Brooks, Anthony Lewis
This contribution is timely as it addresses accessibility in regards system hardware and software aligned with introduction of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA) and adjoined game industry waiver that comes into force January 2017. This is an act created...... by the USA Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to increase the access of persons with disabilities to modern communications, and for other purposes. The act impacts advanced communications services and products including text messaging; e-mail; instant messaging; video communications; browsers; game...... platforms; and games software. However, the CVAA has no legal status in the EU. This text succinctly introduces and questions implications, impact, and wider adoption. By presenting the full CVAA and game industry waiver the text targets to motivate discussions and further publications on the subject...
Prof. Dennis Ocholla
The argument that access to information is an instrumental and individual as well as ... and Dean School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA. ... to scholarly publications and can be in any digital format, including text, movies and ... language barriers, censorship, lack of access to the Internet and ...
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Broadband Access. Worldwide market for broadband access $30 Billion! Over 200 million broadband subscribers worldwide! Various Competing Broadband access. Digital Subscriber line; Wireless; Optical Fiber.
Dagley, Alexander; LaPoint, Molly; Huijbers, Willem; Hedden, Trey; McLaren, Donald G; Chatwal, Jasmeer P; Papp, Kathryn V; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Blacker, Deborah; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Schultz, Aaron P
The Harvard Aging Brain Study is sharing its data with the global research community. The longitudinal dataset consists of a 284-subject cohort with the following modalities acquired: demographics, clinical assessment, comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical biomarkers, and neuroimaging. To promote more extensive analyses, imaging data was designed to be compatible with other publicly available datasets. A cloud-based system enables access to interested researchers with blinded data available contingent upon completion of a data usage agreement and administrative approval. Data collection is ongoing and currently in its fifth year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.
Lee, Jongwook; Burnett, Gary; Vandegrift, Micah; Baeg, Jung Hoon; Morris, Richard
Introduction: This study explores the extent to which an institutional repository makes papers available and accessible on the open Web by using 170 journal articles housed in DigiNole Commons, the institutional repository at Florida State University. Method: To analyse the repository's impact on availability and accessibility, we conducted…
Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in
Anderson, Barbara E.
This paper analyzes: (1) the bibliographic access to publications in urban studies via printed secondary sources; (2) development and scope of classification systems and of vocabulary control for urban studies; and (3) currently accessible automated collections of bibliographic citations. Urban studies is defined as "an agglomeration of…
Baishev, I.S.; Mokhov, N.V.; Toohig, T.E.
The SSC generic shaft requirements and access spacing are considered elsewhere. The shafts connecting the ground surface with the underground accelerator tunnel deliver to the surface some portion of the radiation created in the tunnel. The radiation safety problem of access shafts consists of two major questions: Does the dose equivalent at the ground surface exceed permissible limits? If it exceeds those limits, what additional shielding measures are required? A few works deal with this problem for high energy machines. This work is an attempt to answer these questions for the basic types of shafts specific to the SSC magnet delivery, utility and personnel shafts using full-scale Monte-Carlo calculations of the entire process from hadronic cascades in the lattice elements to particles scattered in the tunnel, niches, alcoves, shafts and surface bunkers and buildings. 9 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab
Louison , Céphise ,; Ferlay , Fabien ,; Keller , Delphine ,; Mestre , Daniel ,
International audience; The development of fusion plants is more and more challenging. Compared to previous fusion experimental devices, integration constraints, maintenance and safety requirements are key parameters in the ITER project. Components are designed in parallel and we must consider integration, assembly and maintenance issues, which might have a huge impact on the overall design. That also implies to consider the operator's feedback to assess the feasibility of accessibility or ma...
The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…
Transforming Global Information and Communication Markets: The Political Economy of ... 8 Control and Resistance: Attacks on Burmese Opposition Media 153 ...... “Reluctant Gatekeepers: Corporate Ethics on a Filtered Internet,” in Access ...
Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy
A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.
C. Colloca TS/FM
TS/FM group informs you that, for the replacement of the door of the main entrance at bldg. 500, the access will be closed to the public between 19 and 30 July 2004. Access to the Main Building complex will be assured at any time through both of the side doors and from bldg. 64. For more information, please contact 73273. C. Colloca TS/FM
Prottengeier, Johannes; Albermann, Matthias; Heinrich, Sebastian; Birkholz, Torsten; Gall, Christine; Schmidt, Joachim
Intravenous access in prehospital emergency care allows for early administration of medication and extended measures such as anaesthesia. Cannulation may, however, be difficult, and failure and resulting delay in treatment and transport may have negative effects on the patient. Therefore, our study aims to perform a concise assessment of the difficulties of prehospital venous cannulation. We analysed 23 candidate predictor variables on peripheral venous cannulations in terms of cannulation failure and exceedance of a 2 min time threshold. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted for variables of predictive value (P0.6) of their respective receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 762 intravenous cannulations were enroled. In all, 22% of punctures failed on the first attempt and 13% of punctures exceeded 2 min. Model selection yielded a three-factor model (vein visibility without tourniquet, vein palpability with tourniquet and insufficient ambient lighting) of fair accuracy for the prediction of puncture failure (AUC=0.76) and a structurally congruent model of four factors (failure model factors plus vein visibility with tourniquet) for the exceedance of the 2 min threshold (AUC=0.80). Our study offers a simple assessment to identify cases of difficult intravenous access in prehospital emergency care. Of the numerous factors subjectively perceived as possibly exerting influences on cannulation, only the universal - not exclusive to emergency care - factors of lighting, vein visibility and palpability proved to be valid predictors of cannulation failure and exceedance of a 2 min threshold.
Kirkeby, Inge Mette
Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...
Gossett, Andrea; Mirza, Mansha; Barnds, Ann Kathleen; Feidt, Daisy
A growing emphasis has been placed on providing equal opportunities for all people, particularly people with disabilities, to support participation. Barriers to participation are represented in part by physical space restrictions. This article explores the decision-making process during the construction of a new office building housing a disability-rights organization. The building project featured in this study was developed on the principles of universal design, maximal accessibility, and sustainability to support access and participation. A qualitative case study approach was used involving collection of data through in-depth interviews with key decision-makers; non-participant observations at design meetings; and on-site tours. Qualitative thematic analysis along with the development of a classification system was used to understand specific building elements and the relevant decision processes from which they resulted. Recording and analyzing the design process revealed several key issues including grassroots involvement of stakeholders; interaction between universal design and sustainable design; addressing diversity through flexibility and universality; and segregationist accessibility versus universal design. This case study revealed complex interactions between accessibility, universal design, and sustainability. Two visual models were proposed to understand and analyze these complexities.
The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...
Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips
Kahl, Chad M.; Williams, Sarah C.
To ensure efficient access to and integrated searching capabilities for their institution's new digital library projects, the authors studied Web sites of the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) 111 academic, English-language libraries. Data were gathered on 1117 digital projects, noting library Web site and project access, metadata, and…
Wand, Sean; Thermos, Adam C.
Explains the issues to consider before a college decides to purchase a card-access system. The benefits of automation, questions involving implementation, the criteria for technology selection, what typical card technology involves, privacy concerns, and the placement of card readers are discussed. (GR)
Full Text Available Open Access (OA) refers to electronic scholarly articles, books, monographs and other grey literature that is freely available. Various electronic platforms limit access to their content due to subscription costs, firewalls, and other access...
This study addresses two critical issues of concern to the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National : Recreational Area: (1) options for alternative access to Sandy Hook during peak summer season, : particularly when the park is closed to private vehicles...
Natalia Alencar de Pinho
Full Text Available Determinants of nonfunctional arteriovenous (AV access, including timing of AV access creation, have not been sufficiently described. We studied 29 945 patients who had predialysis AV access placement and were included in the French REIN registry from 2005 through 2013. AV access was considered nonfunctional when dialysis began with a catheter. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI of nonfunctional versus functional AV access associated with case-mix, facility characteristics, and timing of AV access creation. Analyses were stratified by dialysis start condition (planned or as an emergency and comorbidity profile. Overall, 18% patients had nonfunctional AV access at hemodialysis initiation. In the group with planned dialysis start, female gender (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.32-1.56, diabetes (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.15-1.44, and a higher number of cardiovascular comorbidities (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.09-1.49, and 1.31, 1.05-1.64, for 3 and >3 cardiovascular comorbidities versus none, respectively were independent predictors of nonfunctional AV access. A higher percentage of AV access creation at the region level was associated with a lower rate of nonfunctional AV access (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.98-0.99 per 1% increase. The odds of nonfunctional AV access decreased as time from creation to hemodialysis initiation increased up to 3 months in nondiabetic patients with fewer than 2 cardiovascular comorbidities and 6 months in patients with diabetes or 2 or more such comorbidities. In conclusion, both patient characteristics and clinical practices may play a role in successful AV access use at hemodialysis initiation. Adjusting the timing of AV access creation to patients' comorbidity profiles may improve functional AV access rates.
Bennett, R. A.; Lamb, D. A.
International capstone field courses offer geoscience-students opportunities to reflect upon their knowledge, develop intercultural competence, appreciate diversity, and recognize themselves as geoscientists on a global scale. Such experiences are often described as pivotal to a geoscientist's education, a right of passage. However, field-based experiences present insurmountable barriers to many students, undermining the goal of inclusive excellence. Nevertheless, there remains a widespread belief that successful geoscientists are those able to traverse inaccessible terrain. One path forward from this apparent dilemma is emerging as we take steps to address a parallel challenge: as we move into the 21st century the geoscience workforce will require an ever increasing range of skills, including analysis, modeling, communication, and computational proficiency. Computer programing, laboratory experimentation, numerical simulation, etc, are inherently more accessible than fieldwork, yet equally valuable. Students interested in pursuing such avenues may be better served by capstone experiences that align more closely with their career goals. Moreover, many of the desirable learning outcomes attributed to field-based education are not unique to immersion in remote inaccessible locations. Affective and cognitive gains may also result from social bonding through extended time with peers and mentors, creative synthesis of knowledge, project-based learning, and intercultural experience. Developing an inclusive course for the geoscience curriculum requires considering all learners, including different genders, ages, physical abilities, familial dynamics, and a multitude of other attributes. The Accessible Earth Study Abroad Program endeavors to provide geoscience students an inclusive capstone experience focusing on modern geophysical observation systems (satellite based observations and permanent networks of ground-based instruments), computational thinking and methods of
Dagley, Alexander; LaPoint, Molly; Huijbers, Willem; Hedden, Trey; McLaren, Donald G.; Chatwal, Jasmeer P.; Papp, Kathryn V.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Blacker, Deborah; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Schultz, Aaron P.
The Harvard Aging Brain Study is sharing its data with the global research community. The longitudinal dataset consists of a 284-subject cohort with the following modalities acquired: demographics, clinical assessment, comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical biomarkers, and neuroimaging.
Oermann, Marilyn H; Conklin, Jamie L; Nicoll, Leslie H; Chinn, Peggy L; Ashton, Kathleen S; Edie, Alison H; Amarasekara, Sathya; Budinger, Susan C
The purpose of this study was to identify predatory journals in nursing, describe their characteristics and editorial standards, and document experiences of authors, peer reviewers, and editors affiliated with these journals. Using two sources that list predatory journals, the research team created a list of nursing journals. In Phase One, the team collected data on characteristics of predatory nursing journals such as types of articles published, article processing charge, and peer review process. In Phase Two, the team surveyed a sample of authors, reviewers, and editors to learn more about their experiences with their affiliated journals. Data from the review of predatory nursing journals were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Written comments were summarized and categorized. There were 140 predatory nursing journals from 75 publishers. Most journals were new, having been inaugurated in the past 1 to 2 years. One important finding was that many journals only published one or two volumes and then either ceased publishing or published fewer issues and articles after the first volume. Journal content varied widely, and some journals published content from dentistry and medicine, as well as nursing. Qualitative findings from the surveys confirmed previously published anecdotal evidence, including authors selecting journals based on spam emails and inability to halt publication of a manuscript, despite authors' requests to do so. Predatory journals exist in nursing and bring with them many of the "red flags" that have been noted in the literature, including lack of transparency about editorial processes and misleading information promoted on websites. The number of journals is high enough to warrant concern in the discipline about erosion of our scholarly literature. Nurses rely on the published literature to provide evidence for high-quality, safe care that promotes optimal patient outcomes. Research published in journals that do not adhere to the highest
Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E
The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Online journals (e-journals) are fast becoming a familiar feature with Religious Studies scholars, but so far no e-journals in the field have appeared in South Africa, and contributions by South African scholars are still rare. This article examines the evolution of Religious Studies e-journals, focusing on the open access variety ...
There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare...... according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why...... are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were...
Full Text Available We explore the use and usefulness of the hybrid open access publishing model in agricultural sciences using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. To ascertain the level of usage of the paid open access option in hybrid open access journals in agriculture, we studied the agriculture-related journals published by six commercial publishers. These publishers offer authors the option of paying a fee, often close to $3,000 per article, to make their article immediately freely available, usually with a Creative Commons license. We defined agriculture broadly but also assigned each journal to a subspecialty (e.g., animal science in order to see if there were differences based on these subdivisions. For each journal we gathered data for 2014-2015 and noted the total number of research articles and the number of those that were made freely available by authors paying the open access fee. To give context to our results we also surveyed local faculty in agricultural sciences, asking their reasons for considering the paid open access options and the sources of the funds to pay for it. Survey respondents were asked about their academic position and rank to see if there were differences to be noted. We also investigated the findability of the open access articles, noting if each individual publisher offered a way to easily locate all the freely available articles in a particular journal and if there are other avenues to easily locate these articles.
This paper investigates accessibility and utilization of electronic information sources (EIS)by journalists in Nigeria;identifying the types of EIS that are accessible to journalists;extent of EIS utilization for journalistic tasksand the constraints to EIS utilization.The descriptive research of the survey type was adopted. From 42 ...
need to use different planting dates for different accessions to ensure synchronization of flowering. The accessions also differed significantly (P < 0.05) with ... Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the. Research Farm ... Minitab Statistical Software (version 15.0) was used where Chi-square analysis was.
This policy brief illustrates that decentralisation can only effectively support residents’ access to natural resources if it both resolves policy overlaps at multiple levels to bring about inclusive and equitable access and aligns policies with ground realities for specific natural resources....
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...
and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....
Introduction What is open access to research data? Related issues A closer look What can you do with open research data? What is required from research data? Do resources fulfil these requirements? Why is getting access good, but giving access better? Current issues Some challenges Main hindrance: Legal issues Conclusions Recommended readings
Background The emergence of the Internet has triggered tremendous changes in the publication of scientific peer-reviewed journals. Today, journals are usually available in parallel electronic versions, but the way the peer-review process works, the look of articles and journals, and the rigid and slow publication schedules have remained largely unchanged, at least for the vast majority of subscription-based journals. Those publishing firms and scholarly publishers who have chosen the more radical option of open access (OA), in which the content of journals is freely accessible to anybody with Internet connectivity, have had a much bigger degree of freedom to experiment with innovations. Objective The objective was to study how open access journals have experimented with innovations concerning ways of organizing the peer review, the format of journals and articles, new interactive and media formats, and novel publishing revenue models. Methods The features of 24 open access journals were studied. The journals were chosen in a nonrandom manner from the approximately 7000 existing OA journals based on available information about interesting journals and include both representative cases and highly innovative outlier cases. Results Most early OA journals in the 1990s were founded by individual scholars and used a business model based on voluntary work close in spirit to open-source development of software. In the next wave, many long-established journals, in particular society journals and journals from regions such as Latin America, made their articles OA when they started publishing parallel electronic versions. From about 2002 on, newly founded professional OA publishing firms using article-processing charges to fund their operations have emerged. Over the years, there have been several experiments with new forms of peer review, media enhancements, and the inclusion of structured data sets with articles. In recent years, the growth of OA publishing has also been
The emergence of the Internet has triggered tremendous changes in the publication of scientific peer-reviewed journals. Today, journals are usually available in parallel electronic versions, but the way the peer-review process works, the look of articles and journals, and the rigid and slow publication schedules have remained largely unchanged, at least for the vast majority of subscription-based journals. Those publishing firms and scholarly publishers who have chosen the more radical option of open access (OA), in which the content of journals is freely accessible to anybody with Internet connectivity, have had a much bigger degree of freedom to experiment with innovations. The objective was to study how open access journals have experimented with innovations concerning ways of organizing the peer review, the format of journals and articles, new interactive and media formats, and novel publishing revenue models. The features of 24 open access journals were studied. The journals were chosen in a nonrandom manner from the approximately 7000 existing OA journals based on available information about interesting journals and include both representative cases and highly innovative outlier cases. Most early OA journals in the 1990s were founded by individual scholars and used a business model based on voluntary work close in spirit to open-source development of software. In the next wave, many long-established journals, in particular society journals and journals from regions such as Latin America, made their articles OA when they started publishing parallel electronic versions. From about 2002 on, newly founded professional OA publishing firms using article-processing charges to fund their operations have emerged. Over the years, there have been several experiments with new forms of peer review, media enhancements, and the inclusion of structured data sets with articles. In recent years, the growth of OA publishing has also been facilitated by the availability of open
Dyer, Jules, E-mail: Jules.Dyer@nhs.net [New Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Rosa, Joao [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, ST1 Radiology (United Kingdom); Chachlani, Menka [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nicholas, Johann [New Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)
PurposeThis study is the first to present the outcomes of the Straub Aspirex device for the salvage of occluded renal dialysis access fistulae.Materials and MethodsThis is a retrospective study, using data from the Renal Unit and Radiology Department database. It included all the patients between 2010 and 2014 who underwent percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) treated by JD. Aspirex is an over-the-wire, 6–10 French catheter within which is a rapidly rotating helix which draws thrombus into a window near the tip which it then macerates and removes. Access survival was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method, and multi-variant analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Significance was considered if p < 0.05.ResultsA total of 27 procedures were performed for 19 patients. 13 had autologous arterio-venous fistulae, and 14 had synthetic (PTFE) arterio-venous grafts. 15 were males, 4 females. 100 % of the patients successfully had a channel of thrombus removed. This resulted in an 81.5 % initial clinical success, with primary patency rates of 53.6, 44.3 and 33 % by days 30, 90 and 480, respectively, without significant difference of any analysed covariates. No major complication (pulmonary embolus, paradoxical cerebral infarction, limb ischaemia or significant haemorrhage) occurred.ConclusionAspirex has rates of patency and complication similar to other PMT devices. No covariant studied affected outcome.
What Open Access is. What Open Access is not. How is Open Access provided? Open Access archives or repositories. Open Access journals. Why should authors provide Open Access to their work? Further information and resources
Many place based accessibility studies ignore the time component. Relying on theoretical frameworks that treat distance between two fixed points as constant, these methods ignore the diurnal and seasonal changes in accessibility. Network distances between two nodes are dependent on the network structure and weight distribution on the edges. These weights can change quite frequently and the network structure itself is subject to modification because of availability and unavailability of links ...
Full Text Available Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L. accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and soybean, the top two Canadian oilseeds. Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada. Overall, lipid concentration in pea seeds ranged from 0.9 to 5.0%. Among several seed characteristics, only seed shape (wrinkled verses round had a significant effect on the total lipid production in the seeds. Peas are a valuable source of protein and starch, but the lipid concentration in their seeds has been undervalued. This research supports the idea of developing a novel dual-purpose oilseed pea that emulates the protein and oil production in soybean seeds while being conveniently adapted to a colder climate.
Sue, Miles K.
A recent study by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) has concluded that the 21st century will be the age of information in which the telecommunication infrastructure will be vital to the social and economic well being of society. To meet the challenge of the coming age, JPL has been performing studies on a personal access satellite system (PASS) for the 21st century. The PASS study can be traced back to a study in which the technical feasibility and potential applications of a high frequency, low data rate satellite system were identified using small fixed terminals. Herein, the PASS concept is described along with the strawman design. Then the key challenges are identified along with possible solutions. Finally, the plan for the future is summarized from the key results.
Berlinger, Balázs; Ellingsen, Dag G; Náray, Miklós; Záray, Gyula; Thomassen, Yngvar
The respiratory bio-accessibility of a substance is the fraction that is soluble in the respiratory environment and is available for absorption. In the case of respiratory exposure the amount of absorbed substance plays a main role in the biological effects. Extensive bio-accessibility studies have always been an essential requirement for a better understanding of the biological effects of different workplace aerosols, such as welding fumes. Fumes generated using three different welding techniques, manual metal arc (MMA) welding, metal inert gas (MIG) welding, and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding were investigated in the present study. Each technique was used for stainless steel welding. Welding fumes were collected on PVC membrane filters in batches of 114 using a multiport air sampler. Three different fluids were applied for the solubility study: deionised water and two kinds of lung fluid simulants: lung epithelial lining fluid simulant (Gamble's solution) and artificial lung lining fluid simulant (Hatch's solution). In order to obtain sufficient data to study the tendencies in solubility change with time, seven different leaching periods were used (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 h), each of them with three replicates. The effect of dissolution temperature was also studied. The total amounts of selected metals in the three different welding fumes were determined after microwave-assisted digestion with the mixture of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. The most obvious observation yielded by the results is that the solubility of individual metals varies greatly depending on the welding technique, the composition of the leaching fluid and leaching time. This study shows that the most reasonable choice as a media for the bio-assessment of solubility might be Hatch's solution by a dissolution time of 24 h.
Accessible Geoscience is a developing field of pedagogic research aimed at widening participation in Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) subjects. These subjects are often less commonly associated with disabilities, ethnic minorities, low income socio-economic groups and females. While advancements and improvements have been made in the inclusivity of these subject areas in recent years, access and participation of disabled students remains low. While universities are legally obligated to provide reasonable adjustments to ensure accessibility, the assumed incompatibility of GEES subjects and disability often deters students from applying to study these courses at a university level. Instead of making reasonable adjustments if and when they are needed, universities should be aiming to develop teaching materials, spaces and opportunities which are accessible to all, which in turn will allow all groups to participate in the GEES subjects. With this in mind, the Swansea Geography Department wish to enhance the accessibility of our undergraduate degree by developing digital field work opportunities. In the first instance, we intend to digitise three afternoon excursions which are run as part of a 1st year undergraduate module. Each of the field trips will be digitized into English- and Welsh-medium formats. In addition, each field trip will be digitized into British Sign Language (BSL) to allow for accessibility for D/deaf and hard of hearing students. Subtitles will also be made available in each version. While the main focus of this work is to provide accessible fieldwork opportunities for students with disabilities, this work also has additional benefits. Students within the Geography Department will be able to revisit the field trips, to revise and complete associated coursework. The use of digitized field work should not replace opportunities for real field work, but its use by the full cohort of students will begin to "normalize" accessible field
Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote
Full Text Available with disabilities, lists of accessible tourist venues, mailing lists, discussion forums, book reviews, etc. In an effort to reach a wider (and possibly younger) group of potential users, a Facebook application was developed which could be installed in a Facebook...
Full Text Available The flexibility of the MOOC service allows students to learn at their own time, place and pace, enhancing continuous communication and interaction between all participants in knowledge and community building. This model especially benefits people with disabilities, which can improve therefore their level of employability and social inclusion, reaching a better quality of life. Unfortunately the access to MOOC platforms present severe barriers: there is a lack of accessibility on the learning resources, the communicating tools and personalized user interfaces. All these issues add extra difficulties such as the need to develop specific digital or even social skills for students with functional diversity. In this context, MOOCs are leading a revolutionary computer and mobile-based scenario along with social technologies that will emerge new kinds of learning applications that enhance communication and collaboration processes. For that reason, this paper describes the need for designing an information model and related specifications to support a new strategy for delivering accessible MOOC courses to learners with special needs, in terms of their preferences and context of use based on a particular application profile. This user profile’s design is based on standard metadata schemas, data that provides information about other data, regarding the achievement of accessibility from content to user preferences.
Full Text Available Telephone-based information access has the potential to deliver a significant positive impact in the developing world. We discuss some of the most important issues that must be addressed in order to realize this potential, including matters related...
Since 2009, Open Access (OA) Week has been celebrated worldwide in October each year. It is an opportunity for librarians to engage with the research community and demonstrate the value that they bring to their organisations in the area of disseminating scholarly output. Although thousands of events have been held since the inception of OA Week, a…
Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)
Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments. This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp
Hennig, Teresa; Griffith, Geoffrey L
A comprehensive guide to programming for Access 2010 and 2007. Millions of people use the Access database applications, and hundreds of thousands of developers work with Access daily. Access 2010 brings better integration with SQL Server and enhanced XML support; this Wrox guide shows developers how to take advantage of these and other improvements. With in-depth coverage of VBA, macros, and other programming methods for building Access applications, this book also provides real-world code examples to demonstrate each topic.: Access is the leading database that is used worldwide; While VBA rem
Asiah Abdul Rahim; Nur Amirah Abd. Samad
In Malaysia, it has become of increasing importance to study ways to improve the level of accessibility in buildings for the elderly and disabled people in the built environment, especially in hotels and resorts. The methods used in this study to identify areas to improve are access audits, table research and interviews. The data from these studies are analysed using a descriptive analysis based on access audits, observations, plan analysis, photographs and questionnaires. Access audits were ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Coordinating Center provides SWAN data access to SWAN Investigators through the study website. The SWAN website provides access to longitudinal data...
Tullney, Marco; van Wezenbeek, Wilma
Slides of an overview presentation given at a CESAER workshop on Open Access, February 2nd, 2017, in Brussels Cover major routes to more open access as discussed in the Task Force Open Science of CESAER: (national) open access strategies open access mandates open access incentives open access awareness open access publishing open access infrastructure
Department of Transportation — This data set contains the personnel access card data (photo, name, activation/expiration dates, card number, and access level) as well as data about turnstiles and...
A report on how nine rail builder, operators and transport designers deal with design for accessibility......A report on how nine rail builder, operators and transport designers deal with design for accessibility...
Open Access (OA), defined most simply, means free full text online. There are over 130 Open Access journals hosted on the AJOL website. You can find a full list of these journals here: OA journals on AJOL ...
Cosma Emil; Jeflea Victor
By using Word, Excel or PowerPoint one can automate routine operations using the VBA language (Visual Basic for Applications). This language is also used in Access, allowing access to data stored in tables or queries. Thus, Access and VBA resources can be used together. Access is designed for programming forms and reports (among other things), so there won’t be found any of the VBA editor’s specific forms.
O'Rourke, Pearl; Ekins, Ray; Timmins, Bernard; Timmins, Fiona; Long, Siobhan; Coyle, Eugene
To develop and demonstrate a method to involve professional users of assistive technology (AT) in the development process of customisable products. Employing the ideas of user participation and mass customisation, this research addresses the need for reduced product costs and optimised product flexibility. An adaptable six-question Delphi study was developed to establish consensus among AT professionals on design issues relating to a specified AT domain requiring innovation. The study is demonstrated for the special access technology (SAT) domain. A modified morphological matrix structures the application of the study results to the product design process. Fourteen professionals from the Republic of Ireland and the UK participated. Consensus was reached on prevalent parts of SAT that malfunction, primary reasons for SAT malfunction, characteristics of clients associated with SAT selection, client needs regarding SAT use and training, desirable traits of SAT and clinicians' frustrations with SAT. The study revealed a range of problems related to SAT, highlighting the complexities of successful SAT adoption. The questions led to differentiated insights and enabled design solution conceptualisation from various perspectives. The approach was found to help facilitate efficient generation and application of professional users' knowledge during the design process of customisable AT.
McKay, Sharon Cline
Discusses issues librarians need to consider when providing access to electronic journals. Topics include gateways; index and abstract services; validation and pay-per-view; title selection; integration with OPACs (online public access catalogs)or Web sites; paper availability; ownership versus access; usage restrictions; and services offered…
Full Text Available Abstract Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature.
This study focused on Internet access and usage by staff and students in the University of Jos Main Library. It investigated monthly number of users that queued to access Internet monthly and the number of users who actually had access to use the Internet between January – December 2006. Other things investigated ...
Grandbois, Jennifer; Beheshti, Jamshid
Introduction: This study aims to gain a greater understanding of the development of open access practices amongst library and information science authors, since their role is integral to the success of the broader open access movement. Method: Data were collected from scholarly articles about open access by library and information science authors…
Stokes, Alison; Atchison, Christopher; Feig, Anthony; Gilley, Brett
Students with disabilities are commonly excluded from full participation in geoscience programs, and encounter significant barriers when accessing field-learning experiences. In order to increase talent and diversity in the geoscience workforce, more inclusive learning experiences must be developed that will enable all students to complete the requirements of undergraduate degree programs, including fieldwork. We discuss the outcomes of a completely accessible field course developed through the collaborative effort of geoscience education practitioners from the US, Canada and the UK. This unique field workshop has brought together current geoscience academics and students with disabilities to share perspectives on commonly-encountered barriers to learning in the field, and explore methods and techniques for overcoming them. While the student participants had the opportunity to learn about Earth processes while situated in the natural environment, participating geoscience instructors began to identify how to improve the design of field courses, making them fully inclusive of learners with disabilities. The outcomes from this experience will be used to develop guidelines to facilitate future development and delivery of accessible geoscience fieldwork.
Freeman, Tom; Brown, Judith Belle; Reid, Graham; Stewart, Moira; Thind, Amardeep; Vingilis, Evelyn
To examine the health care-related experiences of individuals who have lost their FPs. A qualitative design using phenomenology. Southwestern Ontario. Eighteen participants (9 women and 9 men, with a mean age of 48.9 years) from urban or rural areas who had lost their FPs. Semistructured interviews were conducted, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. An iterative approach using immersion and crystallization was employed for analysis. Participants reported having lost their FPs because of reasons specific to their physicians (eg, illness, retirement, career change) or system issues (eg, poor remuneration for FPs, cutbacks in health care leading to physician emigration). Participants described feelings of loss, abandonment, frustration, and anger related to losing their physicians. They expressed concerns about the difficulty of getting prescription medications, lack of continuity of care related to medical records, and preventive care. They faced considerable hurdles in accessing primary health care, turning to walk-in clinics and emergency departments despite concerns about quality and fragmentation of care. Some of those with chronic medical conditions prevailed upon specialists to help meet primary health care needs. Losing access to FPs evoked a variety of strong feelings among these participants. They engaged in a number of strategies to meet their primary care needs but not without reservations. In a health care system appropriately built on primary health care, the lack of access to FPs is regarded as the loss of a basic right to care.
Miguel Pereira Costa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The posterosuperior shoulder access used in surgical treatment for acromioclavicular dislocation was constructed through dissection of 20 shoulders from 10 recently chilled adult cadavers, and the distances from this route to the nearby neurovascular structures were analyzed. METHODS: A Kirschner wire was introduced into the top of the base of the coracoid process through the posterosuperior shoulder access, in the area of the origin of the conoid and trapezoid ligaments, thus reproducing the path for inserting two anchors for anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments. The smallest distance from the insertion point of the Kirschner wire to the suprascapular nerve and artery/vein was measured. RESULTS: The mean distance from the suprascapular nerve to the origin of the coracoclavicular ligaments at the top of the base of the coracoid process was 18.10 mm (range: 13.77-22.80 in the right shoulder and 18.19 mm (range: 12.59-23.75 in the left shoulder. The mean distance from the suprascapular artery/vein to the origin of the coracoclavicular ligaments was 13.10 mm (range: 9.28-15.44 in the right shoulder and 14.11 mm (range: 8.83-18.89 in the left shoulder. Comparison between the contralateral sides did not show any statistical difference. CONCLUSION: The posterosuperior shoulder access route for anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments in treating acromioclavicular dislocation should be performed respecting the minimum limit of 8.83 mm medially.
Ulrich Fuller, Laurie
The easy guide to Microsoft Access returns with updates on the latest version! Microsoft Access allows you to store, organize, view, analyze, and share data; the new Access 2013 release enables you to build even more powerful, custom database solutions that integrate with the web and enterprise data sources. Access 2013 For Dummies covers all the new features of the latest version of Accessand serves as an ideal reference, combining the latest Access features with the basics of building usable databases. You'll learn how to create an app from the Welcome screen, get support
Pro Access 2010 Development is a fundamental resource for developing business applications that take advantage of the features of Access 2010 and the many sources of data available to your business. In this book, you'll learn how to build database applications, create Web-based databases, develop macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) tools for Access applications, integrate Access with SharePoint and other business systems, and much more. Using a practical, hands-on approach, this book will take you through all the facets of developing Access-based solutions, such as data modeling, co
Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.
Open Access is high on the agenda in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has announced a national strategy for Open Access that aims to achieve Open Access to 80% in 2017 and 100% in 2022 to peer review research articles. All public Danish funders as well as H2020 requires that all peer review...... articles that is an outcome of their funding will be Open Access. Uploading your full texts (your final author manuscript after review ) to DTU Orbit is a fundamental part of providing Open Access to your research. We are here to answer all your questions with regards to Open Access and related topics...... such as copyright, DTU Orbit, Open Access journals, APCs, Vouchers etc....
This book offers practical recipes to solve a variety of common problems that users have with extracting Access data and performing calculations on it. Whether you use Access 2007 or an earlier version, this book will teach you new methods to query data, different ways to move data in and out of Access, how to calculate answers to financial and investment issues, how to jump beyond SQL by manipulating data with VBA, and more.
