions of microgravity may include the decreased influence of dilatory nitrergic nerves.

  3. Establishment of a rhesus monkey model of middle cerebral artery ischemia and reperfusion using a microcatheter embolization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yang; Xiaoqi Huang; Hongxia Li; Li Wang; Jingqiu Cheng; Jian Guo; Hongbo Zheng; Muke Zhou; Li He; Wenying Cao; Li Xiao; Jiachuan Duan; Qiyong Gong

    2010-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are closest to humans in terms of lineage,and middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion responses of nonhuman primates are most similar to ischemic stroke in humans.Therefore,nonhuman primates could be utilized to simulate the process of ischemic stroke in the human.Few studies,however,have reported the use of endovascular technology to establish a rhesus monkey stroke model.In the present study,seven adult,male,rhesus monkeys were selected and,following anesthesia,a microcatheter was inserted into one side of the middle cerebral artery via the femoral artery to block blood flow,thereby resulting in middle cerebral artery occlusion.After 2 hours,the microcatheter was withdrawn to restore the middle cerebral artery blood flow and to establish ischemia/reperfusion.Results from angiography and magnetic resonance angiography confirmed occlusion and reopening of the middle cerebral artery.Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the existence of ischemic brain lesions,and neurological examination showed sustained functional deficits following surgery.The rhesus monkey middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion models established by microcatheter embolization had the advantage of non—craniotomy invasion and reproducibility.The scope and degree of ischemic damage using this model was controllable.Therefore,this nonhuman primate model is an ideal model for cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.

  4. Hippophae salicifolia D.Don berries attenuate cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santhrani Thakur; Pradeepthi Chilikuri; Bindu Pulugurtha; Lavanya Yaidikar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Hippophae salicifolia D.Don (H. salicifolia) berries extract against cerebral reperfusion injury induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Methods: Rats were pretreated with alcoholic extract of H. salicifolia (250 and 500 mg/kg) for 14 d and focal cerebral ischemia was induced by MCAO. After 60 min of MCAO, reperfused for 24 h, a battery of behavioral tests were assessed the extent of neurological deficits. Infarct volume and brain edema were measured in 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride stained brain sections. TNF-α, oxidative stress parameters like reduced glutathione, calcium, glutamate, malondialdehyde and apoptotic parameters like caspase-3, and caspase-9 were estimated in the brain homogenates. Results:Pretreatment with alcoholic extract of H. salicifolia at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly improved the neurobehavioral alterations and reduced the infarct volume, edema induced by ischemia reperfusion injury. H. salicifolia significantly prevented ischemia induced increase in malondialdehyde, glutamate, calcium, caspase-3, caspase-9 and TNF-αlevels as compared to ischemic animals. Conclusions: Our results indicate that H. salicifolia mitigated the ischemia reperfusion induced neuronal damage.

  5. A STUDY OF INSULAR SEGMENT OF MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY IN NORTHERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Das

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The microsurgical anatomy of middle cerebral artery is of particular interest to the cerebrovascular surgeons as it supplies most of the superolateral surface of cerebral hemispheres and is the most commonly involved artery in stroke. The insular segment (M2 segment begins at the limen insulae and runs on the surface of the insula in the sylvian insular cistern with a superoposterior direction. The M2 segment consists of two or three branches that arise from the bifurcation or trifurcation of the M1. After reaching the top of the insula, these branches turn inferolaterally and exit from the sylvian insular cistern forming the M3 segment. OBJECTIVE Certain clinical conditions like aneurysms and glioma of the M2 segment aneurysms demands special attention due to vascular complexity of the insular area and peculiar clinical characteristics. The present study was carried out for a better understanding and to define further the microsurgical anatomy of the insular segment of middle cerebral artery hoping to find immediate application of our findings in the field of microsurgical cerebral revascularisation and better interpretation of radiological angiographic investigations performed in cases of young cerebral haemorrhages. The present study also elaborates the directly observed dissection findings rather than the other studies, which are mostly based on radiological findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total 20 Middle Cerebral Arteries (MCA were studied obtained from 10 brains. Meticulous dissection was done and middle cerebral artery and its branches were exposed and cleaned in lateral sulcus on the inferior surface of brain. Digital photographs were taken. The number of samples was based on the availability of cadavers in the mentioned institute during the time of study. RESULT In all 20 MCAs, bifurcation was noted. In 15 out of 20 specimens, more than one major cortical branch was given by M1 segment before its division into secondary trunks at insula

  6. Stent-assisted mechanical recanalization for symptomatic subacute or chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong; Ma, Ji; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhu, Ming; Han, Xin-Wei; Shui, Shao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and short-term effects of treating patients with subacute or chronic middle cerebral artery (M1) occlusion by stent-assisted mechanical recanalization. Six patients with cerebral arteries occlusion underwent surgery. Six cerebral arteries occlusion in 5 patients were successfully recanalized. On postoperative day 1, four patients’ symptoms were relieved and two patients’ symptoms were exacerbated, of which one was significantly improved after 3 days, the other one’s symptoms were recovered to preoperative levels in 2 weeks. No patients died after surgery. No stroke or transient ischemic attack occurred. The average follow-up of was 4.2 months, no worsening of condition, recurrence or death occurred. The results indicate that for patients with subacute or chronic middle cerebral artery (M1) occlusion, mechanical recanalization was technically feasible under the premise of strict case screening. Mechanical recanalization is able to improve ischemic symptoms and promote dysfunction restoration. But its long-term effect remains to be evaluated by further large samples, long-term follow-up studies. PMID:26885148

  7. Treatment of a pediatric recurrent fusiform middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm with a flow diverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anthony M; Zipfel, Gregory; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2012-11-15

    Pediatric patients with aneurysm often have different localizations and morphologies from adults and recurrences are not uncommon after successful clip reconstruction/obliteration. Treatment of a recurrent pediatric aneurysm after clip ligation is a technical challenge. We present the case of an adolescent with a middle cerebral artery (MCA) fusiform aneurysm which recurred following clip reconstruction and bypass. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular flow diversion.

  8. Treatment of a pediatric recurrent fusiform middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm with a flow diverter

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, Anthony M.; Zipfel, Gregory; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric patients with aneurysm often have different localizations and morphologies from adults and recurrences are not uncommon after successful clip reconstruction/obliteration. Treatment of a recurrent pediatric aneurysm after clip ligation is a technical challenge. We present the case of an adolescent with a middle cerebral artery (MCA) fusiform aneurysm which recurred following clip reconstruction and bypass. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular flow diversion.

  9. Endovascular rescue from arterial rupture and thrombosis during middle cerebral artery stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J.Y.; Chung, Y.S. [Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Pundang CHA Hospital, 351 Yatap-ding, Pundang-gu, 463-712, Sungnam (Korea); Lee, B.H. [Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, College of Medicine, Pundang CHA Hospital, 351 Yatap-dong, Pundang-gu, 463-712, Sungnam (Korea); Kim, O.J. [Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Pundang CHA Hospital, 351 Yatap-dong, Pundang-gu, 463-712, Sungnam (Korea)

    2003-08-01

    Intravascular stents are being used with increasing frequency in interventional neuroradiology. Iatrogenic arterial rupture is an uncommon but serious complication. We present a case of arterial rupture and subarachnoid haemorrhage during middle cerebral artery stenting, treated by emergency additional, overlapping stenting and balloon tamponade of the dissected vessel. Thrombotic occlusion of the artery was managed by intra-arterial abciximab. Normal vessel patency was re-established within 20 min and the patient recovered with no neurological deficit. (orig.)

  10. Treatment of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms: a review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wuyang Yang; Judy Huang

    2015-01-01

    Microsurgical treatment is well established as the preferred strategy for definitive obliteration of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms.However, increasing reports on the feasibility and efficacy of endovascular treatment of MCA aneurysms in large case series suggest coiling as a viable alternative to microsurgery.This review provides a critical overview of the current literature regarding MCA aneurysm treatment, with the objective to clarify the available evidence of efficacy with microsurgical compared to endovascular treatment.

  11. Treatment of a pediatric recurrent fusiform middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm with a flow diverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anthony M; Zipfel, Gregory; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    Pediatric patients with aneurysm often have different localizations and morphologies from adults and recurrences are not uncommon after successful clip reconstruction/obliteration. Treatment of a recurrent pediatric aneurysm after clip ligation is a technical challenge. We present the case of an adolescent with a middle cerebral artery (MCA) fusiform aneurysm which recurred following clip reconstruction and bypass. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular flow diversion.

  12. Motor outcomes of patients with a complete middle cerebral artery territory infarct*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Ho Jang; Min Cheol Chang

    2013-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of motor outcomes enables to establish proper goals and rehabilitation strate-gies for stroke patients. Several previous studies have reported functional or motor outcomes in patients with a middle cerebral artery territory infarct. However, little is known about motor outcome in patients with a complete middle cerebral artery territory infarct. In this study, we investigated the motor outcomes in 23 patients with a complete middle cerebral artery territory infarct. Al of these patients received comprehensive rehabilitative management, including movement therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the affected finger extensors and ankle dorsiflexors, for more than 3 months. Motor outcomes were measured at 6 months after stroke onset using the Medical Research Council, Motricity Index, the modified Brunnstrom Classification, and Functional Ambula-tion Category scores. The motor function of the lower extremities was found to be better than that of the upper extremities. After receiving rehabilitation treatments for 3-6 months, about 70%of these patients were able to walk independently (Functional Ambulation Category scores>3), but no pa-tient achieved functional hand recovery.

  13. Effects of GSM 900 MHz on middle cerebral artery blood flow assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Rania; Thuróczy, György; Loos, Nathalie; Brenet-Dufour, Valérie; Liabeuf, Sophie; de Seze, René; Selmaoui, Brahim

    2012-12-01

    Mobile phone use has increased worldwide but its possible effects on the brain remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute exposure to a radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) generated by a mobile phone operating in the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) 900 MHz on cerebral blood flow. Twenty-nine volunteers attended two experimental sessions: a sham exposure session and a real exposure session in a cross-over double-blind study in which a mobile phone was positioned on the left side of the head. In one session, the mobile phone was operated without RF radiation (sham phone) and in the other study it was operated with RF radiation (real phone) for 20 min. Thus, each subject served as its own control. Middle cerebral artery blood flow was monitored noninvasively by transcranial Doppler sonography to measure middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity. Pulsatility index and resistance index were also evaluated. A voluntary breath holding physiological test was carried out as a positive control for testing cerebral vasoreactivity. Hemodynamic variables were recorded and analyzed before, during and after mobile phone exposure. No significant changes were detected in studied variables in middle cerebral arteries during sham or real exposure. In the exposed side the cerebral blood flow velocity, the pulsatility index and the resistance index during sham and real exposure were respectively: [61.9 ± 1.3, 61.7 ± 1.3 cm/s (P = 0.89)]; [0.93 ± 0.03, 0.90 ± 0.02 (P = 0.84)] and [0.58 ± 0.01, 0.58 ± 0.01 (P = 0.96)] at baseline; and [60.6 ± 1.3, 62 ± 1.6 cm/s (P = 0.40)]; [0.91 ± 0.03, 0.87 ± 0.03 (P = 0.97)]; [0.57 ± 0.01, 0.56 ± 0.01 (P = 0.82)] after 20 min of exposure. Twenty minutes of RF exposure to a mobile phone does not seem to affect the cerebral circulation.

  14. Protective Effects of Overexpression of bcl-xl Gene on Local Cerebral Infarction in Transgenic Mice Undergoing Permanent Occlusion of Middle Cerebral Artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Furong WANG; Yongsheng JIANG; Suming ZHANG; Wenwu XIAO; Suiqiang ZHU

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the protective effects of the overexpression of bcl-xl gene on local cerebral infarction in the transgenic mice subject to permanent occlusion of middle cerebral artery, the models of bcl-xl transgenic mice were established and subjected to cerebral infarction by intralu- minal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. The infarct volume and the neurological scores were observed and comparison between the wild type mice and the transgenic mice was made. It was found that the infarct volume and the neurological scores in the transgenic mice were significantly decreased as compared with those in the wild type mice. It was suggested that the overexpression of bcl-xl gene in transgenic mice could reduce the infarct volume and improve the neurological function of the mice.

  15. Interrelationship of middle cranial fossa parameters and dimensional characteristics of human cerebral cranium in various craniotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurchak U.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study the interrelation between the linear dimensions of the middle cranial fossa, and linear and angular parameters of the human cerebral cranium depending on the basilar angle. Materials and methods: The research work has included 100 skulls of adults divided into three craniotypes. The craniotopometric method has taken into account parameters with further calculation of average values. correlation model has been formed. Results: The study of correlation characteristics of middle cranial fossa linear dimensions with cerebral cranium linear and angular parameters has shown different interrelation of craniotypes according to the strength and direction. Conclusion: It has been found out that a definite degree of interrelation has been observed in platibasilar craniotypes. Direct interrelation of middle cranial fossa length, length and width of sella turcica fracture has been observed in flexibasilar craniotypes. The interrelation of parameters studied in mediobasilar craniotypes has been determined in a lesser degree. Other dimension middle cranial fossa and sella turcica fracture are subjected to greater variability

  16. Instability of the middle cerebral artery blood flow in response to CO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary E Regan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The middle cerebral artery supplies long end-artery branches to perfuse the deep white matter and shorter peripheral branches to perfuse cortical and subcortical tissues. A generalized vasodilatory stimulus such as carbon dioxide not only results in an increase in flow to these various tissue beds but also redistribution among them. We employed a fast step increase in carbon dioxide to detect the dynamics of the cerebral blood flow response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was approved by the Research Ethics Board of the University Health Network at the University of Toronto. We used transcranial ultrasound to measure the time course of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in 28 healthy adults. Normoxic, isoxic step increases in arterial carbon dioxide tension of 10 mmHg from both hypocapnic and normocapnic baselines were produced using a new prospective targeting system that enabled a more rapid step change than has been previously achievable. In most of the 28 subjects the responses at both carbon dioxide ranges were characterised by more complex responses than a single exponential rise. Most responses were characterised by a fast initial response which then declined rapidly to a nadir, followed by a slower secondary response, with some showing oscillations before stabilising. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A rapid step increase in carbon dioxide tension is capable of inducing instability in the cerebral blood flow control system. These dynamic aspects of the cerebral blood flow responses to rapid changes in carbon dioxide must be taken into account when using transcranial blood flow velocity in a single artery segment to measure cerebrovascular reactivity.

  17. A rare association of cerebral dural arteriovenous fistula with venous aneurysm and contralateral flow-related middle cerebral artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Harle, Robin A

    2013-09-19

    The association of cerebral dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) and ipsilateral flow related aneurysm has infrequently been reported. We describe a male patient who presented with an acute haemorrhagic stroke and was found to have a large right fronto-parietal intra-parenchymal haemorrhage from the ruptured Borden type II DAVF in addition to a large venous aneurysm and a flow related intraosseous aneurysm of the contralateral middle meningeal artery (MMA) all clearly delineated by CT and DSA. He underwent emergency stereotactic evacuation of the intraparenchymal haemorrhage and successful surgical treatment of all the vascular lesions at the same time with residual neurological deficit. To our knowledge, this is the first such reported case. We discuss the challenging surgical treatment, emphasising the role of CT/DSA in management, and provide a literature review.

  18. In vivo MRI assessment of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by electrocoagulation: pitfalls of procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauveau Fabien

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion (pMCAO by electrocoagulation is a commonly used model but with potential traumatic lesions. Early MRI monitoring may assess pMCAO for non-specific brain damage. The surgical steps of pMCAO were evaluated for traumatic cerebral injury in 22 Swiss mice using diffusion and T2-weighted MRI (7T performed within 1 h and 24 h after surgery. Temporal muscle cauterization without MCA occlusion produced an early T2 hyperintensity mimicking an infarct. No lesion was visible after temporal muscle incision or craniotomy. Early MRI monitoring is useful to identify non-specific brain injury that could hamper neuroprotective drugs assessment.

  19. A Microarray Study of Middle Cerebral Occlusion Rat Brain with Acupuncture Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarray analysis was used to investigate the changes of gene expression of ischemic stroke and acupuncture intervention in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo rat brain. Results showed that acupuncture intervention had a remarkable improvement in neural deficit score, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral infarction volume of MCAo rats. Microarray analysis showed that a total of 627 different expression genes were regulated in ischemic stroke. 417 genes were upregulated and 210 genes were downregulated. A total of 361 different expression genes were regulated after acupuncture intervention. Three genes were upregulated and 358 genes were downregulated. The expression of novel genes after acupuncture intervention, including Tph1 and Olr883, was further analyzed by Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. Upregulation of Tph1 and downregulation of Olr883 indicated that the therapeutic effect of acupuncture for ischemic stroke may be closely related to the suppression of poststroke depression and regulation of olfactory transduction. In conclusion, the present study may enrich our understanding of the multiple pathological process of ischemic brain injury and indicate possible mechanisms of acupuncture on ischemic stroke.

  20. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome: case report of fetal unilateral ventriculomegaly and hypoplastic left middle cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Ettore; Piccione, Maria; Marrone, Gianluca; Giuffrè, Mario; Corsello, Giovanni

    2013-05-14

    Prenatal ultrasonographic detection of unilateral cerebral ventriculomegaly arises suspicion of pathological condition related to cerebrospinal fluid flow obstruction or cerebral parenchimal pathology. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a rare condition characterized by cerebral hemiatrophy, calvarial thickening, skull and facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiparesis, cognitive impairment and seizures. Congenital and acquired types are recognized and have been described, mainly in late childhood, adolescence and adult ages. We describe a female infant with prenatal diagnosis of unilateral left ventriculomegaly in which early brain MRI and contrast enhanced-MRI angiography, showed cerebral left hemiatrophy associated with reduced caliber of the left middle cerebral artery revealing the characteristic findings of the Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome. Prenatal imaging, cerebral vascular anomaly responsible for the cerebral hemiatrophy and the early clinical evolution have never been described before in such a young child and complete the acquired clinical descriptions in older children. Differential diagnosis, genetic investigations, neurophysiologic assessments, short term clinical and developmental follow up are described. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome must be ruled out in differential diagnosis of fetal unilateral ventriculomegaly. Early clinical assessment, differential diagnosis and cerebral imaging including cerebral MRI angiography allow the clinicians to diagnose also in early infancy this rare condition.

  1. Nylon filament coated with paraffin for intraluminal permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xia-Lin; Wu, Ping; Ji, Ai-Min

    2012-06-21

    A variety of intraluminal nylon filament has been used in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models. However the lesion extent and its reproducibility vary among laboratories. The properties of nylon filament play a part of reasons for these variations. In the present study, we used paraffin-coated nylon filament for rat MCAO model, tested the effects and advanced improvement for making the rat MCAO. Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into two groups, MCAO with traditional uncoated nylon filament (uMCAO) and MCAO with paraffin-coated nylon filament (cMCAO), three rats as normal group and sham group respectively. Assessment included mortality rates, model success rates, neurological deficit evaluation, and infarct volume. The study showed two rats died in uMCAO group, no rat died in cMCAO group within the 12h. The model success rate of uMCAO was 100%, while the uMCAO group was 55% (n=20, two died within 12h, seven rats were excluded as the brain slices showed no TTC staining due to subarachanoid hemorrhage). Neurological evaluation demonstrated group cMCAO had more worse neurological outcomes than group uMCAO, and the difference was statistically signification (pnylon filament intraluminal occlusion provide better occlusion of middle cerebral artery than the uncoated nylon filament, improve the consistent of model, and raise the success rate to reduce the number of experimental animals. These positive results are much encouraging and interesting.

  2. Medial reorganization of motor function in corona radiata following middle cerebral artery infarction A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Ho Jang

    2009-01-01

    Peri-lesional reorganization is one of the motor recovery mechanisms following stroke. A 23-year-old female who presented with complete paralysis of the right extremities at the onset of infarct in the left middle cerebral artery territory was included. She slowly recovered some function, and could extend the affected knee with resistance after 9 months. Diffusion tensor tractography, functional MRI, and transcranial magnetic stimulation testing were performed at 7 years after onset. Results showed that diffusion tensor tractography of the affected (left) hemisphere passed through the medial corona radiata at, or around, the wall of the lateral ventricle. The contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was activated during affected knee movements. The motor-evoked potential, which was obtained from the affected leg, exhibited corticospinal tract characteristics. Results indicated that motor function of the affected leg recovered via the corticospinal tract, which descended through the corona radiata medial to the infarct. The motor function of the affected leg was reorganized to the medial corona radiata following infarct to the middle cerebral artery territory.

  3. A case of catatonia status-post left middle cerebral artery cerebrovascular accident, treated successfully with olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David R; Klaiber, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Catatonia is a psychomotor phenomenon associated with psychiatric/medical conditions. We present a patient who developed catatonia status-post left middle cerebral artery infarct. With a Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale score of 43 on admission, treatment with olanzapine reduced this score to 2, by discharge.

  4. Study of Doppler indices of umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery in pregnancies at and beyond forty weeks of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Ghosh

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Vascular resistance in the umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery does not change abruptly when gestation exceeds 280 days. It also cannot be taken as the sole method of fetal surveillance when date is crossed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(12.000: 4174-4179

  5. Longitudinal robustness of variables predicting independent gait following severe middle cerebral artery stroke: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollen, B.; Kwakkel, G.; Lindeman, E.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine within the first 10 weeks post onset the most robust variables in the prediction of recovery of independent gait at six months post stroke. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: One hundred and one first ever ischaemic middle cerebral artery stroke patients. None of t

  6. Atypical unilateral posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome mimicking a middle cerebral artery infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camidag, Ilkay [Dept. of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkmenistan); Cho, Yang Je; Park, Mina; Lee, Seung Koo [Yonsei University Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is usually a reversible clinical and radiological entity associated with typical features on brain MR or CT imaging. However, the not-so-uncommon atypical radiological presentations of the condition are also present and they may go unrecognised as they are confused with other conditions. Here, we report a very rare case of atypical, unilateral PRES in a 49-year-old uremic, post-transplant female patient who presented with seizures. Initial MRI showed high-grade occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) and lesions suggestive of subacute infarction in the ipsilateral frontotemporoparietal lobe. Patient symptoms had resolved a day after the onset without any specific treatment but early follow-up CT findings suggested hemorrhagic transformation. Follow-up MRI performed 2 years later showed complete disappearence of the lesions and persisting MCA occlusion.

  7. [A Case of Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis Presented with Limb-Shaking TIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Junji; Mineta, Haruyuki; Ren, Nice; Takagishi, Sou; Nagaoka, Shintarou; Kameda, Katsuharu; Maeda, Kazushi; Ikai, Yoshiaki; Gi, Hidefuku

    2016-07-01

    Involuntary movement is a rare clinical manifestation of transient ischemic attack (TIA). However, limb-shaking TIA is well described presentation of carotid occlusive disease. We present the case of a patient who developed limb-shaking TIA associated with high-grade stenosis of middle cerebral artery (M1), which was treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The procedure was performed successfully without complication and the symptom disappeared immediately after the procedure. The patient remained free of symptoms at the 38-month follow-up. There was no tendency of restenosis of M1. In this case, PTA was technically feasible and beneficial for limb-shaking TIA with M1 stenosis. Limb-shaking TIA can be a symptom of high-grade stenosis of M1.

  8. Malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery in a porcine model. A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valverde, Tamara; Sánchez-Guerrero, Ángela; Campos, Mireia; Esteves, Marielle; Gandara, Dario; Torné, Ramon; Castro, Lidia; Dalmau, Antoni; Tibau, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Interspecies variability and poor clinical translation from rodent studies indicate that large gyrencephalic animal stroke models are urgently needed. We present a proof-of-principle study describing an alternative animal model of malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in the common pig and illustrate some of its potential applications. We report on metabolic patterns, ionic profile, brain partial pressure of oxygen (PtiO2), expression of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1), and the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4). Methods A 5-hour ischemic infarct of the MCA territory was performed in 5 2.5-to-3-month-old female hybrid pigs (Large White x Landrace) using a frontotemporal approach. The core and penumbra areas were intraoperatively monitored to determine the metabolic and ionic profiles. To determine the infarct volume, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to determine SUR1 and TRPM4 expression. Results PtiO2 monitoring showed an abrupt reduction in values close to 0 mmHg after MCA occlusion in the core area. Hourly cerebral microdialysis showed that the infarcted tissue was characterized by reduced concentrations of glucose (0.03 mM) and pyruvate (0.003 mM) and increases in lactate levels (8.87mM), lactate-pyruvate ratio (4202), glycerol levels (588 μM), and potassium concentration (27.9 mmol/L). Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased expression of SUR1-TRPM4 channels. Conclusions The aim of the present proof-of-principle study was to document the feasibility of a large animal model of malignant MCA infarction by performing transcranial occlusion of the MCA in the common pig, as an alternative to lisencephalic animals. This model may be useful for detailed studies of cerebral ischemia mechanisms and the development of neuroprotective strategies. PMID:28235044

  9. Stent-assisted coil embolization of a symptomatic middle cerebral artery aneurysm in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Luis E; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O; Pandey, Aditya S

    2014-11-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are rare and challenging to treat. Achieving efficacy and durability of aneurysmal occlusion while maintaining parent vessel patency requires innovative treatment strategies, especially in cases in which aneurysmal location or morphology pose substantial morbidity associated with microsurgical treatment. In the last 3 decades, endovascular treatments have had a remarkable evolution and are currently considered safe and effective therapeutic options for cerebral aneurysms. While endovascular techniques are well described in the English literature, the endovascular management of pediatric aneurysms continues to pose a challenge. In this report, the authors describe the case of a 9-month-old infant who presented with a 1-day history of acute-onset left-sided hemiparesis and left facial droop. Imaging revealed a large symptomatic saccular middle cerebral artery aneurysm. Treatment included successful stent-assisted aneurysm coiling. At follow-up, the patient continued to fare well and MR angiography confirmed complete occlusion of the aneurysm dome. This case features the youngest patient in the English literature to harbor an intracranial aneurysm successfully treated with stent-assisted coiling. Based on this experience, endovascular intervention with vascular reconstruction can be safe and effective for the treatment of infants and could further improve prognosis; however, further studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

  10. The Effect of Photoluminescence of Bioceramic Irradiation on Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the possible effect of photoluminescence of bioceramic (PLB on ischemic cerebral infarction (stroke, by using an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce MCAO to block the origin of the left MCAO; three months later, the positive chronic stroke rats were selected by running tunnel maze; the MCAO rats with significant chronic stroke and neurological defects were used for treadmill experiments with varying speed settings to test their capability for restoration after muscular fatigue under conditions of with and without PLB irradiation. As a result, PLB irradiation could improve exercise completion rate and average running speed during slow and fast treadmill settings. After PLB irradiation, the selected MCAO rats successfully completed all the second-round treadmill exercises at the maximum speed setting, and they had better restoration from muscular fatigue. An in vitro cell study on astrocytes of rats by bioceramic irradiation further demonstrated increased intracellular nitric oxide. To explain these results, we suggest that cortical brain stimulation of microcirculation and enhancement of peripheral muscular activity are the main causes of the improved exercise performance in MCAO rats by PLB.

  11. Extracerebral Tissue Damage in the Intraluminal Filament Mouse Model of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaas, Markus; Ni, Ruiqing; Rudin, Markus; Kipar, Anja; Klohs, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Middle cerebral artery occlusion is the most common model of focal cerebral ischemia in the mouse. In the surgical procedure, the external carotid artery (ECA) is ligated; however, its effect on the tissue supplied by the vessel has not been described so far. C57BL/6 mice underwent 1 h of transient MCAO (tMCAO) or sham surgery. Multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography was employed at 30 min after surgery to assess oxygenation in the temporal muscles. Microstructural changes were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging and histological examination at 24 h and 48 h after surgery. Ligation of the ECA resulted in decreased oxygenation of the left temporal muscle in most sham-operated and tMCAO animals. Susceptible mice of both groups exhibited increased T2 relaxation times in the affected muscle with histological evidence of myofibre degeneration, interstitial edema, and neutrophil influx. Ligatures had induced an extensive neutrophil-dominated inflammatory response. ECA ligation leads to distinct hypoxic degenerative changes in the tissue of the ECA territory and to ligature-induced inflammatory processes. An impact on outcome needs to be considered in this stroke model. PMID:28348545

  12. Blockage of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 inhibits brain edema in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Pinghui; Tian, Yujing; Hong, Zhiwen; Li, Lin; Zhou, Libin; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is an important pathological process during stroke. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) causes an up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in lung tissue. MMP can digest the endothelial basal lamina to destroy blood brain barrier, leading to vasogenic brain edema. Herein, we tested whether TRPV4-blockage could inhibit brain edema through inhibiting MMPs in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice. We found that the brain water content and Evans blue extravasation at 48 h post-MCAO were reduced by a TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047. The increased MMP-2/9 protein expression in hippocampi of MCAO mice was attenuated by HC-067046, but only the increased MMP-9 activity was blocked by HC-067047. The loss of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin protein in MCAO mice was also attenuated by HC-067047. Moreover, MMP-2/9 protein expression increased in mice treated with a TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A, but only MMP-9 activity was increased by GSK1016790A. Finally, ZO-1 and occludin protein expression was decreased by GSK1016790A, which was reversed by an MMP-9 inhibitor. We conclude that blockage of TRPV4 may inhibit brain edema in cerebral ischemia through inhibiting MMP-9 activation and the loss of tight junction protein.

  13. Correlation of middle latency auditory evoked potentials and cerebral blood flow changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Sugimoto, Akiko; Ohi, Takekazu; Matsukura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Katushi [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan); Hoshi, Hiroaki

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to find the correlation between middle latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) and sound activated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies. This study was performed on six normal right-handed volunteers with a mean age of 35.2{+-}7.6 years, using the split-dose technique. First, a SPECT study was performed on subjects in blinded, awake and silent states. After bilateral ears were stimulated with a click sound, MLAEP and a second SPECT study were performed. Subtraction of the first SPECT from the second SPECT revealed a statistically significant increase of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the bilateral superior temporal region. Bilateral Na amplitudes of MLAEP had a statistically significant and good correlation with the percentages of CBF changes in the bilateral superior temporal region. The superior temporal cerebral blood flow activation can be expressed by electrophysiological activation. Moreover, correlation during the left Na components and left frontal and occipital lobe are discussed. (author)

  14. Evidence for Abnormal Fetal Middle Cerebral Artery Values in Addict Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi Fard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Addiction is a risk factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality, although the pre-cise mechanism is unknown. They may alter oxygen delivery to the fetus. The middle cerebral artery (MCA pulsatility index (PI is a sensitive parameter for detection of blood flow redistribution or centrali-zation. The aim of this study was to determine whether addiction, without smoking, is associated with changes in the PI of the MCA and the umbilical artery (UA."nPatients and Methods: The PI of the MCA and UA were determined prospectively in 212 consecutive addict and pregnant women with singleton pregnan-cies (study group and in 212 matched pregnant women without addiction (control group. The con-trol group was matched for maternal age, gravidity, parity and gestational age at examination. Patients with fetal structural or chromosomal anomalies, dia-betes mellitus, and smokers were excluded. A PI be-low the 5th percentile for the MCA was considered abnormal. "nResults: The rate of abnormal MCA PI was signifi-cantly higher in the study group than control group: 33.3% vs. 6.3%, respectively, (p < 0.0001. "nConclusions: Our observations provide evidence of cerebral blood flow redistribution in fetuses with ad-dicted mothers.

  15. Screen-imaging guidance using a modified portable video macroscope for middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingbao Zhu; Xinghua Pan; Junli Luo; Yun Liu; Guolong Chen; Song Liu; Qiangjin Ruan; Xunding Deng; Dianchun Wang; Quanshui Fan

    2012-01-01

    The use of operating microscopes is limited by the focal length. Surgeons using these instruments cannot simultaneously view and access the surgical field and must choose one or the other. The longer focal length (more than 1 000 mm) of an operating telescope permits a position away from the operating field, above the surgeon and out of the field of view. This gives the telescope an advantage over an operating microscope. We developed a telescopic system using screen-imaging guidance and a modified portable video macroscope constructed from a Computar MLH-10 × macro lens, a DFK-21AU04 USB CCD Camera and a Dell laptop computer as monitor screen. This system was used to establish a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. Results showed that magnification of the modified portable video macroscope was appropriate (5-20 ×) even though the Computar MLH-10 × macro lens was placed 800 mm away from the operating field rather than at the specified working distance of 152.4 mm with a zoom of 1-40 ×. The screen-imaging telescopic technique was clear, life-like, stereoscopic and matched the actual operation. Screen-imaging guidance led to an accurate, smooth, minimally invasive and comparatively easy surgical procedure. Success rate of the model establishment evaluated by neurological function using the modified neurological score system was 74.07%. There was no significant difference in model establishment time, sensorimotor deficit and infarct volume percentage. Our findings indicate that the telescopic lens is effective in the screen surgical operation mode referred to as "long distance observation and short distance operation" and that screen-imaging guidance using an modified portable video macroscope can be utilized for the establishment of a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and micro-neurosurgery.

  16. Screen-imaging guidance using a modified portable video macroscope for middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xingbao; Luo, Junli; Liu, Yun; Chen, Guolong; Liu, Song; Ruan, Qiangjin; Deng, Xunding; Wang, Dianchun; Fan, Quanshui; Pan, Xinghua

    2012-04-25

    The use of operating microscopes is limited by the focal length. Surgeons using these instruments cannot simultaneously view and access the surgical field and must choose one or the other. The longer focal length (more than 1 000 mm) of an operating telescope permits a position away from the operating field, above the surgeon and out of the field of view. This gives the telescope an advantage over an operating microscope. We developed a telescopic system using screen-imaging guidance and a modified portable video macroscope constructed from a Computar MLH-10 × macro lens, a DFK-21AU04 USB CCD Camera and a Dell laptop computer as monitor screen. This system was used to establish a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. Results showed that magnification of the modified portable video macroscope was appropriate (5-20 ×) even though the Computar MLH-10 × macro lens was placed 800 mm away from the operating field rather than at the specified working distance of 152.4 mm with a zoom of 1-40 ×. The screen-imaging telescopic technique was clear, life-like, stereoscopic and matched the actual operation. Screen-imaging guidance led to an accurate, smooth, minimally invasive and comparatively easy surgical procedure. Success rate of the model establishment evaluated by neurological function using the modified neurological score system was 74.07%. There was no significant difference in model establishment time, sensorimotor deficit and infarct volume percentage. Our findings indicate that the telescopic lens is effective in the screen surgical operation mode referred to as "long distance observation and short distance operation" and that screen-imaging guidance using an modified portable video macroscope can be utilized for the establishment of a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and micro-neurosurgery.

  17. Mapping the dynamics of brain perfusion using functional ultrasound in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Clément; Isabel, Clothilde; Martin, Abraham; Dussaux, Clara; Savoye, Anne; Emmrich, Julius; Montaldo, Gabriel; Mas, Jean-Louis; Baron, Jean-Claude; Urban, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Following middle cerebral artery occlusion, tissue outcome ranges from normal to infarcted depending on depth and duration of hypoperfusion as well as occurrence and efficiency of reperfusion. However, the precise time course of these changes in relation to tissue and behavioral outcome remains unsettled. To address these issues, a three-dimensional wide field-of-view and real-time quantitative functional imaging technique able to map perfusion in the rodent brain would be desirable. Here, we applied functional ultrasound imaging, a novel approach to map relative cerebral blood volume without contrast agent, in a rat model of brief proximal transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to assess perfusion in penetrating arterioles and venules acutely and over six days thanks to a thinned-skull preparation. Functional ultrasound imaging efficiently mapped the acute changes in relative cerebral blood volume during occlusion and following reperfusion with high spatial resolution (100 µm), notably documenting marked focal decreases during occlusion, and was able to chart the fine dynamics of tissue reperfusion (rate: one frame/5 s) in the individual rat. No behavioral and only mild post-mortem immunofluorescence changes were observed. Our study suggests functional ultrasound is a particularly well-adapted imaging technique to study cerebral perfusion in acute experimental stroke longitudinally from the hyper-acute up to the chronic stage in the same subject.

  18. Hemodynamic changes in a rat parietal cortex after endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion monitored by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Ma, Yushu; Dou, Shidan; Wang, Yi; La, Dongsheng; Liu, Jianghong; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-07-01

    A blockage of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on the cortical branch will seriously affect the blood supply of the cerebral cortex. Real-time monitoring of MCA hemodynamic parameters is critical for therapy and rehabilitation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging modality that can produce not only structural images but also functional information on the tissue. We use OCT to detect hemodynamic changes after MCA branch occlusion. We injected a selected dose of endothelin-1 (ET-1) at a depth of 1 mm near the MCA and let the blood vessels follow a process first of occlusion and then of slow reperfusion as realistically as possible to simulate local cerebral ischemia. During this period, we used optical microangiography and Doppler OCT to obtain multiple hemodynamic MCA parameters. The change trend of these parameters from before to after ET-1 injection clearly reflects the dynamic regularity of the MCA. These results show the mechanism of the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion process after a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and confirm that OCT can be used to monitor hemodynamic parameters.

  19. Deviation from optimal vascular caliber control at middle cerebral artery bifurcations harboring aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharoglu, Merih I; Lauric, Alexandra; Wu, Chengyuan; Hippelheuser, James; Malek, Adel M

    2014-10-17

    Cerebral aneurysms form preferentially at arterial bifurcations. The vascular optimality principle (VOP) decrees that minimal energy loss across bifurcations requires optimal caliber control between radii of parent (r₀) and daughter branches (r1 and r2): r₀(n)=r₁(n)+r₂(n), with n approximating three. VOP entails constant wall shear stress (WSS), an endothelial phenotype regulator. We sought to determine if caliber control is maintained in aneurysmal intracranial bifurcations. Three-dimensional rotational angiographic volumes of 159 middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcations (62 aneurysmal) were processed using 3D gradient edge-detection filtering, enabling threshold-insensitive radius measurement. Radius ratio (RR)=r₀(3)/(r₁(3)+r₂(3)) and estimated junction exponent (n) were compared between aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal bifurcations using Student t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum analysis. The results show that non-aneurysmal bifurcations display optimal caliber control with mean RR of 1.05 and median n of 2.84. In contrast, aneurysmal bifurcations had significantly lower RR (0.76, pbifurcations revealed a daughter branch larger than its parent vessel, an absolute violation of optimality, not witnessed in non-aneurysmal bifurcations. The aneurysms originated more often off the smaller daughter (52%) vs. larger daughter branch (16%). Aneurysm size was not statistically correlated to RR or n. Aneurysmal males showed higher deviation from VOP. Non-aneurysmal MCA bifurcations contralateral to aneurysmal ones showed optimal caliber control. Aneurysmal bifurcations, in contrast to non-aneurysmal counterparts, disobey the VOP and may exhibit dysregulation in WSS-mediated caliber control. The mechanism of this focal divergence from optimality may underlie aneurysm pathogenesis and requires further study.

  20. Quantitative cerebral perfusion assessment using microscope-integrated analysis of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence angiography versus positron emission tomography in superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intraoperative qualitative indocyanine green (ICG angiography has been used in cerebrovascular surgery. Hyperperfusion may lead to neurological complications after superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA anastomosis. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate intraoperative cerebral perfusion using microscope-integrated dynamic ICG fluorescence analysis, and to assess whether this value predicts hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS after STA-MCA anastomosis. Methods: Ten patients undergoing STA-MCA anastomosis due to unilateral major cerebral artery occlusive disease were included. Ten patients with normal cerebral perfusion served as controls. The ICG transit curve from six regions of interest (ROIs on the cortex, corresponding to ROIs on positron emission tomography (PET study, was recorded. Maximum intensity (I MAX , cerebral blood flow index (CBFi, rise time (RT, and time to peak (TTP were evaluated. Results: RT/TTP, but not I MAX or CBFi, could differentiate between control and study subjects. RT/TTP correlated (|r| = 0.534-0.807; P < 0.01 with mean transit time (MTT/MTT ratio in the ipsilateral to contralateral hemisphere by PET study. Bland-Altman analysis showed a wide limit of agreement between RT and MTT and between TTP and MTT. The ratio of RT before and after bypass procedures was significantly lower in patients with postoperative HPS than in patients without postoperative HPS (0.60 ± 0.032 and 0.80 ± 0.056, respectively; P = 0.017. The ratio of TTP was also significantly lower in patients with postoperative HPS than in patients without postoperative HPS (0.64 ± 0.081 and 0.85 ± 0.095, respectively; P = 0.017. Conclusions: Time-dependent intraoperative parameters from the ICG transit curve provide quantitative information regarding cerebral circulation time with quality and utility comparable to information obtained by PET. These parameters may help predict the occurrence of postoperative

  1. Intraoperative dexmedetomidine and postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome in patients who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis for moyamoya disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyungseok; Ryu, Ho-Geol; Son, Je Do; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Ha, Eun Jin; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Park, Hee-Pyoung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dexmedetomidine, a selective α2-agonist, reduces cerebral blood flow and has neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in experimental animals. We examined whether intraoperative dexmedetomidine would reduce the incidence of postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) after superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis in patients with moyamoya disease. The electronic medical records of 117 moyamoya patients who underwent STA-MCA anastomosis were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 48 patients received intraoperative dexmedetomidine (Group D), while 69 patients did not (Group ND). The incidence (primary outcome), onset, and duration of postoperative CHS were noted. The incidence of postoperative CHS was 45.8% and 40.6% in groups D and ND, respectively (P = 0.708). The duration of postoperative CHS was shorter in group D than in group ND (median [Q1–Q3], 5 [3–7] vs 8 [5–10] days, P = 0.021). There was no significant difference in the onset of CHS between group D and group ND (0 [0–2] vs 1 [0–3] days, P = 0.226). In conclusion, intraoperative dexmedetomidine did not reduce the incidence of postoperative CHS, although it reduced the duration of CHS, in patients who had undergone direct revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease. PMID:28033272

  2. Aneurisma gigante da artéria cerebral média Giant aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jorge Facure

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Relato de um caso de aneurisma gigante da artéria cerebral média esquerda operado com sucesso. O aneurisma que apresentava medidas de 35 x 27 x 23 mm determinou manifestações clínicas de hipertensão intracraniana. A sua exerese total resultou em pronto desaparecimento dos sintomas.A case of giant aneurysm of the left middle cerebral artery, in a 28-year-old right-handed woman, successfuly operated is reported. The aneurysm measur- ing 35 x 27 x 23 mm showed clinical manifestations as a space-occupying lesion. The patient recovered completely after the total excision of the aneurysm.

  3. Effect of Magnesium Sulfate on Doppler Parameters of Fetal Umbilical and Middle Cerebral Arteries in Women with Severe Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Farshchian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of injecting magnesium sulfate on Doppler parameters of fetal umbilical and middle cerebral arteries (MCA in women with severe preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 patients with severe preeclampsia admitted to Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah (Iran, were evaluated. Before and after administration of magnesium sulfate, Doppler ultrasound scan was carried out to measure fetal middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery blood flow. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: After injection of magnesium sulfate, the mean resistivity index (RI-umbilical, and pulsatility index (PI-cerebral showed a statistically significant reduction ( P < 0.001. The cerebroumbilical C/U ratio increased after the intervention ( P < 0.001. The PI-umbilical ( P = 0.1 and pre- and post-RI-cerebral ( P = 0.96 did not have statistically significant changes. Conclusions: Infusion of magnesium sulfate significantly decreases the flow in the fetus RI-umbilical and PI-MCA, and it increases C/U ratio indices in color Doppler ultrasound.

  4. Successful endovascular reconstruction of a recurrent giant middle cerebral artery aneurysm with multiple telescoping flow diverters in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Daniel S; Marlin, Evan S; Shaw, Andrew; Powers, Ciarán J

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms of the pediatric population are rare, but giant fusiform aneurysms (GFAs) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) are common within this cohort of patients. These aneurysms are difficult to treat and often require advanced microsurgical skills, as they are usually not amenable to direct clipping. Here, we report the successful treatment of a recurrent GFA of the MCA with three telescoping Pipeline Embolization Devices 6 months after attempted clip reconstruction in a pediatric patient.

  5. Endovascular therapy of ruptured distal anterior choroidal artery aneurysm associated with moyamoya pattern collateralization secondary to middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Oishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a ruptured distal anterior choroidal artery (AChoA aneurysm associated with moyamoya pattern collateralization secondary to the middle cerebral artery occlusion. Patient was successfully treated with the coil embolization of the distal AChoA. This case supports the feasibility and efficacy of the endovascular therapy for the distal AChoA aneurysms in patients with MCA occlusion with moyamoya pattern collateralization.

  6. The free radical spin-trap alpha-PBN attenuates periinfarct depolarizations following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats without reducing infarct volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Bruhn, Torben; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the free radical spin-trap alpha-phenyl-butyl-tert-nitrone (alpha-PBN) in permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats was examined in two series of experiments. In the first, rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) and treated 1 h after occlusion...

  7. Cerebroprotective Effect of Moringa oleifera against Focal Ischemic Stroke Induced by Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woranan Kirisattayakul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The protection against ischemic stroke is still required due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. Based on the role of oxidative stress in stroke pathophysiology, we determined whether Moringa oleifera, a plant possessing potent antioxidant activity, protected against brain damage and oxidative stress in animal model of focal stroke. M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg·kg−1 was orally given to male Wistar rats (300–350 g once daily at a period of 2 weeks before the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO and 3 weeks after Rt.MCAO. The determinations of neurological score and temperature sensation were performed every 7 days throughout the study period, while the determinations of brain infarction volume, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px were performed 24 hr after Rt.MCAO. The results showed that all doses of extract decreased infarction volume in both cortex and subcortex. The protective effect of medium and low doses of extract in all areas occurred mainly via the decreased oxidative stress. The protective effect of the high dose extract in striatum and hippocampus occurred via the same mechanism, whereas other mechanisms might play a crucial role in cortex. The detailed mechanism required further exploration.

  8. Is decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction of any worth?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-feng; YAO Yu; HU Wei-wei; LI Gu; XU Jin-fang; ZHAO Xue-qun; LIU Wei-guo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction is characterized by mortality rate of up to 80%. The aim of this study was to determine the value of decompressive craniectomy in patients presenting malignant MCA infarction compared with those receiving medical treatment alone. Methods: Patients with malignant MCA infarction treated in our hospital between January 1996 and March 2004 were included in this retrospective analysis. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)was used to assess neurological status on admission and at one week after surgery. All patients were followed up for assessment of functional outcome by the Barthel index (BI) and modified Rankin Scale (RS) at 3 months after infarction. Results: Ten out of 24patients underwent decompressive craniectomy. The mean interval between stroke onset and surgery was 62.10 h. The mortality was 10.0% compared with 64.2% in patients who received medical treatment alone (P<0.001). The mean NIHSS score before surgery was 26.0 and 15.4 after surgery (P<0.001). At follow up, patients who underwent surgery had significantly better outcome with mean BI of 53.3, RS of 3.3 as compared to only 16.0 and 4.60 in medically treated patients. Speech function also improved in patients with dominant hemispherical infarction. Conclusion: Decompressive craniectomy in patients with malignant MCA infarction improves both survival rates and functional outcomes compared with medical treatment alone. A randomized controlled trial is required to substantiate those findings.

  9. Cerebroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera against focal ischemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisattayakul, Woranan; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Wannanon, Panakaporn; Jittiwat, Jinatta

    2013-01-01

    The protection against ischemic stroke is still required due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. Based on the role of oxidative stress in stroke pathophysiology, we determined whether Moringa oleifera, a plant possessing potent antioxidant activity, protected against brain damage and oxidative stress in animal model of focal stroke. M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg·kg(-1) was orally given to male Wistar rats (300-350 g) once daily at a period of 2 weeks before the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO) and 3 weeks after Rt.MCAO. The determinations of neurological score and temperature sensation were performed every 7 days throughout the study period, while the determinations of brain infarction volume, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px were performed 24 hr after Rt.MCAO. The results showed that all doses of extract decreased infarction volume in both cortex and subcortex. The protective effect of medium and low doses of extract in all areas occurred mainly via the decreased oxidative stress. The protective effect of the high dose extract in striatum and hippocampus occurred via the same mechanism, whereas other mechanisms might play a crucial role in cortex. The detailed mechanism required further exploration.

  10. Sequential neuronal and astrocytic changes after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

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    Chen, H; Chopp, M; Schultz, L; Bodzin, G; Garcia, J H

    1993-09-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of ischemic cell injury was investigated after transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Male Wistar rats (n = 61) were subjected to 2 h of MCA occlusion induced by advancing a nylon monofilament into the right internal carotid artery. Animals were killed after different durations of reperfusion, ranging from 4 to 166 h (n = 6-11 for each group). Neuronal injury and astrocytic reaction were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry, respectively. Eosinophilic neurons were detected at 4 h of reperfusion in the basal ganglia, and at 10 h of reperfusion in the cortex. Focal brain infarct developed by 46 h of reperfusion, both in the cortex and the basal ganglia, and the volume remained constant between 46 and 166 h of reperfusion. Significant differences in astrocytic reaction were detected between the lesion and the periphery of the lesion at reperfusion times from 46 to 166 h; GFAP staining decreased in the core of the lesion and increased in the peripheral areas. Our data suggest that, after 2 h of MCA occlusion, brain tissue progresses from isolated neuronal injury to infarct with a time course dependent on anatomical site; and astrocytic reactivity, expressed by GFAP staining, reflects the outcome of the ischemic injury.

  11. Functional real-time optoacoustic imaging of middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

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    Moritz Kneipp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Longitudinal functional imaging studies of stroke are key in identifying the disease progression and possible therapeutic interventions. Here we investigate the applicability of real-time functional optoacoustic imaging for monitoring of stroke progression in the whole brain of living animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was used to model stroke in mice, which were imaged preoperatively and the occlusion was kept in place for 60 minutes, after which optoacoustic scans were taken at several time points. RESULTS: Post ischemia an asymmetry of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the brain was observed as a region of hypoxia in the hemisphere affected by the ischemic event. Furthermore, we were able to visualize the penumbra in-vivo as a localized hemodynamically-compromised area adjacent to the region of stroke-induced perfusion deficit. CONCLUSION: The intrinsic sensitivity of the new imaging approach to functional blood parameters, in combination with real time operation and high spatial resolution in deep living tissues, may see it become a valuable and unique tool in the development and monitoring of treatments aimed at suspending the spread of an infarct area.

  12. Clinical characteristics of ruptured distal middle cerebral artery aneurysms: Review of the literature.

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    Tsutsumi, Keiji; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Nagm, Alhusain; Toba, Yasuyuki; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-10

    Middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms usually arise at the primary MCA bifurcation or trifurcation. Distal MCA aneurysms are rarely considered as sources of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It has been reported that ruptured distal MCA aneurysms are associated with head trauma, neoplastic emboli, arterial dissection, or bacterial infection. We experienced five cases of ruptured distal MCA aneurysms and evaluated their clinical characteristics. Retrospective analysis of aneurysmal SAH at Kobayashi Neurosurgical Neurological Hospital was performed from January, 2004 to December, 2014. Clinical characteristics of ruptured distal MCA aneurysms were analyzed using our database. Among 191 aneurysmal SAH patients, there were five ruptured distal MCA aneurysms. All patients did not have any specific medical problems such as infectious disease, head trauma, or cardiac disorders. The incidence of ruptured distal MCA aneurysm was higher than expected and was equivalent to 9.4% of the total ruptured MCA aneurysms. Strong male predominance (80%) and M2-3 junction aneurysm preponderance (80%) were observed. In addition, there were only two patients (40%) with intracerebral hematoma in our study. We reported five cases of ruptured distal MCA aneurysms. Although ruptured distal MCA aneurysms are thought to be rare as sources of aneurysmal SAH, the incidence of ruptured distal MCA aneurysm was 9.4% of all ruptured MCA aneurysms in our study. Ruptured distal MCA aneurysms should be considered as sources of aneurysmal SAH without intracerebral hematoma.

  13. Motor recovery by anterior choroidal artery territory in a patient with middle cerebral artery infarct

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    Ji Heon Hong; Sung Ho Jang

    2010-01-01

    In this study,the uninjured periventricular area of a female patient who presented with complete paralysis of the left extremities following middle cerebral artery infarction was analyzed using diffusion tensor tractography,transcranial magnetic stimulation,and functional magnetic resonance imaging.Diffusion tensor tractography revealed interrupted corticospinal tract at the infarct lesion in the corona radiata at 2 weeks after onset,which descended through the spared periventricular area at 6 months after onset.Transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed a motor pathway of the affected hand that was compatible with the lateral corticospinal tract.At 6 months after onset,motor function in the affected extremities recovered to normal levels,which suggested that motor function in the affected hand recovered by the corticospinal tract that passed through the spared periventricular area.The arterial territory of the spared periventricular area corresponded with the anterior choroidal artery.These results suggest that care should be taken in spared periventricular areas in patients with lesions at the corona radiata level.

  14. One-stage clipping of bilateral middle cerebral artery aneurysms via the bilateral pterional keyhole approach.

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    Maruyama, Keisuke; Kurita, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Ryuichi; Noguchi, Akio; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Five patients aged 55 to 73 years (mean 63 years) underwent one-stage clipping for unruptured aneurysms in the bilateral middle cerebral arteries (mean size 4.5 mm, range 2 to 7 mm) via the bilateral pterional keyhole approach in our institute. Important points are as follows: the head is affixed with no rotation; one side manipulation is started 5 minutes after the other side to avoid conflict of surgical instruments; a 5-cm curvilinear skin incision is made inside the hairline and pterional keyhole craniotomy is made bilaterally using 2 burr holes; the whole operating table is rotated 15 degrees to one side to facilitate the microsurgical trans-sylvian approach and aneurysm clipping; the operating table is rotated to the other side for the contralateral procedure; and particular care is taken to avoid bilateral brain injury. This approach provided minimum but sufficient working space required for trans-sylvian dissection. Aneurysm neck clipping was safely performed in a mean operation time of 5 hours 17 minutes. No complications occurred and satisfactory cosmetic results were obtained in all patients. Postoperative neuroimaging studies exhibited bilateral complete clipping with minimal intracranial air content and minimum consequences of brain retraction. One-stage clipping via the pterional keyhole approach is a safe and effective therapeutic option for small bilateral aneurysms.

  15. Assessment value of transcranial Doppler hemodynamic typing for prognosis of patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xie

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the assessment value of transcranial Doppler hemodynamic typing for prognosis of patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction.Methods:A total of 54 cases of patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction who received treatment in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2015 were included for study, and according to different types, they were divided into total occlusion group 17 cases, partial occlusion group 28 cases and non-occlusion group 9 cases. Differences in levels of infarction-related proteins, coagulation-related indicators, illness-related factors, etc in circulating blood of three groups were compared, and the correlation of middle cerebral arterial systolic velocity (Vs) and diastolic velocity (Vd) with above indicators was further analyzed.Results:Vs and Vd values of non-occlusion group were higher than those of total occlusion group and partial occlusion group, and Vs and Vd values of partial occlusion group were higher than those of total occlusion group; serum Gelsolin, PT, APTT and TT values of non-occlusion group were higher, SAA, Apo- CⅡ, HbA1c, GSP, Aβ, HSP70, FIB, D-D, Copeptin, P-selectin, PTX3, TPO and FFA values were lower, and compared with partial occlusion group and total occlusion group, differences were significant; Gelsolin, PT, APTT and TT values of partial occlusion group were higher than those of total occlusion group, and SAA, Apo- CⅡ, HbA1c, GSP, Aβ, HSP70, FIB, D-D, Copeptin, P-selectin, PTX3, TPO and FFA values were lower than those of total occlusion group; middle cerebral arterial Vs and Vd values were directly proportional to Gelsolin, PT, APTT and TT values, and inversely proportional to SAA, Apo- CⅡ, HbA1c, GSP, Aβ, HSP70, FIB, D-D, Copeptin, P-selectin, PTX3, TPO and FFA values.Conclusions:Transcranial Doppler hemodynamic typing can be the reliable way to judge the severity of acute middle cerebral artery infarction, and has great value in assessing disease prognosis.