Bacchiega, Emanuele; Randon, Emanuela; Zirulia, Lorenzo
We analyze the effect of competition in market-accessibility enhancement among quality-differentiated firms. Firms are located in regions with different ex-ante transport costs to reach the final market. We characterize the equilibrium of the two-stage game in which firms first invest to improve market accessibility and then compete in prices. Efforts in accessibility improvement crucially depend on the interplay between the willingness to pay for the quality premium of the median consumer an...
Mireia Ribera Turró
Full Text Available Adobe PDF is one of the most widely used formats in scientific communications and in administrative documents. In its latest versions it has incorporated structural tags and improvements that increase its level of accessibility. This article reviews the concept of accessibility in the reading of digital documents and evaluates the accessibility of PDF according to the most widely established standards.
Svendsen, Michael; Hansen, Lars Asger Juel; Andersen, Dorte
Open Access Monitor - DK (OAM-DK) is a 2-year DEFF funded [DEFF.2016-0018] national project running in 2017-2018 with the aim of collecting, documenting and administrating Open Access publishing costs. OAM-DK is lead by Copenhagen University Library under the Royal Danish Library with participation...... of all Danish University Libraries. This poster presents the first results of Open Access costs related to 2015 publications at the The University of Copenhagen....
The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.
National Archives and Records Administration — The OGIS Access System (OAS) provides case management, stakeholder collaboration, and public communications activities including a web presence via a web portal.
A comprehensive reference to the updated and new features of Access 2013 As the world's most popular database management tool, Access enables you to organize, present, analyze, and share data as well as build powerful database solutions. However, databases can be complex. That's why you need the expert guidance in this comprehensive reference. Access 2013 Bible helps you gain a solid understanding of database purpose, construction, and application so that whether you're new to Access or looking to upgrade to the 2013 version, this well-rounded resource provides you with a th
Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz
Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.
Studies of the relationship between access point density (number of access points, or driveways, per kilometre of road) and accident frequency or rate (number of accidents per unit of exposure) have consistently found that accident rate increases when access point density increases. This paper presents a formal synthesis of the findings of these studies. It was found that the addition of one access point per kilometre of road is associated with an increase of 4% in the expected number of accidents, controlling for traffic volume. Although studies consistently indicate an increase in accident rate as access point density increases, the size of the increase varies substantially between studies. In addition to reviewing studies of access point density as a risk factor, the paper discusses some issues related to formally synthesising regression coefficients by applying the inverse-variance method of meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Willis, Y.A.; Morris, W.R.
The Nuclear Industry has made great technical strides toward the safe and efficient management of nuclear waste but public acceptance and cooperation lag far behind. The challenge is to better inform the public of the technical options available to safely manage the various types of nuclear wastes. Westinghouse responded to this challenge by creating the Nuclear Waste Management Outreach Program with the goal to make nuclear waste information accessible as well as available. The Outreach Program is an objective informational seminar series comprises of modules which may be adopted to various audiences. The seminars deal with radioactive wastes and the legislative and regulatory framework within which the Industry must function. The Outreach Program provides a forum to present relevant information, encourage an interchange of ideas and experiences, elicit feedback, and it provides for field site visits where feasible and appropriate. The program has been well received by the participants including technologists, government officials, educators, and the general public
Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan
Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or
The World Health Organization and the World Bank's "World Report on Disability" reported that over 1 billion people have various kinds of disability worldwide while Indian Census 2011 reported about 26 million in India. The United Nations Convention states, "The Rights of Persons with Disabilities (PwD) include accessibility to Information, Transportation, Environment, Communication Technology and Services". This article takes forward the reason of making the "EasenAccess" (EnA) Android-based app to empower PwD with wheelchair-accessibility information, communication sentences and sending SOS signals with location. A survey of 25 most frequented places in New Delhi by common people and tourist with chosen 12 parameters in comparison the Government of India's survey of 100 most important buildings nationally. A statistical analysis and recommendations about areas for improvement, for the Government of India. EasenAccess helps millions of PwD to enable them with freedom of movement for employment and socio-economic activities to lead an independent lifestyle. EasenAccess increases government's access to information about lacunae, gives them an easy way to tabulate the places where more accessibility needs updating, and helps the government in facilitating information flow to the PwD. Implication for Rehabilitation The Rights of Persons with Disability Act in 2016 covers both the concepts of Universal Design of products, environments and programs; and accessibility. We are exploring with them the ways technology can help bridge the gap between rehabilitation and accessibility. In the higher income countries such as the UK or USA, it is normal for a person to receive training when being given a wheelchair to prevent future injuries. Frequently, even with this, training people develop upper limb injuries, due in part to the high, repetitive loads needed to push a wheelchair. This training is given as part of a package of rehabilitation, which also normally includes
Poort, J.P.; Groot, I.; Kok, L.; de Graaf, D.; Hof, B.J.F.
The accessibility of certain products and services to all people, irrespective of their income, age, health and geographical location is considered to be of great social importance. Think for instance of health care, education, electricity, and sanitation. Accessibility can be secured in a variety
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.
Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...
Argues that easy claims about the relationship between language mastery and academic or economic access (made by both conservative commentators on education and mainstream writing teachers) are false and obscure real social and political boundaries, such as racism, sexism, elitism, and homophobia, that really do prevent access. (SR)
Wu, Xinxing; Wang, Jianjun
Highlights: • Obtain some characteristics of accessibility and Kato’s chaos. • Answer negatively a question in [Li R, Wang H, Zhao Y. Kato’s chaos in duopoly games. Chaos Solit Fract 2016;84:69–72]. • A dynamical system is indecomposable if and only if it is weakly transitive. - Abstract: This note obtains some characteristics of accessibility and Kato’s chaos. Applying these results, an accessible dynamical system whose product system is not accessible is constructed, giving a negative answer to a question in [Li R, Wang H, Zhao Y. Kato’s chaos in duopoly games. Chaos Solit Fract 2016;84:69–72]. Besides, it is proved that every transitive interval self-map is accessible.
Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, N?bia Cristina; Amaral, Pedro Vasconcelos; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Rocha, Jo?o Victor Muniz; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Thum?, Elaine; Thomaz, Erika B?rbara Abreu Fonseca; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Lopes, Daniel Paulino; Staton, Catherine A.; Vissoci, Jo?o Ricardo Nickenig
Background Unequal distribution of emergency care services is a critical barrier to be overcome to assure access to emergency and surgical care. Considering this context it was objective of the present work analyze geographic access barriers to emergency care services in Brazil. A secondary aim of the study is to define possible roles to be assumed by small hospitals in the Brazilian healthcare network to overcome geographic access challenges. Methods The present work can be classified as a c...
Hoang, Ha; Le, Quynh; Terry, Daniel
This study investigates (i) maternity care access issues in rural Tasmania, (ii) rural women's challenges in accessing maternity services and (iii) rural women's access needs in maternity services. A mixed-method approach using a survey and semi-structured interviews was conducted. The survey explored women's views of rural maternity services from antenatal to postnatal care, while interviews reinforced the survey results and provided insights into the access issues and needs of women in maternity care. The survey was completed by n=210 women, with a response rate of 35%, with n=22 follow-up interviews being conducted. The survey indicated the majority of rural women believed antenatal education and check-ups and postnatal check-ups should be provided locally. The majority of women surveyed also believed in the importance of having a maternity unit in the local hospital, which was further iterated and clarified within the interviews. Three main themes emerged from the interview data, namely (i) lack of access to maternity services, (ii) difficulties in accessing maternity services, and (iii) rural women's access needs. The study suggested that women's access needs are not fully met in some rural areas of Tasmania. Rural women face many challenges when accessing maternity services, including financial burden and risk of labouring en route. The study supports the claim that the closure of rural maternity units shifts cost and risk from the health care system to rural women and their families. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donaldson, James S.
Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)
Ismail, Abid; Kuppusamy, K S; Nengroo, Ab Shakoor
Nature of being accessible to all categories of users is one of the primary factors for enabling the wider reach of the resources published through World Wide Web. The accessibility of websites has been analyzed through W3C guidelines with the help of various tools. This paper presents a multi-tool accessibility assessment of government department websites belonging to the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. A comparative analysis of six accessibility tools is also presented with 14 different parameters. The accessibility analysis tools used in this study for analysis are aChecker, Cynthia Says, Tenon, wave, Mauve, and Hera. These tools provide us the results of selected websites accessibility status on Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1.0 and 2.0. It was found that there are variations in accessibility analysis results when using different accessibility metrics to measure the accessibility of websites. In addition to this, we have identified the guidelines which have frequently been violated. It was observed that there is a need for incorporating the accessibility component features among the selected websites. This paper presents a set of suggestions to improve the accessibility status of these sites so that the information and services provided by these sites shall reach a wider spectrum of audience without any barrier. Implications for rehabilitation The following points indicates that this case study of JKGAD websites comes under Rehabilitation focused on Visually Impaired users. Due to the universal nature of web, it should be accessible to all according to WCAG guidelines framed by World Wide Web Consortium. In this paper we have identified multiple accessibility barriers for persons with visual impairment while browsing the Jammu and Kashmir Government websites. Multi-tool analysis has been done to pin-point the potential barriers for persons with visually Impaired. Usability analysis has been performed to check whether these websites are suitable
Klein, David; Myhill, William; Hansen, Linda; Asby, Gary; Michaelson, Susan; Blanck, Peter
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Sections 504 and 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, prohibit discrimination against people with disabilities in all aspects of daily life, including education, work, and access to places of public accommodations. Increasingly, these antidiscrimination laws are used by persons with disabilities to ensure equal access to e-commerce, and to private and public Internet websites. To help assess the impact of the anti-discrimination mandate for educational communities, this study examined 157 website home pages of Iowa public high schools (52% of high schools in Iowa) in terms of their electronic accessibility for persons with disabilities. We predicted that accessibility problems would limit students and others in obtaining information from the web pages as well as limiting ability to navigate to other web pages. Findings show that although many web pages examined included information in accessible formats, none of the home pages met World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards for accessibility. The most frequent accessibility problem was lack of alternative text (ALT tags) for graphics. Technical sophistication built into pages was found to reduce accessibility. Implications are discussed for schools and educational institutions, and for laws, policies, and procedures on website accessibility. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ulrich Fuller, Laurie
A friendly, step-by-step guide to the Microsoft Office database application Access may be the least understood and most challenging application in the Microsoft Office suite. This guide is designed to help anyone who lacks experience in creating and managing a database learn to use Access 2010 quickly and easily. In the classic For Dummies tradition, the book provides an education in Access, the interface, and the architecture of a database. It explains the process of building a database, linking information, sharing data, generating reports, and much more.As the Micr
Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan
Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005 Background With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks
Thompson, Terrill; Burgstahler, Sheryl; Moore, Elizabeth J
This article reports on a follow-up assessment to Thompson et al. (Proceedings of The First International Conference on Technology-based Learning with Disability, July 19-20, Dayton, Ohio, USA; 2007. pp 127-136), in which higher education home pages were evaluated over a 5-year period on their accessibility to individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to identify trends in web accessibility and long-term impact of outreach and education. Home pages from 127 higher education institutions in the Northwest were evaluated for accessibility three times over a 6-month period in 2004-2005 (Phase I), and again in 2009 (Phase II). Schools in the study were offered varying degrees of training and/or support on web accessibility during Phase I. Pages were evaluated for accessibility using a set of manual checkpoints developed by the researchers. Over the 5-year period reported in this article, significant positive gains in accessibility were revealed on some measures, but accessibility declined on other measures. The areas of improvement are arguably the more basic, easy-to-implement accessibility features, while the area of decline is keyboard accessibility, which is likely associated with the emergence of dynamic new technologies on web pages. Even on those measures where accessibility is improving, it is still strikingly low. In Phase I of the study, institutions that received extensive training and support were more likely than other institutions to show improved accessibility on the measures where institutions improved overall, but were equally or more likely than others to show a decline on measures where institutions showed an overall decline. In Phase II, there was no significant difference between institutions who had received support earlier in the study, and those who had not. Results suggest that growing numbers of higher education institutions in the Northwest are motivated to add basic accessibility features to their home pages, and that
Bio Yara, O.G.J.P.
This research sets out to identify the factors that are enforcing gender inequality and influencing the increase of access of female students to vocational education. The study specifically sought to explore the external and internal factors influencing access of girls to agricultural education in
Full Text Available Background. Health policies increasingly promote e-health developments (e.g., consumers’ access to online health information to engage patients in the health care. In order to make these developments available for culturally and socially diverse communities, not only do Internet accessibility, literacy and e-health literacy need to be taken into account, but consumers’ preferences and information seeking behaviours for accessing health information have also to be understood. These considerations are crucial when designing major new health policy directions, especially for migration destination countries with culturally diverse populations, such as Australia. The aim of this study was to examine how people from a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD community use telecommunications (phone, mobile, Internet to access health information. Design and Methods. A case study was conducted using a questionnaire exploring the use of telecommunications to access health information among CALD people. The study was carried out at a community health centre in a socially and economically disadvantaged area of Melbourne, a city of 4 million people with a large CALD and migrant population. Questionnaires were translated into three languages and interpreters were provided. Fifty-nine questionnaires were completed by users of the community health centre. Results. Most of the CALD participants did not have access to the Internet at home and very few reported using telecommunications to access health information. Conclusions. The findings of the study suggest that telecommunications are not necessarily perceived to be an important channel for accessing health information by members of the CALD community.
Greenstock, Louise; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Fraser, Catriona; Bingham, Amie; Naccarella, Lucio; Elliott, Kristine; Morris, Michal
Health policies increasingly promote e-health developments (e.g., consumers' access to online health information) to engage patients in their health care. In order to make these developments available for culturally and socially diverse communities, not only do Internet accessibility, literacy and e-health literacy need to be taken into account, but consumers' preferences and information seeking behaviours for accessing health information have also to be understood. These considerations are crucial when designing major new health policy directions, especially for migration destination countries with culturally diverse populations, such as Australia. The aim of this study was to examine how people from a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) community use telecommunications (phone, mobile, Internet) to access health information. A case study was conducted using a questionnaire exploring the use of telecommunications to access health information among CALD people. The study was carried out at a community health centre in a socially and economically disadvantaged area of Melbourne, a city of 4 million people with a large CALD and migrant population. Questionnaires were translated into three languages and interpreters were provided. Fifty-nine questionnaires were completed by users of the community health centre. Most of the CALD participants did not have access to the Internet at home and very few reported using telecommunications to access health information. The findings of the study suggest that telecommunications are not necessarily perceived to be an important channel for accessing health information by members of the CALD community.
This PhD thesis is aimed at using fluorescence microscopy to study accessibility, structure and reactivity of two types of systems. The first part of this thesis is focused on model zeolite crystals. Fundamental insights into the accessibility and internal structure of zeolite powders and crystals
In developing countries, e.g., Nigeria, several communities have limited access to sanitation and sanitation facilities, thus such communities dump their solid and liquid wastes indiscriminately. The aim of this study was to assess access to sanitation, and compare basic sanitation facilities between upland and coastal ...
Kalin, Sally W.
Describes a study that was conducted to determine whether the searching behavior of remote users of LIAS (Library Information Access System), Pennsylvania State University's online public access catalog (OPAC), differed from those using the OPAC within the library. Differences in search strategies and in user satisfaction are discussed. (eight…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to medical literature in developing countries is helped by open access publishing and initiatives to allow free access to subscription only journals. The effectiveness of these initiatives in Africa has not been assessed. This study describes awareness, reported use and factors influencing use of on-line medical literature via free access initiatives. Methods Descriptive study in four teaching hospitals in Cameroon, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda plus one externally funded research institution in The Gambia. Survey with postgraduate doctors and research scientists to determine Internet access patterns, reported awareness of on-line medical information and free access initiatives; semi structured interviews with a sub-sample of survey participants to explore factors influencing use. Results In the four African teaching hospitals, 70% of the 305 postgraduate doctors reported textbooks as their main source of information; 66% had used the Internet for health information in the last week. In two hospitals, Internet cafés were the main Internet access point. For researchers at the externally-funded research institution, electronic resources were their main source, and almost all had used the Internet in the last week. Across all 333 respondents, 90% had heard of PubMed, 78% of BMJ on line, 49% the Cochrane Library, 47% HINARI, and 19% BioMedCentral. HINARI use correlates with accessing the Internet on computers located in institutions. Qualitative data suggested there are difficulties logging into HINARI and that sometimes it is librarians that limit access to passwords. Conclusion Text books remain an important resource for postgraduate doctors in training. Internet use is common, but awareness of free-access initiatives is limited. HINARI and other initiatives could be more effective with strong institutional endorsement and management to promote and ensure access.
Transportation engineers and planners are becoming more interested in using roundabouts to address access : management and safety concerns in the transportation system. While roundabouts are being used increasingly in a : variety of contexts, existin...
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.
According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...... objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market...... access and consumer welfare will always be weakly compatible, in the sense that reforms based on each objective have the same signed effect on the other objective. For strong compatibility, whereby both objectives increase as a result of a locally optimal tariff reform, we derive both a necessary...
Baessa, Mohamed A.
The library plays a critical role in facilitating open access for their researchers, from managing a repository to providing support and information on the OA publication process to their authors. Janis Tyhurst and Dr Imad
Andreasen, Manja Hoppe; Møller-Jensen, Lasse
This paper is concerned with access to the city for urban residents living in the periphery of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The paper presents an analysis of the mobility practices of residents and investigates the mobility constraints they experience in relation to the limited accessibility provided...... mobility and access to the city for residents in the periphery. Regular mobility is an ingrained part of residents' livelihood strategies. The majority of households rely on one or more members regularly travelling to central parts of the city in relation to their livelihood activities. The analysis...... by road and traffic conditions and highlights how accessibility problems of peripheral settlements are not easily understood separately from the general dysfunctions of the overall mobility system of city....
... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... hospitals and improve access to healthcare by keeping essential services in rural communities. To accomplish this goal, ...
.... Remote Network Access (RNA) includes or is associated with all communication devices/software, firewalls, intrusion detection systems and virus protection applications to ensure security of the OIG, DoD, Network from remote...
Department of Transportation — The AccessAML is a web-based internet single application designed to reduce the vulnerability associated with several accounts assinged to a single users. This is a...
Manson, T.; Blok, M.
A general review of the measures involved in restoring abandoned access road sites in British Columbia was presented. Permits and licences are needed for the use of crown land for roads used by the petroleum and natural gas industry for exploration activities. However, the regulatory framework for road site reclamation is not well developed. The nature of access road reclamation is very site-specific. Some of the issues that are considered for all reclamation projects include slope stability, water control, revegetation, soil rehabilitation, access management and monitoring. The primary objective of reclaiming access road sites is to return the site to conditions that are equal or better than pre-disturbance conditions. Restoration measures must be approved by BC Environment and by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans where federal fisheries responsibilities are involved. 54 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs
In recent years, the field of Universal Access has made significant progress in consolidating theoretical approaches, scientific methods and technologies, as well as in exploring new application domains. Increasingly, professionals in this rapidly maturing area require a comprehensive and multidisciplinary resource that addresses current principles, methods, and tools. Written by leading international authorities from academic, research, and industrial organizations and nonmarket institutions, The Universal Access Handbook covers the unfolding scientific, methodological, technological, and pol
Holders of CERN access cards are reminded that the card is an official document. It is important to carry it with you at all times when you are on the site. This applies also to those on standby duty who are called out for emergency interventions. As announced in Weekly Bulletin 13/2006, any loss or theft of access cards must be declared to the competent external authorities.
Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Keller, Marc S.
Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.
Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Amaral, Pedro Vasconcelos; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Rocha, João Victor Muniz; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Thumé, Elaine; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Lopes, Daniel Paulino; Staton, Catherine A; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto
Unequal distribution of emergency care services is a critical barrier to be overcome to assure access to emergency and surgical care. Considering this context it was objective of the present work analyze geographic access barriers to emergency care services in Brazil. A secondary aim of the study is to define possible roles to be assumed by small hospitals in the Brazilian healthcare network to overcome geographic access challenges. The present work can be classified as a cross-sectional ecological study. To carry out the present study, data of all 5843 Brazilian hospitals were categorized among high complexity centers and small hospitals. The geographical access barriers were identified through the use of two-step floating catchment area method. Once concluded the previous step an evaluation using the Getis-Ord-Gi method was performed to identify spatial clusters of municipalities with limited access to high complexity centers but well covered by well-equipped small hospitals. The analysis of accessibility index of high complexity centers highlighted large portions of the country with nearly zero hospital beds by inhabitant. In contrast, it was possible observe a group of 1595 municipalities with high accessibility to small hospitals, simultaneously with a low coverage of high complexity centers. Among the 1595 municipalities with good accessibility to small hospitals, 74% (1183) were covered by small hospitals with at least 60% of minimum emergency service requirements. The spatial clusters analysis aggregated 589 municipalities with high values related to minimum emergency service requirements. Small hospitals in these 589 cities could promote the equity in access to emergency services benefiting more than eight million people. There is a spatial disequilibrium within the country with prominent gaps in the health care network for emergency services. Taking this challenge into consideration, small hospitals could be a possible solution and foster equity in access
Bruijns, Stevan R; Maesela, Mmapeladi; Sinha, Suniti; Banner, Megan
Based on relative population size and burden of disease, emergency care publication outputs from low- and middle-income regions are disproportionately lower than those of high-income regions. Ironically, outputs from regions with higher publication rates are often less relevant in the African context. As a result, the dissemination of and access to local research is essential to local researchers, but the cost of this access (actual and cost-wise) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to describe access to African emergency care publications in terms of publisher-based access (open access or subscription) and alternate access (self-archived or author provided), as well as the cost of access. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study using all emergency medicine publications included in Scopus between 2011 and 2015. A sequential search strategy described access to each article, and we calculated mean article charges against the purchasing power parity index (used to describe out-of-pocket expense). We included 666 publications from 49 journals, of which 395 (59.3%) were open access. For subscription-based articles, 106 (39.1%) were self-archived, 60 (22.1%) were author-provided, and 105 (38.8%) were inaccessible. Mean article access cost was $36.44, and mean processing charge was $2,319.34. Using the purchasing power parity index it was calculated that equivalent out-of-pocket expenditure for South African, Ghanaian and Tanzanian authors would respectively be $15.77, $10.44 and $13.04 for access, and $1,004.02, $664.36 and $830.27 for processing. Based on this, the corrected cost of a single-unit article access or process charge for South African, Ghanaian and Tanzanian authors, respectively, was 2.3, 3.5 and 2.8 times higher than the standard rate. One in six African emergency care publications are inaccessible outside institutional library subscriptions; additionally, the cost of access to publications in low- and middle-income countries appears
Rigotti, N A
To start smoking, young people need a supply of tobacco products. Reducing youth access to tobacco is a new approach to preventing tobacco use that has been a focus of federal, state, and local tobacco control efforts over the past decade. All 50 states ban tobacco sales to minors, but compliance is poor because laws are not enforced. Consequently, young people have little trouble obtaining tobacco products. Commercial sources of tobacco (stores and vending machines) are important for underage smokers, who often purchase their own cigarettes. Underage youths also obtain tobacco from noncommercial sources such as friends, relatives, older adolescents, and adults. Educating retailers about tobacco sales laws has not produced long-term improvement in their compliance. Active enforcement of tobacco sales laws changes retailer behavior, but whether this reduces young people's access to tobacco or their tobacco use is not clear. The effectiveness of new local, state, and federal actions that aim to reduce youth access to tobacco remains to be determined. Can enforcing tobacco sales laws reduce young people's access to tobacco? If so, will this prevent or delay the onset of their tobacco use? How will youths' sources of tobacco change as commercial sources are restricted? What are the social (noncommercial) sources of tobacco for minors and how can youths' access to tobacco from these sources be reduced? What is the impact of the new federal policies aimed at reducing youth access to tobacco? Do new state and local laws that ban youth possession or use of tobacco have a net positive or negative impact on youth attitudes, access to tobacco, or tobacco use? What is the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of efforts to reduce the supply of tobacco compared to those that aim to reduce demand for tobacco? Will either work alone or are both necessary to achieve reductions in youth smoking?
Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas
Achieving 'universal access' to antiretroviral HIV treatment (ART) in lower income and transitional settings is a global target. Yet, access to ART is shaped by local social condition and is by no means universal. Qualitative studies are ideally suited to describing how access to ART is socially situated. We explored systemic barriers to accessing ART among people who inject drugs (PWID) in a Russian city (Ekaterinburg) with a large burden of HIV treatment demand. We undertook 42 in-depth qualitative interviews with people living with HIV with current or recent experience of injecting drug use. Accounts were analysed thematically, and supplemented here with an illustrative case study. Three core themes were identified: 'labyrinthine bureaucracy' governing access to ART; a 'system Catch 22' created by an expectation that access to ART was conditional upon treated drug use in a setting of limited drug treatment opportunity; and 'system verticalization', where a lack of integration across HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and drug treatment compromised access to ART. Taken together, we find that systemic factors play a key role in shaping access to ART with the potential adverse effects of reproducing treatment initiation delay and disengagement from treatment. We argue that meso-level systemic factors affecting access to ART for PWID interact with wider macro-level structural forces, including those related to drug treatment policy and the social marginalization of PWID. We note the urgent need for systemic and structural changes to improve access to ART for PWID in this setting, including to simplify bureaucratic procedures, foster integrated HIV, TB and drug treatment services, and advocate for drug treatment policy reform.
An automated method for the control and monitoring of personnel movement throughout the site was developed under contract to the Department of Energy by Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These automated features provide strict enforcement of personnel access policy without routine patrol officer involvement. Identification methods include identification by employee ID number, identification by voice verification and identification by physical security officer verification. The ability to grant each level of access authority is distributed over the organization to prevent any single individual at any level in the organization from being capable of issuing an authorization for entry into sensitive areas. Each access event is recorded. As access events occur, the inventory of both the entered and the exited control area is updated so that a current inventory is always available for display. The system has been operated since 1979 in a development mode and many revisions have been implemented in hardware and software as areas were added to the system. Recent changes have involved the installation of backup systems and other features required to achieve a high reliability. The access control system and recent operating experience are described
.... Resources can represent software applications, web services and even facility access. An effective access control model should be capable of evaluating resource access based on user characteristics and environmentals...
Rexhepi, Hanife; Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie; Cajander, Åsa; Huvila, Isto
Patients' access to their online medical records serves as one of the cornerstones in the efforts to increase patient engagement and improve healthcare outcomes. The aim of this article is to provide in-depth understanding of cancer patients' attitudes and experiences of online medical records, as well as an increased understanding of the complexities of developing and launching e-Health services. The study result confirms that online access can help patients prepare for doctor visits and to understand their medical issues. In contrast to the fears of many physicians, the study shows that online access to medical records did not generate substantial anxiety, concerns or increased phone calls to the hospital.
Ham, C. H.; Yang, M. H.; Yoon, S. W.
The energy supply in the countries, which have abundant energy resources, may not be affected by accepting the assertion of anti-nuclear and environment groups. Anti-nuclear movements in the countries which have little energy resources may cause serious problem in securing energy supply. Especially, it is distinct in Korea because she heavily depends on nuclear energy in electricity supply(nuclear share in total electricity supply is about 40%).The cause of social trouble surrounding nuclear energy is being involved with various circumstances. However, it is very important that we are not aware of the importance of information access and prepared for such a situation from the early stage of nuclear energy's development. In those matter, this paper analyzes the contents of nuclear information access system in France and Japan which have dynamic nuclear development program and presents the direction of the nuclear access regime through comparing Korean status and referring to progresses of the regime
Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access
Walters, Terri [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rai, Neha [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reber, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muzammil, Maliha [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Mahmood, Tasfiq [International Center for Climate Change and Development, Baridhara (Bangladesh); Kaur, Nanki [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Tesfaye, Lidya [Echnoserve Consulting (Ethiopia); Mamuye, Simret [Echnoserve Consulting (Ethiopia); Knuckles, James [Univ. of London (England). Cass Business School; Morris, Ellen [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); de Been, Merijn [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Steinbach, Dave [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Acharya, Sunil [Digo Bikas Inst. (Nepal); Chhetri, Raju Pandit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhushal, Ramesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.
Full Text Available This essay argues that many of the assumptions that have been made about sprawl are misleading or just wrong. Nowhere has this been more the case than in debates about transportation and access. Because of this, it is not surprising that a good many of the policies advocated by proponents of Smart Growth would almost certainly lead to reduced mobility and impaired accessibility for a large part of the population. At very least, the debates over sprawl have pitted private vs. public transportation in a way that has contributed to serious underfunding of transportation infrastructure of all kinds.
Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo
A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially l...
We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.
Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R.; Uberoi, Raman
Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article
Roberto, Christina A; Agnew, Henry; Brownell, Kelly D
In this observational study, we determined how frequently consumers accessed on-premises nutrition information provided at chain restaurants. The number of patrons entering and accessing nutrition information was recorded at 8 locations that were part of 4 major restaurant chains (McDonald's, Burger King, Starbucks, and Au Bon Pain). Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions.
Agnew, Henry; Brownell, Kelly D.
In this observational study, we determined how frequently consumers accessed on-premises nutrition information provided at chain restaurants. The number of patrons entering and accessing nutrition information was recorded at 8 locations that were part of 4 major restaurant chains (McDonald's, Burger King, Starbucks, and Au Bon Pain). Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions. PMID:19299679
Pal, Joyojeet; Lakshmanan, Meera
To explore ways in which social and economic interactions are changed by access to mobile telephony. This is a mixed-methods study of mobile phone use among 52 urban professionals with vision impairments in Bangalore, India. Interviews and survey results indicated that mobile devices, specifically those with adaptive technology software, play a vital role as multi-purpose devices that enable people with disabilities to navigate economically and socially in an environment where accessibility remains a significant challenge. We found that mobile devices play a central role in enabling and sustaining weak ties, but also that these weak ties have important gender-specific implications. We found that women have less access to weak ties than men, which impacts women's access to assistive technology (AT). This has potential implications for women's sense of safety and independence, both of which are strongly related to AT access. Implications for Rehabilitation Adaptive technologies increase individuals' ability to keep in contact with casual connections or weak ties through phone calls or social media. Men tend to have stronger access to weak ties than women in India due to cultural impediments to independent access to public spaces. Weak ties are an important source of assistive technology (AT) due to the high rate of resale of used AT, typically through informal networks.
Full Text Available Seminar.net enters it’s fourth year, and has reached a state of maturity in a number of meanings: it receives manuscripts from all continents, the articles are read from 134 countries, of which India represents the highest number of readers, a number of articles have been read by more than 10 000 interested persons, and the frequency of issues is now three per year, and will reach four by next year. Interested parties now approach us in order to learn about our policies and practices.It takes time to become established and influential in the sense that articles are cited and referred to in prestigious publications. Still, the most prestigious publications are on paper. Many countries now embark on a policy that rewards researchers that publish in international journals, preferably in English. National languages are rendered less significant. In the UK, the research assessment exercise (RAE, and several other countries with a publication or citation based reward system in research, tend to favour quantitative dimensions at the expense of the quality of the publication. International publishing houses are huge profit-making companies that over years have increased their profit rates, charging increasingly economically pressured higher education institution with high subscription rates. With the advent of electronic publishing their position is severely challenged. It has been noted that the most significant publication of the last couple of decades was an electronic publication: Tim Berners Lee published the protocol for the World Wide Web in 1990. It was never refereed, nor was controlled by appointed gatekeepers of the “establishment”. The number of Open Access publications is rising every day, and the number of e-journals for academic publishing is reaching higher and higher numbers. In a recent case The Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University decided, that Harvard employees must publish all their material simultaneously on the
Karusisi, No?lla; Thomas, Fr?d?rique; M?line, Julie; Chaix, Basile
International audience; BACKGROUND: Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various i...
Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars
with aspiration of bone marrow (12.3%), and bended/broken needle (4.0%). When using an established IO access the reported complications were difficulties with injection fluid and drugs after IO insertion (7.4%), slow infusion (despite use of pressure bag) (8.8%), displacement after insertion (8...
Tremblay, Christopher W.
College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…
Canessa, E.; Fonda, C.; Zennaro, M.
In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)
Awate, Snehal; Larsen, Marcus M.; Mudambi, Ram
to get on par with industry leaders. An in-depth comparison of knowledge flows reveals that within AMNEs, headquarters often serves the primary source of knowledge for R&D subsidiaries. In contrast, within EMNEs, headquarters accesses knowledge from R&D subsidiaries in advanced economies for innovation...
Baessa, Mohamed A.
The transition to open access (OA) is being driven by funders, libraries, researchers and publishers around the world, and is having an impact on us all. It is inevitable that different countries, organisations and disciplines are moving at different rates towards an OA model, and it is this that we will focus on in this session. Drawing on experiences from across Europe and the Middle East we will provide perspectives from both a global publisher and institutions based in the region. Taylor & Francis take a flexible, evidence-based approach to open access, providing a choice of publication routes for our authors, and a choice of agreements for our library customers. Carolyn will outline some of the open access developments, opportunities and challenges at Taylor & Francis. The library plays a critical role in facilitating open access for their researchers, from managing a repository to providing support and information on the OA publication process to their authors. Janis Tyhurst and Dr Imad Bachir will each give an overview of how this is being managed by their institution. There will be an opportunity for questions and discussion with the panel.
For the past 12 to 15 years, the US electric power and energy industry and its federal regulators have been going through a prolonged exercise leading to opening up the national interconnected transmission grid for all qualified wholesale users to have open and equal access. The debates have been painful in a sense that not all parties - especially some of the transmission system owning utilities - believe that the concept of Open Access is achievable, due to technical constraints on the systems. The present Open Access activity is limited to wholesales transaction under the federal jurisdiction, but several states are either experimenting with or considering retail wheeling. In fact, the FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission - has already expanded its view to embrace retail transmission, if the retail transaction involves the use of the interstate transmission systems which are under FERC's jurisdiction. This paper delves into some of the results of the technical cost and pricing analysis for open access. The statutes and resulting regulations are not addressed herein. (author). 1 fig
Community colleges, with their commitment to open access, admit millions of students each year who are unprepared for college-level work, even though they have earned a high-school diploma. For decades the schools had a built-in base of students attracted to their open doors and relative affordability. But enrollment at public two-year college has…
T. M. Pestunova
Full Text Available The main aspects of the development of the information system, which grants users the rights for access to automated information system resources on the basis of the organization business-processes, are considered. The conceptual, informational, functional models of the system, as well as a model, which allows to realize control while using various formal models (RBAC, DAC, MAC, are described.
Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi
The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered as ...
Spoor, Dana L.
Argues that barrier-free designs should be incorporated in the first steps of school facility planning to avoid the difficulties in meeting Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) guidelines during renovations. Explains why not all barriers need be removed to make a facility accessible to everyone. Discusses issues involving ADA guidelines and child…
Weller, Heiko [Robert Bosch, LLC, Farmington Hills, MI (United States)
The ACCESS project addressed the development, testing, and demonstration of the proposed advanced technologies and the associated emission and fuel economy improvement at an engine dynamometer and on a full-scale vehicle. Improve fuel economy by 25% with minimum performance penalties Achieve SULEV level emissions with gasoline Demonstrate multi-mode combustion engine management system
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Multiple Access Communications, MACOM 2016, held in Aalborg, Denmark, in November 2016. The 10 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 12 submissions. They were organized in topical...
Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian
that there is not only a theoretical, but also an empirical difference between different methods of reporting. We hypothesise that differences in the sensitivity of different scales may reveal that different types of access are used to issue direct reports about experiences and metacognitive reports about...
Sepulcre, Jorge; Peraita, Herminia; Goni, Joaquin; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Martincorena, Inigo; Duque, Beatriz; Velez de Mendizabal, Nieves; Masdeu, Joseph C; Villoslada, Pablo
The aim of the study was to analyze lexical access strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their changes over time. We studied lexical access strategies during semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tests and also confrontation naming in a 2-year prospective cohort of 45 MS patients and 20 healthy controls. At baseline, switching lexical access strategy (both in semantic and in phonemic verbal fluency tests) and confrontation naming were significantly impaired in MS patients compared with controls. After 2 years follow-up, switching score decreased, and cluster size increased over time in semantic verbal fluency tasks, suggesting a failure in the retrieval of lexical information rather than an impairment of the lexical pool. In conclusion, these findings underline the significant presence of lexical access problems in patients with MS and could point out their key role in the alterations of high-level communications abilities in MS.
Furano, F; Hanushevsky, A
High Energy Physics data processing and analysis applications typically deal with the problem of accessing and processing data at high speed. Recent studies, development and test work have shown that the latencies due to data access can often be hidden by parallelizing them with the data processing, thus giving the ability to have applications which process remote data with a high level of efficiency. Techniques and algorithms able to reach this result have been implemented in the client side of the Scalla/xrootd system, and in this contribution we describe the results of some tests done in order to compare their performance and characteristics. These techniques, if used together with multiple streams data access, can also be effective in allowing to efficiently and transparently deal with data repositories accessible via a Wide Area Network
La Paix Puello, Lissy Cesarina; Geurs, Karst Teunis; Geurs, K.T.; Patuelli, R.; Dentinho, T.
Public transport accessibility depends not only on the places and opportunities that can be reached by transit, but also on accessibility to public transport. The characteristics of access and egress modes influence accessibility patterns but also ridership levels of public transport modes. In
Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio
Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.
White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam
Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access.
Karusisi, Noëlla; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie; Chaix, Basile
Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various individual socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007-2008, aged 30-79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Four categories of sports were studied: team sports, racket sports, swimming and related activities, and fitness. Spatial accessibility to sport facilities was measured with two complementary approaches that both take into account the street network (distance to the nearest facility and count of facilities around the dwelling). Associations between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports were assessed using multilevel logistic regression after adjusting for individual and contextual characteristics. High individual education and high household income were associated with the practice of racket sports, swimming or related activities, and fitness over the previous 7 days. The spatial accessibility to swimming pools was associated with swimming and related sports, even after adjustment for individual/contextual factors. The spatial accessibility to facilities was not related to the practice of other sports. High neighborhood income was associated with the practice of a racket sport and fitness. Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that integrates educational, financial, and geographical aspects. Our work supports the evidence that strategies to increase participation in sport activities should improve the spatial and
Tonto, Yaşar; Doğan, Güleda; Al, Umut; Madran, Orçun
The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) is the main funder for basic research in Austria. FWF has been instrumental in promoting Open Access in Austria and elsewhere and possesses a strong Open Access policy for the research it funds. This case study presents FWF as a good practice of an effective funder policy on account of its comprehensive strategy and multi-faceted approach for implementing and supporting it.
Hannah, Chona T; Lê, Quynh
Access to health care services is vital for every migrant's health and wellbeing. However, migrants' cultural health beliefs and views can hinder their ability to access available services. This study examined factors affecting access to healthcare services for intermarried Filipino women in rural Tasmania, Australia. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was employed to investigate the factors affecting access to healthcare services for 30 intermarried Filipino women in rural Tasmania. The study used grounded theory and thematic analysis for its data analysis. Nvivo v8 (www.qsrinternational.com) was also used to assist the data coding process and analysis. Five influencing factors were identified: (1) language or communication barriers; (2) area of origin in the Philippines; (3) cultural barriers; (4) length of stay in Tasmania; and (5) expectations of healthcare services before and after migration. Factors affecting intermarried Filipino women in accessing healthcare services are shaped by their socio-demographic and cultural background. The insights gained from this study are useful to health policy-makers, healthcare professionals and to intermarried female migrants. The factors identified can serve as a guide to improve healthcare access for Filipino women and other migrants.
Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.
Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…
Kessel, A; Green, J; Pinder, R; Wilkinson, P; Grundy, C; Lachowycz, K
perceptions and understandings of what is being accessed and how it should be used. This study has also illustrated the ways in which multiple methods can be integrated in public health research, and the merits of different approaches to undertaking multidisciplinary work of this type.
Gallagher, James; Habermann, Ted; Jelenak, Aleksandar; Lee, Joe; Potter, Nathan; Yang, Muqun
This study explored three candidate architectures for serving NASA Earth Science Hierarchical Data Format Version 5 (HDF5) data via Hyrax running on Amazon Web Services (AWS). We studied the cost and performance for each architecture using several representative Use-Cases. The objectives of the project are: Conduct a trade study to identify one or more high performance integrated solutions for storing and retrieving NASA HDF5 and Network Common Data Format Version 4 (netCDF4) data in a cloud (web object store) environment. The target environment is Amazon Web Services (AWS) Simple Storage Service (S3).Conduct needed level of software development to properly evaluate solutions in the trade study and to obtain required benchmarking metrics for input into government decision of potential follow-on prototyping. Develop a cloud cost model for the preferred data storage solution (or solutions) that accounts for different granulation and aggregation schemes as well as cost and performance trades.
Cleary, Susan May; Birch, Stephen; Moshabela, Mosa; Schneider, Helen
South Africa has the world's largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme. While services in the public sector are free at the point of use, little is known about overall access barriers. This paper explores these barriers from the perspective of ART users enrolled in services in two rural and two urban settings. Using a comprehensive framework of access, interviews were conducted with over 1200 ART users to assess barriers along three dimensions: availability, affordability and acceptability. Summary statistics were computed and comparisons of access barriers between sites were explored using multivariate linear and logistic regressions. While availability access barriers in rural settings were found to be mitigated through a more decentralised model of service provision in one site, affordability barriers were considerably higher in rural versus urban settings. 50% of respondents incurred catastrophic healthcare expenditure and 36% borrowed money to cover these expenses in one rural site. On acceptability, rural users were less likely to report feeling respected by health workers. Stigma was reported to be lowest in the two sites with the most decentralised services and the highest coverage of those in need. While results suggest inequitable access to ART for rural relative to urban users, nurse-led services offered through primary healthcare facilities mitigated these barriers in one rural site. This is an important finding given current policy emphasis on decentralised and nurse-led ART in South Africa. This study is one of the first to present comprehensive evidence on access barriers to assist in the design of policy solutions.
Engelhardt, Christopher R; Mazurek, Micah O
Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to 18 years of age). Parents of these children reported on (1) whether they had specific rules regulating their child's video game use, (2) whether their child had in-room access to a variety of screen-based media devices (television, computer, and video game console), and (3) their child's oppositional behaviors. Multivariate regression models showed that in-room access to a video game console predicted oppositional behavior while controlling for in-room access to other media devices (computer and television) and relevant variables (e.g. average number of video game hours played per day). Additionally, the association between in-room access to a video game console and oppositional behavior was particularly large when parents reported no rules on their child's video game use. The current findings indicate that both access and parental rules regarding video games warrant future experimental and longitudinal research as they relate to problem behavior in boys with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.
Boak, D.M.; Cikanek, E.M.; Elkins, N.Z.
An issue of interest to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) has been selection of the preferred location for initial access to the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) in the event that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) elected to proceed with a phased approach to facility development. A task force to conduct an assessment and prepare a recommendation of the preferred initial location (north or south) for starting underground in situ tests at Yucca Mountain was initiated by YMPO to address this issue. The task force addressed geotechnical issues associated with the presence of disqualifying conditions at the site, the inability of the site to meet qualifying conditions, and the potential for unexpected geologic conditions at the site. The task force compared the north and south ramp accesses of the ESF to determine whether either access would be more likely to provide relevant information about potential site unsuitability. The task force did not address issues such as design time or construction costs. Within the aforementioned context, a balanced evaluation of currently available geotechnical information and issues failed to provide a clear mandate for either ramp as the preferred initial ESF access. Neither access was clearly superior in providing geotechnical information to resolve site suitability issues. The task force therefore recommended that other appropriate programmatic factors, such as schedule, be used as a basis in determining the choice of a preferred, initial ESF access in the event of phased construction
Hees, S. van; Cornielje, H.; Wagle, P.; Veldman, E.
Purpose: Persons with disabilities face additional barriers in accessing primary healthcare services, especially in developing countries. Consequently the prevalence of secondary health conditions is higher among this population. This study aims to explore the perceived barriers to access primary
Libraries offer a mix of options to serve the film studies curriculum: streaming video, DVDs on Reserve, and streaming DVDs through online classrooms. Some professors screen films and lend DVDs to students. But how do students obtain the films required for their courses? How would they prefer to do so? These are among the questions explored using…
Johnson, Megan Patricia
The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…
This paper presents a case study of two first year sociology courses run at an elite South African university in order to speak to student perspectives on the sociology curriculum. The paper provides a comparative analysis of the academic experiences of extended degree (ED) students registered on two first year courses, ...
Projektet Support Open Access Publishing har til mål at få opdateret Sherpa/Romeo databasen (www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo) med fagligt relevante, danske tidsskrifter. Projektet skal endvidere undersøge mulighederne for at få udviklet en database, hvor forskere på tværs af relevante tidsskriftsinformati......Projektet Support Open Access Publishing har til mål at få opdateret Sherpa/Romeo databasen (www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo) med fagligt relevante, danske tidsskrifter. Projektet skal endvidere undersøge mulighederne for at få udviklet en database, hvor forskere på tværs af relevante...
Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof
When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most...... common tool to answer this question, analysis of log files, faces the problem that the amount of logged data may be overwhelming. This problems gets even worse in the case of insider attacks, where the attacker’s actions usually will be logged as permissible, standard actions—if they are logged at all....... Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set...
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel
The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry...
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel
The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry....
Full Text Available This paper, we have tried to analyze about the Secondary Structure of nucleotide sequences of rice. The data have been collected from NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnology Information using Nucleotide as data base. All the programs were developed using R programming language using “sequinr” package. Here, we have used CETD matrix method to study the prediction. The conclusions are drawn accordingly.
Max Joseph Herman
Full Text Available Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effective of health policy, and also the implementation process. With the policy development and effective health policy, rational drug uses, sufficient health service budget so a country can overcome the health problems. Besides infrastructures, regulations, distribution and cultural influences; the main obstacles for drug access is drugs affordability if the price of drugs is an important part and determined by many factors, especially the drug status whether is still patent orgenerics that significantly decrease cost of health cares and enhance the drugs affordability. The determination of essential drug prices in developing countries should based on equity principal so that poor people pay cheaper and could afford the essential drugs. WHO predicts two third of world population can not afford the essential drugs in which in developing countries, some are because of in efficient budget allocation in consequence of drug distribution management, including incorrect selection and allocation and also irrational uses. In part these could be overcome by enhancing performances on the allocation pharmacy needs, including the management of information system, inventory management, stock management and the distribution. Key words: access, drugs, essential drugs, generic drugs
Scheel, H.; Breitfeld, B.; Huebner, B.
Proceeding from the features of on-line retrieval from the INIS data base, a description is given of the technical and organizational conditions established by the national INIS Centre of the GDR in using the INIS direct access service. Data are presented on the structure of search queries, retrieval precision, and connect time to the computer. Experience has shown that efficient dialogue searching necessitates the searcher's skill and familiarity with the system. (author)
Zheludev, I.S.; Romanenko, A.G.
Librarians, researchers, and information specialists throughout the world now have the opportunity for direct access to coverage of almost 95% of the world's literature dealing with the peaceful uses of atomic energy and nuclear science. This opportunity has been provided by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA. INIS, with the voluntary collaboration of more than 60 of the Agency's Member States, maintains a comprehensive, computer-resident data-base, containing the bibliographic details plus informative abstracts of the bulk of the world's literature on nuclear science and technology. Since this data-base is growing at a rate of 75,000 items per year, and already contains more than 500,000 items, it is obviously important to be able to search this collection conveniently and efficiently. The usefulness of this ability is enhanced when other data-bases on related subjects are made available on an information network. During the early 1970s, on-line interrogation of large bibliographic data-bases became the accepted method for searching this type of information resource. Direct interaction between the searcher and the data-base provides quick feed-back resulting in improved literature listings for launching research and development projects. On-line access enables organizations which cannot store a large data-base on their own computer to expand the information resources at their command. Because of these advantages, INIS undertook to extend to interested Member States on-line access to its data-base in Vienna
Are you writing a theoretical paper? An experimental one? Or one about instrumentation? You can publish it in Open Access. Now. Read how... You might have heard about Open Access, the next big thing in scientific publishing. The idea is to make the results of your (publicly funded) research free to read for everyone out there ... not only those lucky ones who work in places where libraries can afford to purchase the expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. CERN, DESY and other particle physics institutes have accepted an offer by one of the leading journals in High Energy Physics, JHEP: our libraries will pay a special subscription fee, and, in exchange, all articles with at least one author from our institutes will be published in Open Access. Anyone, anywhere and anytime will be able to read them, without any financial barrier! If you are writing an instrumentation paper, you can submit it to JINST and benefit from the same offer. This is a major step forward in the planned conversion of existi...
Full Text Available Nature, one of the most prominent scientific journals dedicated one of its issues to recent changes in scientific publishing (Vol. 495, Issue 7442, 27 March 2013. Its editors stressed that words technology and revolution are closely related when it comes to scientific publishing. In addition, the transformation of research publishing is not as much a revolution than an attrition war in which all sides are buried. The most important change they refer to is the open-access model in which an author or an institution pays in advance for publishing a paper in a journal, and the paper is then available to users on the Internet free of charge.According to preliminary results of a survey conducted among 23 000 scientists by the publisher of Nature, 45% of them believes all papers should be published in open access, but at the same time 22% of them would not allow the use of papers for commercial purposes. Attitudes toward open access vary according to scientific disciplines, leading the editors to conclude the revolution still does not suit everyone.
Ho, Au Man
Hong Kong and Singapore have adopted two different models in the regulation of the next generation access (NGA) networks. In Hong Kong, the government has decided that access regulation will not be applied to fibre-based access networks and its strategy will be to rely on facilities-based competition to promote investment in the NGA networks. Singapore, on the other hand, has promoted access/services-based competition over a next generation broadband infrastructure subsidised by public fundin...
Van Meter, Emily M; Lawson, Andrew B; Colabianchi, Natalie; Nichols, Michele; Hibbert, James; Porter, Dwayne E; Liese, Angela D
This paper addresses the statistical use of accessibility and availability indices and the effect of study boundaries on these measures. The measures are evaluated via an extensive simulation based on cluster models for local outlet density. We define outlet to mean either food retail store (convenience store, supermarket, gas station) or restaurant (limited service or full service restaurants). We designed a simulation whereby a cluster outlet model is assumed in a large study window and an internal subset of that window is constructed. We performed simulations on various criteria including one scenario representing an urban area with 2000 outlets as well as a non-urban area simulated with only 300 outlets. A comparison is made between estimates obtained with the full study area and estimates using only the subset area. This allows the study of the effect of edge censoring on accessibility measures. The results suggest that considerable bias is found at the edges of study regions in particular for accessibility measures. Edge effects are smaller for availability measures (when not smoothed) and also for short range accessibility It is recommended that any study utilizing these measures should correct for edge effects. The use of edge correction via guard areas is recommended and the avoidance of large range distance-based accessibility measures is also proposed.
Porter Dwayne E
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper addresses the statistical use of accessibility and availability indices and the effect of study boundaries on these measures. The measures are evaluated via an extensive simulation based on cluster models for local outlet density. We define outlet to mean either food retail store (convenience store, supermarket, gas station or restaurant (limited service or full service restaurants. We designed a simulation whereby a cluster outlet model is assumed in a large study window and an internal subset of that window is constructed. We performed simulations on various criteria including one scenario representing an urban area with 2000 outlets as well as a non-urban area simulated with only 300 outlets. A comparison is made between estimates obtained with the full study area and estimates using only the subset area. This allows the study of the effect of edge censoring on accessibility measures. Results The results suggest that considerable bias is found at the edges of study regions in particular for accessibility measures. Edge effects are smaller for availability measures (when not smoothed and also for short range accessibility Conclusions It is recommended that any study utilizing these measures should correct for edge effects. The use of edge correction via guard areas is recommended and the avoidance of large range distance-based accessibility measures is also proposed.
Asiah Abdul Rahim
Full Text Available In Malaysia, it has become of increasing importance to study ways to improve the level of accessibility in buildings for the elderly and disabled people in the built environment, especially in hotels and resorts. The methods used in this study to identify areas to improve are access audits, table research and interviews. The data from these studies are analysed using a descriptive analysis based on access audits, observations, plan analysis, photographs and questionnaires. Access audits were carried out in two hotels and resorts in July and November 2007 in selected areas of East Malaysia. The selected hotels and resorts were constructed in the 1980s; one is located at the countryside and the other in the city centre. The findings will allow the building provider to upgrade existing facilities in order to accommodate accessible built environment for the elderly and disabled people. This will allow the elderly and disabled people to move freely, safely and being more easily integrated with the society in areas of public building and public spaces.
De Luca, Silvia
This thesis presents a study of the Grid data access patterns in distributed analysis in the CMS experiment at the LHC accelerator. This study ranges from the deep analysis of the historical patterns of access to the most relevant data types in CMS, to the exploitation of a supervised Machine Learning classification system to set-up a machinery able to eventually predict future data access patterns - i.e. the so-called dataset “popularity” of the CMS datasets on the Grid - with focus on specific data types. All the CMS workflows run on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WCG) computing centers (Tiers), and in particular the distributed analysis systems sustains hundreds of users and applications submitted every day. These applications (or “jobs”) access different data types hosted on disk storage systems at a large set of WLCG Tiers. The detailed study of how this data is accessed, in terms of data types, hosting Tiers, and different time periods, allows to gain precious insight on storage occupancy ove...
Currently, dominant web accessibility standards do not respect disability as a complex and culturally contingent interaction; recognizing that disability is a variable, contrary and political power relation, rather than a biological limit. Against this background there is clear scope to broaden the ways in which accessibility standards are understood, developed and applied. Commentary. The values that shape and are shaped by legislation promote universal, statistical and automated approaches to web accessibility. This results in web accessibility standards conveying powerful norms fixing the relationship between technology and disability, irrespective of geographical, social, technological or cultural diversity. Web accessibility standards are designed to enact universal principles; however, they express partial and biopolitical understandings of the relation between disability and technology. These values can be limiting, and potentially counter-productive, for example, for the majority of disabled people in the "Global South" where different contexts constitute different disabilities and different experiences of web access. To create more robust, accessible outcomes for disabled people, research and standards practice should diversify to embrace more interactional accounts of disability in different settings. Implications for Rehabilitation Creating accessible experiences is an essential aspect of rehabilitation. Web standards promote universal accessibility as a property of an online resource or service. This undervalues the importance of the user's intentions, expertize, their context, and the complex social and cultural nature of disability. Standardized, universal approaches to web accessibility may lead to counterproductive outcomes for disabled people whose impairments and circumstances do not meet Western disability and accessibility norms. Accessible experiences for rehabilitation can be enhanced through an additional focus on holistic approaches to
Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark
People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.
Jahn, Najko; Tullney, Marco
Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF) and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc) initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data from Austria and
Full Text Available Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data
Ochoa, David; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio
A widespread family of methods for studying and predicting protein interactions using sequence information is based on co-evolution, quantified as similarity of phylogenetic trees. Part of the co-evolution observed between interacting proteins could be due to co-adaptation caused by inter-protein contacts. In this case, the co-evolution is expected to be more evident when evaluated on the surface of the proteins or the internal layers close to it. In this work we study the effect of incorporating information on predicted solvent accessibility to three methods for predicting protein interactions based on similarity of phylogenetic trees. We evaluate the performance of these methods in predicting different types of protein associations when trees based on positions with different characteristics of predicted accessibility are used as input. We found that predicted accessibility improves the results of two recent versions of the mirrortree methodology in predicting direct binary physical interactions, while it neither improves these methods, nor the original mirrortree method, in predicting other types of interactions. That improvement comes at no cost in terms of applicability since accessibility can be predicted for any sequence. We also found that predictions of protein-protein interactions are improved when multiple sequence alignments with a richer representation of sequences (including paralogs) are incorporated in the accessibility prediction.
Gerreth, Karolina; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria
A patient's with disability everyday life is rife with many limitations such as architectural, transport, information as well as medical, psychological, legal, economic and social barriers. The aim of this study was to evaluate access to dental health care of special-care schoolchildren with intellectual disability on the basis of their parents' opinion. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 264 parents/caregivers of children from eight special-care schools in Poznan (Poland). Close-ended questions concerned children's barriers in access to dental care and parents' satisfaction with their children's dental care. Only 31.8% parents/caregivers did not have any problems with access to dental care and the most commonly reported barrier to obtaining dental care was protracted waiting time for a visit (36.7%). Most commonly, children were treated in dental surgery conditions (90.1%). Only 42.1% respondents were satisfied with their children's dental care. The research revealed that there is a need to improve the access of children with disability to dental care. Hence, it seems to be beneficial to set up specialist dental surgeries in special-care schools which would improve the access of children with disability to prophylaxis as well as dental treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Arshad, Zeeshaan; Smith, James; Roberts, Mackenna; Lee, Wen Hwa; Davies, Ben; Bure, Kim; Hollander, Georg A; Dopson, Sue; Bountra, Chas; Brindley, David
The cost to develop a new drug from target discovery to market is a staggering $1.8 billion, largely due to the very high attrition rate of drug candidates and the lengthy transition times during development. Open access is an emerging model of open innovation that places no restriction on the use of information and has the potential to accelerate the development of new drugs. To date, no quantitative assessment has yet taken place to determine the effects and viability of open access on the process of drug translation. This need is addressed within this study. The literature and intellectual property landscapes of the drug candidate JQ1, which was made available on an open access basis when discovered, and conventionally developed equivalents that were not are compared using the Web of Science and Thomson Innovation software, respectively. Results demonstrate that openly sharing the JQ1 molecule led to a greater uptake by a wider and more multi-disciplinary research community. A comparative analysis of the patent landscapes for each candidate also found that the broader scientific diaspora of the publically released JQ1 data enhanced innovation, evidenced by a greater number of downstream patents filed in relation to JQ1. The authors' findings counter the notion that open access drug discovery would leak commercial intellectual property. On the contrary, JQ1 serves as a test case to evidence that open access drug discovery can be an economic model that potentially improves efficiency and cost of drug discovery and its subsequent commercialization.
). In this subset sample, both letter access and lexical access accounted for unique variance in reading fluency. The pattern of effects for lexical access did not change by controlling for serial rapid naming (RAN). Conclusions: The results suggest that letter access and lexical access are important for different......Purpose: This study investigated the effects of lexical access speed and letter access speed on reading fluency and reading comprehension. We hypothesized that 1) letter access speed would correlate with reading fluency but not comprehension, while 2) lexical access speed would influence reading...... comprehension. For readers who are struggling with recoding, most of the reading effort is probably tied up with recoding, leaving little to be explained by lexical access. Therefore we expected that 3) lexical access speed would primarily predict reading fluency for readers who were no longer struggling...
Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services: A Mixed Methods Study of Young ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... and services in Soweto, South Africa using quantitative and qualitative methods.
Al Shakarchi, Julien; Day, C; Inston, N
Home haemodialysis has been advocated due to improved quality of life. However, there are very little data on the optimum vascular access for it. A retrospective cohort study was carried on all patients who initiated home haemodialysis between 2011 and 2016 at a large university hospital. Access-related hospital admissions and interventions were used as primary outcome measures. Our cohort consisted of 74 patients. On initiation of home haemodialysis, 62 individuals were using an arteriovenous fistula as vascular access, while the remaining were on a tunnelled dialysis catheter. Of the 12 patients who started on a tunnelled dialysis catheter, 5 were subsequently converted to either an arteriovenous fistula ( n = 4) or an arteriovenous graft ( n = 1). During the period of home haemodialysis use, four arteriovenous fistula failed or thrombosed with patients continuing on home haemodialysis using an arteriovenous graft ( n = 3) or a tunnelled dialysis catheter ( n = 1). To maintain uninterrupted home haemodialysis, interventional rates were 0.32 per arteriovenous fistula/arteriovenous graft access-year and 0.4 per tunnelled dialysis catheter access-year. Hospital admission rates for patients on home haemodialysis were 0.33 per patient-year. Our study has shown that home haemodialysis can be safely and independently performed at home within a closely managed home haemodialysis programme. The authors also advocate the use of arteriovenous fistulas for this cohort of patients due to both low complication and intervention rates.
Stanton, Kate Valentine; Liew, Chern Li
Introduction: We examine doctoral students' awareness of and attitudes to open access forms of publication. Levels of awareness of open access and the concept of institutional repositories, publishing behaviour and perceptions of benefits and risks of open access publishing were explored. Method: Qualitative and quantitative data were collected…
Mônica Sena de Souza
Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the role of information professionals in meeting the informational demands of people with disabilities in the information society. The librarian is crucial for the effectiveness and success in the informational inclusion of people with disabilities, considering also continuing education for their professional qualification.Objective: To provide reflections on the role of the librarian in serving users with disabilities, highlighting the need for improvement in information units, identified in the scientific literature with regard to accessibility.Methodology: Literature search, based on a review of literature in books and scientific papers, highlighting the main authors: Adams (2000, Mazzoni (2001 and Sassaki (1997, 2002, 2005.Results: The lack of informational access for people with disabilities hampers their social and political participation, hence, reduces its condition of citizenship.Conclusion: The librarian responsible for seeking continuing education, greater involvement in the events of the area and the constant search for job training, which will reflect on the best service the information needs of users with disabilities.
This paper focuses on the role of non-governmental organization (NGO) citizen groups in Ontario in the use and production of electricity. NGOs have the potential to act both directly on their own accord, and indirectly by pressuring government and others. Current demand for electricity is divided between industrial, commercial and residential users. Citizens have an important role to play in reducing energy demand. On the supply side, there is a revival of interest in renewable energy based on wind, photovoltaic and local-hydro technologies as a result of the escalating environmental and economic costs of coal and nuclear generation. However, citizen groups have greater interest and enthusiasm than technical expertise, creating a mismatch between technological solutions and human need or use of them. This paper discusses how this mismatch applies to renewable-energy technologies, many of which are not especially user-friendly, or accessible. While alternative technologies are increasingly welcomed by government, industry is developing a large and growing array of technological devices. In between this is the citizen, who, despite keen interest, can be overwhelmed by the complexity of the situation. This paper links the theoretical perspective to the real world with a discussion of the dynamics between people and renewable energy in citizen groups and makes particular reference to one group, Citizens for Renewable Energy, that has been making renewable energy technology more accessible to its members for over a decade
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY United States Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 [USCG-2010-0833] Port... comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard (USCG) is conducting a Port Access Route Study (PARS) to evaluate: The... reduce the risk of marine casualties and increase the efficiency of vessel traffic in the study area. The...
Full Text Available Objective: School-associated firearm violence among children and adolescents is a national public concern. The objective of this study was to determine the accessibility of firearms, methods of firearm access and firearm safety knowledge among middle and high school students in Orange County, California. Methods: After permission from school officials and parents was obtained, a 24-question survey was distributed to 176 students in grades 6 through 12 at four schools in Orange County. Data was collected over a 12-month period beginning in February 2003. Data analysis was presented in proportions. In addition, cross tabulations were performed to determine which factors were associated with access to guns, having fired a gun, and firearm possession at school. Results: The mean age of participants was 16.1 years. Seventy-seven (45% were male, 121 (69% Hispanic, and 171 (94% were of middle income. Four participants (2.3% admitted to gang involvement, 47 (26.7% had fired a gun. Those more likely to have fired a gun appeared to be non-Hispanic males (p= 0.001. Seventy-five (43% reported access to a gun. Older students and those in grades 9 to 12 were more likely to have access to a gun (p= 0.01, which they stated could be obtained from their homes, friends or relatives (4.5% to 22%. No students admitted to bringing a gun to school. Two (1.1% students stated that they had thought of using a gun at school. One hundred one students (62% were taught firearm safety by their parent(s. Conclusion: Almost half of the students in this study acknowledged that they could gain access to a gun and two students had thought about using a gun at school. Firearm education, safety and counseling are of paramount importance to ensure safety among school youths.
Psaki, Stephanie; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, Shamsir; Bessong, Pascal; Islam, Munirul; John, Sushil; Kosek, Margaret; Lima, Aldo; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; Shrestha, Prakash; Svensen, Erling; McGrath, Monica; Richard, Stephanie; Seidman, Jessica; Caulfield, Laura; Miller, Mark; Checkley, William
Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0-27) was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42%) was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%). In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008). A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17). Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and death related to malnutrition.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27 was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42% was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%. In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008. A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17. Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and
Kraimer, M.; Hill, J.
This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer's interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided
Facebook Visit us on Twitter Visit us on Youtube Emergency Access Initiative Home | Journals | Books | Online Databases | FAQs Take Short Survey FAQ What is the Emergency Access Initiative? The Emergency Access Initiative (EAI) is a collaborative partnership between NLM and participating publishers to
Full Text Available Abstract Background One year after the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT to support diagnostic imaging at our hospital, clinicians had faster and better access to radiology reports and images; direct access to Computed Tomography (CT reports in the Electronic Medical Record (EMR was particularly popular. The objective of this study was to determine whether improvements in radiology reporting and clinical access to diagnostic imaging information one year after the ICT introduction were associated with a reduction in the length of patients' hospital stays (LOS. Methods Data describing hospital stays and diagnostic imaging were collected retrospectively from the EMR during periods of equal duration before and one year after the introduction of ICT. The post-ICT period was chosen because of the documented improvement in clinical access to radiology results during that period. The data set was randomly split into an exploratory part used to establish the hypotheses, and a confirmatory part. The data was used to compare the pre-ICT and post-ICT status, but also to compare differences between groups. Results There was no general reduction in LOS one year after ICT introduction. However, there was a 25% reduction for one group - patients with CT scans. This group was heterogeneous, covering 445 different primary discharge diagnoses. Analyses of subgroups were performed to reduce the impact of this divergence. Conclusion Our results did not indicate that improved access to radiology results reduced the patients' LOS. There was, however, a significant reduction in LOS for patients undergoing CT scans. Given the clinicians' interest in CT reports and the results of the subgroup analyses, it is likely that improved access to CT reports contributed to this reduction.