  16. Early retinal inflammatory biomarkers in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke

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    Ritzel, Rodney M.; Pan, Sarah J.; Verma, Rajkumar; Wizeman, John; Crapser, Joshua; Patel, Anita R.; Lieberman, Richard; Mohan, Royce

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke is one of the most commonly used models to study focal cerebral ischemia. This procedure also results in the simultaneous occlusion of the ophthalmic artery that supplies the retina. Retinal cell death is seen days after reperfusion and leads to functional deficits; however, the mechanism responsible for this injury has not been investigated. Given that the eye may have a unique ocular immune response to an ischemic challenge, this study examined the inflammatory response to retinal ischemia in the MCAO model. Methods Young male C57B/6 mice were subjected to 90-min transient MCAO and were euthanized at several time points up to 7 days. Transcription of inflammatory cytokines was measured with quantitative real-time PCR, and immune cell activation (e.g., phagocytosis) and migration were assessed with ophthalmoscopy and flow cytometry. Results Observation of the affected eye revealed symptoms consistent with Horner’s syndrome. Light ophthalmoscopy confirmed the reduced blood flow of the retinal arteries during occlusion. CX3CR1-GFP reporter mice were then employed to evaluate the extent of the ocular microglia and monocyte activation. A significant increase in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive macrophages was seen throughout the ischemic area compared to the sham and contralateral control eyes. RT–PCR revealed enhanced expression of the monocyte chemotactic molecule CCL2 early after reperfusion followed by a delayed increase in the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Further analysis of peripheral leukocyte recruitment by flow cytometry determined that monocytes and neutrophils were the predominant immune cells to infiltrate at 72 h. A transient reduction in retinal microglia numbers was also observed, demonstrating the ischemic sensitivity of these cells. Blood–eye barrier permeability to small and large tracer molecules was increased by 72 h. Retinal microglia exhibited enhanced

  17. Surgery-related thrombosis critically affects the brain infarct volume in mice following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

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    Xiaojie Lin

    Full Text Available Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO model is widely used to mimic human focal ischemic stroke in order to study ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in rodents. In tMCAO model, intraluminal suture technique is widely used to achieve ischemia and reperfusion. However, variation of infarct volume in this model often requires large sample size, which hinders the progress of preclinical research. Our previous study demonstrated that infarct volume was related to the success of reperfusion although the reason remained unclear. The aim of present study is to explore the relationship between focal thrombus formation and model reproducibility with respect to infarct volume. We hypothesize that suture-induced thrombosis causes infarct volume variability due to insufficient reperfusion after suture withdrawal. Seventy-two adult male CD-1 mice underwent 90 minutes of tMCAO with or without intraperitoneal administration of heparin. Dynamic synchrotron radiation microangiography (SRA and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI were performed before and after tMCAO to observe the cerebral vascular morphology and to measure the cerebral blood flow in vivo. Infarct volume and neurological score were examined to evaluate severity of ischemic brain injury. We found that the rate of successful reperfusion was much higher in heparin-treated mice compared to that in heparin-free mice according to the result of SRA and LSCI at 1 and 3 hours after suture withdrawal (p<0.05. Pathological features and SRA revealed that thrombus formed in the internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery or anterior cerebral artery, which blocked reperfusion following tMCAO. LSCI showed that cortical collateral circulation could be disturbed by thrombi. Our results demonstrated that suture-induced thrombosis was a critical element, which affects the success of reperfusion. Appropriate heparin management provides a useful approach for improving reproducibility of reperfusion

  18. Differential increases in blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery after tourniquet deflation during sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol anaesthesia.

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    Kadoi, Y; Kawauchi, C H; Ide, M; Saito, S; Mizutani, A

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol on cerebral blood flow velocity after tourniquet deflation during orthopaedic surgery. Thirty patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery were randomly divided into sevoflurane, isoflurane and propofol groups. Anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol infusion in 33% oxygen and 67% nitrous oxide, in whatever concentrations were necessary to keep bispectral index values between 45 and 50. Ventilatory rate or tidal volume was adjusted to target PaCO2 of 35 mmHg. A 2.0 MHz transcranial Doppler probe was attached to the patient's head at the temporal window and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery was continuously measured. The extremity was exsanguinated with an Esmarch bandage and the pneumatic tourniquet was inflated to a pressure of 450 mmHg. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, velocity in the middle cerebral artery and arterial blood gas analysis were measured every minute for 10 minutes after release of the tourniquet in all three groups. Velocity in the middle cerebral artery in the three groups increased for five minutes after tourniquet deflation. Because of the different cerebrovascular effects of the three agents, the degree of increase in flow velocity in the isoflurane group was greater than in the other two groups, the change in flow velocity in the propofol group being the lowest (at three minutes after deflation 40 +/- 7%, 32 +/- 6% and 28 +/- 10% in the isoflurane, sevoflurane and propofol groups respectively, P < 0.05).

  19. HRCT evaluation of the accessory fissures of the lung

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    Yildiz, Altan E-mail: ayildiz@mersin.edu.tr; Goelpinar, Fulya; Calikoglu, Mukadder; Duce, Meltem Nass; Oezer, Caner; Apaydin, F. Demir

    2004-03-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to classify the accessory fissures of the lung and to assess their frequency by using high-resolution CT. Methods and patients: HRCT scans of 115 patients were prospectively reviewed. 1 mm thin sections were obtained at 10 mm intervals with a scan time of 1.9 s. The fissure and its relationship to the segmental bronchovascular structures were then evaluated on transverse sections. Results: Forty-four accessory fissures were detected in 35 of 115 patients. The most common accessory fissure was the inferior accessory fissure (12%). The second most common accessory fissure was the left minor fissure (8%). The right superior accessory fissure (5%), the accessory fissure between the medial and lateral segments of the right middle lobe (5%), and the accessory fissure between the superior and inferior segments of the lingula (5%) were seen in equal frequencies. Also, intersegmental accessory fissures, namely the fissure between the anterobasal and laterobasal of both the right (1%) and the left (2%) lower lobes were detected. We found only one subsegmental accessory fissure. Discussion and conclusion: The inferior accessory fissure and the left minor fissure were the most common accessory fissures in our study.

  20. Long-term patency of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass for cerebral atherosclerotic disease: factors determining the bypass patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Fumihiro; Murai, Yasuo; Tateyama, Kojiro; Tamaki, Tomonori; Mizunari, Takayuki; Matsukawa, Hideoshi; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

    2016-10-01

    Long-term patency of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery for atherosclerotic disease and associated risk factors for loss of patency have rarely been discussed. We retrospectively analyzed long-term patency following STA-MCA bypass and evaluated various demographic and clinical factors to identify the ones predictive of postsurgical loss of patency using records of 84 revascularization procedures (58 patients, 45 males; mean age at surgery 63.6 years, range 31-78 years). Bypass patency was diagnosed based on magnetic resonance angiography or three-dimensional computed tomography. The mean follow-up period was 24.7 months (range 6-63 months). Decreased bypass patency was observed in 4 of 58 patients (6.9 %) who collectively underwent 6 bypasses (7.1 %) of 84. All cases of decreased bypass patency were first detected within 6 months of surgery. Bypass patency was not correlated with age, sex, number of anastomoses, postoperative cerebral infarction, or control of postoperative diabetes mellitus. We found a significant association of bypass patency with hyperperfusion (p = 0.01) and postoperative smoking (p = 0.0036). Furthermore, we found a significant association of hyperperfusion with STA diameter (p bypass patency in cerebral atherosclerotic disease patients. Careful monitoring of patency to prevent hyperperfusion and cessation of smoking are recommended, particularly within 6 months of the surgery.

  1. Differences between middle cerebral artery bifurcations with normal anatomy and those with aneurysms.

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    Sadatomo, Takashi; Yuki, Kiyoshi; Migita, Keisuke; Imada, Yasutaka; Kuwabara, Masashi; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the normal anatomy of middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcations and to analyze the differences in patients with MCA aneurysms. In the present study, 62 patients underwent three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography, and no intracranial lesions were noted. The widths of M1 and the superior and inferior M2 branches, as well as their respective lateral angles, were measured. These values were used to calculate the daughter artery ratio (DA ratio; width of larger M2/width of smaller M2) and the lateral angle ratio (LA ratio; lateral angle between M1 and larger M2/lateral angle between M1 and smaller M2). The DA and LA ratios of 54 MCA aneurysm patients (34 with ruptured aneurysms, 20 with unruptured aneurysms) were also calculated, using three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography, and compared with the normal values. In normal patients, the widths of M1 and the branches of M2, the lateral angles, and the LA and DA ratios were not significantly different between the right and left sides. The bilateral superior and inferior lateral angles of normal MCAs were significantly wider than those of MCAs with aneurysms. The DA ratio was 1.5 ± 0.4 in normal MCAs and 1.7 ± 0.7 in MCAs with aneurysms; this difference was significant (p bifurcations show close to symmetric structure in the M2 branches and the lateral angles, whereas aneurysmal MCAs do not show this symmetry.

  2. Outcome after decompressive craniectomy in patients with dominant middle cerebral artery infarction: A preliminary report

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    Amandeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Life-threatening, space occupying, infarction develops in 10-15% of patients after middle cerebral artery infarction (MCAI. Though decompressive craniectomy (DC is now standard of care in patients with non-dominant stroke, its role in dominant MCAI (DMCAI is largely undefined. This may reflect the ethical dilemma of saving life of a patient who may then remain hemiplegic and dysphasic. This study specifically addresses this issue. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis studied patients with DMCAI undergoing DC. Patient records, operation notes, radiology, and out-patient files were scrutinized to collate data. Glasgow outcome scale (GOS, Barthel index (BI and improvement in language and motor function were evaluated to determine functional outcome. Results: Eighteen patients between 22 years and 72 years of age were included. 6 week, 3 month, 6 month and overall survival rates were 66.6% (12/18, 64% (11/17, 62.5% (10/16 and 62.5% (10/16 respectively. Amongst ten surviving patients with long-term follow-up, 60% showed improvement in GOS, 70% achieved BI score >60 while 30% achieved full functional independence. In this group, motor power and language function improved in 9 and 8 patients respectively. At last follow-up, 8 of 10 surviving patients were ambulatory with (3/8 or without (5/8 support. Age <50 years corresponded with better functional outcome amongst survivors (P value -0.0068. Conclusion: Language and motor outcomes after DC in patients with DMCAI are not as dismal as commonly perceived. Perhaps young patients (<50 years with DMCAI should be treated with the same aggressiveness that non-DMCAI is currently dealt with.

  3. Decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: Impact on mortality and functional outcome

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    Mohammed Azman Mohammad Raffiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA infarction is a devastating clinical entity affecting about 10% of stroke patients. Decompressive craniectomy has been found to reduce mortality rates and improve outcome in patients. Methods: A retrospective case review study was conducted to compare patients treated with medical therapy and decompressive surgery for malignant MCA infarction in Hospital Kuala Lumpur over a period of 5 years (from January 2007 to December 2012. A total of 125 patients were included in this study; 90 (72% patients were treated with surgery, while 35 (28% patients were treated with medical therapy. Outcome was assessed in terms of mortality rate at 30 days, Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS on discharge, and modified Rankin scale (mRS at 3 and 6 months. Results: Decompressive craniectomy resulted in a significant reduction in mortality rate at 30 days (P < 0.05 and favorable GOS outcome at discharge (P < 0.05. Good functional outcome based on mRS was seen in 48.9% of patients at 3 months and in 64.4% of patients at 6 months (P < 0.05. Factors associated with good outcome include infarct volume of less than 250 ml, midline shift of less than 10 mm, absence of additional vascular territory involvement, good preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score, and early surgical intervention (within 24 h (P < 0.05. Age and dominant hemisphere infarction had no significant association with functional outcome. Conclusion: Decompressive craniectomy achieves good functional outcome in, young patients with good preoperative GCS score and favorable radiological findings treated with surgery within 24 h of ictus.

  4. Predictors of malignant brain edema in middle cerebral artery infarction observed on CT angiography.

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    Kim, Hoon; Jin, Seon Tak; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Seong Rim; Park, Ik Seong; Jo, Kwang Wook

    2015-03-01

    Patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction accompanied by MCA occlusion with or without internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion have a poor prognosis, as a result of brain cell damage caused by both the infarction and by space-occupying and life-threatening edema formation. Multiple treatments can reduce the likelihood of edema formation, but tend to show limited efficacy. Decompressive hemicraniectomy with duroplasty has been promising for improving functional outcomes and reducing mortality, particularly improved functional outcomes can be achieved with early decompressive surgery. Therefore, identifying patients at risk for developing fatal edema is important and should be performed as early as possible. Sixty-four patients diagnosed with major MCA infarction with MCA occlusion within 8 hours of symptom onset were retrospectively reviewed. Early clinical, laboratory, and computed tomography angiography (CTA) parameters were analyzed for malignant brain edema (MBE). Twenty of the 64 patients (31%) had MBE, and the clinical outcome was poor (3month modified Rankin Scale >2) in 95% of them. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score, Clot Burden Score, and Collateral Score (CS) showed statically significant differences in both groups. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age and sex identified the independent predictors of MBE: NIHSS score >18 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-16.0, p=0.023) and CS on CTA <2 (OR: 7.28, 95% CI: 1.7-30.3,p=0.006). Our results provide useful information for selecting patients in need of aggressive treatment such as decompressive surgery.

  5. Tissue at risk in the deep middle cerebral artery territory is critical to stroke outcome

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    Rosso, Charlotte; Samson, Yves [Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, AP-HP, Urgences Cerebro-Vasculaires, Paris (France); UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, COGIMAGE, Paris (France); Colliot, Olivier [UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, COGIMAGE, Paris (France); Valabregue, Romain [UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, Centre for NeuroImaging Research (CENIR), Paris (France); Crozier, Sophie [Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, AP-HP, Urgences Cerebro-Vasculaires, Paris (France); Dormont, Didier [UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, COGIMAGE, Paris (France); Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, AP-HP, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lehericy, Stephane [UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Paris (France); Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, UPMC Paris 6, Inserm, U975, CNRS, UMR 7225, Centre for NeuroImaging Research (CENIR), Paris (France); Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, AP-HP, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France)

    2011-10-15

    The clinical efficacy of thrombolysis in stroke patients is explained by the increased rate of recanalization, which limits infarct growth. However, the efficacy could also be explained by the protection of specific sites of the brain. Here, we investigate where is this outcome-related tissue at risk using voxel-based analysis. We included 68 acute stroke patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion on the admission MRI performed within 6 h of symptoms onset (H6) and 16 controls. MCA recanalization was assessed using the magnetic resonance angiography performed at day 1 (D1). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes were analyzed using a voxel-based method between patients vs. controls group at admission (H6) in non-recanalized vs. recanalized and in 3-month poor vs. good outcome patients at D1. Complete or partial MCA recanalization was observed in 52 of 68 patients. Good outcome at 3 months occurred in 40 patients (59%). In non-recanalized patients, ADC was decreased in the deep MCA and watershed arterial territory (the lenticular nucleus, internal capsule, and the overlying periventricular white matter). This decrease was not observed in recanalized patients at D1 or patients at H6. Fiber tracking suggested that the area is crossed by the cortico-spinal, cerebellar, and intra-hemispheric association tracts. Finally, this area almost co-localized with the area associated with poor outcome. A clinically relevant area of tissue at risk may occur in patients with MCA infarcts at the level of deep white matter fiber tracts. These findings suggest that neuroprotection research should be refocused on white matter. (orig.)

  6. A surgical model of permanent and transient middle cerebral artery stroke in the sheep.

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    Adam J Wells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal models are essential to study the pathophysiological changes associated with focal occlusive stroke and to investigate novel therapies. Currently used rodent models have yielded little clinical success, however large animal models may provide a more suitable alternative to improve clinical translation. We sought to develop a model of acute proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA ischemic stroke in sheep, including both permanent occlusion and transient occlusion with reperfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 adult male and female Merino sheep were randomly allocated to one of three groups (n = 6/gp: 1 sham surgery; 2 permanent proximal MCA occlusion (MCAO; or 3 temporary MCAO with aneurysm clip. All animals had invasive arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygen monitoring. At 4 h following vessel occlusion or sham surgery animals were killed by perfusion fixation. Brains were processed for histopathological examination and infarct area determination. 6 further animals were randomized to either permanent (n = 3 or temporary MCAO (n = 3 and then had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at 4 h after MCAO. RESULTS: Evidence of ischemic injury in an MCA distribution was seen in all stroke animals. The ischemic lesion area was significantly larger after permanent (28.8% compared with temporary MCAO (14.6%. Sham animals demonstrated no evidence of ischemic injury. There was a significant reduction in brain tissue oxygen partial pressure after permanent vessel occlusion between 30 and 210 mins after MCAO. MRI at 4 h demonstrated complete proximal MCA occlusion in the permanent MCAO animals with a diffusion deficit involving the whole right MCA territory, whereas temporary MCAO animals demonstrated MRA evidence of flow within the right MCA and smaller predominantly cortical diffusion deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal MCAO can be achieved in an ovine model of stroke via a surgical approach. Permanent

  7. Determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow in stroke patients with a middle cerebral artery occlusion

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    Seeters, Tom van; Velthuis, Birgitta K. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, L.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the Dutch acute stroke study (DUST) investigators

    2016-10-15

    Poor leptomeningeal collateral flow is related to worse clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke, but the factors that determine leptomeningeal collateral patency are largely unknown. We explored the determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow and assessed their effect on the relation between leptomeningeal collateral flow and clinical outcome. We included 484 patients from the Dutch acute stroke study (DUST) with a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. The determinants of poor leptomeningeal collateral flow (≤50 % collateral filling) were identified with logistic regression. We calculated the relative risk (RR) of poor leptomeningeal collateral flow in relation to poor clinical outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale 3-6) using Poisson regression and assessed whether the determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow affected this relation. Leptomeningeal collateral flow was poor in 142 patients (29 %). In multivariable analyses, higher admission glucose level (odds ratio (OR) 1.1 per mmol/L increase (95 % CI 1.0-1.2)), a proximal MCA occlusion (OR 1.9 (95 % CI 1.3-3.0)), and an incomplete posterior circle of Willis (OR 1.7 (95 % CI 1.1-2.6)) were independently related to poor leptomeningeal collateral flow. Poor leptomeningeal collateral flow was related to poor clinical outcome (unadjusted RR 1.7 (95 % CI 1.4-2.0)), and this relation was not affected by the determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow. Our study shows that admission glucose level, a proximal MCA occlusion, and an incomplete ipsilateral posterior circle of Willis are determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow that represent a combination of congenital, acquired, and acute factors. After adjustment for these determinants, leptomeningeal collateral flow remains related to clinical outcome. (orig.)

  8. Sesamin attenuates behavioral, biochemical and histological alterations induced by reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Moshahid; Ishrat, Tauheed; Ahmad, Ajmal; Hoda, Md Nasrul; Khan, M Badruzzaman; Khuwaja, Gulrana; Srivastava, Pallavi; Raza, Syed Shadab; Islam, Fakhrul; Ahmad, Saif

    2010-01-05

    Restoration of blood flow to an ischemic brain region is associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with consequent reperfusion injury. ROS cause lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, all of which are deleterious to cells. So diminishing the production of free radicals and scavenging them may be a successful therapeutic strategy for the protection of brain tissue in cerebral stroke. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of sesamin (Sn) to reduce brain injury after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The middle cerebral artery (MCA) of adult male Wistar rat was occluded for 2h and reperfused for 22h. Sesamin is the most abundant lignan in sesame seed oil is a potent antioxidant. Sesamin (30 mg/kg) was given orally twice, 30 min before the onset of ischemia and 12h after reperfusion. The initial investigations revealed that sesamin reduced the neurological deficits in terms of behavior and reduced the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), and protein carbonyl (PC) in the different areas of the brain when compared with the MCAO group. A significantly depleted level of glutathione and its dependent enzymes (glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and glutathione reductase [GR]) in MCAO group were protected significantly in MCAO group treated with sesamin. The present study suggests that sesamin may be able to attenuate the ischemic cell death and plays a crucial role as a neuroprotectant in regulating levels of reactive oxygen species in the rat brain. Thus, sesamin may be a potential compound in stroke therapy.

  9. [A Case of Ruptured Peripheral Cerebral Aneurysm at Abnormal Vessels Associated with Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis:Similarity to Moyamoya Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hajime; Kohno, Kanehisa; Tanaka, Hideo; Fukumoto, Shinya; Ichikawa, Haruhisa; Onoue, Shinji; Fumoto, Noriyuki; Ozaki, Saya; Maeda, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of ruptured peripheral cerebral aneurysm at abnormal vessels associated with severe stenosis at the middle cerebral artery (MCA). A 66-year-old woman was admitted at our hospital with headache on foot. Computed tomography (CT) showed intracerebral hemorrhage in the left fronto-basal area. Three-dimensional-CT and conventional angiogram revealed abnormal vessels, which were similar to those seen in moyamoya disease, with a small enhancement close to the hematoma. On day 11, subsequent cerebral angiogram demonstrated an aneurysm at the peripheral portion of an abnormal vessel arising from the left A2. On day 17, soon after the diagnosis of the ruptured aneurysm was made (while still at the subacute stage), we operated on the aneurysm. Superficial temporal artery (STA)-MCA anastomosis was also performed to preserve cerebral blood flow and reduce hemodynamic stress. Several days after the operation, she had transient aphasia due to hyperperfusion of the MCA territory, but eventually recovered with no neurological deficit at discharge. Follow-up study revealed revascularization from the branches of the external carotid artery as well as the STA. On admission, we initially thought that this patient had abnormal vessels associated with arteriosclerotic MCA stenosis. However, the postoperative clinical course as well as the histopathological specimens of both the abnormal artery with the aneurysm and the STA revealed similar findings to those of moyamoya disease. Although this case did not satisfy the criteria for moyamoya disease, it is conceivable that a single arterial occlusive lesion associated with moyamoya-like vessels might develop in the same mechanism with that of moyamoya disease.

  10. Laser Doppler flowmeter study on regional cerebral blood flow in early stage after standard superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass surgery for moyamoya disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GESANG Dun-zhu; ZHANG Dong; ZHAO Ji-zong; WANG Shuo; ZHAO Yuan-li; WANG Rong; SUN Jian-jun; MENG Ze

    2009-01-01

    Background Standard superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery is an effective treatment for moyamoya disease, but recent evidence suggests that postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion can occur. In this study, the trendline of changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after surgery were continually monitored near the site of anastomosis in order to investigate both the efficacy of the procedure for improving rCBF and the possible riskof hyperperfusion.Methods Standard STA-MCA bypass surgery was performed on 13 patients, rCBF was measured continually using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) until the 5th day after the operation with the LDF probe implanted adjacent to the area of the anastomosis. The trendline of rCBF changes postoperatively was recorded for the analysis performed using SPSS 13.0.Results The baseline LDF value of cortical rCBF was (84.68±14.39) perfusion unit (PU), which was linear relative to absolute perfusion volume before anastomosis and (88.90±11.26) PU immediately after anastomosis (P >0.05). The value changed significantly from before to after anastomosis (P 0.05).Conclusions STA-MCA anastomosis improves the cerebral blood supply significantly in the early stage after surgery,however, the risk of symptomatic hyperperfusion may exist, which may possibly occur on the 1st day and 5th day after surgery. A LDF is useful for postoperative monitoring for both the efficacy of bypass and possible risk of neurologic deterioration or bleeding from hyperperfusion.

  11. The postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is not explained by PaCO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Secher, N H; Roos, C M

    2006-01-01

    In the normocapnic range, middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA Vmean) changes approximately 3.5% per mmHg carbon-dioxide tension in arterial blood (PaCO2) and a decrease in PaCO2 will reduce the cerebral blood flow by vasoconstriction (the CO2 reactivity of the brain). When standing up MCA...... Vmean and the end-tidal carbon-dioxide tension (PETCO2) decrease, suggesting that PaCO2 contributes to the reduction in MCA Vmean. In a fixed body position, PETCO2 tracks changes in the PaCO2 but when assuming the upright position, cardiac output (Q) decreases and its distribution over the lung changes...

  12. A Rare Cause of Stroke in Young Adults: Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery by a Meningioma Postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mathis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningioma is the most common nonglial intracranial primary tumor. It is a slowly growing tumor and presents clinically by causing seizures along with neurological or neuropsychological deficit. However, acute presentation of meningioma is possible. We are reporting a case of cerebral infarction due to a sphenoid wing meningothelial meningioma (with progesterone receptor positivity leading to an occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA in a 30-year-old right-handed woman (1 month after childbirth. After surgery, no new neurological event occurred, and she recovered most of her neurological functions. Strokes due to meningioma are a highly rare clinical occurrence but should be given serious consideration, particularly in young patients.

  13. [A Case of Aplastic or Twig-Like Middle Cerebral Artery Presenting with an Intracranial Hemorrhage Two Years after a Transient Ischemic Attack].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Koguchi, Motofumi; Tajima, Yutaka; Suzuyama, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Aplastic or twig-like middle cerebral artery (Ap/T-MCA) is a rare anatomical anomaly, which can be associated with intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral ischemia. A 52-year-old woman who presented with sudden headache was admitted to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormality; however, magnetic resonance angiogram revealed an occlusion or severe stenosis in the left middle cerebral artery. Three-dimensional CT angiography demonstrated severe stenosis in the left middle cerebral artery. The patient was discharged without any neurological deficit; however, she subsequently complained of temporary weakness in the right hand. It was possibly due to a transient ischemic attack; therefore, cilostazol 200 mg/day was administered for prevention of cerebral ischemia. Single photon emission computed tomography(with or without administration of acetazolamide)showed neither significant decrease in the cerebral blood flow nor cerebrovascular reactivity; hence, surgical revascularization was not performed. However, two years after the initial admission, she was urgently admitted to our hospital with sudden headache and nausea followed by aphasia and weakness of the right extremities. CT images showed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage in the left temporo-parietal lobe. Cerebral angiography revealed that the left middle cerebral artery was Ap/T-MCA without cerebral aneurysms. The patient was treated conservatively, and she eventually recovered without any neurological deficit except mild aphasia. Since Ap/T-MCA is associated with both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, antiplatelet therapy should be administered carefully. Moreover, it is necessary to consider extracranial-intracranial bypass to reduce hemodynamic stress on the abnormal vessels.

  14. Revisiting Hemicraniectomy: Late Decompressive Hemicraniectomy for Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke and the Role of Infarct Growth Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Salam, Abdul; Alboudi, Ayman; Kamran, Kainat; Ahmed, Arsalan; Khan, Rabia A.; Mirza, Mohsin K.; Inshasi, Jihad

    2017-01-01

    Objective and Methods. The outcome in late decompressive hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery stroke and the optimal timings of surgery has not been addressed by the randomized trials and pooled analysis. Retrospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study to measure outcome following DHC under 48 or over 48 hours using the modified Rankin scale [mRS] and dichotomized as favorable ≤4 or unfavorable >4 at three months. Results. In total, 137 patients underwent DHC. Functional outcome analyzed as mRS 0–4 versus mRS 5-6 showed no difference in this split between early and late operated on patients [P = 0.140] and mortality [P = 0.975]. Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥ 55 years, MCA with additional infarction, septum pellucidum deviation ≥1 cm, and uncal herniation were independent predictors of poor functional outcome at three months. In the “best” multivariate model, second infarct growth rate [IGR2] >7.5 ml/hr, MCA with additional infarction, and patients with temporal lobe involvement were independently associated with surgery under 48 hours. Both first infarct growth rate [IGR1] and second infarct growth rate [IGR2] were nearly double [P < 0.001] in patients with early surgery [under 48 hours]. Conclusions. The outcome and mortality in malignant middle cerebral artery stroke patients operated on over 48 hours of stroke onset were comparable to those of patients operated on less than 48 hours after stroke onset. Our data identifies IGR, temporal lobe involvement, and middle cerebral artery with additional infarct as independent predictors for early surgery.

  15. [Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome: anarthria and severe dyphagia after sequential bilateral infarction of the middle cerebral artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhra, M; Poppenborg, M; Hagemeister, C

    2008-02-01

    Bilateral lesions of the opercula frontoparietalia are uncommon and cause a symptom cluster including anarthria, severe dysphagia, inability to chew and sometimes facial paresis. At the same time there is an automatic-voluntary dissociation, meaning that the affected muscles are functional within the scope of involuntary movements. This syndrome is known as Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS), (bilateral) anterior operculum syndrome or facio-pharyngo-glosso-masticatory diplegia. We report the case of a patient who suffered from FCMS after having infarctions in the territory of the middle cerebral artery on each side 4 years apart.

  16. Acute Fetal Anemia Diagnosed by Middle Cerebral Artery Doppler Velocimetry in Stage V Twin–Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Salcedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In stage V twin–twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS, up to 50% of surviving twins die or experience permanent disabilities, likely due to acute intertwin hemorrhage resulting in sudden severe anemia of the survivor. Although fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA Doppler studies demonstrate strong correlation with fetal hemoglobin values, acute hemorrhagic events are more difficult to diagnose, and optimal timing of delivery of the survivor poses an obstetric dilemma. We report a case of newly diagnosed stage V TTTS at 28 weeks gestation, complicated by acute severe anemia diagnosed by significantly abnormal fetal MCA Doppler studies. The anemic twin was urgently delivered and is doing well without significant sequelae.

  17. Heat stress exacerbates the reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity during prolonged self-paced exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, J D; Racinais, S

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the influence of hyperthermia on middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean). Eleven cyclists undertook a 750 kJ self-paced time trial in HOT (35 °C) and COOL (20 °C) conditions. Exercise time was longer in HOT (56 min) compared with COOL (49 min; P heat appears to have exacerbated the reduction in MCA Vmean, in part via increases in peripheral blood flow and a decrease in arterial blood pressure.

  18. Reproducibility of Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis Measurements by DSA: Comparison of the NASCET and WASID Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luguang Chen

    Full Text Available To evaluate the intra- and inter-observer variability of the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET and Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID criteria for the evaluation of middle cerebral artery (MCA stenosis using digital subtraction angiography (DSA.DSA images of 114 cases with 131 stenotic MCAs were retrospectively analyzed. Two radiologists and a researcher measured the degree of MCA stenosis independently using both NASCET and WASID methods. To determine intra-observer agreement, all the observers reevaluated the degree of MCA stenosis 4 weeks later. The linear relation and coefficient of variation (CV between the measurements made by the two methods were assessed by correlation coefficient and multi-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA, respectively. Intra- and inter-observer variability of the two methods was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, Spearman's R value, Pearson correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots.Despite the fact that the degree of MCA stenosis measured by NASCET was lower than measured using the WASID method, there was good linear correlation between the measurements made by the two methods (for the mean measurements of the 3 observers, NASCET% = 0.891 × WASID% - 1.89%; ICC, Spearman's R value and Pearson correlation were 0.874, 0.855, and 0.874, respectively. The CVs of both intra- and inter-observer measurements of MCA stenosis using WASID were significantly lower than that using NASCET confirmed by the multi-factor ANOVA results, which showed only the measurement methods of MCA stenosis had significant effects on the CVs both in intra- and inter-observer measurements (both P values < 0.001. Intra-observer measurements showed good or excellent agreement with respect to WASID and NASCET evaluation (ICC, 0.656 to 0.817 and 0.635 to 0.761, respectively. Good agreement for the WASID evaluation (ICC, 0.592 to 0.628 and for the NASCET evaluation (ICC, 0

  19. Diabetic microangiopathy: impact of impaired cerebral vasoreactivity and delayed angiogenesis after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion on stroke damage and cerebral repair in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poittevin, Marine; Bonnin, Philippe; Pimpie, Cynthia; Rivière, Léa; Sebrié, Catherine; Dohan, Anthony; Pocard, Marc; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Kubis, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes increases the risk of stroke by three, increases related mortality, and delays recovery. We aimed to characterize functional and structural alterations in cerebral microvasculature before and after experimental cerebral ischemia in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that preexisting brain microvascular disease in patients with diabetes might partly explain increased stroke severity and impact on outcome. Diabetes was induced in 4-week-old C57Bl/6J mice by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). After 8 weeks of diabetes, the vasoreactivity of the neurovascular network to CO2 was abolished and was not reversed by nitric oxide (NO) donor administration; endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) mRNA, phospho-eNOS protein, nNOS, and phospho-nNOS protein were significantly decreased; angiogenic and vessel maturation factors (vascular endothelial growth factor a [VEGFa], angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), Ang2, transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β], and platelet-derived growth factor-β [PDGF-β]) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) occludin and zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) expression were significantly decreased; and microvessel density was increased without changes in ultrastructural imaging. After permanent focal cerebral ischemia induction, infarct volume and neurological deficit were significantly increased at D1 and D7, and neuronal death (TUNEL+ / NeuN+ cells) and BBB permeability (extravasation of Evans blue) at D1. At D7, CD31+ / Ki67+ double-immunolabeled cells and VEGFa and Ang2 expression were significantly increased, indicating delayed angiogenesis. We show that cerebral microangiopathy thus partly explains stroke severity in diabetes.

  20. Excess salt increases infarct size produced by photothrombotic distal middle cerebral artery occlusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yao

    Full Text Available Cerebral circulation is known to be vulnerable to high salt loading. However, no study has investigated the effects of excess salt on focal ischemic brain injury. After 14 days of salt loading (0.9% saline or water, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY were subjected to photothrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, and infarct volume was determined at 48 h after MCAO: albumin and hemoglobin contents in discrete brain regions were also determined in SHR. Salt loading did not affect blood pressure levels in SHR and WKY. After MCAO, regional cerebral blood flow (CBF, determined with two ways of laser-Doppler flowmetry (one-point measurement or manual scanning, was more steeply decreased in the salt-loaded group than in the control group. In SHR/Izm, infarct volume in the salt-loaded group was 112±27 mm3, which was significantly larger than 77±12 mm3 in the control group (p = 0.002, while the extents of blood-brain barrier disruption (brain albumin and hemoglobin levels were not affected by excess salt. In WKY, salt loading did not significantly increase infarct size. These results show the detrimental effects of salt loading on intra-ischemic CBF and subsequent brain infarction produced by phototrhombotic MCAO in hypertensive rats.

  1. Apparent diffusion coefficient evaluation for secondary changes in the cerebellum of rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunjun Yang; Lingyun Gao; Jun Fu; Jun Zhang; Yuxin Li; Bo Yin; Weijian Chen; Daoying Geng

    2013-01-01

    Supratentorial cerebral infarction can cause functional inhibition of remote regions such as the ce-rebel um, which may be relevant to diaschisis. This phenomenon is often analyzed using positron emission tomography and single photon emission CT. However, these methods are expensive and radioactive. Thus, the present study quantified the changes of infarction core and remote regions after unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion using apparent diffusion coefficient values. Diffu-sion-weighted imaging showed that the area of infarction core gradual y increased to involve the cerebral cortex with increasing infarction time. Diffusion weighted imaging signals were initial y in-creased and then stabilized by 24 hours. With increasing infarction time, the apparent diffusion coefficient value in the infarction core and remote bilateral cerebel um both gradual y decreased, and then slightly increased 3-24 hours after infarction. Apparent diffusion coefficient values at mote regions (cerebel um) varied along with the change of supratentorial infarction core, suggesting that the phenomenon of diaschisis existed at the remote regions. Thus, apparent diffusion coeffi-cient values and diffusion weighted imaging can be used to detect early diaschisis.

  2. Lack of functional P2X7 receptor aggravates brain edema development after middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Melanie; Penk, Anja; Franke, Heike; Krügel, Ute; Nörenberg, Wolfgang; Huster, Daniel; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Effective therapeutic measures against the development of brain edema, a life-threatening complication of cerebral ischemia, are necessary to improve the functional outcome for the patient. Here, we identified a beneficial role of purinergic receptor P2X7 activation in acute ischemic stroke. Involvement of P2X7 in the development of neurological deficits, infarct size, brain edema, and glial responses after ischemic cerebral infarction has been analyzed. Neurologic evaluation, magnetic resonance imaging, and immunofluorescence assays were used to characterize the receptor's effect on the disease progress during 72 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Sham-operated animals were included in all experiments for control purposes. We found P2X7-deficient mice to develop a more prominent brain edema with a trend towards more severe neurological deficits 24 h after tMCAO. Infarct sizes, T2 times, and apparent diffusion coefficients did not differ significantly between wild-type and P2X7(-/-) animals. Our results show a characteristic spatial distribution of reactive glia cells with strongly attenuated microglia activation in P2X7(-/-) mice 72 h after tMCAO. Our data indicate that P2X7 exerts a role in limiting the early edema formation, possibly by modulating glial responses, and supports later microglia activation.

  3. Impaired fasting blood glucose is associated to cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy in middle-aged non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelti, Fathia; Dhenain, Marc; Terrien, Jérémy; Picq, Jean-Luc; Hardy, Isabelle; Champeval, Delphine; Perret, Martine; Schenker, Esther; Epelbaum, Jacques; Aujard, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations. In the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, spatial memory deficits have been associated with age and cerebral atrophy but the origin of these alterations have not been clearly identified. Herein, we showed that, on 28 female grey mouse lemurs (age range 2.4-6.1 years-old), age correlated with impaired fasting blood glucose (rs=0.37) but not with impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In middle-aged animals (4.1-6.1 years-old), fasting blood glucose was inversely and closely linked with spatial memory performance (rs=0.56) and hippocampus (rs=−0.62) or septum (rs=−0.55) volumes. These findings corroborate observations in humans and further support the grey mouse lemur as a natural model to unravel mechanisms which link impaired glucose homeostasis, brain atrophy and cognitive processes. PMID:28039490

  4. Experimental stereotactic gamma knife radiosurgery. Vascular contractility studies of the rat middle cerebral artery after chronic survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Otto; Szeifert, György Tamás; Radatz, Matthias W R; Walton, Lee; Kemeny, Andras Armand

    2002-03-01

    In vitro isometric small vessel myograph experiments and pathological investigations were performed on rat middle cerebral arteries. Thirty-four animals provided 68 normal vessels, six further rats had the endothelial layer mechanically removed from their 12 arteries. Eighteen animals received gamma knife irradiation to the middle cerebral arteries. Fifteen of these received 50 Gray, and three 25 Gray dose to the 50% isodose and the contralateral vessels offered 20 Gray and 15 Gray irradiated specimens. Survival times varied from 12 weeks to 18 months. In the acute stage, abolition of potassium-induced relaxation occurred as early as 24 h after irradiation whilst in one year this reaction seemed to recover and remained active to 18 months. The contraction response to prostaglandin F2 alpha was diminished at six weeks in the 50 Gray-irradiated vessels. However, from one year further reduction was seen and by 18 months this response was totally abolished. We demonstrated reduction of contractile capability of the irradiated normal vessels while the vessels remained patent. When using low irradiation dose there were no pathological changes even at 18 months, but marked physiological changes could be demonstrated. Different vessel wall functions appear to have different radiosensitivity, time course and capability for regeneration.

  5. Relationship between glutamate in the limbic system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明利; 陈漫娥; 王景周; 郭光华; 郑衍平; 蒋晓江; 张猛

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the features of glutamate activity in the limbic system and the effects of glutamate on the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis throughout both acute cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.Methods The changes in glutamate content in the nervous cell gap, in corticotrophin releasing hormone (CHR) mRNA expression level in brain tissue, and in adrenocorticotropic hormone in blood plasma at different time-points after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats were determined respectively with high-performance liquid chomatography (HPLC) and in situ hybridization.Results Glutamate content in the hippocampus and the hypothalamus increased rapidly at ischemia 15 minutes, and reached peak value (the averages were 21.05 mg/g±2.88 mg/g and 14.20 mg/g±2.58 mg/g, respectively) at 1 hour after middle cerebral artery occlusion. During recirculation, it returned rapidly to the baseline level. At 24 hours after reperfusion, it went up once more, and remained at a relative high level until 48 hours after reperfusion, and then declined gradually. CRH mRNA expression levels in the temporal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus were enhanced markedly at 1 hour ischemia and were maintained until 96 hours after reperfusion. At the same time, adrenocorticotropic hormone level in plasma was relatively increased. In the peak stage of reperfusion injury, there was a significantly positive correlation (n=15, r=0.566, P<0.05) of the glutamate contents in the hypothalamus with the number of cells positive for CRH mRNA expression level in the hypothalamus.Conclusion It is probable that the CRH system in the central nervous system is mainly distributed in the limbic system, and glutamate might be one of the trigger factors to induce excessive stress response in the HPA axis.

  6. Large deep infarcts found in proximal middle cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease: MRI and angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Bum Ha; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Suk; Jang, Dae Il; Chung, Kyung Cheon; Oh, Joo Hyung; Yoon, Yup; Hong, Hoon Pyo [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    To determine the nature of large deep-seated infarcts without cortical infarct in patients with steno-occlusive disease of the proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) using magnetic resonance images (MRI) and angiography. By means of MRI and MR angiography (MRA), we examined 24 patients with large deep cerebral infarctions (>3cm in size) involving the basal ganglia, corona radiata and/or centrum semiovale, as well as steno-occlusive lesion of the proximal MCA. According to location, infarctions were classified into five groups, as follows:Group 1:basal ganlgia and corona radiata; 2:basal ganglia, corona radiata and centrum semiovale;3:corona radiata and centrum semiovale;4:corona radiata;5:basal ganglia only. We evaluated the topography of the lesions and correlated the results with the findings of angiography (all 24 MRA;the 13:conventional angiography). Involvement of the head of the caudate nucleus and the internal capsule were also evaluated. Fifteen of 24 cases (63%) were assigned to group 1 (4 proximal MCA(M1) occlusion and 11 stenosis), and five of 24 (21%) with M1 occlusions to group 2. Group 3 comprised only one case with M1 occlusion. Two cases with both occlusion and stenosis were included in group 4, and only one case-with M1 stenosis-in group 5. Infarctions at the caudate nucleus were seen in five cases, and at the internal capsule in two. On conventional angiography (13 cases) cortical branches of the MCA were delineated through the leptomeningeal collaterals of anterior or posterior cerebral arteries. Most large deep cerebral infarctions found in proximal MCA diseases are thought to extend cephalad to the corona radiata. When large deep-seated infarctions with proximal MCA occlusion is observed more frequently than stenosis.=20.

  7. Cuantificación del signo de la arteria cerebral media hiperdensa con TCMD Quantification of hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Meli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Obtener una cuantificación absoluta y relativa de la densidad en el signo de la arteria cerebral media (ACM con el fin de lograr un valor objetivo para el diagnóstico temprano de isquemia cerebral aguda con TCMD. Materiales y Métodos. Se incluyeron 40 pacientes, 20 con sospecha de isquemia cerebral aguda (edad media 73,4 años y 20 pacientes controles (edad media 71,2 años, p=0,63, que se realizaron TC cerebral con un equipo de 64 filas de detectores. La cuantificación absoluta se realizó midiendo la densidad en UH en el segmento de la ACM visualmente de mayor densidad. También se midió la densidad en el mismo segmento de la ACM contralateral para calcular la diferencia entre ambas arterias (cuantificación relativa. Resultados. En pacientes casos, la densidad media de la ACM afectada (62,5 UH, IC 99%: 46,2-78,7 fue mayor que la de la ACM contralateral (39,3 UH, IC 99%: 33,3-45,3 (p=0,0004 y también fue mayor en comparación con la ACM en pacientes controles (44,7 UH, IC 99%: 37,4-52 (p=0,0045. En la cuantificación relativa, la diferencia media entre la densidad de la ACM afectada y la de ACM contralateral en los pacientes casos fue de 23,2 UH (IC 95%: 11,7-34,7, mientras que, en pacientes controles, la diferencia media entre la densidad de la ACM derecha y la ACM izquierda fue 5,2 UH (IC 95%: 2,4-8,4 (diferencia: 17,8 UH, p=0,0032, IC 95%: 6,8-28,8. Conclusión. Mostramos diferencias significativas (absolutas y relativas en la densidad de la ACM en pacientes con sospecha de isquemia cerebral aguda en comparación con sujetos normales.Purposes. To obtain absolute and relative quantification values of density in the middle cerebral artery (MCA sign, in order to obtain an objective value for an early diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke using MDCT. Material and Methods. Forty adult patients, 20 with suspected diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (mean age: 73.4 years and 20 controls (mean age: 71.2 years, p=0.63, underwent brain

  8. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  9. Imaging Findings Associated with Space-Occupying Edema in Patients with Large Middle Cerebral Artery Infarcts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, A D; Dankbaar, J W; Stemerdink, T A; Bennink, E; van Seeters, T; Kappelle, L J; Hofmeijer, J; de Jong, H W; van der Graaf, Y; Velthuis, B K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prominent space-occupying cerebral edema is a devastating complication occurring in some but not all patients with large MCA infarcts. It is unclear why differences in the extent of edema exist. Better knowledge of factors related to prominent edema formation could aid treatm

  10. Effect of ST36 Acupuncture on Hyperventilation-Induced CO2 Reactivity of the Basilar and Middle Cerebral Arteries and Heart Rate Variability in Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ho Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to verify the effect of acupuncture on cerebral haemodynamics to provide evidence for the use of acupuncture treatment as a complementary therapy for the high-risk stroke population. The effect of ST36 acupuncture treatment on the hyperventilation-induced CO2 reactivity of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries was studied in 10 healthy male volunteers (mean age, 25.2 ± 1.5 years using a transcranial Doppler sonography with an interval of 1 week between measurements, and a portable ECG monitoring system was used to obtain ECG data simultaneously. The CO2 reactivity of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries increased significantly after ST36 acupuncture treatment, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate did not change significantly. The high-frequency power significantly increased after ST36 acupuncture treatment, and the percentage increase of high-frequency power correlated significantly with the percentage increase in the CO2 reactivity of the contralateral middle cerebral artery. These data suggest that ST36 acupuncture treatment increases CO2 reactivity, indicating improvement of vasodilatory potential of the cerebral vasculature to compensate for fluctuations caused by changes in external conditions. The increase in parasympathetic tone by ST36 acupuncture treatment is responsible for this therapeutic effect.

  11. Mechanics and composition of middle cerebral arteries from simulated microgravity rats with and without 1-h/d -Gx gravitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-Hua Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To elucidate further from the biomechanical aspect whether microgravity-induced cerebral vascular mal-adaptation might be a contributing factor to postflight orthostatic intolerance and the underlying mechanism accounting for the potential effectiveness of intermittent artificial gravity (IAG in preventing this adverse effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Middle cerebral arteries (MCAs were isolated from 28-day SUS (tail-suspended, head-down tilt rats to simulate microgravity effect, S+D (SUS plus 1-h/d -Gx gravitation by normal standing to simulate IAG, and CON (control rats. Vascular myogenic reactivity and circumferential stress-strain and axial force-pressure relationships and overall stiffness were examined using pressure arteriography and calculated. Acellular matrix components were quantified by electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that myogenic reactivity is susceptible to previous pressure-induced, serial constrictions. During the first-run of pressure increments, active MCAs from SUS rats can strongly stiffen their wall and maintain the vessels at very low strains, which can be prevented by the simulated IAG countermeasure. The strains are 0.03 and 0.14 respectively for SUS and S+D, while circumferential stress being kept at 0.5 (106 dyn/cm2. During the second-run pressure steps, both the myogenic reactivity and active stiffness of the three groups declined. The distensibility of passive MCAs from S+D is significantly higher than CON and SUS, which may help to attenuate the vasodilatation impairment at low levels of pressure. Collagen and elastin percentages were increased and decreased, respectively, in MCAs from SUS and S+D as compared with CON; however, elastin was higher in S+D than SUS rats. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to previous myogenic constrictions seems to be a self-limiting protective mechanism in cerebral small resistance arteries to prevent undue cerebral vasoconstriction during orthostasis at 1-G

  12. Assessment of Hyperperfusion by Brain Perfusion SPECT in Transient Neurological Deterioration after Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Sang Mi; Eo, Jae Sun; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Won Woo; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Transient neurological deterioration (TND) is one of the complications after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery, and it has been assumed to be caused by postoperative transient hyperperfusion. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between TND and preoperative and postoperative cerebral perfusion status on brain perfusion SPECT following superficial temporal artery.middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis surgery. A total of 60 STA-MCA anastomosis surgeries of 56 patients (mean age: 50{+-}16 yrs; M:F=29:27; atherosclerotic disease: 33, moyamoya disease: 27) which were done between September 2003 and July 2006 were enrolled. The resting cerebral perfusion and cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) after acetazolamide challenge were measured before and 10 days after surgery using 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT. Moreover, the cerebral perfusion was measured on the third postoperative day. With the use of the statistical parametric mapping and probabilistic brain atlas, the counts for the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were calculated for each image, and statistical analyses were performed. In 6 of 60 cases (10%), TND occurred after surgery. In all patients, the preoperative cerebral perfusion of affected MCA territory was significantly lower than that of contralateral side (p=0.002). The cerebral perfusion on the third and tenth day after surgery was significantly higher than preoperative cerebral perfusion (p=0.001, p=0.02). In TND patients, basal cerebral perfusion and CVR on preoperative SPECT were significantly lower than those of non-TND patients (p=0.01, p=0.05). Further, the increases in cerebral perfusion on the third day after surgery were significant higher than those in other patients (p=0.008). In patients with TND, the cerebral perfusion ratio of affected side to contralateral side on third postoperative day was significantly higher than that of other patients (p=0.002). However, there was no significant difference of

  13. Microglial and macrophage reactions mark progressive changes and define the penumbra in the rat neocortex and striatum after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehrmann, E; Christensen, Thomas; Zimmer, J

    1997-01-01

    Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats leads to infarction of the lateral part of the striatum and adjacent neocortex, with selective neuronal necrosis in the bordering penumbral zones. Administration of glutamate, cytokine, and leukocyte antagonists have rescued mainly neocortical ne...... pattern attract special attention, as these cells may constitute specific targets for therapeutic intervention....

  14. Cl(-) conduction of GABAA receptor complex of synaptic membranes in the cortex of rats at the middle stage of chronic cerebral epileptization (pharmacological kindling).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebrov, I G; Karpova, M N; Andreev, A A; Klishina, N Yu; Kalinina, M V; Kusnetzova, L V

    2007-11-01

    Experiments on Wistar rats showed a decrease in basal and muscimol-stimulated 36Cl(-) entry into synaptoneurosomes isolated from the cerebral cortex during the middle stage of kindling (30 mg/kg pentylenetetrazole intraperitoneally for 14 days) characterized by the development of convulsions of higher (2 points) severity in comparison with the previous stage.

  15. Predicting long-term independency in activities of daily living after middle cerebral artery stroke: does information from MRI have added predictive value compared with clinical information?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiemanck, S.K.; Kwakkel, G.; Post, M.W.; Kappelle, L.J.; Prevo, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate whether neuroimaging information has added predictive value compared with clinical information for independency in activities of daily living (ADL) 1 year after stroke. METHODS: Seventy-five first-ever middle cerebral artery stroke survivors were evaluated in l

  16. Fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow characteristics of gestational hypertension combined with fetal distress in uterus as well as their correlation with hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yin; Jian-Hua Wang

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow characteristics of gestational hypertension combined with fetal distress in uterus as well as their correlation with hypoxia. Methods: Puerperae with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and fetal distress in uterus, puerperae with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy alone and healthy puerperae who gave birth in our hospital between January 2013 and January 2016 were included in group A, group B and group C of the study respectively. At 34-36 weeks of pregnancy, color Doppler ultrasonography was conducted to determine fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow parameters; after childbirth, umbilical arterial blood was collected to determine blood gas analysis parameters, and the placenta tissue was collected to determine oxidative stress and mitochondria damage indexes.Results:Fetal middle cerebral artery S/D, PI and RI of group A were significantly higher than those of group B and group C while umbilical artery pH value and PaO2 as well as HCO3- and BE content were significantly lower than those of group B and group C; fetal middle cerebral artery S/D, PI and RI as well as umbilical artery pH value, PaO2, HCO3- and BE content of group B were not significantly different from those of group C; Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, VitC, SVCT1, SVCT2, ATP, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, NRF1 and NRF2 content in placenta tissue of group A were significantly lower than those of group B and group C while ROS content was significantly higher than those of group B and group C; Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, VitC, SVCT1, SVCT2, ATP, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, NRF1 and NRF2 content in placenta tissue of group B were significantly lower than those of group C while ROS content was significantly higher than that of group C. Fetal middle cerebral artery S/D, PI and RI were negatively correlated with umbilical artery pH value, PaO2, HCO3- and BE content as well as Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, VitC, SVCT1, SVCT2, ATP, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, NRF1 and NRF2 content, and were positively correlated

  17. Unilateral supraorbital keyhole approach in patients with middle cerebral artery (M1-M2 segment) symmetrical aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellotta, N; Gigante, N; Toscano, S; Maddalena, G F; Tripodi, M; Settembrini, G; Stroscio, C; Distefano, G; Citro, E

    2003-08-01

    A left middle cerebral artery aneurysm at the bifurcation (M1-M2 segment) and a right smaller aneurysm, symmetrical to the previous one were diagnosed in a 69-year-old female after angiographic examination for subarachnoid hemorrhage. The preoperative radiological study did not enable us to identify the bleeding aneurysm so a left supraorbital keyhole approach was performed to operate on the bigger aneurysm. In the same surgical session, using the same way of approach, we decided to attack also the right aneurysm which then revealed itself as being responsible for bleeding. The postoperative angiograms confirmed the complete exclusion of both aneurysms and the patient was discharged after good recovery. Although there are remarkable controversies about the surgical strategies for multiple aneurysms, our experience gives us the opportunity to emphasize the supraorbital keyhole approach and to reconsider the "timing" of multiple/bilateral aneurysms.

  18. Low-speed treadmill running exercise improves memory function after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Haruka; Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Nakashima, Hiroki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2013-04-15

    Physical exercise may enhance the recovery of impaired memory function in stroke rats. However the appropriate conditions of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect exercise intensity on memory function after cerebral infarction in rats. The animals were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min to induce stroke and were randomly assigned to four groups; Low-Ex, High-Ex, Non-Ex and Sham. On the fourth day after surgery, rats in the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups were forced to exercise using a treadmill for 30 min every day for four weeks. Memory functions were examined during the last 5 days of the experiment (27-32 days after MCAO) by three types of tests: an object recognition test, an object location test and a passive avoidance test. After the final memory test, the infarct volume, number of neurons and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus were analyzed by histochemistry. Memory functions in the Low-Ex group were improved in all tests. In the High-Ex group, only the passive avoidance test improved, but not the object recognition or object location tests. Both the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups had reduced infarct volumes. Although the number of neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups was increased, the number for the Low-Ex group increased more than that for the High-Ex group. Moreover hippocampal MAP2 immunoreactivity in the High-Ex group was reduced compared to that in the Low-Ex group. These data suggest that the effects of exercise on memory impairment after cerebral infarction depend on exercise intensity.

  19. Original Research: Sickle cell anemia and pediatric strokes: Computational fluid dynamics analysis in the middle cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Christian P; Veneziani, Alessandro; Ware, Russell E; Platt, Manu O

    2016-04-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have a high incidence of strokes, and transcranial Doppler (TCD) identifies at-risk patients by measuring blood velocities in large intracerebral arteries; time-averaged mean velocities greater than 200 cm/s confer high stroke risk and warrant therapeutic intervention with blood transfusions. Our objective was to use computational fluid dynamics to alter fluid and artery wall properties, to simulate scenarios causative of significantly elevated arterial blood velocities. Two-dimensional simulations were created and increasing percent stenoses were created in silico, with their locations varied among middle cerebral artery (MCA), internal carotid artery (ICA), and anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Stenoses placed in the MCA, ICA, or ACA generated local increases in velocity, but not sufficient to reach magnitudes > 200 cm/s, even up to 75% stenosis. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the MCA, ICA, and ACA from children with SCA were generated from magnetic resonance angiograms. Using finite element method, blood flow was simulated with realistic velocity waveforms to the ICA inlet. Three-dimensional reconstructions revealed an uneven, internal arterial wall surface in children with SCA and higher mean velocities in the MCA up to 145 cm/s compared to non-SCA reconstructions. There were also greater areas of flow recirculation and larger regions of low wall shear stress. Taken together, these bumps on the internal wall of the cerebral arteries could create local flow disturbances that, in aggregate, could elevate blood velocities in SCA. Identifying cellular causes of these microstructures as adhered blood cells or luminal narrowing due to endothelial hyperplasia induced by disturbed flow would provide new targets to treat children with SCA. The preliminary qualitative results provided here point out the critical role of 3D reconstruction of patient-specific vascular geometries and provide qualitative insight to complex

  20. Asymmetry in the brain influenced the neurological deficits and infarction volume following the middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Meizeng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paw preference in rats is similar to human handedness, which may result from dominant hemisphere of rat brain. However, given that lateralization is the uniqueness of the humans, many researchers neglect the differences between the left and right hemispheres when selecting the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ischemia in the dominant hemisphere on neurobehavioral function and on the cerebral infarction volume following MCAO in rats. Methods The right-handed male Sprague-Dawley rats asserted by the quadrupedal food-reaching test were subjected to 2 hours MCA occlusion and then reperfusion. Results The neurological scores were significantly worse in the left MCAO group than that in the right MCAO group at 1 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h (p 0.05 respectively. There was a trend toward better neurobehavioral function recovery in the right MCAO group than in the left MCAO group. The total infarct volume in left MCAO was significantly larger than that in the right (p Conclusion The neurobehavioral function result and the pathological result were consistent with the hypothesis that paw preference in rats is similar to human handedness, and suggested that ischemia in dominant hemisphere caused more significant neurobehavioral consequence than in another hemisphere following MCAO in adult rats. Asymmetry in rat brain should be considered other than being neglected in choice of rat MCAO model.

  1. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin alleviates brain edema after permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akira T; Kurita, Daisaku; Furuya, Hiroyuki; Yamano, Mariko; Ogata, Yoshitaka; Haida, Munetaka

    2009-02-01

    Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) was proven to be protective in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study evaluated LEH in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion to clarify its effect during ischemia and reperfusion. Five minutes after thread occlusion of the MCA, rats were infused with 10 mL/kg of LEH (LEH, n = 13), and compared with normal controls (n = 11). Additional animals received the same MCA occlusion with no treatment (CT, n = 11), saline (saline, n = 10), empty liposome solution (EL, n = 13), or washed red blood cells (RBC, n = 7). Severity of brain edema was determined 24 h later by signal strength in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and pyriform lobe. The results showed that brain edema/infarction observed in any vehicle-infused control was significantly more severe than in LEH-treated rats. There was a tendency toward aggravated edema in rats receiving ELs. LEH infusion at a dose of 10 mL/kg significantly reduced edema formation as compared to other treatments in a wide area of the brain 24 h after permanent occlusion of the MCA. Low oncotic pressure of EL and LEH solution (vehicle solution) appeared to cause nonsignificant aggravation of edema and reduced protective effects of LEH.

  2. CT perfusion assessment of Moyamoya syndrome before and after direct revascularization (superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yueqin [Hospital of Qingdao University, Department of Radiology, Qingdao (China); Hospital of Jining Medical College, CT Department, Jining (China); Xu, Wenjian [Hospital of Qingdao University, Department of Radiology, Qingdao (China); Guo, Xiang; Shi, Zhitao; Sun, Zhanguo; Wang, Jiehuan [Hospital of Jining Medical College, CT Department, Jining (China); Gao, Lingyun [Hospital of Jining Medical College, MR Department, Jining (China); Jin, Feng [Hospital of Jining Medical College, Department of Neurosurgery, Jining (China); Chen, Weijian; Yang, Yunjun [Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the utility of CT perfusion (CTP) for the assessment of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis in patients with Moyamoya syndrome (MMS). Twenty-four consecutive MMS patients, who underwent unilateral STA-MCA bypass surgery, received CTP before and after surgery. The relative perfusion parameter values of surgical hemispheres before treatment were compared with post-treatment values. All patients underwent CT angiography (CTA) before and after surgery in order to confirm the patency of bypass. The follow-up CTA after surgery clearly demonstrated 20 (20/24, 83.3 %) bypass arteries, whereas four (16.7 %) bypass arteries were occluded or very small. Postoperative rMTT and rTTP values (P < 0.05) of the surgical side were significantly lower than pre-operation. In patients (n = 20) with bypass patency, postoperative rCBF, rMTT and rTTP values (P < 0.05) of the surgical side were significantly improved. However, the differences of all parameters were not significant (P > 0.05) in the patients (n = 4) without bypass patency after revascularization. This study demonstrates that CTP can provide a crucial quantitative assessment of cerebral haemodynamic changes in MMS before and after STA-MCA anastomosis. (orig.)

  3. Increased pressure-induced tone in rat parenchymal arterioles vs. middle cerebral arteries: role of ion channels and calcium sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Marilyn J; Sweet, Julie; Chan, Siu-Lung; Tavares, Matthew J; Gokina, Natalia; Brayden, Joseph E

    2014-07-01

    Brain parenchymal arterioles (PAs) are high-resistance vessels that branch off pial arteries and perfuse the brain parenchyma. PAs are the target of cerebral small vessel disease and have been shown to have greater pressure-induced tone at lower pressures than pial arteries. We investigated mechanisms by which brain PAs have increased myogenic tone compared with middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), focusing on differences in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) calcium and ion channel function. The amount of myogenic tone and VSM calcium was measured using Fura 2 in isolated and pressurized PAs and MCAs. Increases in intraluminal pressure caused larger increases in tone and cytosolic calcium in PAs compared with MCAs. At 50 mmHg, myogenic tone was 37 ± 5% for PAs vs. 6.5 ± 4% for MCAs (P channel (VDCC) inhibitor nifedipine than MCAs (EC50 for PAs was 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. 82.1 ± 2.1 nmol/l for MCAs;P channel inhibitor iberiotoxin, whereas MCAs constricted ∼15%. Thus increased myogenic tone in PAs appears related to differences in ion channel activity that promotes VSM membrane depolarization but not to a direct sensitization of the contractile apparatus to calcium.

  4. Microglia and macrophages express tumor necrosis factor receptor p75 following middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm; Fenger, Claus;

    2007-01-01

    of the TNF receptors, TNF-p55R and TNF-p75R, from 1 to 10 days following permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in mice. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we observed that the relative level of TNF-p55R mRNA was significantly increased at 1-2 days and TNF-p75R m......RNA was significantly increased at 1-10 days following arterial occlusion, reaching peak values at 5 days, when microglial-macrophage CD11b mRNA expression was also increased. In comparison, the relative level of TNF mRNA was significantly increased from 1 to 5 days, with peak levels 1 day after arterial occlusion...... was expressed in resident microglia and blood-borne macrophages located in the peri-infarct and infarct 1 and 5 days after arterial occlusion, which was supported by Western blotting. The data show that increased expression of the TNF-p75 receptor following induction of focal cerebral ischemia in mice can...

  5. Microglia and macrophages express tumor necrosis factor receptor p75 following middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, K.L.; Clausen, B.H.; Fenger, C.;

    2006-01-01

    of the TNF receptors, TNF-p55R and TNF-p75R, from 1 to 10 days following permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in mice. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we observed that the relative level of TNF-p55R mRNA was significantly increased at 1-2 days and TNF-p75R m......RNA was significantly increased at 1-10 days following arterial occlusion, reaching peak values at 5 days, when microglial-macrophage CD11b mRNA expression was also increased. In comparison, the relative level of TNF mRNA was significantly increased from 1 to 5 days, with peak levels 1 day after arterial occlusion...... was expressed in resident microglia and blood-borne macrophages located in the peri-infarct and infarct 1 and 5 days after arterial occlusion, which was supported by Western blotting. The data show that increased expression of the TNF-p75 receptor following induction of focal cerebral ischemia in mice can...

  6. The usefulness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the middle cerebral artery stenosis in patients with transient ischemic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Chul; Lim, Hyo Soon; Kim, Jae Kyu; Seo, Jeong Jin; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National Univ. Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty(PTA) of atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery(MCA) stenosis in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Ten patients with TIA who had undergone PTA were retrospectively investigated. In all ten, angiography revealed stenosis of the MCA. Mechanical dilatation was performed at the stenotic portion, and the angiographic findings after PTA, as well as peri/post-angioplastic complications, were evaluated. Four to 64 (mean, 23.5) months later, neurologic symptoms and the nature and timing of recurrent attacks were also assessed. The degree of stenosis before PTA was 50-75% in six patients and greater than 75% in four. Complete or partial angiographic recanalization of the stenotic segment occurred in nine patients (90%). During follow-up, seven patients recovered without recurrent TIA or cerebral stroke; one reported a tingling sensation and one experienced vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Motor aphasia developed in one patient after PTA, but after systemic heparinization, improved within 24 hours. One patient who suffered intracranial hemorrhage due to vascular rupture during PTA did three days later. PTA for atherosclerotic MCA stenosis in patients with TIA is an effective therapeutic method.

  7. Cerebral blood flow is diminished in asymptomatic middle-aged adults with maternal history of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Xu, Guofan; Oh, Jennifer M; Dowling, N Maritza; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Gallagher, Catherine L; Birdsill, Alex C; Palotti, Matthew; Wharton, Whitney; Hermann, Bruce P; LaRue, Asenath; Bendlin, Barbara B; Rowley, Howard A; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) provides an indication of the metabolic status of the cortex and may have utility in elucidating preclinical brain changes in persons at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related diseases. In this study, we investigated CBF in 327 well-characterized adults including patients with AD (n = 28), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 23), older cognitively normal (OCN, n = 24) adults, and asymptomatic middle-aged adults (n = 252) with and without a family history (FH) of AD. Compared with the asymptomatic cohort, AD patients displayed significant hypoperfusion in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, lateral parietal cortex, and the hippocampal region. Patients with aMCI exhibited a similar but less marked pattern of hypoperfusion. Perfusion deficits within the OCN adults were primarily localized to the inferior parietal lobules. Asymptomatic participants with a maternal FH of AD showed hypoperfusion in hippocampal and parietofrontal regions compared with those without a FH of AD or those with only a paternal FH of AD. These observations persisted when gray matter volume was included as a voxel-wise covariate. Our findings suggest that having a mother with AD might confer a particular risk for AD-related cerebral hypoperfusion in midlife. In addition, they provide further support for the potential utility of arterial spin labeling for the measurement of AD-related neurometabolic dysfunction, particularly in situations where [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose imaging is infeasible or clinically contraindicated.

  8. [Cerebral artery infarction presented as an unusual complication of acute middle otitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Gutiérrez-Paternina, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la otitis media aguda es una inflamación del oído medio frecuente en la edad pediátrica. Aproximadamente 2 % de todos los casos desarrolla complicaciones intracraneales, más específicamente meningitis; por lo general, los infartos cerebrales originados por esta última son venosos. Rara vez se ha descrito la ocurrencia de un infarto arterial cerebral como complicación directa de la otitis media aguda. Caso clínico: niña de 12 meses de edad quien fue llevada a un servicio de urgencias por síndrome febril secundario a otitis media aguda y alteración del estado de conciencia. A la exploración física se identificó que estaba somnolienta, con anisocoria, midriasis en el ojo derecho y hemiparesia izquierda. Con la tomografía axial computarizada de cerebro se apreció un infarto arterial cerebral extenso. Los padres no autorizaron la craniectomía descompresiva y la paciente falleció a las 48 horas de su ingreso hospitalario. Conclusiones: a pesar de los recursos tecnológicos con los que se dispone actualmente, el infarto cerebral relacionado con la otitis media aguda tiene una evolución tórpida. Los signos neurológicos focalizadores y el deterioro progresivo deben apuntar a la ineficacia del tratamiento antimicrobiano instaurado.

  9. Regulation of KCa2.3 and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH in the rat middle cerebral artery: the role of lipoxygenase metabolites and isoprostanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Gauthier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. In rat middle cerebral arteries, endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH is mediated by activation of calcium-activated potassium (KCa channels specifically KCa2.3 and KCa3.1. Lipoxygenase (LOX products function as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs in rabbit arteries by stimulating KCa2.3. We investigated if LOX products contribute to EDH in rat cerebral arteries.Methods. Arachidonic acid (AA metabolites produced in middle cerebral arteries were measured using HPLC and LC/MS. Vascular tension and membrane potential responses to SLIGRL were simultaneously recorded using wire myography and intracellular microelectrodes.Results. SLIGRL, an agonist at PAR2 receptors, caused EDH that was inhibited by a combination of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 blockade. Non-selective LOX-inhibition reduced EDH, whereas inhibition of 12-LOX had no effect. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH inhibition enhanced the KCa2.3 component of EDH. Following NO synthase (NOS inhibition, the KCa2.3 component of EDH was absent. Using HPLC, middle cerebral arteries metabolized 14C-AA to 15- and 12-LOX products under control conditions. With NOS inhibition, there was little change in LOX metabolites, but increased F-type isoprostanes. 8-iso-PGF2α inhibited the KCa2.3 component of EDH.Conclusions. LOX metabolites mediate EDH in rat middle cerebral arteries. Inhibition of sEH increases the KCa2.3 component of EDH. Following NOS inhibition, loss of KCa2.3 function is independent of changes in LOX production or sEH inhibition but due to increased isoprostane production and subsequent stimulation of TP receptors. These findings have important implications in diseases associated with loss of NO signaling such as stroke; where inhibition of sEH and/or isoprostane formation may of benefit.

  10. Transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of the PACAP38 influenced ischemic brain in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori Motohide

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is considered to be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention of cerebral ischemia. Ischemia is a most common cause of death after heart attack and cancer causing major negative social and economic consequences. This study was designed to investigate the effect of PACAP38 injection intracerebroventrically in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO along with corresponding SHAM control that used 0.9% saline injection. Methods Ischemic and non-ischemic brain tissues were sampled at 6 and 24 hours post-treatment. Following behavioral analyses to confirm whether the ischemia has occurred, we investigated the genome-wide changes in gene and protein expression using DNA microarray chip (4x44K, Agilent and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were also used to further examine the identified protein factor. Results Our results revealed numerous changes in the transcriptome of ischemic hemisphere (ipsilateral treated with PACAP38 compared to the saline-injected SHAM control hemisphere (contralateral. Previously known (such as the interleukin family and novel (Gabra6, Crtam genes were identified under PACAP influence. In parallel, 2-DGE analysis revealed a highly expressed protein spot in the ischemic hemisphere that was identified as dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DPYL2. The DPYL2, also known as Crmp2, is a marker for the axonal growth and nerve development. Interestingly, PACAP treatment slightly increased its abundance (by 2-DGE and immunostaining at 6 h but not at 24 h in the ischemic hemisphere, suggesting PACAP activates neuronal defense mechanism early on. Conclusions This study provides a detailed inventory of PACAP influenced gene expressions

  11. Variables that affect the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in fetuses with anemia and intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Farhan; Drennan, Kathrin; Mari, Giancarlo

    2007-09-01

    We have previously reported that the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) increases in anemic fetuses and in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We hypothesized that the pathophysiology for the increased MCA PSV is different in anemic and IUGR fetuses. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the factor(s) among fetal umbilical vein blood pH, Po2, Pco2, and hemoglobin that might affect the MCA PSV in fetuses with anemia and IUGR. This study included two groups of fetuses. The first group included fetuses at risk for anemia because of red cell alloimmunization, whereas the second group included IUGR fetuses. For both groups of fetuses, we determined hemoglobin, umbilical vein blood gases -- at cordocentesis in anemic fetuses and immediately after cesarean delivery in IUGR fetuses -- and MCA PSV before cordocentesis, or before delivery. The relationship between MCA PSV and the hemoglobin, Po2, Pco2, and pH values for the anemic and the IUGR fetuses were assessed by regression analysis using multiples of the mean. There were 14 fetuses in the first group and 22 fetuses in the second group. In the first group, the only parameter that was related to MCA PSV was the fetal hemoglobin (R2 = 0.34; p < 0.05); in fetuses with IUGR, the Pco2 (R2 = 0.36; p < 0.01) and the PO2 (R2 = 0.30; p < 0.01) correlated well with the MCA PSV, whereas no relationship was found between the MCA PSV and the hemoglobin. The data indicate that the mechanism of high MCA PSV is different in anemic and nonanemic IUGR fetuses, and suggest that the process of cerebral autoregulation is present in the preterm IUGR fetus.

  12. Middle cerebral artery remodeling following transient brain ischemia is linked to early postischemic hyperemia: a target of uric acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, Yara; Dantas, Ana P; Pérez, Belén; Cugota, Roger; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M; Vila, Elisabet; Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc

    2015-04-15

    Ischemia impairs blood supply to the brain, and reperfusion is important to restore cerebral blood flow (CBF) and rescue neurons from cell death. However, reperfusion can induce CBF values exceeding the basal values before ischemia. This hyperemic effect has been associated with a worse ischemic brain damage, albeit the mechanisms that contribute to infarct expansion are not clear. In this study, we investigated the influence of early postischemic hyperemia on brain damage and middle cerebral artery (MCA) properties and the effect of treatment with the endogenous antioxidant uric acid (UA). The MCA was occluded for 90 min followed by 24 h reperfusion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cortical CBF increases at reperfusion beyond 20% of basal values were taken as indicative of hyperemia. UA (16 mg/kg) or vehicle (Locke's buffer) was administered intravenously 135 min after MCA occlusion. Hyperemic compared with nonhyperemic rats showed MCA wall thickening (sham: 22.4 ± 0.8 μm; nonhyperemic: 23.1 ± 1.2 μm; hyperemic: 27.8 ± 0.9 at 60 mmHg; P < 0.001, hyperemic vs. sham) involving adventitial cell proliferation, increased oxidative stress, and interleukin-18, and more severe brain damage. Thus MCA remodeling after ischemia-reperfusion takes place under vascular oxidative and inflammatory stress conditions linked to hyperemia. UA administration attenuated MCA wall thickening, induced passive lumen expansion, and reduced brain damage in hyperemic rats, although it did not increase brain UA concentration. We conclude that hyperemia at reperfusion following brain ischemia induces vascular damage that can be attenuated by administration of the endogenous antioxidant UA.

  13. Optical inhibition of striatal neurons promotes focal neurogenesis and neurobehavioral recovery in mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaosong; Lu, Yifan; Lin, Xiaojie; Jiang, Lu; Tang, Yaohui; Tang, Guanghui; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Yongting; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Striatal neurons regulate the activity of neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone, but the effect of striatal neuronal activity on neurogenesis after ischemic stroke is unclear. In this study, we used optogenetic tools to investigate the impact of striatal neuronal activity on the neurogenesis and functional recovery after cerebral ischemia. We transfected striatal neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 or halorhodopsin from Natronomonas so that they can be excited by 473 nm laser or inhibited by 594 nm laser, respectively. Neural inhibition but not excitation at 4-7 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in reduced atrophy volume (6.8 ± 0.7 vs 8.5 ± 1.2 mm(3), p < 0.05) and better performance represented by longer sustaining time on rotarod (99.3 ± 9 vs 80.1 ± 11 s, p < 0.01) and faster moving speed (7.7 ± 2 vs 5.7 ± 1.1 cm/s, p < 0.05) in open field tests. Furthermore, neural inhibition increased the number of nestin(+), BrdU(+)/doublecortin(+) and BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) cells ( p < 0.001) in the subventricular zone and peri-focal region, and the expression level of axon guidance factor Netrin-1 (0.39 ± 0.16 vs 0.16 ± 0.02, p < 0.05) in the peri-focal region. These data suggest that striatal neuronal activity plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and neural-behavioral outcomes, and that inhibiting striatal neurons by optogenetics promotes the recovery after ischemic stroke in mice.

  14. Rodent stroke induced by photochemical occlusion of proximal middle cerebral artery: Evolution monitored with MR imaging and histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Feng [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiology, Zhong Da Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Suzuki, Yasuhiro [Department of Molecular and Vascular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Department of Pharmacology, Hamamashu University, Hamamashu (Japan); Nagai, Nobuo [Department of Molecular and Vascular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Jin, Lixin [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Yu Jie [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Wang Huaijun [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Marchal, Guy [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Ni Yicheng [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium)]. E-mail: Yicheng.Ni@med.kuleuven.ac.be

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To longitudinally investigate stroke in rats after photothrombotic occlusion of proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in correlation with histopathology. Materials and methods: Forty-two rats were subjected to photochemical MCA occlusion and MRI at 1.5 T, and sacrificed in seven groups (n = 6 each) at the following time points: 1, 3, 6 and 12 h, and at day 1, 3 and 9. T2-weighted (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map was performed in all rats. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (CE-T1WI) was compared to intravital staining with Evans blue in one group for assessing blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. The brain was stained histochemically with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and processed for pathological assessment. The evolutional changes of relative lesion volume, signal intensity (SI), and the BBB integrity on MRI with corresponding histopathology were evaluated. Results: The ischemic lesion volume reached a maximum around 12 h to day 1 as visualized successively by DWI, ADC map and T2WI, implicating the evolving pathology from cytotoxic edema through vasogenic edema to tissue death. The ADC of brain infarction underwent a significant reversion after 12 h, reflecting the colliquative necrosis. On CE-T1WI, BBB leakage peaked at 6 h and at day 3 with a transitional partial recovery around 24 h. The infarct volume on T2WI, DWI and ADC map matched well with that on TTC staining at 12 h and at day 1 (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The evolution of the present photothrombotic stroke model in rats could be characterized by MRI. The obtained information may help longitudinal studies of cerebral ischemia and anti-stroke agents using the same model.

  15. The effects of Tanshinone IIA on blood-brain barrier and brain edema after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao; Xue, Hongli; Bai, Changlin; Fu, Rong; Wu, Anhua

    2010-12-01

    Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and edema formation play a key role in the development of neurological dysfunction after cerebral ischemia. In this study, the effects of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), one of the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza root, on the BBB and brain edema after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats were examined. Our study demonstrated that Tan IIA reduced brain infarct area, water content in the ischemic hemisphere. Furthermore, Tan IIA significantly decreased BBB permeability to Evans blue, suppressed the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), inhibited the degradation of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Occludin. These results demonstrated that Tan IIA was effective for attenuating the extent of brain edema formation in response to ischemia injury in rats, partly by Tan IIA's protective effect on the BBB. Our results may have implications in the treatment of brain edema in cerebral ischemia.

  16. Color-coded digital subtraction angiography in the management of a rare case of middle cerebral artery pure arterial malformation. A technical and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Caleb E; Pamias-Portalatin, Eva; Mendoza-Torres, Jorge; Effio, Euclides; Moran, Yadira; Rodriguez-Mercado, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    The advent of flow dynamics and the recent availability of perfusion analysis software have provided new diagnostic tools and management possibilities for cerebrovascular patients. To this end, we provide an example of the use of color-coded angiography and its application in a rare case of a patient with a pure middle cerebral artery (MCA) malformation. A 42-year-old male chronic smoker was evaluated in the emergency room due to sudden onset of severe headache, nausea, vomiting and left-sided weakness. Head computed tomography revealed a right basal ganglia hemorrhage. Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed a right middle cerebral artery malformation consisting of convoluted and ectatic collateral vessels supplying the distal middle cerebral artery territory-M1 proximally occluded. An associated medial lenticulostriate artery aneurysm was found. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography with and without acetazolamide failed to show problems in vascular reserve that would indicate the need for flow augmentation. Twelve months after discharge, the patient recovered from the left-sided weakness and did not present any similar events. A follow-up DSA and perfusion study using color-coded perfusion analysis showed perforator aneurysm resolution and adequate, albeit delayed perfusion in the involved vascular territory. We propose a combined congenital and acquired mechanism involving M1 occlusion with secondary dysplastic changes in collateral supply to the distal MCA territory. Angiographic and cerebral perfusion work-up was used to exclude the need for flow augmentation. Nevertheless, the natural course of this lesion remains unclear and long-term follow-up is warranted.

  17. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity and blood flow during exercise and muscle ischemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L G; Perko, M; Hanel, B

    1992-01-01

    ," mechanoreceptors, and/or muscle "metaboreceptors" on cerebral perfusion. Ten healthy subjects performed two levels of dynamic exercise corresponding to a heart rate of 110 (range 89-134) and 148 (129-170) beats/min, respectively, and exhaustive one-legged static knee extension. Measurements were continued during 2......-2.5 min of muscle ischemia. MAP increased similarly during static [114 (102-133) mmHg] and heavy dynamic exercise [121 (104-136) mmHg] and increased during muscle ischemia after dynamic exercise. During heavy dynamic exercise, Vmean increased 24% (10-47%; P less than 0.01) over approximately 3 min despite...... constant arterial carbon dioxide tension. In contrast, static exercise with a higher rate of perceived exertion [18 (13-20) vs. 15 (12-18) units; P less than 0.01] was associated with no significant change in Vmean. Muscle ischemia after exercise was not associated with an elevation in Vmean, and it did...

  18. Postmortem Study of Validation of Low Signal on Fat-Suppressed T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Marker of Lipid Core in Middle Cerebral Artery Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Hai-Lu; Niu, Chun-Bo; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Yun; Wong, Ka-Sing; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— High signal on T1-weighted fat-suppressed images in middle cerebral artery plaques on ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging was verified to be intraplaque hemorrhage histologically. However, the underlying plaque component of low signal on T1-weighted fat-suppressed images (LST1) has never been explored. Based on our experience, we hypothesized that LST1 might indicate the presence of lipid core within intracranial plaques. Methods— 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging was performed in the postmortem brains to scan the cross sections of bilateral middle cerebral arteries. Then middle cerebral artery specimens were removed for histology processing. LST1 presence was identified on magnetic resonance images, and lipid core areas were measured on the corresponding histology sections. Results— Total 76 middle cerebral artery locations were included for analysis. LST1 showed a high specificity (96.9%; 95% confidence interval, 82.0%–99.8%) but a low sensitivity (38.6%; 95% confidence interval, 24.7%–54.5%) for detecting lipid core of all areas. However, the sensitivity increased markedly (81.2%; 95% confidence interval, 53.7%–95.0%) when only lipid cores of area ≥0.80 mm2 were included. Mean lipid core area was 5× larger in those with presence of LST1 than in those without (1.63±1.18 mm2 versus 0.32±0.31 mm2; P=0.003). Conclusions— LST1 is a promising imaging biomarker of identifying intraplaque lipid core, which may be useful to distinguish intracranial atherosclerotic disease from other intracranial vasculopathies and to assess plaque vulnerability for risk stratification of patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease. In vivo clinical studies are required to explore the correlation between LST1 and clinical outcomes of patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease. PMID:27462119

  19. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  20. [A Case of Aphasia after Neck Clipping of a Ruptured Aneurysm at the Origin of the Duplicated Middle Cerebral Artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Migita, Keisuke; Kumano, Kiyoshi; Hashimoto, Naomi; Toyota, Akihiro

    2016-11-01

    We report a case of aphasia after neck clipping of a ruptured aneurysm at the origin of the duplicated middle cerebral artery(DMCA). A 60-year-old woman had a sudden onset of headache and nausea. A computed tomography(CT)scan revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Head three-dimensional CT angiography(3D-CTA)showed a left DMCA with a saccular aneurysm at the origin. She became aphasic on the third day after aneurysmal neck clipping. A CT scan revealed a low-density area in the anterior portion of the left temporal lobe, which is perfused by the DMCA. The DMCA was patent on 3D-CTA, but the angle between the ICA and the DMCA changed steep. It is suspected that the clip changed the branching angle at the DMCA origin, which may have led to decreased blood flow in the DMCA. She received linguistic rehabilitation for dysnomia and was discharged with slight difficulty in naming objects. Six months later, she recovered from the aphasia. One year later, the DMCA was patent on 3D-CTA. We should pay attention to ischemic complications in clipping because DMCAs are easily deformed.

  1. Integrated Analysis of Expression Profile Based on Differentially Expressed Genes in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the most common causes of death, only second to heart disease. Molecular investigations about stroke are in acute shortage nowadays. This study is intended to explore a gene expression profile after brain ischemia reperfusion. Meta-analysis, differential expression analysis, and integrated analysis were employed on an eight microarray series. We explored the functions and pathways of target genes in gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis and constructed a protein-protein interaction network. Meta-analysis identified 360 differentially expressed genes (DEGs for Mus musculus and 255 for Rattus norvegicus. Differential expression analysis identified 44 DEGs for Mus musculus and 21 for Rattus norvegicus. Timp1 and Lcn2 were overexpressed in both species. The cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and chemokine signaling pathway were highly enriched for the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway. We have exhibited a global view of the potential molecular differences between middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO animal model and sham for Mus musculus or Rattus norvegicus, including the biological process and enriched pathways in DEGs. This research helps contribute to a clearer understanding of the inflammation process and accurate identification of ischemic infarction stages, which might be transformed into a therapeutic approach.

  2. Herbal Formula Danggui-Shaoyao-San Promotes Neurogenesis and Angiogenesis in Rat Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Changhong; Wang, Brian; Li, Ning; Jin, Kunlin; Ji, Xunming

    2015-01-01

    Current studies demonstrated that traditional Chinese herbal formula Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS) is not only used for the treatment of menstrual disorder, but has also found its use in neurological diseases. However, the neuroprotective role of DSS on ischemia-induced brain injury is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of DSS in ischemic brain injury. Total 30 adult female Sprague–Dawley rats underwent 90 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). DSS (600 mg/kg) was administered through the intragastric route at the time of reperfusion and then performed every day thereafter until sacrifice. Results showed that DSS treatment significantly improved neurobehavioral outcomes (N=10 per group, P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that microvessel density in the perifocal region of DSS-treated rats was significantly increased compared to the saline-treated group (N=4 per group, P<0.01). Similarly, the numbers of BrdU+/DCX+ cells in the subventricular zone were increased in DSS-treated rats compared to the saline-treated group (P<0.05). Furthermore, we demonstrated that DSS treatment activated vascular endothelial growth factor (N=4 per group, P<0.05) and promoted eNOS phosphorylation (N=4 per group, P<0.05). Thus, we concluded that DSS promoted focal angiogenesis and neurogenesis, and attenuated ischemia-induced brain injury in rats after MCAO, suggesting that DSS is a potential drug for ischemic stroke therapy. PMID:26236546

  3. Protective Effects of Focal Ischemic Preconditioning and HSP70 Expression on Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianhua; SUN Senggang; CHEN Xiaowu

    2006-01-01

    To systematically evaluate the importance of protein synthesis in ischemic preconditioning (PC)-induced ischemic tolerance (IT), temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)by Longa (20 min) was used for PC (ischemic precondioning). Twenty-four hours of reperfusion was allowed after PC and before permanent MCAO to establish ischemic tolerance (IT) to compare with non-PC (sham-operated) rats (n=5 for each group). Infarct size and neurological deficits were measured 24 h after PMCAO. Samples of brain were taken for the determination of HSP70 expression by Western blot analysis. The effects of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide administered just before PC or administered long after PC but just before PMCAO on IT were also determined (n=5 for each group). Our results showed that hemispheric infarct was significantly reduced (P<0.01) only if PC was performed after 24 h, and PC significantly (P<0.05) reduced neurological deficits (similar to reductions in infarct size). Cycloheximide eliminated ischemic PC-induced IT effects on both brain injury and neurological deficits if administered before PC but not if administered long after PC but before PMCAO. PC produced no brain injury but did increase HSP70 protein 24 h after PC. Cycloheximide eliminated that effect. The results suggest that PC is a powerful inducer of ischemic brain tolerance as reflected by the preservation of brain tissue and motor function. PC induces IT that is dependent on de novo protein synthesis.

  4. Rapid identification of a major diffusion/perfusion mismatch in distal internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimelahi Reza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We tested the hypothesis that in patients with occlusion of the terminal internal carotid artery and/or the proximal middle cerebral artery, a diffusion abnormality of 70 ml or less is accompanied by a diffusion/perfusion mismatch of at least 100%. Methods Sixty-eight consecutive patients with terminal ICA and/or proximal MCA occlusions and who underwent diffusion/perfusion MRI within 24 hours of stroke onset were retrospectively identified. DWI and mean transit time (MTT volumes were measured. Prospectively, 48 consecutive patients were identified with the same inclusion criteria. DWI and time to peak (TTP lesion volumes were measured. A large mismatch volume was defined as an MTT or TTP abnormality at least twice the DWI lesion volume. Results In the retrospective study, 49 of 68 patients had a DWI lesion volume ≤ 70 ml (mean 20.2 ml; SEM 2.9 ml. A DWI/MTT mismatch of > 100% was observed in all 49 patients (P  100% was present in all 35 (P  Conclusions Acute stroke patients with major anterior circulation artery occlusion are exceedingly likely to have a major diffusion/perfusion mismatch if the diffusion lesion volume is 70 ml or less. This suggests that physiology-based patient assessments may be made using only vessel imaging and diffusion MRI as a simple alternative to perfusion imaging.

  5. Efficacy of extracranial-intracranial bypass for progressive middle cerebral artery occlusion associated with active Sjögren's syndrome: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Miki; Sato, Kenichi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2014-09-01

    Sjögren syndrome affecting the major cerebral arteries is rare, and an optimal therapeutic strategy to counteract such a lesion has not yet been established. We herein report a case of a 39-year-old woman with a history of primary Sjögren syndrome, which had previously been treated with immunosuppressive therapy, manifesting with a crescendo transient ischemic attack because of left middle cerebral artery stenosis. Despite the administration of high doses of prednisolone and azathioprine for active Sjögren syndrome, the frequency of crescendo transient ischemic attacks increased with the progression of stenosis and magnetic resonance imaging showed the development of subacute cerebral infarction. Single-photon emission computed tomography with N-isopropyl[(123)I]-p-iodoamphetamine revealed apparent hemodynamic compromise in the affected cerebral hemisphere. In light of the increased risk of further progression of cerebral infarction, we decided to perform surgical revascularization in spite of her active inflammatory condition. The patient underwent extracranial-intracranial bypass without complications and was treated with intensive immunosuppressive therapy during the perioperative period. Based on our findings, we recommend surgical revascularization for occlusive cerebrovascular disease with hemodynamic compromise in combination with intensive immunosuppressive therapy, even in the active inflammatory state of autoimmune diseases, if ischemic symptoms are medically uncontrollable.

  6. Epifascial accessory palmaris longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiengo, Cesare; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Bassetto, Franco; De Caro, Raffaele

    2006-09-01

    In hand reconstructive surgery the palmaris longus muscle is one of the most utilized donor site for tendon reconstruction procedures. However, its anatomic position is variable and anatomic variations may be responsible for median nerve compression. We report the case of a 40-year-old, right-handed woman, who presented with numbness and paresthesias in the palm and in the flexor aspect of the first, second, and third fingers of her right hand for the preceding 5 months, coinciding with increase of office work (typing). The clinical examination and radiological investigations (ultrasound and magnetic resonance) revealed a subcutaneous mass (15 mm x 2.3 mm x 6 cm), with a lenticular shape and definite edges at the level of the volar aspect of the distal third of the forearm. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealed the presence of striated muscle fibers. During surgery, a muscle belly was found in the epifascial plane. This muscle originated from subcutaneous septa in the middle forearm and inserted on to the superficial palmar aponeurosis with fine short tendon fibers. Exposure of the antebrachial fascia did not reveal any area of weakness or muscle herniation. The palmaris longus tendon, flexor digitorum superficialis tendons, and flexor carpi radialis tendon showed usual topography under the antebrachial fascia. The accessory muscle was excised and histology revealed unremarkable striated muscle fibers, limited by a thin connective sheath. The presence of an accessory palmaris longus (APL) located in the epifascial plane could be ascribed to an unusual migration of myoblasts during the morphogenesis. Although extremely rare, APL is worth bearing in mind as a possible cause of median nerve compression and etiology of a volar mass in the distal forearm.

  7. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion with and without brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaia, Z; Zhao, Q; Kokaia, M; Elmér, E; Metsis, M; Smith, M L; Siesjö, B K; Lindvall, O

    1995-11-01

    Levels of mRNA for c-fos, nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), TrkB, and TrkC were studied using in situ hybridization in the rat brain at different reperfusion times after unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Short-term (15 min) MCAO, which does not cause neuronal death, induced elevated BDNF mRNA expression confined to ipsilateral frontal and cingulate cortices outside the ischemic area. With a longer duration of MCAO (2 h), which leads to cortical infarction, the increase was more marked and elevated BDNF mRNA levels were also detected bilaterally in dentate granule cells and CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Maximum expression was found after 2 h of reperfusion. At 24 h BDNF mRNA expression had returned to control values. In the ischemic core of the parietal cortex only scattered neurons were expressing high levels of BDNF mRNA after 15 min and 2 h of MCAO. Analysis of different BDNF transcripts showed that MCAO induced a marked increase of exon III mRNA but only small increases of exon I and II mRNAs in cortex and hippocampus. In contrast to BDNF mRNA, elevated expression of c-fos mRNA was observed in the entire ipsilateral cerebral cortex, including the ischemic core, after both 15 min and 2 h of MCAO. Two hours of MCAO also induced transient, bilateral increases of NGF and TrkB mRNA levels and a decrease of NT-3 mRNA expression, confined to dentate granule cells. The upregulation of BDNF mRNA expression in cortical neurons after MCAO is probably triggered by glutamate through a spreading depression-like mechanism. The lack of response of the BDNF gene in the ischemic core may be due to suppression of signal transduction or transcription factor synthesis caused by the ischemia. The observed pattern of gene expression after MCAO agrees well with a neuroprotective role of BDNF in cortical neurons. However, elevated levels of NGF and BDNF protein could also increase synaptic efficacy in the

  8. Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass combined with encephalo-duro-myo-synangiosis in treating moyamoya disease: surgical techniques, indications and midterm follow-up results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bin; SONG Dong-lei; MAO Ying; GU Yu-xiang; XU Hong; LIAO Yu-jun; LIU Chuang-hong; ZHOU Liang-fu

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgical interventions for moyamoya disease include direct and indirect revascularizations.This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass combined with an indirect revascularization procedure,encephalo-duro-myo-synangiosis,in the treatment of moyamoya disease.Methods From October 2005 to November 2009,we performed this combined revascularization procedure in 111 patients with different types and stages of moyamoya disease.The superficial temporal artery,middle meningeal artery and the deep temporal artery were evaluated for individualized surgical planning in these cases.The integrity of the deep temporal artery and the middle meningeal artery network,and the pre-existing spontaneous anastomoses of the distal branches of the external carotid artery with the cortical arteries were well preserved.The mean follow-up time was 72.5 months,all clinical and radiological data were retrospectively reviewed.Results A total of 198 stomas were performed in 122 hemispheres,all remaining patent until the last follow-up.The encephalo-duro-myo-synangiosis resulted in extensive anastomoses of the deep temporal artery (100%),the middle meningeal artery (90.9%),and the sphenopalatine artery (39.8%) with the cortical arteries,respectitvely.The superficial temporal artery,deep temporal artery,and the middle meningeal artery were significantly thickened in 88 patients as determined by digital subtraction angiography at follow-up.The relative cerebral blood flow increased significantly within one week after the operation.At 6 months post the operation,the relative cerebral blood flow was further increased by 15.5% from the gradual formation of anastomoses as a result of indirect revascularization.Transient ischemic attacks were effectively reduced or totally arrested.The neurological deficits significantly improved in 37 patients,with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores lowered by 2

  9. Iodine-123 IMP SPECT before and after by-pass surgery in a patient with occlusion of left anterior and middle cerebral arteries with basal abnormal telangiectasis (unilateral Moyamoya disease)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo; Takishima, Teruo; Kaizu, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Eiichi

    1987-09-01

    A case of left anterior and middle cerebral arterial occlusion with angiographic features similar to Moyamoya disease was reported. IMP SPECT of the patient revealed the success of by-pass surgery clearly. The patient complained of transient right hemiparesis with aphasia 4 times. The cerebral arteriography disclosed occlusions of left anterior and middle cerebral arteries at their proximal portions. Right internal carotid and its branches were normal. I-123 IMP SPECT study showed hypoperfusion in left temporal lobe, basal ganglia with incomplete reperfusion on the delayed (4 hours after injection) SPECT images. After the superficial temporal-middle cerebral artery anastomosis, I-123 IMP SPECT showed improvement of the brain blood flow. I-123 IMP SPECT was very useful in detecting the ischemic areas and evaluating the revascularizing surgery in this case.

  10. 大脑中动脉狭窄程度与脑灌注的相关性研究%Correlation between stenosis of middle cerebral artery and cerebral perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史文倩; 石进; 杨帆; 时惠平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between stenosis of middle cerebral artery (MCA) and cerebral perfusion in patients with unilateral MCA stenosis.Methods Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) was performed in 34 patients with unilateral MCA stenosis,admitted to our hospital trom April 2012 to March 2013.The CTP parameters of mean transit time,cerebral blood flow,cerebral blood volume and time to peak were measured in regions supplied by anterior cerebral artery,MCA and posterior cerebral artery.All patients were divided into severe stenosis group and moderate stenosis group; the correlation between MCA stenosis and cerebral perfusion was analyzed.Results A decreased perfusion was detected in 25 patients (73.5%),and it was more likely found in the severe stenosis group (18/20,90%) than that in the moderate stenosis group (7/14,50%,P=0.017).The degree ofMCA stenosis was positively correlated with the changes of cerebral perfusion (r=0.381,P=0.026).The ratio of patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) between the normal cerebral perfusion group and decreased cerebral perfusion group had statistical difference (11.11% vs.72.00%,P=0.004).Conclusion Cerebral perfusion is significantly correlated with the severity of MCA stenosis in unilateral MCA stenosis patients; the proportion of TIA in the low cerebral perfusion patients is higher than that in the normal cerebral perfusion ones.%目的 探讨单侧大脑中动脉(MCA)狭窄患者MCA狭窄程度与脑灌注的相关性.方法 对自2012年4月至2013年3月在北京空军总医院神经内科住院的34例单侧MCA狭窄患者行CT灌注成像(CTP)检查:在双侧半球大脑前动脉、MCA及大脑后动脉供血区选择对称的感兴趣区,测量CTP参数如脑血流量(CBF)、脑血容量(CBV)、平均通过时间(MTT)及达峰时间(TTP)等.并将患者按MCA狭窄程度分组(重度、中度),对狭窄程度与MCA供血区的脑灌注进行等级相关性分析. 结果 34例患者中有25

  11. Pituitary dysfunction in survivors of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage of anterior communicating artery and middle cerebral artery aneurysms: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The data on incidence of hypopituitarism after SAH are conflicting. Furthermore, it is still not known whether there is any difference in hormonal deficiencies between SAH due to anterior communicating artery (A-com and middle cerebral artery (MCA aneurysms. Materials and Methods: This study includes both retrospective and prospective arms. The data collected included baseline demographic profile, clinical severity on admission to the hospital by the Hunt and Hess grading system and World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS grading, radiological severity of bleed by the Fisher′s classification, and treatment details. All the patients underwent detailed hormonal evaluation at baseline and 6 months in prospective group while at the end of 1 year in the retrospective group. Hormonal deficiencies between patients with A-com and MCA aneurysmal SAH were compared using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Of 60 patients studied, 47 patients (A-com: 28 and MCA: 19 were in the retrospective group, while 13 patients (A-com-9, MCA-4 were in the prospective group. The baseline data were comparable between the two groups. At or after 6 months follow-up, 19 (31.6% patients, 10 patients with A-com and 9 patients with MCA aneurysmal SAH, had some form of hormone deficiency. Furthermore, there was no difference in endocrine dysfunctions between the two groups. There was no correlation between the severity of hormonal deficiency and the clinical severity of SAH grade by Hunt and Hess and radiological grade of SAH by Fisher′s grade. Conclusion: Hormonal deficiencies are not uncommon in patients with SAH. There is no difference in hormonal deficiencies and severity of hypopituitarism in patients with SAH due to A-com and MCA bleed.

  12. Asynchronization in Changes of Electrophysiology and Pathology of Spinal Cord Motor Neurons in Rats Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Lin; Ming-Sheng Liu; Si-Yuan Fan; Yu-Zhou Guan; Li-Ying Cui

    2015-01-01

    Background:Motor dysfunction is common in stroke patients.Clinical electrophysiological studies suggest that transsynaptic degeneration occurred in the lower motor neurons,while pathological evidence is lacked.This study aimed to combine the electrophysiological and pathological results to prove the existence of transsynaptic degeneration in the motor system after stroke.Methods:Modified neurologic severity score,electrophysiological,and pathological assessments were evaluated in rats before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO),and at 24 hours,7 days,and 14 days after MCAO.Paired and independent-sample t-tests were applied to assess the changes of electrophysiological and pathological data.Results:Compound motor action potential amplitude in the paretic side was significantly lower than the nonparetic side at both 24 hours (61.9 ± 10.4 vs.66.6 ± 8.9,P < 0.05) and 7 days (60.9 ± 8.4 vs.67.3 ± 9.6,P < 0.05) after MCAO.Motor unit number estimation of the paretic side was significantly less than the nonparetic side (379.0 ± 84.6 vs.445.0 ± 89.5,P < 0.05) at 7 days after MCAO.Until 14 days after stroke,the pathological loss of motor neurons was detected.Motor neurons in 14-day MCAO group were significantly decreased,compared with control group (5.3 ± 0.7 vs.7.3 ± 1.8,P < 0.05).Conclusions:Both electrophysiological and pathological studies showed transsynaptic degeneration after stroke.This study identified the asynchronization in changes of electrophysiology and pathology.The abnormal physiological changes and function impairment can be detected in the early stage and recovered quickly,while the pathological loss of motor neuron can be detected only in a later stage.

  13. Distance to thrombus on MR angiography predicts outcome of middle cerebral artery occlusion treated with IV thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlitza, Matthias; Quaeschling, Ulf; Schob, Stefan; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Lobsien, Donald [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Neuroradiology, Leipzig (Germany); Friedrich, Benjamin; Schaudinn, Alexander [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Hobohm, Carsten [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Neurology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The distance to thrombus (DT) on CT angiography was recently proposed as a predictor of outcome in patients treated by intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for stroke due to occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). The purpose of the present study was to validate its inter-rater reliability and its prognostic value on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA). Furthermore, we investigated the relation between DT and FLAIR-vascular hyperintensities (FVH) as a surrogate of collateral circulation and hypoperfusion. Patients with acute MCA occlusions treated by IVT and diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included. Two readers measured DT. FVH and acute DWI lesion volumes were quantified. Clinical status was determined using the initial NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) and 90-day modified Rankin Scale (90d mRS). Sixty-one patients showed a lesion on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images and an occlusion of the MCA on CE-MRA. We found significant inverse correlations between DT and NIHSS scores at admission (ρ = -0.29; P = 0.02), DT and mRS at 90 days (ρ = -0.29; P = 0.04), and between DT and FVH (ρ = -0.32; P = 0.01). For a DT <22 mm, the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome (90d mRS 3-6 or NIHSS score improvement of ≤10 points at discharge) was >50 %. Initial DWI lesion volumes showed no correlation with the outcome. Excellent inter-rater agreement for DT was observed (Cronbach's α = 0.98; P < 0.001). DT on CE-MRA is reliably measurable, correlates inversely with FLAIR-vascular hyperintensities, and predicts outcome in patients with acute MCA occlusion treated with IVT. (orig.)

  14. ChAT-positive neurons participate in subventricular zone neurogenesis after middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Fu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Di; Yu, Lie; Li, Nan; Lu, Zhengfang; Gao, Yufeng; Wang, Menghan; Liu, Xi; Zhou, Chenguang; Han, Wei; Yan, Bo; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms of post-stroke neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) are unclear. However, neural stem cell-intrinsic and neurogenic niche mechanisms, as well as neurotransmitters, have been shown to play important roles in SVZ neurogenesis. Recently, a previously unknown population of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)(+) neurons residing in rodent SVZ were identified to have direct control over neural stem cell proliferation by indirectly activating fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). This finding revealed possible neuronal control over SVZ neurogenesis. In this study, we assessed whether these ChAT(+) neurons also participate in stroke-induced neurogenesis. We used a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model produced by transcranial electrocoagulation in mice, atropine (muscarinic cholinergic receptor [mAchR] antagonist), and donepezil (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) to investigate the role of ChAT(+) neurons in stroke-induced neurogenesis. We found that mAchRs, phosphorylated protein kinase C (p-PKC), and p-38 levels in the SVZ were upregulated in mice on day 7 after MCAO. MCAO also significantly increased the number of BrdU/doublecortin-positive cells and protein levels of phosphorylated-neural cell adhesion molecule and mammalian achaete scute homolog-1. FGFR was activated in the SVZ, and doublecortin-positive cells increased in the peri-infarction region. These post-stroke neurogenic effects were enhanced by donepezil and partially decreased by atropine. Neither atropine nor donepezil affected peri-infarct microglial activation or serum concentrations of TNF-α, IFN-γ, or TGF-β on day 7 after MCAO. We conclude that ChAT(+) neurons in the SVZ may participate in stroke-induced neurogenesis, suggesting a new mechanism for neurogenesis after stroke.

  15. Scan-Rescan Reproducibility of High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaque in the Middle Cerebral Artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the scan-rescan reproducibility of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of middle cerebral artery (MCA plaque, and calculate the number of subjects needed for future longitudinal clinical studies.Twenty two patients with MCA plaque were scanned twice by a T2-weighted fast-spin-echo sequence at 3T. Areas and volumes of MCA lumen, total vessel and plaque were quantified and compared between two repeated scans. Agreement and measurement error was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and coefficient of variance (CV as defined by standard deviation (SD of pair wise difference / mean. Sample size needed to detect 5% to 20% changes in area/volume was calculated using 80% power and 5% significance level.There was no significant different between the area and volume measurements of two repeated scans (p>0.05 with good agreement (ICC range 0.97-0.98 for area and 0.99 for volume. Relatively small measurement errors were observed with CVs range 6.1%-11.8% for area quantification and 4.9%-8.0% for volume quantification. Volume measurements tended to have 19.7% to 32.2% smaller CVs compared with area measurements. Sample size calculation showed a group of 47 patients was sufficient to detect 5% to 10% changes in MCA area/volume.High resolution MRI is feasible for quantifying intracranial plaque area and volume in longitudinal clinical studies with low scan-rescan variability. Volume measurement tends to be more reproducible compared with area measurements.

  16. ACCESSORY FISSURE OF RIGHT LUNG: A REPORT OF TWO CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Behera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Right lung is divided into upper (superior, middle and lower (Inferior lobes by an oblique and a horizontal fissure.Oblique fissure passes spirally from posterior border to inferior border deep into the lung separating the lower lobe from upper and middle lobes. A short horizontal fissure passes horizontally forwards from the oblique fissure at midaxillary line to meet the anterior border at 4th costochondral junction. This separates the upper lobe from the middle lobe. During routine dissection in 2010-11 undergraduate batch, we came across two cases of right lungs where an accessory fissure was extending horizontally backwards from the oblique fissure at mid axillary line towards the vertebral part of medial surface. In the 1st case, this accessory fissure was not meeting the normal horizontal fissure where as in the 2nd case it was meeting. This accessory fissure separates the lower lobe into a superior and an inferior segment. Knowledge of different types of accessory fissures is important because it may mislead the radiological findings, may act as a barrier to spread of infection creating a sharply marginated pneumonia which can wrongly be interpretated as atelectasis or consolidation. Identification of completeness of fissure is important prior to lobectomy, because individuals with incomplete fissures are more prone to develop postoperative air leak. Considering the clinical importance of such anomalies, anatomical knowledge and prior awareness of accessory fissures in the lungs may be important for clinicians and radiologists.

  17. A dynamic concept of middle cerebral artery occlusion and cerebral infarction in the acute state based on interpreting severe hyperemia as a sign of embolic migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Lassen, N A

    1984-01-01

    The present study investigates the pathogenesis of focal cerebral hyperemia, its effect on brain tissue and discusses its pathophysiological and therapeutic importance in the light of interpreting severe hyperemia as a sign of arterial reopening probably due to embolic migration. Cerebral...... as well as in non-infarcted tissue. Apparently, it is the severity of the initial ischemic episode and not the hyperemia that determines whether or not tissue necrosis develops. Interpreting severe hyperemia as a sign of arterial reopening and embolic migration (evidenced by partial reopening affecting...

  18. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery Guidance by screen imaging using an EDA-H portable medium-soft electronic endoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingbao Zhu; Junli Luo; Song Liu; Dongping Li; Min Li; Quanshui Fan

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to verify the practicability of performing screen-based surgical operations under the guidance of a real-time viewing and recording system (RTVRS) using a portable medium-soft electronic endoscope (pmsEE). The middle cerebral artery in rats was occluded under screen-imaging guidance using a pmsEE RTVRS to reproduce an animal model of human cerebral infarction. The screen imaging of the pmsEE RTVRS was clear, life-like, stereoscopic and synchronous with the actual operation. Screen-imaging guidance led to an accurate, smooth, minimally invasive and comparatively easy surgical procedure. The surgical success rate, time of model establishment, neurological function scores, and infarct volume were similar to those using an operating microscope. These results indicate that the self-designed pmsEE RTVRS could be utilized for portable endoscopic screen-based surgical operations.

  19. Permanent Distal Occlusion of Middle Cerebral Artery in Rat Causes Local Increased ETB, 5-HT1B and AT1 Receptor-Mediated Contractility Downstream of Occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marianne N P; Hornbak, Malene; Larsen, Stine S;

    2013-01-01

    a model of permanent distal occlusion of rat middle cerebral arteries, we investigated whether there was a regional difference in receptor-mediated contractility of segments located upstream and downstream of the occlusion site. The contractile response to endothelin, angiotensin and 5-hydroxytryptamine...... occlusion without significant visible infarct resulted in locally increased ETB, angiotensin type 1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B receptor-mediated contractile responses only in segments located downstream of the occlusion site. This suggests lack of wall stress as an initiating trigger leading to regulation...