Twenty (20) accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) were collected from eight geographical regions of Ghana for genetic diversity studies. The objective was to assess genetic relationship among them using phenotypic and molecular traits and to evaluate their elemental composition. A replicated field experiment was conducted to assess their genetic diversity based on 13 quantitative traits and 22 qualitative traits using the IBPGR descriptor list for Capsicum. Confirmation of their identities was done using 10 SSR markers. The accessions were also evaluated for macro, micro and trace elements in their fresh fruits using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Five essential macro elements (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na), two micro elements (Al and Mn) and one trace element (Br) were detected by INAA. Results from the agromorphological study revealed that accession Wes 01 had the widest stem width, matured leaf width, high fruit set but late maturing. Nor 03 was early maturing and had high fruit set, but also possessed the highest number of seeds per fruit. Fruit weight, fruit width, fruit length and plant canopy width, recorded the highest variabilities with 66.191; 53.24; 49.32; and 32.42 coefficients of variation (CVs), respectively. Few traits such as plant canopy width, plant height, fruit length, mature leaf length and number of seeds per fruit contributed substantially to total genetic variance as revealed by the principal component analysis (PCA). A dendrogram generated using morphological traits grouped accessions into cultivated and wild genotypes of pepper and all the accessions were identified as separate entities with no duplications. Strong correlation was recorded between plant canopy width and plant height, mature leaf length and mature leaf width, and also fruit weight and fruit width and fruit length. Negative correlation was however, observed between fruit length and days to 50% fruiting and flowering. All three accessions from the Northern
Koshy, Linda M; Aberle, Laura H; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Hess, Connie N; Mazzaferri, Ernest; Jolly, Sanjit S; Jacobs, Alice; Gibson, C Michael; Mehran, Roxana; Gilchrist, Ian C; Rao, Sunil V
This study was conducted to determine the association between radial access, guided femoral access, and non-guided femoral access on postprocedural bleeding and vascular complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Bleeding events and major vascular complications after PCI are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. While the radial approach has been shown to be superior to the femoral approach in reducing bleeding and vascular complications, whether the use of micropuncture, fluoroscopy, or ultrasound mitigates these differences is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of women in the SAFE-PCI for Women trial who underwent PCI and had the access method identified (n = 643). The primary endpoint of postprocedure bleeding or vascular complications occurring within 72 hours or at discharge was adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee and was compared based on three categories of access technique: radial, guided femoral (fluoroscopy, micropuncture, ultrasound), or non-guided femoral (none of the aforementioned). Differences between the groups were determined using multivariate logistic regression using radial access as the reference. Of the PCI population, 330 underwent radial access, 228 underwent guided femoral access, and 85 underwent non-guided femoral access. There was a statistically significant lower incidence of the primary endpoint with radial access vs non-guided femoral access; however, there was no significant difference between radial approach and femoral access guided by fluoroscopy, micropuncture, or ultrasound. This post hoc analysis demonstrates that while radial access is safer than non-guided femoral access, guided femoral access appears to be associated with similar bleeding events or vascular complications as radial access.
Nariani, Rajiv; Fernandez, Leila
Campus-based open access author funds are being considered by many academic libraries as a way to support authors publishing in open access journals. Article processing fees for open access have been introduced recently by publishers and have not yet been widely accepted by authors. Few studies have surveyed authors on their reasons for publishing…
Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Mazurek, Micah O.
Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to…
Kriegler, Elmar; Riahi, Keywan; Bauer, Nico; Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Petermann, Nils; Bosetti, Valentina; Marcucci, Adriana; Otto, Sander; Paroussos, Leonidas; Rao, Shilpa; Arroyo Currás, Tabaré; Ashina, Shuichi; Bollen, Johannes; Eom, Jiyong; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Longden, Thomas; Kitous, Alban; Méjean, Aurélie; Sano, Fuminori; Schaeffer, Michiel; Wada, Kenichi; Capros, Pantelis; P. van Vuuren, Detlef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Edenhofer, Ottmar
This study explores a situation of staged accession to a global climate policy regime from the current situation of regionally fragmented and moderate climate action. The analysis is based on scenarios in which a front runner coalition - the EU or the EU and China - embarks on immediate ambitious
The Saskatchewan Music Collection (SMC) is a local music collection held at the University of Saskatchewan. This case study examines a project to digitize and present this unique special collection in the online environment. The project aims to facilitate access to the collection, preserve the collection and promote scholarship and interest in the…
Batman, Renee F.
Access to higher education has been and remains a critical issue, yet research typically focuses on students and programs which may overlook the role of the faculty. Through an in-depth case study, the perspectives of tenured and tenure-track faculty at a predominately White, Midwestern land-grant, research institution are described as they relate…
This study is about access for low-income students at an elite boarding school. As "feeder schools" to elite colleges and universities, elite boarding schools play a significant role in determining which students will be in the upper class in America; however, little is known about the history of low-income students at these schools. The…
Patel, Mitul K; Davis, Benjamin G
Monofunctionalization of trehalose, a widely-found symmetric plant disaccharide, was studied in a microreactor to give valuable kinetic insights that have allowed improvements in desymmetrization yields and the development of a reaction sequence for large scale monofunctionalizations that allow access to probes of trehalose's biological function.
Gerreth, Karolina; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria
Background: A patient's with disability everyday life is rife with many limitations such as architectural, transport, information as well as medical, psychological, legal, economic and social barriers. The aim of this study was to evaluate access to dental health care of special-care schoolchildren with intellectual disability on the basis of…
Marks, Sue Anne
This qualitative study was an investigation into improving college access through family engagement with minority and low-income students in an urban school district. Critical theory concepts of cultural capital, field, and habitus, as well as organizational communication theory, formed the theoretical framework that guided a literature review and…
Zee, J. van der; Kroneman, M.; Dieteren, W.; Maarse, J.
Background: Health care systems can be subdivided into systems where access to health services is largely unrestricted and systems where specific health care providers (GPs mostly) perform a ‘gate-keeping’ role. Several studies showed that ‘gate-keeping’ health care systems not only seem to be more
Pagliara, Silvio Marcello; Sánchez Utgé, Marta; De Anna, Lucia
Starting from the Universal Design in the educational context principles, the experiences gained during the FIRB project "Net@ccessibility" and the high-education courses for teachers' specialization on special education, this research will focus on preliminary studies in order to define the recommendations for designing accessible university courses.
Constantinides, Efthymios; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.; de Vries, Sjoerd A.; Fabian, Nicolai
The purpose of this study is to assess whether the device type (smartphone, tablet or desktop) used to access an online shop, has any effect on the customer’s buying behavior and interaction with the site. A field experiment was conducted on the web site of an online retailer, collecting data with
Lathouwers, K.A.M.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, R.
The purpose of this study was to examine access to and use of Internet by 97 physically disabled adolescents. Four main objectives were to: (1) explore frequency and nature of Internet use and the role of care givers, (2) compare these results with non-disabled adolescents, (3) explore associations
Lathouwers, K.A.M.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.
The purpose of this study was to examine access to and use of Internet by 97 physically disabled adolescents. Four main objectives were to: (1) explore frequency and nature of Internet use and the role of care givers, (2) compare these results with non-disabled adolescents, (3) explore associations
Review of research methodologies used in studies of online public access catalog (OPAC) users finds that a variety of research methodologies--e.g., surveys, transaction log analysis, interviews--have been used with varying degrees of expertise. It is concluded that poor research methodology resulting from limited training and resources limits the…
Havik, Else; Steyvers, Franciscus J.J.M.; Kooijman, Aart; Melis, Bart
Shared Space is a concept that comprises the design and planning process of a public space. There are concerns about the accessibility of Shared Spaces for people who are visually impaired. In a comparative field study, the wayfinding performance of 25 visually impaired persons (VIPs) was observed
Jay D Raman
Full Text Available Laparoscopic nephrectomy has assumed a central role in the management of benign and malignant kidney diseases. While laparoscopy is less morbid than open surgery, it still requires several incisions each at least 1-2 cm in length. Each incision carries morbidity risks of bleeding, hernia and/or internal organ damage, and incrementally decreases cosmesis. An alternative to conventional laparoscopy is single access or keyhole surgery, which utilizes magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS technology or articulating laparoscopic instruments. These technical innovations obviate the need to externally space trocars for triangulation, thus allowing for the creation of a small, solitary portal of entry into the abdomen. Laboratory and early clinical series demonstrate feasibility as well as safe and successful completion of keyhole nephrectomy. Future work is necessary to improve existing instrumentation, increase clinical experience, assess benefits of this surgical approach, and explore other potential applications for this technique.
Full Text Available Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits through- out recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller's logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost network cities. Focusing on Switzerland since 1950 it will show how network investment changed the relative distribution of population and employment and how this interacted with changes in the preferences of the travelers. Using a recent snapshot of how a substantial sample of Swiss maintain their social networks over often very large areas, it will try to answer the question of what will happen in the future, if the current trend of ever lower costs of contact will persist.
of the European Union, and how its cultural policy responds to the changes that the digital paradigm has brought upon the field. The self-publishing features of various Web 2.0 platforms, along with the interactive and distributional potentials that the Internet offers, have given rise to what is referred to here...... in cultural production and consumption. The first part of this works looks at how these changes respond to the field of cultural policy, as well as suggesting a possible culturepolitical reaction in a model which I refer to as access culture. In terms of theoretical approach, the notion of digital cultural...... of YouTube, MySpace, Facebook and Flickr, along with lesser known platforms such as the animated short film Elephants Dream, the BBC's Creative Archive, various Internet artworks and the Internet Archive. I furthermore introduce the copyright system Creative Commons in order to suggest legal, widely...
Andersen, Ove Kjeld; Hjulmand, Christian
Approximately 30% of the Danish population has severe problems in reading everyday text. In the light of the increasing amount of text available on the Internet this poses a democratic challenge to ensure “equal access” to information. The Talking Internet service - Access For All (AFA) - offers...... a free Internet-based tool for reading aloud any marked text with a synthetic voice. The only requirements are a standard equipped PC running a recent Windows OS and an Internet connection. Experiences gathered from running the service for more than 28 months underline the viability of the concept....... There is a clear need for a free internet based Danish text-to-speech synthesizer. Furthermore, the current state of technology i.e. internet bandwidth, response time and server technology is sufficient for setting up an online automatic reading service that is used by steadily growing number of individuals...
Holmes, Jon L.
New JCE Internet Feature at JCE Online Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists is a new JCE Internet feature on JCE Online. Edited by Barbara Burke, this feature provides biographical information on leading chemists, especially women and minority chemists, fostering the attitude that the practitioners of chemistry are as human as those who endeavor to learn about it. Currently, the column features biographical "snapshots" of 30 chemists. Each snapshot includes keywords and bibliography and several contain links to additional online information about the chemist. More biographical snapshots will appear in future installments. In addition, a database listing over 140 women and minority chemists is being compiled and will be made available online with the snapshots in the near future. The database includes the years of birth and death, gender and ethnicity, major and minor discipline, keywords to facilitate searching, and references to additional biographical information. We welcome your input into what we think is a very worthwhile resource. If you would like to provide additional biographical snapshots, see additional chemists added to the database, or know of additional references for those that are already in the database, please contact JCE Online or the feature editor. Your feedback is welcome and appreciated. You can find Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists starting from the JCE Online home page-- click the Features item under JCE Internet and then the Chemist Bios item. Access JCE Online without Name and Password We have recently been swamped by libraries requesting IP-number access to JCE Online. With the great benefit IP-number authentication gives to librarians (no user names and passwords to administer) and to their patrons (no need to remember and enter valid names and passwords) this is not surprising. If you would like access to JCE Online without the need to remember and enter a user name and password, you should tell your librarian about our
A study was conducted with the aim of developing separate protocols for callus induction and plant regeneration from different parts of three O. glaberrima accessions indigenous to Ghana. The three O. glaberrima accessions, Guame, N/4 and SARI 1 were assessed for their callus induction and plant regeneration ability from leaf segments, mature dehusked seeds and anthers on different concentrations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into Murashige and Skoog, (1962) (MS) basal medium. For leaf segments, callus was induced on MS supplemented with (0-10) mg/l 2,4-D. Callus induction frequency was significantly (p≤0.05) different among accessions, as well as among the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) levels tested. Highest callus induction frequency was exhibited at a concentration of 6 mg/l 2,4-D for all accessions tested. Callus obtained was sub-cultured on regeneration medium consisting of MS supplemented with (1:0-5) mg.l NAA:BAP. Plant regeneration was nil. Instead, prolific root formation was observed. For mature dehusked seeds, callus induction medium consisted of MS supplemented with (0-6) mg/l 2,4-D. All tested accessions exhibited highest callus frequency at 4 mg/l 2,4-D. Similarly callus induction frequency was significantly (p≤0.05) different among accessions, as well as among concentrations of 2,4-D tested. Calli obtained were sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with (0-2.5) mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and exhibited the highest regeneration frequency on medium containing 2.0 mg/l BAP. However, callus induced on a concentration of 3 mg/l 2,4-D and sub-cultured on a concentration of 2 mg/l BAP gave the best response n terms of shoot proliferation, growth and root development and therefore were considered to be the optimum concentrations for callus induction and plant regeneration respectively. Plantlet regeneration was achieved only in accession N/4 while Guame and SARI 1 exhibited poor regeneration response. Among the three rice
Müller, Romina; Remdisch, Sabine; Köhler, Katharina
developmental stages. This article maps the development in Denmark, Finland, Germany and England using a case study approach deploying data triangulation from a national and institutional perspective. It explores the extent/commonality of structural factors for easing access for students engaging in lifelong...
Jæger, Mads Meier
with respect to Danish children's choice of secondary education. Denmark is well-suited for this study because access to secondary education is particularly meritocratic. The empirical analysis shows that all three channels through which cultural capital affects educational success are important....
Hawley, Willis D., Ed.; Ready, Timothy, Ed.
This study examined the continued relevance and adequacy of the Elementary and Secondary School Civil Rights Compliance Report (E&S Survey) as a tool for enforcing civil rights laws in education, monitoring quality of access to learning opportunities, and research on other current issues of educational policy and practice. The Committee on…
Mercier , Aurélie
The concept of accessibility cannot only focus on " spatial accessibility " measurement but has to integer a " social accessibility " level to take into account individual inequalities and socioeconomic disparities to access to urban opportunities. In this context, this contribution focuses on socioeconomic disparities integration on accessibility measurement, considering the Lyon case study. The paper is divided into three parts The first part aims to present a method for integrating the soc...
Van Rompaey, Jason; Suruliraj, Anand; Carrau, Ricardo; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo
Recent advances in endonasal endoscopy have facilitated the surgical access to the lateral skull base including areas such as Meckel's cave. This approach has been well documented, however, few studies have outlined transantral specific access to Meckel's. A transantral approach provides a direct pathway to this region obviating the need for extensive endonasal and transsphenoidal resection. Our aim in this study is to compare the anatomical perspectives obtained in endonasal and transantral approaches. We prepared 14 cadaveric specimens with intravascular injections of colored latex. Eight cadavers underwent endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approaches to Meckel's cave. Six additional specimens underwent an endoscopic transantral approach to the same region. Photographic evidence was obtained for review. 30 CT scans were analyzed to measure comparative distances to Meckel's cave for both approaches. The endoscopic approaches provided a direct access to the anterior and inferior portions of Meckel's cave. However, the transantral approach required shorter instrumentation, and did not require clearing of the endonasal corridor. This approach gave an anterior view of Meckel's cave making posterior dissection more difficult. A transantral approach to Meckel's cave provides access similar to the endonasal approach with minimal invasiveness. Some of the morbidity associated with extensive endonasal resection could possibly be avoided. Better understanding of the complex skull base anatomy, from different perspectives, helps to improve current endoscopic skull base surgery and to develop new alternatives, consequently, leading to improvements in safety and efficacy.
Lim, Shao Yin Madeleine; Riggs, Elisha; Shankumar, Ramini; Marwaha, Parul; Kilpatrick, Nicky
Maternal behaviours during pregnancy are likely to play a significant role in the development of dental caries in children. Although midwives are well placed to discuss oral health and provide information to women, dental attendance by women during pregnancy is minimal. This study aimed to explore midwives' experience of facilitating pregnant women's access to dental care and to document women's experience of receiving dental information and care during pregnancy. Focus groups with midwives and telephone interviews with women, who were referred to Monash Health Dental Services, were conducted to explore their perspectives and experiences. The qualitative data was thematically analysed. Three focus groups with 13 midwives and telephone interviews with eight women, who recently gave birth, were conducted. Three key themes were identified: maternal oral health knowledge; barriers to accessing dental information and care during pregnancy, and suggested recommendations. This study highlighted the barriers that exist for midwives to discuss oral health with women and refer women to dental care, and women's experiences of accessing dental care during pregnancy. Ongoing collaboration between the maternity and dental services is required to strengthen midwives' knowledge, confidence and practice in supporting women to access dental care during pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Lindahl, Bertil; Hanning, Marianne; Westerling, Ragnar
Background Several international studies suggest inequity in access to evidence-based heart failure (HF) care. Specifically, studies of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) point to reduced ACEI access related to female sex, old age and socioeconomic position. Thus far, most studies have either been rather small, lacking diagnostic data, or lacking the possibility to account for several individual-based sociodemographic factors. Our aim was to investigate differences, which could reflect inequity in access to ACEIs based on sex, age, socioeconomic status or immigration status in Swedish patients with HF. Methods Individually linked register data for all Swedish adults hospitalised for HF in 2005–2010 (n=93 258) were analysed by multivariate regression models to assess the independent risk of female sex, high age, low employment status, low income level, low educational level or foreign country of birth, associated with lack of an ACEI dispensation within 1 year of hospitalisation. Adjustment for possible confounding was made for age, comorbidity, Angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, period and follow-up time. Results Analysis revealed an adjusted OR for no ACEI dispensation for women of 1.31 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.35); for the oldest patients of 2.71 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.91); and for unemployed patients of 1.59 (95% CI 1.46 to 1.73). Conclusions Access to ACEI treatment was reduced in women, older patients and unemployed patients. We conclude that access to ACEIs is inequitable among Swedish patients with HF. Future studies should include clinical data, as well as mortality outcomes in different groups. PMID:26261264
Addo-Atuah, Joyce; Gourley, Dick; Gourley, Greta; White-Means, Shelley I; Womeodu, Robin J; Faris, Richard J; Addo, Nii Akwei
The convenience of accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for initial access to care and subsequent adherence to ART. We conducted a qualitative study of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and ART healthcare providers in Ghana in 2005. The objective of this study was to explore the participants' perceived convenience of accessing ART by PLWHA in Ghana. The convenience of accessing ART was evaluated from the reported travel and waiting times to receive care, the availability, or otherwise, of special considerations, with respect to the waiting time to receive care, for those PLWHA who were in active employment in the formal sector, the frequency of clinic visits before and after initiating ART, and whether the PLWHA saw the same or different providers at each clinic visit (continuity of care). This qualitative study used in-depth interviews based on Yin's case-study research design to collect data from 20 PLWHA and 24 ART healthcare providers as study participants. • Reported travel time to receive ART services ranged from 2 to 12 h for 30% of the PLWHA. • Waiting time to receive care was from 4 to 9 h. • While known government workers, such as teachers, were attended to earlier in some of the centres, this was not a consistent practice in all the four ART centres studied. • The PLWHA corroborated the providers' description of the procedure for initiating and monitoring ART in Ghana. • PLWHA did not see the same provider every time, but they were assured that this did not compromise the continuity of their care. Our study suggests that convenience of accessing ART is important to both PLWHA and ART healthcare providers, but the participants alluded to other factors, including open provider-patient communication, which might explain the PLWHA's understanding of the constraints under which they were receiving care. The current nation-wide coverage of the ART programme in Ghana, however, calls for the replication of this study to identify
Sachan, Amit; Emmanuel, Sabu
Multimedia social networks (MMSNs) have provided a convenient way to share multimedia contents such as images, videos, blogs, etc. Contents shared by a person can be easily accessed by anybody else over the Internet. However, due to various privacy, security, and legal concerns people often want to selectively share the contents only with their friends, family, colleagues, etc. Access control mechanisms play an important role in this situation. With access control mechanisms one can decide the persons who can access a shared content and who cannot. But continuously growing content uploads and accesses, fine grained access control requirements (e.g. different access control parameters for different parts in a picture), and specific access control requirements for multimedia contents can make the time complexity of access control to be very large. So, it is important to study an efficient access control mechanism suitable for MMSNs. In this chapter we present an efficient bit-vector transform based access control mechanism for MMSNs. The proposed approach is also compatible with other requirements of MMSNs, such as access rights modification, content deletion, etc. Mathematical analysis and experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several insertion sites have been described for intraosseous puncture in cases of emergencies when a conventional vascular access cannot be established. This pilot study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mandibular bone for the use of an intraosseous vascular access in a cadaver model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 17 dentistry and 16 medical students participating in a voluntary course received a short introduction into the method and subsequently used the battery powered EZ-IO system with a 15 mm cannula for a puncture of the anterior mandible in 33 cadavers. The time needed to perform each procedure was evaluated. India ink was injected into the accesses and during the anatomy course cadavers were dissected to retrace the success or failure of the puncture. Dental students needed 25.5±18.9(mean±standard deviations and medical students 33±20.4 s for the procedure (p = 0.18. Floor of mouth extravasation occurred in both groups in 3 cases. Success rates were 82 and 75% (p = 0.93. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite floor of mouth extravasation of injected fluid into a mandibular intraosseous access might severely complicate this procedure, the anterior mandible may be helpful as an alternative to other intraosseous and intravenous insertion sites when these are not available in medical emergencies.
Hanssens, Lise G M; Detollenaere, Jens; Hardyns, Wim; Willems, Sara J T
Recent research has shown that ethnic minorities still have less access to medical care and are less satisfied with the treatment they receive and the outcomes of the health care process. This article assesses how migrants in Europe experience access, treatment and outcomes in the European health care systems. Data were obtained from the QUALICOPC study (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe). Regression analyses were used to estimate the access, treatment and outcomes of care for ethnic minorities. In several countries, migrants experience that the opening hours of their GP practice were too limited and indicate that the practice was too far away from their work or home (lower access). They are more likely to report negative patient-doctor communication and less continuity of care than native patients (worse treatment). In addition, they are less satisfied with the care they received and are more likely to postpone care (worse outcomes). In general, migrants are still disadvantaged during the health care process. However, our results also indicate that satisfaction with the health care process improves for second-generation migrants in comparison with first-generation migrants.
Quek, K H; Low, E Y; Tan, Y R; Ong, A S C; Tang, T Y; Kam, J W; Kiew, A S C
Brachial plexus block is often utilised for proximal arm arteriovenous access creation. However, the medial upper arm and axilla are often inadequately anaesthetised, requiring repeated, intraoperative local anaesthetic supplementation, or conversion into general anaesthesia. We hypothesised that the addition of a PECS II block would improve anaesthesia and analgesia for proximal arm arteriovenous access surgery. In this prospective, double-blinded, randomised proof-of-concept study, 36 consenting adults with end-stage renal disease aged between 21 and 90 years received either a combined supraclavicular and PECS II block (Group PECS, n = 18), or combined supraclavicular and sham block (Group SCB, n = 18) for proximal arm arteriovenous access surgery. Primary outcome was whether patients required intraoperative local anaesthetic supplementation by the surgeon. In Group PECS, 33.3% (6/18) needed local anaesthetic supplementation vs. 100% (18/18) in Group SCB. Group SCB had three times (RR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.8; P PECS required lower volume of supplemental local anaesthetic compared to Group SCB (0.0 ml, IQR 0.0-6.3 ml vs. 15.0 ml, IQR 7.4-17.8 ml; P PECS II block to a supraclavicular block improves regional anaesthesia for patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing proximal arm arteriovenous access surgery. © 2018 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McCarthy, Jillian H; Schwarz, Ilsa; Ashworth, Morgan
Core vocabulary lists obtained through the analyses of children's utterances include a variety of basic concept words. Supporting young children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) to develop their understanding and use of basic concepts is an area of practice that has important ramifications for successful communication in a classroom environment. This study examined the availability of basic concept words across eight frequently used, commercially available AAC language systems, iPad© applications, and symbol libraries used to create communication boards. The accessibility of basic concept words was subsequently examined using two AAC language page sets and two iPad applications. Results reveal that the availability of basic concept words represented within the different AAC language programs, iPad applications, and symbol libraries varied but was limited across programs. However, there is no significant difference in the accessibility of basic concept words across the language program page sets or iPad applications, generally because all of them require sophisticated motor and cognitive plans for access. These results suggest that educators who teach or program vocabulary in AAC systems need to be mindful of the importance of basic concept words in classroom settings and, when possible, enhance the availability and accessibility of these words to users of AAC.
Heller, R; Purcell, C; Mackay, L; Caird, L; Cameron, S T
To explore the experiences of women from a remote and rural setting who had a termination of pregnancy (TOP), in relation to any barriers they may have experienced trying to access TOP. Qualitative interview study. Scottish Highlands and Western Isles. Women who had undergone TOP in the Scottish Highlands National Health Service between October 2014 and May 2015. Sixteen semi-structured, audio-recorded telephone interviews were conducted by a researcher with women who had consented to be interviewed at their initial assessment. Six stages of thematic analysis were followed to explore themes in and across participant accounts. Themes derived from interview transcripts. Four themes emerged relating to barriers to access and experience: (1) the impact of travel for TOP, (2) temporal factors unique to this population and how they affected women, (3) the attitude of health professionals, notably general practitioners, as a result of local culture, and (4) stigma surrounding TOP and the expectation that abortion will be traumatising. Women in remote and rural areas experience barriers to accessing TOP. Prompt referrals, more providers of TOP and tackling stigma associated with TOP could make delivery of this service more equitable and improve women's journey through TOP. Women in remote and rural areas of Scotland face multiple barriers to accessing termination of pregnancy. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
WANG Lun-wei; LIAO Xiang-ke; WANG Huai-min
Weighted factor is given to access control policies to express the importance of policy and its effect on access control decision. According to this weighted access control framework, a trustworthiness model for access request is also given. In this model, we give the measure of trustworthiness factor to access request, by using some idea of uncertainty reasoning of expert system, present and prove the parallel propagation formula of request trustworthiness factor among multiple policies, and get the final trustworthiness factor to decide whether authorizing. In this model, authorization decision is given according to the calculation of request trustworthiness factor, which is more understandable, more suitable for real requirement and more powerful for security enhancement than traditional methods. Meanwhile the finer access control granularity is another advantage.
VonHoltz, Lauren A Houdek; Frasso, Rosemary; Golinkoff, Jesse M; Lozano, Alicia J; Hanlon, Alexandra; Dowshen, Nadia
Youth experiencing homelessness are at a risk for a variety of adverse outcomes. Given the widespread use of the internet and social media, these new technologies may be used to address their needs and for outreach purposes. However, little is known about how this group uses these resources. This study investigated how homeless adolescents use these technologies for general and health-related purposes, whether the scope of their use changes with housing status, and their interest in a website dedicated to youth experiencing homelessness. A convenience sample of youth aged 18 to 21 years was recruited from a youth-specific homeless shelter. All participants completed a 47-item survey, with 10 individuals completing a semistructured interview. Descriptive statistics, exact testing, logistic regression, and generalized estimating equation modeling was performed for quantitative data analysis. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and NVivo 10 (QSR International) was employed to facilitate double coding and thematic analysis. A total of 87 participants completed the survey with a mean age of 19.4 (SD 1.1) years. While experiencing homelessness, 56% (49/87) accessed the internet at least once a day, with 86% (75/87) accessing once a week. Access to a smartphone was associated with a 3.03 greater odds of accessing the internet and was the most frequently used device (66% of participants, 57/87). While experiencing homelessness, subjects reported a 68% decreased odds in internet access frequency (odds ratio [OR] 0.32, Psocial media use (OR 0.13, P=.01). Ten participants completed the semistructured interview. Several themes were identified, including (1) changes in internet behaviors while experiencing homelessness, (2) health status as a major concern and reason for Internet use, and (3) interest in a website dedicated to youth experiencing homelessness. While experiencing homelessness, participants indicated their behaviors were more goal-oriented and less focused on
Mills, Susanna; Wright, Tim
Strong links exist between deprivation, obesity, and dietary quality. Increasing interest has focussed on the concept of access to food and so-called food deserts, defined by a policy working group of the UK Low Income Project Team in 1995 as "areas of relative exclusion where people experience physical and economic barriers to accessing healthy food". We aimed to establish the accessibility of food retail outlets in County Durham, a county in north-east England, UK, considering physical access, affordability, and food range and quality. In a pragmatic cross-sectional study in County Durham, we used information from town surveys and food business databases to locate and identify food retail outlets. The prevalence of deprivation, obesity, retail outlets, takeaway outlets, and ratio of retail to takeaway outlets was mapped, to establish local food access, and any associations with deprivation and obesity. The times taken to travel from residences to supermarkets using private car and public transport were also measured. 400 members of the community participated in eight focus groups and commissioned on-street surveys. Focus group transcripts were reviewed alongside the on-street survey responses to identify key issues. Most residents shopped at least weekly for food (n=368, 92%), used a supermarket for their main food shop (372, 93%), travelled for up to 15 min (340, 85%), and used a car for transport (188, 47%). Many survey respondents indicated high levels of satisfaction with food retail outlets (average rating 8·7 out of 10 for agreement with the statement "Overall I am satisfied with the shop where I do my main food shopping"), although financial constraints and transport inconvenience were identified as barriers. Difficulties with food shopping were more widely described in focus groups, and many individuals felt that local shopping provision had declined, with an emergent excess of takeaway outlets. Food retail access was reduced for the disabled, full
Miedema, Baukje; Easley, Julie; Thompson, Ashley E; Boivin, Antoine; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Katz, Alan; Hogg, William E; Breton, Mylaine; Francoeur, Danièle; Wong, Sabrina T; Wodchis, Walter P
To examine access to primary care in new and traditional models using 2 dimensions of the concept of patient-centred access. An international survey examining the quality and costs of primary health care (the QUALICOPC study) was conducted in 2013 in Canada. This study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey method using data from practices across Canada. Each participating practice filled out the Family Physician Survey and the Practice Survey, and patients in each participating practice were asked to complete the Patient Experiences Survey. All 10 Canadian provinces. A total of 759 practices and 7172 patients. Independent t tests were conducted to examine differences between new and traditional models of care in terms of availability and accommodation, and affordability of care. Of the 759 practices, 407 were identified as having new models of care and 352 were identified as traditional. New models of care were distinct with respect to payment structure, opening hours, and having an interdisciplinary work force. Most participating practices were from large cities or suburban areas. There were few differences between new and traditional models of care regarding accessibility and accommodation in primary care. Patients under new models of care reported easier access to other physicians in the same practice, while patients from traditional models reported seeing their regular family physicians more frequently. There was no difference between the new and traditional models of care with regard to affordability of primary care. Patients attending clinics with new models of care reported that their physicians were more involved with them as a whole person than patients attending clinics based on traditional models did. Primary care access issues do not differ strongly between traditional and new models of care; however, patients in the new models of care believed that their physicians were more involved with them as people.
Premkumar, Ajay; Ying, Xiaohan; Mack Hardaker, W; Massawe, Honest H; Mshahaba, David J; Mandari, Faiton; Pallangyo, Anthony; Temu, Rogers; Masenga, Gileard; Spiegel, David A; Sheth, Neil P
The global burden of musculoskeletal disease and resulting disability is enormous and is expected to increase over the next few decades. In the world's poorest regions, the paucity of information defining and quantifying the current state of access to orthopaedic surgical care is a major problem in developing effective solutions. This study estimates the number of individuals in Northern Tanzania without adequate access to orthopaedic surgical services. A chance tree was created to model the probability of access to orthopaedic surgical services in the Northern Tanzanian regions of Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Singida, and Manyara, with respect to four dimensions: timeliness, surgical capacity, safety, and affordability. Timeliness was estimated by the proportion of people living within a 4-h driving distance from a hospital with an orthopaedic surgeon, capacity by comparing number of surgeries performed to the number of surgeries indicated, safety by applying WHO Emergency and Essential Surgical Care infrastructure and equipment checklists, and affordability by approximating the proportion of the population protected from catastrophic out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure. We accounted for uncertainty in our model with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Data sources included the Tanzanian National Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Finance, World Bank, World Health Organization, New Zealand Ministry of Health, Google Corporation, NASA population estimator, and 2015 hospital records from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, Machame Hospital, Nkoroanga Hospital, Mt. Meru Hospital, and Arusha Lutheran Medical Center. Under the most conservative assumptions, more than 90% of the Northern Tanzanian population does not have access to orthopaedic surgical services. There is a near absence of access to orthopaedic surgical care in Northern Tanzania. These findings utilize more precise country and region-specific data and are consistent with prior published
By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer, and Tracie Frederick, Guest Writer Open access and public access—are they different concepts or are they the same? What do they mean for the researchers at NCI at Frederick? “Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the Internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder,” according to an open access website maintained by Peter Suber, director, Harvard Open Access Project.
Sychareun, Vanphanom; Vongxay, Viengnakhone; Thammavongsa, Vassana; Thongmyxay, Souksamone; Phummavongsa, Phouthong; Durham, Jo
Informal workers often face considerable risks and vulnerabilities as a consequence of their work and employment conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between the experience of informal work and access to health, using as an example, female beer promoters employed in the informal economy, in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 24 female beer promoters working in beer shops, restaurants and entertainment venues in Vientiane City. The recruitment strategy of snowball sampling was used. Interviews explored the beer promoter's experience of the organization of work, perceived healthcare needs, access to healthcare and insurance, and health seeking practices. The data was analysed thematically and subsequently using Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, capital and field. Most of the beer promoters included in the study were 18 years of age, single, had worked as beer promoters for more than one year and just over half were working to support their higher education. The beer promoters demonstrated a holistic view of health, also viewing good health as contributing to being beautiful - an important attribute in their work. Many reported that their work conditions, including the noisy environment, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, long hours on their feet and sexual harassment negatively affected their physical and mental health. Only four participants had any form of health insurance with access to healthcare constrained by individual characteristics, health system factors and the conditions of their informal employment. Drawing on the work of Bourdieu, the study shows how both employment and illness are linked to habitus embodied in everyday practices, access to capital and the position the female beer promoters hold in the social hierarchy in the field of employment.