  20. Evaluation of middle cerebral artery stents using multidetector row CT angiography in vivo study: comparison of the three different kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Hee; Lim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Youn Joo; Yoo, Won Jong; Sung, Mi Sook (Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St Mary' s Hospital, Coll. of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)), email: wjyu@catholic.ac.kr; Kim, Bum Soo (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, Coll. of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2012-05-15

    Background: There are very few reports assessing middle cerebral artery (MCA) stents using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Purpose: To assess MCA stents using multidetector CT angiography (CTA) in vivo evaluation: the differences in the CTA results according to the three different kernels. Material and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 27 MCA stents from 26 patients who underwent CTA with 16- and 64-slice MDCT after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS). By CTA, using medium-smooth kernel (B30), medium-sharp kernel (B50), and sharp kernel (B60), the lumen diameter, artificial luminal narrowing (ALN), and subjective visibility score of the stented vessels were evaluated. The subjective visibility score ranged from 1 (poor quality) to 5 (excellent) using a five-point scale. Results: There were excellent inter-observer agreements for the lumen diameter measurements (P < 0.001). The mean diameter of the stented vessels was 2.10 +- 0.31 mm on digital subtraction angiography (DSA), 0.93 +- 0.20 mm on CTA using B30, 1.18 +- 0.27 mm on CTA using B50, and 1.29 +- 0.29 mm on CTA using B60. The mean ALN was 55.7 +- 6.0% on CTA using B30, 43.8 +- 7.5% on CTA using B50, and 38.7 +- 8.3% on CTA using B60. CTA with higher kernels had a smaller ALN than images with smaller kernels. The median subjective visibility score on the CTA using B50 was 3, which was higher than for the other kernels. The differences in the lumen diameter, ALN, and the subjective visibility score of the stented vessels on CTA using the three different kernels was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The sharp kernel was better to assess the lumen diameter and ALN, but was inferior to the medium-sharp kernel for in-stent evaluation due to high image-to-noise. CTA with medium-sharp kernel showed good lumen visibility and acceptable ALN for MCA stents. This could therefore be a non-invasive, readily applicable clinical method for assessing MCA stent patency after

  1. Comparison of CT perfusion summary maps to early diffusion-weighted images in suspected acute middle cerebral artery stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, John; Payabvash, Seyedmehdi [Hennepin County and University of Minnesota Medical Centers, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Salazar, Pascal [Vital Images, A Division of Toshiba Medical, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Jagadeesan, Bharathi; Palmer, Christopher S.; Truwit, Charles L. [Hennepin County and University of Minnesota Medical Centers, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); McKinney, Alexander M., E-mail: mckinrad@umn.edu [Hennepin County and University of Minnesota Medical Centers, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Objectives: To assess the accuracy and reliability of one vendor's (Vital Images, Toshiba Medical, Minnetonka, MN) automated CT perfusion (CTP) summary maps in identification and volume estimation of infarcted tissue in patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) distribution infarcts. Subjects and methods: From 1085 CTP examinations over 5.5 years, 43 diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-positive patients were included who underwent both CTP and DWI <12 h after symptom onset, with another 43 age-matched patients as controls (DWI-negative). Automated delay-corrected postprocessing software (DC-SVD) generated both infarct “core only” and “core + penumbra” CTP summary maps. Three reviewers independently tabulated Alberta Stroke Program Early CT scores (ASPECTS) of both CTP summary maps and coregistered DWI. Results: Of 86 included patients, 36 had DWI infarct volumes ≤70 ml, 7 had volumes >70 ml, and 43 were negative; the automated CTP “core only” map correctly classified each as >70 ml or ≤70 ml, while the “core + penumbra” map misclassified 4 as >70 ml. There were strong correlations between DWI volume with both summary map-based volumes: “core only” (r = 0.93), and “core + penumbra” (r = 0.77) (both p < 0.0001). Agreement between ASPECTS scores of infarct core on DWI with summary maps was 0.65–0.74 for “core only” map, and 0.61–0.65 for “core + penumbra” (both p < 0.0001). Using DWI-based ASPECTS scores as the standard, the accuracy of the CTP-based maps were 79.1–86.0% for the “core only” map, and 83.7–88.4% for “core + penumbra.” Conclusion: Automated CTP summary maps appear to be relatively accurate in both the detection of acute MCA distribution infarcts, and the discrimination of volumes using a 70 ml threshold.

  2. Cerebral Autoregulation in Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Panerai, Ronney B.; Haeri, Sina; Griffioen, Annemiek C.; Zeeman, Gerda; Belfort, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that preeclampsia is associated with impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. METHODS: In a prospective cohort analysis, cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (determined by transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (determined by noninvasive arter

  3. Efficacy and safety of rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin TAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To systematically review the efficacy and safety of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS on CT images. Methods Search online databases such as PubMed, EMBASE/SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL and China Biology Medicine (CBM from January 1994 to December 2014 with key words: hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign/HMCAS/hyperdense artery sign/hyperdense cerebral artery sign, ischemic stroke/cerebral infarction/brain infarction/cerebral embolism, thrombolysis/thrombolytic therapy/rt-PA/recombinant tissue plasminogen activator both in Chinese and English, to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs or non-RCTs about rt-PA treating patients with acute ischemic stroke and HMCAS. Two reviewers independently screened literatures according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS was used for quality assessment, and Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Results A total of 8 studies were included after excluding duplicate ones and those which did not meet the inclusion criteria from 166 articles. There were 11 373 patients, including 2455 cases complicated with HMCAS (2316 treated by rt-PA and 139 treated by placebo and 8918 cases without HMCAS. Meta-analysis showed the occurrence of unfavorable outcome in rt-PA treatment was significantly decreased compared to placebo in HMCAS-positive patients (OR = 0.360,95%CI: 0.150-0.850; P = 0.020, while there was no statistical difference in the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH between rt-PA and placebo treatment in HMCAS-positive patients (OR = 1.640, 95%CI: 0.380-7.040; P = 0.500. Meta-analysis also showed unfavorable outcome of rt-PA treatment was significantly higher in HMCAS-positive than in HMCAS

  4. Electroacupuncture at the Renzhong (DU 26) and Neiguan (PC 6) acupoints repairs the DNA of nervous tissue supplied by the middle cerebral artery in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaorong Chang; Mi Liu; Jie Yan; Ling Fan; Wenjin Li; Chao Wang; Jianqiao Fang

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the changes of DNA repair in brain tissue dominated by the middle cerebral artery after electroacupuncture at the acupoints of Renzhong (DU 26), Neiguan (PC 6), Quchi (LI 11) and Zusanli (ST 36) in rats. In the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease DNA basic group reparative excision experiments, the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity of brain tissue increased slightly after electroacupuncture in rats. In the DNA polymerase β (Pol β)experiments, the Pol β activity of brain tissue increased after electroacupuncture, especially at DU 26 and PC 6. In the DNA ligase experiments, the expression of DNA ligase 1 in brain tissue increased significantly after electroacupuncture. These findings demonstrate increased activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, Pol β and DNA ligase 1 after electroacupuncture at DU 26 and PC 6. Also, DNA repair in brain tissue supplied by the middle cerebral artery is promoted after electroacupuncture at DU 26 and PC 6, which are more effective than the LI 11 and ST 36 acupoints

  5. ACCESSORY LOBE OF RIGHT LUNG: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Manicka Vasuki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of lungs in the form of Accessory lobe and abnormality in the fissures are important for the surgeons to avoid possible injuries to the neighbouring structures. We report a case of Accessory lobe of right lung between middle and lower lobe in a male cadaver which was found during routine dissection in the Anatomy department, PSG IMS & R. Fissure and lobes of left lung was normal. Anatomical knowledge of such variations are helpful for Cardiothoracic surgeons in lobectomies, surgical resections involving individual segments and for Radiologists for interpreting X – rays,CT & MRI scans.

  6. Estradiol reduces activity of the blood-brain barrier Na-K-Cl cotransporter and decreases edema formation in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martha E; Lam, Tina I; Tran, Lien Q; Foroutan, Shahin; Anderson, Steven E

    2006-10-01

    Estrogen has been shown to protect against stroke-induced brain damage, yet the mechanism is unknown. During the early hours of stroke, cerebral edema forms as increased transport of Na and Cl from blood into brain occurs across an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). We showed previously that a luminal BBB Na-K-Cl cotransporter is stimulated by hypoxia and arginine vasopressin (AVP), factors present during cerebral ischemia, and that inhibition of the cotransporter by intravenous bumetanide greatly reduces edema in rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The present study was conducted to determine whether estrogen protects in stroke at least in part by reducing activity of the BBB cotransporter, thereby decreasing edema formation. Ovariectomized rats were subjected to 210 mins of permanent MCAO after 7-day or 30-min pretreatment with 17beta-estradiol and then brain swelling and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were assessed as measures of brain edema and lesion volume, respectively. Diffusion-weighed imaging was used to monitor permanent MCAO-induced decreases in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, an index of changes in brain water distribution and mobility. Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) was assessed as bumetanide-sensitive K influx and cotransporter abundance by Western blot analysis after estradiol treatment. Estradiol significantly decreased brain swelling and lesion volume and attenuated the decrease in ADC values during permanent MCAO. Estradiol also abolished CMEC cotransporter stimulation by chemical hypoxia or AVP and decreased cotransporter abundance. These findings support the hypothesis that estrogen attenuates stimulation of BBB Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity, reducing edema formation during stroke.

  7. Tetramethylpyrazine suppresses HIF-1α, TNF-α, and activated caspase-3 expression in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi CHANG; George HSIAO; Seu-hwa CHEN; Yi-cheng CHEN; Jiing-han LIN; Kuang-hung LIN; Duen-suey CHOU; Joen-rong SHEU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To examine the detailed mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMPZ) in inflammatory and apoptotic responses induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Methods: MCAO-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats was used in this study. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), activation of caspase-3, and TNF- mRNA transcription in ischemic regions were detected by immunoblotting and RT-PCR, respectively.Anti-oxidative activity was investigated using a thiobarbituric acid-reactive sub-stance (TBARS) test in rat brain homogenate preparations. Results: We showed the statistical results of the infarct areas of solvent- and TMPZ (20 mg/kg)-treated groups at various distances from the frontal pole in MCAO-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Treatment with TMPZ (20 mg/kg) markedly reduced the infarct area in all regions, especially in the third to fifth sections. MCAO-induced focal cerebral ischemia was associated with increases in HIF-1α and the activation of caspase-3, as well as TNF-α transcription in ischemic regions. These expressions were markedly inhibited by treatment with TMPZ (20 mg/kg). However, TMPZ (0.5-5 mmol/L) did not significantly inhibit TBARS reaction in rat brain homogenates.Conclusion: The neuroprotective effect of TMPZ may be mediated at least by a portion of the inhibition of HIF-let and TNF-α activations, followed by the inhibi-tion of apoptosis formation (active caspase-3), resulting in a reduction in the infarct volume in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. Thus, TMPZ treatment may represent an ideal approach to lowering the risk of or improving function in is-chemia-reperfusion brain injury-related disorders.

  8. 64层螺旋CT脑灌注成像联合CT血管造影评价颅内外血管搭桥术后疗效%Assessment of cerebral internal and external vascular bypass graft in patients with single middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion by combining 64-row CT cerebral perfusion with angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天金; 朱栓庄; 温有信; 王耀彬; 韩向东; 白莹; 于旋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the curative effect of cerebral internal and external vascular bypass graft in patients with sin -gle middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis or occlusion by combining 64 -row CT cerebral perfusion (CTP) with angiography ( CTA ). Methods Patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion were recruited and underwent superficial temporal artery and mid -die cerebral artery(STA -MCA) bypass graft between March 2009 and Mar 2011. CTP and CTA examinations were performed in all patients before and after operation. The cerebral perfusion parameters were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively . The origin, travel and anastomotic stoma of bypass grafts were evaluated by reconstructed CTA images . Results 46 patients were found with severe MCA stenosis or occlusion. The time to peak (TTP) and relative mean transit time (rMTT) images before therapy displayed the existence of perfusion delay. The relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCRV) images did not change significantly. The decrease of TTP and rMTT after therapy was of statistical significance ( P 0.05). In reconstructed CTA images , 82 bridge vessels were well displayed, including double bridges in 39 patients. The accuracy of CTA examination was 96.5%. All the bypass grafts were well shown and the anastomotic stomas were unobstructed. Conclusions It is feasible to evaluate the curative effects of cerebral internal and ex — ternal vascular bypass graft by combining CTP images of cerebral perfusion after therapy with CTA images of cerebral internal and exter -nal bypass grafts.%目的 探讨64层螺旋CT脑灌注成像(CT perfusion,CTP)联合CT血管造影(CT angiography,CTA)评价单侧大脑中动脉(middle cerebral artery,MCA)重度狭窄(闭塞)颅内外血管搭桥术后疗效的可行性.方法 46例拟行颅内外血管搭桥术患者,术前、后均行CTP及CTA检查.计算脑灌注参数图,对治疗前后脑灌注参数进行定量和定性对

  9. Redox signaling via oxidative inactivation of PTEN modulates pressure-dependent myogenic tone in rat middle cerebral arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debebe Gebremedhin

    Full Text Available The present study examined the level of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and roles of inactivation of the phosphatase PTEN and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in response to an increase in intramural pressure-induced myogenic cerebral arterial constriction. Step increases in intraluminal pressure of cannulated cerebral arteries induced myogenic constriction and concomitant formation of superoxide (O2 (.- and its dismutation product hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as determined by fluorescent HPLC analysis, microscopic analysis of intensity of dihydroethidium fluorescence and attenuation of pressure-induced myogenic constriction by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger 4,hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine1-oxyl (tempol or Mito-tempol or MitoQ in the presence or absence of PEG-catalase. An increase in intraluminal pressure induced oxidation of PTEN and activation of Akt. Pharmacological inhibition of endogenous PTEN activity potentiated pressure-dependent myogenic constriction and caused a reduction in NPo of a 238 pS arterial KCa channel current and an increase in [Ca(2+]i level in freshly isolated cerebral arterial muscle cells (CAMCs, responses that were attenuated by Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. These findings demonstrate an increase in intraluminal pressure induced increase in ROS production triggered redox-sensitive signaling mechanism emanating from the cross-talk between oxidative inactivation of PTEN and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that involves in the regulation of pressure-dependent myogenic cerebral arterial constriction.

  10. Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) reduce the volume of cerebral infarction in rodent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivan, Shankar; Maher, Timothy J; Quang, Lawrence S

    2006-08-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), an endogenous organic acid catabolite of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), has been shown to have tissue-protective effects in various organs, including the brain. We examined the potential neuroprotective effect of GHB and its chemical precursors, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), in the rodent ischemic stroke model by intraluminal filament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transient left-sided MCAO and received intraperitoneal treatment with 300 mg/kg of GHB, GBL, 1,4-BD, or control vehicle given at 30 min before, as well as 180 and 360 min after the onset of ischemia. Infarct volumes were determined 24 h after MCAO. In transient MCAO, the mean volume of infarction for control rats was 464.4 +/- 17.9 cu.mm versus 273.6 +/- 53.1, 233.3 +/- 44.7, and 275.4 +/- 39.9 cu.mm for rats treated with 1,4-BD (P GBL (P GBL, and 1,4-BD protect against rat focal cerebral ischemia from transient MCAO.

  11. ACCESSORY RENAL ARTERYAND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Magotra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Origin of the Testicular Artery variations were found during routine dissection of abdomen of the middle aged cadaver in the Dept of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College Jammu. On the left side there were two renal arteries, One of them was the main Renal artery which was originating from the anterolateral aspect of abdominal aorta and running to the hilum of the kidney in front of the renal vein The other was the Accessory Renal artery which was originating from anterolateral aspect of aorta 5mm above origin of main renal artery and going to the upper pole of the kidney. The origin of accessory renal artery and main renal artery was 4.2 and 9.2mm below the level of origin of superior mesentric artery. The left testicular artery was originating from the accessory renal artery and crossing the renal artery and the renal vein anteriorly before following its usual course in the posterior abdominal wall. Only one renal artery was seen on the right side arising from the anterolateral aspect of aorta. The right testicular artery originated 52mm below the origin of right renal artery and followed its normal course This anomaly is explained by embryological development of both kidneys and gonads from intermediate mesoderm of mesonephric crest. Further the vasculature of kidneys and gonads is derived from lateral mesonephric branches of dorsal aorta .Even though the condition presents as a silent renal anomaly (Undiagnosed throughout life and revealed only on autopsy the surgical implications are noteworthy, which too have been highlighted in this report.

  12. Robust and enduring atorvastatin-mediated memory recovery following the 4-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, Gislene Gonçalves Dias; Godinho, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Emilene Dias Fiuza; Ribeiro, Matheus Henrique Dal Molin; Previdelli, Isolde Santos; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort; Milani, Humberto

    2016-02-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a common condition associated with the development and/or worsening of age-related dementia.We previously reported persistent memory loss and neurodegeneration after CCH in middle-aged rats. Statin-mediated neuroprotection has been reported after acute cerebral ischemia. Unknown, however, is whether statins can alleviate the outcome of CCH. The present study investigated whether atorvastatin attenuates the cognitive and neurohistological outcome of CCH. Rats (12–15 months old) were trained in a non-food-rewarded radial maze, and then subjected to CCH. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 42 days or 15 days, beginning 5 h after the first occlusion stage. Retrograde memory performance was assessed at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days of CCH, and expressed by “latency,” “number of reference memory errors” and “number of working memory errors.” Neurodegeneration was then examined at the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Compared to sham, CCH caused profound and persistent memory loss in the vehicle-treated groups, as indicated by increased latency (91.2% to 107.3%) and number of errors (123.5% to 2508.2%), effects from which the animals did not spontaneously recover across time. This CCH-induced retrograde amnesia was completely prevented by atorvastatin (latency: −4.3% to 3.3%; reference/working errors: −2.5% to 45.7%), regardless of the treatment duration. This effect was sustained during the entire behavioral testing period (5 weeks), even after discontinuing treatment. This robust and sustained memory-protective effect of atorvastatin occurred in the absence of neuronal rescue (39.58% to 56.45% cell loss). We suggest that atorvastatin may be promising for the treatment of cognitive sequelae associated with CCH.

  13. The Efficacy of Single Barrel Superficial Temporal Artery-middle Cerebral Artery Bypass in Treatment of Adult Patients with Ischemic-type Moyamoya Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Mahnjeong; Choi, Chang Hwa; Lee, Jae Il; Cha, Seung Heon; Lee, Sang Weon

    2016-01-01

    Objective So far, there is no study answering the question of which type of surgical technique is practically the most useful in the treatment of adult patients with ischemic type moyamoya disease (MMD). We evaluated the efficacy of single barrel superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass in the treatment of adult patients with ischemic type MMD by retrospectively collecting clinical and radiological data. Materials and Methods A retrospective review identified 31 adult patients who underwent 43 single barrel STA-MCA bypass procedures performed for treatment of ischemic-type MMD between 2006 and 2014. The male to female ratio was 17:14 and the mean age was 41 years (range, 21-65 years). Peri-operative complications, angiographic and clinical outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Results The permanent neurological morbidity and mortality rates were 2.3% and 0%, respectively. During the observation period of a mean of 35 months (range, 12-73 months), 29 patients (93.5%) had no further cerebrovascular events and transient ischemic attack occurred in two patients (6.5%), resulting in an annual stroke risk of 2.2%. Follow-up computed tomography perfusion (CTP) (mean, 18.4 months after surgery) documented improved cerebral hemodynamics in the revascularized hemispheres (p < 0.001). Post-operative patency was clearly verified in 38 bypasses (88.4%) of 43 bypasses on follow-up imaging (mean, 16.5 months). Conclusion Our results suggest that single barrel STA-MCA bypass with wide dural opening is safe and durable method of cerebral revascularization in adult patients with ischemic type MMD and can be considered as a potential treatment option for adult patients with ischemic type MMD. PMID:27847768

  14. Rapid de novo aneurysm formation after clipping of a ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm in an infant with an MYH11 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Karsy, Michael; Schmidt, Richard H; Taussky, Philipp; Park, Min S; Bollo, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The authors report the case of a previously healthy 6-month-old girl who presented with right arm and leg stiffening consistent with seizure activity. An initial CT scan of the head demonstrated acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns extending into the left sylvian fissure. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a 7 × 6 × 5-mm saccular aneurysm of the inferior M2 division of the left middle cerebral artery. The patient underwent left craniotomy and microsurgical clip ligation with wrapping of the aneurysm neck because the vessel appeared circumferentially dysplastic in the region of the aneurysm. Postoperative angiography demonstrated a small remnant, sluggish distal flow, but no significant cerebral vasospasm. Fifty-five days after the initial aneurysm rupture, the patient presented again with an acute intraparenchymal hemorrhage of the left anterior temporal lobe. Angiogram revealed a circumferentially dysplastic superior division of the M2 branch, with a new 5 × 4-mm saccular aneurysm distinct from the first, with 2 smaller aneurysms distal to the new ruptured aneurysm. Endovascular parent vessel occlusion with Onyx was performed. Genetic testing revealed a mutation of the MYH11. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of rapid de novo aneurysm formation in an infant with an MYH11 mutation. The authors review the patient's clinical presentation and management and comprehensively review the literature on this topic.

  15. Melatonin Counteracts at a Transcriptional Level the Inflammatory and Apoptotic Response Secondary to Ischemic Brain Injury Induced by Middle Cerebral Artery Blockade in Aging Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Sergio D; Rancan, Lisa; Kireev, Roman; González, Alberto; Louzao, Pedro; González, Pablo; Rodríguez-Bobada, Cruz; García, Cruz; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2015-01-01

    Aging increases oxidative stress and inflammation. Melatonin counteracts inflammation and apoptosis. This study investigated the possible protective effect of melatonin on the inflammatory and apoptotic response secondary to ischemia induced by blockade of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) in aging male Wistar rats. Animals were subjected to MCA obstruction. After 24 h or 7 days of procedure, 14-month-old nontreated and treated rats with a daily dose of 10 mg/kg melatonin were sacrificed and right and left hippocampus and cortex were collected. Rats aged 2 and 6 months, respectively, were subjected to the same brain injury protocol, but they were not treated with melatonin. mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and sirtuin 1 was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In nontreated animals, a significant time-dependent increase in IL-1β, TNF-α, BAD, and BAX was observed in the ischemic area of both hippocampus and cortex, and to a lesser extent in the contralateral hemisphere. Hippocampal GFAP was also significantly elevated, while Bcl-2 and sirtuin 1 decreased significantly in response to ischemia. Aging aggravated these changes. Melatonin administration was able to reverse significantly these alterations. In conclusion, melatonin may ameliorate the age-dependent inflammatory and apoptotic response secondary to ischemic cerebral injury.

  16. Assessment of arcuate fasciculus with diffusion-tensor tractography may predict the prognosis of aphasia in patients with left middle cerebral artery infarcts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosomi, Akiko; Nagakane, Yoshinari; Kuriyama, Nagato; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan); Yamada, Kei; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    It is often clinically difficult to assess the severity of aphasia in the earliest stage of cerebral infarction. A method enabling objective assessment of verbal function is needed for this purpose. We examined whether diffusion tensor (DT) tractography is of clinical value in assessing aphasia. Thirteen right-handed patients with left middle cerebral artery infarcts who were scanned within 2 days after stroke onset were enrolled in this study. Magnetic resonance data of ten control subjects were also examined by DT tractography. Based on the severity of aphasia at discharge, patients were divided into two groups: six patients in the aphasic group and seven in the nonaphasic group. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and number of arcuate fasciculus fibers were evaluated. Asymmetry index was calculated for both FA and number of fibers. FA values for the arcuate fasciculus fibers did not differ between hemispheres in either the patient groups or the controls. Number of arcuate fasciculus fibers exhibited a significant leftward asymmetry in the controls and the nonaphasic group but not in the aphasic group. Asymmetry index of number of fibers was significantly lower (rightward) in the aphasic group than in the nonaphasic (P = 0.015) and control (P = 0.005) groups. Loss of leftward asymmetry in number of AF fibers predicted aphasia at discharge with a sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.86. Asymmetry of arcuate fasciculus fibers by DT tractography may deserve to be assessed in acute infarction for predicting the fate of vascular aphasia. (orig.)

  17. Systematization, description and territory of the middle and rostral cerebral arteries in broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background: Information on the arterial vascularization of the broad-snouted caimans’ brain (Caiman latirostris), a specie from the Brazilian fauna, is inexistent and the literature consulted yielded only one description about the development of embryonic circulation and post-birth cerebrovascular alterations in the brain of three caymans. The objective of this study was to describe and systematize the cerebral arterial vascularization of this reptile, by providing a standard irrigation model...

  18. Assessment of blood-brain barrier permeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model after localized brain cooling in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Kwan Seop; Kwon, Mi Jung; Ju, Young Su [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Koo; Lee, Phil Hye [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dae Young [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of localized brain cooling on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats, by using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each: control group, localized cold-saline (20 .deg. ) infusion group, and localized warm-saline (37 .deg. ) infusion group. The left middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded for 1 hour in anesthetized rats, followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. In the localized saline infusion group, 6 mL of cold or warm saline was infused through the hollow filament for 10 minutes after MCA occlusion. DCE-MRI investigations were performed after 3 hours and 24 hours of reperfusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the extended Tofts-Kety model were calculated for each DCE-MRI. In addition, rotarod testing was performed before tMCAO, and on days 1-9 after tMCAO. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) immunohisto-chemistry was performed to identify infiltrating neutrophils associated with the inflammatory response in the rat brain. Permeability parameters showed no statistical significance between cold and warm saline infusion groups after 3-hour reperfusion 0.09 ± 0.01 min{sup -1} vs. 0.07 ± 0.02 min{sup -1},p = 0.661 for K{sup trans}; 0.30 ± 0.05 min{sup -1} vs. 0.37 ± 0.11 min{sup -1},p = 0.394 for kep, respectively. Behavioral testing revealed no significant difference among the three groups. However, the percentage of MPO-positive cells in the cold-saline group was significantly lower than those in the control and warm-saline groups (p < 0.05). Localized brain cooling (20 .deg. ) does not confer a benefit to inhibit the increase in BBB permeability that follows transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in an animal model, as compared with localized warm-saline (37 .deg. ) infusion group.

  19. Assessment of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model after Localized Brain Cooling in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Soo [Department of Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Koo [Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Mi Jung [Department of Pathology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Phil Hye [Department of Neurology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Young-Su [Department of Industrial Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dae Young [Department of Radiology, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul 05355 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jeong [Department of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul 07441 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan Seop [Department of Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of localized brain cooling on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats, by using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each: control group, localized cold-saline (20℃) infusion group, and localized warm-saline (37℃) infusion group. The left middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded for 1 hour in anesthetized rats, followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. In the localized saline infusion group, 6 mL of cold or warm saline was infused through the hollow filament for 10 minutes after MCA occlusion. DCE-MRI investigations were performed after 3 hours and 24 hours of reperfusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the extended Tofts-Kety model were calculated for each DCE-MRI. In addition, rotarod testing was performed before tMCAO, and on days 1-9 after tMCAO. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) immunohisto-chemistry was performed to identify infiltrating neutrophils associated with the inflammatory response in the rat brain. Permeability parameters showed no statistical significance between cold and warm saline infusion groups after 3-hour reperfusion 0.09 ± 0.01 min{sup -1} vs. 0.07 ± 0.02 min{sup -1}, p = 0.661 for K{sup trans}; 0.30 ± 0.05 min{sup -1} vs. 0.37 ± 0.11 min{sup -1}, p = 0.394 for kep, respectively. Behavioral testing revealed no significant difference among the three groups. However, the percentage of MPO-positive cells in the cold-saline group was significantly lower than those in the control and warm-saline groups (p < 0.05). Localized brain cooling (20℃) does not confer a benefit to inhibit the increase in BBB permeability that follows transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in an animal model, as compared with localized warm-saline (37℃) infusion group.

  20. Demonstration of cerebral vessels by multiplane computed cerebral angiotomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asari S.; Satch, T.; Sakurai, M.; Yamamoto, Y. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Matsuyama (Japan)); Sadamoto, K.

    1981-06-01

    1. Cerebral arteries and veins were demonstrated by multiplane computed cerebral angiotomography (combination of axial, modified coronal, half axial (Towne), and semisagittal planes). The vessels which were demonstrated by various planes were as follows: Axial plane: Willis ring, middle cerebral arteries (horizontal and insular portions), anterior cerebral arteries (Horizontal and ascending portions), posterior cerebral arteries, basal vein of Rosenthal, internal cerebral veins (and the subependymal veins which join the ICV), and vein of Galen. Coronal plane: intermal carotid arteries (supraclinoid portion), anterior cerebral arteries (horizontal portion), middle cerebral arteries (horizontal and insular portions), lenticulostriate arteries, basal vein of Rosenthal (and the subependymal veins which join this vessel), internal cerebral veins, and vein of Galen. Half axial plane (Towne projection): basilar artery, vertebral arteries, posterior cerebral arteries, superior cerebellar arteries, middle cerebral arteries (horizontal portion), and anterior cerebral arteries (horizontal and ascending portions). Semisagittal plane: internal carotid artery (supraclinoid portion), posterior communicating artery, posterior carebral artery, superior cerebellar artery, internal cerebral vein, basal vein of Rosenthal, vein of Galen, and straight shinus. 2. A detailed knowledge of normal cerebrovascular structures acquired by computed tomography (CT) is essential in detecting and more precisely localizing lesions such as cerebrovascular disease, neoplasm or abscess, in differentiating these lesions from the normal contrast-enhanced structures, and in understanding the spatial relationship between the mass lesion and the neighboring vessels. In addition, it will be possible to discover such asymptomatic cerebrovascular diseases as non-ruptured aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and Moyamoya disease by means of computed cerebral angiotomography.

  1. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  2. Correlation of liver enzymes and sonographic findings with pulsatile index of middle cerebral and basilar arteries in nonalcoholic fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Rezamand

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Considering the increase of cerebral arteries PI in advanced liver disease, absence of increase in vascular PI of patients in the present study could be attributed to the short duration of disease from diagnosis to perform TCD, lack of advanced liver involvement (absence of liver dysfunction and the response effect to treatment before the TCD. Therefore, to assess vascular changes over time, repeating the TCD with assess other parameters such as Fibroscan and K18 factor that has more compatibility of liver function, could help to understand the pathophysiology of liver diseases and its effect on vascular resistance.

  3. Alterations of the Cerebral White Matter in a Middle-Aged Patient with Turner Syndrome: An MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruko Tanji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman with intellectual disability was admitted to the hospital due to pneumonia. MRI of her brain showed diffuse hyperintensities on T2-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery images in the bilateral cerebral white matter. Laboratory examination revealed sustained high levels of serum KL-6. Karyotyping revealed partial monosomy of the X chromosome. This is the first case showing diffuse white matter lesions in the brain, and sustained high levels of serum KL-6 in Turner syndrome.

  4. Clinical analysis of 82 eases of ACI (Acute Cerebral Infarction) developed by the young and middle-aged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoguang

    2000-01-01

    @@Eight hundred cases of ACI have been treated in omr hospital in the recent 5 years, There are 82 cases from 25 to 45 years of age, accounting for about 10 percent. So ACI suffered by the young and middle-aged should be paid attention to

  5. Influence of upper body position on middle cerebral artery blood velocity during continuous positive airway pressure breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund Rasmussen, J; Mantoni, T; Belhage, B;

    2007-01-01

    in 11 healthy subjects during CPAP at different body positions (15 degrees head-down tilt, supine, 15 degrees, 30 degrees and 45 degrees upper body elevation). In the supine position, 10 cmH(2)O of CPAP reduced MCA V(mean) by 9 +/- 3% and increased cHbT by 4 +/- 2 micromol/L (mean +/- SEM); (P ....05). In the head-down position, CPAP increased cHbT to 13 +/- 2 micromol/L but left MCA V(mean) unchanged. Upper body elevation by 15 degrees attenuated the CPAP associated reduction in MCA V(mean) (-7 +/- 2%), while cHbT returned to baseline (1 +/- 2 micromol/L). With larger elevation of the upper body MCA V......Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a treatment modality for pulmonary oxygenation difficulties. CPAP impairs venous return to the heart and, in turn, affects cerebral blood flow (CBF) and augments cerebral blood volume (CBV). We considered that during CPAP, elevation of the upper body...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual... Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual operating table and accessories and a manual operating chair...

  7. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent-(BOLD- Based R2′ MRI Study in Monkey Model of Reversible Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the value of BOLD-based reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2′ MRI in detecting ischemic penumbra (IP in a monkey model of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and time evolution of relative R2′ (rR2′ in infarcted core, IP, and oligemia. Materials and Methods. 6 monkeys were used to make MCAO by the microcatheter method. MR scans were performed at 0 h (1 h after MCAO, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after reperfusion. R2′ was calculated using quantitative T2 and T2∗ maps. Ischemic area was subdivided into infracted core, IP and oligemia. rR2′ was calculated respectively. Results. Reversible MCAO model for 4/6 monkeys was made successfully. rR2′ values were significantly different at each time point, being highest in oligemia followed by IP and infarcted core (<.05. With reperfusion time evolution, rR2′ in infarcted core showed a decreased trend: sharply decreased within 6 hours and maintained at 0 during 6–48 hours (<.05. rR2′ values in IP and oligemia showed similar increased trend: sharply increased within 6 hours, maintained a plateau during 6–24 hours, and slightly increased until 48 hours. Conclusion. BOLD-based R2′ MRI can be used to describe changes of cerebral oxygen extract in acute ischemic stroke, and it can provide additional information in detecting IP. The time evolution rR2′ in infarcted core, IP, and oligemia is in accordance with the underlying pathophysiology.

  8. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

  9. Time course, distribution and cell types of induction of transforming growth factor betas following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Pál

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-β1-3 are cytokines that regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of various cell types. The present study describes the induction of TGF-β1-3 in the rat after focal ischemia at 3 h, 24 h, 72 h and 1 month after transient (1 h or permanent (24 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO using in situ hybridization histochemistry and quantitative analysis. Double labeling with different markers was used to identify the localization of TGF-β mRNA relative to the penumbra and glial scar, and the types of cells expressing TGF-βs. TGF-β1 expression increased 3 h after MCAO in the penumbra and was further elevated 24 h after MCAO. TGF-β1 was present mostly in microglial cells but also in some astrocytes. By 72 h and 1 month after the occlusion, TGF-β1 mRNA-expressing cells also appeared in microglia within the ischemic core and in the glial scar. In contrast, TGF-β2 mRNA level was increased in neurons but not in astrocytes or microglial cells in layers II, III, and V of the ipsilateral cerebral cortex 24 h after MCAO. TGF-β3 was not induced in cells around the penumbra. Its expression increased in only a few cells in layer II of the cerebral cortex 24 h after MCAO. The levels of TGF-β2 and -β3 decreased at subsequent time points. Permanent MCAO further elevated the levels of all 3 subtypes of TGF-βs suggesting that reperfusion is not a major factor in their induction. TGF-β1 did not co-localize with either Fos or ATF-3, while the co-localization of TGF-β2 with Fos but not with ATF-3 suggests that cortical spreading depolarization, but not damage to neural processes, might be the mechanism of induction for TGF-β2. The results imply that endogenous TGF-βs are induced by different mechanisms following an ischemic attack in the brain suggesting that they are involved in distinct spatially and temporally regulated inflammatory and neuroprotective processes.

  10. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  11. Persistência da artéria trigeminal primitiva associada com aneurisma da artéria cerebral média: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Persistent trigeminal artery associated with aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Augusto de Oliveira

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso, demonstrado angiograficamente, de achado incidental de artéria trigeminal primitiva persistente associada com aneurisma do polígono de Willis no território da artéria cerebral média. A propósito, a literatura é revisada e a embriologia envolvida relatada.The authors report a case of persistent primitive trigeminal artery angiographically demonstrated as an incidental finding. The persistent primitive trigeminal artery was associated with an aneurysm arising from the circle of Willis in the middle cerebral artery territory. The literature is reviewed and the embryology involved is related.

  12. 慢性大脑中动脉狭窄或闭塞的CT灌注成像%CT perfusion imaging in patients with chronic middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏凯燕; 刘增韬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the blood perfusion character of chronic middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion with CT perfusion imaging. Methods The clinical and imaging dala of 11 cases with unilateral chronic middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion were collected. All cases were examined with CT perfusion and MR (MR1 and MKA). Results The CT perfusion character of chronic middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion included CBV elevated, CBF decreased, and MTI prolonged. Conclusion CT perfusion imaging can describe the blood perfusion character of chronic middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion, and provide theoretical basis for therapeutic plan.%目的 利用CT灌注成像技术研究慢性大动脉狭窄或闭塞患者的脑血流灌注特征.方法 搜集具有完整临床资料的单侧慢性大脑中动脉重度狭窄或闭寨患者11例,行CT灌注成像及磁共振(MRI及MRA)检查.结果 慢性大脑中动脉狭窄或闭塞患者的脑CT灌注特征是患侧脑血流量(CBF)降低,脑血容量(CBV)升高,平均通过时间(MTT)延长.结论 CT灌注成像能反映慢性大脑中动脉狭窄或闭塞患者的脑血流灌注特征,为临床治疗方案的制订提供理论依据.

  13. Focal brain ischemia in the rat: methods for reproducible neocortical infarction using tandem occlusion of the distal middle cerebral and ipsilateral common carotid arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brint, S; Jacewicz, M; Kiessling, M; Tanabe, J; Pulsinelli, W

    1988-08-01

    This article describes a 3-year experience with focal neocortical ischemia in three rat strains. Multiple groups of adult Wistar (n = 50), Fisher 344 (n = 31), and spontaneously hypertensive (n = 72) rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of the distal middle cerebral (MCA) and ipsilateral common carotid arteries (CCA). Twenty-four hours later the animals were killed, and frozen brain sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to demarcate infarcted tissue. The infarct volume for each section was quantified with an image analyzer, and the total infarct volume was calculated with an iterative program that summed all interval volumes. Neocortical infarct volume was the largest and most reproducible in the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Statistical power analysis to project the numbers of animals necessary to detect a 25 or 50% change in infarct volume with alpha = 0.05 and beta = 0.2 revealed that only the SHR model was practical in terms of requisite animals: i.e., less than 10 animals per group. Tandem occlusion of the distal MCA and ipsilateral CCA in the SHR strain provides a surgically simple method for causing large neocortical infarcts with reproducible topography and volume. The interanimal variability in infarct volume that occurs even in the SHR strain dictates that randomized, concomitant controls are necessary in each study to ensure the accurate assessment of experimental manipulations or pharmacologic therapies.

  14. A Pilot Study for the Neuroprotective Effect of Gongjin-dan on Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion-Induced Ischemic Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Sunwoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated whether gongjin-dan improves functional recovery and has neuroprotective effects on reducing the infarct volume after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. Infarct volume was measured using TTC staining and glucose utilization by F-18 FDG PET. Functional improvement was evaluated with the Rota-rod, treadmill, Garcia score test, and adhesive removal test. At 14 days after MCAo, neuronal cell survival, astrocytes expansion, and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistofluorescence staining in the peri-infarct region. Also, the expression of neurotrophic factors and inflammatory cytokines such as VEGF, BDNF, Cox-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-1α was measured in ischemic hemisphere regions. The gongjin-dan-treated group showed both reduced infarct volume and increased glucose utilization. Behavior tests demonstrated a significant improvement compared to the control. Also in the gongjin-dan treated group, NeuN-positive cells were increased and number of astrocytes, microglia, and apoptotic cells was significantly decreased compared with the control group in the ischemic peri-infarct area. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and BDNF was increased and level of Cox-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-1α was decreased. These results suggest that gongjin-dan may improve functional outcome through the rapid restoration of metabolism and can be considered as a potential neuroprotective agent.

  15. Eye movement training results in changes in qEEG and NIH stroke scale in subjects suffering from acute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Robert Carrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context:Eye-movement training (EMT can induce altered brain activation and change the functionality of saccades with changes of the brain in general. Objective:To determine if EMT would result in changes in qEEG and NIH Stroke Scales (NIHSS in patients suffering from acute middle cerebral artery (MCA infarction. Our hypothesis is that there would be positive changes in qEEG and NIHSS after EMT in patients suffering from acute MCA ischemic stroke.Design:Double blind randomized controlled trial.Setting and Participants:34 subjects with acute MCA ischemic stroke at university affiliated hospital intensive care unit.Interventions:Subjects were randomized into a control group treated only with aspirin (125 mg/day and a treatment group treated with aspirin (125 mg/day and a subject specific EMT. Main Outcome measures: Delta-Alpha Ratio, Power Ratio Index and the Brain Symmetry Index calculated by quantitative electroencephalograms, and NIHSS. Results:There was strong statistical and substantive significant improvement in all outcome measures for the group of stroke patients undergoing EMT. Such improvement was not observed for the control group and there were no adverse effects.Conclusions:The addition of EMT to a MCA ischemic stroke treatment paradigm has demonstrated statistically significant changes in outcome measures and is a low cost, safe and effective complement to standard treatment.

  16. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors modify intracellular pH transients and contractions of rat middle cerebral arteries during CO2/HCO3(-) fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jacob K; Boedtkjer, Ebbe

    2017-01-01

    The CO2/HCO3(-) buffer minimizes pH changes in response to acid-base loads, HCO3(-) provides substrate for Na(+),HCO3(-)-cotransporters and Cl(-)/HCO3(-)-exchangers, and H(+) and HCO3(-) modify vasomotor responses during acid-base disturbances. We show here that rat middle cerebral arteries express cytosolic, mitochondrial, extracellular, and secreted carbonic anhydrase isoforms that catalyze equilibration of the CO2/HCO3(-) buffer. Switching from CO2/HCO3(-)-free to CO2/HCO3(-)-containing extracellular solution results in initial intracellular acidification due to hydration of CO2 followed by gradual alkalinization due to cellular HCO3(-) uptake. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition decelerates the initial acidification and attenuates the associated transient vasoconstriction without affecting intracellular pH or artery tone at steady-state. Na(+),HCO3(-)-cotransport and Na(+)/H(+)-exchange activity after NH4(+)-prepulse-induced intracellular acidification are unaffected by carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Extracellular surface pH transients induced by transmembrane NH3 flux are evident under CO2/HCO3(-)-free conditions but absent when the buffer capacity and apparent H(+) mobility increase in the presence of CO2/HCO3(-) even after the inhibition of carbonic anhydrases. We conclude that (a) intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity accentuates pH transients and vasoconstriction in response to acute elevations of pCO2, (b) CO2/HCO3(-) minimizes extracellular surface pH transients without requiring carbonic anhydrase activity, and

  17. Effect of Fujian tablet on the expression of Nogo-A mRNA in the cervical spinal cord of middle cerebral artery occlusion model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibiting the expression of Nogo-A in cervical spinal cord by use of interaction of antigen and antibody can help the remodeling of corticospinal projection of focal cerebral ischemia model rats to facilitate neurological recovery, which provides a new possible mechanism for drugs to promote neurological recovery. However, the effects of drugs on the expression of Nogo-A in cervical spinal cord are still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Fujian tablet on the expression of Nogo-A mRNA in cervical spinal cords of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats, and to investigate the possible regulatory effect of Fujian tablet on the regenerated microenvironment of spinal conduction bundle.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled trial taking Wistar rats as experimental animals.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: This experiment was carried out in the laboratory of Shandong Academy of Medical Science between June 2005 and July 2006. A total of 40 healthy male Wistar rats, aged 12 weeks, weighing 250 -300 g, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Shandong University. Fujian tablets (main components: Heshouwu, Yinyanghuo, etc) were provided by office of Pharmaceutics of Shandong University of traditional Chinese medicine. Nogo-A detection kit was provided by Wuhan Boster Biotechnology Co.,Ltd.,and batch number was 040309009. This experiment was approved by Local Animal Ethics Committee.METHODS: Forty male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, with 10 in each: normal group,sham-operation group, model group and administration group. Rats in the administration group and model group were subjected to MCAO. Rats in the sham-operation group underwent the same craniotomy, and their middle cerebral arteries (MCA) were not occluded. Rats in the normal group were untouched. Rats in administration group were intragastrically administrated with the solution of Fujian

  18. Locally vascularized pelvic accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, F; Frantellizzi, V; Drudi, Francesco M; Maghella, F; Liberatore, M

    2016-01-01

    Polysplenism and accessory spleen are congenital, usually asymptomatic anomalies. A rare case of polysplenism with ectopic spleen in pelvis of a 67-year-old, Caucasian female is reported here. A transvaginal ultrasound found a soft well-defined homogeneous and vascularized mass in the left pelvis. Patient underwent MRI evaluation and contrast-CT abdominal scan: images with parenchymal aspect, similar to spleen were obtained. Abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid was performed and pelvic region was studied with planar scans and SPECT. The results showed the presence of an uptake area of the radiopharmaceutical in the pelvis, while the spleen was normally visualized. These findings confirmed the presence of an accessory spleen with an artery originated from the aorta and a vein that joined with the superior mesenteric vein. To our knowledge, in the literature, there is just only one case of a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis.

  19. A clinical study of single subcortical cerebral infarction of middle cerebral artery territory%大脑中动脉供血区皮层下单个脑梗死的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 于玲; 秦伟; 张小雨; 李悦; 徐霁华; 胡秀朝; 袁俊亮; 顾华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of single subcortical cerebral infarction of middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory and the possible pathogenesis.Methods A total of 344 cases diagnosed as single subcortical cerebral infarction of MCA territory were enrolled in the study and divided into the parent artery disease (PAD) group and the non-PAD group according to whether the MCA stenosis was presented or not.A total of 312 cases diagnosed as single subcortical cerebral infarction of MCA territory were divided into the BAD group and the SVD group according to the relationship between the lesion sites and MCA.Differences in the clinical and imaging feature were compared between different groups.Results A total of 32 patients were in the PAD group.Compared with the non-PAD group,patients in the PAD group were found with higher prevalence of asymptomatic cerebral arterial atherosclerosis [93.8% (30/32) vs 57.1% (178/312),P < 0.001],higher prevalence of branch atheromatous disease [75.0% (24/32) vs 58.7% (183/312),P =0.072].A total of 183 patients were in the BAD group.Compared with the BAD group,patients in the SVD group were older[(64.7 ± 11.2) years vs (61.7 ± 12.2) years,P =0.031],more with hypertension [65.9% (85/129) vs 53.0% (97/183),P =0.027] and smoking [41.9% (54/129) vs 57.9% (106/183),P =0.006] and more severe leukoaraiosis.Conclusions Single subcortical cerebral infarction of MCA territory has different etiology and pathogenesis.Evidence of systemic atherosclerosis should be carefully searched in patients with branch atheromatous disease.%目的 探讨大脑中动脉供血区皮层下单个脑梗死的临床特征及可能的发病机制.方法 回顾性分析344例大脑中动脉供血区皮层下单个脑梗死患者资料.根据大脑中动脉是否存在狭窄分为载体动脉疾病(PAD)组和载体动脉正常组(non-PAD组),分别为32例和312例.non-PAD组再根据头部MRI显示的病灶与大脑中动脉的关系

  20. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging.

  1. Diagnóstico clínico diferencial entre oclusão da artéria carótida interna e da artéria cerebral média A comparative symptomatological study of internal carotid artery occlusion and middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Melaragno

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo comparativo entre o quadro clínico inicial de 61 casos de oclusão da artéria carótida interna e o de 23 casos de oclusão da artéria cerebral média, diagnosticados pela angiografia cerebral e/ou pela necropsia em pacientes submetidos ou não à cirurgia vascular. Os autores comparam a idade dos pacientes, o sexo, o modo de início da afecção, a existência ou não de convulsões e/ou cefaléias, a ocorrência do acidente cerebral durante o sono ou em vigília, a existência de ictos prévios, os níveis de pressão arterial, o grau de consciência, a força muscular, os achados eletrencefalográficos, a palpação e ausculta das carótidas em nível cervical. Os resultados são demonstrados em índices percentuais, pelos quais os autores inferem que não há significância estatística nesses elementos com três exceções: a maior ocorrência de convulsões nas oclusões da artéria cerebral média em relação às da carótida, a oftalmodinamometria e a sintomatologia carotídea cervical. A oftalmodinamometria revela valores significantemente menores nas pressões da artéria central da retina, no mesmo lado da trombose da carótida em 70,0% dos casos, enquanto que medidas normais e simétricas verificaram-se em todos os casos de oclusão da artéria cerebral média em que o exame foi realizado. No que concerne a sinais arteriais no pescoço, havia anormalidades palpatórias e auscultatórias em 52,4% dos pacientes com trombose da carótida e em 8,6% dos casos com oclusão da cerebral média. Concluem os autores, portanto, que apenas a angiografia cerebral permite um diagnóstico seguro entre ambas as sedes da oclusão.A comparative study of the early clinical picture in 61 cases of internal carotid artery occlusion and 23 cases of middle cerebral artery occlusion, diagnosed by cerebral angiography and/or necropsy in patients who were either submitted to surgery or not operated upon is reported. The authors had

  2. Diagnóstico não invasivo da anemia fetal pela medida do pico de velocidade sistólica na dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média Noninvasive fetal anemia diagnosis by middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity waveform measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Taveira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar se existe associação entre a medida do pico de velocidade sistólica (PVS na dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média (ACM e a concentração de hemoglobina fetal e determinar a sua capacidade diagnóstica. MÉTODOS: entre janeiro de 2000 e maio de 2003, 44 gestantes isoimunizadas foram submetidas a transfusão intra-uterina. Realizou-se estudo dopplervelocimétrico da ACM antes de cada transfusão fetal, sempre com intervalo inferior a 3 horas, antecedendo o procedimento. O PVS da ACM foi considerado alterado quando seu valor era superior a 1,5 múltiplo da mediana para a respectiva idade gestacional. A concentração de hemoglobina do cordão foi aferida antes de se iniciar a infusão de sangue, realizada no Hemocue® (B-Hemoglobin Photometer Hemocue AB; Angelholm, Sweden. O estudo estatístico foi feito pelo teste do chi2 e também foram calculados os valores de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo. RESULTADOS: foram realizados 83 procedimentos, sendo que em 33 a hemoglobina fetal era inferior a 10,0 g/dL. Houve associação significativa entre as variáveis estudadas, pPURPOSE: to assess the correlation between middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity and umbilical cord blood hemoglobin concentration and to determine its diagnostic value. PATIENTS AND METHODS: a cross-sectional prospective study was performed from January 2000 to May 2003. Forty-four isoimmunized pregnant women underwent a protocol for the identification of fetal hemolysis. When intrauterine transfusions were indicated, the umbilical cord blood hemoglobin concentration was measured at the beginning of the procedure. Each intrauterine transfusion preceded by Doppler velocimetry of the middle cerebral artery was regarded as one case, summing up eighty-three procedures. In all cases, the middle cerebral artery Doppler examinations were performed within the three hours preceding fetal blood sample collection. The

  3. Association of insulin resistance with cerebral glucose uptake in late middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Auriel A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Starks, Erika J.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Christian, Bradley T.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce P.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Jonaitis, Erin M.; Sager, Mark A.; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Importance Converging evidence suggests that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involves insulin signaling impairment. AD patients and people at risk for AD show reduced glucose metabolism, as indexed by F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([F18]FDG-PET). Objective To determine if insulin resistance (IR) predicts AD-like global and regional glucose metabolism deficits in late middle-aged participants at risk for AD. A secondary objective was to examine if IR-predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism was associated with worse cognitive performance. Setting A general community sample enriched for AD family history. Participants Population-based, cross-sectional study of 150 cognitively normal, late middle-aged (mean=60.67 years) adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention. Design Participants underwent cognitive testing, fasting blood draw, and an [F18]FDG-PET scan at baseline. The Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to assess peripheral insulin resistance. Regression analysis tested the statistical effect of HOMA-IR on global glucose metabolism. A voxel-wise analysis was used to determine if HOMA-IR predicted regional glucose metabolism. Finally, predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism was regressed against cognitive factors. Covariates included age, sex, body mass index, Apolipoprotein E genotype, AD family history status, and a reference region used to normalize regional uptake. Main Outcome Measures Regional glucose uptake determined using [F18]FDG-PET, and neuropsychological factors. Results Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower global glucose metabolism (β=−0.29, p<.01) and lower regional glucose metabolism across large portions of frontal, lateral parietal, lateral temporal, and medial temporal lobe (MTL; p<.05, family-wise error corrected). The association was especially robust in left MTL (R2=0.178). Lower left MTL glucose metabolism predicted by HOMA-IR was significantly

  4. Comparisons between Garcia, Modo, and Longa rodent stroke scales: Optimizing resource allocation in rat models of focal middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachour, Salam P; Hevesi, Mario; Bachour, Ornina; Sweis, Brian M; Mahmoudi, Javad; Brekke, Julia A; Divani, Afshin A

    2016-05-15

    The use of rodent stroke models allow for the understanding of stroke pathophysiology. There is currently no gold standard neurological assessment to measure deficits and recovery from stroke in rodent models. Agreement on a universal preclinical stroke scale allows for comparison of the outcomes among conducted studies. The present study aimed to compare three routinely used neurological assessments in rodent studies (i.e., Garcia, Modo, and Longa) to determine which is most effective for accurately and consistently quantifying neurological deficits in the context of focal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in rats. Focal MCAo was induced in 22 male Wistar rats using a novel transfemoral approach. Rodents were assessed for neurological deficit pre-injury as well as 3 and 24h post-injury. Data was analyzed to determine Pearson correlation coefficients in addition to McNemar's χ(2) values between each pair of neurological assessments. All three stroke scales, Garcia, Modo, and Longa, showed statistically significant changes between the baseline and the 3-hour neurological assessments. A trend towards neurological recovery was observed in all three stroke scales between the 3 and 24-hour endpoints. The three scales were highly correlated with each other, with Garcia and Modo having the strongest correlation. Of the three pairwise analyses, the comparison between the Garcia and Longa tests demonstrated the highest McNemar's χ(2) value, indicating least marginal homogeneity between these two tests. The combination of high correlation between Garcia and Modo tests along with greatest marginal heterogeneity observed between the Garcia and Longa test lead us to recommend the use of Garcia and Longa neurological scales when researchers are hoping to capture the broadest range of neurological factors using only two stroke scales.

  5. Fish oil supplementation associated with decreased cellular degeneration and increased cellular proliferation 6 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe MC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michaela C Pascoe,1 David W Howells, 2David P Crewther,1 Leeanne M Carey,2,3 Sheila G Crewther4 1Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne University, ²Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, 3Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health La Trobe University, 4School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-LC-PUFAs are both neuroprotective and have antidepressive effects. However the influence of dietary supplemented n-3-LC-PUFAs on inflammation-related cell death and proliferation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo-induced stroke is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors are reduced in n-3-LC-PUFA-fed MCAo animals. Thus in the present study, male hooded Wistar rats were exposed to MCAo or sham surgeries and examined behaviorally 6 weeks later, prior to euthanasia and examination of lesion size, cell death and proliferation in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus of the ipsilesional hemispheres, and the thalamus of the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Markers of cell genesis and cell degeneration in the hippocampus or thalamus of the ipsilesional hemisphere did not differ between surgery and diet groups 6 weeks post MCAo. Dietary supplementation with n-3-LC-PUFA decreased cell degeneration and increased cell proliferation in the thalamic region of the contralesional hemisphere. MCAo–associated cell degeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus positively correlated with anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors previously reported in these animals. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory n-3-LC-PUFA supplementation appears to have cellular protective effects after MCAo in the rat, which may affect behavioral outcomes. Keywords: apoptosis, polyunsaturated fatty acids

  6. Near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging of infarct core and peri-infarct depolarization in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Nishidate, Izumi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Sato, Shunichi

    2014-03-01

    To understand the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, in vivo imaging of the brain tissue viability and related spreading depolarization is crucial. In the infarct core, impairment of energy metabolism causes anoxic depolarization (AD), which considerably increases energy consumption, accelerating irreversible neuronal damage. In the peri-infarct penumbra region, where tissue is still reversible despite limited blood flow, peri-infarct depolarization (PID) occurs, exacerbating energy deficit and hence expanding the infarct area. We previously showed that light-scattering signal, which is sensitive to cellular/subcellular structural integrity, was correlated with AD and brain tissue viability in a rat hypoxia-reoxygenation model. In the present study, we performed transcranial NIR diffuse reflectance imaging of the rat brain during middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and examined whether the infarct core and PIDs can be detected. Immediately after occluding the left MCA, light scattering started to increase focally in the occlusion site and a bright region was generated near the occlusion site and spread over the left entire cortex, which was followed by a dark region, showing the occurrence of PID. The PID was generated repetitively and the number of times of occurrence in a rat ranged from four to ten within 1 hour after occlusion (n=4). The scattering increase in the occlusion site was irreversible and the area with increased scattering expanded with increasing the number of PIDs, indicating an expansion of the infarct core. These results suggest the usefulness of NIR diffuse reflectance signal to visualize spatiotemporal changes in the infarct area and PIDs.

  7. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppo eSärkämö

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis utilizing cost-function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural MRI data of the patients (n = 49 who either listened to their favourite music (music group, n = 16 or verbal material (audio book group, n = 18 or did not receive any listening material (control group, n = 15 during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant grey matter volume (GMV increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG, right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral / subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC and right ventral striatum (VS] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the music group than in the audio book and control groups. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioural recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain.

  8. What is the optimal duration of middle-cerebral artery occlusion consistently resulting in isolated cortical selective neuronal loss in the spontaneously hypertensive rat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail eEjaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Selective neuronal loss (SNL in the reperfused penumbra may impact clinical recovery and is thus important to investigate. Brief proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo results in predominantly striatal SNL, yet cortical damage is more relevant given its behavioral implications and that thrombolytic therapy mainly rescues the cortex. Distal temporary MCAo (tMCAo does target the cortex, but the optimal occlusion duration that results in isolated SNL has not been determined. In the present study we assessed different distal tMCAo durations looking for consistently pure SNL.Methods: Microclip distal tMCAo (md-tMCAo was performed in ~6-month old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. We previously reported that 45min md-tMCAo in SHRs results in pan-necrosis in the majority of subjects. Accordingly, three shorter MCAo durations were investigated here in decremental succession, namely 30, 22 and 15mins (n=3, 3 and 7 subjects, respectively. Recanalization was confirmed by MR angiography just prior to brain collection at 28 days and T2-weighted MRI was obtained for characterization of ischemic lesions. NeuN, OX42 and GFAP immunohistochemistry appraised changes in neurons, microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Ischemic lesions were categorized into three main types: 1 pan-necrosis; 2 partial infarction; and 3 SNL. Results: Pan-necrosis or partial infarction was present in all 30min and 22min subjects, but not in the 15min group (p < 0.001, in which isolated cortical SNL was consistently present. MRI revealed characteristic hyperintense abnormalities in all rats with pan-necrosis or partial infarction, but no change in any 15min subject. Conclusions: We found that 15min distal MCAo consistently resulted in pure cortical SNL, whereas durations equal or longer than 22min consistently resulted in infarcts. This model may be of use to study the pathophysiology of cortical SNL and its prevention by appropriate

  9. Sensitivity of 3D gradient recalled echo susceptibility-weighted imaging technique compared to computed tomography angiography for detection of middle cerebral artery thrombus in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agarwal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at comparing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance (MR susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI with computed tomography angiography (CTA in the detection of middle cerebral artery (MCA thrombus in acute stroke. Seventy-nine patients with acute MCA stroke was selected using our search engine software; only the ones showing restricted diffusion in the MCA territory on diffusion-weighted images were included. We finally selected 35 patients who had done both MRI (including SWI and CTA. Twenty random subjects with completely normal MRI (including SWI exam were selected as control. Two neuroradiologists (blinded to the presence or absence of stroke reviewed the SW images and then compared the findings with CT angiogram (in patients with stroke. The number of MCA segments showing thrombus in each patient was tabulated to estimate the thrombus burden. Thrombus was detected on SWI in one or more MCA segments in 30 out of 35 patients, on the first review. Of the 30, SWI showed thrombus in more than one MCA segments in 7 patients. CTA depicted branch occlusion in 31 cases. Thrombus was seen on both SWI and CTA in 28 patients. Thrombus was noted in two patients on SWI only, with no corresponding abnormality seen on CTA. Two patients with acute MCA showed no vascular occlusion or thrombus on either CTA or SWI. Only two case of false-positive thrombus was reported in normal control subjects. Susceptibility-weighted images had sensitivity and specificity of 86% and 90% respectively, with positive predictive value 94%. Sensitivity was 86% for SWI, compared with 89% for CTA, and this difference was statistically insignificant (P>0.05. Of all the positive cases on CTA (31 corresponding thrombus was seen on SWI in 90% of subjects (28 of 31. Susceptibility-weighted imaging has high sensitivity for detection of thrombus in acute MCA stroke. Moreover, SWI is a powerful technique for estimation of thrombus burden, which can be challenging on CTA.

  10. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power

  11. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Middle cerebral artery revascularization: anatomical studies and considerations on the anastomosis site Revascularização da artéria cerebral média: estudo anatômico e considerações sobre o local de sutura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S. Meneses

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In the surgical management of skull base lesions and vascular diseases such as giant aneurysms, involvement of the internal carotid artery may require the resection or the occlusion of the vessel. The anastomosis of the external carotid artery and the middle cerebral artery with venous graft may be indicated to re-establish the blood flow. To determine the best suture site in the middle cerebral artery, an anatomical study was carried out. Fourteen cerebral hemispheres were analysed after the injection of red latex into the internal carotid artery. The superior and inferior trunk of the main division of the middle cerebral artery have more than 2 mm of diameter. They are superficial allowing an anastomosis using a venous graft. The superior trunk has a disadvantage, it gives rise to branches for the precentral and post-central giri. The anastomosis with the inferior trunk presents lower risk of neurological deficit even though the angular artery originates from it.No tratamento cirúrgico das lesões da base do crânio e patologias vasculares como aneurismas gigantes, a ressecção ou oclusão da artéria carótida interna pode ser necessária. A anastomose das artérias carótida externa e cerebral média com interposição de enxerto venoso pode ser utilizada para restabelecer o fluxo sangüíneo. Para determinar o melhor local de sutura na artéria cerebral média, realizou-se um estudo anatômico. Quatorze hemisférios cerebrais foram analisados depois da injeção de látex vermelho na artéria carótida interna. Os ramos superior e inferior da divisão principal da artéria cerebral média têm mais de 2 mm de diâmetro. Eles são superficiais e permitem uma anastomose utilizando um enxerto venoso. O tronco superior tem a desvantagem de dar origem aos ramos para os giros pré e pós-centrais. A anastomose com o tronca inferior apresenta menor risco de déficit neurológico, apesar da artéria angular ter origem desse vaso.

  13. Intravenous HOE-642 reduces brain edema and Na uptake in the rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke: evidence for participation of the blood-brain barrier Na/H exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martha E; Chen, Yi-Je; Lam, Tina I; Taylor, Kelleen C; Walton, Jeffrey H; Anderson, Steven E

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral edema forms in the early hours of ischemic stroke by processes involving increased transport of Na and Cl from blood into brain across an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our previous studies provided evidence that the BBB Na-K-Cl cotransporter is stimulated by the ischemic factors hypoxia, aglycemia, and arginine vasopressin (AVP), and that inhibition of the cotransporter by intravenous bumetanide greatly reduces edema and infarct in rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). More recently, we showed that BBB Na/H exchanger activity is also stimulated by hypoxia, aglycemia, and AVP. The present study was conducted to further investigate the possibility that a BBB Na/H exchanger also participates in edema formation during ischemic stroke. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to pMCAO and then brain edema and Na content assessed by magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-weighed imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy Na spectroscopy, respectively, for up to 210 minutes. We found that intravenous administration of the specific Na/H exchange inhibitor HOE-642 significantly decreased brain Na uptake and reduced cerebral edema, brain swelling, and infarct volume. These findings support the hypothesis that edema formation and brain Na uptake during the early hours of cerebral ischemia involve BBB Na/H exchanger activity as well as Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity.

  14. Microglia and macrophages are major sources of locally produced transforming growth factor-beta1 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehrmann, E; Kiefer, R; Christensen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    source of TGF-beta1 mRNA following experimental focal cerebral ischemia. Consequently, TGF-beta1-mediated functions may be exerted by microglia both in the early degenerative phase, and later in combination with blood-borne macrophages, in the remodeling and healing phase after focal cerebral ischemia....

  15. The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum R Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed.

  16. A case report: accessory right renal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patasi B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations in the origin of the arteries in the abdominal area are very common. The arteries that show frequent variations include the celiac trunk, renal and gonadal arteries. During a routine dissection of a male cadaver, one main and one inferior accessory renal artery were found in the abdominal region. We discovered that the inferior accessory renal artery that originated from the right anterolateral aspect of abdominal aorta was running into the lower pole of the right kidney. The origin of the main right renal artery and the inferior accessory right renal artery were 19.8 mm and 53 mm below the superior mesenteric artery, respectively. The inferior accessory right renal artery ran directly into the inferior pole of the right kidney, in the area where the accessory right renal vein was leaving the right kidney. These anatomical variations and anomalies are important to know before any therapeutic or diagnostic procedures are performed in the abdominal area.

  17. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA and protein level of corpora striata in ischemic side at the early stage of middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion in rhesus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanmin Gao; Rui Zhang; Yunliang Guo

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-I(IGF-1), as one of the important members of growth factor family,participants in the regulation of many physiological functions and behaviors, having very strong neuroprotective effect. However, the expression of IGF-1 following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is still disputed.OBJ ECTIVE: To observe the expression of IGF-1 and protein of corpora striata in ischemic side at the early stage of middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion in rhesus monkey.DESIGN: A completely randomized grouping design, controlled animal experimentSETTING: Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: ① Totally 17 rhesus monkeys , of either gender, aged 4 to 5 years, were enrolled . Seven rhesus monkeys observed with gene chip were randomly divided into 2 groups: sham operation group (n=3)and ischemia/reperfusion group (n=4). Ten rhesus monkeys observed with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry method were randomly divided into 2 groups: sham operation group (n=3)and ischemia/reperfusion group (n=7). Rhesus monkeys observed under microscope were divided into 2 groups: sham operation group (n=6) and ischamia/reperfusion group (n=11). ② Materials used in the experiment: cresyl violet (Sigma Company, America); immunohistochemical reagent kit ( Huamei Bio-engineering Company); In situ hybridization reagent kit (Boshide Bio-engineering Co. Ltd, Wuhan); 12 800 dots chip (Boxing Company,Shanghai).METHODS: This experiment was carried out at the Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Qingdao University from January 2001 to December 2003. ① The onset area of middle cerebral artery was blocked for 2 hours, middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion models were created.② After ischemia/reperfusion for 24 hours, cerebral tissue sections of rhesus monkeys were prepared and stained with cresyl violet. Image analysis was performed with 500IW

  18. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) was used as an experimental model of ischemic stroke. MCAO produces an acute lesion consisting of an ischemic core or focus with severely reduced blood flow surrounded by a borderzone or ischemic penumbra with less pronounced blood flow reduction. Cells in the ischemic focus...

  19. [Spinal accessory nerve and lymphatic neck dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsolle, V; Michelet, V; Majoufre, C; Caix, P; Siberchicot, F; Pinsolle, J

    1997-09-01

    Radical neck dissection was the golden standard of treatment for cervical nodes in head and neck tumors. From the seventies, the preservation of the spinal accessory nerve has become increasingly popular in order to improve the functional result of the neck dissections. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of functional disability associated with each type of neck dissection and the value of anatomical references for dissection of the spinal accessory nerve. One hundred twenty seven patients were evaluated 1 month and 1 year after radical, functional or supraomohyoid neck dissection with a questionnaire and a physical examination. Anatomical measurements of the spinal accessory nerve were performed in 20 patients. We found considerable or severe shoulder dysfunction in 7%, 34% and 51% respectively of patients in whom supraomohyoid, functional and radical neck dissections were performed. Furthermore 49% of patients having undergone a radical neck dissection had little or no symptoms. Sacrifice of the spinal accessory nerve in radical neck dissection may lead to shoulder dysfunction. A functional disability may also be associated, although in a less extent, with any neck dissection in which the spinal accessory nerve is dissected and placed in traction. There is a large variation in the degree of functional disability and pain in patients with similar neck dissections. The course of the spinal accessory nerve in the neck makes it particularly vulnerable to injury during the dissection near the sternocleidomastoid muscle and in the posterior cervical triangle.

  20. Cerebrovascular hemodynamics in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Yang; Changcong Cui; Chengbin Wu

    2011-01-01

    The present study observed hemodynamic changes in 26 patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis using a cerebral circulation dynamics detector and transcranial Doppler.In patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis the blood supply and flow rate in the bilateral carotid arteries and the blood flow rate in the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries were similar to normal controls, but the cerebral vascular resistance, critical pressure and pulsatility index were increased, and cerebral arterial elasticity and cerebral blood flow autoregulation were decreased.Compared with the lesioned hemisphere of patients with cerebral infarction, the total blood supply and blood flow rate of patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis were higher.Compared with normal subjects, patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis exhibited cognitive disturbances, mainly in short-term memory, attention, abstract capability, and spatial and executive dysfunction.Results showed that cerebral arteriosclerosis does not directly affect the blood supply of a cerebral hemisphere, but affects cognitive function.The increased cerebral vascular resistance and reduced autoregulation of cerebral blood vessels may be important hemodynamic mechanisms of arteriosclerosis-induced cerebral infarction.

  1. Comparison of Clinical Features Between Young Patients and Middle and Elderly Patients with Cerebral Infraction%青年脑梗死与中老年脑梗死的临床特征比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅可; 高小平

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To compare the clinical features between young patients and middle and elderly patients with cerebral infarction. [Methods]Clinical data of 83 young patients with cerebral infarction(group A) and 1542 middle and elderly patients with cerebral infarction(group B) were analyzed and compared retrospectively. [Results]According to TOAST classification, small artery occlusion stroke(SAA) and large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) in group A and group B accounted for 38. 6% (32/83), 25. 3% (21/83), 52. 9% (815/ 1542) and 35. 7% (549/1542) , respectively. The common risk factors of two groups were hypertensive disease, hyperlipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism and homocysteine(Hcy). Hypertension, hyper-lipemia, smoking, drunken and high Hey in group A were more than in those in group B. The effective rate in group A and group B were 95. 5% and 73. 1% , respectively, and there was significant difference between two groups( P <0. 05). [Condusion]The main cause of young, middle and elderly patients with cerebral infarction is arteriosclerosis. There are the common risk factors of patients in two groups. The prognosis in young patients is better than that in middle and elderly patients. The early control of the risk factors can reduce the incidence of cerebral infarction.%[目的]比较青年脑梗死与中老年脑梗死的临床特征.[方法]回顾性分析比较在本科住院的83例青年脑梗死(A组)与1 542例中老年脑梗死(B组)患者的临床资料.[结果] 根据TOAST分型,A组与B组中小动脉闭塞型(SAA)、大动脉粥样硬化型(LAA)分别占38.6%(32/83)、25.3%(21/83)和52.9%(815/1542)、35.7%(549/1542);高血压病、高脂血症、吸烟、糖尿病、酗酒、同型半胱氨酸水平(Hcy)为两组病人共同危险因素,A组中高血压、吸烟、酗酒及高Hcy明显高于B组;预后A组有效率95.5%,B组有效率73.1%,两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).[结论]青年及中老年脑梗死均以动脉硬化

  2. Cerebral hemodynamics in aging : the interplay between blood pressure, cerebral perfusion, and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in measurement techniques have made it possible to study dynamic changes in brain blood flow. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography measures changes in cerebral blood flow-velocity in the larger cerebral arteries (e.g. the middle cerebral artery). Near infrared spectroscopy records changes i

  3. Fair灌注成像在一侧大脑中动脉狭窄或闭塞中的应用%Fair for evaluation of middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion in brian tissue perfusion imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉涛; 李淑明; 阮骥

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨Fair灌注成像对大脑中动脉狭窄或闭塞中灌注信息的诊断价值,为指导临床提供依据.方法 20例临床TIA患者或怀疑大脑血管的狭窄或闭塞患者,行常规MRI,DWI,MRA,Fair和DSC检查,确定病变范围,定量评价Fair与DSC的rCBF差异.结果 Fair CBF图显示患侧与健侧灌注程度改变对比t=4.46,P<0.05,有差异;Fair 的rCBF为0.84±0.52,DSC的rCBF为0.79±0.31,二者对比:t=0.705,P >0.05,无统计血差异.结论 Fair为无创性脑灌注成像,操作简单,能定量评估的大脑中动脉狭窄或闭塞引起的缺血性脑血管病的灌注信息.%Objective To disscuss diagnostic value of Fair in cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion reperfusion.Methods 20 patients of middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion were studied with rountine MRI,DWI,MRA,Fair and DSC examination, Showing the size of lesions were compared, The perfusion difference between Fair and DSC through the rCBF was compared.Results Fair showed the perfusion of abnomality of unilateral and contralateral changes in perfusion , t=4.46, P<0.05, with statistical significance.rCBF of Fair was 0.84±0.52, rCBF of DSC was 0.79±0.31, Comparison of DSC and Fair perfusionmethod showed no difference (t=0.705,P>0.05).Conclusion Fair, need no contrast injection of invasive operation, is convenient and useful method in assessing cerebral perfusion information of middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion.

  4. Impact of internal and surgical therapy in rehabilitation ofhypertensive cerebral hemorrhage on the drape in middle-age and elderly population%内、外科治疗对中、老年幕上高血压脑出血患者康复效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏利; 佟加恩; 关小宏; 张中东

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of internal and surgical therapy in prognosis of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage on the drape in the middle-age and elders.Method According to amount of hemorrhage,740 patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage on the drape were divided into 3 groups .Then,according to age and therapeutic methods,each group was divided into 4 groups. The mortality and clinical neurologic impairment socre after 3-month follow up were compared between groups.Result Mortality of internal middle-age and mild group were lower as compared with that of old-age group .Mortality and neurological impairment score of surgical middle-age group and moderate group were lower than those of internal middle-age and surgical old-age group.There was no significant difference in mortality between internal old-age and surgical groups.Neurological impairment scores of medicine groups were lower than those of surgey groups.Mortality and neurological impairment score of severe group,middle-age medicine and surgery groups were lower than those of old-age groups.Mortality and neurological impairment score of middl and old-age surgery groups were lower than those of internal groups.Conclusion Internal therapy is effective in treating mild to moderate hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage on the drape in elders.For other patients,surgical treatment is suggested.

  5. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  6. INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS ON MIDDLE AGED CEREBRAL IN-FARCTION%社会心理因素对中年脑梗塞发病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钞雪林; 袁也丰; 刘卓琪; 谷晋

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the influence of social psychological factors on middle aged cerebral infarction. [Methods] Forty-eight middle-age patients with cerebral infarction and sixty healthy examiners were assessed by LES, TABP, SSRS and TCSQ. [Results] The scores of living alone, passive coping, positive coping, subjective supporting, social support use, behavior type, negative life events, positive life events, total life events stroke were different in patient group and control group had statistical significance. The results of multiple Logistic analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between living alone, negative life events and cerbral infarction, while there was a negative correlation between positive coping, usage of supporting and cerbral infarction. [Conclusion] Psychosocial factors have important influence on the onset of middle-aged cerebral infarction.%[目的]研究社会心理因素对中年脑梗塞患者发病的影响.[方法]应用生活事件量表、A型行为类型评定量表、社会支持量表、特质应对方式问卷对48例中年脑梗塞患者及60例健康体检者进行病例对照研究.[结果]独居、消极应对、积极应对、主观支持、对支持的利用度、行为类型、正性事件刺激量、负性事件刺激量、事件刺激总量病例组与对照组比较差异有统计学意义.Logistic回归分析发现:独居、负性事件刺激量与脑梗塞呈正相关,而积极应对、对支持的利用度与脑梗塞呈负相关.[结论]中年脑梗塞患者发病前有明显的社会心理因素,应加强心理卫生保健工作.

  7. 血脂代谢紊乱与中青年脑梗死危险因素的相关性分析%The relationship between serum lipid metabolic dysfunction and cerebral infarction in middle age and youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军; 赵水平; 郭纯; 蒋波; 谭利明; 肖志杰

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨血脂与中青年人脑梗死的关系. 方法:检测了 111例中青年人脑梗死患者及 80例对照者的三酰甘油、总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇 (High density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇 (Low density lipoprotein cholesterol,LDL-C)、载脂蛋白 A-I(apolipoproteinA-I,ApoA-I)、载脂蛋白 B100(apolipoprotein B100, ApoB100)和脂蛋白 (a)血清含量. 结果:脑梗死组三酰甘油 [(1.92± 1.33)mmol/L],总胆固醇 [(5.21± 1.08)mmol/L],LDL-C[(3.13± 0.96)]mmol/L,ApoB100[(1.10± 0.29)g/L]及脂蛋白 (a)[(0.23± 0.18)]g/L水平高于对照组 (t=2.523~ 3.796,P< 0.05),总胆固醇与年龄呈正相关 [青年: (4.96± 1.14)mmol/L,中年 :(5.27± 1.06)mmol/L], HDL-C与年龄呈负相关 [青年: (1.39± 0.43)mmol/L,中年 :(1.26± 0.35)mmol/L].亚组分析发现青年人脑梗死亚组的脂蛋白 (a)水平和中年人脑梗死亚组的三酰甘油、总胆固醇、 LDL-C、 ApoB100及脂蛋白 (a)水平均显著高于相应的对照组 (t=2.571~ 4.107,P< 0.05);皮层支动脉闭塞亚组脂蛋白 (a)水平显著高于穿通支动脉闭塞亚组 (t=5.414,P< 0.01);首发脑梗死亚组与复发脑梗死亚组之间的血脂水平无显著差异. 结论:血脂代谢紊乱是中青年人脑梗死的危险因素.%AIM:To explore the relationship between serum lipid and cerebral infarction in middle age and youth. METHODS:Blood samples were collected from 111 middle-aged and young patients with cerebral infarction and 80 normal controls for assessing the contents of triacylglycerol(TG), total cholesterol(TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),apoliprotein A-1(ApoA-1),apoliprotein B100 (ApoB100) and lipoprotein(a). RESULTS:The levels of TG,TC,LDL-C,ApoB100 and lipoprotein(a) in the patients with cerebral infarction were higher than those of the control subjects (t=2.523- 3.796,P< 0.05);positive correlation was found between TC and age[(4.96

  8. Young and middle-aged and elderly patients with cerebral infarction DSA analysis of the distribution of cerebral artery stenosis%中青年与老年脑梗死患者脑动脉狭窄分布的 DSA 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾德华

    2016-01-01

    Objective to compare the young and middle-aged and elderly patients with cerebral infarction, cerebral artery stenosis of the distribution of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as a result, analyzing the characteristic of the distribution of cerebral artery stenosis. Methods will our hospital 100 cases of cerebral infarction patients, according to the different age groups, divided into young group of 60 cases with elderly group, 40 cases were performed DSA examination, on two groups of patients with cerebral artery disease incidence, degree of stenosis vascular stenosis, distribution and attack part feature compar-ison. Results in patients with elderly group, the procyclic stenosis of extracranial artery disease incidence is significantly higher than in areas such as the young and middle-aged group of patients, and intracranial artery, posterior circulation narrow lesions were significantly lower than in areas such as the young and middle-aged group of patients, there is statistical significance dif-ference; Two groups of patients with vascular stenosis degree is given priority to with severe stenosis or occlusion, were signifi-cantly higher than in the same group the incidence of mild, moderate stenosis, the difference was statistically significant, and the outbreak of the main parts of vertebral artery opening, the incidence of vertebral artery open two groups of patients were signifi-cantly higher than that of group of middle cerebral artery MI incidence, as well as the internal carotid artery, the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion middle-aged and young cerebral infarction patients with senile cerebral infarction there was some difference of distribution of cerebral artery stenosis, the former is common with intracranial cerebral artery lesions, the latter is given priority to with cranial outside brain artery vascular lesions, but occurs in vertebral artery opening, and the degree of stenosis were severe or occlusion.%目的:比较中

  9. 大脑中动脉闭塞患者软脑膜侧支循环的影响因素%Influencing factors of leptomeningeal collateral circulation in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄显军; 朱武生; 徐格林; 杨倩; 葛良; 周志明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigated the effect of the risk factors for stroke on the development of leptomeningeal colateral circulation in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion. Methods Patients with acute ischemic stroke confirmed as middle cerebral artery occlusion by imaging were extracted from the Nanjing Stroke Registry Program between June 2006 and December 2011. The baseline clinical data were colected. Leptomeningeal colateral circulation was assessed by angiography. Results A total of 137 patients were enroled, including 100 males and 37 females; mean age 55. 26 ± 11. 71 years. The colateral circulation of 65 patients (47. 4% ) was good. Univariate analysis showed that the ages (52. 3 ± 13. 2 years vs. 57. 9 ± 9. 5 years; t = 2. 866, P = 0. 005) and the proportion of hypertension (52. 3% vs. 70. 8% ; χ2 = 4. 978, P =0. 026) in the good colateral circulation group were significantly lower than those in the poor colateral circulation group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was an independent risk factor for affecting the leptomeningeal colateral circulation in patients with acute middle cerebral artery occlusion (odds ratio, 0. 965, 95% confidence interval 0. 934-0. 997, P = 0. 034). Conclusions Age is an independent risk factor for affecting the leptomeningeal colateral circulation in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion.%目的:探讨卒中危险因素对大脑中动脉闭塞患者软脑膜侧支循环形成的影响。方法从南京卒中注册系统中提取自2006年6月至2011年12月期间影像学证实为大脑中动脉闭塞的急性脑梗死患者,收集基线临床资料,通过脑血管造影评估软脑膜侧支循环。结果共纳入137例患者,男性100例,平均年龄(55.26±11.71)岁,65例(47.4%)患者侧支循环良好。单变量分析显示,侧支循环不良组年龄[(57.9±9.5)岁对(52.3±13.2)岁;t =2.866,P =0.005]和高血压的患者构成比(70.8%对52.3%;χ2=4

  10. 兔经股动脉插管自体血栓大脑中动脉栓塞模型%Establishment of rabbit model of embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke through selective transfemoral internal carotid catheterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振生; 张新江; 周龙江; 高珊玉; 刘一辉; 王苇; 李澄

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish rabbit model of embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke with clots through selective transfemoral internal carotid catheterization(ICA), and evaluate the feasibility and stability of the technique. Methods A total of 30 New Zealand white rabbits were enrolled, either gender, with mean age of 14-month old and mean body weight of 4.1 kg, which were divided into control group(n=10) and experimental group(n = 20). Both groups received selective transfemoral ICA and angiography, with 1-5 clots injected in experimental group and only the contrast media injected in control group. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed to observe cerebral vascular obstruction, the modified Bederson scoring was used to observe neurologic impairment, CT perfusion was performed to observe cerebral blood perfusion, and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and 2, 3, 5 -triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining were used to observe cerebral infarction. Results Seventeen (85 %) embolic rabbit stroke models in experimental group were successfully established, which manifested occlusion of middle cerebral arteries, neurologic deficits, abnormalities of perfusion, DWI and TTC staining. Three embolic rabbit stroke models were failed, because internal carotid arteries were occluded in 2 rabbits and recanalization occurred in occluded middle cerebral artery in 1 rabbit. No abnormality was observed in control animals. There was obvious difference in CT parameters between 2 groups. Conclusion It is demonstrated that the technique for establishing rabbit models of embolic middle cerebral arteries occlusion stroke with clots through selective transfemoral ICA is simple, micro invasive and reliable. Selection of appropriate clots and familiarity with the anatomy and variation of ICA could obviously improve the stability and reproducibility of focal cerebral ischemia model in rabbits.%目的 经股动脉途径行选择性颈内动脉插管建立兔大脑中动

  11. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

  12. The CT Evolution and the Changes of Hemodynamics of Acute Cerebral Infarction Caused by Unilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Embolism%单侧大脑中动脉主干栓塞引起超急性期脑梗死CT表现演变过程及血流动力学改变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶海鸣; 莊高明; 陈汉威; 郭少冰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the CT evolution and the changes of hemodynamics of acute cerebral infarction caused by unilateral middle cerebral artery embolism.Methods Analyzed the CT performance of acute cerebral infarction and relation among the CT, clinical symptom and the cerebral artery perfusion. A total of 60 patients accepted CT scan 0.5-6 hours after the clinical symptom appeared. And the following CT, MRI or DSA scan showed that the artery embolism caused by cerebral infarction in the brain are unilateral, and all the patients with no internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral artery embolism.Results 60 cases of patients with acute cerebral infarction 57 cases showed positive findings, 23 cases of middle cerebral artery sign high density, density and basal ganglia decreased in 55 cases, the insular low density in 42 cases, local cerebral cortical density decreased in 40 cases, and local brain tissue swelling in 36 cases. The clinical symptoms of 23 cases were severe, 22 moderate cases, mild in 15 cases.Conclusion The distribution of acute cerebral infarction was relevant with the distribution of M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 segment. The earliest lesions from proximal to distal extension is in turn: 1 middle cerebral arterial high density sign; 2 basal ganglia lower density; 3 temporal anterior lobe insular under low density; 4 dorsal lateral front part of the brain the frontal-temporal parietal junction cortex decreased density of brain; 5 dorsal lateral posterior occipital and posterior parietal cortex decreased density. The severity of the Clinical symptoms has relation ship to the location and the range of the infarction on CT, P<0.05.%目的:探讨早期脑梗死CT表现,寻找病变最早出现的部位、与临床表现及相关血流动力学改变的相关性。方法对我院2009-2013年度患者60例,在病发后0.5-6小时内CT检查,后经CT、MRI或DSA证实单侧大脑中动脉主干栓塞致大片脑梗死,但无合并颈内动脉及大脑

  13. Ataque cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi Tan, Yuri; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1998-01-01

    ¿Qué es un ataque cerebral?/¿Qué tipos de ataque cerebral existen?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas de un ataque cerebral?/Factores de riesgo para un ataque cerebral/Tratamiento médico del ataque cerebral/¿por qué es importante acudir temprano cuando se presentan las señales de alarma?/ Manejo preventivo del ataque cerebral isquémico/Tratamiento quirúrgico del ataque cerebral/Enfermedad vascular cerebral hemorrágica/¿Cómo está constituido el grupo de ataque cerebral de la fundación Clínica Valle d...

  14. Avaliação da isquemia cerebral focal induzida pela oclusão da artéria cerebral média e a ação neuroprotetora do cetoprofeno em ratos Focal cerebral ischaemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion and the neuroprotective effect of ketoprofen in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ANTONIO ARAUJO DIAS

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A isquemia cerebral é fenômeno eventualmente observado durante procedimentos neurocirúrgicos e em patologias clínicas resultando em déficits neurológicos incapacitantes ou mesmo na morte. Por tratar-se de problema grave e de difícil solução, vários estudos têm sido efetuados com o objetivo de elucidar os mecanismos do fenômeno isquêmico no sistema nervoso central (SNC e abolir ou diminuir seus efeitos através das drogas que protegem os neurônios (neuroprotetoras. Vários neurotransmissores estão envolvidos na isquemia e entre eles o glutamato destaca-se pela sua maior concentração no SNC. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a isquemia cerebral focal em ratos através da dosagem do glutamato e dos achados morfológicos em uma evolução temporal e demonstrar uma possível ação neuroprotetora do cetoprofeno. Foram utilizados 36 ratos Wistar, subdivididos em 4 grupos: um grupo controle e outro sham; e outros dois em que os animais foram submetidos a isquemia pela oclusão seletiva da artéria cerebral média por um fio obstrutor durante 15, 30 e 45 minutos. Os animais de um destes grupos foram tratados com cetoprofeno 15 minutos antes da isquemia. A isquemia foi avaliada através de estudo histopatológico e da dosagem do glutamato extracelular in vitro. A análise morfológica mostrou não haver diferenças entre os animais normais e do grupo sham. Nos animais submetidos a isquemia, as alterações apareceram aos 30 minutos e acentuaram-se aos 45. Os principais achados foram edema intersticial, desorganização cromatínica, vacuolização e desintegração nuclear. Os animais tratados com cetoprofeno apresentaram alterações semelhantes, porém menos intensas. Reduções nas dosagens in vitro do glutamato extracelular no córtex parietal dos animais submetidos a isquemia iniciaram-se a partir dos 30 minutos e acentuaram-se aos 45 e foram semelhantes nos animais com ou sem tratamento com cetoprofeno, indicando que esta droga

  15. [Accessory symptomatology and therapy of Gilles de la Tourette's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkova, M; Terziev, D

    1987-01-01

    Eight patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome were examined. They had typical multiple tics and accessory disturbances--impulsive and reactive symptoms. The authors described the classification of accessory symptoms and the therapeutic approaches.

  16. Optimal stimulation parameters for Renzhong (DU 26) electro-acupuncture for improving motor function in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Han; Shu Wang; Jinquan Ma; Wenping Yao; Yan Shen; Xuemin Shi

    2011-01-01

    The selection of electro-acupuncture parameters remains poorly unified between clinical studies. The present study observed the effects of electro-acupuncturing Renzhong (DU 26) with different stimulation parameters on motor function recovery following middle artery occlusion injury in rats. Results showed an optimal stimulation parameter for Renzhong electro-acupuncture that was low frequency and mild current (2 Hz, 1 mA) significantly improved cortical excitability and conductive function, and promoted recovery in a rat model of motor function in middle artery occlusion. Frequency had a greater impact than current or interaction, and played a critical role in electro-acupuncture therapy.

  17. The establishment and evaluation of middle cerebral artery occlusion model in monkeys by interventional management%介入法猴大脑中动脉栓塞模型的制作及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐军红; 邓燕贤; 邱维加; 周智鹏; 张辉阳; 曾阳东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the establishment of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in monkeys and to evaluate its usefulness. Methods A total of 13 healthy adult monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study as the experimental animals. The model was established by injecting auto-blood clots into middle cerebral artery (MCA) through the inserted micro-catheter to occlude the artery. MR examination was performed at 2 and 24 hours after the embolization. Results Super-selective catheterization of MCA and injection of auto-blood clots into MCA were successfully accomplished in all monkeys. Reduced number of branches of MCA and occlusion of some branches were observed in 12 cases. MRI performed at two hours after the procedure showed that there were high signals on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and no abnormal findings were observed on T2WI. Follow-up MRI performed at 24 hours after the procedure demonstrated that high signals could be seen on both DWI and T2WI at the same areas. Severe embolization was - observed in one monkey, which was manifested as the occlusion of the main trunk of MCA as well as sparsely distributed branches. On two-hour DWI large area of high signal was observed. This experimental monkey died 18 hours after the operation. Conclusion The middle cerebral artery occlusion model can be effectively established in monkeys by super-selective catheterization of MCA and injection of auto-blood clots into MCA via the femoral artery with a micro-catheter. This technique is easy to manipulate with excellent repeatability and lower mortality. The cerebral infarction can be well displayed on DWI as early as two hours after the embolization.(J Intervent Radiol, 2012, 21: 578-581)%目的 探讨介入法猴大脑中动脉栓塞模型的制作及评价.方法 选择猕猴13只作为实验动物,经股动脉穿刺插管引入微导管超选至大脑中动脉注入适量自体血栓,分别于术后2h及24 h行MR检查.结果 13只猴均成功插管至

  18. Correlation Between Biophysical Profile and Middle Cerebral/Umbilical Artery Resistance Index Ratio in the Assessment of Prenatal Outcome in High Risk Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Eshraghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: Antenatal fetal surveillance tests have led to a significant decrease in perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, especially in high risk pregnancies (e.g placenta previa, intrauterine growth retardation. But there is no concurrence on the best and accurate modality yet. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of antenatal assessment with biophysical profile and Doppler sonography (cerebral and umbilical artery regarding fetal acidosis and asphyxia. "nMaterials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on fetuses of seventy women with a 28-42 week singleton pregnancy who had hypertension (pre eclampsia, diabetes mellitus or intra uterine growth retardation and were admitted as high risk pregnancies to AL-Zahra hospital. The study population routinely underwent sonographic evaluation of cerebral and umbilical arteries and a biophysical profile twice a week until the end of pregnancy. "nResults: Infants who had a lower score of biophysical profile, had a lower umbilical PH and a negative base deficit. Fetuses with a lower MCA/Umb. A RI had a higher base deficit and acidosis (measured from umbilical blood after birth. Apgar on minute 5 was higher in infants with a history of higher profile score as well as a higher MCA/Umb. A. RI ratio. On the other hand; there was no significant correlation between MCA RI and umbilical PH. Correlation between Umb. A. RI and umbilical PH was not significant either. "nConclusion: Biophysical profile and assessment of the umbilical and cerebral arteries are valuable modalities for predicting the fetal condition and the outcome in high risk pregnancies. MCA/Umb. A RI Index ratio is a better indicator compared to its components.

  19. Effects of "Prominent laterality of the posterior cerebral artery" found on magnetic resonance angiography on the size and distribution of cerebral infarction and NIHSS scores during occlusion of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery%大脑中动脉M1段闭塞时MRA所见"大脑后动脉偏侧优势"对脑梗死范围和分布以及NIHSS评分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红兵; 洪华; 张仁良; 李玲; 王莹; 盛文利; 曾进胜; 刘新峰

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨大脑中动脉(middle cerebral artery,MCA)M1段闭塞患者磁共振血管造影(magnetic resonance angiography,MRA)所见"大脑后动脉偏侧优势(prominent laterality of the posterior cerebral artery,PLPCA)"与脑梗死范围和分布以及美国国立卫生研究院卒中量表(National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale,NIHSS)评分的关系.方法 50例MCA M1段闭塞所致急性肭梗死患者根据MRA表现分为PLPCA阳性组(24例)和PLPCA阴性组(26例),对两组患者NIHSS评分、脑梗死范围评分以及脑梗死在MCA各供血亚区的分布构成比进行比较.结果 PLPCA阳性组危险因素个数≥3的患者比例(9/24对18/26,P=0.046)、NIHSS评分(5.4±4.4对10.4±4.9,t=-3.690,P=0.001)和脑梗死范围评分(1.92±1.10对2.88±1.37,t=-2.745,P=0.008)均显著低于PLPCA阴性组.PLPCA阳性组脑梗死累及MCA中部分支供血区(6/24对19/26,P=0.002)和后部分支供血区(2/24对15/26,P<0.001)的患者比例显著低于PLPCA阴性组,累及后部分水岭区的患者比例显著高于PLPCA阴性组(6/24对1/26,P=0.045),而发生MCA完全梗死的比例显著低于PLPCA阴性组(0/24对6/26,P=0.023).结论 MCAM1段闭塞时,如果MRA观察到PLPCA,预示梗死范围较小和NIHSS评分较低,梗死较少累及MCA中、后部分支供血区,而易出现后部分水岭梗死.%Objective To investigate the relationship between the "prominent laterality of the posterior cerebral artery (PLPCA)" found on magnetic resonance angiography (MCA) and the size and distribution of cerebral infarction and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)scores in patients with occlusion of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA).Methods Fifty patients with acute cerebral infarction caused by the occlusion of the M1 segment of MCA were divided into PLPCA positive group (n =24) and PLPCA negative group (n =26) according to MRA manifestation.the NIHSS scores,size of cerebral infarction scores,and constituent ratios of

  20. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemodialysis system and accessories. 876.5820... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. A hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  4. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical camera and accessories is a device intended to be...

  6. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  7. Cerebral malaria Malaria cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blair Trujillo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia. La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC.

  8. Alterações ultra-sonográficas na gravidez Rh negativo sensibilizada avaliada pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico e pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média Ultrasound findings in Rh-alloimmunized pregnancies assessed by spectrophotometric analysis of amniotic fluid and Doppler velocimetry of fetal middle cerebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e confrontar a presença de alterações ultra-sonográficas nas gestações Rh negativo sensibilizadas, quando a anemia fetal foi determinada ou pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico, ou pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Observacional descritivo com grupo de comparação. Nosso grupo de estudo foi constituído por 99 pacientes, avaliadas no período de janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2004. Foram analisados e comparados dois grupos: 74 gestantes sensibilizadas pelo fator Rh cuja anemia fetal foi acompanhada pela espectrofotometria (grupo SE e 25 gestantes sensibilizadas pelo fator Rh cuja anemia fetal foi acompanhada pela dopplervelocimetria (grupo SD. Avaliamos a presença ou não de alterações ultra-sonográficas no acompanhamento pré-natal e confrontamos os dois grupos de estudo. RESULTADOS: No grupo cuja anemia fetal foi acompanhada através da espectrofotometria (grupo SE, apuramos modificações placentárias, principalmente o aumento da espessura e sua alteração textural, mais assiduamente que as encontradiças no grupo de gestantes sensibilizadas, em que a anemia foi determinada através da dopplervelocimetria (grupo SD (64% X 32%, p = 6,294. CONCLUSÃO: As alterações ultra-sonográficas foram detectadas em dobro quando a anemia foi avaliada pela espectrofotometria em comparação com o grupo seguido pela dopplervelocimetria.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare existing ultrasound findings in women with Rh-alloimmunized pregnancies with diagnosis of fetal anemia by spectrophotometric analysis of amniotic fluid or Doppler ultrasound of the fetal middle cerebral artery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational descriptive study involving 99 patients evaluated between January 1995 and January 2004. Patients were divided into two groups: 74 Rh-isoimmunized women submitted to spectrophotometry of the amniotic fluid (group S and 25 Rh-isoimmunized women submitted to

  9. EFFECT OF FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON RECOVERY OF NERVE FUNCTION IN RATS WITH MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY OCCLUSION%补充叶酸对脑梗死大鼠神经功能恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹家松; 秦善春; 张海红; 刘欢; 黄国伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨叶酸干预对脑梗死大鼠脑脊液(cerebrospinal fluid,CSF)、血清叶酸及神经功能的影响.方法 40只SD大鼠随机分为四组:假手术组(Sham)、中动脉栓塞组(MCAO)、单纯叶酸补充组(Sham-FA)和叶酸补充中动脉栓塞组(FA-MCAO).叶酸以0.8mg/kg bw·d灌胃,对照组给予等量生理盐水;4w后线栓法制备MCAO模型,术后1d及21d行GarciaJH评分;化学免疫发光法测定CSF及血清叶酸.结果 MCAO组大鼠梗死后CSF及血清叶酸均较造模前显著降低(P<0.05);叶酸干预(4w)下FA-MCAO组梗死前后CSF及血清叶酸均高于MCAO组(P<0.05),且脑梗死后CSF叶酸高于对照Sham-FA组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),FA-MCAO组的Garcia JH评分较MCAO组显著增加(P<0.05).结论 脑梗死可降低SD大鼠CSF及血清叶酸水平.补充叶酸可显著提高并维持损伤后CSF叶酸高水平,促进神经功能恢复.%Objective To investigate the dynamic changes ofcerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum folic acid and the neurological function in middle cerebral artery occlusion model rats with folic acid supplementation.Methods Forty SD rats stratified by weight were randomly divided into four groups:sham group (Sham),middle cerebral artery occlusion group (MCAO),simple folic acid supplemented group (Sham-FA) and folic acid supplemented plus middle cerebral artery occlusion group (FA-MCAO).Sham-FA and FA-MCAO rats were intervened continuously by 0.8 mg/kg·d bw doses of folic acid,and animals of control groups with same volume of saline.The left MCAO rats were modeled by thread occlusion method and neurological defects were scored in postoperative 1d and 21d.The CSF and serum folic acid was determined by immuno chemiluminescence method.Results CSF and serum folic acid of MCAO rats was significantly decreased as compared to the normal (P<0.05).CSF and serum folic acid in FA-MCAO group (4w) was statistically increased,especially the CSF folic acid rapidly increased in FA-MCAO group

  10. Bilateral accessory cleidohyoid in a human cadaver

    OpenAIRE

    Stark ME; Wu B; Bluth BE; Wisco JJ

    2009-01-01

    During routine anatomical dissection of the infrahyoid region, a muscle was found bilaterally originating from the sternal end of clavicle and inserting into the hyoid bone. The muscle coursed parallel and lateral to the sternohyoid muscle. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact omohyoid, thus being classified as an accessory cleidohyoid (cleidohyoideus accessorius) muscle. While other authors have reported the presence of a unilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle, to our know...

  11. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio [eds.] [Advanced Science Research Center (Tokai Site), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  12. Changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity during cognitive task-induced cerebral fatigue in high performance fighter pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongsheng Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that sustained cognitive tasks can induce cognitive fatigue and that the mean cerebral blood flow velocity changes in some cerebral regions during cerebral fatigue. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically monitor the changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in different brain regions of high performance fighter pilots during mental arithmetic tasks and consecutive performance tasks. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present neurophysiological trial, based on controlled observation, was performed at the Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Institute of Aviation Medicine, Air Force of China between January 2003 and December 2005. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five males, high performance fighter pilots, averaging (27.6 ± 2.5) years, were recruited for this study. METHODS: The mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and posterior cerebral artery of subjects was dynamically tested using transcranial Doppler during 5- hour mental arithmetic tasks and during 5- hour consecutive performance tasks. The neurobehavioral ability index was analyzed throughout each trial according to the number of correct responses, false responses, and lost responses. Simultaneously, cerebral cognitive fatigue-induced lethargy was assessed by the Stanford Sleepiness Scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and posterior cerebral artery; neurobehavioral ability index of mental arithmetic and consecutive performance tasks; Stanford Sleepiness Scale scores. RESULTS: During mental arithmetic tasks, the mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery increased during hour 2 and decreased after hour 4. There was no significant change in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery. During hour 4, cerebral cognitive fatigue was observed and, simultaneously, Stanford Sleepiness

  13. Inlfammatory response and neuronal necrosis in rats with cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingfeng Wu; Kunnan Zhang; Guozhu Hu; Haiyu Yang; Chen Xie; Xiaomu Wu

    2014-01-01

    In the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic injury, inlfammation primarily occurs in the infarct and peripheral zones. In the ischemic zone, neurons undergo necrosis and apop-tosis, and a large number of reactive microglia are present. In the present study, we investigated the pathological changes in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neuronal necrosis appeared 12 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion, and the peak of neuronal apoptosis ap-peared 4 to 6 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Inlfammatory cytokines and microglia play a role in damage and repair after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Serum intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels were positively correlated with the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. These ifndings indicate that intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 may be involved in blood-brain barrier injury, microglial activation, and neuronal apoptosis. Inhibiting blood-brain barrier leakage may alleviate neuronal injury following ischemia.

  14. Reference Ranges of Blood Flow Parameter Ratios of the Normal Second-trimester Fetal Middle Cerebral Artery%正常中孕胎儿大脑中动脉血流参数比值的正常值范围

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗支农; 郭会平; 韦怀新; 刘刚纯; 陈春艾; 王新玉; 曹晓桦; 钟梅

    2001-01-01

    Objective To assess reference ranges of blood flow parameterratios of the normal second-trimester fetal middle cerebral artery.Methods Blood flow parameters of middle cerebral artery,head circumference and fetal weight were assessed in 215 normal fetus at 16 to 31 weeks gestation by two-dimension imaging,color Doppler power imaging and pulsed Doppler.Results During 16 to 31 weeks gestation,unit weight maximum and mean blood flow velocities per minute of fetal middle cerebral artery were decreased with gestation age.Unit head circumference maximum and mean blood flow velocities per minute of fetal middle cerebral artery were changed little during the normal second-trimester.Conclusion This study offers a theoretic basis to the early prediction of fetal hyperdynamic circulation with Doppler ultrasound.%目的确定正常中孕胎儿大脑中动脉血流参数比值的正常值范围。方法应用二维超声、彩色多普勒能量图及脉冲多普勒技术对215例16~31孕周正常胎儿头围、体重及大脑中动脉血流参数进行检测。结果正常中孕胎儿每分钟单位体重大脑中动脉的最大速度及平均速度随孕周的增加而降低;每分钟单位头围大脑中动脉的最大速度及平均速度在中孕期间变化小。结论本研究为多普勒超声早期预测胎儿高动力循环状态提供了理论依据。

  15. Effects of rhynchophylline on monoamine transmitters of striatum and hippocampus in cerebral ischemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUYuan-Fu; XIEXiao-Long; WUQin; WENGuo-Rong; YANGSu-Fen; SHIJing-Shan

    2004-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of rhynchophylline ( Rhy on monoamine transmitters and its metabolites in striatum and hippocampus of cerebral ischemic rats. METItODS The cerebral ischemic injury of rat was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The extracellular fluid of striatum and hippocampus in cerebral ischemic rats was collected by using

  16. Dissecting aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery treated with heparin infusion in a 6-year-old child; neurological recovery with delayed spontaneous thrombosis: case illustration and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anichini, G; Passacantilli, E; Lenzi, J; Guidetti, G; Santoro, A

    2012-04-01

    Aneurysms in the pediatric population are a rare pathology with specific features which requires a deep knowledge of their pathogenesis for the best therapeutic choice; the authors report their experience with a patient presenting aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) associated with proximal stenosis of the vessel. A six-year-old girl came to our observation after sudden onset of headache and left hemiparesis. Angio-MRI and angio-CT scan showed a right MCA dissecting aneurysms associated with proximal stenosis of the vessel. Patient started a therapy with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), replaced, 15 days later, with acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA). Patient showed a rapid and almost complete neurological recovery, despite several radiological exams confirmed a complete occlusion of the right MCA. As many other authors noted, dissecting aneurysms in the pediatric population are probably due to a defect of the entire arterial wall. Combination of stenosis, turbulence and partial thrombosis of the aneurysm led to a complete occlusion of artery involved, leading to the formation of collateral circles. In our case, complete thrombosis was probably delayed with anticoagulant therapy and the progressive reinforcement of collateral circles lead to the patient's neurological recovery.

  17. Extracranial-intracranial bypass for internal carotid/middle cerebral atherosclerotic steno-occlusive diseases in conjunction with carotid endarterectomy for contralateral cervical carotid stenosis: clinical results and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomohiro; Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Tamura, Akira; Tsutsumi, Kazuo; Saito, Isamu; Saito, Nobuhito

    2016-10-01

    Clinical results as well as cognitive performances after extracranial to intracranial (EC-IC) bypass in conjunction with contralateral carotid endarterectomy (CEA) are poorly understood. Data from 14 patients who underwent unilateral EC-IC bypass for atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA)/middle cerebral artery (MCA) steno-occlusive disease in conjunction with CEA for contralateral cervical carotid stenosis were retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative results were evaluated by MRI imagings. Nine patients also underwent neuropsychological examinations (NPEs), including assessment by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) before and about 6 months after bilateral surgeries. Postoperative MRI follow-up (median, 8 months; interquartile range, 7-8 months) confirmed successful bypass in all patients, with no additional ischemic lesions on T2WI when compared with preoperative imaging. Further, MRA showed patent bypass and contralateral smooth patency at CEA portion in all patients. In the group rate analysis, all five postoperative NPE scores (Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, WMS-memory, WMS-attention, and Average scores of all those four scores) were improved relative to preoperative NPE scores. Performance IQ and Average score improvements were statistically significant. Clinical results after EC-IC bypass in conjunction with contralateral CEA were feasible. Based on the group rate analysis, we conclude that successful unilateral EC-IC bypass and contralateral carotid endarterectomy does not adversely affect postoperative cognitive function.

  18. 电针百会穴对小鼠大脑中动脉栓塞的保护作用研究%Protective effects of electroacupuncture on Baihui on permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡璇; 许菁; 徐姣; 潘邓记

    2015-01-01

    目的::研究电针百会穴是否对小鼠局灶性脑梗死具有保护作用。方法:将雄性昆明小鼠48只随机分为电针组和针刺组各24只,均通过颈内动脉线栓法建立小鼠大脑中动脉阻塞模型,电针组给予电针百会穴治疗,针刺组给予针刺百会穴治疗。治疗4周后,评估2组小鼠神经功能评分,测量梗塞体积,免疫组化检测超大 B 细胞淋巴瘤因子(Bcl-xl)的表达,对梗塞周边区域进行膜片钳检查。结果:电针组小鼠的梗死体积及神经功能评分均明显低于针刺组小鼠(P <0.01),Bcl-xl 的表达较针刺组小鼠明显增加(P <0.01);脑片膜片钳结果显示,电针组小鼠 BK-channel 的功能明显好于针刺组(P <0.01)。结论:电针百会穴能够降低小鼠脑梗死的体积并改善小鼠的神经功能,这种保护作用可能与电针刺激 Bcl-xl 的表达增加有关,也与神经元 BK-channel 离子通道的功能改善有关。%Objective:To study the protective effect of electroacupuncture (EA)on Baihui on mice model of perma-nent occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCAO).Methods:The MCAO model of mice were established and subjec-ted to cerebral infarction by intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery.After intervention for 4 weeks,the lesion volume,the neurological impairment scores and the expression of Bcl-xl were observed and compared between the EA group and acupuncture group (psydoacupuncture).Patch clamp method was used in the the surrounding area of the infarction,and the change of BK-channel was observed.Result:The lesion volume and the neurological im-pairment scores in EA group were significantly reduced as compare with those in acupuncture group (P <0.01 ). The expression of Bcl-xl was higher in EA group than in acupuncture group (P <0.01).Patch clamp results showed that the BK-channel function of the neurons in EA group was significantly better than in acupuncture group in the surrounding area of the infarction (P

  19. Isolated spinal accessory neuropathy and intracisternal schwannomas of the spinal accessory nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 40-year-old female patient presenting with isolated left spinal accessory neuropathy that developed insidiously over 6 years. She complained of ill-defined deep neck and shoulder pain. On examination, prominent sternocleidomastoid and trapezoid muscle weakness and atrophy, shoulder instability, and lateral scapular winging were observed. MRI identified a small mass of the cisternal portion of the spinal accessory nerve. Its appearance was typical of schwannoma. Surgical treatment was not offered because of the small tumor size, lack of mass effect and the questionable functional recovery in the presence of muscular atrophy.

  20. Effects of blockade of cerebral lymphatic dra inage on oxide free radical in brain tissue after middle cerebral artery occlu sion in rats%脑淋巴引流阻滞对大脑中动脉阻塞鼠缺血性脑组织氧自由基的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏作理; 孙保亮; 闫振文; 杨明峰; 陈玉社

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of blo c kade of cerebrallymphatic drainage on oxide free radicals in ischemic brain tis sue.Methods Seventy six Wistar rats were divided randomly int o two groups,the middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) group and MCAO plus cere bral lymphatic blockade(MCAO+CLB)group.Activity of SOD and content of MDA in the ischemic brain tissu es were detected at 24 hours,48 hours and 72 hours respectively after operation.Results In MCAO group,SOD activity in the ischemic brain tissue was significantly decreased while MDA content was increased markedly.In M CAO+CLB group,alterations of above parameters were more obvious.Conclusions Obstruction of cerebral lymphatic drainage may deteriorate ischemic brain damage by increasing oxide free radicals.%目的 探讨脑淋巴引流阻滞对脑缺血后脑组织氧自由基的影响。方法 将76只Wistar大鼠随机分为大脑中动脉阻塞(MCAO)组和MCAO加脑淋巴引流阻断(MCAO+CLB)组,在术后24h、48h和72h分别检测SOD活性和MDA含量的变化。结果 在手术后各时间点,MCAO大鼠缺血区脑组织SOD活力显著降低而MDA含量明显增多,在MCAO+CLB大鼠上述指标的变化更加严重。结论 脑淋巴引流障碍能通过增加缺血区脑组织的氧自由基含而加重MCAO后缺血性脑损伤。

  1. Effect of Leptomeningeal Anastomoses Compensation on Ischemic Stroke Recurrence in Cerebral Infarction Patients With Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion%软脑膜侧支代偿对伴大脑中动脉粥样硬化性闭塞脑梗死患者缺血性脑卒中复发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕; 张临洪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of leptomeningeal anastomoses ( LMA ) compensation on the recurrence of ischemic stroke within one year after onset in cerebral infarction patients with middle cerebral artery( MCA ) atherosclerotic occlusion. Methods We enrolled 112 cerebral infarction patients with unilateral MCA atherosclerotic occlusion who accorded with the inclusion standard and were admitted into the Department of Neurology of Central Hospital of Wuhan from January 2010 to January 2013. The MCA occlusion and LMA compensation were evaluated by MRA. According to the results of one-year follow-up and the compensation degree,the subjects were divided into LAM positive group and LMA negative group;according to the number of compensation pathway,the subjects were also divided into double-pathway compensation group,one-pathway compensation group and no-pathway compensation group. The recurrence of ischemic stroke in follow-up period was compared among all the groups. Results Among the 112 subjects,76 subjects were in LMA positive group,36 subjects were in LMA negative group. There were 10 cases of ipsilateral ischemic stroke recurrence within 1-year follow-up,with a recurrence rate of 8. 9%. Of the 10 cases of recurrence,3 cases( cerebral infarction)were in the LAM positive group,with a recurrence rate of 3. 9%(3/76),and 7 cases(3 cases of cerebral infarction and 4 cases of TIA)were in the LAM negative group,with a recurrence rate of 19. 4%(7/36). The two groups were significantly different in one-year recurrence rate of ischemic stroke (χ2 =7. 220,P=0. 007). There were 34 subjects in double-pathway compensation group,with a recurrence rate of 2. 9%(1/34);there were 42 subjects in one-pathway compensation group,among which 14 subjects were of ACA compensation and 28 were of PCA compensation, with a recurrence rate of 4. 8% ( 2/42 );there were 36 subjects in the no - pathway compensation group, with a recurrence rate of 19. 4% ( 7/36 ). The subjects with

  2. Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Program summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefferts, C.H.