Wilkinson, Tracey A; Miller, Courtney; Rafie, Samantha; Landau, Sharon Cohen; Rafie, Sally
To examine adolescent attitudes toward accessing contraception through a new pharmacist prescribing model in the State of California. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted in summer 2015 with 30 females ages 18 to 19 in California. Participants were recruited using a social media advertisement. Semi-structured interviews utilized open-ended questions to understand teens' experiences with pharmacies, experiences obtaining contraception, and views on pharmacist prescribing of contraception. Responses were transcribed and qualitatively analyzed using an independent-coder method to identify salient themes. Participants were ethnically diverse and primarily living in suburban areas. All participants had completed high school and many had completed one year of college. Nearly all participants were supportive of California's new law allowing pharmacist prescribing of contraception. Thematic analyses revealed that while participants were satisfied with traditional service providers and valued those relationships, they appreciated the benefit of increased access and convenience of going directly to a pharmacy. Participants expected increased access to contraception in pharmacies would lead to both personal and societal benefits. They expressed concerns regarding parental involvement, as well as confidentiality in the pharmacy environment and with insurance disclosures. Older teens in California are very supportive of pharmacies and pharmacists as direct access points for contraception, but confidentiality concerns were noted. Policy makers and pharmacies can incorporate study findings when designing policies, services, and physical pharmacy spaces to better serve teens. Further research is warranted after pharmacies implement this new service to assess teen utilization and satisfaction as well as outcomes. Several states recently passed legislation enabling pharmacists to prescribe contraception and other states are considering similar legislation. Older teens are
Grice, Noreen A.
A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.
Full Text Available This article presents the project that I led for HEFCE on the implications of OA (open access for monographs and other long-form research publications. The likely requirement that books should be OA if submitted to the REF (Research Excellence Framework after next means that OA development must be based on an understanding of the importance of the monograph in the AHSS (arts, humanities and social sciences as well as the challenges involved in making the transition to online OA. The project focused on three issues and each is summarized in turn in the article: What is the place of the monograph and other long-form publications in AHSS disciplines that makes it so important? What is happening to the monograph and is there a crisis as some suggest? What are the issues involved in moving monographs into a digital and OA environment – not just the challenge of effective business models but also many other aspects of sustaining and enhancing the qualities of the monograph? These include third-party rights, technical challenges, licences and the need for international collaboration.
Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.
Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.
Whyte, James; Whyte, Maria D; Hires, Kimberly
Newly immigrated persons, whatever their origin, tend to fall in the lower socioeconomic levels. In fact, failure of an asylum application renders one destitute in a large proportion of cases, often resulting in a profound lack of access to basic necessities. With over a third of HIV positive failed asylum seekers reporting no income, and the remainder reporting highly limited resources, poverty is a reality for the vast majority. The purpose of the study was to determine the basic social processes that guide HIV positive undocumented migrant's efforts to gain health services in the UK. The study used the Grounded Theory Approach. Theoretical saturation occurred after 16 participants were included in the study. The data included reflections of the prominent factors related to the establishment of a safe and productive life and the ability of individuals to remain within the UK. The data reflected heavily upon the ability of migrants to enter the medical care system during their asylum period, and on an emerging pattern of service denial after loss on immigration appeal. The findings of this study are notable in that they have demonstrated sequence of events along a timeline related to the interaction between the asylum process and access to health-related services. The results reflect that African migrants maintain a degree of formal access to health services during the period that they possess legal access to services and informal access after the failure of their asylum claim. The purpose of this paper is to examine the basic social processes that characterize efforts to gain access to health services among HIV positive undocumented African migrants to the UK. The most recent estimates indicate that there are a total of 618,000 migrants who lack legal status within the UK. Other studies have placed the number of undocumented migrants within the UK in the range of 525,000-950,000. More than 442,000 are thought to dwell in the London metropolitan area. Even in
Background The Internet’s potential impact on suicide is of major public health interest as easy online access to pro-suicide information or specific suicide methods may increase suicide risk among vulnerable Internet users. Little is known, however, about users’ actual searching and browsing behaviors of online suicide-related information. Objective To investigate what webpages people actually clicked on after searching with suicide-related queries on a search engine and to examine what queries people used to get access to pro-suicide websites. Methods A retrospective observational study was done. We used a web search dataset released by America Online (AOL). The dataset was randomly sampled from all AOL subscribers’ web queries between March and May 2006 and generated by 657,000 service subscribers. Results We found 5526 search queries (0.026%, 5526/21,000,000) that included the keyword "suicide". The 5526 search queries included 1586 different search terms and were generated by 1625 unique subscribers (0.25%, 1625/657,000). Of these queries, 61.38% (3392/5526) were followed by users clicking on a search result. Of these 3392 queries, 1344 (39.62%) webpages were clicked on by 930 unique users but only 1314 of those webpages were accessible during the study period. Each clicked-through webpage was classified into 11 categories. The categories of the most visited webpages were: entertainment (30.13%; 396/1314), scientific information (18.31%; 240/1314), and community resources (14.53%; 191/1314). Among the 1314 accessed webpages, we could identify only two pro-suicide websites. We found that the search terms used to access these sites included “commiting suicide with a gas oven”, “hairless goat”, “pictures of murder by strangulation”, and “photo of a severe burn”. A limitation of our study is that the database may be dated and confined to mainly English webpages. Conclusions Searching or browsing suicide-related or pro-suicide webpages was
Wong, Paul Wai-Ching; Fu, King-Wa; Yau, Rickey Sai-Pong; Ma, Helen Hei-Man; Law, Yik-Wa; Chang, Shu-Sen; Yip, Paul Siu-Fai
The Internet's potential impact on suicide is of major public health interest as easy online access to pro-suicide information or specific suicide methods may increase suicide risk among vulnerable Internet users. Little is known, however, about users' actual searching and browsing behaviors of online suicide-related information. To investigate what webpages people actually clicked on after searching with suicide-related queries on a search engine and to examine what queries people used to get access to pro-suicide websites. A retrospective observational study was done. We used a web search dataset released by America Online (AOL). The dataset was randomly sampled from all AOL subscribers' web queries between March and May 2006 and generated by 657,000 service subscribers. We found 5526 search queries (0.026%, 5526/21,000,000) that included the keyword "suicide". The 5526 search queries included 1586 different search terms and were generated by 1625 unique subscribers (0.25%, 1625/657,000). Of these queries, 61.38% (3392/5526) were followed by users clicking on a search result. Of these 3392 queries, 1344 (39.62%) webpages were clicked on by 930 unique users but only 1314 of those webpages were accessible during the study period. Each clicked-through webpage was classified into 11 categories. The categories of the most visited webpages were: entertainment (30.13%; 396/1314), scientific information (18.31%; 240/1314), and community resources (14.53%; 191/1314). Among the 1314 accessed webpages, we could identify only two pro-suicide websites. We found that the search terms used to access these sites included "commiting suicide with a gas oven", "hairless goat", "pictures of murder by strangulation", and "photo of a severe burn". A limitation of our study is that the database may be dated and confined to mainly English webpages. Searching or browsing suicide-related or pro-suicide webpages was uncommon, although a small group of users did access websites that contain
Gang Huang; Lian-Shan Sun
Reflective middleware opens up the implementation details of middleware platform and applications at runtime for improving the adaptability of middleware-based systems. However, such openness brings new challenges to access control of the middleware-based systems.Some users can access the system via reflective entities, which sometimes cannot be protected by access control mechanisms of traditional middleware. To deliver high adaptability securely, reflective middleware should be equipped with proper access control mechanisms for potential access control holes induced by reflection. One reason of integrating these mechanisms in reflective middleware is that one goal of reflective middleware is to equip applications with reflection capabilities as transparent as possible. This paper studies how to design a reflective J2EE middlewarePKUAS with access control in mind. At first, a computation model of reflective system is built to identify all possible access control points induced by reflection. Then a set of access control mechanisms, including the wrapper of MBeans and a hierarchy of Java class loaders, are equipped for controlling the identified access control points. These mechanisms together with J2EE access control mechanism form the access control framework for PKUAS. The paper evaluates the security and the performance overheads of the framework in quality and quantity.
Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason
An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.
Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J
Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.
Cypaite, Asta; Šerkšnien, Justina; Rudžioniene, Jurgita
Disabled students who makes relatively small part of the academic society are in risk to disappear among all other students, due to their communication and mobility difficulties have less possibilities to satisfy their needs, ensuring their rights to qualitative studies, equal opportunities in the labor market and social integration. A topic about information accessibility for disabled students is extremely important because of their information exclusion in their study process at the un...
Full Text Available Background Given that the protection of children's health is of special importance due to their special age and physical conditions, the present study aimed to investigate the condition of children's Geographic access to health services (Health Centers and Clinical Laboratories in Kermanshah city, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this applied study, the research approach was descriptive-analytic using quantitative models in Geographic information system (GIS environment. The statistical population was the whole population of young girls aged 0-14 years old in Kermanshah, Iran. Moreover, to evaluate the spatial deployment pattern of health services and the correct and true access of this groupto such services, all data and information were collected through the Iranian Statistics Center and evaluated using the Arc-GIS Software. The latest published population statistics on the Population and Housing Census in 2011 were considered the basis for the analyses. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that more than 40% and 60% of the young girls aged 0-14 years old in Kermanshah were deprived of proper access to health centers and clinical laboratories, respectively. In terms of the status of children’s access in the Second Scenario (access to health services by vehicles and during 5, 10, and 15 minutes, about 5.53%, 93.1% and 15.1% lacked access to health centers, respectively. In addition, in terms of the status of children’s access to clinical laboratories during 5, 10, and 15 minutes, 17.26%, 65.4% and 51% lacked access to clinical laboratories, respectively. Conclusion: The access of young girls aged 0-14 years old to health services in Kermanshah was undesirable in the access to health services through walking. Additionally, the access of this groupto health services in the access to health services by vehicles was far better than the first one.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men who were adults (at least 18 years old and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP, becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains
Consolo, Michael J; Syed, Kirin K; Robison, Christopher; McFadden, Jacob; Shalowitz, David I; Brown, Gordon A; Sussman, David O; Figler, Bradley D
Urethroplasty is an effective treatment for men with anterior urethral strictures, but is utilized less frequently than ineffective treatments such as internal urethrotomy. We sought to identify provider-level barriers to urethroplasty. An anonymous online survey was emailed to all Mid-Atlantic American Urological Association members. Six scenarios in which urethroplasty was the most appropriate treatment were presented. Primary outcome was recommendation for urethroplasty in ≥ three clinical scenarios. Other factors measured include practice zip code, urethroplasty training, and proximity to a urethroplasty surgeon. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with increased likelihood of urethroplasty recommendation. Of 670 members emailed, 109 (16%) completed the survey. Final analysis included 88 respondents. Mean years in practice was 17.2. Most respondents received formal training in urethroplasty: 43 (49%) in residency, 5 (6%) in fellowship, and 10 (11%) in both; 48 respondents (55%) had a urethroplasty surgeon in their practice, whereas 18 (20%) had a urethroplasty surgeon within 45 minutes of his or her primary practice location. The only covariate that was associated with an increased likelihood of recommending urethroplasty in ≥ three scenarios was formal urethroplasty training. Most members (68%) reported no barriers to referring patients for urethroplasty; the most common barriers cited were long distance to urethroplasty surgeon (n 5 13, 15%) and concern about complications (n 5 8, 9%). Urethroplasty continues to be underutilized in men with anterior urethral strictures, potentially due to lack of knowledge dissemination and access to a urethroplasty surgeon. Appropriate urethroplasty utilization may increase with greater exposure to urethroplasty in training.
Rashid, Mahbub; Khan, Nayma; Jones, Belinda
This study compared physical and visual accessibilities and their associations with staff perception and interaction behaviors in 2 intensive care units (ICUs) with open-plan and racetrack layouts. For the study, physical and visual accessibilities were measured using the spatial analysis techniques of Space Syntax. Data on staff perception were collected from 81 clinicians using a questionnaire survey. The locations of 2233 interactions, and the location and length of another 339 interactions in these units were collected using systematic field observation techniques. According to the study, physical and visual accessibilities were different in the 2 ICUs, and clinicians' primary workspaces were physically and visually more accessible in the open-plan ICU. Physical and visual accessibilities affected how well clinicians' knew their peers and where their peers were located in these units. Physical and visual accessibilities also affected clinicians' perception of interaction and communication and of teamwork and collaboration in these units. Additionally, physical and visual accessibilities showed significant positive associations with interaction behaviors in these units, with the open-plan ICU showing stronger associations. However, physical accessibilities were less important than visual accessibilities in relation to interaction behaviors in these ICUs. The implications of these findings for ICU design are discussed.
Sangeeta Khorana; Sujitha Subramanian
The World Trade Organization (WTO) Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) is a voluntary plurilateral agreement applicable to WTO members that choose to be Parties to the Agreement. Most developing countries, including India, are not members of the GPA. This case study presents an insight into India's current procurement framework, evaluates the prospects for, and comments on the principal constraints and challenges to India's GPA accession. The findings suggest that, though the Indian procur...
Riera, M; Aibar, E
Some studies suggest that open access articles are more often cited than non-open access articles. However, the relationship between open access and citations count in a discipline such as intensive care medicine has not been studied to date. The present article analyzes the effect of open access publishing of scientific articles in intensive care medicine journals in terms of citations count. We evaluated a total of 161 articles (76% being non-open access articles) published in Intensive Care Medicine in the year 2008. Citation data were compared between the two groups up until April 30, 2011. Potentially confounding variables for citation counts were adjusted for in a linear multiple regression model. The median number (interquartile range) of citations of non-open access articles was 8 (4-12) versus 9 (6-18) in the case of open access articles (p=0.084). In the highest citation range (>8), the citation count was 13 (10-16) and 18 (13-21) (p=0.008), respectively. The mean follow-up was 37.5 ± 3 months in both groups. In the 30-35 months after publication, the average number (mean ± standard deviation) of citations per article per month of non-open access articles was 0.28 ± 0.6 versus 0.38 ± 0.7 in the case of open access articles (p=0.043). Independent factors for citation advantage were the Hirsch index of the first signing author (β=0.207; p=0.015) and open access status (β=3.618; p=0.006). Open access publishing and the Hirsch index of the first signing author increase the impact of scientific articles. The open access advantage is greater for the more highly cited articles, and appears in the 30-35 months after publication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
The World Wide Web is an extremely powerful source of information, inspiration, ideas, and opportunities. As such, it has become an integral part of daily life for a great majority of people. Yet, for a significant number of others, the internet offers only limited value due to the existence of barriers which make accessing the Web difficult, if not impossible. This article illustrates some of the reasons that achieving equality of access to the online world of education is so critical, explores the current status of Web accessibility, discusses evaluative tools and methods that can help identify accessibility issues in educational websites, and provides practical recommendations and guidelines for resolving some of the obstacles that currently hinder the achievability of the goal of universal Web access.
Verburg, Peter H [Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ellis, Erle C [Department of Geography and Environmental Systems, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Letourneau, Aurelien, E-mail: Peter.Verburg@ivm.vu.nl [UMR 5175 Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle and Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)
Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.
Verburg, Peter H.; Ellis, Erle C.; Letourneau, Aurelien
Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.
Verburg, Peter H; Ellis, Erle C; Letourneau, Aurelien
Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.
Lewis, Morgan V.
Expanded Internet access to the Ohio Career Information System (OCIS) would provide adults in Ohio who need to or wish to make career changes with the best available information about occupations, education and training programs, and financial aid. In order to determine the feasibility of improving access without cost to users, an advisory group,…
Full Text Available This paper describes the impact of socio-economic factors on girls and women’s access to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) education and training in a rural South African environment and recommends strategies for improved access to ICT...
Lowry, Charles B.
This 2-year project at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) was conducted to determine the feasibility of providing online periodical indexing to the journal holdings of the UTA libraries by demonstrating an extended use of the libraries' NOTIS Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) to provide better access to local resources. Three approaches…
Pels, E.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.
In this paper (nested) logit models that describe the combined access mode-airport-choice are estimated. A three level nested logit model is rejected. A two level nested logit model with the airport choice at the top level and the access mode choice at the lower level is preferred. From the
Amir Hashemi Meshkini
Full Text Available Background :The vaccine industry is one of the most important health-related industries. It can be affected by accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO because of probable dramatic changes in the business environment. Iran has already initiated accession negotiations. Purpose of the study In this paper, we investigate the position of, challenges to, and opportunities for vaccine manufacturing in Iran with regard to accession to the WTO. Methods:This is a qualitative and cross sectional study. To collect information, we designed a questionnaire and interviewed some of the vaccine industry's key opinion leaders in Iran. Before the interviews were conducted, the questionnaires were sent to these individuals by email. Results:According to the interviewees, the country's main challenges with regard to accession to the WTO are the lack of firm internal intellectual property (IP rules, not being recognized as pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO, the use of old equipment, and a lack of cooperation with global vaccine companies. Major conclusions Iran's local vaccine industry, with a long history and international reputation that could be used as an advantage, is faced with several challenges, such as problems with keeping up with Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP, a lack of adequate and meaningful investment in research and development (R&D, and limitations on private sector participation in the production of vaccines. Gradual privatization of the industry, improved international relations, utilization of the R&D power of small hi-tech companies, consistent education of human resources, and modernization of infrastructures and equipment are among the suggested solutions.
Full Text Available The US Congress established the designation of Critical Access Hospitals in 1997, recognising rural hospitals as vital links to health for rural and underserved populations. The intent of the reimbursement system is to improve financial performance, thereby reducing hospital closures. Informatics applications are thought to be tools that can enable the sustainability of such facilities. The aim of this study is to identify the current use of information and communication technology in Critical Access Hospitals, and to assess their readiness and receptiveness for the use of new software and hardware applications and their perceived information technology (IT needs. A survey was mailed to the administrators of all Critical Access Hospitals in one US state (Missouri and a reminder was mailed a few weeks later. Twenty-seven out of 33 surveys were filled out and returned (response rate 82%. While most respondents (66.7% stated that their employees have been somewhat comfortable in using new technology, almost 15% stated that their employees have been somewhat uncomfortable. Similarly, almost 12% of the respondents stated that they themselves felt somewhat uncomfortable introducing new technology. While all facilities have computers, only half of them have a specific IT plan. Findings indicate that Critical Access Hospitals are often struggling with lack of resources and specific applications that address their needs. However, it is widely recognised that IT plays an essential role in the sustainability of their organisations. The study demonstrates that IT applications have to be customised to address the needs and infrastructure of the rural settings in order to be accepted and properly utilised.
Hashemi Meshkini Amir
Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaccine industry is one of the most important health-related industries. It can be affected by accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO because of probable dramatic changes in the business environment. Iran has already initiated accession negotiations. Purpose of the study In this paper, we investigate the position of, challenges to, and opportunities for vaccine manufacturing in Iran with regard to accession to the WTO. Methods This is a qualitative and cross sectional study. To collect information, we designed a questionnaire and interviewed some of the vaccine industry’s key opinion leaders in Iran. Before the interviews were conducted, the questionnaires were sent to these individuals by email. Results According to the interviewees, the country’s main challenges with regard to accession to the WTO are the lack of firm internal intellectual property (IP rules, not being recognized as pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO, the use of old equipment, and a lack of cooperation with global vaccine companies. Major conclusions Iran’s local vaccine industry, with a long history and international reputation that could be used as an advantage, is faced with several challenges, such as problems with keeping up with Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP, a lack of adequate and meaningful investment in research and development (R&D, and limitations on private sector participation in the production of vaccines. Gradual privatization of the industry, improved international relations, utilization of the R&D power of small hi-tech companies, consistent education of human resources, and modernization of infrastructures and equipment are among the suggested solutions.
Full Text Available The study is aimed to know the development mapping in using open-access institutional repositories. It has been researched in August 2016 by using scopus databases with keywords: open access and institutional repository. The results findings are descriptively analysed according to publication years, institution and country names, journal names, document types, and research topics. To gather the research development mapping, the data were exported by using CSV format (Comma Separated Values. These data then being processed and analysed using VOSViewer application program. The study found that the research development mapping have been occurred since 1986. From 2002-2016, the mapping have been significantly increased. The journals that mostly published its trends were OCLC System and Services, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Grey Journal, Information Services and Use, Liber Quarterly, Library Review, and Serial Librarian. Meanwhile, the most type of documents were articels, conference paper, review, and book chapters. For the topic of research, it is found that open access, institutional repositories, societies and institutions, information services, digital libraries, metadata, and electronic publishing were dominant. The visual network has shown that the relationship among topics can be seen from descriptor lines in each field. The more relation descriptor lines the closest realtionship among documents.
Chung, Hosik; Yun, Jungmin; Park, Jin Young; Park, Eunsun; Ahn, Yuri
Articles from open access and local journals are important resources for research in Korea and the usage trends of these articles are important indicators for the assessment of the current research practice. We analyzed an institutional collection of published papers from 1998 to 2014 authored by researchers from Seoul National University, and their references from papers published between 1998 and 2011. The published papers were collected from Web of Science or Scopus and were analyzed according to the proportion of articles from open access journals. Their cited references from published papers in Web of Science were analyzed according to the proportion of local (South Korean) or open access journals. The proportion of open access papers was relatively stable until 2006 (2.5 ~ 5.2% in Web of Science and 2.7 ~ 4.2% in Scopus), but then increased to 15.9% (Web of Science) or 18.5% (Scopus) in 2014. We analyzed 2,750,485 cited references from 52,295 published papers. We found that the overall proportion of cited articles from local journals was 1.8% and that for open access journals was 3.0%. Citations of open access articles have increased since 2006 to 4.1% in 2011, although the increase in open access article citations was less than for open access publications. The proportion of citations from local journals was even lower. We think that the publishing / citing mismatch is a term to describe this difference, which is an issue at Seoul National University, where the number of published papers at open access or local journals is increasing but the number of citations is not. The cause of this discrepancy is multi-factorial but the governmental / institutional policies, social / cultural issues and authors' citing behaviors will explain the mismatch. However, additional measures are also necessary, such as the development of an institutional citation database and improved search capabilities with respect to local and open access documents. PMID:27195948
Seo, Jeong-Wook; Chung, Hosik; Yun, Jungmin; Park, Jin Young; Park, Eunsun; Ahn, Yuri
Articles from open access and local journals are important resources for research in Korea and the usage trends of these articles are important indicators for the assessment of the current research practice. We analyzed an institutional collection of published papers from 1998 to 2014 authored by researchers from Seoul National University, and their references from papers published between 1998 and 2011. The published papers were collected from Web of Science or Scopus and were analyzed according to the proportion of articles from open access journals. Their cited references from published papers in Web of Science were analyzed according to the proportion of local (South Korean) or open access journals. The proportion of open access papers was relatively stable until 2006 (2.5 ~ 5.2% in Web of Science and 2.7 ~ 4.2% in Scopus), but then increased to 15.9% (Web of Science) or 18.5% (Scopus) in 2014. We analyzed 2,750,485 cited references from 52,295 published papers. We found that the overall proportion of cited articles from local journals was 1.8% and that for open access journals was 3.0%. Citations of open access articles have increased since 2006 to 4.1% in 2011, although the increase in open access article citations was less than for open access publications. The proportion of citations from local journals was even lower. We think that the publishing / citing mismatch is a term to describe this difference, which is an issue at Seoul National University, where the number of published papers at open access or local journals is increasing but the number of citations is not. The cause of this discrepancy is multi-factorial but the governmental / institutional policies, social / cultural issues and authors' citing behaviors will explain the mismatch. However, additional measures are also necessary, such as the development of an institutional citation database and improved search capabilities with respect to local and open access documents.
Full Text Available Articles from open access and local journals are important resources for research in Korea and the usage trends of these articles are important indicators for the assessment of the current research practice. We analyzed an institutional collection of published papers from 1998 to 2014 authored by researchers from Seoul National University, and their references from papers published between 1998 and 2011. The published papers were collected from Web of Science or Scopus and were analyzed according to the proportion of articles from open access journals. Their cited references from published papers in Web of Science were analyzed according to the proportion of local (South Korean or open access journals. The proportion of open access papers was relatively stable until 2006 (2.5 ~ 5.2% in Web of Science and 2.7 ~ 4.2% in Scopus, but then increased to 15.9% (Web of Science or 18.5% (Scopus in 2014. We analyzed 2,750,485 cited references from 52,295 published papers. We found that the overall proportion of cited articles from local journals was 1.8% and that for open access journals was 3.0%. Citations of open access articles have increased since 2006 to 4.1% in 2011, although the increase in open access article citations was less than for open access publications. The proportion of citations from local journals was even lower. We think that the publishing / citing mismatch is a term to describe this difference, which is an issue at Seoul National University, where the number of published papers at open access or local journals is increasing but the number of citations is not. The cause of this discrepancy is multi-factorial but the governmental / institutional policies, social / cultural issues and authors' citing behaviors will explain the mismatch. However, additional measures are also necessary, such as the development of an institutional citation database and improved search capabilities with respect to local and open access documents.
Stanley, Ava; Cantor, Joel C; Guarnaccia, Peter
The health care safety net in the United States is intended to fill gaps in health care services for uninsured and other vulnerable populations. This paper presents a case study of New Brunswick, NJ, a small city rich in safety net resources, to examine the adequacy of the American model of safety net care. We find substantial gaps in access to care despite the presence of a medical school, an abundance of primary care and specialty physicians, two major teaching hospitals, a large federally qualified health center and other safety net resources in this community of about 50,000 residents. Using a blend of random-digit-dial and area probability sampling, a survey of 595 households was conducted in 2001 generating detailed information about the health, access to care, demographic and other characteristics of 1,572 individuals. Confirming the great depth of the New Brunswick health care safety net, the survey showed that more than one quarter of local residents reported a hospital or community clinic as their usual source of care. Still, barriers to prescription drugs were reported for 11.0% of the area population and more than two in five (42.8%) local residents who perceived a need for specialty care reported difficulty getting those services. Bivariate analyses show significantly elevated risk of access problems among Hispanic and black residents, those in poor health, those relying on hospital and community clinics or with no usual source of care, and those living at or below poverty. In multivariate analysis, lack of health insurance was the greatest risk factor associated with both prescription drug and specialty access problems. Few local areas can claim the depth of safety net resources as New Brunswick, NJ, raising serious concerns about the adequacy of the American safety net model, especially for people with complex and chronic health care needs.
Pearce, Jamie; Blakely, Tony; Witten, Karen; Bartie, Phil
Obesogenic environments may be an important contextual explanation for the growing obesity epidemic, including its unequal social distribution. The objective of this study was to determine whether geographic access to fast-food outlets varied by neighborhood deprivation and school socioeconomic ranking, and whether any such associations differed to those for access to healthier food outlets. Data were collected on the location of fast-food outlets, supermarkets, and convenience stores across New Zealand. The data were geocoded and geographic information systems used to calculate travel distances from each census meshblock (i.e., neighborhood), and each school, to the closest fast-food outlet. Median travel distances are reported by a census-based index of socioeconomic deprivation for each neighborhood, and by a Ministry of Education measure of socioeconomic circumstances for each school. Analyses were repeated for outlets selling healthy food to allow comparisons. At the national level, statistically significant negative associations were found between neighborhood access to the nearest fast-food outlet and neighborhood deprivation (p<0.001) for both multinational fast-food outlets and locally operated outlets. The travel distances to both types of fast food outlet were at least twice as far in the least socially deprived neighborhoods compared to the most deprived neighborhoods. A similar pattern was found for outlets selling healthy food such as supermarkets and smaller food outlets (p<0.001). These relationships were broadly linear with travel distances tending to be shorter in more-deprived neighborhoods. There is a strong association between neighborhood deprivation and geographic access to fast food outlets in New Zealand, which may contribute to the understanding of environmental causes of obesity. However, outlets potentially selling healthy food (e.g., supermarkets) are patterned by deprivation in a similar way. These findings highlight the importance of
Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Dinarvand, Rasoul; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Habibzadeh, Mohammadgafar; Vazirian, Iman
The vaccine industry is one of the most important health-related industries. It can be affected by accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) because of probable dramatic changes in the business environment. Iran has already initiated accession negotiations. In this paper, we investigate the position of, challenges to, and opportunities for vaccine manufacturing in Iran with regard to accession to the WTO. This is a qualitative and cross sectional study. To collect information, we designed a questionnaire and interviewed some of the vaccine industry's key opinion leaders in Iran. Before the interviews were conducted, the questionnaires were sent to these individuals by email. According to the interviewees, the country's main challenges with regard to accession to the WTO are the lack of firm internal intellectual property (IP) rules, not being recognized as pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of old equipment, and a lack of cooperation with global vaccine companies. Iran's local vaccine industry, with a long history and international reputation that could be used as an advantage, is faced with several challenges, such as problems with keeping up with Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP), a lack of adequate and meaningful investment in research and development (R&D), and limitations on private sector participation in the production of vaccines.Gradual privatization of the industry, improved international relations, utilization of the R&D power of small hi-tech companies, consistent education of human resources, and modernization of infrastructures and equipment are among the suggested solutions.
The principles for the subsidy awards are based not only on the experience of ... the best-practice model for special funding to support access to communications .... Malaysia, Russia, Mongolia and elsewhere).5 The Ugandan model uses the ...... services or serve additional areas, access to radio spectrum and lower taxes.
Fitzpatrick, J J
Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.
Discusses traditional library approaches to access to information and the possible impact of information technologies, library automation, and artificial intelligence. Access issues raised by these technologies are identified and a research agenda to explore these issues is outlined. (31 references) (CLB)
Ruffini, Marco; Cincotti, Gabriella; Pizzinat, Anna; Vetter, Peter
Over the past decade we have seen an increasing number of operators deploying Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) solutions in access networks, in order to provide home users with a much needed network access upgrade, to support higher peak rates, higher sustained rates and a better and more uniform broadband coverage of the territory.
Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders
The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures...
Hassler, Ardoth; Neuman, Michael
Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing remote access to campus computer networks and the Internet, focusing on improved service, cost-sharing, partnerships with vendors, supported protocols, bandwidth, scope of access, implementation, support, network security, and pricing. Includes a checklist for a request for proposals on…
Indonesia is as an archipelago and maritime country, the large number of Islands owned and scattered in all directions makes a challenge for the Government in equitable development. Development in Indonesia has not been spread evenly and tends to focus on the big island, while the smaller islands are still far behind and lack of government attention. One of them is the lack of infrastructure especially the access to the small islands. Among the small islands in Indonesia with minimal maritime infrastructure or transportation is Banggai Laut Regency, Central Sulawesi Province. This Regency is a new regency that separate itself from its previous regency that is Banggai Kepulauan Regency in about 4 years ago. For the development of the Banggai Laut Regency, access to reach that regency is quite difficult. Therefore, the aim of this research is to find infrastructure development strategy to support the development of Banggai Laut Regency. The research method used was the concurrent model mixed method. Data collection method was done with primary data through field observation and interview, secondary data through literature and document review. Analytical techniques used are qualitative descriptive and Map Overlay techniques using GIS to describe the characteristics of study areas and spatial relationships between islands. The results of this research conclude that the Banggai Laut Regency requires infrastructure development particularly maritime transportation to enhance accessibility of the community headed to Banggi Laut Regency or headed to another island from the Banggai Laut Regency.
Karlberg, H I; Brinkmo, B-M
All civilized societies favour ethical principles of equity. In healthcare, these principles generally focus on needs for medical care. Methods for establishing priorities among such needs are instrumental in this process. In this study, we analysed whether rules on access to healthcare, waiting-time guarantees, conflict with ethical principles of distributive justice. We interviewed directors, managers and other decision-makers of various healthcare providers of hospitals, primary care organizations and purchasing offices. We also conducted focus group interviews with professionals from a number of distinct medical areas. Our informants and their co-workers were reasonably familiar with the ethical platforms for priority-setting established by the Swedish parliament, giving the sickest patients complete priority. However, to satisfy the waiting-time guarantees, the informants often had to make priority decisions contrary to the ethical principles by favouring access before needs to keep waiting times within certain limits. The common opinion was that the waiting-time guarantee leads to crowding-out effects, overruling the ethical principles based on needs. For more than a decade, the interpretation in Sweden of the equitable principle based on medical needs has been distorted through political decisions, leading to healthcare providers giving priority to access rather than needs for care.