    1977-06-15

    The objective of this program was to define, evaluate and develop automotive accessory systems to minimize engine power consumption and significantly improve fuel economy. All tasks have been completed and the program objectives have been accomplished. Information is presented on each phase of the program which involved: conceptual design to recommended component improvement and accessory drive systems; performance and sizing analyses; detail design and specifications; fabrication, and performance testing; evaluation of integrated hybrid drive, improved accessories; and an advanced air conditioning concept.

  3. Accessory sperm: a biomonitor of boar sperm fertilization capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardón, Florencia; Evert, Meike; Beyerbach, Martin; Weitze, Karl-Fritz; Waberski, Dagmar

    2005-04-15

    The number of accessory sperm found in the zona pellucida of porcine embryos was correlated to their individual quality and to the embryo quality range found within a single sow. Our goal was to determine whether accessory sperm counts provide semen evaluation with additional, useful information. Accessory sperm count was highest when only normal embryos were found in a given sow and diminished if oocytes or degenerated embryos were present (P<0.01). Within a given sow, normal embryos had higher (P<0.05) accessory sperm counts than degenerated embryos, although not when oocytes were also present. Fertilization capacity of sperm is optimal when only normal embryos are found in a given sow; this capacity is indicated by high accessory sperm counts. A decrease in fertilization capacity is reflected in diminishing accessory sperm counts. The boar had a significant effect (P<0.01) on accessory sperm count, but not on the percentage of normal embryos; this suggests that accessory sperm may be more sensitive indicators of the fertilization capacity of sperm than the percentage of normal embryos. We conclude that accessory sperm count can be used for the detection of compensable defects in sperm and is a valid parameter for assessing sperm fertilization capacity.

  4. HIV-1 accessory proteins: Vpu and Vif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins.

  5. Bilateral accessory cleidohyoid in a human cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark ME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine anatomical dissection of the infrahyoid region, a muscle was found bilaterally originating from the sternal end of clavicle and inserting into the hyoid bone. The muscle coursed parallel and lateral to the sternohyoid muscle. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact omohyoid, thus being classified as an accessory cleidohyoid (cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle. While other authors have reported the presence of a unilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle, to our knowledge this is the first case of a bilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle in the medical literature. Anatomical variations of the infrahyoid muscles may have functional, diagnostic, surgical and pathological implications.

  6. Non‑Azygos Accessory Fissure in Right Upper Lobe Associated with Superior and Inferior Accessory Fissures in Right Lower Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jose Eluvathingal Muttikkal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory fissures in the lungs are common congenital variations, usually detected as incidental findings in radiographs or CT scan. Accessory fissures can act as an anatomic barrier to the spread of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, as well as due to the variant anatomy, mimic lesions. It is important to recognize the presence of accessory fissures, as they affect surgical planning of pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. Accessory fissure in the right upper lobe other than due to the anomalous course of azygos vein is very rare. We report a case of non-azygos accessory fissure, between the apical and the anterior segments of right upper lobe, along with superior and inferior accessory fissures in the right lower lobe.

  7. The Susceptibility Vessel Sign of the Middle Cerebral Artery on the T2-Weighted Gradient Echo Imaging: Semi-quantification to Predict the Response to Multimodal Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Sung Won [Catholic University of Daegu Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Cheol Kyu; Choi, Byung Se; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kwon, O Ki; Han, Moon Ku; Bae, Hee Joon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Bae Ju [Kwandong University Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    We wanted to determine whether or not the 'susceptibility asymmetry index' (SAI) of acute stroke on the T2-weighted image is related with successful recanalization using multimodal intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT). The 81 patients who underwent multimodal IAT for middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory acute stroke were included in this retrospective study. The multimodal IAT included intra-arterial urokinase infusion, clot disruption by a microwire, microcatheter and balloon manipulation, and balloon angioplasty and/or stenting for the flow-limiting stenosis. The diameter of the susceptibility vessel sign was measured on the T2-weighted gradient echo imaging (GRE), and the diameter of the contralateral normal MCA at the corresponding level was measured on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA): the ratio between these two diameters was defined as the susceptibility asymmetry index. The relation between the TICI (Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction) score of 2-3 after multimodal IAT and the SAI was assessed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed on the SAI to predict a TICI score of 2-3 after multimodal IAT. The mean SAI of 81 patients was 1.66 {+-} 0.66. Seventy nine percent of the patients had a TICI of 2-3 after multimodal IAT. According to the ROC curve analysis, an SAI less than 1.3 was optimal for predicting the presence of stenotic lesion after recanalization (area under the curve: 0.821, sensitivity: 88.2%, specificity: 69.8%, p=0.0001), and the SAI {<=}1.61 (area under the curve: 0.652, sensitivity: 60.9%, specificity: 70.6%, p=0.0226) could predict a TICI score of 2-3. The TICI score of 2-3 after multimodal IAT was achieved in 88.6% of the cases with a SAI {<=} 1.61 and in 67.6% of the cases with a SAI >1.61 (p=0.028). The lower SAI on T2-GRE could predict stenotic lesion and successful recanalization after performing IAT

  8. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  9. [An accessory muscle and additional variants of the forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, G; Zech, M

    1977-01-01

    A report is given on an accessory muscle of the forearm. The muscle originates from the medial epicondyle and the fascia of the forearm and inserts into the pisiform bone and retinaculum. The accessory muscle has a great similarity with the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.

  10. Brugada syndrome in a patient with accessory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodegas, A I; Arana, J I; Vitoria, Y; Arriandiaga, J R; Barrenetxea, J I

    2002-01-01

    Brugada syndrome in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We report a 32-year-old man with orthodromic atrioventricular (AV) reciprocating tachycardia using a right posterior accessory pathway. However, his ECG showed ST segment elevation in leads V1 to V3. After successful radiofrequency ablation of his accessory pathway a cardioverter defibrillator was implanted.

  11. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  13. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves, fittings, and accessories. 98.25-40 Section 98... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  14. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Monitoring Devices § 884.2740 Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  15. Cerebral protection of Trichostatin A preconditioning in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion and the relationship between Trichostatin A and IL-1 β%曲古抑素A预处理对大脑中动脉闭塞模型大鼠脑保护作用及其与IL-1β的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺民; 郭曲练

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨曲古抑素A(TSA)预处理对大脑中动脉闭塞(MCAO)模型大鼠的脑保护作用及其与IL-1β之间的关系,并评价年龄对TSA预处理所产生大鼠脑保护作用的影响.方法:采用梭性头端线栓法制备局灶性脑缺血再灌注模型,将96只SD青年雄性大鼠(3~4月龄)随机分为缺血再灌注对照组、二甲基亚砜(DMSO)预处理组、小剂量TSA预处理组(0.03 mg/kg)和大剂量TSA预处理组(0.1 mg/kg),每组包括缺血再灌注6h组、12 h组、24h组、48h组,每组6只大鼠.另将18只SD雄性大鼠分为老年组(22月龄)、青年组(3~4月龄)、幼年组(1月龄),均采用大剂量TSA预处理.采用方差分析比较不同处理组脑梗死体积比、脑脊液和血液IL-1β含量的差异,Spearman秩相关分析脑梗死体积比与脑脊液、血液IL-1β含量的线性相关.结果:大剂量TSA组大鼠脑梗死体积比在缺血再灌注各时间点均小于其余3组.大剂量TSA组缺血再灌注各时间点脑脊液中IL-1β含量与对照组相应时间点相比明显减少.大剂量TSA组血清中IL-1β含量在缺血再灌注各时间点均低于DMSO组和对照组,小剂量TSA组与DMSO组无差别.脑梗死体积与血液IL-1β、脑脊液IL-1β含量的相关系数分别为0.841和0.618(P<0.05).不同年龄组大鼠的脑梗死体积比较差异无统计学意义,但老年组大鼠脑梗死体积大于其余两组.不同年龄组大鼠脑脊液中的IL-1β含量差异无统计学意义(P=0.076).结论:大剂量TSA预处理可减小脑梗死体积比,并降低脑脊液和血液IL-1β含量;年龄对大剂量TSA预处理大鼠脑梗死体积比、血液和脑脊液IL-1β没有影响.%Objective: To explore the impact on cerebral protection of Trichostatin A (TSA) preconditioning in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO); the relationship between cerebral protection of TSA and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β); and the impact of age on the mechanism of cerebral protection of

  16. Digital subtraction angiography in cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sin Young; Kim, Ji Hun; Suh, Hong Kil; Kim, Hyo Heon; Kwack, Eun Young; Lee, Il Seong [College of Medicine Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    The usefulness and radiographic findings of the angiography in cerebral infarction are well known. We attempted to evaluate the angiographic causes, findings, and the usefulness of DSA in cerebral infarction. The authors reviewed retrospectively DSA images of 51 patients who were diagnosed as having cerebral infarction by brain CT and/or MRI and clinical settings. DSA was performed in all 51 patients, and in 3 patients, conventional angiogram was also done. Both carotid DSA images were obtained in AP, lateral, oblique projections, and one or both vertebral DSA images in AP and lateral. The authors reviewed the patient's charts for symptoms, operative findings and final diagnosis, and analysed DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis with focus on 6 major cerebral arteries. Among the 51 patients of cerebral infarction 43 patients (84.3%) had cerebral atherosclerosis, 1 dissecting aneurysm, 1 moyamoya disease and 6 negative in angiogram. DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis were multiple narrowing in 42 patients (97.7%), tortuosity in 22 (51.2%), dilatation in 14, occlusion in 12, avascular region in 8, collaterals in 7, ulcer in 6, and delayed washout of contrast media in 3. In cerebral atherosclerosis, internal carotid artery was involved in 37 patients (86.0%), middle cerebral artery in 29 (67.4%) posterior cerebral artery in 28, anterior cerebral artery in 26, vertebral artery in 22, and basilar artery in 15. Intracranial involvement of cerebral atherosclerosis (64.9%) was more common than extracranial involvement (16.2%). In cerebral infarction MRA may be the screening test, but for more precise evaluation of vascular abnormality and its extent, DSA should be considered.

  17. Vasoespasmo cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. F. de Salles

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Vasoespasmo cerebral ocorre em patologias como enxaqueca, hemorragia subaracnóidea, trauma de crânio, após isquemia e/ou hipoxia. A fisiopatologia do vasoespasmo cerebral nestas patologias não está completamente desvendada. Neste artigo são analisados os fatores neuroquímicos e morfológicos responsáveis pelo controle circulatório cerebral. As alterações circulatórias que seguem a hemorragia subaracnóidea são utilizadas como exemplo. Conclui-se que fatores bioquímicos, fisiológicos e morfológicos são responsáveis pelas manifestações vasculares que ocorrem após a hemorragia subaracnóidea. Alternativas de tratamento do vasoespasmo cerebral são discutidas.

  18. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U

    1983-01-01

    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  19. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.

  20. Cerebral infarction in patient with minimal change nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, A; Boddana, P; Robson, S; Ludeman, L

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of 68-year-old Caucasian man who presented with cerebral infarcts secondary to arterial thrombosis associated with nephrotic syndrome. His initial presentation included edema of legs, left hemiparesis, and right-sided cerebellar signs. Investigations with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed multiple cerebral infarcts in middle cerebral and posterior cerebral artery territory. Blood and urine investigations also showed impaired renal function, hypercholesterolemia, hypoalbuminaemia, and nephrotic range proteinuria. Renal biopsy showed minimal change disease. Cerebral infarcts were treated with antiplatelet agents and nephrotic syndrome was treated with high dose steroids. Patient responded well to the treatment and is all well till date.

  1. 小鼠大脑中动脉暂时性闭塞引起脑皮质局部炎性细胞浸润的变化%Changes in infiltration of inflammatory cells in mouse cerebral cortex after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宝建中; Susan L. Stevens; Mary P. Stenzel P-Poore

    2004-01-01

    Objective To identify microglial activation and leukocyte infiltration in focal cerebral ischemia for further research on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to inflammation following stroke. Methods Immunocytochemistry (IHC) was used to investigate the expression of CD1 1b, Ly-6G, CD3 and CD45/B220 in cerebral ischemia induced by 60 min temporary occlusion of the middle cerebral artery followed by reperfusion for varying times. Results At early time points (18-24 h), resident CD11b + microglia appeared activated at the site of infarct. Peripheral CD11b +macrophages and Ly-6G + neutrophils were observed adhering to meningial vascular walls at 18-24 h of reperfusion.CD1 1b + macrophages and Ly-6G + neutrophils migrated from vessel walls into the parenchyma of the infarct following 48-72 h reperfusion. Minimal numbers of CD3 + T lymphocytes and CD45/B220 + B lymphocytes were detected at 24-48 h reperfusion. However, following 72 h reperfusion, CD3 + T lymphocytes were readily detected. Conclusion The data indicate that the mononuclear phagocytic system plays an important role in the inflammatory response following ischemic injury. The early inflammatory response cell appears to be primarily activated microglia, and around 24-72 h peripheral macrophages with other leukocytes from the circulation migrate into the ischemic site contributing to inflammatory response in stroke.%目的研究局部脑缺血模型小胶质细胞的激活和白细胞的浸润情况,以进一步研究脑卒中后引起炎症反应的细胞及分子机制.方法用免疫组化方法研究单克隆抗体CD11b,Ly-6G,CD3和CD45/B220在大脑中动脉闭塞(MCAO)60 min进行不同时段灌注后在脑组织中的表达.结果灌注早期(18~24 h)在脑梗塞区就可见被激活的CD11b阳性的小胶质细胞,在18~24 h灌注期,可见CD11b阳性的巨噬细胞和Ly-6G阳性的中性白细胞黏附在脑膜的血管壁.灌流48~72 h,CD11b阳性的巨噬细胞和Ly-6G阳性的中

  2. Correlation of Cognitive Impairment and Areas of Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction%大脑中动脉供血区不同梗死灶所致认知障碍的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫; 恽晓平; 于一宁

    2014-01-01

    目的:从大脑中动脉供血区角度探讨不同梗死部位缺血性卒中与认知障碍之间的关系。方法应用蒙特利尔认知评估量表(MoCA)北京版,对首次急性发病2周左右的缺血性卒中患者进行认知功能评估,记录其MoCA评分及各单项认知领域评分。按照大脑中动脉供血区梗死,MoCA评分≥15分,且至少有一个认知领域障碍的条件,筛选出132例患者资料。再按梗死部位分组,将各组MoCA结果进行相关分析。结果大脑中动脉供血区梗死与视空间/执行、注意、语言和记忆损害有关(B=-1.875~-1.094, P<0.05)。额叶梗死与视空间/执行、注意、抽象和记忆功能损害有关(B=-1.760~-1.329, P<0.05);颞叶梗死引起视空间/执行和记忆功能损害显著(B=-1.849~-1.735, P<0.05);顶叶梗死导致视空间/执行、注意和记忆功能损害(B=-1.695~-1.482, P<0.05);基底节梗死与视空间/执行、注意、语言和记忆功能损害有关(B=-1.932~-1.041, P<0.01)。结论大脑中动脉不同供血区梗死所致认知功能损害的领域不同。%Objective To explore the correlation of cognitive impairment and areas of middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction. Methods The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to evaluate neuropsychological statuses in the patients who developed first-time acute cerebral infarction for 2 weeks. MoCA scores and sub-scores were recorded. 132 patients were selected with MCA occlu-sion, scores of MoCA were more than 15, and cognitive impairment in at least one domain, and then subgrouped by infarction site. The cor-relation between the results of neuropsychological cognitive assessment and the sites of infarction was analyzed. Results MCA occlusion was correlated with the impairments of visual spatial/executive, attention, language and memory (B=-1.875~-1.094, P<0.05). Infarction in frontal lobe was correlated with the impairments of visual spatial/executive, attention

  3. Vasoespasmo cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Vasoespasmo cerebral ocorre em patologias como enxaqueca, hemorragia subaracnóidea, trauma de crânio, após isquemia e/ou hipoxia. A fisiopatologia do vasoespasmo cerebral nestas patologias não está completamente desvendada. Neste artigo são analisados os fatores neuroquímicos e morfológicos responsáveis pelo controle circulatório cerebral. As alterações circulatórias que seguem a hemorragia subaracnóidea são utilizadas como exemplo. Conclui-se que fatores bioquímicos, fisiológicos e morfológi...

  4. 66例中青年隐源性脑梗死病因筛查分析%Screening Analysis of the Causes of 66 Cases of Young and Middle-Aged Patients with Cryptogenic Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友谊

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析隐源性脑梗死(CCI﹚的可能病因。方法方便收集2010年1月―2016年3月该院神经内科及ICU经初步筛查未发现病因的66例患者,经临床检验、影像学、分子生物学的分层检查,寻找潜在病因。结果66例病例中阵发性心房纤颤3例,风湿性心瓣膜病1例、夜间高血压2例、卵圆孔未闭2例、血管畸形8例、静脉窦血栓形成2例、偏头痛4例、遗传因素3例。结论主动脉粥样硬化、心房纤颤、夜间高血压是中老年人CCI优先的诊断考虑,青年患者应先考虑卵圆孔未闭、血管畸形、偏头痛及遗传因素。%Objective To analyze the possible etiologies of cryptogenic cerebral infarction (CCI). Methods Convenient col-lected from January 2010 to March 2016 in our hospital of Neurological Department and ICU ,After preliminary screening were not found the cause of the 66 cases of patients, By the clinical laboratory, imaging and molecular biology of layered examination,finding potential causes. Results In 66 cases, 3 cases of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, 1 case of rheumatic valvular disease, 2 cases of nocturnal hypertension, 2 cases of patent foramen ovale, 8 cases of vascular malformation, 2 cases of venous sinus thrombosis, 4 cases of migraine and 3 cases of genetic factors. Conclusion When the patients are middle aged and elderly people, aortic atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation and nocturnal hypertension will be the preferred di-agnostic considerations of CCI. When the patients are young people, patent foramen ovale, vascular malformation,migraine and genetic factors will be the preferred diagnostic considerations.

  5. 比较青年与中老年发生急性脑出血的危险因素及其预后%Risk factors and prognosis of acute cerebral hemorrhage in young and middle aged and elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莎其尔; 乌达木

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors and prognosis of acute cerebral hemorrhage in young and middle aged and elderly patients.Methods: The clinical data of 393 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage admitted to our hospital from January 2010 June to were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: young group (aged 45 years old,n=155) and middle aged group (aged over 45 years,n=238). Risk factors and hospital mortality of the two groups were analyzed and compared. Results: Compared with the analysis, the risk factors of acute cerebral hemorrhage in the youth group had a large amount of alcohol consumption and smoking history. The risk factors of acute cerebral hemorrhage in the young group were hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The mortality rate in the young group was 3.2%, significantly lower than that in the middle and old aged group 8.4%. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion: Hypertension is a risk factor of cerebral hemorrhage in all ages, especially in the middle and old people. The risk factors of acute cerebral hemorrhage in young group were also a large number of drinking history, smoking history. The prognosis of patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage was significantly better than that in elderly patients.%目的:探讨分析青年与中老年发生急性脑出血的危险因素及其预后。方法对我院2010年1月—2015年6月期间收治的393例急性脑出血患者的临床资料予以回顾性分析,根据患者年龄分为两组:青年组(年龄不超过45岁,n=155)、中老年组(年龄超过45岁, n=238)。分析比较两组发病的危险因素及住院死亡率。结果经分析比较可知,青年组发生急性脑出血的危险因素有大量饮酒史、吸烟史,中老年组发生急性脑出血的危险因素是高血压、高脂血症,组间对比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。

  6. AcCNET (Accessory Genome Constellation Network): comparative genomics software for accessory genome analysis using bipartite networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Val F; Baquero, Fernando; de la Cruz, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2017-01-15

    AcCNET (Accessory genome Constellation Network) is a Perl application that aims to compare accessory genomes of a large number of genomic units, both at qualitative and quantitative levels. Using the proteomes extracted from the analysed genomes, AcCNET creates a bipartite network compatible with standard network analysis platforms. AcCNET allows merging phylogenetic and functional information about the concerned genomes, thus improving the capability of current methods of network analysis. The AcCNET bipartite network opens a new perspective to explore the pangenome of bacterial species, focusing on the accessory genome behind the idiosyncrasy of a particular strain and/or population.

  7. Giant Accessory Right-Sided Suprarenal Spleen in Thalassaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory spleen is defined as ectopic splenic tissue that develops due to failure of fusion of cells during embryonic development as they migrate from the midline to the left upper quadrant. While benign, complications may arise which include trauma, torsion, or infarction of the ectopic tissue. Additionally, patients who have had a splenectomy secondary to treatment for previous pathology such as a haematological malignancy or idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura may experience persistent symptoms due to the accessory splenic tissue. The presence of an accessory spleen is therefore of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the second and largest reported case of a giant right suprarenal accessory spleen and highlights the difficulty in differentiation of these masses from malignant adrenal tumours.

  8. ISO and EIGA standards for cryogenic vessels and accessories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The EIGA/WG 6’s scope is cryogenic vessels and accessories, including their design, material compatibility, operational requirements and periodical inspection. The specific responsibilities include monitoring international standardization (ISO, CEN) and regulations (UN, TPED, PED...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories... disk, guard for an abrasive disk, abrasive point, polishing agent strip, and polishing wheel....

  10. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  11. Paradoxical embolisation and cerebral white matter lesions in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; McCollum, C.; Jackson, A.; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the relationship between spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE), patent foramen ovale (PFO) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on cerebral MRI in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). SCE were identified by transcranial Doppler of the middle c

  12. Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in endurance-trained individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lind-Holst; J.D. Cotter; J.W. Helge; R. Boushel; H. Augustesen; J.J. van Lieshout; F.C. Pott

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic fitness may be associated with reduced orthostatic tolerance. To investigate whether trained individuals have less effective regulation of cerebral vascular resistance, we studied the middle cerebral artery (MCA) mean blood velocity (V(mean)) response to a sudden drop in mean arterial pressu

  13. Review of accessory tragus with highlights of its associated syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Bahar; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-12-01

    Accessory tragus is a developmental defect involving malformation of part of the external ear. It is a moderately rare congenital condition reported in 1858 by Birkett for the first time. Histological features of accessory tragus include a thin layer of stratum corneum with a rugated epidermis, presence of eccrine glands, and irregular spatial positioning of vellus hair follicles accompanied by sebaceous glands. Accessory tragus is commonly a limited deformity; however, it can be a sign of associated congenital syndromes. It has been shown to be associated with Goldenhar syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, VACTERL syndrome, and Wolf-Hirschhron syndrome. Surgical excision, the most common form of management of accessory tragus lesions, typically leads to a positive outcome. An extensive search was performed using pubmed.gov, Embase, MedLine, and Googlescholar.com using key words: accessory tragus, congenital malformations of ear, first branchial arch, and embryology. In this paper, we review the clinical and histological presentation, associated syndromes, management, and outcome of accessory tragus.

  14. INDUCTION OF INTERLEUKIN-1-BETA MESSENGER-RNA AFTER FOCAL CEREBRAL-ISCHEMIA IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTTINI, M; SAUTER, A; BODDEKE, HWGM

    1994-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA in the brain in response to cerebral ischaemia in rats was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAO)

  15. Induction of interleukin-1β mRNA after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttini, M.; Sauter, A.; Boddeke, H.W.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA in the brain in response to cerebral ischaemia in rats was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by permanent occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Wher

  16. Effect of Buyang Huanwu decoction and its disassembled recipes on rats’ neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲铁兵

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction(BYHWD)and its disassembled recipes on rats’neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia and to investigate its underlying molecular mechanisms.Methods Focal cerebral ischemia model was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 90 min using the

  17. Evaluation of stenosis degree of the middle cerebral artery with high-resolution MRI and brian blood supply with MR perfusion weighted imaging%高分辨率MRI评价大脑中动脉狭窄程度与灌注加权成像评估脑供血的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔恒; 程敬亮; 张勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the value of high-resolution MRI(HRMRI) and MR perfusion weighted imaging(PWI) in evaluating the middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis degree and the brian blood supply. Methods PWI was performed in 30 patients with unilateral stenosis of MCA was diagnosed by HRMRI. The cerebral perfusion parameters including regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) .regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) .regional mean transit time(rMTT) and regional time to peak(rTTP) of the both cerebral hemispheres were quantitatively analysed. Results Among 30 patients, the MCA stenosis diagnosed by HRMRI as mild in 7, moderate in 9 and severe or acclusion in 14,respectively. Abnormal perfusion presented in all cases. The perfusion parameters (rCBF, rMTT and rTTP) had statistical significance. Between the rate of MCA moderate stenosis, severe stenosis or occlusion and the increase rate of rMTT showed a positive correlation(r=0. 897 and 0. 829 respectively,P<0. 01). Conclusion There is significantly value in evaluation of the MCA stenosis degree by HRMRI, which in combination with PWI to assess brain blood supply is of important value for clinic.%目的 探讨高分辨率MRI(high-resolution MRI,HRMRI)判定大脑中动脉(middle cerebral artery,MCA)狭窄程度与脑MRI灌注加权成像(perfusion weighted imaging,PWI)评价脑供血的价值.方法 对30例短暂性脑缺血(TIA)患者行HRMRI以判定单侧MCA狭窄程度,并行MRI PWI检查,得出患侧和镜像侧灌注参数,包括相对脑血容量(relative cerebral blood volume,rCBV)、相对脑血流量(relative cerebral blood flow,rBCF)、相对平均通过时间(relative mean transit time,rMTT)、相对达峰时间(relative time to peak,rTTP),并对其进行定量分析.结果 30例患者中,HRMRI判定MCA轻度狭窄7例,中度狭窄9例,重度狭窄或闭塞14例;30例灌注均出现异常,rCBF、rMTT、rTTP灌注参数均具有统计学意义,其中MCA中度、重度狭窄或闭塞组狭窄率与r

  18. Mechanisms of cerebral protection of Chinese herbal extract-Braintone on middle cerebral artery occluded rats%中药脑必通在大鼠大脑中动脉梗死模型中的脑保护机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢国宝; 黄晚慧; 罗丽珊; 王红; 陈光发; 周文轩; 朱依谆

    2009-01-01

    自由基导致的神经细胞损伤是中风发病机理之一. 多项体外和体内研究证明,通过干预自由基在局部缺血部位导致的细胞凋亡,抗氧化剂可起到神经保护作用,而具有抗氧化功效的自然产品无疑是一种极有潜力的治疗中风的候选药物.奉研究的目的是评估脑必通(Braintone)在Wistar)k2鼠大脑中动脉梗死模型(MCAO)的治疗作用.与对照组相比,脑必通治疗组大鼠促凋亡基凶(AT2受体,FAS,BAX和BCL-XS)的表达量显著地减少(分别是0.4-,0.72-,0.76-,0.32倍,P<0.05).免疫组化结果显示这些基因所对应的蛋白质表达量也大量减少.TUNEL的观察结果进一步验证了脑必通的抗凋亡作用.从而证明脑必通作为一种抗氧化药物,对中风的治疗的确具有一定的潜在功效.%Free radical induced neuronal damage is involved in stroke. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have proved that antioxidant could act as neuroprotective agent through intervening with free-radical mediated apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra. In particular, natural products which contain antioxidant properties have undoubtedly potential for stroke treatment. In the present study, therapeutic effects of Braintone on Wistar rats undergone middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was evaluated. Gene expression levels of pro-apoptotic genes (AT2 receptor, FAS, BAX and BCL-XS) were showed to be significantly reduced in Braintone treated groups (0.4-, 0.72-, 0.76-, 0.32-fold, P<0.05) as compared to vehicle group. Significant reduction of immunoreactivity of protein production of these genes, together with least nuclear green fluorescence observed in TUNEL, Braintone as an antioxidant drug, is concluded to have promising therapeutic effect for stroke treatment.

  19. 影响胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰速的临床相关因素%Related clinical effect factors of peak velocity of blood flow of fetal middle cerebral artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌奕; 金松; 南瑞霞; 华少萍; 张宏玉; 胡春霞; 莫秀兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the related clinical effect factors of peak velocity of blood flow of fetal middle cerebral artery ( MCA) , provide a basis for predicting fetal anemia by peak velocity of blood flow of MCA. Methods; 140 fetuses from the hospital were analyzed and divided into normal control group (85 fetuses), uncomplicated twin group (22 fetuses) , thalassemia group (IS fetuses) and fetal anomaly group (18 fetuses) , all the fetuses received color Doppler examination of peak velocity of blood flow of MCA and hemoglobin detection. MOM value was used as the unit, the differences of peak velocities of blood flow of MCA and fetal hemoglobin contents among the four groups were analyzed. Results; There was no significant difference in peak velocity of blood flow of MCA and fetal hemoglobin content between uncomplicated twin group and single pregnancy group. In thalassemia group, the peak velocity of blood flow of MCA increased significantly , while fetal hemoglobin content decreased. Compared with normal single pregnancy group, the peak velocity of blood flow of MCA in fetal anomaly group increased significantly (P < 0. 05 ) , but after exclusing anemia fetuses, there is no significant difference in the peak velocity of blood flow of MCA between fetal anomaly non - anemia group and normal single pregnancy group. Conclusion: The peak velocity of blood flow of MCA is significantly related to fetal anemia, but there was no correlation between peak velocity of blood now of MCA and un-complicated twin pregnancy; the study shows that there is no significant difference in the peak velocity of blood flow of MCAbetween fetal anomaly non - anemia group and normal single pregnancy group after exclusing anemia fetuses, a further study with large samples is needed.%目的:分析影响胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰速(MCA-PSV)的临床相关因素,为应用MCA-PSV预测胎儿贫血提供依据.方法:对海南医学院附属医院140例胎儿进行临

  20. 大脑中动脉粥样硬化斑块与单发性皮质下梗死的相关性%Correlation between middle cerebral artery atherosclerotic plaques and single subcortical infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可颜; 程敬亮; 张勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between middle cerebral artery (MCA) atherosclerotic plaques and single subcortical infarction (SSI) using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI).Methods The patients with SSI received HR-MRI examinations at the ipsilateral MCA horizontal segment stenosis from January 2012 to November 2014 were analyzed prospectively.They were divided into proximal SSI (pSSI) and distal SSI (dSSI).The longitudinal and transverse diameters and volume of different types of infarction pattern as well as the degree of luminal stenosis of MCA deep perforating parent artery,plaque distribution,plaque enhancement or not,white matter lesions,and general information of both groups were documented respectively.Results A total of 78 patients with SSI were enrolled,including 40 (51%) in the pSSI group and 38 (49%) in the dSSI group.The proportions of Fazekas scale grade 3 white matter lesions (63.5%vs.40.0%;x2 =4.183,P=0.041) and deep white matter lesions (50.0% vs.15.0%;x2 =10.961,P =0.001) in the dSSI group were significantly higher than those in the pSSI group.The proportions of MCA plaque in the opening (35.0% vs.13.2%;x2=3.930,P=0.047),plaque enhancement (87.5% vs.30.0%;x2 =25.447,P < 0.001) and posterosuperior wall plaques (42.5% vs.21.4%;x2 =9.491,P < 0.001) and the degree of luminal stenosis (60.38% ± 10.20% vs.45.00% ±6.44%;t =3.625,P =0.031) in the pSSI group were all significantly higher than those in the dSSI group.In addition,the longitudinal and transverse diameters and volume of the infarcts in the pSSI group were significantly larger than those in the dSSI group (all P < 0.001).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that MCA enhanced plaques on the lesionipsilateral sides (odds ratio[OR] 11.764,95% confidence interval[CI] 2.081-66.511;P =0.005) and posterosuperior wall plaques (OR 6.131,95% CI 1.012-23.339;P =0.037) were independently associated with pSSI,while deep white

  1. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  2. Accessory bones of the feet: Radiological analysis of frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Vladica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accessory bones are most commonly found on the feet and they represent an anatomic variant. They occur when there is a failure in the formation of a unique bone from separated centre of ossification. The aim of this study was to establish their frequency and medical significance. Methods. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiography was performed in 270 patients aged of 20-80 years with a history of trauma (180 and rheumatology disease (90. The presence and distribution of accessory bones was analysed in relation to the total number of patients and their gender. The results are expressed in numeric values and in terms of percentage. Results. Accessory bones were identified in 62 (22.96% patients: 29 (10.74% of them were found in female patients and 33 (12.22% in males. The most common accessory bones were as follows: os tibiale externum 50%, os peroneum 29.03%, ostrigonum 11.29%, os vaselianum 9.68%. Conclusion. Accessory bones found in 23% of patients with trauma and some of rheumatological diseases. Their significance is demonstrated in the differential diagnosis among degenerative diseases, avulsion fractures, muscle and tendon trauma and other types of injuries which can cause painful affection of the foot, as well as in forensic practice.

  3. Cerebral Arterial Thrombosis in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Casella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis, mainly venous, is a rare and well-recognized extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. We describe a 25-year-old Caucasian man affected by ulcerative colitis and sclerosing cholangitis with an episode of right middle cerebral arterial thrombosis resolved by intraarterial thrombolysis. We perform a brief review of the International Literature.

  4. Obstruction of cerebral arteries in childhood stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velkey, I.; Lombay, B. (County Teaching Hospital, Miskolc (Hungary). Child Health Center); Panczel, G. (Semmelweis Medical Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Psychiatry)

    1992-09-01

    Middle cerebral artery obstruction in children is reviewed by our two cases. Ischemic childhood stroke was caused by moyamoya disease in the first, and by fibromuscular dysplasia in the second patient. In both cases transcranial Doppler sonography and cranial CT were performed, but the final diagnosis was made by angiography. The importance of angiography in childhood stroke is emphasized. (orig.).

  5. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N;

    2010-01-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebral...... metabolism (from arterial and internal jugular venous O(2), glucose and lactate differences), as well as the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V(mean); transcranial Doppler ultrasound) during a sustained static handgrip contraction at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (n = 9) and the MCA V...... abolished by glycopyrrolate (P perfusion without affecting the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen....

  6. Imaging findings and cerebral perfusion in arterial ischemic stroke due to transient cerebral arteriopathy in children; Achados de imagem e perfusao arterial cerebral em acidente vascular cerebral isquemico devido a arteriopatia transitoria em crianca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa Junior, Alcino Alves, E-mail: alcinojr@uol.com.br [Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ellovitch, Saada Resende de Souza [Neuropediatria, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pincerato, Rita de Cassia Maciel [Hospital Samaritano, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    We report the case of a 4-year-old female child who developed an arterial ischemic stroke in the left middle cerebral artery territory, due to a proximal stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, most probably related to transient cerebral arteriopathy of childhood. Computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, perfusion magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography are presented, as well as follow-up by magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography exams. Changes in cerebral perfusion and diffusion-perfusion mismatch call attention. As far as we know, this is the first report of magnetic resonance perfusion findings in transient cerebral arteriopathy. (author)

  7. Bilateral cerebral hemispheric infarction associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-K; Kim, D G; Ku, Y H; Lee, Y J; Kim, W-C; Kim, O J; Kim, H S

    2008-03-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is one of the frequently prescribed drugs for men with erectile dysfunction. We describe a 52-year-old man with bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction after sildenafil use. He ingested 100 mg of sildenafil and about 1 h later, he complained of chest discomfort, palpitation and dizziness followed by mental obtundation, global aphasia and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging documented acute bilateral hemispheric infarction, and cerebral angiography showed occluded bilateral MCA. Despite significant bilateral MCA stenosis and cerebral infarction, systemic hypotension persisted for a day. We presume that cerebral infarction was caused by cardioembolism with sildenafil use.

  8. [Surgical treatment strategy for flatfoot related with accessory navicular].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yin-shuan; Gao, Qiu-ming; Zhen, Ping; Tang, Kang-lai

    2015-02-01

    Accessory navicular source flatfoot is one of the foot deformity of clinical common disease,its treatment method is more controversial, differences in clinical efficacy of different surgical methods, according to accessory navicular source flatfoot symptoms of surgical treatment,there is no uniform standard, around a pair of accessory navicular excision how to reconstruct the arch produced a series of operation methods, the clinical curative effect of different operative methods produce also different, how to develop the operation strategy, choose operation method, and after acessory navicular excision whether to rebuild posterior tibial tendon, how to rebuild, the problems such as how to rebuild is the research hotspot and difficulty, looking forward to further research.

  9. Aplasia of the parotid glands with accessory parotid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Meghan J.; Walkiewicz, Thomas W.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Curran, John G.; Towbin, Richard B. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Congenital absence of the parotid gland is a rare entity. Absence is most commonly unilateral, and is not associated with accessory glandular tissue. In the majority of reported cases, parotid gland aplasia is seen with craniofacial abnormalities or hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, particularly the lacrimal glands. We present a 14-year-old male with bilateral parotid gland aplasia detected incidentally on MRI of the brain and then confirmed on neck CT. The studies also revealed accessory parotid tissue superficial to the left masseter muscle. There were no associated craniofacial abnormalities. The lacrimal glands and submandibular glands were normal. (orig.)

  10. [Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood-flow and condition of cerebral at open and endovascular interventions in carotid system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsevich, G I; Tanashian, M M; Skrylev, S I; Krotenkova, M V; Shchipakin, V L; Koshcheev, A Iu; Lagoda, O V; Gemdzhian, E G; Medvedev, R B; Kulikova, S N

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our research is to study hemodynamic and embolic situation during the carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid angioplastic and stenting (CAS), and to reveal the prognostic significance of the data provided by intraoperative monitoring of the brain blood flow in exposing acute ischemic lesions in brain. Intraoperative monitoring of blood flow in artery ophthalmic vas carried out with 60% of patients, in the middle cerebral artery-with 40% during the main stages of CEA, and with 64 patients in the middle cerebral artery during CAS. The comparison of the data of intraoperative monitoring of blood flow in middle cerebral artery with the result of brain diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) 24 hours after the operation shows, that solid microembolic signals and vasospasm are prognostic signals (sensibility and specifics make up 95%) in the development of acute ischemic cerebral lesions. The monitoring of blood flow in artery ophthalmic is of the greatest diagnostic value in estimation of the hemodynamic situation, but it is of the lowest practical value in detecting microembolic signals. According to the data of the intraoperative blood flow monitoring in middle cerebral artery in group CEA the development of acute ischemic cerebral lesions were predicted with 11,1% of patients and the cause of postoperative stroke, developed by 2,9% of the patients, was specified. According to the result of DW-MRI, acute ischemic cerebral lesions were diagnosed with 21% of patients, that is, 18% of ischemic cerebral lesions were asymptomatic. In group CAS ischemic cerebral lesions were prognosed with 30% of patients, actually they were later detected with 40,6% of cases by means of DW-MRI. According to the data of intraoperative of blood flow monitoring the cause of the development of postoperative stroke was specified in 6,2% of cause; in 34,4% of cause the acute ischemic cerebral lesions were asymptomatic.

  11. Multinodular goitre and large accessory thyroid nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong, K.K.L. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-09-01

    A 52-year-old man presented with a large midline upper neck mass which had developed over the preceding five years. He recalled having a thyroid operation 35 years ago while living in the Middle East but was uncertain why the surgery had been performed. On examination he was mildly dyspnoeic with stridor. The neck mass was non-tender but quite large and had a firm consistency. Ultrasound showed that the mass was solid with well-defined margins. The internal echotexture was diffusely heterogeneous. A multinodular goitre was also present in the thyroid bed with a small left lobe consistent with previous partial hemithyroidectomy. The mass was located anterior to the thyroid cartilage, deep to the platysma muscle and appeared separate from the thyroid and submandibular salivary glands. A {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate scan demonstrated Patchy non-uniform uptake in the mass and in the thyroid. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Changes in pathomorphology and ultrastructure of parasagital sinus cerebral tissues after ligating middle part of superior sagittal sinus and their backflow veins in rabbits%家兔上矢状窦中1/3及其回流静脉结扎后窦旁脑组织病理结构的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐忠; 袁贤瑞; 粟枫; 罗端午

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨家兔上矢状窦(SSS)中1/3及其回流静脉结扎后邻近脑组织病理结构的改变.方法 家兔SSS中1/3及其回流静脉被结扎,结扎后不同时间取窦旁脑组织行组织学和超微结构观察:结果结扎后4 h,HE染色显示窦旁脑组织水肿明显,可见神经元变性,表现为核同缩,部分细胞致密、深染,突起消失,血管周隙增宽,可见血管扩张;尼氏染色显示神经元胞体肿胀,染色较淡,形态不规则.细胞排列散乱;电镜下观察发现神经元及胶质细胞水肿,线粒体结构模糊、部分嵴丢失呈空泡变,内质网扩张,核膜模糊;结扎后8 h损伤最严重,之后逐渐恢复,至90d基本恢复正常.结论家兔SSS中1/3及其回流静脉结扎后可引起窦旁脑组织结构改变,但随时间延长可逐渐恢复正常.%Objective To explore the effect of ligating the middle parts of the superior sagittal sinuses (SSS) and their backflow veins on the pathomorphology and ultrastructures of the parasagital sinus cerebral tissues. Methods The middle parts of SSS and their back flow veins were hgated in the rabbits. The changes in the parasagital sinus cerebral tissues pathomorphology and ultrastrncture were observed respectively by light and electron microscopes at different time after the ligation. Results The neuronal degeneration, the nerve cells and glial cell edema, the fuzzy mitochondrial structures, endoplasmic reticula expansion and so on were found in the parasagittsl sinus cerebral tissues 4 hours after the ligation of SSS and their back flow veins. The above-mentioned changes become most significant 8 hours after the ligation and gradurally improved along with the prolongation of time after the ligation. The return of the parasagittal sinus cerebral tissues to almost normal was observed 90 days after the ligation. Conclusion The changes in the pathomorphology and ultrastructures of the parasagittal sinus cerebral tissues can be produced by the ligating the

  13. Accessory wandering spleen: Report of a case of laparoscopic approach in an asymptomatic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Perin

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We suggest performing surgery with a laparoscopic approach in patients with accessory wandering spleen, though asymptomatic, because of the risk of serious complications in case of accessory spleen torsion.

  14. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  15. Effect of electric acupuncture on the expression of NgR in the cerebral cortex,the medulla oblongata,and the spinal cord of hypertensive rats after cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of electric acupuncture(EA)on the Nogo receptors(NgR)protein expression in the cerebral cortex,the medulla oblongata,and the spinal cord of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion(I/R)stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats(RHRSP)with middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)at different time points,and to investigate its possible mecha-

  16. Blood oxygenation level dependent effect of cerebral ischemic penumbra in monkey reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model%猴可复性大脑中动脉闭塞模型脑缺血半暗带的血氧水平依赖效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬; 陈英敏; 张云亭

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI in detecting monkey cerebral ischemic penumbra (IP). Methods Six monkeys were used to make reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model by an interventional microcatheter method. MR DWI, PWI mean transit time (MTT), T_2WI and quantitative T_2 map, T_2~* map were performed at MCAO (0 h) and 1,3,6,12,24,48 h after reperfusion. Reversible transverse relaxation rate (R_2') BOLD imaging was calculated using quantitative T_2 and T_2~* maps. Lesion volume percentage (lesion volume/bilateral hemispheres volume) were measured on 0 h DWI,48 h T_2WI and TTC staining. Ischemic area was subdivided into infracted core (high signal area on both 0 h DWI and 48 h T_2 WI), IP (high signal on 0 h DWI, iso on 48 h T_2 WI) and oligemia (0 h delayed MTT, iso signal on both 0 h DWI and 48 h T_2 WI). Relative R_2' (rR_2') was calculated to get ratio between the lesion and mirror area in contralateral healthyhemisphere. Paired t test and correlation analysis were used for comparison of lesion volume percentage. rR_2' values at each time point were compared by ANOVA. Results Reversible MCAO models were made successfully in 4 of 6 monkeys. Lesion volume porcentage on 48 h T_2 WI was reduced compared to that on Oh DWI [ (8.16±0.55)% vs (11.37±1.41)% ,t=6.472,P0.05], which showed significant positive correlation (r=0.98, P0.05),两者呈明显正相关(r=0.98,P<0.05).梗死核心、IP、低灌注区rR_2'在各时间点差异均有统计学意义,梗死核心低于IP,IP低于低灌注区(P<0.05),三者rR_2'值:0 h时分别为1.129±0.108、1.329±0.081、1.584±0.103(F=36.19,P<0.05).1 h分别为0.668±0.082、1.237±0.072、1.435±0.066(F=134.09,P<0.05).3 h分别为0.536±0.075、1.453±0.081、1.770±0.141(F=256.30,P<0.05).6 h分别为0.259±0.050、2.435±0.131、2.957±0.177(F=803.25,P<0.05).12 h分别为0.385±0.054、2.447±0.148、3.254±0.184(F=743.74,P<0.05).24 h分别为0.083±0.026、1

  17. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for medical purposes to support, protect, or aid in the use of a cast, orthosis (brace), or prosthesis. Examples of prosthetic and orthotic accessories include the following: A pelvic support band and belt, a cast shoe, a cast bandage, a limb cover, a prosthesis alignment device, a postsurgical pylon,...

  18. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory enzymes and their corresponding g

  19. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and allow observation or manipulation of body cavities, hollow organs, and canals. The device consists of various rigid or flexible instruments that are inserted into body spaces and may include an optical system for conveying an image to the user's eye and their accessories may assist in gaining...

  20. ABC transporter architecture and regulatory roles of accessory domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans-Oldehinkel, E; Doeven, MK; Poolman, B

    2006-01-01

    We present an overview of the architecture of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and dissect the systems in core and accessory domains. The ABC transporter core is formed by the transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) that constitute the actual translocator. The a

  1. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section 884.6120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices §...

  2. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological table and accessories. 876.4890 Section 876.4890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130 Section 876.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130...

  4. Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk C den Bakker

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II.

  5. 49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of valves and accessories. 178.255-7... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety devices, gauging devices, and the like shall be...

  6. Role of candesartan against cerebral ischemia and oxidative damage in normotensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective Angiotensin Ⅱ(Ang Ⅱ)contributes to modulating blood pressure by stimulation of Ang Ⅱ AT1 receptors.We devised a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)model to assess whether oxidative damage is decreased after pretreatment with Angiotensin Ⅱ AT1 receptor blocker(ARB).Methods After 2 weeks pretreatment with ARB 0.5 and 1mg/kg,the male Wister rats were subjected to 2h middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO).At 24h,the lumen diameter of middle cerebral artery,the plasma level of 8-hydrox...

  7. 猴大脑中动脉闭塞模型脑缺血半暗带的面积演变%Evolution of ischemic penumbra area in monkey middle cerebral artery occlusion model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志华; 张雪君; 冯前进; 张云亭

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the evolution of monkey brain isehemic penumbra(IP)area.Methods Seyen monkeys were used to make middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)model by interventional methods.CT perfnsion imaging,MR diffusion weighted-imaging (DWI),perfusion weighted imaging(PWI)and T2W1 were performed at 1,5,10;15,20 and 24 h after MCAO respectively.Four regions of interest of infarct lesion were measured.Point 1 was at the infarct core.point 3 was at the infamt margin,and point 2 was at the midpoint between point 1 and 3.Point 4 demonstrated normal signal intensity adjacent to high signal intensity.Parameters measured included cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and negative enhancement integral (NEI).The relative ratios between infarct lesions and the corresponding contralateral normal brain were calculated(rCBF, rCBV, rMTY, rADC and rNEI).The IP areas were calculated by two methods: IP thresholds combined with self-made computer software, and PWI( MrlT)-DWI mismatch.ANOVA and ROC analysis were used. Results Five of 7 monkey MCAO models were made successfuUy. There were signitlcanfly difference of rCBF and rNEI within 20 h, of rCBV within 15 h, of rADC within 10 h, of rMTT at24 h (P<0.05).ROI 1,2 and 3 values as following: rCBF: 1 h(0.160 ±0.034, 0.310 ±0.037,0.540±0.107), 5 h(0.098±0.029, 0.157 ± 0.052, 0.427 ±0.116), 10 h(0.072 ±0.023, 0.097 ±0.028, 0.209 ± 0.070), 15 h(0.054 ± 0.017, 0.069 ± 0.015, 0.166 ± 0.049), 20 h(0.038 ± 0.011,0.026± 0.007, 0.092±0.013); rNEI: 1 h(0.219 ± 0.085, 0.303 ± 0.099, 0.463 ± 0.132), 5 h (0.143±0.057, 0.195± 0.055, 0.348±0.127), 10 h(0.127 ± 0.029, 0.171 ± 0.058, 0.259 ±0.079), 15 h(0.128 ±0.024, 0.164 ±0.031, 0.217 ±0.030), 20 h(0.075±0.019, 0.147±0.058,0.129 ±0.045) ; rCBV: 1 h(0.594 ± 0.199, 0.804 ± 0.099, 1.021 ±0.169), 5 h(0.457±0.103,0.462±0.145, 0.815±0.201), 10 h(0.222 ±0.046, 0.249±0.065, 0.529 ±0

  8. Efeitos da estimulação vibro-acústica na velocidade do sangue da artéria cerebral média e na freqüência cardíaca fetal: 1. entre a 35ª e 41ª semanas de gestação The effect of vibratory acoustic stimulation on fetal middle cerebral artery impedance and instantaneous fetal heart rate: 1. a transversal study on fetuses with 35 to 41 weeks of gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Behle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivos: estudar, em fetos hígidos, quais são as respostas da freqüência cardíaca fetal basal e da resistência na artéria cerebral média à estimulação vibro-acústica padronizada. Métodos: em estado comportamental de hipo ou de inatividade fetal (apnéia e ausência de movimentos corpóreos, mediu-se o índice de pulsatilidade (IP da artéria cerebral média (ACM, bem como calculou-se a freqüência cardíaca fetal basal (FCFB pela análise da onda espectral, antes e após a aplicação de estímulo vibro-acústico (EVA por 3 segundos. Foram empregados ecógrafos de alta resolução, com Doppler pulsado e mapeamento a cores. A fonte sonora emitia som com 400 a 40.000 Hz, sob forma de varredura, com pressão sonora de 65 a 110 dB. Resultados: a média da FCFB pré-estímulo foi 139 bpm, com desvio padrão de 3,14 bpm. A média da FCFB pós-estímulo foi 153 bpm, com desvio padrão de 7,23 bpm (pSUMMARY Purpose: to examine the response of the fetal heart rate (FHR and middle cerebral artery resistance (MCA PI to vibratory stimulation (VAS in normal human fetuses. Methods: when the fetuses were without activity (in apnea and without corporal movements, we obtained baseline measurements of MCA PI and FHR before and after the application of a 3-sec vibratory acoustic stimulus. Real time ultrasonography with pulsed wave and color Doppler imaging was used for the execution of the study. The VAS was performed using a bicycle horn with 400 to 4000 Hz and sound pressure was 65 to 110 dB. Results: the FHR before VAS was 139 ± 3.14 bpm and after VAS was 153 ± 7.23 bpm (p<0.0001. The MCA PI rate before VAS was 1.84 ± 0.07 and after VAS was 1.56 ± 0.04 (p<0.001. In all cases we observed a fetal response with vigorous corporal movements, FHR rise and MCA PI reduction after VAS. Conclusions: we conclude that VAS, in human fetuses near term, for 3 sec as described in this study, determines some response, with increase in FHR and corporal

  9. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT NEEDLE-RETAINING DURATION ON CEREBRAL HEMODYNAMICS OF CEREBRAL PARALYSIS CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青; 王琴玉; 冯健强; 张壮涛; 陈雪云; 靳瑞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of different needle-retaining duration on cerebral hemodynamics in cerebral paralysis (CP) children.Methods: A total of 20 cases of CP children were subjected into this study.Changes of systolic peak value (Vs), blood flow velocity at the end-diastolic phase (Ved), mean velocity (Vm), pulsation index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of the cerebral hemodynamics before and after performing JIN's Three-Needling Therapy with the needles retained for 30 min (group A) and 5 min (group B) were observed by using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD).Results: After acupuncture, the blood flow in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) was accelerated, and the resistance of blood vessels decreased.The effect of needle-retaining-30 min was better than that of needle-retaining-5 min.Conclusion: In treating cerebral paralysis by using JIN's Three-Needling Therapy, sufficient stimulation provided by needle remaining is an important factor for achieving satisfactory therapeutic effects.

  10. The lifestyle of the young and middle-aged patients with acute cerebral infarction and the characteristics of carotid artery disease%中青年急性脑梗死患者的生活方式及颈动脉病变的特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宇; 杨松林; 梁文生; 袁波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the lifestyle of young and middle - aged acute cerebral infarction ( ACI) patients and the characteristics of carotid artery disease. Methods ①compareel the 87 young and middle - aged ( under 45 ) ACI patients with 81 healthy control groups and made a retrospective analysis of their lifestyle ( including diet, patterns of life, sleep, alcohol consumption, smoking, social and labor nature, mobile phone using time, exercise time, etc. ). ②compared the 87 young and middle -aged (under 45 years old) ACI patients with 95 elderly ACI control groups ( over 55 years old) in terms of the characteristics of carotid artery disease. Results ①Young and middle - aged ACI patients were likely to be overweight, heavy smoker and excessive drinker. They were living an irregular life with high salt and high fat food and less excise. ②Jugular artery ultrasonography showed that young and middle - aged patients had an unstable carotid plaque detection rate of 32. 18% (28/87) and stable carotid plaque detection rate of 21. 84% ( 19/87). They were mainly mild and moderate carotid stenosis. ③the elderly group had an unstable carotid plaque detection rate of 47. 37% (45/95)and stable carotid plaque detection rate of 23. 16% ( 22/95 ). They were mainly moderate and heavy carotid stenosis. Conclusion Unhealthy lifestyles is an important risk factor of cerebral infarction among young and middle - aged people. The main clinical symptoms of carotid artery disease is unstable carotid plaque. Tne carotid stenosis is usually in a mild and moderate degree.%目的 探讨中青年急性脑梗死(ACI)患者的生活方式及其颈动脉病变的特征.方法 ①小于45岁ACI患者87例为中青年组,与81例健康对照组比较,分析他们的生活方式(饮食结构,生活规律,睡眠状况,饮酒,吸烟,社会劳动性质,手机使用时间,运动时间等);②大于55岁的ACI患者95例为老年对照组,比较中青年ACI组与老年ACI对照组的

  11. The diagnosis and treatment of severe cerebral fat embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东生; 王甫; 王伯珉; 王鲁博; 李连欣; 许世宏; 穆卫东

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To improve the diagnosis and treatment of severe cerebral fat embolism (SCFE).Methods: The data of nine patients with SCFE were retrospectively analyzed. The manifestations of the central nerve system, respiratory system and hemorrhage were recorded, at the same time, accessory examination including arterial oxygen, fat macroglobules in venous blood and image examination was adapted. The patients were treated with exopexy, pharmocotherapy and oxygentherapy.Results: Two of the nine patients died of severe complications, the other seven recovered without severe sequela.Conclusions: Gurd standard should be improved for early diagnosis of SCFE. If svere complications can be prevented, patients who receive early treatment will have favourable prognosis.

  12. Wearable wireless cerebral oximeter (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral oximeters measure continuous cerebral oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology noninvasively. It has been involved into operating room setting to monitor oxygenation within patient's brain when surgeons are concerned that a patient's levels might drop. Recently, cerebral oxygen saturation has also been related with chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency (CCVI). Patients with CCVI would be benefited if there would be a wearable system to measure their cerebral oxygen saturation in need. However, there has yet to be a wearable wireless cerebral oximeter to measure the saturation in 24 hours. So we proposed to develop the wearable wireless cerebral oximeter. The mechanism of the system follows the NIRS technology. Emitted light at wavelengths of 740nm and 860nm are sent from the light source penetrating the skull and cerebrum, and the light detector(s) receives the light not absorbed during the light pathway through the skull and cerebrum. The amount of oxygen absorbed within the brain is the difference between the amount of light sent out and received by the probe, which can be used to calculate the percentage of oxygen saturation. In the system, it has one source and four detectors. The source, located in the middle of forehead, can emit two near infrared light, 740nm and 860nm. Two detectors are arranged in one side in 2 centimeters and 3 centimeters from the source. Their measurements are used to calculate the saturation in the cerebral cortex. The system has included the rechargeable lithium battery and Bluetooth smart wireless micro-computer unit.

  13. Cerebral perfusion SPECT in transient ischemic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, D.-L. E-mail: dlyou@mail.kfcc.org.tw; Shieh, F.-Y.; Tzen, K.-Y.; Tsai, M.-F.; Kao, P.-F

    2000-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of cerebral perfusion single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods: Thirty-seven patients with TIA were collected for study. All patients had transient focal neurological symptoms or signs with complete recovery within 24 h after onset. The patients underwent cerebral perfusion SPECT between 6 h and 11 days after onset, with 10 cases performed within 24 h (group A), nine cases performed between 1 and 3 days (group B), 11 cases performed between 3 and 5 days (group C), and seven cases performed after more than 5 days (group D). A semi-quantitative method was used for analyzing the SPECT data, and the difference ratios between lesion side and contralateral normal side were calculated on each pair of regions of interest. Results: In total, 78.4% (29/37) of patients had reduced perfusion in the cerebral cortical regions or deep nuclei, and the regions with reduced perfusion corresponded with clinical presentations of the patients. The abnormal rate with reduced perfusion was 90.0% in group A, 77.8% in group B, 72.7% in group C and 71.4% in group D. Cross cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) was present in seven patients, and all of the primary cerebral perfusion defects of these patients were located at the territory of left or right middle cerebral artery. Conclusion: Cerebral perfusion SPECT is a potential tool to detect cerebral perfusion defects and CCD in patients with TIA. Although the perfusion defect may persist more than 5 days after onset, we suggest cerebral perfusion SPECT should be performed as soon as possible.

  14. Perioperative Identification of an Accessory Fissure of the Right Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Taverne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of lungs are common in clinical practice; however, they are sometimes overlooked in routine imaging. Surgical anatomy of the lung is complex and many variations are known to occur. A defective pulmonary development gives rise to variations in lobes and fissures. Morphological presentation is of clinical importance and profound knowledge of the organogenesis and functional anatomy is imperative for the interpretation and evaluation of lung pathophysiology and subsequent surgical intervention. However, appreciating them on radiographs and CT scans is difficult and they are therefore often either not identified or completely misinterpreted. As presented in this case report, an accessory fissure separating the superior segment of the right lower lobe from its native lobe was seen perioperatively and could only retrospectively be defined on X-rays and CT scan. It is imperative to keep in mind that accessory fissures can be missed on imaging studies and thus can make the surgical procedure more challenging.

  15. Spinal accessory neuropathy, droopy shoulder, and thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shekhlee, Amer; Katirji, Bashar

    2003-09-01

    Droopy shoulder has been proposed as a cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. Two patients developed manifestations of neurovascular compression upon arm abduction, associated with unilateral droopy shoulder and trapezius muscle weakness caused by iatrogenic spinal accessory neuropathies following cervical lymph node biopsies. The first patient developed a cold, numb hand with complete axillary artery occlusion when his arm was abducted to 90 degrees. The second patient complained of paresthesias in digits 4 and 5 of the right hand, worsened by elevation of the arm, with nerve conduction findings of right lower trunk plexopathy (low ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous sensory nerve action potentials). Spinal accessory nerve grafting (in the first patient) coupled with shoulder strengthening physical exercises in both patients resulted in gradual improvement of symptoms in 2 years. These two cases demonstrate that unilateral droopy shoulder secondary to trapezius muscle weakness may cause compression of the thoracic outlet structures.

  16. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8 th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed.

  17. Melatonin pretreatment protects against focal cerebral ischemia in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, HTS; Pei, Z; Pang, SF; Cheung, RTF

    2000-01-01

    Melatonin (MT) possesses many properties of an ideal neuroprotectant. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of exogenous MT were tested in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (280 to 360 g) were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg, I.P.) to undergo reversible right-sided endovascular MCAO for 3 hours. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were monitored, and rectal temperature was kept between 36....

  18. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems in the muscles or nerves. Instead, faulty development or damage to motor areas in the brain disrupt the brain's ability to adequately control movement and posture (United Cerebral Palsy, 2010). "Cerebral" refers to the ...

  19. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  20. The malleable middle ear: an underappreciated player in the evolution of hearing in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The middle ear of tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) originated from nonauditory structures, and has been modified by adaptations arising from the lifestyle of the tetrapods. These accessory structures for the inner ear increased the sensitivity to airborne sound, the frequency range of hearing...

  1. Hydrogen sulfide intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-juan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulfide donor compound sodium hydrosulfide. Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunoreactivity of P2X 7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treatment of these rats with hydrogen sulfide significantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deficit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulfide may be protective in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X 7 receptors.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Juan; Li, Chao-Kun; Wei, Lin-Yu; Lu, Na; Wang, Guo-Hong; Zhao, Hong-Gang; Li, Dong-Liang

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulfide donor compound sodium hydrosulfide. Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunoreactivity of P2X7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treatment of these rats with hydrogen sulfide significantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deficit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulfide may be protective in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X7 receptors.

  3. Hydrogen sulifde intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injur y in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-juan Li; Chao-kun Li; Lin-yu Wei; Na Lu; Guo-hong Wang; Hong-gang Zhao; Dong-liang Li

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydro-gen sulifde against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulifde donor compound sodium hydrosulifde. Immunolfuorescence revealed that the immu-noreactivity of P2X7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treat-ment of these rats with hydrogen sulifde signiifcantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deifcit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulifde may be protec-tive in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X7 receptors.

  4. Relationship between cerebral sodium-glucose transporter and hyperglycemia in cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yui; Harada, Shinichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2015-09-14

    Post-ischemic hyperglycemia exacerbates the development of cerebral ischemia. To elucidate this exacerbation mechanism, we focused on sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) as a mediator that lead hyperglycemia to cerebral ischemia. SGLT transport glucose into the cell, together with sodium ion, using the sodium concentration gradient. We have previously reported that suppression of cerebral SGLT ameliorates cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. However, detail relationship cerebral between SGLT and post-ischemic hyperglycemia remain incompletely defined. Therefore, we examined the involvement of cerebral SGLT on cerebral ischemic neuronal damage with or without hyperglycemic condition. Cell survival rate of primary cultured neurons was assessed by biochemical assay. A mouse model of focal ischemia was generated using a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neuronal damage was assessed with histological and behavioral analyses. Concomitant hydrogen peroxide/glucose treatment exacerbated hydrogen peroxide alone-induced cell death. Although a SGLT family-specific inhibitor, phlorizin had no effect on developed hydrogen peroxide alone-induced cell death, it suppressed cell death induced by concomitant hydrogen peroxide/glucose treatment. α-MG induced a concentration-dependent and significant decrease in neuronal survival. PHZ administered on immediately after reperfusion had no effect, but PHZ given at 6h after reperfusion had an effect. Our in vitro study indicates that SGLT is not involved in neuronal cell death in non-hyperglycemic condition. We have already reported that post-ischemic hyperglycemia begins to develop at 6h after MCAO. Therefore, current our in vivo study show post-ischemic hyperglycemic condition may be necessary for the SGLT-mediated exacerbation of cerebral ischemic neuronal damage.

  5. Using Doppler measurement of fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity on prediction of fetal anemia%彩超大脑中动脉血流峰值速度检测胎儿宫内贫血的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌奕; 金松; 张越青; 南瑞霞; 华少萍; 莫秀兰; 胡春霞; 黄元华

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过对胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度(middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity MCA-PSV)和胎儿血红蛋白关系的研究,评估胎儿MCA-PSV在预测胎儿贫血中的临床应用价值,为l临床提供一种无创伤的检测胎儿贫血的新方法.方法:采用前瞻性对照研究,正常单胎组85例,正常双胎22例,胎儿贫血高危组50例,所有病例均查脐血血常规测血红蛋白含量.脐穿前1周内做MCA-PSV检测,分析胎儿MCA-PSV和胎儿血红蛋白的关系.评估胎儿MCA-PSV预测胎儿贫血的准确性.结果:①以相应孕周正常值的中位数的倍数MOM值为单位,胎儿MCA-PSV与Hh浓度呈负相关(P<0.001).②MCA-PSV预测轻度贫血灵敏度25%,特异度98%,预测重度贫血的敏感性及特异性均为100%.③重度贫血胎儿MCA-PSV升高早于二维超声异常表现.④正常双胎与单胎MCA-PSV与Hb浓度无显著差异.结论:胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度预测胎儿贫血无创伤,发现早,准确性高,可作为临床胎儿贫血尤其是重度贫血的预测指标.%Objective: To investigate the relationship between fetal haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity ( MCA - PSV) in fetuses at high risk for anemia, and to establish a noninvasive method to predict fetal anemia. Methods: 85 normal fetuses in control group , 22 twin fetus and 50 high risk fetus in research group were analyzed. Fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity ( MCA - PSV) were measured within 1 week of blood sampling. Fetal Hb values were obtained by cordocentesis during prenatal diagnosis, before termination of pregnancy or after delivery. For the high risk group monthly Doppler ultrasound commenced at 16 weeks, and continued until blood sampling. Marl - G's data was used as the normal value of Hb and MCA - PSV at each gestafional age. Both MCA- PSV and Hemoglobin concentration were expressed as multiples of the median (MOM) . Results: ① There

  6. Cerebral microangiopathies; Zerebrale Mikroangiopathien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, Jennifer [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2011-03-15

    Cerebral microangiopathies are a very heterogenous group of diseases characterized by pathological changes of the small cerebral vessels. They account for 20 - 30 % of all ischemic strokes. Degenerative microangiopathy and sporadic cerebral amyloid angiography represent the typical acquired cerebral microangiopathies, which are found in over 90 % of cases. Besides, a wide variety of rare, hereditary microangiopathy exists, as e.g. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), Fabrys disease and MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes). (orig.)

  7. Protein kinase C inhibition attenuates vascular ETB receptor upregulation and decreases brain damage after cerebral ischemia in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikman Petter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinase C (PKC is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of experimental cerebral ischemia. We have previously shown that after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, there is an upregulation of endothelin receptors in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the PKC inhibitor Ro-32-0432 on endothelin receptor upregulation, infarct volume and neurology outcome after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat. Results At 24 hours after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, the contractile endothelin B receptor mediated response and the endothelin B receptor protein expression were upregulated in the ipsilateral but not the contralateral middle cerebral artery. In Ro-32-0432 treated rats, the upregulated endothelin receptor response was attenuated. Furthermore, Ro-32-0432 treatment decreased the ischemic brain damage significantly and improved neurological scores. Immunohistochemistry showed fainter staining of endothelin B receptor protein in the smooth muscle cells of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery of Ro-32-0432 treated rats compared to control. Conclusion The results suggest that treatment with Ro-32-0432 in ischemic stroke decreases the ischemic infarction area, neurological symptoms and associated endothelin B receptor upregulation. This provides a new perspective on possible mechanisms of actions of PKC inhibition in cerebral ischemia.

  8. Predicting hemorrhagic transformation by microvascular permeability using perfusion CT acute cerebral infarction in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田超

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the possibility of microvascular permeability(PS)value derived from perfusion CT(PCT)in predicting hemorrhagic transformation(HT)in acute cerebral infarction in elderly patients.Methods 52consecutive patients with middle cerebral artery acute ischemic stroke who received thrombolytic therapy were divided into HT group and control group,and patients in

  9. Cerebral Lateralization and General Intelligence: Gender Differences in a Transcranial Doppler Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njemanze, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated cerebral lateralization during Raven's progressive matrices (RPM) paradigm in female and male subjects. Bilateral simultaneous transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound was used to measure mean blood flow velocities (MBFV) in the right and left middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) in 24 (15 females and 9 males) right-handed…

  10. Atypical Cerebral Lateralisation in Adults with Compensated Developmental Dyslexia Demonstrated Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Sarah; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a relatively new and non-invasive technique that assesses cerebral lateralisation through measurements of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries. In this study fTCD was used to compare functional asymmetry during a word generation task between a group of 30 dyslexic adults and a…

  11. Effects of ethology,TChE and Ach activities in rat model of Middle cerebral artery occlusion administrated by human um- bilical cord-derived Mesenchymal stem cells%脐带间充质干细胞对脑梗死大鼠行为学及胆碱能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾芙蓉; 张贯石; 王辉; 潘洪涛; 何欣; 张东; 丁冬梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of intravenous administration of human umbilical cord-derived mesen-chymal stem cells(UC-MSCs)after middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)in adult rats.Methods Adult male SD rats were administrated by MCAO.Functional outcome measurements using Beam walking Test(BWT)were performed at 24 hour of MCAO group and 10 days of UC-MSCs treatment group respectively.TTC staining ,TChE and Ach activity array were also used.Results There was significant neurological function improvement in rats treated with MSC com-paring with that of control groups(P <0.05),and also Ach and TChE activity (P <0.05).Conclusion Intravenous ad-ministration of UC-MSCs promotes the neurological function in rat MCAO model.UC-MSCs play an advantageous function on cholinergic neurotransmitters in the case of lesion.%目的:观察脑梗死大鼠经人脐带间充质干细胞(umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells,UC-MSCs)治疗后,行为学的恢复情况,2,3,5-氯化三苯基四氮唑(triphenyl tetrazolium chloride,TTC)染色以及胆碱能的变化。方法制备脑梗死大鼠大脑中动脉闭塞(Middle cerebral artery occlusion,MCAO)模型,将 UC-MSCs 注入脑梗死大鼠体内,对大鼠运动功能进行评分,比较 TTC 染色显示的脑梗死区域所占比例,测定脑组织和血浆中乙酰胆碱酯酶(True choline esterase,TChE)活性和乙酰胆碱(Acetylcholine,Ach)浓度。结果与模型组相比,UC-MSCs 组大鼠行为学恢复明显(P <0.05),UC-MSCs 组大鼠脑组织和血浆乙酰胆碱酯酶(TChE)和乙酰胆碱(Ach)活性显著增强(P<0.05)。结论UC-MSCs 经尾静脉移植可促进脑梗死后神经功能恢复,增强大鼠胆碱能系统活性。

  12. Comparative analysis of umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery in fetus with cord around neck%脐绕颈胎儿脐动脉及大脑中动脉血流动力学指标的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解婷婷; 范雪梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze of the dynamic parameter umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery of fetus with the umbilical cord around neck to provide objective proofs diagnosing intrauterine fetal anoxia.Methods: To compare umbilical artery(UA) with middle cerebral artery's (MCA's), Doppler parameter was used in 200 healthy cases and 209 cases with cord around neck, taking pulse index ( PI), resistance index (RI) and the peak-systolic/diastolic ratio(S/D) as analysis target.Results: In the normal group, the PI, RI and S/D of UA and MCA were negatively correlated with ages of women.In the cord around neck group, the PI, RI and S/D of UA were increased significantly, the PI, RI and S/D of MCA were decreased significantly.PI, RI and S/D of the UA and MCA in the two groups had significant differences.Conclusion: Before we deliver a baby, the blood flow of UA and MCA of the fetus should be monitored in order to know the fetal placenta circulation and the fetal brain circulation, thus to prevent intrauterine fetal anoxia from happening.%目的:分析脐带绕颈胎儿脐动脉和大脑中动脉血流动力学参数,为临床判断宫内缺氧提供客观依据.方法:比较彩色多普勒超声检测200例正常妊娠胎儿和209例脐带绕颈胎儿脐动脉(UA)及大脑中动脉(MCA)血液动力学指标,以搏动指数(PI)、阻力指数(RI)、收缩期峰值/舒张期峰值(S/D)为分析指标.结果:正常妊娠胎儿UA和MCA的PI、RI、S/D与孕年呈负相关,脐带绕颈胎儿UA阻力指数增高明显,而MCA阻力指数降低显著.两组UA和MCA的PI、RI、S/D有显著性差异.结论:产前监测脐带绕颈胎儿的UA、MCA血流指数,可以了解胎儿胎盘循环和颅脑循环状态,预测胎儿宫内血氧状况,对了解胎儿血循环状况和及时预防胎儿宫内窘迫具有实用价值.

  13. 大脑中动脉血流参数比值在胎儿高动力循环状态中的初步应用%Preliminary Application of Blood Flow Parameters Ratios of the Middle Cerebral Artery in the Fetus with Hyperdynamic Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗支农; 钟梅; 郭会平; 陈春艾; 刘刚纯; 王新玉; 曹晓桦; 韦怀新

    2001-01-01

    Purpose To study prognostic blood flow parameters ratios to fetal hyperdynamic circulation. MethodsBlood flow parameters of middle cerebral artery and head circumference were assessed in 17 fetus with hyperdynamic circulation at 17 to 31 weeks' gestation and 215 normal fetus at 16 to 31 weeks' gestation by two-dimension imaging, color Doppler power imaging and pulsed Doppler. ResultsUnit head circumference maximum and mean blood flow velocities per minute of fetus with hyperdynamic circulation were higher than that of normal fetus(P<0.001). Unit head circumference maximum and mean blood flow velocities per minute of all fetus with hyperdynamic circulation were higher than reference ranges, the increase in the latter was higher than that in the former(P<0.05). ConclusionBlood flow parameters ratios of the middle cerebral artery can predict fetal hyperdynamic circulation.%目的探讨预测胎儿高动力循环状态的血流参数比值指标。方法应用二维超声、彩色多普勒能量图及脉冲多普勒技术对17例17~31孕周高动力循环状态胎儿及215例16~31孕周正常胎儿大脑中动脉血流参数及头围进行检测。结果高动力循环状态组胎儿每分钟单位头围大脑中动脉的最大速度及平均速度均高于正常组(P<0.001)。所有高动力循环状态胎儿每分钟单位头围大脑中动脉的最大速度及平均速度均高于正常高限,平均速度与正常高限的比值大于最大速度与正常高限的比值(P<0.05)。结论大脑中动脉血流参数比值能预测胎儿高动力循环状态。

  14. Effects of desflurane on cerebral autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedforth, N M; Girling, K J; Skinner, H J; Mahajan, R P

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desflurane, at 1 and 1.5 MAC, on cerebral autoregulation. Data were analysed from eight patients undergoing non-neurosurgical procedure. The blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery was measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound and cerebral autoregulation was assessed by the transient hyperaemic response test. Partial pressure of the end-tidal carbon dioxide (PE'(CO(2))) and mean arterial pressure were measured throughout the study. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and was maintained with desflurane at end-tidal concentrations of 7.4% (1 MAC) or 10.8% (1.5 MAC). The order of administration of the desflurane concentrations was determined randomly and a period of 15 min was allowed for equilibration at each concentration. The transient hyperaemic response tests were performed before induction of anaesthesia and after equilibration with each concentration of desflurane. An infusion of phenylephrine was used to maintain pre-induction mean arterial pressure and ventilation was adjusted to maintain the pre-induction value of PE'(CO(2)) throughout the study. Two indices derived from the transient hyperaemic response test (the transient hyperaemic response ratio and the strength of autoregulation) were used to assess cerebral autoregulation. Desflurane resulted in a marked and significant impairment in cerebral autoregulation; at concentrations of 1.5 MAC, autoregulation was almost abolished.

  15. [Ischaemic lesions of cerebral after carotid stenting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, R B; Tanashian, M M; Kuntsevich, G I; Lagoda, O V; Skrylev, S I; Krotenkova, M V; Koshcheev, A Iu; Suslin, A S; Gemdzhian, É G

    2015-01-01

    Carotid angioplasty with stenting is a reliable method of primary and secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke in patients with stenosing lesions of the internal carotid artery. However, carrying out such operations is sometimes associated with risk for the development of intraoperative impairments of cerebral circulation due to arterioarterial embolism in cerebral arteries, as well as vasospasm. Presented herein are the results of following up a total of 64 patients with pronounced atherosclerotic lesions of internal carotid arteries (>70%) - "symptomatic" and "asymptomatic", undergoing carotid stenting. Acute foci of ischaemia in the brain after stenting according to the findings of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance tomography were revealed in 40% of cases, and in only 6% of patients they manifested themselves by symptoms of acute cerebral circulatory impairment. We revealed a direct correlation between the number, size of infarctions in the brain, and the appearance of neurological symptomatology. Intraoperative monitoring of blood flow in the middle cerebral artery during stenting makes it possible to predict the appearance of acute foci of cerebral ischaemia, to specify the genesis of perioperative stroke, as well as to evaluate clinical significance of vasospasm and material microembolism. The obtained findings should concentrate neurologists' attention on active postoperative follow up of patients subjected to carotid angioplasty with stenting in order to perform adequate personified neuroprotective correction, including preventive one.

  16. Cerebral Air Embolism from Angioinvasive Cavitary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nontraumatic cerebral air embolism cases are rare. We report a case of an air embolism resulting in cerebral infarction related to angioinvasive cavitary aspergillosis. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports associating these two conditions together. Case Presentation. A 32-year-old female was admitted for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Her hospital course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis. On hospital day 55, she acutely developed severe global aphasia with right hemiplegia. A CT and CT-angiogram of her head and neck were obtained demonstrating intravascular air emboli within the left middle cerebral artery (MCA branches. She was emergently taken for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT. Evaluation for origin of the air embolus revealed an air focus along the left lower pulmonary vein. Over the course of 48 hours, her symptoms significantly improved. Conclusion. This unique case details an immunocompromised patient with pulmonary aspergillosis cavitary lesions that invaded into a pulmonary vein and caused a cerebral air embolism. With cerebral air embolisms, the acute treatment option differs from the typical ischemic stroke pathway and the provider should consider emergent HBOT. This case highlights the importance of considering atypical causes of acute ischemic stroke.

  17. Effect of accessory pigment composition on the absorption characteristics of a dinoflagellate bloom in a coastal embayment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Vijayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The light absorption properties of a dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans Macartney bloom in Manila Bay were analysed during the onset of a whole-bay-scale bloom in March 2004. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied over a very wide range from 1.4 µg l-1 to extremely high values of 521 µg l-1. The chlorophyll specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a*ph(λ varied significantly in shape and magnitude. The spectrally averaged values of a*ph(λ varied by two orders of magnitude within and outside the bloom patch. The total suspended solid concentration was high in the middle of the bay (≥4 mg l-1. The non-photosynthetic pigment (NPP index was ~0.6 at most of the stations, mainly due to the presence of photoprotective pigments like zeaxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin, which led to variations in the blue absorption maxima of the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients. The absorption properties of the accessory pigments were masked owing to the presence of overlapping pigment absorption bands. The fourth derivative of the absorption spectra was able to resolve these overlapping features and enhance the absorption characteristics of prominent accessory pigments.

  18. A Case Report on Unilateral Accessory Humeral Head of Pronator Teres

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Suman; Sakthivel, Sulochana

    2016-01-01

    The presence of an accessory muscle in the forearm is likely to compress on the neurovascular structures and has clinical implications. We encountered an accessory humeral head of pronator teres during routine dissection of left upper limb in a male cadaver. The accessory head had fleshy origin from medial supracondylar line, medial intermuscular septum and brachialis fascia. It coursed downwards in the cubital region covering brachial artery and median nerve. Further, it narrowed becoming mo...

  19. Extraperitoneal Pelvic laparoscopic disconnection of accessory urethra from normal urethra in a case of urethral duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Nitin; Aggarwal, Satish Kumar

    2014-04-01

    We report an extraperitoneal pelvic laparoscopic approach to disconnect accessory urethra from normal urethra in complete urethral duplication. First stage consisted of chordee correction, partial excision of the accessory urethra and glansplasty. In the second stage the remaining accessory urethra was disconnected from the normal urethra through a pre-peritoneal minimal access approach to the retropubic space. The remaining distal mucosa was ablated using monopolar cautery.

  20. Extraperitoneal Pelvic laparoscopic disconnection of accessory urethra from normal urethra in a case of urethral duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Pant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extraperitoneal pelvic laparoscopic approach to disconnect accessory urethra from normal urethra in complete urethral duplication. First stage consisted of chordee correction, partial excision of the accessory urethra and glansplasty. In the second stage the remaining accessory urethra was disconnected from the normal urethra through a pre-peritoneal minimal access approach to the retropubic space. The remaining distal mucosa was ablated using monopolar cautery.

  1. Total laparoscopic removal of accessory gallbladder: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Accessory gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly occurring in 1 in 4000 births, that is not associated with any specific symptoms. Usually this cannot be diagnosed on ultrasonography and hence they are usually not diagnosed preoperatively. Removal of the accessory gallbladder is necessary to avoid recurrence of symptoms. H-type accessory gallbladder is a rare anomaly. Once identified intra-operatively during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgery is usually converted to open. By using th...

  2. Accessory Genes Confer a High Replication Rate to Virulent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between tw...

  3. Incomplete and accessory fissures of the lung evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heřmanová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.hermanova2@fnol.cz; Čtvrtlík, Filip, E-mail: filip.ctvrtlik@fnol.cz; Heřman, Miroslav, E-mail: herman@fnol.cz

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess incomplete and accessory interlobar fissures using volumetric thin-section high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Materials and methods: Retrospective assessment of HRCT examinations of 250 patients was performed. We assessed the localization, extension, and type of the incompleteness of fissures as well as the presence and localization of accessory fissures. We searched for possible correlation among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Results: On the left side, an incomplete oblique fissure was found in 24%. The discontinuity was present in the parahilar region and the area of the incompleteness was most frequently between 21% and 40%. The right oblique fissure was incomplete in 35%, mostly parahilarly, with the most frequent discontinuity below 20%. An incomplete horizontal fissure was found in 74%. Accessory fissures were identified in 16% of patients, with the same frequency on both sides. The most frequent finding was accessory horizontal fissure with 8.0% on the left side, superior accessory fissure (7.2%) and inferior accessory fissure (5.2%) on the right side. No correlation was found among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Conclusion: Incomplete and accessory fissures are frequent anatomic variations of interlobar fissures.

  4. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  5. Chloroquine inhibits accessory cell presentation of soluble natural and synthetic protein antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1984-01-01

    was time- and dose-dependent. A brief treatment solely of the accessory cells with the drug compromised their ability to stimulate primed T cells in a subsequent culture provided the accessory cells were treated with chloroquine before their exposure to the antigen. These results suggest that chloroquine......We have studied the in vitro effect of the lysosomotrophic agent, chloroquine, on the presentation of soluble protein antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. Chloroquine inhibited the capacity of antigen-pulsed accessory cells to stimulate proliferation in appropriately primed T cells. The effect...

  6. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan S. W. Bale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies.

  7. GSM accessories now available from the CERN Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    Labo Telecom

    2001-01-01

    As of 1st October you can order and receive GSM accessories from the CERN stores like any other article. The CERN stores also manage GSM telephones but, for technical reasons, only the Labo Telecom shop (Building 31, Room S026) is able to make the standard sales, repairs and exchanges for authorised persons with a CERN subscription. Labo Telecom will thus become a specialist shop, open from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m., and will apply the usual rules and authorisation procedures of the stores. The paper form for requests for GSM subscriptions is being computerized and will be available on EDH in the near future.

  8. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow autoregulation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Møller, Kirsten;

    2000-01-01

    The absence of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) implies that changes in arterial pressure directly influence cerebral perfusion. It is assumed that dilatation of cerebral arterioles is responsible for the impaired autoregulation. Recently, frontal...... blood flow was reported to be lower compared with other brain regions, indicating greater arteriolar tone and perhaps preserved regional cerebral autoregulation. In patients with severe FHF (6 women, 1 man; median age, 46 years; range, 18 to 55 years), we tested the hypothesis that perfusion...... in the anterior cerebral artery would be less affected by an increase in mean arterial pressure compared with the brain area supplied by the middle cerebral artery. Relative changes in cerebral perfusion were determined by transcranial Doppler-measured mean flow velocity (V(mean)), and resistance was determined...

  10. Neuroprotective effects of the immunomodulatory drug Setarud on cerebral ischemia in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farzaneh Vafaee; Nasser Zangiabadi; Fatemeh Mehdi Pour; Farzaneh Dehghanian; Majid Asadi-Shekaari; Hossein Karimi Afshar

    2012-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents can alleviate ischemic cerebral injury. The immunomodulary drug Setarud, which is composed of herbal extracts including Rosa canina, Urtica dioica and Tanacetum vulgare, supplemented with selenium exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that Setarud will have a neuroprotective effect against ischemic cerebral injury. To validate this hypothesis, rats were intraperitoneally administered with 0.66 mL/kg Setarud for 30 minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining showed that Setarud could reduce cerebral infarct volume of rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. Transmission electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that Setarud could alleviate the degenerative changes in cortical neurons of rats with cerebral ischemia. The inclined plate test and prehensile test showed that Setarud could significantly improve the motor function of rats with cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that Setarud shows neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain injury.

  11. 交感神经活性对大脑中动脉闭塞大鼠外周免疫功能的影响%Effect of sympathetic activity on peripheral immune function of middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金华; 闫福岭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the changes of the sympathetic nervous system activity and the peripheral cellular immunodepression after cerebral infarction.Methods An adult male Sprague-Dawley rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)was induced.A double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines interleukin(IL)-1β,interferon-γ (INF-γ)and anti-inflamatory cytokines IL-10.A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the levels of serum metanephrine(MN)and normetanephrine(NMN).After blocking sympathetic activity by injecting β -blocker propranolol intraperitoneally,the sympathetic activity and the levels of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines were detected.Results The levels of serum MN and NMN at 6 hours after MCAO began to increase in the cerebral infarction group compared with the sham operation group.They reached the peak at 72 hours,and then decreased slowly.However,they were still higher than those in the sham operation group 2 weeks after MCAO(P < 0.01 ).At 72 hours after MCAO,the levels of MN and NMN in the propranolol intervention group were decreased significantly(P <0.01 ),the levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and INF-γwere increased significantly(P <0.01 ),and the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were decreased significantly(P <0.01).Conclusions When sympathetic nervous system is overactivated after cerebral infarction in rats,the peripheral cellular immunity is in a state of depression;the peripheral immunodepression will be fundamentally reversed after blocking the sympathetic function,and this suggests that the overactivation of sympathetic nervous system may play a important role in the process of immunodepression after cerebral infarction.%目的 探讨交感神经系统活性变化与脑梗死后外周细胞免疫功能抑制之间的关系.方法 成年雄性Sprague -Dawley大鼠制作大脑中动脉闭塞(middle

  12. Clinical and neuroradiological studies of eclampsia. Cerebral vasospasm and relation to the brain edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Niwa, Hisayoshi; Ando, Tetsuo; Yasuda, Takeshi; Yanagi, Tsutomu [Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    Clinical and neuroradiological studies involving cerebral angiography were conducted in four patients with eclampsia. In three cases (case 1, 2 and 4), neurological focal signs, abnormal low density areas on cranial CT and T{sub 2} high intensity areas on cranial MRI disappeared within a month. But in one case (case 3), cerebral infarction occurred and right hemiparesis and aphasia persisted. Cerebral angiography in the acute phase demonstrated vasospasm in all cases and arterial occlusion in the middle cerebral artery due to vasospasm in case 3. Angiography demonstrated several types of spasms, including diffuse, peripheral and multi local. Furthermore, in some cases, diffuse vasospasms were recognized at the siphon and extracranial portions of the internal carotid artery. In one case (Case 4), segmental vasospasms were detected in the bilateral vertebral arteries. Three to four weeks later, follow-up cerebral angiography was performed in three cases. Cerebral vasospasms had partially or completely recovered. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was excluded by lumbar puncture and neuroradiological findings in all cases. We concluded that eclampsia itself causes cerebral vasospasm and that the mechanism of vasospasm is different from that of SAH, since cerebral vasospasm occurred in the extracranial cerebral arteries. We suspected that cerebral vasospasm in eclampsia causes cerebral ischemia, which leads to cytotoxic edema and dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cerebral autoregulation. With this background, brain edema, especially vasogenic edema, may easily occur and clinical symptoms of eclampsia may appear when the blood pressure rapidly increases. (author).

  13. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauones, Salem [Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Luc, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moraux, Antoine [Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France)

    2015-09-15

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  14. Behaviour of bentonite accessory minerals during the thermal stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, David; Bruno, Jordi [Enviros-QuantiSci, Barcelona (Spain); Benbow, Steven; Takase, Hiro [Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-15

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the accessory minerals in the bentonite as a result of the thermal event exerted by the spent fuel in the near field. Three different modelling approaches have been used and the results compared between them. The three different approaches have been calculated using two Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) solver: DYLAN (Model-1) and the Nag DAE solver, d02ngf (Model-2) and the third approach (Model-3) using the last version of PHREEQC. The results from these calculations indicate the feasibility of the modelling approach to model the migration of bentonite accessory minerals and relevant aqueous species throughout the thermal gradient. These calculations indicate that the migration of quartz and quartz polymorphs is a lesser problem. The aqueous speciation of Ca in the bentonite pore water is fundamental in order to define the potential migration of anhydrite during the thermal stage. If CaSO{sub 4}(aq) is the predominant aqueous species, then anhydrite dissolves at the initial groundwater migration times through bentonite. However, if Ca{sup 2+} is considered to be the dominant Ca species at the bentonite pore water, then anhydrite migrates towards the clay/granite interface. This is the main difference in the chemical systems considered in the three model approaches used in this work. The main process affecting the trace mineral behaviour in bentonite is cation exchange. This process controls the concentration of calcium, which results in a direct control of the calcite precipitation-dissolution.

  15. Impaired Cerebral Autoregulation during Head Up Tilt in Patients with Severe Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riberholt, Christian Gunge; Olesen, Niels Damkjær; Thing, Mira;

    2016-01-01

    acquired brain injury and a low level of consciousness. Fourteen patients with severe acquired brain injury and orthostatic intolerance and fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled. Blood pressure was evaluated by pulse contour analysis, heart rate and RR-intervals were determined by electrocardiography......, middle cerebral artery velocity was evaluated by transcranial Doppler, and near-infrared spectroscopy determined frontal lobe oxygenation in the supine position and during head-up tilt. Cerebral autoregulation was evaluated as the mean flow index calculated as the ratio between middle cerebral artery...

  16. Wingspan 支架治疗症状性大脑中动脉严重粥样硬化狭窄的安全性和有效性%Safety and efficacy of the treatment for symptomatic atherosclerotic high-grade stenosis in middle cerebral artery with Wingspan stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡栋阳; 王子亮; 李天晓; 贺迎坤; 许斌; 薛绛宇; 吴立恒; 朱良付; 白卫星

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment for symptomatic atherosclerotic high-grade stenosis in middle cerebral artery with Wingspan stent.Methods The medical records of Wingspan stenting for 102 cases with symptomatic middle cerebral artery high-grade stenosis from February 2008 to May 2012 in our hospital were reviewed retrospectively.All of the patients suffered from ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack ( TIA ) attributed to the atherosclerotic high-grade stenosis in middle cerebral artery and the stenosis of 70%to 99%was confirmed by DSA before the stenting procedure.All the stroke, death, TIA within 30 days after the stenting procedure or during the follow-up beyond 30 days were observed and recorded.In-stent restenosis were recorded after DSA or CTA was performed 6 months later.χ2 test or Fisher exact test was used to compare in-stent restenosis rate among patients with different clinical and pathological conditions.Results Stenting procedure were successfully performed in 100 patients (98.0%,100/102).The mean degree of stenosis was reduced from (81.0 ±8.4)% to (15.3 ±6.7)%right after surgery.Eight adverse cardiovascular events (7.8 %, 8/102) occured within 30 days ,including seven stroke or death ( 6.9%, 7/102 ) and 1 TIA.The mean clinical follow-up duration was ( 29 ± 15) months in 82 patients, and 9 ischemic events were documented (4 cases of ipsilateral recurrent stroke , 3 cases of ipsilateral TIA, and 2 cases of contralateral ischemic stroke ).The mean radiological follow-up duration was (11 ±9) months in 55 patients.Among them, 8 patients (14.3%) had in-stent restenosis and 3 patients had symptomatic restenosis.The restenosis rate in patients with age ≤49 years.(25.0%,7/28) was higher than those with age >49 years ( 3.7%,1/27 ) ( P>0.05 ).The restenosis rate in patients with lesion size>7.5 mm(25.0%,7/28) was higher than those with lesion size ≤7.5 mm (3.7%,1/27)(P>0.05).Conclusions The treatment of symptomatic

  17. Compensatory cerebral motor control following presumed perinatal ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Potgieser, Adriaan R E; Brouwer, Oebele F; de Jong, Bauke M

    2014-01-01

    Case: A fifteen year-old left-handed girl presented with right-sided focal motor seizures. Neuroimaging showed a large left hemisphere lesion compatible with a middle cerebral artery stroke of presumed perinatal origin. She was not previously diagnosed with a motor deficit, although neurological exa

  18. SOMATOSENSORY EVOKED-POTENTIALS IN CEREBRAL ANEURYSM SURGERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUCHTHAL, A; BELOPAVLOVIC, M

    1992-01-01

    Monitoring of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) during surgery for a basilar artery aneurysm under moderate hypothermia revealed an unexpected loss of the first cortical peak. This was due to compression of the middle cerebral artery under the retractor during the surgical approach

  19. Differential vasoactive effects of sildenafil and tadalafil on cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Gupta, Saurabh; Nilsson, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is associated with migraine pathophysiology, stroke recovery and vasospasm treatment. The potential vascular interplay of PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil and UK-114,542 was studied by intra- versus extra-luminal administration in rat middle cerebral arteries in vi...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  1. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical... Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories is a device designed to...

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-13 - Accessorial Services-Moving Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Moving Contracts. 52.247-13 Section 52.247-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.247-13 Accessorial Services—Moving Contracts. As prescribed in 47.207-5(c), insert a clause... furniture: Accessorial Services—Moving Contracts (APR 1984) (a) Packing and/or crating and padding....

  3. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on... interest issues raised by the ] recommended relief, specifically issuance of a general exclusion order covering handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U.S. Trademark...

  4. Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

  5. A peptide from the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). These glands add various substances to the ejaculate. On mating, the ejaculate is transferred to the female, together with the substances from the male accessory glands. The fun

  6. Myosin VIIA is a marker for the cone accessory outer segment in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodel, Corinne; Niklaus, Stephanie; Heidemann, Martina; Klooster, Jan; Kamermans, M.; Biehlmaier, Oliver; Gesemann, Matthias; Neuhauss, Stephan C F

    2014-01-01

    The accessory outer segment, a cytoplasmic structure running alongside the photoreceptor outer segment, has been described in teleost fishes, excluding the model organism zebrafish. So far, the function of the accessory outer segment is unknown. Here, we describe the ultrastructure of the zebrafish

  7. Transient influence of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension on the postural restraint in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R.V.; Truijen, J.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    In the upright position, cerebral blood flow is reduced, maybe because arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pa(CO(2))) decreases. We evaluated the time-dependent influence of a reduction in Pa(CO(2)), as indicated by the end-tidal Pco(2) tension (Pet(CO(2))), on cerebral perfusion during head......-up tilt. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)), and dynamic cerebral autoregulation at supine rest and 70 degrees head-up tilt were determined during free breathing and with Pet(CO(2)) clamped to the supine level. The postural changes in central...

  8. Glycopyrrolate does not influence the visual or motor-induced increase in regional cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokamp, Kim Z; Olesen, Niels D; Larsson, Henrik B W;

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine may contribute to the increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during cerebral activation since glycopyrrolate, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholine, abolishes the exercise-induced increase in middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity. We tested the hypothesis that cholinergic...... vasodilatation is important for the increase in rCBF during cerebral activation. The subjects were 11 young healthy males at an age of 24 ± 3 years (mean ± SD). We used arterial spin labeling and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate rCBF with and without...

  9. Focal Cerebral Ischemia Induces Alzheimer s Disease-like Pathological Change in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海均; 赵洪洋; 叶佑范; 熊南翔; 黄俊红; 姚东晓; 沈寅; 赵心同

    2010-01-01

    The changes in the tau protein phosphorylation and expression of bcl-2,and bax in rat parietal cortex neurons after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion(I/R)were explored,and the relationship between the tau protein phosphorylation and the expression of bax or apoptosis was clarified in order to elucidate the relationship between cerebral infarction and Alzheimer's disease.The rat focal cerebral I/R model was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery using the intraluminal suture method.The le...

  10. The phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor cilostazol dilates large cerebral arteries in humans without affecting regional cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Steffen; Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Petersen, Kenneth A;

    2004-01-01

    in the middle cerebral arteries (VMCA) was measured with transcranial Doppler, and the superficial temporal and radial arteries diameters were measured with ultrasonography. During the 4-hour observation period, there was no effect on systolic blood pressure (P = 0.28), but diastolic blood pressure decreased...

  11. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (pDragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  12. [Two Cases of Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysm Complicated with Delayed Coil Protrusion after Coil Embolization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takashi; Ogata, Atsushi; Ebashi, Ryo; Takase, Yukinori; Masuoka, Jun; Kawashima, Masatou; Abe, Tatsuya

    2016-07-01

    We report two cases of delayed coil protrusion after coil embolization for ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Case 1:An 82-year-old woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured small anterior communicating artery aneurysm underwent successful coil embolization. Eighteen days after the procedure, coil protrusion from the aneurysm into the right anterior cerebral artery was observed without any symptoms. Further coil protrusion did not develop after 28 days. Case 2:A 78-year-old woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured small left middle cerebral artery aneurysm underwent successful coil embolization. Twenty days after the procedure, coil protrusion from the aneurysm into the left middle cerebral artery was observed, with a transient ischemic attack. Further coil protrusion did not develop. Both patients recovered with antithrombotic treatment. Even though delayed coil protrusion after coil embolization is rare, it should be recognized as a long-term complication of coil embolization for cerebral aneurysms.

  13. DTI及DTT在评价急性大脑中动脉供血区脑梗死患者预后中的应用%Application of DTI and DTT in the evaluation of prognosis in patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 高娟; 苏立凯; 殷小平; 李会敏; 赵永侠; 崔蕾; 李伟斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between different damage degrees of CST and prognosis in patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction by using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).Methods Twenty patients with middle cerebral artery infarction were prospectively examined with 1.5T diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion tensor tractography within a 72-hour mean interval onset. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefifcient (ADC) in ischemic lesion and the oppsite area in nonaffected hemisphere, the fringe area of infarcts, cerebral peduncle were measured. According to the extent of CST destruction , the affacted CST was divided into three grades The twenty patients were graded by NIHSS and FMS. Spearman correlation analysis was applied to reveal the relationships between the extent of CST destruction and clinical prognosis. Results FA and ADC values notably decreased in infraction lesions verses non-affected hemisphere (P<0.001), which revealed that the tissue in infarction lesions had been damaged in different extent. Negative correlation was found between the extent of CST destruction and motor dysfunction grading according to FMS(r=-0.843,P<0.001), which revealed that the more serious CST was damaged, the lower motor dysfunction grading, the heavier degree of motor impairment, the worse prognosis. Positive correlation was found between the extent of CST destruction and recovery of neurological function according to NIHSS (r=0.819,P<0.001), which revealed that the more serious CST was damaged, the lower neurological function score, the worse prognosis of neurological function.Conclusion DTI and DTT provide a way for the quantitative analysis of acute middle cerebral artery territory lesions and the degree of CST damage, and provide reliable basis for early accurately judge the clinical prognosis and guide clinical treatment.%目的:利用核磁共振弥散张量成像(DTI)及白

  14. Lame from birth: early concepts of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Deformations have been attributed to supernatural causes since antiquity. Cerebral palsy was associated with God's wrath, witchcraft, the evil eye, or maternal imagination. Greek scholars recommended prevention by tight swaddling, a custom that persisted into modern times. In the Middle Ages, the midwife's negligence was held responsible as was difficult teething. Morgagni described in 1769 that the neonatal brain can liquefy, and Bednar described leukomalacia in 1850 as a distinct disorder of the newborn. In 1861, Little associated cerebral palsies with difficult or protracted labor and neonatal asphyxia, but he was challenged by Freud, who in 1897 declared that most cases are prenatal in origin. In 1868, Virchow demonstrated inflammatory changes, a view recently confirmed by Leviton and Nelson. Although a causal relationship of cerebral palsy to the birth never has been established, the habit to put the blame for cerebral palsy on someone remained a frequent attitude.

  15. Fast Image Retrieval of Textile Industrial Accessory Based on Multi-Feature Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文忠; 杨杰

    2004-01-01

    A hierarchical retrieval scheme of the accessory image database is proposed based on textile industrial accessory contour feature and region feature. At first smallest enclosed rectangle[1] feature (degree of accessory coordination) is used to filter the image database to decouple the image search scope. After the accessory contour information and region information are extracted, the fusion multi-feature of the centroid distance Fourier descriptor and distance distribution histogram is adopted to finish image retrieval accurately. All the features above are invariable under translation, scaling and rotation. Results from the test on the image database including 1,000 accessory images demonstrate that the method is effective and practical with high accuracy and fast speed.

  16. Successful accessory renal artery denervation in a patient with resistant hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Atas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal sympathetic denervation is safe and effective in patients with resistant hypertension. In all of the studies of renal artery denervation, patients with accessory renal arteries are excluded. So there is not any data regarding renal sympathetic denervation applied to the accessory renal arteries. We present a young female patient with resistant hypertension despite use of five different antihypertensive drugs. The patient had a well developed (diameter >4 mm left renal accessory. We believe that if we omitted the well developed accessory renal artery, we would not have maintained adequate blood pressure control. Thus, we applied radiofrequency ablation to both renal arteries and left accessory artery. Immediately after the procedure, the patient′s blood pressure was reduced to 110/60 mmHg and this effect was continued during the first month of follow-up.

  17. Decompressive craniectomy and conservative treatment for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: a Meta-analysis%去骨瓣减压术与保守疗法治疗恶性大脑中动脉脑梗死疗效的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 肖哲曼; 陈康; 黄丽芳; 康玉琪; 樊尚华; 尹皓

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of decompressive craniectomy and conservative treatment within 48 h of onset in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction.Methods Cochrane Library,Pubmed,Embase,CNKI,Chinese Biomedical Database,VIP information database,Wanfang database were searched,and the retrieval time was from the library being built to April 31,2015.Review Mannager 5.2 statistical analysis software was used to evaluate the treatment efficacy of decompressive craniectomy and conservative therapy,amd modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores were considered as the efficacy evaluation criteria.Results A total of six randomized controlled trial studies and two prospective studies were selected,including 201 patients from the decompressive craniectomy group and 197 patients from the conservative treatment group.The mortality of the two groups atter 12 months of treatment was significantly different (mRS scores=6,P=-0.000,OR=0.18,95% CI:0.12-0.29).Moderate or severe disability rate after 6 months of treatment was significantly different (mRS scores=4-5,P=0.000,OR=3.36,95%CI:1.95-5.78),and that after 12 months of treatment was also significantly different (P=0.000,OR=4.62,95%CI:2.64-8.07).The number of patients enjoyed good life quality (mRS scores ≤ 3) 6 and 12 months after treatment between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.010,OR=2.69,95%CI:1.21-5.96;P=0.020,OR=2.07,95%CI:1.11-3.87);mortality rate (mRS scores=6) and disability rate (mRS scores=3-5) of patients aged more than 60 years between the two groups were significantly different (P=0.000,OR=0.20,95%CI:0.10-0.42;P=0.000,OR=4.94,95%CI:2.35-10.35).Conclusion Regardless of age greater or less than 60 years old,decompressive craniectomy can significantly reduce the mortality of patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction within 48 hours as compared with conservative treatment,but surgery may increase moderate to severe disability.%目的

  18. Evaluation of multislice computed tomographic perfusion imaging and computed tomographic angiography on traumatic cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Fang-hong; CHEN Wei-jian; YANG Yun-jun; DUAN Yu-xia; FU Feng-li

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the application value of multislice computed tomographic perfusion imaging (MSCTPI) and multislice computed tomographic angiography (MSCTA) on traumatic cerebral infarction. Methods: MSCTA was performed on 10 patients who were initiailly diagnosed as traumatic cerebral infarction by normal conventional computed tomography (NCCT), among whom, 3 patients were examined by MSCTPI simultaneously. Reconstructed images of the intracranial artery were made with techniques of maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) from MSCTA scanning data. Then the graph of function of four parameters, regional cerebral blood flow (Rcbf), regional cerebral blood volume (Rcbv), mean transit time (MTT), and time to peak (TTP), acquired by the perfusing analysis software was obtained. Results: Among the 10 patients with traumatic cerebral infarction, 6 showed complex type on NCCT, which depicted abnormality on MSCTA, and 4 showed simple type on NCCT, which had negative results on MSCTA. Among the 4 patients with abnormal great vessels, 2 suffered from steno sis or occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, 1 from spasm of the anterior cerebral artery, and 1 from spasm of the vertebral-basal artery. The image of MSCTPI of 1 patient with massive cerebral infarction on the right cerebral hemisphere confirmed by CT was smaller than those of the other patients, which showed occlusion of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery on MSCTA. Among the 6 patients whose MSCTA showed no abnormality, 4 showed simple infarction and 2 showed complex infarction. The infarction focus of 5 patients occurred in the basal ganglia and 1 in the splenium of corpus callosum. Among the 2 cases of small cerebral infarction volume on NCCT, one was normal, the other showed hypoperfusion on MSCTPI and was normal on MSCTA. Conclusion: The combination of MSCTPI and MSCTA is very useful for evaluating the change of intracranial artery in ischemic regions and assessing the cerebral

  19. Effects of rapamycin on cerebral oxygen supply and consumption during reperfusion after cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, O Z; Barsoum, S; Vega-Cotto, N M; Jacinto, E; Liu, X; Mellender, S J; Weiss, H R

    2016-03-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) leads to cell growth and survival. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mTOR would increase infarct size and decrease microregional O2 supply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. This was tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats with middle cerebral artery blockade for 1h and reperfusion for 2h with and without rapamycin (20mg/kg once daily for two days prior to ischemia). Regional cerebral blood flow was determined using a C(14)-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique. Regional small-vessel arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined microspectrophotometrically. The control ischemic-reperfused cortex had a similar blood flow and O2 consumption to the contralateral cortex. However, microregional O2 supply/consumption balance was significantly reduced in the ischemic-reperfused cortex. Rapamycin significantly increased cerebral O2 consumption and further reduced O2 supply/consumption balance in the reperfused area. This was associated with an increased cortical infarct size (13.5±0.8% control vs. 21.5±0.9% rapamycin). We also found that ischemia-reperfusion increased AKT and S6K1 phosphorylation, while rapamycin decreased this phosphorylation in both the control and ischemic-reperfused cortex. This suggests that mTOR is important for not only cell survival, but also for the control of oxygen balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

  20. Acute Headache at Emergency Department: Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Complicated by Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Cerebral Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is becoming widely accepted as a rare cause of both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke and should be evocated in case of thunderclap headaches associated with stroke. We present the case of a patient with ischemic stroke associated with cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH and reversible diffuse arteries narrowing, leading to the diagnosis of reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. Case Report. A 48-year-old woman came to the emergency department because of an unusual thunderclap headache. The computed tomography of the brain completed by CT-angiography was unremarkable. Eleven days later, she was readmitted because of a left hemianopsia. One day after her admission, she developed a sudden left hemiparesis. The brain MRI showed ischemic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobe and diffuse cSAH. The angiography showed vasoconstriction of the right anterior cerebral artery and stenosis of both middle cerebral arteries. Nimodipine treatment was initiated and vasoconstriction completely regressed on day 16 after the first headache. Conclusion. Our case shows a severe reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome where both haemorrhagic and ischemic complications were present at the same time. The history we reported shows that reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is still underrecognized, in particular in general emergency departments.

  1. Effect of propofol post-treatment on blood-brain barrier integrity and cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Cui, Hui Song; Shin, Seo Kyung; Kim, Jeong Min; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Jong Eun; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-11-01

    Although propofol has been reported to offer neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia injury, its impact on cerebral edema following ischemia is not clear. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effects of propofol post-treatment on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia and its mechanism of action, focusing on modulation of aquaporins (AQPs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Cerebral ischemia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 78) by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 1 h. For post-treatment with propofol, 1 mg kg(-1) min(-1) of propofol was administered for 1 h from the start of reperfusion. Nineteen rats undergoing sham surgery were also included in the investigation. Edema and BBB integrity were assessed by quantification of cerebral water content and extravasation of Evans blue, respectively, following 24 h of reperfusion. In addition, the expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9 was determined 24 h after reperfusion and the expression of HIF-1α was determined 8 h after reperfusion. Propofol post-treatment significantly reduced cerebral edema (P cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia, in association with reduced expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9. The decreased expression of AQPs and MMPs after propofol post-treatment might result from suppression of HIF-1α expression.

  2. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Castaigne, Vanina [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Paris (France); Gonzales, Marie; Marlin, Sandrine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Genetique et Embryologie medicales, Paris (France); Galliani, Eva [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Chirurgie maxillo-faciale, Paris (France); Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre pluridisciplinaire de diagnostic prenatal, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia. (orig.)

  3. Efeito do sulfato de magnésio sobre o índice de pulsatilidade das artérias uterinas, umbilical e cerebral média fetal de acordo com a persistência da incisura protodiastólica da artéria uterina na pré-eclâmpsia grave Effect of magnesium sulfate on pulsatility index of uterine, umbilical and fetal middle cerebral arteries according to the persistence of bilateral diastolic notch of uterine arteries in patients with severe preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Rolland Souza

    2009-02-01

    ção intravenosa de 6 g do sulfato de magnésio nas pacientes com pré-eclâmpsia grave, ocorre uma diminuição da pressão arterial e do IP das artérias uterinas, umbilicais e cerebral média fetal, além de aumento da frequência cardíaca materna, não influenciada pela presença de incisura protodiastólica bilateral nas artérias uterinas.PURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of magnesium sulphate on the pulsatility index (PI of the uterine, umbilical and fetal middle cerebral arteries, according to the persistency or not of the bilateral protodiastolic notch of the uterine arteries in severe pre-eclampsia. METHODS: a cohort study including 40 pregnant women with severe pre-eclampsia, 23 of them presenting bilateral protodiastolic notch, and 17, unilateral/absent notch. The patients were submitted to Doppler velocimetry before and 20 minutes after the intravenous administration of 6 g of magnesium sulphate. The examination was carried out with the patient in semi-Fowler position, the sonograms being obtained during fetal inactivity, in apnea and absent uterine contraction periods. All the exams were performed by two researchers, the average being considered as the final result. Wilcoxon's test was used to compare the PI, before and after magnesium sulphate in both groups. The difference between the two measurements (before and after magnesium sulphate was compared between the groups (bilateral incision and unilateral/absent incision using the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: there was a significant increase in the maternal heart rate (MHR and decrease in the maternal blood pressure, and in the PI medians of the two uterine arteries and in the fetal middle cerebral artery, after magnesium sulphate in both groups. There was a significant decrease in the PI of the left uterine artery and in the umbilical artery, only in the protodiastolic unilateral/absent notch group. Nevertheless, it was not found any significant difference regarding the PI of the right uterine artery, or the cerebral

  4. 12 hours after cerebral ischemia is the optimal time for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy using stem cell transplantation against cerebral ischemia has been reported. However, it remains controversial regarding the optimal time for cell transplantation and the transplantation route. Rat models of cerebral ischemia were established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At 1, 12 hours, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after cerebral ischemia, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were injected via the tail vein. At 28 days after cerebral ischemia, rat neurological function was evaluated using a 6-point grading scale and the pathological change of ischemic cerebral tissue was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Under the fluorescence microscope, the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was examined by PKH labeling. Caspase-3 activity was measured using spectrophotometry. The optimal neurological function recovery, lowest degree of ischemic cerebral damage, greatest number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrating to peri-ischemic area, and lowest caspase-3 activity in the ischemic cerebral tissue were observed in rats that underwent bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation at 12 hours after cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that 12 hours after cerebral ischemia is the optimal time for tail vein injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation against cerebral ischemia, and the strongest neuroprotective effect of this cell therapy appears at this time.