Mishuris, Rebecca G; Stewart, Max; Fix, Gemmae M; Marcello, Thomas; McInnes, D Keith; Hogan, Timothy P; Boardman, Judith B; Simon, Steven R
Electronic, or web-based, patient portals can improve patient satisfaction, engagement and health outcomes and are becoming more prevalent with the advent of meaningful use incentives. However, adoption rates are low, particularly among vulnerable patient populations, such as those patients who are home-bound with multiple comorbidities. Little is known about how these patients view patient portals or their barriers to using them. To identify barriers to and facilitators of using My HealtheVet (MHV), the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patient portal, among Veterans using home-based primary care services. Qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews. We conducted a content analysis informed by grounded theory. Fourteen Veterans receiving home-based primary care, surrogates of two of these Veterans, and three home-based primary care (HBPC) staff members. We identified five themes related to the use of MHV: limited knowledge; satisfaction with current HBPC care; limited computer and Internet access; desire to learn more about MHV and its potential use; and value of surrogates acting as intermediaries between Veterans and MHV. Despite their limited knowledge of MHV and computer access, home-bound Veterans are interested in accessing MHV and using it as an additional point of care. Surrogates are also potential users of MHV on behalf of these Veterans and may have different barriers to and benefits from use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cerberus, an Access Control Scheme for Enforcing Least Privilege in Patient Cohort Study Platforms : A Comprehensive Access Control Scheme Applied to the GENIDA Project - Study of Genetic Forms of Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Parrend, Pierre; Mazzucotelli, Timothée; Colin, Florent; Collet, Pierre; Mandel, Jean-Louis
Cohort Study Platforms (CSP) are emerging as a key tool for collecting patient information, providing new research data, and supporting family and patient associations. However they pose new ethics and regulatory challenges since they cross the gap between patients and medical practitioners. One of the critical issues for CSP is to enforce a strict control on access privileges whilst allowing the users to take advantage of the breadth of the available data. We propose Cerberus, a new access control scheme spanning the whole life-cycle of access right management: design, implementation, deployment and maintenance, operations. Cerberus enables switching from a dual world, where CSP data can be accessed either from the users who entered it or fully de-identified, to an access-when-required world, where patients, practitioners and researchers can access focused medical data through explicit authorisation by the data owner. Efficient access control requires application-specific access rights, as well as the ability to restrict these rights when they are not used. Cerberus is implemented and evaluated in the context of the GENIDA project, an international CSP for Genetically determined Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders. As a result of this study, the software is made available for the community, and validated specifications for CSPs are given.
On 11 May, a major change concerning the requirements to access the CERN beam facilities was put in place and implemented in ADaMS in order to reduce the number of courses that people who need access to multiple installations have to follow. This revision includes dedicated safety training courses that replace, in particular, the “Safety during LS1” e-learning course, which is now to be considered obsolete. CERN’s Access Distribution and Management System (ADaMS). As of 11 May, an important improvement was implemented in ADaMS (CERN’s Access Distribution and Management System) regarding the requisites to access safety zones. This change is closely related to the introduction of a generic e-learning course ("CERN Beam Facilities") covering the common risks and systems present in CERN's beam facilities. Two e-learning courses are no longer valid, nor available on the SIR (Safety Information Registration) catalogue: the &ld...
Shen, Cenyu; Björk, Bo-Christer
A negative consequence of the rapid growth of scholarly open access publishing funded by article processing charges is the emergence of publishers and journals with highly questionable marketing and peer review practices. These so-called predatory publishers are causing unfounded negative publicity for open access publishing in general. Reports about this branch of e-business have so far mainly concentrated on exposing lacking peer review and scandals involving publishers and journals. There is a lack of comprehensive studies about several aspects of this phenomenon, including extent and regional distribution. After an initial scan of all predatory publishers and journals included in the so-called Beall's list, a sample of 613 journals was constructed using a stratified sampling method from the total of over 11,000 journals identified. Information about the subject field, country of publisher, article processing charge and article volumes published between 2010 and 2014 were manually collected from the journal websites. For a subset of journals, individual articles were sampled in order to study the country affiliation of authors and the publication delays. Over the studied period, predatory journals have rapidly increased their publication volumes from 53,000 in 2010 to an estimated 420,000 articles in 2014, published by around 8,000 active journals. Early on, publishers with more than 100 journals dominated the market, but since 2012 publishers in the 10-99 journal size category have captured the largest market share. The regional distribution of both the publisher's country and authorship is highly skewed, in particular Asia and Africa contributed three quarters of authors. Authors paid an average article processing charge of 178 USD per article for articles typically published within 2 to 3 months of submission. Despite a total number of journals and publishing volumes comparable to respectable (indexed by the Directory of Open Access Journals) open access
Lee, Ming S.; McNally, Michael G.
Physical accessibility is a measurement of opportunities available to people in a geographical region. The purpose of such a measurement is for the redirection of regional and transportation policies toward the provision of quality of life. Public policies should provide individuals with more options to choose from, and these options should be more equally distributed among the population. A physical accessibility measure can reflect the efficiency of policies in addressing these issues. This...
Carlon, Sarah; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer
A pilot study of the effectiveness of guided access to websites that provide information on intervention options for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was conducted with 12 parents of preschool aged children with ASD. Guided access to reliable websites that included information about the effcacy of interventions for ASD (Raising…
A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs
Manca, Andrea; Martinez, Gianluca; Cugusi, Lucia; Dragone, Daniele; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Deriu, Franca
Increasingly scholars and researchers are being solicited by predatory open access journals seeking manuscript submissions and abusing the author-pays model by charging authors with publishing fees without any or proper peer review. Such questionable editorial practices are threatening the reputation and credibility of scholarly publishing. To date, no investigation has been conducted on this phenomenon in the field of rehabilitation. This study attempts to identify specific predatory journals operating in this field to quantify the phenomenon and its geographic distribution. Beall's List has been used to this end which, although not perfect, is a comprehensive and up-to-date report of predatory publishers. Of the 1113 publishers on the list, 59 journals were identified, for a total of 5610 published articles. The median number of articles published by each journal was 21, and the median amount of article processing charges was $499. Only 1 out of 59 journals was included in the Directory of Open Access Journals, whereas 7 (12%) were indexed by PubMed. Most of the publishers were based in India (36%) followed by the United States (25%) and Pakistan (5%), and 25% were without a verifiable address. The data indicate that the threat of predatory publishing in rehabilitation is real. Physiatrists, physiotherapists, researchers, and academics operating in this field are advised to use the tools available to recognize predatory practices before considering publishing in open access journals. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The importance of accessibility to digital e-learning resources is widely acknowledged. The World Wide Web Consortium Web Accessibility Initiative has played a leading role in promoting the importance of accessibility and developing guidelines that can help when developing accessible web resources. The accessibility of e-learning resources provides additional challenges. While it is important to consider the technical and resource related aspects of e-learning when designing and developing resources for students with disabilities, there is a need to consider pedagogic and contextual issues as well. A holistic framework is therefore proposed and described, which in addition to accessibility issues takes into account learner needs, learning outcomes, local factors, infrastructure, usability and quality assurance. The practical application and implementation of this framework is discussed and illustrated through the use of examples and case studies.
Full Text Available The ability of an Internet user to access data collected about himself as a result of his online activity is a key privacy safeguard. Online, data access has been overshadowed by other protections such as notice and choice. This paper describes attitudes about data access. 873 US and Irish Internet users participated in a survey designed to examine views on data access to information held by online companies and data brokers. We observed low levels of awareness of access mechanisms along with a high desire for access in both participant groups. We tested three proposed access systems in keeping with industry programs and regulatory proposals. User response was positive. We conclude that access remains an important privacy protection that is inadequately manifested in practice. Our study provides insight for lawmakers and policymakers, as well as computer scientists who implement these systems.
Blanco-Gonzalo, Ramon; Lunerti, Chiara; Sanchez-Reillo, Raul; Guest, Richard Michael
Biometric recognition is currently implemented in several authentication contexts, most recently in mobile devices where it is expected to complement or even replace traditional authentication modalities such as PIN (Personal Identification Number) or passwords. The assumed convenience characteristics of biometrics are transparency, reliability and ease-of-use, however, the question of whether biometric recognition is as intuitive and straightforward to use is open to debate. Can biometric systems make some tasks easier for people with accessibility concerns? To investigate this question, an accessibility evaluation of a mobile app was conducted where test subjects withdraw money from a fictitious ATM (Automated Teller Machine) scenario. The biometric authentication mechanisms used include face, voice, and fingerprint. Furthermore, we employed traditional modalities of PIN and pattern in order to check if biometric recognition is indeed a real improvement. The trial test subjects within this work were people with real-life accessibility concerns. A group of people without accessibility concerns also participated, providing a baseline performance. Experimental results are presented concerning performance, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) and accessibility, grouped according to category of accessibility concern. Our results reveal links between individual modalities and user category establishing guidelines for future accessible biometric products.
Lunerti, Chiara; Sanchez-Reillo, Raul; Guest, Richard Michael
Biometric recognition is currently implemented in several authentication contexts, most recently in mobile devices where it is expected to complement or even replace traditional authentication modalities such as PIN (Personal Identification Number) or passwords. The assumed convenience characteristics of biometrics are transparency, reliability and ease-of-use, however, the question of whether biometric recognition is as intuitive and straightforward to use is open to debate. Can biometric systems make some tasks easier for people with accessibility concerns? To investigate this question, an accessibility evaluation of a mobile app was conducted where test subjects withdraw money from a fictitious ATM (Automated Teller Machine) scenario. The biometric authentication mechanisms used include face, voice, and fingerprint. Furthermore, we employed traditional modalities of PIN and pattern in order to check if biometric recognition is indeed a real improvement. The trial test subjects within this work were people with real-life accessibility concerns. A group of people without accessibility concerns also participated, providing a baseline performance. Experimental results are presented concerning performance, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) and accessibility, grouped according to category of accessibility concern. Our results reveal links between individual modalities and user category establishing guidelines for future accessible biometric products. PMID:29565989
Full Text Available Biometric recognition is currently implemented in several authentication contexts, most recently in mobile devices where it is expected to complement or even replace traditional authentication modalities such as PIN (Personal Identification Number or passwords. The assumed convenience characteristics of biometrics are transparency, reliability and ease-of-use, however, the question of whether biometric recognition is as intuitive and straightforward to use is open to debate. Can biometric systems make some tasks easier for people with accessibility concerns? To investigate this question, an accessibility evaluation of a mobile app was conducted where test subjects withdraw money from a fictitious ATM (Automated Teller Machine scenario. The biometric authentication mechanisms used include face, voice, and fingerprint. Furthermore, we employed traditional modalities of PIN and pattern in order to check if biometric recognition is indeed a real improvement. The trial test subjects within this work were people with real-life accessibility concerns. A group of people without accessibility concerns also participated, providing a baseline performance. Experimental results are presented concerning performance, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction and accessibility, grouped according to category of accessibility concern. Our results reveal links between individual modalities and user category establishing guidelines for future accessible biometric products.
Taylor, Rachel M; Solanki, Anita; Aslam, Natasha; Whelan, Jeremy S; Fern, Lorna A
The purpose of this study was to elicit young people's views on access and participation in cancer research. Eight young people aged 18-25 years with a previous cancer diagnosis aged 15-24 participated in a one day workshop utilising participatory methodology. The workshop consisted of four exercises: role play/scene setting; focus group examining thoughts and opinions of research access and participation; individual reflection on access to different types of research; and creative interpretation of the workshop. Further consultation with 222 young people with cancer was conducted using an electronic survey. Three themes emerged: • Patient choice: Young people thought it was their right to know all options about available research. Without knowledge of all available studies they would be unable to make an informed choice about participation. • Role of healthcare professionals as facilitators/barriers: Young people suggested non-clinical healthcare professionals such as social workers and youth support coordinators may be more suited to approaching young people about participation in psychosocial and health services research. • Value of the research: The what, when and how information was delivered was key in relaying the value of the study and assisting young people in their decision to participate. Further consultation showed approximately 70% wanted to find out about all available research. However, one third trusted healthcare professionals to decide which research studies to inform them of. Effective ways to support healthcare professionals approaching vulnerable populations about research are needed to ensure young people are empowered to make informed choices about research participation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stroope, Samuel; Tom, Joshua C
Religious participation is linked to numerous positive safety outcomes for adolescents. Scant attention, however, has been paid to associations between religious participation and safety risks among adolescents. Using data from Add Health (N = 18,449), a nationally representative school-based sample of US adolescents, this study examines the relationship between adolescents' religious affiliation and easy access to firearms at home. Regression analyses adjust for complex sampling design and compare easy firearm access at home among conservative Protestant adolescents to adolescent firearm access in other religious traditions. Conservative Protestant adolescents have a substantially greater likelihood of easy access to a gun at home compared to adolescents of all other major religious traditions in the United States. Recognizing differences in adolescent firearm access between subcultural groups can help public health interventions more effectively identify and address the needs of vulnerable populations. The paper's conclusion considers suggestions for effective policy and programmatic initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
VISITS The rules and conditions to be followed for visits in the SM18 Hall are laid out in the EDMS 1205328 document. No visit is allowed without prior reservation. ACCESS Special access right is needed ONLY from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. and during week-ends. From 1 December, the current SM18 access database will be closed and a new one “SM18-OWH outside normal hours” started from scratch. Requests, via EDH SM18-OWH, will have to be duly justified. For further information, please contact Evelyne Delucinge.
Kelley, Jay; Wessels, Denzil
Network access control (NAC) is how you manage network security when your employees, partners, and guests need to access your network using laptops and mobile devices. Network Access Control For Dummies is where you learn how NAC works, how to implement a program, and how to take real-world challenges in stride. You'll learn how to deploy and maintain NAC in your environment, identify and apply NAC standards, and extend NAC for greater network security. Along the way you'll become familiar with what NAC is (and what it isn't) as well as the key business drivers for deploying NAC.Learn the step
Potter, K.; Littenberg, L.
An access system based on the one now in operation at the CERN ISR is recommended. Access doors would presumably be located at the entrances to the utility tunnels connecting the support buildings with the ring. Persons requesting access would insert an identity card into a scanner to activate the system. The request would be autologged, the keybank adjacent to the door would be unlocked and ISABELLE operations would be notified. The operator would then select the door, activating a TV-audio link. The person requesting entry would draw a key from the bank, show it and his film badge to the operator who would enable the door release
Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.
Rocha, T A H; da Silva, N C; Amaral, P V; Barbosa, A C Q; Rocha, J V M; Alvares, V; de Almeida, D G; Thumé, E; Thomaz, E B A F; de Sousa Queiroz, R C; de Souza, M R; Lein, A; Toomey, N; Staton, C A; Vissoci, J R N; Facchini, L A
Studies of health geography are important in the planning and allocation of emergency health services. The geographical distribution of health facilities is an important factor in timely and quality access to emergency services; therefore, the present study analyzed the emergency health care network in Brazil, focusing the analysis at the roles of small hospitals (SHs). Cross-sectional ecological study. Data were collected from 9429 hospitals of which 3524 were SHs and 5905 were high-complexity centers (HCCs). For analytical purposes, we considered four specialties when examining the proxies of emergency care capability: adult, pediatrics, neonatal, and obstetric. We analyzed the spatial distribution of hospitals, identifying municipalities that rely exclusively on SHs and the distance of these cities from HCCs. More than 14 and 30 million people were at least 120 km away from HCCs with an adult intensive care unit (ICU) and pediatric ICU, respectively. For neonatal care distribution, 12% of the population was more than 120 km away from a health facility with a neonatal ICU. The maternities situation is different from other specialties, where 81% of the total Brazilian population was within 1 h or less from such health facilities. Our results highlighted a polarization in distribution of Brazilian health care facilities. There is a concentration of hospitals in urban areas more developed and access gaps in rural areas and the Amazon region. Our results demonstrate that the distribution of emergency services in Brazil is not facilitating access to the population due to geographical barriers associated with great distances. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brenman, Natassia F; Luitel, Nagendra P; Mall, Sumaya; Jordans, Mark J D
Nepal is experiencing a significant 'treatment gap' in mental health care. People with mental disorders do not always receive appropriate treatment due to a range of structural and individual issues, including stigma and poverty. The PRIME (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care) programme has developed a mental health care plan to address this issue in Nepal and four other low and middle income countries. This study aims to inform the development of this comprehensive care plan by investigating the perceptions of stakeholders at different levels of the care system in the district of Chitwan in southern Nepal: health professionals, lay workers and community members. It focuses specifically on issues of demand and access to care, and aims to identify barriers and potential solutions for reaching people with priority mental disorders. This qualitative study consisted of key informant interviews (33) and focus group discussions (83 participants in 9 groups) at community and health facility levels. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. As well as pragmatic barriers at the health facility level, mental health stigma and certain cultural norms were found to reduce access and demand for services. Respondents perceived the lack of awareness about mental health problems to be a major problem underlying this, even among those with high levels of education or status. They proposed strategies to improve awareness, such as channelling education through trusted and respected community figures, and responding to the need for openness or privacy in educational programmes, depending on the issue at hand. Adapting to local perceptions of stigmatised treatments emerged as another key strategy to improve demand. This study identifies barriers to accessing care in Nepal that reach beyond the health facility and into the social fabric of the community. Stakeholders in PRIME's integrated care plan advocate strategic awareness raising initiatives to improve the reach
María Soledad RAMÍREZ MONTOYA
Full Text Available In a changing society, open access may represent an alternative growth and resources to the educational community, from the opportunities given to students, to teachers, researchers and administrators of educational institutions. The aim of this paper is to analyze the opportunities and challenges that gives open access to the educational community, through the presentation of a conceptual vision and practical cases in Latin America, on the issue of open educational resources, repositories, journals and open access policies –from universities and government agencies or financing– and its link to a knowledge society. The findings are presented on three key elements: opportunities, challenges and opportunities open to access the knowledge society.
The study examined the farmers' access to information and their manageriability of the intervention programme in the study area. To achieve the objective, there was need to determine farmers' information accessibility and manageriability of guinea worm intervention package; then determine farmers satisfaction with the ...
Celandroni, Nedo; Ferro, Erina
A description is given of FODA-TDMA, a satellite access scheme designed for mixed traffic. The study of the system is presented and the choice of some parameters is justified. A simplified analytic solution is found, describing the steady-state behavior of the system. Some results of the simulation tests for an already existing hardware environment are also presented for the channel speeds of 2 and 8 Mb/s, considering both the stationary and the transient cases. The results of the experimentation at 2 Mb/s on the satellite Eutelsat-F2 are also presented and compared with the results of the simulation.
Fakoya, Ibidun; Álvarez-Del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Copas, Andrew J; Gennotte, Anne-Francoise; Volny-Anne, Alain; Göpel, Siri; Touloumi, Giota; Prins, Maria; Barros, Henrique; Staehelin, Cornelia; Del Amo, Julia; Burns, Fiona M
Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify the structural, cultural, and financial barriers to HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and to determine the likely country of HIV acquisition in HIV-positive migrant populations. We delivered 2 cross-sectional electronic surveys across 10 countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom). A clinic survey aimed to recruit up to 2000 HIV-positive patients from 57 HIV clinics in 9 countries. A unique study number linked anonymized questionnaire data to clinical records data (viral loads, CD4 cell counts, viral clades, etc). This questionnaire was developed by expert panel consensus and cognitively tested, and a pilot study was carried out in 2 countries. A Web-based community survey (n=1000) reached those living with HIV but not currently accessing HIV clinics, as well as HIV-negative migrants. It was developed in close collaboration with a community advisory group (CAG) made up of representatives from community organizations in 9 of the participating countries. The CAG played a key role in data collection by promoting the survey to higher-risk migrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans, Latin Americans, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs). The questionnaires have considerable content overlap, allowing for comparison. Questions cover ethnicity, migration, immigration status, HIV testing and treatment, health-seeking behavior, sexual risk, and drug use. The electronic questionnaires, which were available in 15
Chui, S.T.; Chang, C.-R.
Spin-flop structures are currently being developed for magnetic random access memory devices. We report simulation studies of this system. We found the switching involves an intermediate edge-pinned domain state, similar to that observed in the single layer case. This switching scenario is quite different from that based on the coherent rotation picture. A significant temperature dependence of the switching field is observed. Our result suggests that the interplane coupling and thus the switching field has to be above a finite threshold for the spin-flop switching to be better than conventional switching methods
This report has been elaborated in the context of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group (CSG) activities, which include as one of its topics the 'Third Party Access to LNG terminals' (Topic 8), led by Enagas. The 2010 edition is the third update to the report presented during the meeting of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group in Tokyo, Japan, in September 2007. - Section 1 includes a review of the regulatory TPA regimes of LNG terminals in operation in Europe. The existing regime in each country, or for each terminal, is reviewed following a number of subsections. Each subsection follows the same structure in order to better understand the different arrangements and facilitate comparisons. - Section 2 shows data on effective usage and TPA access to each LNG terminal since 2000. Three main data are shown where available: number of cargoes delivered, volumes unloaded / sent-out, and the part of these cargoes/volumes that correspond to third parties. - Section 3 includes a tariff comparison for TPA to LNG terminals in Europe, taking into account the terms and conditions in force as of July 2010. - A description of the regulatory situation in the US in Sections 4. Access conditions to the three terminals under regulated TPA have been included for the first time: Lake Charles, Cove Point and Elba Island. An overview of Mexico and Canada is also reported. - An overview of the regulatory situation in Japan is provided in Section 5. The information required for the elaboration of this report has been collected from official web sites (LNG operators, regulatory authorities and industry associations), public reports and industry and statistical data Enagas deems to be reliable. For the adoption of certain hypothesis in Section 3 Enagas has also relied in information directly provided by operators
O'Reilly, Christian; Gosselin, Nadia; Carrier, Julie; Nielsen, Tore
Manual processing of sleep recordings is extremely time-consuming. Efforts to automate this process have shown promising results, but automatic systems are generally evaluated on private databases, not allowing accurate cross-validation with other systems. In lacking a common benchmark, the relative performances of different systems are not compared easily and advances are compromised. To address this fundamental methodological impediment to sleep study, we propose an open-access database of polysomnographic biosignals. To build this database, whole-night recordings from 200 participants [97 males (aged 42.9 ± 19.8 years) and 103 females (aged 38.3 ± 18.9 years); age range: 18-76 years] were pooled from eight different research protocols performed in three different hospital-based sleep laboratories. All recordings feature a sampling frequency of 256 Hz and an electroencephalography (EEG) montage of 4-20 channels plus standard electro-oculography (EOG), electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory signals. Access to the database can be obtained through the Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies (MASS) website (http://www.ceams-carsm.ca/en/MASS), and requires only affiliation with a research institution and prior approval by the applicant's local ethical review board. Providing the research community with access to this free and open sleep database is expected to facilitate the development and cross-validation of sleep analysis automation systems. It is also expected that such a shared resource will be a catalyst for cross-centre collaborations on difficult topics such as improving inter-rater agreement on sleep stage scoring. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.
Stieg, Kerstin; Pavlovic, Karlo
The glossary „Open Access from A to Z“ comprises essential key terms on Open Access such as arXiv, The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), Creative Commons (CC), the Directory of Open Access Books (DOAB), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR), the EU project Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER), the Finch Report,...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scientific publishing is undergoing significant changes due to the growth of online publications, increases in the number of open access journals, and policies of funders and universities requiring authors to ensure that their publications become publicly accessible. Most studies of the impact of these changes have focused on the growth of articles available through open access or the number of open-access journals. Here, we investigated access to publications at a number of institutes and universities around the world, focusing on publications in HIV vaccine research--an area of biomedical research with special importance to the developing world. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We selected research papers in HIV vaccine research field, creating: 1 a first set of 50 most recently published papers with keywords "HIV vaccine" and 2 a second set of 200 articles randomly selected from those cited in the first set. Access to the majority (80% of the recently published articles required subscription, while cited literature was much more accessible (67% freely available online. Subscriptions at a number of institutions around the world were assessed for providing access to subscription-only articles from the two sets. The access levels varied widely, ranging among institutions from 20% to 90%. Through the WHO-supported HINARI program, institutes in low-income countries had access comparable to that of institutes in the North. Finally, we examined the response rates for reprint requests sent to corresponding authors, a method commonly used before internet access became widespread. Contacting corresponding authors with requests for electronic copies of articles by email resulted in a 55-60% success rate, although in some cases it took up to 1.5 months to get a response. CONCLUSIONS: While research articles are increasingly available on the internet in open access format, institutional subscriptions continue to play an important role. However
Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)
A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.
A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)
Fahrenfort, Johannes J; van Leeuwen, Jonathan; Olivers, Christian N L; Hogendoorn, Hinze
The visual system has the remarkable ability to integrate fragmentary visual input into a perceptually organized collection of surfaces and objects, a process we refer to as perceptual integration. Despite a long tradition of perception research, it is not known whether access to consciousness is required to complete perceptual integration. To investigate this question, we manipulated access to consciousness using the attentional blink. We show that, behaviorally, the attentional blink impairs conscious decisions about the presence of integrated surface structure from fragmented input. However, despite conscious access being impaired, the ability to decode the presence of integrated percepts remains intact, as shown through multivariate classification analyses of electroencephalogram (EEG) data. In contrast, when disrupting perception through masking, decisions about integrated percepts and decoding of integrated percepts are impaired in tandem, while leaving feedforward representations intact. Together, these data show that access consciousness and perceptual integration can be dissociated.
Millennium Challenge Corporation — This is not a performance evaluation by an independent evaluator, but rather a review by the MCC former Benin Access to Land Project Lead of project implementation,...
Full Text Available This paper represents the overall electrical energy profile and access in Bangladesh. In the recent past Bangladesh has been experiencing shortage of electricity, and about 42 % of population no access to the electricity. The electricity consumption has rapidly increased over last decade. The demand and consumption will intensify in the remote future as overall development and future growth. To set “vision 2021” of Bangladesh; government of Bangladesh has devoted to ensuring access of affordable and reliable electricity for all by 2021. In the modern time, energy is the vital ingredient for socioeconomic growth in the developing country i.e., alleviating poverty. Along with electricity access in Bangladesh strived to become middle income country by 2021. Bangladesh has experienced that energy consumption inclines to increase rapidly when per capita income researches between US$ 1,000 and US$ 10,000, and a country’s
Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO
Full Text Available The first editorial of EKS volume 18 retakes a recurrent theme in this journal: the Open Access, in this case to reflect on some of the myths that are still very ingrained in the scientific community.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This limited access system limits the number of charter vessels that may participate in the guided sport fishery for halibut in area 2C and 3A. NMFS issues a charter...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data shows the approximate locations of boat accesses in the state. This is not a comprehensive list but one that was generated through a cooperative effort....
This Policy establishes EPA's responsibilities and procedures for making its Electronic and Information Technology (EIT) products accessible to all people, including people with disabilities, in accordance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MCBS 2013 Access to Care public use file (MCBS PUF) provides the first publically available MCBS file for researchers interested in the health, health care use,...
Mngadi, Kathryn Therese; Frohlich, Janet; Montague, Carl; Singh, Jerome; Nkomonde, Nelisiwe; Mvandaba, Nomzamo; Ntombeka, Fanelesibonge; Luthuli, Londiwe; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Mansoor, Leila
Reimbursement of trial participants remains a frequently debated issue, with specific guidance lacking. Trials combining post-trial access and implementation science may necessitate new strategies and models. CAPRISA 008, a post-trial access study testing the feasibility of using family planning services to rollout a prelicensure HIV prevention intervention, tried to balance the real-life scenario of no reimbursement for attendance at public sector clinics with that of a trial including some visits that focused on research procedures and others that focused on standard of care procedures. A reduced reimbursement was offered for 'standard of care' visits, meant primarily to cover transport costs to and from the clinic only. This impacted negatively on accrual, retention and participant morale, primarily due to the protracted delay in regulatory approval, during which time, the costs of living, including travel costs had increased. Relevant guidelines were reviewed and institutional policy was updated to incorporate the South African National Health Research Ethics Committee guidelines on reimbursement (taking into account participant time, travel and inconvenience). The reimbursement amount for 'standard of care' visits was increased accordingly. The question remains whether a trial that combines post-trial access with implementation science, with clear benefits for the participants and the provision of above standard medical care, should have reimbursement rates that approach those of a proof-of-concept trial, for 'standard of care' visits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Barry, Adam E; Johnson, Emily; Rabre, Alexander; Darville, Gabrielle; Donovan, Kristin M; Efunbumi, Orisatalabi
With the proliferation of the Internet and online social media use, alcohol advertisers are now marketing their products through social media sites such as YouTube, Facebook and Twitter. As a result, new recommendations have been made by the Federal Trade Commission concerning the self-regulation of digital marketing strategies, including content management on social and digital media sites. The current study sought to determine whether alcohol companies were implementing the self-imposed mandates that they have developed for online marketing. Specifically, we examined whether alcohol companies were implementing effective strategies that would prevent persons under the minimum legal drinking age in the USA from accessing their content on YouTube. We assessed 16 alcohol brands (beer and liquor) associated with the highest prevalence of past 30 day underage alcohol consumption in the USA. Fictitious YouTube user profiles were created and assigned the ages of 14, 17 and 19. These profiles then attempted to access and view the brewer-sponsored YouTube channels for each of the 16 selected brands. Every underage profile, regardless of age, was able to successfully subscribe to each of the 16 (100%) official YouTube channels. On average, two-thirds of the brands' channels were successfully viewed (66.67%). Alcohol industry provided online marketing content is predominantly accessible to underage adolescents. Thus, brewers are not following some of the self-developed and self-imposed mandates for online advertising by failing to implement effective age-restriction measures (i.e. age gates). © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sierra Leone has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality have included initiatives to encourage more women to deliver at health facilities. Despite the introduction of the free health care initiative for pregnant women, many women still continue to deliver at home, with few having access to a skilled birth attendant. In addition, inequalities between rural and urban areas in accessing and utilising health facilities persist. Further insight into how and why women make decisions around childbirth will help guide future plans and initiatives in improving maternal health in Sierra Leone. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions and decision-making processes of women and their communities during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone.Data were collected through seven focus group discussions and 22 in-depth interviews with recently pregnant women and their community members in two rural villages. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation. Findings revealed that decision-making processes during childbirth are dynamic, intricate and need to be understood within the broader social context that they take place. Factors such as distance and lack of transport, perceived negative behaviour of hospital staff, direct and indirect financial obstacles, as well as the position of women in society all interact and influence how and what decisions are made.Pregnant women face multiple interacting vulnerabilities that influence their healthcare-seeking decisions during pregnancy and childbirth. Future initiatives to improve access and utilisation of safe healthcare services for pregnant women need to be based on adequate knowledge of structural constraints and health inequities that affect women in rural Sierra Leone.
Rolfe, Danielle E; Sutton, Erica J; Landry, Mireille; Sternberg, Len; Price, Jennifer A D
The health benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) for women living with heart disease are well documented, yet women remain underrepresented in traditionally structured CR programs. This health service delivery gap has been attributed to a number of sex-related factors experienced by women, including lower rates of physician referral, travel-related barriers, competing work and caregiving responsibilities, greater cardiovascular disease severity, and number of comorbid health conditions. Whether a program specifically designed for women is able to address these barriers and facilitate women's participation is a question that has seldom been explored in the CR literature. As part of a larger study exploring whether 6 predefined principles of women's health (empowerment of women, accessible programs, broad definition of health care, high-quality of care, collaborative planning, and innovative and creative approaches) are reflected in the practices of the Women's Cardiovascular Health Initiative (WCHI) (a comprehensive CR and primary prevention program designed for women), the objective of this analysis was to explore how the principle of "accessible programs" is experienced by women participating in the WCHI. Fourteen women previously enrolled in the WCHI program participated in a single, in-person qualitative interview. Transcripts were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach to identify relevant themes related to program accessibility. Key themes identified included participants' experiences with acquiring physician referral, negotiating transportation issues, and navigating program schedules. Women discussed how peer support and staff members' willingness to address their health-related concerns facilitated their participation. While a women-centered CR/primary prevention program may facilitate and encourage women's participation by providing flexible program schedules as well as peer and professional support, efforts are still required to address
This book presents statistical models that have recently been developed within several research communities to access information contained in text collections. The problems considered are linked to applications aiming at facilitating information access:- information extraction and retrieval;- text classification and clustering;- opinion mining;- comprehension aids (automatic summarization, machine translation, visualization).In order to give the reader as complete a description as possible, the focus is placed on the probability models used in the applications
Kuenburg, Alexa; Fellinger, Paul; Fellinger, Johannes
Access to health care without barriers is a clearly defined right of people with disabilities as stated by the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The present study reviews literature from 2000 to 2015 on access to health care for deaf people and reveals significant challenges in communication with health providers and gaps in…
Margaret (Maggie) Williams
ScienceDirect journal homepage: http://ees.elsevier.com/hsag/default.asp ... inability of their caregivers to travel the distance requisite to accessing ... and describe the experiences of caregivers accessing ART for .... In this study credibility was facilitated by the researchers ensuring that .... educational assets to assist them.
Gottfried, John C.
This study examines potential correlates of business research database access through academic libraries serving top business programs in the United States. Results indicate that greater access to research databases is related to enrollment in graduate business programs, but not to overall enrollment or status as a public or private institution.…
Henning, Marcus A.
The interrelationships between motivation for choosing a program of study, intention to access academic advisors, academic difficulty, and actual appointments with academic advisors were based on student self-reports of motivation and intentions. In addition, academic achievement measures and data on student access to academic advisors were…
Mark W. Tanner
Full Text Available Originally published in TESL-EJ March 2009, Volume 12, Number 4 (http://tesl-ej.org/ej48/a2.html. Reprinted with permission from the authors.Although some students have discovered how to use self-access centers effectively, the majority appear to be unaware of available resources. A website and database of materials were created to help students locate materials and use the Self-Access Study Center (SASC at Brigham Young University’s English Language Center (ELC more effectively. Students took two surveys regarding their use of the SASC. The first survey was given before the website and database were made available. A second survey was administered 12 weeks after students had been introduced to the resource. An analysis of the data shows that students tend to use SASC resources more autonomously as a result of having a web-based database. The survey results suggest that SAC managers can encourage more autonomous use of center materials by provided a website and database to help students find appropriate materials to use to learn English.