  5. 12 hours after cerebral ischemia is the optimal time for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini; Mohammad Farahmandnia; Zahra Razi; Somayeh Delavarifar; Benafsheh Shakibajahromi

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy using stem cell transplantation against cerebral ischemia has been reported. However, it remains controversial regarding the optimal time for cell transplantation and the transplantation route. Rat models of cerebral ischemia were established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At 1, 12 hours, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after cerebral ischemia, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were injected via the tail vein. At 28 days after cerebral ischemia, rat neurological function was evaluated using a 6-point grading scale and the pathological change of ischemic cerebral tissue was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Under the lfuorescence microscope, the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was examined by PKH labeling. Caspase-3 activity was measured using spectrophotometry. The optimal neurological function recovery, lowest degree of ischemic cerebral damage, greatest number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrating to peri-ischemic area, and lowest caspase-3 activity in the ischemic cerebral tissue were observed in rats that underwent bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation at 12 hours after cerebral ischemia. These ifndings suggest that 12 hours after cerebral ischemia is the optimal time for tail vein injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation against cerebral ischemia, and the strongest neuroprotective effect of this cell therapy appears at this time.

  6. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Monica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS are a group of disorders that have in common an acute presentation with headache, reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, with or without neurological signs and symptoms. In contrast to primary central nervous system vasculitis, they have a relatively benign course. We describe here a patient who was diagnosed with RCVS.

  7. Ischemic Stroke Due to Middle Cerebral Artery M1 Segment Occlusion: Latvian Stroke Register Data / Išēmisks Insults Sakarā ar Arteria Cerebri Media M1 Segmenta Oklūziju: Insulta Reģistra Dati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valante Ramona

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Išēmisks insults visbiežāk notiek vidējās cerebrālās artērijas apasiņošanas baseinā. Tika veikts retrospektīvs Insulta reģistra datu pētījums. Pētījumam tika atlasīti un apstrādāti pacientu dati laika periodā no 2013. gada janvāra līdz 2014. decembrim. Datu analīzei tika atlasīti 478 pacienti, kuriem ar angiogrāfijas metodi, bija apstiprināta ACM oklūzija. Puse no pacientiem bija vīrieši 237 (49,6% ar vidējo vecumu 69,51 gadi, sievietēm vidējais vecums bija 74,58 gadi. Biežākais insulta cēlonis bija kardioembolija - 294 (61, 5% gadījumos. Sīko asinsvadu saslimšana nebija kā cēlonis ACM M1 segmenta oklūzijas gadījumā. Reperfūzijas terapiju saņēma 209 (43,7% pacienti. Iestājoties neiroloģiskais stāvoklis abās grupās bija līdzīgs, taču izrakstoties lielāks uzlabojums bija reperfūzijas terapijas grupā NIHSS 6,82 salīdzinot ar konservatīvas terapijas grupu - NIHSS 8,2 (SD ± 6,23 (p < 0,05. Izrakstoties pacientu funkcionālais stāvoklis bija labāks reperfūzijas grupā, mRS 0-2 bija 39,2% gadījumu, kā arī slikts funkcionālais iznākums (mRS 4-5 bija sastopams retāk - tikai 34,5% gadījumu. Mirstība arī bija zemāka reperfūzijas grupā - 7,6%, salīdzinot ar konservatīvās terapijas grupu - 13,4%. Biežākais cēlonis ACM M1 segmenta oklūzijas insultam ir kardioembolija. Pacientiem ir liela atkārtotu insultu incidence. Iestājoties reperfūzijas terapijas un konservatīvas terapijas grupu pacientiem neiroloģiskais stāvoklis bija līdzīgs. Taču reperfūzijas grupā pacientiem izrakstoties bija ievērojamāks uzlabojums novērtējot neiroloģisko stāvokli. Arī funkcionālais stāvoklis izrakstoties bija labāks pacientiem, kas saņēma reperfūzijas terapiju.

  8. Development of Heat-resistant XLPE Cable and Accessories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Murata, Yoshinao; Kishi, Kouji; Katakai, Shoshi

    We have developed heat-resistant XLPE cable and accessories that can be operated at 105°C as the maximum permissible conductor temperature in normal operation. Through this cable system, greater transmission capacity can be achieved using existing cable ducts and without increasing the conductor size of the cable. We have developed heat-resistant XLPE insulation material which has a higher melting point than that of conventional XLPE. The breakdown strength of heat-resistant XLPE cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. The heat deformation of the new cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. Conventional self-pressurized rubber joints can be applied to heat-resistant cable lines with the new waterproof joint compound with low heat resistivity.

  9. Morphology and protein patterns of honey bee drone accessory glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires

    2005-09-30

    We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This secretion stains with mercury bromophenol blue and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, which stain glyconjugates. The protein content was higher in the lumen secretion than in the gland wall extracts. The electrophoresis patterns of the wall extracts were different from those of the secretion found in the gland lumen.

  10. Relationship between development of accessory maxillary sinus and chronic sinusitis

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    Caner Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between development of accessory maxillary osmium (AMO and chronic sinusitis. Material and Methods: A total of 100 patients who had endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS constituted the study group while 100 patients who had septoplasty were taken as the control group. The patients were examined for the presence of AMO using rigid endoscope. Results: The prevalence of AMO was 14% in the rhinosinusitis group and 9% in the control group. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study revealed that AMO prevalence is significantly higher in patients with CRS when compared with the controls. CRS may enhance perforation of fontanelle and formation of AMO.

  11. Intraoperative cerebral blood flow imaging of rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hangdao; Li, Yao; Yuan, Lu; Wu, Caihong; Lu, Hongyang; Tong, Shanbao

    2014-09-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of interest to neuroscience researchers, which offers the assessment of hemodynamic responses throughout the process of neurosurgery and provides an early biomarker for surgical guidance. However, intraoperative CBF imaging has been challenging due to animal's motion and position change during the surgery. In this paper, we presented a design of an operation bench integrated with laser speckle contrast imager which enables monitoring of the CBF intraoperatively. With a specially designed stereotaxic frame and imager, we were able to monitor the CBF changes in both hemispheres during the rodent surgery. The rotatable design of the operation plate and implementation of online image registration allow the technician to move the animal without disturbing the CBF imaging during surgery. The performance of the system was tested by middle cerebral artery occlusion model of rats.

  12. 间隔缺损性先天性心脏病胎儿脐动脉及大脑中动脉搏动指数的变化%Change of Umbilical Artery and Middle Cerebral Artery Pulsatility Index in Fetuses with Congenital Heart Diseases of Septal Defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金蓉; 吕国荣; 吴秀明; 候敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of change in umbilical artery(UA)and middle cerebral artery (MCA)pulsatility index(PI)in fetuses with congenital heart disease(CHD)of septal defect. Methods Umbilical artery (UA)and middle cerebral artery(MCA) pulsatility index(PI) were retrospectively analyzed in 82 fetuses with CHD, including 25 cases of atrioventricular septal defect(AVSD) ,51 cases of ventricular septal defect(VSD)and 6 cases of atrial septal defect(ASD). The control group comprised 660 healthy fetuses of uncomplicated pregnancies matched for gestational age. Individual PI measurements were converted into Z-scores for statistical analysis. Results Fetuses with AVSD、VSD and all CHD had an increased UA-PI compared to the controls respectively(P<0. 05), but no difference was observed in UA-PI between fetuses with ASD and the controls(P>0. 05). There was no significant difference in MCA-PI between fetuses with AVSD,VSD,ASD,all CHD and the controls(P>0. 05). Conclusions UA-PI in fetuses with AVSD and VSD may increase,however, MCA-PI does not change remarkably.%目的 探讨几种间隔缺损性的先天性心脏病胎儿的脐动脉搏动指数(UA-PI)、大脑中动脉搏动指数(MCA-PI)的变化.方法 回顾性分析82例间隔缺损性的先天性心脏病胎儿(疾病组)的脐动脉(UA)和大脑中动脉(MCA)的搏动指数(PI),其中包括25例房室隔缺损(又称心内膜垫缺损,AVSD组)、51例室间隔缺损(VSD组),6例房间隔缺损(ASD组);另随机选择660例按孕龄分组的正常的胎儿作为正常对照组.对所有PI值进行标准正态转换后再进行统计分析.结果 疾病组AVSD组,VSD组胎儿的UA-PI均比正常对照组胎儿高(P<0.05),而ASD组胎儿与正常对照组胎儿的UA-PI无明显差别(P>0.05);疾病组AVSD组、VSD组、ASD组胎儿与正常对照组胎儿的MCA-PI均无明显差别(P>0.05).结论 AVSD、VSD的胎儿在官内可能会出现UA-PI增高,而MCA-PI无明显改变.

  13. Ketogenic diet may improve ischemic tolerance of middle cerebral artery occlusion mice through up-regulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 target genes%缺氧诱导因子-1靶基因参与生酮饮食提高大脑中动脉闭塞模型小鼠脑缺血耐受作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国敏; 崔梅; 董强

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of ketogenic diet on middle cerebral artery occ-lusion ( MCAO ) mice and the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1 ( HIF-1 ) target genes in this process. Methods C57BL/6 mice were randomly allocated into four groups: standard diet group, high carbohydrate diet group, ketogenic diet group and control group. Mice of the 3 intervention groups were fed with corresponding diets for 3 weeks and were afterwards made into MCAO mice models. Control group was fed with standard diet for 3 weeks without MCAO treatment. Stroke vo-lume was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride ( TTC) staining. Neurological function was accessed by Longa scoring method. Polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) was used to detect mRNA expression quantity of HIF-1 downstream target genes including erythropoietin ( EPO) , vascular en-dothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) , glucose transport 1 ( GLUT1 ) and monocarboxylic transporter 4 ( MCT4) in the ischemic region. Results Compared with the other 3 groups, ketogenic diet group showed smaller stroke volume, better neurological score and higher mRNA expression quantity of HIT-1 downstream target genes. Conclusion Ketogenic diet may improve brain ischemic tolerance of MCAO mice through up-regulation of HIF-1 target genes.%目的:探究生酮饮食对大脑中动脉闭塞( middle cerebral artery occlusion,MCAO)模型小鼠的作用及缺氧诱导因子-1靶基因参与机制。方法小鼠随机分为正常对照组及标准饮食组、高碳水化合物饮食组、生酮饮食组,建模前通过3周饮食干预后,饮食干预的3组小鼠建造MCAO模型,正常对照组给予标准饮食但不进行MCAO造模。2,3,5-三苯基氯化四氮唑染色观察脑梗死体积,Longa评分法对模型鼠进行神经功能评分,聚合酶链反应检测缺血区脑组织缺氧诱导因子-1下游靶基因红细胞生成素、血管内皮生长因子、葡萄糖转运体1、单羧酸转运体4的mRNA表达量。结果生酮饮食

  14. Clinical observation of middle cerebral artery angioplasty in treatment of subcortex cerebral watershed infarction with moderate or severe disabilities%大脑中动脉成形术治疗中、重度残疾的皮质下分水岭梗死的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩金涛; 李选; 郑梅; 傅军; 王昌明; 董国祥; 和清源

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价大脑中动脉成形术治疗皮质下分水岭梗死(subcortex cerebral watershed infarction,S-CWI)导致中、重度残疾的患者的安全性和有效性.方法:2011年6月至2012年5月北京大学第三医院介入血管外科治疗的合并同侧大脑中动脉重度狭窄的中、重度残疾的S-CWI患者5例(6处病变),观察5例患者术前及术后神经系统评分,并评价神经功能的改善情况.结果:5例患者术后第7天神经功能均有改善,美国国立卫生研究院卒中量表(National Institute of Health Stroke Scale,NIHSS)评分下降4~6分,改良Rankin量表(Modified Rankin Scale,mRs)评分下降1分;3个月随访时4例患者mRs评分为1分,1例患者为2分.1年随访时无新发卒中及支架内再狭窄事件.结论:大脑中动脉成形术对因S-CWI所致中重度残疾的患者有益.

  15. Nimodipine Prevents Early Loss of Hippocampal CA1 Parvalbumin Immunoreactivity After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benyó, Zoltán; de Jong, Giena; Luiten, Paul G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of focal cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion on hippocampal interneurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) was studied in rats. Four hours after the onset of ischemia, a reduced number of PV-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons was observed in the l

  16. The study of protective effects and mechanisms of rofecoxib on focal cerebral ischemia- reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUJuan; ZHOUYu; QIULi-Ying; CHENBai-Ling; CHENChong-Hong

    2004-01-01

    AIM : To study the protective effects and the mechanisms of rofecoxib as a specific type 2 cyclooxygenase (COX- 2 inhibitor on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury ( CIRI in rats. METHODS : The model of focal CIRI was induced by reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion ( MCAO with inserting a thread through internal carotid artery, 2 h occlusion followed

  17. Strategies for inhibiting function of HIV-1 accessory proteins: a necessary route to AIDS therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S N; Frasson, I; Palù, G

    2009-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) genome encodes three major structural proteins common to all retroviruses (Gag, Pol and Env), two regulatory proteins (Tat and Rev) that are essential for viral replication, and four accessory proteins (Nef, Vif, Vpu, Vpr). While accessory proteins were initially reported to be unnecessary for viral growth, their importance as virulence factors is now being more and more appreciated: they can dramatically alter the course and severity of viral infection, replication and disease progression. None of the HIV accessory proteins display enzymatic activity: they rather act altering cellular pathways via multiple protein-protein interactions with a number of host cell factors. All currently approved anti-HIV drugs target pol and env encoded proteins. Therefore, widening the molecular targets of HIV therapy by additionally targeting accessory proteins may expand treatment options, resulting in high impact effective new therapy. In this review we present the state of the art of compounds that target HIV accessory proteins. Most of the research has focused on the inhibition of specific accessory proteins/host cell partner interactions. Promising compounds have been found within different classes of molecules: small natural and synthetic molecules, peptides and proteins, oligonucleotides, in particular those used as RNA interference (RNAi) tools. With the assortment of compounds available, especially against Nef and Vif functions, the demonstration of the clinical efficacy of the new anti-HIV-1 drugs targeting accessory proteins is next challenge.

  18. Bypass vascular grafting for treatment of fusiform aneurysms distal to middle cerebral artery bifurcation%不同方式血管旁路移植术治疗大脑中动脉分叉以远梭形动脉瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永力; 刘方军; 孙玉明; 石祥恩

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of bypass vascular grafting in the treatment of fusiform aneurysms distal to middle cerebral artery bifurcation. Methods Nine patients with unruptured fusiform aneurysm distal to middle cerebral artery bifurcation were treated by bypass grafting in Beijing Sanbo Brain Hospital from November 2006 to October 2010. Eight patients had single aneurysm and one had multiple aneurysms. The size of aneurysms were medium in one, large in 2, giant in 5 and serpentine aneurysm in 1 patient. Intracranial bypass grafting were performed in 7 patients, and extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass grafting were performed in 2 patients. All the aneurysms were resected or trapped.Results ①The postoperative DSA and/or CTA demonstrated that the aneurysms in 9 patients were all disappeared. The grafts were patent in 7 patients and not patent in 2 patients. Of the 2 patients, CTA revealed that the graft was patent in 1 patient 10 months after surgery; DSA showed that the graft was not patent in another patient 17 days after surgery, the cortical blood supply of the distal aneurysm was compensated by the collateral vessels. ②The muscle strength declined slightly in 1 patient; however, he recovered completely before discharge; 3 patients had transient perioral twitching, 1 had bilateral oculomotor nerve palsy,and 1 had venous hemorrhagic infarction. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score in 1 patient at discharge was 4 and in 8 patients were 5. ③All the patients were followed up for 6 months to 4.5 years, and their GOS scores were all 5. Conclusion Cerebrovascular bypass, especially the local intracranial bypass grafting, is a effective treatment for fusifonn aneurysms distal to middle cerebral artery bifurcation.%目的 观察不同方式的血管旁路移植术加动脉瘤切除或孤立术治疗大脑中动脉分叉以远梭形动脉瘤的临床疗效.方法 2006年11月-2010年10月北京三博脑科医院采用血管旁路移植术治疗9

  19. 大鼠脑缺血模型中基质金属蛋白酶2/9活化增加及紧密连接蛋白逐渐降解%The increased activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2/9 and gradual degradation of claudin in rat models of middle cerebral artery ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁佳; 戚智锋; 师文娟; 刘克建

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:During the process of acute brain injury after stroke, matrix metaloproteinase can undermine the integrity of vascular basement membrane, promote the migration of neutrophils and inflammatory factors, and cause secondary brain injury. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the activation of matrix metaloproteinase 2/9 and the degradation rule of claudin in rat models of middle cerebral artery ischemia at different ischemic durations. METHODS:Thirty-nine male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups according to different ischemic durations (3, 5 and 7 hours) . Middle cerebral artery occlusion (stroke) model was established using modified suture method,i.e., separation of the external carotid artery, inserting the suture into the internal carotid artery through the external carotid artery, and eventualy reaching the middle cerebral artery. The ischemic duration in these three groups was respectively 3 , 5 and 7 hours. After 2 hours of reperfusion, Zea-Longa score and Ludmila Belayev score, brain infarct area, matrix metaloproteinase 2/9 activities and claudin 5 degradation were determined in each group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:With the extension of ischemic duration, brain infarct area gradualy increased, central nervous system damage gradualy aggravated, matrix metaloproteinase 2/9 activities gradualy increased, and claudin-5 expression gradualy decreased. There were significant differences between any two ischemic durations in terms of each of above-mentioned indices. The results indicate that after long duration of ischemia, the progressive damage of brain tissue can cause the gradual increase of activation of matrix metaloproteinase 2/9 and the gradual degradation of claudin 5.%背景:在脑卒中后急性期脑损伤过程中,基质金属蛋白酶破坏血管基膜的完整性,促进中性粒细胞和炎性因子的迁移,引起继发性脑损伤。目的:观察大鼠局部脑缺血模型中不同缺血时间下基质金属蛋白酶2/9活性及

  20. The Value of ultrasonography in pregnancy a severe thalassemia fetal middle cerebral artery in prenatal diagnosis%怀孕中期应用彩超检测120例 a 型重度地中海贫血胎儿大脑中动脉的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶菀华; 徐婉芳; 林洋洋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze and study the value of the mid-pregnancy ultrasound detected a line of severe thalassemia fetal middle cerebral artery in prenatal diagnosis.Methods Since January 2012 to September 2014 in our hospital as a result of both spouses thalassemia line villus sampling or amniocentesis diagnostic examination of 240 cases of pregnant women,fetuses of pregnant women test group were confirmed by villus sampling inspection or amniocentesis is a confirmed diagnosis of thalassemia,a control group of pregnant women do not carry a fetus thalassemia gene,the fetus is normal.Research object villus sampling or amniocentesis to check whether they carry a diagnosis of fetal thalassemia gene;at the same time ultrasonography to measure the fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity.Results The experimental group,a moderate to severe thalassemia 59 cases (49.17%),10 cases of thalassemia a moderate groups (8.33%),a mild thalassemia 51 cases (42.50%);120 cases in the control group (100.00%)no a thalassemia. A test group with moderate to severe thalassemia MCA -PSV was significantly higher,with statistical significance as well as with other types of control group,the difference between the experimental group,(P <0.05).Conclusion In mid-pregnancy ultrasound examina-tion performed fetal middle cerebral artery,the diagnosis of a severe thalassemia has a high diagnostic value,and the detection method is fast,safe,reliable,economical and practical.%目的:分析并研究怀孕中期行彩超检测 a 型重度地中海贫血胎儿大脑中动脉在产前诊断中的价值。方法:选取夫妻双方为 a 型地中海贫血行绒毛采样检查或羊膜腔穿刺术诊断的孕妇240例,每组120例。试验组孕妇的胎儿均经绒毛采样检查或羊膜腔穿刺术诊断确诊为 a 型地中海贫血;对照组孕妇的胎儿不携带 a 型地中海贫血基因,胎儿正常。对研究对象进行绒毛采样检查或羊膜腔穿

  1. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of murine models of permanent focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席刚明; 汪华侨; 何国厚; 黄朝芬; 魏国耀

    2004-01-01

    Background To date murine models of permanent focal cerebral ischemia have not been well characterized. The purposes of this paper were to compare three different permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) models with or without craniectomy, and to identify an ideal mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia.Methods Experiments were performed on 45 healthy adult male Kunming mice, weighing 28 to 42 g. The animals were randomly assigned to three groups (n=15 in every group) based on surgical procedure: MCAo via the external carotid artery (ECA), MCAo via the common carotid artery (CCA), and direct ligation of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Each day post-ischemia, the animals were scored using an eight-grade neurological function scale, and mortality was also recorded. Seven days post-ischemia, the brains were removed for lesion size determination using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Correlation analysis of lesion volume and neurological score was carried out. Results Mortality in the group receiving direct MCA ligation was lowest among the three groups, and there was a significant difference between the direct MCA ligation group and the two intraluminal occlusion groups (P0.7, P<0.05), suggesting good reproducibility of lesion volume in the three groups, but the infarct volume was more constant in the direct MCA ligation group. Conclusion The direct ligation model of MCAo provides an optimal means of studying permanent focal cerebral ischemia, and is preferable to the models using intraluminal sutures.

  3. Ozone Therapy on Cerebral Blood Flow: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Clavo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone therapy is currently being used in the treatment of ischemic disorders, but the underlying mechanisms that result in successful treatment are not well known. This study assesses the effect of ozone therapy on the blood flow in the middle cerebral and common carotid arteries. Seven subjects were recruited for the therapy that was performed by transfusing ozone-enriched autologous blood on 3 alternate days over 1 week. Blood flow quantification in the common carotid artery (n = 14 was performed using color Doppler. Systolic and diastolic velocities in the middle cerebral artery (n = 14 were estimated using transcranial Doppler. Ultrasound assessments were conducted at the following three time points: 1 basal (before ozone therapy, 2 after session #3 and 3 1 week after session #3. The common carotid blood flow had increased by 75% in relation to the baseline after session #3 (P < 0.001 and by 29% 1 week later (P = 0.039. In the middle cerebral artery, the systolic velocity had increased by 22% after session #3 (P = 0.001 and by 15% 1 week later (P = 0.035, whereas the diastolic velocity had increased by 33% after session #3 (P < 0.001 and by 18% 1 week later (P = 0.023. This preliminary Doppler study supports the clinical experience of achieving improvement by using ozone therapy in peripheral ischemic syndromes. Its potential use as a complementary treatment in cerebral low perfusion syndromes merits further clinical evaluation.

  4. Anestesia e paralisia cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Március Vinícius M Maranhão

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia cerebral (PC) é uma doença não progressiva decorrente de lesão no sistema nervoso central, levando a um comprometimento motor do paciente. O portador de PC freqüentemente é submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos devido a doenças usuais e situações particulares decorrentes da paralisia cerebral. Foi objetivo deste artigo revisar aspectos da paralisia cerebral de interesse para o anestesiologista, permitindo um adequado manuseio pré, intra e pós-operatório n...

  5. Peroneal spastic flatfoot in adolescents with accessory talar facet impingement: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Hisateru; Aoki, Haruhito; Hirano, Takaaki; Akiyama, Yui; Fujiya, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed imaging, arthroscopic findings, and treatment responses for peroneal spastic flatfoot (PSFF) caused by talocalcaneal impingement at the accessory anterolateral talar facet (AALTF) (accessory talar facet impingement) in 13 adolescents without histories of trauma and tarsal coalition. The AALTF was determined with computed tomography and MRI. Focal abutting bone marrow edema (FABME) on MRI around the AALTF was confirmed. In seven patients who underwent AALTF resection, subtalar arthroscopy was performed. All experienced alleviation PSFF after treatment; reduction in FABME was observed. AALTF resection alone is beneficial for PSFF caused by accessory talar facet impingement when peroneal spasms are restored by an injection of local anesthesia.

  6. Human cerebral autoregulation before, during and after spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Ken-ichi; Levine, Benjamin D; Zhang, Rong; Zuckerman, Julie H; Pawelczyk, James A; Diedrich, André; Ertl, Andrew C; Cox, James F; Cooke, William H; Giller, Cole A; Ray, Chester A; Lane, Lynda D; Buckey, Jay C; Baisch, Friedhelm J; Eckberg, Dwain L; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Blomqvist, C Gunnar

    2007-03-15

    Exposure to microgravity alters the distribution of body fluids and the degree of distension of cranial blood vessels, and these changes in turn may provoke structural remodelling and altered cerebral autoregulation. Impaired cerebral autoregulation has been documented following weightlessness simulated by head-down bed rest in humans, and is proposed as a mechanism responsible for postspaceflight orthostatic intolerance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that spaceflight impairs cerebral autoregulation. We studied six astronauts approximately 72 and 23 days before, after 1 and 2 weeks in space (n = 4), on landing day, and 1 day after the 16 day Neurolab space shuttle mission. Beat-by-beat changes of photoplethysmographic mean arterial pressure and transcranial Doppler middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity were measured during 5 min of spontaneous breathing, 30 mmHg lower body suction to simulate standing in space, and 10 min of 60 deg passive upright tilt on Earth. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was quantified by analysis of the transfer function between spontaneous changes of mean arterial pressure and cerebral artery blood flow velocity, in the very low- (0.02-0.07 Hz), low- (0.07-0.20 Hz) and high-frequency (0.20-0.35 Hz) ranges. Resting middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity did not change significantly from preflight values during or after spaceflight. Reductions of cerebral blood flow velocity during lower body suction were significant before spaceflight (P e.m.) cerebral blood flow velocity after 10 min upright tilt were smaller after than before spaceflight (absolute, -4 +/- 3 cm s(-1) after versus -14 +/- 3 cm s(-1) before, P = 0.001; and percentage, -8.0 +/- 4.8% after versus -24.8 +/- 4.4% before, P < 0.05), consistent with improved rather than impaired cerebral blood flow regulation. Low-frequency gain decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 26, 23 and 27% after 1 and 2 weeks in space and on landing day, respectively, compared with

  7. Unilateral Pseudotumoral Presentation of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Halley Carvalho Pimentel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is an unusual cause of stroke. It is more common in middle-aged women and deep CVT lesions are usually bilateral. CVT can have very diverse clinical presentations and mimic other conditions. We report two women with CVT initially diagnosed as tumors (unilateral pseudotumoral presentation of CVT successfully treated with intravenous heparin. Early diagnosis was important and completely reversed the symptoms. The diagnosis of CVT should be remembered when clinical picture is compatible even if brain imaging suggests unilateral tumor.

  8. Mutation in the α2 isoform of Na,K-ATPase associated Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type 2 (FHM2) leads to elevated contractility and vasodilatation of cerebral arteries in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangaard, Lise; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin; Xie, Zijian;

    is associated with few point mutations in the α2 isoform Na,K-ATPase. Mice bearing a mutation corresponding to the inherited mutation in FHM2 patients (G301R) were used in functional studies of middle cerebral arteries. Middle cerebral arteries from heterozygote G301R mice were not different in total α2 Na...

  9. MEK1/2 inhibition attenuates vascular ETA and ETB receptor alterations after cerebral ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksson, Marie; Stenman, Emelie; Vikman, Petter;

    2007-01-01

    Cerebral ischaemia is associated with elevated levels of endothelin B (ETB) receptors in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA). This up-regulation of ET receptors occurs via de novo transcription involving mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). The aim of this study was to examine the e......, neurological symptoms, and ET receptor alteration. The vascular effects of U0126 provide new perspective on possible mechanisms of actions of MAPK inhibition in cerebral ischaemia.......Cerebral ischaemia is associated with elevated levels of endothelin B (ETB) receptors in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA). This up-regulation of ET receptors occurs via de novo transcription involving mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). The aim of this study was to examine...... the effect of inhibition of the MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)1/2 on ET receptor alteration, brain damage, and neurology in experimental cerebral ischaemia. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in male Wistar rats by the intraluminal filament technique. The animals received 100 mg...

  10. Mechanism and treatment principle for cerebral vessel spasm caused by concussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖兴义; 郭新红; 王德文; 薛关生

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the mechanism of cerebral vessel spasm caused by concussion and the effect of Nimodipine on concussion. Methods: A total of 224 patients who were treated from March 1995 to October 1999 were divided into two groups randomly, ie, Nimodipine group (113 cases) and control group (111 cases). Middle cerebral artery (MCA), basilar artery (BA) and the average peak forward velocity of cerebral blood flow were observed by color three-dimensional transcranial Doppler (3D-TCD) within 24 hours after admission and at the end of 3-6 days of treatment. Cerebral blood flow changes, characteristics and treatment effect were analyzed and determined by clinical main symptom disappearance rate. Results: In concussion, cerebral blood flow was divided into 3 phases: cerebral blood flow low infusion dilation phase, cerebral blood vessel spasm phase and cerebral blood flow recovery phase. In the Nimodipine group, clinical main symptom disappearance rate was higher than that in the control group in the cerebral spasm and recovery phases with a significant difference (P<0.01).  Conclusions: Cerebral vessel spasm, hypoxia and ischemia lesion are the main pathological changes. Whether cerebral dysfunction is reversible or not is mainly determined by spasm time of cerebral blood vessel. Nimodipine has a good effect on releasing spasm and diminishing the cerebral blood flow velocity. It not only improves curative effect on concussion, but also reduces and prevents concussion sequelae. Hence, concussion patients who have cerebral spasm confirmed by 3D-TCD should be given Nimodipine routinely and early.

  11. Headache and prolonged dilatation of the middle meningeal artery by PACAP38 in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Guo, Song;

    2012-01-01

    To explore a possible relationship between vasodilatation and delayed headache we examined the effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) on the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) using high resolution magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)....

  12. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renowden, Shelley [Frenchay Hospital, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    A comprehensive synopsis on cerebral venous thrombosis is presented. It emphasizes the various aetiologies, the wide clinical spectrum and the unpredictable outcome. Imaging techniques and pitfalls are reported and the therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Studies on Treatment of Cerebral Vascular Disease with Integrative Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙怡; 韩景献; 谢道珍; 李如奎; 高利; 许健鹏

    2003-01-01

    @@Cerebral vascular disease (CVD) also called the cerebral stroke or wind stroke. There are two common types in clinic, that is, thrombotic CVD and hemorrhagic CVD. CVD has both a high incidence rate and a high mortality rate. It has become the most dangerous factor that costs the lives of the urban population in our country. People of different age groups can develop this kind of disease, and the morbidity rate increases dramatically for those middle-aged in recent years. At present, the harms done by CVD to the human heath are more prominent.

  14. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  15. An accessory ossification centre in the calcaneus with talonavicular and second metatarsocuneiform coalitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhan, A.U.; Aydin, H.; Aynaci, O. [KTU Farabi Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trabzon (Turkey); Dinc, H. [KTU Farabi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trabzon (Turkey)

    1999-04-01

    We present the case of an 11-year-old girl with an accessory ossification centre of the calcaneus with talonavicular and second metatarsocuneiform coalitions, and bilateral os tibiale externum. (orig.) With 3 figs., 4 refs.

  16. Clinico-embryological perspective of a rare accessory brachial muscle with possible musculocutaneous nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V; Yadav, Y; Arora, Jyoti; Kumar, H; Suri, R K; Rath, G

    2009-03-01

    Both brachialis and biceps brachii are primary flexors of the arm and elbow from the biomechanical perspective. Numerous reports exist in anatomical literature regarding accessory heads of biceps brachii, although such accessory bellies in relation to brachialis muscle are less frequently elucidated. We report a unilateral case of a rare accessory muscle interposed between the biceps brachii and brachialis, having the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) entrapped between the two. Furthermore, the muscle divided into two slips, upper slip was attached to biceps brachii and the other gained insertion to the brachial fascia. Innervation to this accessory muscle was derived from MCN. The embryological basis for such supernumerary muscle is discussed. Additionally, the case is considered under surgical and clinical perspective, highlighting the importance of familiarity with such variations. Anatomical variations of the brachial musculature may cause diagnostic perplexities while interpreting MRI or CT scans.

  17. One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eMucignat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromone. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system, and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived, and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture.

  18. 77 FR 46633 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... RIN 2126-AB28 Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits AGENCY... Safety Administration (FMCSA) amends the requirements regarding brake readjustment limits in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs). This rule amends the readjustment limits, clarifies...

  19. 49 CFR 398.5 - Parts and accessories necessary for safe operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF MIGRANT WORKERS § 398.5 Parts and accessories necessary for safe operation. (a... worker transported. The seats shall be: Securely attached to the vehicle during the course...

  20. Manual therapy of the mandibular accessory ligaments for the management of temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico

    2011-02-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorders are characterized by chronic or acute musculoskeletal or myofascial pain with dysfunction of the masticatory system. Treatment modalities include occlusal splints, patient education, activity modification, muscle and joint exercises, myofascial therapy, acupuncture, and manipulative therapy. In the physiology of the temporomandibular joint, accessory ligaments limit the movement of the mandible. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of accessory ligaments is necessary for good clinical management of temporomandibular joint disorders. Although general principles regarding the anatomy of the ligaments are relatively clear, very little substantiated information on the dimension, orientation, and function of the ligaments has been published, to the authors' knowledge. The authors review the literature concerning the accessory ligaments of the temporomandibular joint and describe treatment options, including manual techniques for mobilizing the accessory ligaments.

  1. Expression of accessory molecules and cytokines in acute EAE in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laman, J.D.; Meurs, M. van; Schellekens, M.M.; Boer, M. de; Melchers, B.; Massacesi, L.; Lassmann, H.; Claassen, E.; Hart, B.A. 't

    1998-01-01

    Accessory molecules and cytokines are involved in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rodent models, and are potential targets for immunotherapy. Evaluation of such experimental therapies requires appropriate animal models. Therefo

  2. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have cerebral and non-cerebral congenital malformations. METHODS: Data from 11 CP registries contributing to the European Cerebral Palsy Database (SCPE), for children born in the period 1976-1996. The malformations were...... classified as recognized syndromes, chromosomal anomalies, cerebral malformations or non-cerebral malformations. Prevalence of malformations was compared to published data on livebirths from a European database of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Overall 547 out of 4584 children (11.9%) with CP...... were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  3. Neuroprotective effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on focal cerebral ischemiareperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuicui Yu; Junke Wang

    2013-01-01

    Penehyclidine hydrochloride can promote microcirculation and reduce vascular permeability. However, the role of penehyclidine hydrochloride in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury remains unclear. In this study, in vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion models were established in experimental rats, and penehyclidine hydrochloride pretreatment was given via intravenous injection prior to model establishment. Tetrazolium chloride, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling and immunohistochemical staining showed that, penehyclidine hydrochloride pretreatment markedly attenuated neuronal histopathological changes in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum, reduced infarction size, increased the expression level of Bcl-2, decreased the expression level of caspase-3, and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Xanthine oxidase and thiobarbituric acid chromogenic results showed that penehyclidine hydrochloride upregulated the activity of superoxide dismutase and downregulated the concentration of malondialdehyde in the ischemic cerebral cortex and hippocampus, as well as reduced the concentration of extracellular excitatory amino acids in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, penehyclidine hydrochloride inhibited the expression level of the NR1 subunit in hippocampal nerve cells in vitro following oxygen-glucose deprivation, as detected by PCR. Experimental findings indicate that penehyclidine hydrochloride attenuates neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress injury after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, thus exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  4. Coexistence of intracranial epidermoid tumor and multiple cerebral aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Pei-Sen; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Zheng, Shu-Fa; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Yu, Liang-Hong; Jiang, Chang-Zhen; Kang, De-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: There were a few case reports concerning epidermoid tumor coexisted with multiple cerebral aneurysms. Here, we present one case of coexistence of intracranial epidermoid tumor and multiple cerebral aneurysms and performed a literature review. Patient concerns: A 42 years old male patient was admitted to our institution with complaints of headache and dizziness. Interventions: The radiological examinations showed a hypointense lesion in the right parasellar and petrous apex region and an ipsilateral saccular aneurysm originated from the M2–M3 junction of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and a saccular aneurysm of the clinoid segment of right internal carotid artery (ICA). Interventions: The patients underwent a right frontotemporal approach for removal of the epidermoid tumor and clipping of the MCA aneurysm in one stage. The aneurysm located at the clinoid segment of ICA was invisible and untreated during operation. Outcomes: No postoperative complications were found in the patient. The patient's follow up after 5 years of surgical treatment was uneventful, and the untreated aneurysm remains stable. Lessons: The coexistence of intracranial epidermoid tumor and cerebral aneurysm is a rare event. The secondly inflammation in cerebral arterial wall may be responsible for the aneurysm formation. Surgical treatment of the intracranial epidermoid tumor and cerebral aneurysm repair may be an optimal scheme in one stage. PMID:28151901

  5. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritu Sarpal; Krishanu Ray

    2002-09-01

    We have identified the Drosophila homologue of the non-motor accessory subunit of kinesin-II motor complex. It is homologous to the SpKAP115 of the sea urchin, KAP3A and KAP3B of the mouse, and SMAP protein in humans. In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of expression in the developing nervous system. The staining first appears in a subset of cells in the embryonic central nervous system at stage 13 and continues till the first instar larva stage. At the third instar larva stage the staining gets restricted to a few cells in the optic lobe and in the ventral ganglion region. It has also stained a subset of sensory neurons from late stage 13 and till the first instar larva stage. The DmKAP expression pattern in the nervous system corresponds well with that of Klp64D and Klp68D as reported earlier. In addition, we have found that the DmKAP gene is constitutively expressed in the germline cells and in follicle cells during oogenesis. These cells are also stained using an antibody to KLP68D protein, but mRNA in situ hybridization using KLP64D specific probe has not stained these cells. Together these results proved a basis for further analysis of tissue specific function of DmKAP in future.

  6. Cummins MD & HD Accessory Hybridization CRADA -Annual Report FY15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    There are many areas of MD and HD vehicles that can be improved by new technologies and optimized control strategies. Component optimization and idle reduction need to be addressed, this is best done by a two part approach that includes selecting the best component technology, and/or architecture, and optimized controls that are vehicle focused. While this is a common focus in the light duty industry it has been gaining momentum in the MD and HD market as the market gets more competitive and the regulations become more stringent. When looking into systems optimization and idle reduction technologies, affected vehicle systems must first be considered, and if possible included in the new architecture to get the most benefit out of these new capabilities. Typically, when looking into idle reduction or component optimization for MD/HD, the vehicle s accessories become a prime candidate for electrification or hybridization. While this has already been studied on light duty vehicles (especially on hybrids and electric vehicles) it has not made any head way or market penetration in most MD and HD applications. If hybrids and electric MD and HD vehicles begin to break into the market this would be a necessary step into the ability to make those vehicles successful by allowing for independent, optimized operation separate from the engine.

  7. Accessory cardiac bronchus: Proposed imaging classification on multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Min; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Jong Kyu; Jou, Sung Shick [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To propose the classification of accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) based on imaging using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and evaluate follow-up changes of ACB. This study included 58 patients diagnosed as ACB since 9 years, using MDCT. We analyzed the types, division locations and division directions of ACB, and also evaluated changes on follow-up. We identified two main types of ACB: blind-end (51.7%) and lobule (48.3%). The blind-end ACB was further classified into three subtypes: blunt (70%), pointy (23.3%) and saccular (6.7%). The lobule ACB was also further classified into three subtypes: complete (46.4%), incomplete (28.6%) and rudimentary (25%). Division location to the upper half bronchus intermedius (79.3%) and medial direction (60.3%) were the most common in all patients. The difference in division direction was statistically significant between the blind-end and lobule types (p = 0.019). Peribronchial soft tissue was found in five cases. One calcification case was identified in the lobule type. During follow-up, ACB had disappeared in two cases of the blind-end type and in one case of the rudimentary subtype. The proposed classification of ACB based on imaging, and the follow-up CT, helped us to understand the various imaging features of ACB.

  8. Accessory brachialis muscle associated with high division of brachial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection for the undergraduate students in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, of a male cadaver aged 73 years, we encountered an additional slip of brachialis muscle taking origin in the flexor compartment of left arm and inserting into the forearm. The origin of the additional muscle belly was from the anteromedial surface of shaft and medial supracondylar ridge of lower end of humerus. The additional muscle slip merged with the tendon of pronator teres before inserting on the lateral surface of the shaft of radius. The median nerve pierced the muscle at a distance of 6 cm from the medial epicondyle of humerus, supplied it and had a routine course later. Associated with the muscular abnormality was the high division of brachial artery into radial and ulnar arteries 17.5 cm from the medial epicondyle. The ulnar artery passed beneath the accessory brachialis muscle along with the median nerve. The role of additional muscles in compression syndrome is a well known phenomenon. The altered anatomy of the blood vessels may make them more vulnerable to trauma and to hemorrhage but at the same time more accessible for cannulation. Medical fraternity including orthopedicians and neurologists need to be aware of such variations when dealing with upper limb injuries or operations around the elbow joint.

  9. Guyons canal syndrome due to accessory palmaris longus muscle: aetiological classification: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Ramavath Ashok; Raj, Sakamuri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessory muscles and anatomic variations are well described at the Guyon's canal. Though this case report is similar to variants published in previous reports, it differs from the rest due to rapidity of worsening of symptoms in few months following use of cane. Case presentation We report a case of 69 year old man with ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal by accessory palmaris longus arose from distal third palmaris longus and from deep fascia of forearm. The hypertrophied ...

  10. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia eMohedanoMoriano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex, vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala, mixed (e.g., the medial amygdala and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing.

  11. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅超群; 刘业进

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will omen be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure.

  12. Biosynthesis of Active Bacillus subtilis Urease in the Absence of Known Urease Accessory Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Kyong; Mulrooney, Scott B.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis contains urease structural genes but lacks the accessory genes typically required for GTP-dependent incorporation of nickel. Nevertheless, B. subtilis was shown to possess a functional urease, and the recombinant enzyme conferred low levels of nickel-dependent activity to Escherichia coli. Additional investigations of the system lead to the suggestion that B. subtilis may use unidentified accessory proteins for in vivo urease activation.

  13. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing

  14. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...

  15. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients.

  16. Use-dependent properties of flecainide acetate in accessory atrioventricular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, J; Helmy, I; Katzung, B; Scheinman, M

    1994-01-01

    Flecainide acetate has been shown to have use-dependent properties. The use-dependent properties of flecainide were evaluated in 20 patients (13 men and 7 women, mean age 32 +/- 11 years) with accessory atrioventricular connections. Twenty to 30 stimulus drive trains were introduced in either the atrium or ventricle at progressively faster rates. The range of cycle lengths over which anterograde and retrograde conduction block occurred in the accessory pathway was assessed in the drug-free state and after oral loading with flecainide acetate. The block cycle length index was defined as the shortest cycle length during which 1:1 conduction was maintained in the accessory pathway minus the longest cycle length during which block in the accessory pathway occurred on the second paced beat. In the drug-free state, the (mean +/- SD) anterograde and retrograde block cycle length indexes were 20 +/- 12 and 20 +/- 9 ms, respectively. After flecainide therapy, the anterograde and retrograde block cycle length indexes increased to 80 +/- 33 and 65 +/- 29 ms, respectively (p = 0.002 compared with the drug-free state). The block cycle length index did not correlate with serum flecainide levels, but did correlate with other electrophysiologic markers of drug effect on accessory pathway conduction. The change in the block cycle length index demonstrates that flecainide has a progressive effect on accessory pathway conduction at more rapid rates, consistent with its in vitro use-dependent properties. This index is an excellent marker of drug efficacy.

  17. Fibroadenoma of the axillary accessory breast: diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Munehisa; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Takeuchi, Taizo; Tamaki, Takeshi; Oura, Shoji

    2010-10-01

    Accessory breast is synonymous with polymastia or supernumerary breast tissue. An accessory breast without a nipple or areola is rare. We report a case of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast with no nipple or areola in a 41-year-old woman who presented with a right axillary mass associated with five small nodules in the normally situated breast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the accessory breast surrounding the tumor. We ignored the presence of the component surrounding the mass and made a preoperative diagnosis of an axillary mass of possible metastases from multiple breast cancers or breast cancer of unknown origin associated with multiple breast fibroadenomas. From a retrospective view, based on the histological results, MRI and dynamic MRI demonstrated a tiny component of breast-like tissue surrounding the axillary mass and an enhancement pattern typical of fibroadenoma for the axillary mass. For the later diagnosis of the axillary mass, the interpretation of whether the component of breast tissue surrounding the axillary mass was present is crucial. If the component exists, a tumor that originated from the accessory breast should be foremost in the differential diagnosis. Dynamic MRI appears to contribute to the diagnosis of fibroadenoma of an accessory breast before biopsy or surgical resection.

  18. Incidence and morphology of accessory heads of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus (Gantzer's muscles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; CAMPILLO, M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Testut, 1884; Le Double, 1897). The more frequent of the 2 accessory muscles or ‘accessorius ad pollicem’ was found to arise from the coronoid process of the ulna, coursing distally to attach into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (flexor pollicis longus accessory head, FPLah). The less frequently observed or ‘accessorius ad flexorem profundum digitorum’ was again found to arise from the coronoid process and course to join into the flexor digitorum profundus (flexor digitorum profundus accessory head, FDPah). Since their initial description, they have been examined in further detail by a number of authors (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Dellon & McKinnon, 1987; Kida, 1988). These studies, most of them focusing on the FPLah, all show different results of prevalence, origin, insertion, relations and nerve supply. We undertook this study with the aim of providing a more accurate account of the detailed morphology of both accessory muscles because of the above-mentioned inconsistent anatomical descriptions and the lack of information as to important aspects such as vascular supply, morphology (shape and length) and the coexistence of both accessory heads. PMID:9419002

  19. Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen: Investigative Dilemmas and Role of EUS-Guided FNA for Diagnostic Confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekar G Krishna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Context We submit a case of intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Case report A 33-year-old patient with history of dyspepsia underwent imaging studies suggestive of a neuroendocrine tumor. After referral to our institute, endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA confirmed diagnosis as intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Discussion An accessory spleen may develop from estranged mesenchymal cells due to fusion failure of the splenic anlage. The prevalence of an accessory spleen is 10-30% with 80% of them present at the splenic hilum and 17% in the pancreatic tail. Intrapancreatic accessory spleen is commonly misdiagnosed as a pancreatic tumor. Since, the differential diagnosis includes pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, additional investigation with EUS-FNA should be considered when radiological diagnosis is not definitive. Conclusion For diagnosis of intrapancreatic accessory spleen, radiographic imaging is useful, but lacks specificity without tissue diagnosis. Diagnosis can be safely and reliably established with EUS-FNA, leading to a benign prognosis and avoidance of unnecessary surgical intervention.

  20. Carbon dioxide induced changes in cerebral blood flow and flow velocity: role of cerebrovascular resistance and effective cerebral perfusion pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüne, Frank; Kazmaier, Stephan; Stolker, Robert J; Visser, Gerhard H; Weyland, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In addition to cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe) and the resistance area product (RAP) are supplemental determinants of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Until now, the interrelationship of PaCO2-induced changes in CBF, CVR, CPPe, ZFP, and RAP is not fully understood. In a controlled crossover trial, we investigated 10 anesthetized patients aiming at PaCO2 levels of 30, 37, 43, and 50 mm Hg. Cerebral blood flow was measured with a modified Kety-Schmidt-technique. Zero flow pressure and RAP was estimated by linear regression analysis of pressure-flow velocity relationships of the middle cerebral artery. Effective cerebral perfusion pressure was calculated as the difference between mean arterial pressure and ZFP, CVR as the ratio CPPe/CBF. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way RM-ANOVA. When comparing hypocapnia with hypercapnia, CBF showed a significant exponential reduction by 55% and mean VMCA by 41%. Effective cerebral perfusion pressure linearly decreased by 17% while ZFP increased from 14 to 29 mm Hg. Cerebrovascular resistance increased by 96% and RAP by 39%; despite these concordant changes in mean CVR and Doppler-derived RAP correlation between these variables was weak (r=0.43). In conclusion, under general anesthesia hypocapnia-induced reduction in CBF is caused by both an increase in CVR and a decrease in CPPe, as a consequence of an increase in ZFP.

  1. Dipyridamole dilates large cerebral arteries concomitant to headache induction in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina; Jacobsen, T B; Lassen, L H

    2000-01-01

    Dipyridamole is used for secondary prophylaxis in ischemic stroke and as a vasodilator agent in myocardial scintigraphy. An important side effect to administering dipyridamole is headache. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of dipyridamole on cerebral blood flow, large...... artery diameter, and headache induction. Twelve healthy subjects were included in this single-blind placebo-controlled study in which placebo (0.9% NaCl) and dipyridamole 0.142 mg/kg x min were administered intravenously over 4 minutes 1 hour apart. Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (Vmax......) was recorded by transcranial Doppler and regional cerebral blood flow in the middle cerebral artery (rCBFmca) was measured using single photon emission computed tomography and 133Xenon-inhalation. Blood pressure, heart rate, and pCO2 were measured repeatedly. Headache response was scored every 10 minutes...

  2. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  3. Clinical Neuroimaging of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Notice points in clinical imaging of cerebral ischemia are reviewed. When cerebral blood flow is determined in acute stage of cerebral embolism (cerebral blood flow SPECT), it is important to find area of ischemic core and ischemic penumbra. When large cortex area is assigned to ischemic penumbra, thrombolytic therapy is positively adapted, but cautious correspondence is necessary when ischemic core is recognized. DWI is superior in the detection of area equivalent to ischemic core of early stage, but, in imaging of area equivalent to ischemic penumbra, perfusion image or distribution image of cerebral blood volume (CBV) by MRI need to be combined. Luxury perfusion detected by cerebral blood flow SPECT in the cases of acute cerebral embolism suggests vascular recanalization, but a comparison with CT/MRI and continuous assessment of cerebral circulation dynamics were necessary in order to predict brain tissue disease (metabolic abnormality). In hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, it is important to find stage 2 equivalent to misery perfusion by quantification of cerebral blood flow SPECT. Degree of diaschisis can indicate seriousness of brain dysfunction for lacuna infarct. Because cerebral circulation reserve ability (perfusion pressure) is normal in all areas of the low cerebral blood flow by diaschisis mechanism, their areas are easily distinguished from those of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. (K.H.)

  4. Cluster headache: transcranial Doppler ultrasound and regional cerebral blood flow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, A.; Russell, D.; Nyberg-Hansen, R.; Rootwelt, K. (Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway))

    1990-04-01

    Transcranial Doppler and rCBF examinations were carried out in 25 cluster headache patients. Spontaneous glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) provoked attacks were accompanied by a bilateral decrease in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocities. This decrease was more pronounced on the symptomatic side, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Mean hemispheric blood flow and rCBF were within normal limits during provoked attacks and similar to those found when patients were attack-free. During cluster periods middle cerebral artery velocities were significantly higher on the symptomatic side. Glyceryl trinitrate caused a bilateral middle cerebral artery velocity decrease which was significantly greater on the symptomatic side. Attacks provoked by glyceryl trinitrate appeared to begin when the vasodilatory effect of this substance was received. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Effect of the antibody of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on the rat with ischemic injury from obstruction of middle cerebral artery%脑源性神经营养因子抗体对大脑中动脉阻塞大鼠缺血损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英辉; 王根发; 陈兴华; 姚革; 陈伟; 周永炜

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To observe the effect of the antibody of brain derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) by cortical microinjection on hippocampal ischemic injury rats.METHODS:Preparation of local cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury model: cortical stereostaxic approach, microinjection of BDNF antibody. Applied immunohistochemical method to observe distribution of BDNF in cortex after injection of the antibody,to observe the alteration of ischemic injury between control group and BDNF antibody group.RESULT: The volume of cerebral infarction in BDNF antibody group was larger than control group.CONCLUSION: BDNF has protection function for cerebral ischemia.

  6. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation in Pregnancy and the Risk of Preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janzarik, Wibke G; Ehlers, Elena; Ehmann, Renata;

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia may affect severely the cerebral circulation leading to impairment of cerebral autoregulation, edema, and ischemia. It is not known whether impaired autoregulation occurs before the clinical onset of preeclampsia, and whether this can predict the occurrence of preeclampsia. Seventy......) of respiratory-induced 0.1 Hz hemodynamic oscillations. Uterine artery ultrasound was performed to search for a notch sign as an early marker of general endothelial dysfunction. All women were followed up until 6 weeks after delivery for the occurrence of preeclampsia. The autoregulation parameter gain did...... not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Phase was slightly but significantly higher in pregnant women, indicating better DCA. Women with a notch sign did not show altered DCA. A history of preeclampsia during a previous pregnancy was associated with lower phase in middle cerebral artery...

  7. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala dermatitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare and frequently fatal disease. We report a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a young immuno competent male presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur.

  8. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala dermatitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, S; Vaid, V K; Sharma, M; Bhartiya, H

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare and frequently fatal disease. We report a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a young immuno competent male presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur.

  9. A Case of Apoplexy of Rathke’s Cleft Cyst Followed by Cerebral Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-ichiro Ohnishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rathke’s cleft cyst (RCC apoplexy is a rare clinical entity. We report a case of apoplexy of an RCC followed by cerebral infarction. A 67-year-old woman was found lying on the street unconscious. She had fallen from her motorbike. On referral to our hospital she gradually regained consciousness and presented with no neurological deficits. CT showed a round and slightly hyperdense area in the suprasellar region. However, the attending physician did not find this abnormal finding on CT and the patient was discharged the same day. Thirteen days after the first emergency visit she developed left hemiparesis and dysarthria. CT showed a round hypodense area in the suprasellar region. The change of the density in the suprasellar region on CT suggested the pituitary apoplexy. CT also showed a low density area in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery, which indicated the cerebral infarction. MR angiography revealed poor visibility and stenotic changes of right middle cerebral arteries. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed. Histopathological findings confirmed a hemorrhagic RCC. Postoperative MR angiography showed that the visibility and stenosis of right middle cerebral arteries were recovered. This is the rare case of apoplexy of an RCC followed by cerebral infarction.

  10. [Cerebral ischemia and histamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Naoto

    2002-10-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces excess release of glutamate and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which provoke catastrophic enzymatic processes leading to irreversible neuronal injury. Histamine plays the role of neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and histaminergic fibers are widely distributed in the brain. In cerebral ischemia, release of histamine from nerve endings has been shown to be enhanced by facilitation of its activity. An inhibition of the histaminergic activity in ischemia aggravates the histologic outcome. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of histamine improves the aggravation, whereas blockade of histamine H2 receptors aggravates ischemic injury. Furthermore, H2 blockade enhances ischemic release of glutamate and dopamine. These findings suggest that central histamine provides beneficial effects against ischemic neuronal damage by suppressing release of excitatory neurotransmitters. However, histaminergic H2 action facilitates the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and shows deleterious effects on cerebral edema.

  11. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types...... of migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do...

  12. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N;

    2010-01-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebral...... metabolism (from arterial and internal jugular venous O(2), glucose and lactate differences), as well as the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V(mean); transcranial Doppler ultrasound) during a sustained static handgrip contraction at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (n = 9) and the MCA V......(mean) during ergometer cycling (n = 8). Separate, randomized and counterbalanced trials were performed in control (no drug) conditions and following muscarinic cholinergic receptor blockade by glycopyrrolate. Glycopyrrolate increased resting heart rate from approximately 60 to approximately 110 beats min(-1...

  13. Estimation of cerebral vascular tone during exercise; evaluation by critical closing pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Brothers, R Matthew; Jeschke, Monica;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate critical closing pressure (CCP) of the cerebral vasculature at rest and during exercise to estimate cerebral vascular tone. Five men and two women were seated upright for 15 min and then performed 15 min of right-legged knee extension exercise at 40, 60...... and 75% of their maximal workload (WL(max)). Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCA V) and blood pressure in the radial artery were recorded. The CCP was calculated by linear extrapolation from 1 min recordings of pairs of systolic and diastolic pressure and MCA V waveforms from both the right...

  14. Renal Subcapsular Hematoma after Intravenous Thrombolysis in a Patient with Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)