He, Xu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Woo, Cheol Woong; Woo, Sung Ha; Choi, Won Chan; Kim, Jong Gyu; Lim, Jin Oh; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yoon, Chang Jin; Song, Ho Young; Kang, Wee Chang
We wanted to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of a newly designed balloon sheath for gastrointestinal guidance and access by conducting a phantom study. The newly designed balloon sheath consisted of an introducer sheath and a supporting balloon. A coil catheter was advanced over a guide wire into two gastroduodenal phantoms (one was with stricture and one was without stricture); group I was without a balloon sheath, group II was with a deflated balloon sheath, and groups III and IV were with an inflated balloon and with the balloon in the fundus and body, respectively. Each test was performed for 2 minutes and it was repeated 10 times in each group by two researchers, and the positions reached by the catheter tip were recorded. Both researchers had better performances with both phantoms in order of group IV, III, II and I. In group IV, both researchers advanced the catheter tip through the fourth duodenal segment in both the phantoms. In group I, however, the catheter tip never reached the third duodenal segment in both the phantoms by both the researchers. The numeric values for the four study groups were significantly different for both the phantoms (ρ < 0.001). A significant difference was also found between group III and IV for both phantoms (ρ < 0.001). The balloon sheath seems to be feasible for clinical use, and it has good clinical potential for gastrointestinal guidance and access, particularly when the inflated balloon is placed in the gastric body
Ayris, Paul; Björnshauge, Lars; Collier, Mel; Ferwerda, Eelco; Jacobs, Neil; Sinikara, Kaisa; Swan, Alma; de Bries, Saskia; van Wesenbeeck, Astrid
Money which is not directly spent on research and education, even though it is largely taxpayers´ money. As Harvard University already denounced in 2012, many large journal publishers have rendered the situation "fiscally unsustainable and academically restrictive", with some journals costing as much as $40,000 per year (and publishers drawing profits of 35% or more). If one of the wealthiest universities in the world can no longer afford it, who can? It is easy to picture the struggle of European universities with tighter budgets. In addition to subscription costs, academic research funding is also largely affected by "Article Processing Charges" (APC), which come at an additional cost of €2000/article, on average, when making individual articles Gold Open Access. Some publishers are in this way even being paid twice for the same content ("double dipping"). In the era of Open Science, Open Access to publications is one of the cornerstones of the new research paradigm and business models must support this transition. It should be one of the principal objectives of Commissioner Carlos Moedas and the Dutch EU Presidency (January-June 2016) to ensure that this transition happens. Further developing the EU´s leadership in research and innovation largely depends on it. With this statement "Moving Forwards on Open Access", LERU calls upon all universities, research institutes, research funders and researchers to sign this statement and give a clear signal towards the European Commission and the Dutch EU Presidency. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.
Full Text Available A recent advancement in location-allocation modeling formulates a two-step approach to a new problem of minimizing disparity of spatial accessibility. Our field work in a health care planning project in a rural county in China indicated that residents valued distance or travel time from the nearest hospital foremost and then considered quality of care including less waiting time as a secondary desirability. Based on the case study, this paper further clarifies the sequential decision-making approach, termed “two-step optimization for spatial accessibility improvement (2SO4SAI.” The first step is to find the best locations to site new facilities by emphasizing accessibility as proximity to the nearest facilities with several alternative objectives under consideration. The second step adjusts the capacities of facilities for minimal inequality in accessibility, where the measure of accessibility accounts for the match ratio of supply and demand and complex spatial interaction between them. The case study illustrates how the two-step optimization method improves both aspects of spatial accessibility for health care access in rural China.
Pearce, J; Mason, K; Hiscock, R; Day, P
To investigate associations between neighbourhood accessibility to gambling outlets (non-casino gaming machine locations, sports betting venues and casinos) and individual gambling behaviour in New Zealand. A Geographical Information Systems (GIS) measure of neighbourhood access to gambling venues. Two-level logistic regression models were fitted to examine the effects of neighbourhood access on individual gambling behaviour after controlling for potential individual- and neighbourhood-level confounding factors. 38,350 neighbourhoods across New Zealand. 12,529 respondents of the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey. Compared with those living in the quartile of neighbourhoods with the furthest access to a gambling venue, residents living in the quartile of neighbourhoods with the closest access were more likely (adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status at the individual-level and deprivation, urban/rural status at the neighbourhood-level) to be a gambler (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.15) or problem gambler (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.03 to 7.05). When examined independently, neighbourhood access to venues with non-casino gaming machines (gambling: OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.18; problem gambling: OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.45 to 5.07) and sports betting venues (gambling: OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.18; problem gambling: OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.45 to 5.07) were similarly related. Neighbourhood access to opportunities for gambling is related to gambling and problem gambling behaviour, and contributes substantially to neighbourhood inequalities in gambling over and above-individual level characteristics.
Full Text Available Objective. To study and understand the phenomenon of access to contraceptive methods in Mexican teenages, through the use of the Levesque model, which allows for the observation of both the system and the system and the user´s participation in the access process. Materials and methods. A qualitative study was conducted with focus groups technique in a middle and high school of Mexico City. Results. The perception of ability to access to health care is limited, teenagers do not know the mechanisms of care or supply of contraceptive methods. Prejudices of service providers provoke a negative reaction. The family is a source of information for adolescents to make decisions. Conclusions. The model allowed the assessment of access to contraceptive methods in teenagers. It were identified different aspects that act as barriers to access and may inform health care providers about this population in their sexual and reproductive health.
Powell, Richard W.; Cook, Stephen A.; Lockwood, Mary Kae
NASA is cooperating with the aerospace industry to develop a space transportation system that provides reliable access-to-space at a much lower cost than is possible with today's launch vehicles. While this quest has been on-going for many years it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated as part of the 1993 NASA appropriations bill that: "In view of budget difficulties, present and future..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall ... recommend improvements in space transportation." NASA, working with other organizations, including the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Defense identified three major transportation architecture options that were to be evaluated in the areas of reliability, operability and cost. These architectural options were: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and the current expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable launch vehicles using conventional technologies and transition to these new vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition to these vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch needs mission model was based on 1993 projections of civil, defense, and commercial payload requirements. This "Access to Space" study concluded that the option that provided the greatest potential for meeting the cost, operability, and reliability goals was a rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV) fleet designed with advanced technologies.
Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0-74 years who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40-59-year-old men and 60-69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40-59 and 60-69-year-olds of both sexes and 70-74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts.
Byatt, Nancy; Cox, Lucille; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Biebel, Kathleen; Sankaran, Padma; Swartz, Holly A; Weinreb, Linda
Bipolar disorder among pregnant women has deleterious effects on birth and child outcomes and is currently under-detected, not addressed effectively, or exacerbated through inappropriate treatment. The goal of this study was to identify perspectives of pregnant and postpartum women with bipolar disorder on barriers and facilitators to psychiatric treatment during pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted with pregnant and postpartum women who scored ≥ 10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder I, II or not otherwise specified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5.0. Interviews were transcribed, and resulting data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to identify barriers and facilitators to bipolar disorder treatment access in pregnancy. Participant identified barriers included perception that psychiatric providers lack training and experience in the treatment of psychiatric illness during pregnancy, are reluctant to treat bipolar disorder among pregnant women, and believe that pharmacotherapy is not needed for psychiatric illness during pregnancy. Facilitators included participants' perception that providers' acknowledge risks associated with untreated or undertreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and provide psycho-education about the risks, benefits and alternatives to pharmacotherapy. Psychiatric providers are critically important to the treatment of bipolar disorder and need knowledge and skills necessary to provide care during the perinatal period. Advancing psychiatric providers' knowledge/skills may improve access to pharmacotherapy for pregnant women with bipolar disorder.
Thiyagarajan, P.; Thandra, Prasanth Kumar; Rajan, J.; Satyamurthy, S.A.V. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam (India). Computer Div.; Aghila, G. [National Institute of Technology, Karaikal (India). Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering
In recent years, due to the sophistication offered by the Internet, strategic organizations like nuclear power plants are linked to the outside world communication through the Internet. The entry of outside world communication into strategic organization (nuclear power plant) increases the hacker's attempts to crack its security and to trace any information which is being sent among the top level officials. Information security system in nuclear power plant is very crucial as even small loophole in the security system will lead to a major disaster. Recent cyber attacks in nuclear power plant provoked information security professionals to look deeply into the information security aspects of strategic organizations (nuclear power plant). In these lines, Shamir secret sharing scheme with dynamic access structure (SSSDAS) is proposed in the paper which provides enhanced security by providing dynamic access structure for each node in different hierarchies. The SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to any strategic organizations with hierarchical structures. In this paper the possible scenarios where SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to nuclear power plant is explained as a case study. The proposed SSSDAS scheme identifies the wrong shares, if any, used for reconstruction of the secret. The SSSDAS scheme also address the three major security parameters namely confidentiality, authentication and integrity.
Pardi, S.; Russo, G.
WebDav and HTTP are becoming popular protocols for data access in the High Energy Physics community. The most used Grid and Cloud storage solutions provide such kind of interfaces, in this scenario tuning and performance evaluation became crucial aspects to promote the adoption of these protocols within the Belle II community. In this work, we present the results of a large-scale test activity, made with the goal to evaluate performances and reliability of the WebDav protocol, and study a possible adoption for the user analysis. More specifically, we considered a pilot infrastructure composed by a set of storage elements configured with the WebDav interface, hosted at the Belle II sites. The performance tests include a comparison with xrootd and gridftp. As reference tests we used a set of analysis jobs running under the Belle II software framework, accessing the input data with the ROOT I/O library, in order to simulate as much as possible a realistic user activity. The final analysis shows the possibility to achieve promising performances with WebDav on different storage systems, and gives an interesting feedback, for Belle II community and for other high energy physics experiments.
Fujita, Misuzu; Hata, Akira
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0–74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40–59-year-old men and 60–69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40–59 and 60–69-year-olds of both sexes and 70–74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts. PMID:26978270
Thiyagarajan, P.; Thandra, Prasanth Kumar; Rajan, J.; Satyamurthy, S.A.V.; Aghila, G.
In recent years, due to the sophistication offered by the Internet, strategic organizations like nuclear power plants are linked to the outside world communication through the Internet. The entry of outside world communication into strategic organization (nuclear power plant) increases the hacker's attempts to crack its security and to trace any information which is being sent among the top level officials. Information security system in nuclear power plant is very crucial as even small loophole in the security system will lead to a major disaster. Recent cyber attacks in nuclear power plant provoked information security professionals to look deeply into the information security aspects of strategic organizations (nuclear power plant). In these lines, Shamir secret sharing scheme with dynamic access structure (SSSDAS) is proposed in the paper which provides enhanced security by providing dynamic access structure for each node in different hierarchies. The SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to any strategic organizations with hierarchical structures. In this paper the possible scenarios where SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to nuclear power plant is explained as a case study. The proposed SSSDAS scheme identifies the wrong shares, if any, used for reconstruction of the secret. The SSSDAS scheme also address the three major security parameters namely confidentiality, authentication and integrity.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains comprehensive dataset and reports collected in support of the Mamala Bay Study during 1993-1995. Physical, chemical, biological, and...
Goicolea, Isabel; Carson, Dean; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Wiklund, Maria; Hurtig, Anna-Karin
The purpose of this paper is to propose a protocol for researching the impact of rural youth health service strategies on health care access. There has been no published comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of youth health strategies in rural areas, and there is no clearly articulated model of how such assessments might be conducted. The protocol described here aims to gather information to; i) Assess rural youth access to health care according to their needs, ii) Identify and understand the strategies developed in rural areas to promote youth access to health care, and iii) Propose actions for further improvement. The protocol is described with particular reference to research being undertaken in the four northernmost counties of Sweden, which contain a widely dispersed and diverse youth population. The protocol proposes qualitative and quantitative methodologies sequentially in four phases. First, to map youth access to health care according to their health care needs, including assessing horizontal equity (equal use of health care for equivalent health needs,) and vertical equity (people with greater health needs should receive more health care than those with lesser needs). Second, a multiple case study design investigates strategies developed across the region (youth clinics, internet applications, public health programs) to improve youth access to health care. Third, qualitative comparative analysis of the 24 rural municipalities in the region identifies the best combination of conditions leading to high youth access to health care. Fourth, a concept mapping study involving rural stakeholders, care providers and youth provides recommended actions to improve rural youth access to health care. The implementation of this research protocol will contribute to 1) generating knowledge that could contribute to strengthening rural youth access to health care, as well as to 2) advancing the application of mixed methods to explore access to health care.
Kert, Suzana; Švab, Igor; Sever, Maja; Makivić, Irena; Pavlič, Danica Rotar
Primary care (PC) is the provision of universally accessible, integrated, person-centred, comprehensive health and community services. Professionals active in primary care teams include family physicians and general practitioners (FP/GPs). There is concern in Slovenia that the current economic crisis might change the nature of PC services. Access, one of the most basic requirements of general practice, is universal in Slovenia, which is one of the smallest European countries; under national law, compulsory health insurance is mandatory for its citizens. Our study examined access to PC in Slovenia during a time of economic crisis as experienced and perceived by patients between 2011 and 2012, and investigated socio-demographic factors affecting access to PC in Slovenia. Data were collected as a part of a larger international study entitled Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC) that took place during a period of eight months in 2011 and 2012. 219 general practices were included; in each, the aim was to evaluate 10 patients. Dependent variables covered five aspects of access to PC: communicational, cultural, financial, geographical and organizational. 15 socio-demographic factors were investigated as independent variables. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and multilevel analysis were applied. There were 1,962 patients in the final sample, with a response rate of 89.6%. The factors with the most positive effect on access to PC were financial and cultural; the most negative effects were caused by organizational problems. Financial difficulties were not a significant socio-demographic factor. Greater frequency of visits improves patients' perception of communicational and cultural access. Deteriorating health conditions are expected to lower perceived geographical access. Patients born outside Slovenia perceived better organizational access than patients born in Slovenia. Universal medical insurance in Slovenia protects most patients from PC
Mahmud, Aidalina; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
Access to healthcare is essential in the pursuit of universal health coverage. Components of access are availability, accessibility (spatial and non-spatial), affordability and acceptability. Measuring spatial accessibility is common approach to evaluating access to health care. This study aimed to determine the availability and spatial accessibility of subsidised mammogram screening in Peninsular Malaysia. Availability was determined from the number and distribution of facilities. Spatial accessibility was determined using the travel impedance approach to represent the revealed access as opposed to potential access measured by other spatial measurement methods. The driving distance of return trips from the respondent's residence to the facilities was determined using a mapping application. The travel expenditure was estimated by multiplying the total travel distance by a standardised travel allowance rate, plus parking fees. Respondents in this study were 344 breast cancer patients who received treatment at 4 referral hospitals between 2015 and 2016. In terms of availability, there were at least 6 major entities which provided subsidised mammogram programs. Facilities with mammogram involved with these programs were located more densely in the central and west coast region of the Peninsula. The ratio of mammogram facility to the target population of women aged 40-74 years ranged between 1: 10,000 and 1:80,000. In terms of accessibility, of the 3.6% of the respondents had undergone mammogram screening, their mean travel distance was 53.4 km (SD = 34.5, range 8-112 km) and the mean travel expenditure was RM 38.97 (SD = 24.00, range RM7.60-78.40). Among those who did not go for mammogram screening, the estimated travel distance and expenditure had a skewed distribution with median travel distance of 22.0 km (IQR 12.0, 42.0, range 2.0-340.0) and the median travel cost of RM 17.40 (IQR 10.40, 30.00, range 3.40-240.00). Higher travel impedance was noted among those who
Lim, Ka Keat; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Mahmud, Fatihah
To examine the extent of equity in access to health care, their determinants and reasons of unmet need of a rural population in Malaysia. Exploratory cross-sectional survey administered by trained interviewers among participants of a health screening program. A rural plantation estate in the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and thirty out of 142 adults above 18 years old who attended the program. Percentages of respondents reporting realised access and unmet need to health care, determinants of both access indicators and reasons for unmet need. Realised access associated with need but not predisposing or enabling factors and unmet need not associated with any variables were considered equitable. A total of 88 (67.7%) respondents had visited a doctor (realised access) in the past 6 months and 24.8% (n = 31) experienced unmet need in the past 12 months. Using logistic regression, realised access was associated with presence of chronic disease (OR 6.97, P RM 2000 per month) (OR 51.27, P population, the latter associated with education level, subjective health status and income. Despite not being generalisable, the findings highlight the need for a national level study on equity in access before the country reforms its health system. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Full Text Available This paper depicts a study conducted on the behavior of physical education students towards Internet usage at Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra. Specially, the study aims to know the purposes for use of Internet resources and services, frequency of use, places and means of use, student's satisfaction level toward the Internet, and problems faced while using the Internet. A survey was carried out with a sample of 100 physical education students of Kurukshetra University and the response rate was 88%. A well-designed questionnaire was distributed to the students' sample. Amazingly, the results of the study reveal that usage of the Internet in research and education was not favored, whereas email, chatting, and sports websites were commonly used among students. The study also found that too much information on the Internet, slow access speeds, and finding relevant information were the main problems in using the Internet.
Waits and delays for healthcare are legendary. These delays are not only frustrating and potentially hazardous for patients and providers but also represent significant cost to office practices. The traditional medical model that defines urgent care versus routine care is a vain and futile attempt to sort demand. This approach is at constant odds with patients' definition of urgency. Trusting patients to determine when and how they want to access care makes sense from a customer service perspective. If approached systematically using the principles of Advanced Access, patient demand patterns can be tracked to forecast demand. These demand patterns become the template for deploying the resources necessary to meet patients' needs. Although not a simple journey, the transformation to Advanced Access provides an entree to patient-centered care where patients can say, "I get exactly the care I want and need, when I want and need it."
Schmutz, Sven; Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen
The present study examined whether implementing recommendations of Web accessibility guidelines would have different effects on nondisabled users than on users with visual impairments. The predominant approach for making Web sites accessible for users with disabilities is to apply accessibility guidelines. However, it has been hardly examined whether this approach has side effects for nondisabled users. A comparison of the effects on both user groups would contribute to a better understanding of possible advantages and drawbacks of applying accessibility guidelines. Participants from two matched samples, comprising 55 participants with visual impairments and 55 without impairments, took part in a synchronous remote testing of a Web site. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of three Web sites, which differed in the level of accessibility (very low, low, and high) according to recommendations of the well-established Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0). Performance (i.e., task completion rate and task completion time) and a range of subjective variables (i.e., perceived usability, positive affect, negative affect, perceived aesthetics, perceived workload, and user experience) were measured. Higher conformance to Web accessibility guidelines resulted in increased performance and more positive user ratings (e.g., perceived usability or aesthetics) for both user groups. There was no interaction between user group and accessibility level. Higher conformance to WCAG 2.0 may result in benefits for nondisabled users and users with visual impairments alike. Practitioners may use the present findings as a basis for deciding on whether and how to implement accessibility best.
Vierhout, Bastiaan P; Saleem, Ben R; Ott, Alewijn; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; de Kempenaer, Ties D van Andringa; Pierie, Maurice E N; Bottema, Jan T; Zeebregts, Clark J
Access for endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) is obtained through surgical cutdown or percutaneously. The only devices suitable for percutaneous closure of the 20 French arteriotomies of the common femoral artery (CFA) are the Prostar(™) and Proglide(™) devices (Abbott Vascular). Positive effects of these devices seem to consist of a lower infection rate, and shorter operation time and hospital stay. This conclusion was published in previous reports comparing techniques in patients in two different groups (cohort or randomized). Access techniques were never compared in one and the same patient; this research simplifies comparison because patient characteristics will be similar in both groups. Percutaneous access of the CFA is compared to surgical cutdown in a single patient; in EVAR surgery, access is necessary in both groins in each patient. Randomization is performed on the introduction site of the larger main device of the endoprosthesis. The contralateral device of the endoprosthesis is smaller. When we use this type of randomization, both groups will contain a similar number of main and contralateral devices. Preoperative nose cultures and perineal cultures are obtained, to compare colonization with postoperative wound cultures (in case of a surgical site infection). Furthermore, patient comfort will be considered, using VAS-scores (Visual analog scale). Punch biopsies of the groin will be harvested to retrospectively compare skin of patients who suffered a surgical site infection (SSI) to patients who did not have an SSI. The PiERO trial is a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial designed to show the consequences of using percutaneous access in EVAR surgery and focuses on the occurrence of surgical site infections. NTR4257 10 November 2013, NL44578.042.13.
... 2016 After-Meal Blood Glucose Spikes? Try Using Extra-Virgin Olive Oil This study shows for the first time that ... diabetes. Avoiding foods rich in butter and using extra-virgin olive oil could help improve your postprandial (after-a-meal) ...
Yu, Weiyu; Bain, Robert ES; Mansour, Shawky; Wright, Jim A
IntroductionMeasuring inequality in access to safe drinking-water and sanitation is proposed as a component of international monitoring following the expiry of the Millennium Development Goals. This study aims to evaluate the utility of census data in measuring geographic inequality in access to drinking-water and sanitation.MethodsSpatially referenced census data were acquired for Colombia, South Africa, Egypt, and Uganda, whilst non-spatially referenced census data were acquired for Kenya. ...
Sydee, Ahmed Nasim
In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of
Full Text Available The paper follows accessing patterns of five cohorts of postgraduate students enrolled in a core unit within a master of business administration (MBA program. The unit is designed to provide numerous opportunities for student participation in Discussion Boards using Blackboard technology. Discussion Boards create numerous opportunities for interaction amongst online learners to share and exchange their experiences, creating a sense of a virtual community. Relationships between accessing patterns for each week of the semester for each student are explored in relation to their performance using course statistics generated by the Blackboard technology. Close examination of the significant differences in access patterns to the course window and its components of communication, content, and student areas reveal middle of the semester (week 7 as the common critical point that differentiates high achieving students from low achieving students. Identifying critical points provides the faculty staff member an opportunity to introduce intervention strategies in order to improve the learning experience of all the students.
Dolog, Peter; Simon, Bernd; Nejdl, Wolfgang
In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address in this fra......In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address...... in this framework, enabling personalized access to federated learning repositories with a vast number of learning offers. Our infrastructure includes personalization strategies both at the query and the query results level. Query rewriting is based on learning and language preferences; rule-based and ranking...
Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Zhang, Yiqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)
We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.
Full Text Available Accessibility and availability of a space has a significant importance during the participation of individual to the social life. Consequently, in order to keep their life barrier-free as the others, all spaces should be planned, designed and applied for handicapped people. The perception that handicapped individuals are helpless and devour causes a social isolation from the community and this situation makes them hopeless and aimless. For this reason, designers should be sensitive to create and manage barrier-free design process in order to achieve equal life for everyone. Thus handicaped people can access social life fully and easly and these solutions let them free from physcial barriers which keep them out of public spaces. In this study Kızılelma Park, one of the biggest park in Niğde, is investigated in terms of accessibility. Suitability of several park components such as parking lots, pedestrain paths, planting design and urban furnitures, and the accessibility problems in the park are revealled. Collected data are compared to standarts, appropriate designs are determined and some design solutions are improved for unappropriate designs.
Joyce Addo-Atuah * Joyce Addo-Atuah, BPharm, MSc, PhD, Assistant Professor, Touro College of Pharmacy, New York, USA. She was a PhD candidate at the University of Tennessee (UT), Memphis, USA, when the study was undertaken in Ghana. email@example.com, Dick Gourley Dick Gourley, PharmD, Professor and Dean, UT College of Pharmacy during the study and major research advisor. , Greta Gourley Greta Gourley, PharmD/PhD, retired Associate Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences at UT College of Pharmacy and research advisor. , Shelley I. White-Means Shelley I. White-Means, PhD, Professor and Chair, Health Outcomes and Policy Research Division of UT College of Pharmacy at time of the study and research advisor. , Robin J. Womeodu Robin J. Womeodu, MD, F.A.C.P., Associate Professor of Internal Medicine and Preventive Medicine at UT College of Medicine at time of study and research advisor. , Richard J. Faris Richard J. Faris, Assistant Professor at UT College of Pharmacy at time of study and research advisor. &
May 30, 2012 ... The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses ... The convenience of accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) is ...... tious diseases, paediatrics, chest diseases, dermatology, public .... CD4 count, (2) a full blood count, (3) a liver function test, (4) ..... America: measures of the African brain drain.
SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Peng, Wei-Chung; Yang, Chau-Chin
The results of a study on the effect of mutual interference among S-band multiple access (SMA) system users of advanced tracking and data relay satellite system (ATDRSS) are presented. In the ATDRSS era, the SMA system is required to support data rates ranging from 10 kb/s to 3 Mb/s. The system will consist of four advanced tracking and data relay satellites (ATDRS) each supporting up to five telemetry links. All users have 10 MHz bandwidth with their carrier frequency equal to 2.2875 GHz. A hybrid SDMA/CDMA scheme is used to mitigate the effect of the interference among system users. SMA system interference probability is evaluated with CLASS software. User link margin degradation due to mutual interference between two users is evaluated. System interference probability is evaluated for the projected 1996 mission model, a reference mission model, and a modified reference mission model.
Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.
Sala, Davide; Yalcin, Erdal; Schröder, Philipp
on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm...
Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long...
Mele, Salvatore; D'Agostino, Dan; Dyas-Correia, Sharon
SCOAP3 is an innovative Open Access initiative for publishing in high-energy physics. The model is viewed by many as a potential solution to multiple issues related to the financial crisis, the peer review system, scholarly communication, and the need to support institutional repositories. This installment of “The Balance Point” presents articles written by three Open Access advocates, outlining the SCOAP3 proposal, benefits of participation, and some of the roles libraries, publishers and scientists can play in making important changes to scholarly communication. Contributors discuss scalability and transferability issues of SCOAP3, as well as other matters of concern.
Coonin, Bryna; Younce, Leigh M.
Open access publishing is now an accepted method of scholarly communication. However, the greatest traction for open access publishing thus far has been in the sciences. Penetration of open access publishing has been much slower among the social sciences. This study surveys 309 authors from recent issues of open access journals in education to…
Afacan, Gulgun; Er, Erkan; Arifoglu, Ali
Building public Internet access points (PIAPs) is a significant contribution of governments towards achieving an information society. While many developing countries are investing great amounts to establish PIAPs today, people may not use PIAPs effectively. Yet, the successful implementation of PIAPs is the result of citizens' acceptance to use…
van Cleeff, A.; Pieters, Wolter; Wieringa, Roelf J.
Location-based access control (LBAC) has been suggested as a means to improve IT security. By 'grounding' users and systems to a particular location, attackers supposedly have more difficulty in compromising a system. However, the motivation behind LBAC and its potential benefits have not been
Full Text Available With the establishment of an Institutional Repository (IR) one of the first questions the organisation should ask is: ‘How could we promote Open Access (OA) and still adhere to the restrictions of copyright? The Council for Scientific and Industrial...
Jitngernmadan, Prajaks; Miesenberger, Klaus
For an interactive application, supporting and guiding the user in fulfilling tasks is most important. The behavior of the application that will guide users through the procedures until they finish the task has to be designed intuitively and well guiding, especially if the users has only restricted or no access to the visual and spatial arrangement on the screen. Therefore, the focus/cursor management plays an important role for orientation and navigating through the interaction. In the frame of ongoing research on a software tool supporting blind people in more efficiently doing mathematical calculations, we researched how Java technologies support implementing an accessible Graphical User Interface (GUI) with an additional focus on usable accessibility in terms of guiding blind users through the process of solving mathematical calculations. We used Java Swing  and Eclipse SWT  APIs for creating a series of prototypes. We tested a) accessibility and usability of the prototypes for blind people when using screen reader software and refreshable Braille display and b) the implementation support to developers provided by both technologies. It turned out that Eclipse SWT API delivered best results under Windows operating system.
Platt, Richard G.; Carper, William B.; McCool, Michael
In early 2004, the Hilton Hotels Corporation (HHC) required that all of its hotels (both owned and franchised) install high-speed Internet access (HSIA) in all of their rooms by June 2004. This case focuses on how one of its franchise properties located on the northern gulf coast of Florida (the Hilton Sandestin Beach Golf Resort &…
In this paper, data obtained from a university website accessibility and usability validation process are analyzed and used to demonstrate how the design process can affect the online experience for users with disabilities. Interviews, observations, and use data (e.g. where users clicked on a page or what path taken through a site) were collected.…
This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5-14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend…
Spark, M Joy; Willis, Jon; Byrne, Graeme; Iacono, Teresa
To explore the influences on accessibility of compounded progesterone therapy for Australian women. A cross-sectional survey of a stratified sample of Australian women who use progesterone only products using the 'Perspectives on Progesterone' questionnaire. Principle components analysis (PCA) to determine components of access to progesterone treatment and multi-way analysis of variance to compare groups. Women using compounded progesterone were likely to have made at least one lifestyle adaptation (73%), and to have tried and stopped using at least one complementary and alternative medicine therapy (63%) or conventional hormone therapy (41%). PCA revealed six components of access to progesterone treatment: affordable, values natural treatments and is concerned about other treatments, conventionally available, perceived knowledge, values information gathered from a variety of sources, and rural & disadvantaged. The multifaceted nature of progesterone use illustrates that there are multiple aspects to use of non-conventional medicines. Women looking for non-conventional treatment are neither stupid nor uninformed, their understandings, based on experience and research, need to be addressed by health professionals while assessing their condition prior to discussing the risks and benefits of non-conventional medicines. Access to compounded progesterone is multifaceted, and many of the women who use it have tried other treatments first. Despite the clinical ambivalence towards progesterone as an alternative for women who may have tried and rejected other treatments, including conventional hormone therapy, the women described in this paper are using it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Government policies over the years has centered on the provision and delivery of healthcare to all. Spatial distribution of health facilities is subject to a number of social and commercial influences and healthcare needs of the population. The objective of this paper analyzed the service radii and accessibility of health ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background International research shows that injecting drug users (IDUs can encounter many barriers when they try to access drug treatment and other services. However, the existing literature is mostly quantitative and does not consider the kinds of factors that injectors themselves identify as enabling them to access and benefit from services. Responding to this gap in knowledge, our paper explores IDUs' own suggestions for improving service engagement and their reports of other factors enabling them to seek help. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 75 current illicit drug injectors in three geographically diverse areas of West Yorkshire, England. Recruitment was through needle exchange programmes, with additional snowball sampling to ensure inclusivity of gender, ethnicity and primary drug injected. Transcribed data were analysed thematically using Framework. Results Although participants were often satisfied with current access to services, they made three broad suggestions for improving engagement. These were: providing more services (more providers and more forms of support; better operation of existing services (including better communication systems and more flexibility around individual needs; and staffing-related improvements (particularly, less judgemental and more understanding staff attitudes. Other factors identified as important enablers of help seeking were: having supporting relationships (particularly with family members; personal circumstances/life events (especially becoming a parent; and an injector's state of mind (such as feeling motivated and positive. Conclusion A range of practical suggestions for improving IDUs' access to drug treatment and other services are identified.
Greenland, Steven J.; Moore, Catherine
Swinburne University of Technology has experienced tremendous growth in open access online learning and as such is typical of the many Australian institutions that have ventured into online tertiary education. While research in online education continues to expand, comparatively little investigates students' enrolment and attrition. This research…
Rebmann, Kristen Radsliff; Clark, Camden Bernard
This article charts the development of activities for online graduate students in library and information science. Project goals include helping students develop competencies in understanding open access publishing, synthesizing research in the field, and engaging in scholarly communication via collaborative educational blogging. Using a design…
Cullen, Rowena; Chawner, Brenda
The Open Access movement of the past decade, and institutional repositories developed by universities and academic libraries as a part of that movement, have openly challenged the traditional scholarly communication system. This article examines the growth of repositories around the world, and summarizes a growing body of evidence of the response…
Christiane Gomes dos Santos
Full Text Available This research deals with the process of search, navigation and retrieval of information by the person with blindness in web environment, focusing on knowledge of the areas of information recovery and architecture, to understanding the strategies used by these people to access the information on the web. It aims to propose the construction of an accessibility verification instrument, checklist, to be used to analyze the behavior of people with blindness in search actions, navigation and recovery sites and pages. It a research exploratory and descriptive of qualitative nature, with the research methodology, case study - the research to establish a specific study with the simulation of search, navigation and information retrieval using speech synthesis system, NonVisual Desktop Access, in assistive technologies laboratory, to substantiate the construction of the checklist for accessibility verification. It is considered the reliability of performed research and its importance for the evaluation of accessibility in web environment to improve the access of information for people with limited reading in order to be used on websites and pages accessibility check analysis.
Hoffer, F.A.; Wyly, J.B.; Fellows, K.E.; Harmon, W.; Levey, R.H.
The patency of vascular access shunts and fistulae has been prolonged by a combined surgical and radiological approach that includes percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), surgical revision, thrombectomy, and thrombolysis. Over the last 3 years, 35 vascular accesses in 27 patients were found to have angiographic abnormality. PTA was performed 32 times of 19 accesses and 7 PTAs resulted in patent accesses by the end of the study. Surgical revision was performed 9 times on 8 accesses and 2 of the surgical revisions resulted in a patent access by the end of the study. Concerning Thomas femoral shunts, PTA prolonged the patency by 2.2 months and surgical revision by 3.8 months per procedure. Concerning arteriovenous (AV) fistulae, PTA prolonged the patency by 4.3 months and surgical revision by 3.5 months per procedure. A combination of procedures effectively doubles the duration of patency of Thomas femoral shunts and almost triples the duration of patency of AV fistulae in children. Forty-one percent of these accesses remain open 1 year following the initiation of these procedures. (orig.)
Evcil, A Nilay
Accessibility to public environment is the human right and basic need of each citizen and is one of the fundamental considerations for urban planning. The aim of this study is to determine the compliance of public buildings in central business districts (CBD) of Istanbul, Turkey, to wheelchair accessibility to the guidelines of the instrument and identify architectural barriers faced by wheelchair users. This is a descriptive study of 26 public buildings in CBD of Istanbul. The instrument used is the adapted Useh, Moyo and Munyonga questionnaire to collect the data from direct observation and measurement. Descriptive statistics of simple percentages and means are used to explain the compliance to the guidelines of the instrument and wheelchair accessibility. The descriptive survey results indicate that wheelchair users experience many accessibility problems in public environment of the most urbanised city (cultural capital of Europe in 2010) in a developing country. It is found that the major architectural barrier is the public transportation items with the lowest mean compliance (25%). Beside this, the most compliant to the instrument is entrance to building items with 79% as mean percentage. It is also found that there is an intention to improve accessibility when building construction period is investigated. This article describes the example of the compliance of public buildings accessibility when the country has legislation, but lacking regulations about accessibility for the wheelchair users.
Ganle, John K; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Otupiri, Easmon
Inequities in accessibility to, and utilisation of maternal healthcare services impede progress towards attainment of the maternal health-related Millennium Development Goals. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which maternal health services are utilised in Ghana, and whether inequities in accessibility to and utilization of services have been eliminated following the implementation of a user-fee exemption policy, that aims to reduce financial barriers to access, reduce inequities in access, and improve access to and use of birthing services. We analyzed data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey for inequities in access to and utilization of maternal health services. In measuring the inequities, frequency tables and cross-tabulations were used to compare rates of service utilization by region, residence and selected socio-demographic variables. Findings show marginal increases in accessibility to and utilisation of skilled antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services following the policy implementation (2003-2007). However, large gradients of inequities exist between geographic regions, urban and rural areas, and different socio-demographic, religious and ethnic groupings. More urban women (40%) than rural, 53% more women in the highest wealth quintile than women in the lowest, 38% more women in the best performing region (Central Region) than the worst (Upper East Region), and 48% more women with at least secondary education than those with no formal education, accessed and used all components of skilled maternal health services in the five years preceding the survey. Our findings raise questions about the potential equity and distributional benefits of Ghana's user-fee exemption policy, and the role of non-financial barriers or considerations. Exempting user-fees for maternal health services is a promising policy option for improving access to maternal health care, but might be insufficient on its own to secure equitable access to
Tam, Wai Jia; Goh, Wei Leong; Chua, Jeffrey; Legido-Quigley, Helena
Since the 1970s, Singapore has turned into one of the major receiving countries of foreign workers in Southeast Asia. Over the years, challenges surrounding access to healthcare by Chinese migrant workers have surfaced globally. This study aims to explore the experiences of Chinese migrants accessing primary and secondary/tertiary healthcare in Singapore, and the opportunities for overcoming these barriers. We conducted 25 in-depth interviews of 20 Chinese migrants and five staff from HealthServe, a non-governmental organization serving Chinese migrants in Singapore from October 2015 to January 2016. Interviews were transcribed and analysed inductively adopting thematic analysis. Chinese migrants in Singapore who were interviewed are mainly middle-aged breadwinners with multiple dependents. Their concept of health is encapsulated in a Chinese proverb ", meaning "health is my capital". Health is defined by them as a personal asset, needed to provide for their families. From their health-seeking behaviors, six pathways were identified, highlighting different routes chosen and resulting outcomes depending on whether their illness was perceived as major or minor, and if they sought help from the private or public sector private or public sector. Key barriers were identified relating to vulnerabilities during the migration process, during their illness, when consulting with healthcare providers, and during repatriation. A transactional doctor-patient culture in China contrasts with the trust migrants place in Singaporean's public health system, perceived as equitable and personable. However, challenges remain for injured migrants who sought help from the private sector and those with chronic diseases. Policy recommendations to increase patient autonomy enabling choice of healthcare provider and provide for non-work related illnesses are suggested. Partnerships between migrant advocacy organizations and various stakeholders such as hospitals, government agencies and
Calhoun, G.; Kapoor, A.; Davis, J.B.
The need for more extensive ultrasonic examination of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) shell welds at some of the BWR plants is becoming apparent. Recent NRC comments regarding limits on future inspection relief requests and proposed revisions to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 11 have caused BWR plant owners and vendors of inspection services to look at inspection tooling that would allow for the ultrasonic examination of RPV shell welds previously considered inaccessible. One approach to inspection of the RPV shell welds that will allow for greater coverage at some BWR plants is to perform these inspections from inside the vessel. In late 1988, Westinghouse received a contract from Northeast Utilities to examine the flange ligament areas and the shell welds in the upper portion of the Millstone Unit 1 PRV during an outage scheduled to begin in April 1989. This examination was performed with an inspection tool placed inside of the vessel and the UDRPS data acquisition system. The inspection tool was based on tooling used routinely at the Swedish and Finnish BWRs. The object of RP C105-1 was to use the information gathered prior to and during the Millstone Unit 1 examination and to perform an inspection accessibility study and prepare a report covering the lessons learned during the examination that would benefit other BWR utilities considering similar inspections. The final report consists of two volumes. This document, Volume 1, describes a 3D model of the Millstone Unit 1 PRV that was based on information obtained from plant drawings. The model is a useful tool for visualizing areas of limited access from both inside and outside of the RPV. 5 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs
Choi, Won-Kyu; Kim, Jang-Kew; Yang, Jung-Bo; Ko, Young-Bok; Nam, Sang-Lyun; Lee, Ki-Hwan
This study was conducted to compare the surgical outcomes between two-port access and four-port access laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. Four hundred and eighty nine patients who had received two-port access laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy (n=175) and four-port access laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy (n=314) in Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2009 to August 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The data were compared between the bilaterality of the cysts and cyst diameter of less than 6 cm and 6 cm or more. There were no significant differences in patient's age, parity, body weight, body mass index and history of previous surgery between the two-port and four-port access laparoscopy group. Bilaterality of ovarian cysts was more in fourport access laparoscopy group (13.7% vs. 32.5%, P=0.000). There were no significant differences in operation time, hemoglobin change, hospital stay, adhesiolysis, transfusion, and insertion of hemo-vac between the two-port and four-port access laparoscopy group for size matched compare. However additional analgesics were more in four-port access laparoscopy group for unilateral ovarian cystectomy. Two-port access laparoscopic surgery was feasible and safe for unilateral and bilateral ovarian cystectomy compare with four-port access laparoscopic surgery.
Henning, Marcus A; Krägeloh, Christian U; Sameshima, Shizue; Shepherd, Daniel; Shepherd, Gregory; Billington, Rex
This paper aims to: (1) explore usage and accessibility of sign language interpreters, (2) appraise the levels of quality of life (QOL) of deaf adults residing in New Zealand, and (3) consider the impact of access to and usage of sign language interpreters on QOL. Sixty-eight deaf adults living in New Zealand participated in this study. Two questionnaires were employed: a 12-item instrument about access and use of New Zealand sign language interpreters and the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF). The results showed that 39% of this sample felt that they were unable to adequately access interpreting services. Moreover, this group scored significantly lower than a comparable hearing sample on all four WHOQOL-BREF domains. Finally, the findings revealed that access to good quality interpreters were associated with access to health services, transport issues, engagement in leisure activities, gaining more information, mobility and living in a healthy environment. These findings have consequences for policy makers and agencies interested in ensuring that there is an equitable distribution of essential services for all groups within New Zealand which inevitably has an impact on the health of the individual.
Suurmond, Jeanine; Rosenmöller, Doenja L; El Mesbahi, Hakima; Lamkaddem, Majda; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise
Ethnic minority elderly have a high prevalence of functional limitations and chronic conditions compared to Dutch elderly. However, their use of home care services is low compared to Dutch elderly. Explore the barriers to access to home care services for Turkish, Moroccan Surinamese and ethnic Dutch elderly. Qualitative semi-structured group interviews and individual interviews. The Netherlands. Seven group interviews (n=50) followed by individual interviews (n=5) were conducted, in the preferred language of the participants. Results were ordered and reported according to a framework of access to health care services. This framework describes five dimensions of accessibility to generate access to health care services, from the perspective of the users: ability to perceive health needs, ability to seek health care, ability to reach, ability to pay and ability to engage. This study shows that while barriers are common among all groups, several specific barriers in access to home care services exist for ethnic minority elderly. Language and communication barriers as well as limited networks and a preference for informal care seem to mutually enforce each other, resulting in many barriers during the navigation process to home care. In order to provide equal access to home care for all who need it, the language and communication barriers should be tackled by home care services and home care nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian
The Disability Discrimination Act (1995) protects disabled people from discrimination in access to services, facilities and goods as well as in education and employment. All hospitals have an inherent duty to enable access to services but this will now be enshrined in law. As the health sector has most contact with disability, it may be expected that most hospitals would already be in a good position to comply with the Act, especially one treating many patients with disability. However we identified many problems in a rehabilitation hospital setting by means of a simple access audit in March 2004. Recommendations were set out and by March 2005 considerable improvements had been made costing Pound 100,000. Although many necessary changes will be expensive, not all problems identified require costly correction. Many simply involve a change in staff attitudes and practices. We recommend that all hospitals start to identify the changes needed under the Act by means of a simple access audit that can be carried out by hospital staff with no specialist equipment.
Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…
The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY. January 2016 Volume 13 Issue 1 1. EDITORIAL. Access to Specialized Surgical Care. Saidi H. University of Nairobi. Correspondence to: Prof Hassan Saidi, P.O Box 30196-00100, Nairobi. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Ann Afr Surg. 2016;13(1):1-2. The narrative of surgical disease in ...
The booklet provides information and resources for cultural organizations and institutions interested in making the arts accessible to deaf citizens. Preliminary information includes a discussion of deafness in America and the deaf in the history of the arts and notes that the era of silent films was the golden age of cinema. Listed are 36…
An experimental drug has been tested in the lab and with animals and approved for testing in people by the FDA, but can’t yet be advertised, sold, or prescribed. Experimental drugs may be available through clinical trials or expanded access programs - learn more about these programs and how to talk to your doctor.
Fahrenfort, Johannes J.; Van Leeuwen, Jonathan; Olivers, Christian N.L.; Hogendoorn, Hinze
The visual system has the remarkable ability to integrate fragmentary visual input into a perceptually organized collection of surfaces and objects, a process we refer to as perceptual integration. Despite a long tradition of perception research, it is not known whether access to consciousness is
Access to effective healthcare is in particular challenging for vulnerable and socially disadvantaged patients. Patients with chronic conditions are over-represented in these lower socioeconomic (LSES) groups. No generic review integrating the evidence on Self-Management support interventions in ...
While most open access journals are peer‐reviewed and high quality, there are a number of ... Publisher has a negative reputation (e.g., documented examples in Chronicle of Higher Education, ... A key part of Canada's aid program, IDRC supports research in developing countries to promote growth and development.
Lewis, David W.
Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…
Bode, Emil; Braukmann, Ricarda; Doorn, P.K.
This poster shows the state of open access in the Netherlands according to NARCIS, the national portal for information on Dutch science. The number of open and closed publications in NARCIS analysed, per type of publication, per year for PhD dissertations and articles, along with a percentage of OA
3 Impact of Public Access to ICT Skills on Job Prospects in Rwanda ... reform and information and communication technology (ICT) policies, particularly in developing countries. ... (From internal memoranda prepared by Amy Mahan, 2008) ..... little decision-making autonomy, power, or financial control within the household.
Darling, Richard L.
Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)
Full Text Available In January 2009, the Colorado Association of Libraries (CAL suspended publication of its print quarterly journal, Colorado Libraries, as a cost-saving measure in a time of fiscal uncertainty. Printing and mailing the journal to its 1300 members cost CAL more than $26,000 per year. Publication of the journal was placed on an indefinite hiatus until the editorial staff proposed an online, open access format a year later. The benefits to migrating to open access included: significantly lower costs; a green platform; instant availability of content; a greater level of access to users with disabilities; and a higher level of visibility of the journal and the association. The editorial staff chose Drupal, including the E-journal module, and while Drupal is notorious for its steep learning curve—which exacerbated delays to content that had been created before the publishing hiatus—the fourth electronic issue was published recently at coloradolibrariesjournal.org. This article will discuss both the benefits and challenges of transitioning to an open access model and the choice Drupal as a platform over other more established journal software options.
This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.
This fourth e-book on the subject of open access in the academic field includes a Latin American case study on open access penetration, a paper from Germany on the promotion of OA illustrated by a project at the University of Konstanz, and a case study on OA at Bioline International, a non-profit scholarly publications aggregator, distributor, publisher and publishing assistance service.
Snook, Bryan E.
The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).
Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.
Background Policies that improve access to healthy, affordable foods may improve population health and reduce health disparities. In the United States most food access policy research focuses on urban communities even though residents of rural communities face disproportionately higher risk for nutrition-related chronic diseases compared to residents of urban communities. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the factors associated with access to healthy, affordable food in rural communities in the United States; and (2) prioritize a meaningful and feasible rural food policy research agenda. Methods This study was conducted by the Rural Food Access Workgroup (RFAWG), a workgroup facilitated by the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network. A national sample of academic and non-academic researchers, public health and cooperative extension practitioners, and other experts who focus on rural food access and economic development was invited to complete a concept mapping process that included brainstorming the factors that are associated with rural food access, sorting and organizing the factors into similar domains, and rating the importance of policies and research to address these factors. As a last step, RFAWG members convened to interpret the data and establish research recommendations. Results Seventy-five participants in the brainstorming exercise represented the following sectors: non-extension research (n = 27), non-extension program administration (n = 18), “other” (n = 14), policy advocacy (n = 10), and cooperative extension service (n = 6). The brainstorming exercise generated 90 distinct statements about factors associated with rural food access in the United States; these were sorted into 5 clusters. Go Zones were established for the factors that were rated highly as both a priority policy target and a priority for research. The highest ranked policy and research priorities include strategies designed to
Ganle, John Kuumuori; Otupiri, Easmon; Obeng, Bernard; Edusie, Anthony Kwaku; Ankomah, Augustine; Adanu, Richard
Background While a number of studies have examined the factors affecting accessibility to and utilisation of healthcare services by persons with disability in general, there is little evidence about disabled women's access to maternal health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and the challenges they face in accessing skilled maternal health services. The objective of this paper is to explore the challenges women with disabilities encounter in accessing and using institutional maternal healthcare services in Ghana. Methods and Findings A qualitative study was conducted in 27 rural and urban communities in the Bosomtwe and Central Gonja districts of Ghana with a total of 72 purposively sampled women with different physical, visual, and hearing impairments who were either lactating or pregnant at the time of this research. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to gather data. Attride-Stirling’s thematic network framework was used to analyse the data. Findings suggest that although women with disability do want to receive institutional maternal healthcare, their disability often made it difficult for such women to travel to access skilled care, as well as gain access to unfriendly physical health infrastructure. Other related access challenges include: healthcare providers’ insensitivity and lack of knowledge about the maternity care needs of women with disability, negative attitudes of service providers, the perception from able-bodied persons that women with disability should be asexual, and health information that lacks specificity in terms of addressing the special maternity care needs of women with disability. Conclusions Maternal healthcare services that are designed to address the needs of able-bodied women might lack the flexibility and responsiveness to meet the special maternity care needs of women with disability. More disability-related cultural competence and
Kristina W. Whitworth
Full Text Available Abstract: Communities of color or low socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by metal exposure given spatial variability of the ambient levels of these contaminants. Despite this, there is little research characterizing metal concentrations in blood among disadvantaged populations in the U.S., especially among pregnant women who are particularly vulnerable and difficult to access. Thus, we conducted a pilot study among disadvantaged pregnant women in Houston, Texas to assess willingness to participate in key activities of an epidemiologic study and characterize exposures to 16 metals. Thirty-one women attending a Medicaid-serving prenatal clinic were included in this pilot study and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. We obtained and measured metal compounds in whole blood samples for 22 of these women during third-trimester prenatal visits. Median whole blood concentrations of Ni, As, Cd, and Pb were 27, 1.4, 0.6, and 6.3 µg/L, respectively. Most women were willing to participate in critical aspects of a research study, including wearing a personal air-sampling badge for 2–3 days (87.1%, receiving ultrasounds (83.9%, and providing blood draws (64.5%. Despite the small sample, our results provide evidence of women’s metal exposure and their willingness to participate in future research studies to elucidate exposure pathways and explore related health effects experienced among this population of disadvantaged pregnant women.
In-depth overview of open access, covering definitions (open access publishing, open access archives, gratis and libre, open access works versus open access processes), major statements and declarations, types of open access, major initiatives, trends, advocacy and lobbying.
Tjelta, Thomas; Ritchie, Deborah; Amos, Amanda
Reducing young people's access to cigarettes is a key element of smoking prevention policies. This article explores how young people source cigarettes following the increase in the UK minimum age of sale from 16 to 18 years. Semi-structured individual, paired and triadic interviews with 60 disadvantaged young people aged between 12 and 17. Participants were recruited from clubs and voluntary organizations offering advice and support to disadvantaged young people. Most participants said they sourced cigarettes from shops, but understandings of "buying cigarettes from shops" included using intermediaries for proxy purchases. Access from social sources was contingent on reciprocation, and blackmarket sources were avoided. The distinction between potential and actual sources reflected participants concerns about their presentation of self. Those who bought cigarettes directly from shops accrued status and power in negotiating social hierarchies. Participants therefore highlighted their smoking related competencies, that is, ability to secure regular retail access to tobacco, while downplaying the significant difficulties they experienced. The presentational dimension of youth cigarette access highlights a need for caution in associating self-reported changes in young people's cigarette sources straightforwardly with access policies. The conflation of direct retail purchases with proxy purchases, and the interrelationship between commercial and social cigarette sources also raises issues for interpreting data on "usual" cigarette sources from national surveys. Findings suggest that some young people may still be both reliant on making retail cigarette purchases following the increase in the age of sale in the United Kingdom, and experiencing significant difficulties making these. This study highlights the self-presentational dimension of youth cigarette access in a particular community context, and the important distinction between the apparent range of sources
Access control is used in computer systems to control access to confidential data. In this thesis we focus on access control for dynamic collaborative environments where multiple users and systems access and exchange data in an ad hoc manner. In such environments it is difficult to protect
Stuart M Shieber
Full Text Available Open-access journals, which provide access to their scholarly articles freely and without limitations, are at a systematic disadvantage relative to traditional closed-access journal publishing and its subscription-based business model. A simple, cost-effective remedy to this inequity could put open-access publishing on a path to become a sustainable, efficient system.
... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such a...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility guidelines... COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES; ARCHITECTURAL BARRIERS ACT (ABA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES § 1191.1 Accessibility guidelines. (a) The...
This survey of the literature reveals user and professional opinions of changes in subject access features available for online public access catalogs. Highlights include expanded access to fields already incorporated into traditional MARC record, access to context of the record, and design of the user interface. Twenty-four references are cited.…
Thelis R. S.
Full Text Available The main focus of the proposed research is maintaining the security of a network. Extranet is a popular network among most of the organizations where network access is provided to a selected group of outliers. Limiting access to an extranet can be carried out using Access Control Lists ACLs method. However handling the workload of ACLs is an onerous task for the router. The purpose of the proposed research is to improve the performance and to solidify the security of the ACLs used in a small organization. Using a high performance computer as a dedicated device to share and handle the router workload is suggested in order to increase the performance of the router when handling ACLs. Methods of detecting and directing sensitive data is also discussed in this paper. A framework is provided to help increase the efficiency of the ACLs in an organization network using the above mentioned procedures thus helping the organizations ACLs performance to be improved to be more secure and the system to perform faster. Inbuilt methods of Windows platform or Software for open source platforms can be used to make a computer function as a router. Extended ACL features allow the determining of the type of packets flowing through the router. Combining these mechanisms allows the ACLs to be improved and perform in a more efficient manner.
This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...
Webster, Fiona; Fehlings, Michael G; Rice, Kathleen; Malempati, Harsha; Fawaz, Khaled; Nicholls, Fred; Baldeo, Navindra; Reeves, Scott; Singh, Anoushka; Ahn, Henry; Ginsberg, Howard; Yee, Albert J
For patients and family members, access to timely specialty medical care for emergent spinal conditions is a significant stressor to an already serious condition. Timing to surgical care for emergent spinal conditions such as spinal trauma is an important predictor of outcome. However, few studies have explored ethnographically the views of surgeons and other key stakeholders on issues related to patient access and care for emergent spine conditions. The primary study objective was to determine the challenges to the provision of timely care as well as to identify areas of opportunities to enhance care delivery. An ethnographic study of key administrative and clinical care providers involved in the triage and care of patients referred through CritiCall Ontario was undertaken utilizing standard methods of qualitative inquiry. This comprised 21 interviews with people involved in varying capacities with the provision of emergent spinal care, as well as qualitative observations on an orthopaedic/neurosurgical ward, in operating theatres, and at CritiCall Ontario's call centre. Several themes were identified and organized into categories that range from inter-professional collaboration through to issues of hospital-level resources and the role of relationships between hospitals and external organizations at the provincial level. Underlying many of these issues is the nature of the medically complex emergent spine patient and the scientific evidentiary base upon which best practice care is delivered. Through the implementation of knowledge translation strategies facilitated from this research, a reduction of patient transfers out of province was observed in the one-year period following program implementation. Our findings suggest that competing priorities at both the hospital and provincial level create challenges in the delivery of spinal care. Key stakeholders recognized spinal care as aligning with multiple priorities such as emergent/critical care, medical through
Sabharwal, Sanjeeve; Patel, Nirav; Johal, Karanjeev
Open access (OA) publications have changed the paradigm of dissemination of scientific research. Their benefits to low-income countries underline their value; however, critics question exorbitant publication fees as well as their effect on the peer review process and research quality. This study reports on the prevalence of OA publishing in orthopaedic research and compares benchmark citation indices as well as evidence quality derived from OA journals with conventional subscription based orthopaedic journals. All 63 orthopaedic journals listed in ISI's Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Report (JCR) were examined. Bibliometric data attributed to each journal for the year 2012 was acquired from the JCR. Studies that fulfilled the criteria of level I evidence were identified for each journal within PubMed. Individual journal websites were reviewed to identify their open access policy. A total of 38 (60.3 %) journals did not offer any form of OA publishing; however, 20 (31.7 %) hybrid journals were identified which offered authors the choice to publish their work as OA if a publication fee was paid. Only five (8 %) journals published all their articles as OA. There was variability amongst the different publication fees for OA articles. Journals that published OA articles did not differ from subscription based journals on the basis of 2012 impact factor, citation number, self citation proportion or the volume of level I evidence published (p > 0.05). OA journals are present in orthopaedic research, though in small numbers. Over a third of orthopaedic journals catalogued in the ISI Web of Knowledge JCR® are hybrid journals that provide authors with the opportunity to publish their articles as OA after a publication fee is paid. This study suggests equivalent importance and quality of articles between OA and subscription based orthopaedic journals based on bibliometric data and the volume of level I evidence produced. Orthopaedic researchers must recognize the
Full Text Available Kertesz et al. (Nature Genetics 2008 described PITA, a miRNA target prediction algorithm based on hybridization energy and site accessibility. In this note, we used a population genomics approach to reexamine their data and found that the PITA algorithm had lower specificity than methods based on evolutionary conservation at comparable levels of sensitivity.We also showed that deeply conserved miRNAs tend to have stronger hybridization energies to their targets than do other miRNAs. Although PITA had higher specificity in predicting targets than a naïve seed-match method, this signal was primarily due to the use of a single cutoff score for all miRNAs and to the observed correlation between conservation and hybridization energy. Overall, our results clarify the accuracy of different miRNA target prediction algorithms in Drosophila and the role of site accessibility in miRNA target prediction.
Imtiaz, Waqas A.; Khan, Yousaf; Shah, Pir Mehar Ali; Zeeshan, M.
Passive optical network (PON) is a high bandwidth, economical solution which can provide the necessary bandwidth to end-users. Wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM PONs) and time division multiplexed passive optical networks (TDM PONs) are considered as an evolutionary step for next-generation optical access (NGOA) networks. However they fail to provide highest transmission capacity, efficient bandwidth access, and robust dispersion tolerance. Thus future PONs are considered on simpler, efficient and potentially scalable, optical code division multiplexed (OCDM) PONs. This paper compares the performance of existing PONs with OCDM PON to determine a suitable scheme for NGOA networks. Two system parameter are used in this paper: fiber length, and bit rate. Performance analysis using Optisystem shows that; for a sufficient system performance parameters i.e. bit error rate (BER) ≤ 10-9, and maximum quality factor (Q) ≥ 6, OCDMA PON efficiently performs upto 50 km with 10 Gbit/s per ONU.
Almorsy, Lamia; Khalifa, Mohamed
Access time refers to the interval between requesting and actual outpatient appointment. It reflects healthcare accessibility and has a great influence on patient treatment and satisfaction. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia studied the accessibility to outpatient services in order to develop useful strategies and recommendations for improvement. Utilized, unutilized and no-show appointments were analyzed. It is crucial to manage no-shows and short notice appointment cancellations by preparing a waiting list for those patients who can be called in to an appointment on the same day using an open access policy. An overlapping appointment scheduling model can be useful to minimize patient waiting time and doctor idle time in addition to the sensible use of appointment overbooking that can significantly improve productivity.
Jin Han Park
Full Text Available Housing prices are determined by a variety of factors, including the features of the building and the neighborhood environment, and a potential buyer decides to buy a house after reviewing these factors and concluding that it is worth the price. We used Hedonic Price Methods to find the relationship between monetary value of house and access conditions to urban parks. Two meaningful results were discovered in this study: first, as the distance from the park increases, the value of the park inherent in the housing price decreases; second, the greater walking accessibility, to the park, the higher the park value inherent in housing prices. Despite presenting shorter distances to walk and more entrances, poorly accessible zones were deemed as such due to the necessity of crossing an arterial road. This indicates that the results can define accessibility not as the Euclidian distance but as the shortest walking distance while considering crossroads and park entrances. The results of this study have significant implications for urban park economic impact analyses in Seoul. Also, the increase in housing prices closer to parks supports the idea that access is dependent on the residents’ socioeconomic status. Lastly, the results of this study can improve walking accessibility to the park.
Tahim, Arpan; Bansal, Hitesh; Goodson, Alexander M C; Payne, Karl F B; Sabharwal, Sanjeeve
Open access (OA) publication has become an increasingly common route for dissemination of scientific research findings. However, it remains a contentious issue with continued debate as to its impact on the peer-review process and a potential change in the quality of subsequent evidence published. There is little research that looks into OA in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We investigated the OA policy in the 30 relevant journals listed in the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge journal citation report, comparing bibliometric data and quality of evidence produced in journals offering OA and those with subscription-only policies. 3474 articles were graded for evidence level and the results correlated to journal OA status. 76.7 % of journals offered authors OA services. There was no difference between impact factor, self-citation rate, total citations or quality of evidence between OA and subscription journals. These findings should send clear messages to both clinicians and researchers and should re- assure readers that scientific findings that are disseminated in open access form do not differ in quality to those in subscription-only format. It should reinforce that open access formats are a credible way to display research findings in oral and maxillofacial surgery.
Benson, Sven P; Pleiss, Jürgen
The solvent flux method (SFM) was developed to comprehensively characterize the influx of solvent molecules from the solvent environment into the active site of a protein in the framework of molecular dynamics simulations. This was achieved by introducing a solvent concentration gradient as well as partially reorienting and rescaling the velocity vector of all solvent molecules contained within a spherical volume enclosing the protein, thus inducing an accelerated solvent influx toward the active site. In addition to the detection of solvent access pathway within the protein structure, it is hereby possible to identify potential amino acid positions relevant to solvent-related enzyme engineering with high statistical significance. The method is particularly aimed at improving the reverse hydrolysis reaction rates in nonaqueous media. Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) binds to a triglyceride-water interface with its substrate entrance channel oriented toward the hydrophobic substrate interface. The lipase-triglyceride-water system served as a model system for SFM to evaluate the influx of water molecules to the active site. As a proof of principle for SFM, a previously known water access pathway in CALB was identified as the primary water channel. In addition, a secondary water channel and two pathways for water access which contribute to water leakage between the protein and the triglyceride-water interface were identified.
Phipps, Lawrie; Kelly, Brian
The importance of accessibility to digital e-learning resources is widely acknowledged. The World Wide Web Consortium Web Accessibility Initiative has played a leading role in promoting the importance of accessibility and developing guidelines that can help when developing accessible web resources. The accessibility of e-learning resources provides additional challenges. While it is important to consider the technical and resource related aspects of e-learning when designing and developing re...
Burge, Frederick I.; Lawson, Beverley J.; Johnston, Grace M.; Grunfeld, Eva
Background Inequalities in access to palliative care programs (PCP) by age have been shown to exist in Canada and elsewhere. Few studies have been able to provide greater insight by simultaneously adjusting for multiple demographic, health service, and socio-cultural indicators. Objective To re-examine the relationship between age and registration to specialized community-based PCP programs among cancer patients and identify the multiple indicators contributing to these inequalities. Methods This retrospective, population-based study was a secondary data analysis of linked individual level information extracted from 6 administrative health databases and contextual (neighborhood level) data from provincial and census information. Subjects included all adults who died due to cancer between 1998 and 2003 living within 2 District Health Authorities in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The relationship between registration in a PCP and age was examined using hierarchical nonlinear regression modeling techniques. Identification of potential patient and ecologic contributing indicators was guided by Andersen’s conceptual model of health service utilization. Results Overall, 66% of 7511 subjects were registered with a PCP. Older subjects were significantly less likely than those center had a major impact on registration. Conclusions Age continues to be a significant predictor of PCP registration in Nova Scotia even after controlling for the confounding effects of many new demographic, health service, and ecologic indicators. PMID:19300309
Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Ogawa, Yoshiteru
The need for totally implantable central venous access devices (TICVADs) has increased with increased opportunities in the use of chemotherapy and parenteral nutrition. This study aimed to determine the outcomes of TICVAD implantation and use in patients aged ≥85 years. Between January 2010 and August 2016, 117 patients underwent TICVAD implantation and their records were retrospectively reviewed. Participants were divided into 2 groups (plus-85 and sub-85 groups). Fifty-five patients (47.0%) had solid organ cancer alone; 35 patients (29.9%) had cerebrovascular or cranial nerve disease. The average follow-up period was 201 (2-1,620) days. Major complications were identified in 6 (14.6%) plus-85 patients and 11 (14.5%) sub-85 patients (p = 0.9813). Catheter-related infections developed in 3 plus-85 (7.3%) and 4 sub-85 patients (5.3%; p = 0.6549). There were no significant group differences in hematoma, pneumothorax, occlusion, and removal rates. In plus-85 patients examined just before surgery and a month after surgery, increased rates of serum albumin and Onodera's prognostic nutritional index were observed in 48% (14/39) and 41% (12/39), respectively. The use of TICVADs in the plus-85 group resulted in effective outcomes. The results of this retrospective study support the wider use of TICVADs in patients aged ≥85 years. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Taherian, Sarvnaz; Selitskiy, Dmitry; Pau, James; Davies, T Claire; Owens, R Glynn
This case study describes how an individual with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy was trained over a period of four weeks to use a commercial electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The participant spent three sessions exploring the system, and seven sessions playing a game focused on EEG feedback training of left and right arm motor imagery and a customised, training game paradigm was employed. The participant showed improvement in the production of two distinct EEG patterns. The participant's performance was influenced by motivation, fatigue and concentration. Six weeks post-training the participant could still control the BCI and used this to type a sentence using an augmentative and alternative communication application on a wirelessly linked device. The results from this case study highlight the importance of creating a dynamic, relevant and engaging training environment for BCIs. Implications for Rehabilitation Customising a training paradigm to suit the users' interests can influence adherence to assistive technology training. Mood, fatigue, physical illness and motivation influence the usability of a brain-computer interface. Commercial brain-computer interfaces, which require little set up time, may be used as access technology for individuals with severe disabilities.
Full Text Available This study aims to find the factors affecting residents near transit stations within 1000Â m, who are referred to as transit-oriented development (TOD residents, to reduce motorcycle taxi use and encourage walking to stations. These two modes of commuting are the most popular among over 85% of residents. However, motorcycle taxis are the main pedestrian barriers that hinder easy access and walkability in TODs of Bangkok, because they ride, stop, and provide services on sidewalks. From 2013 to 2015, these problems substantially increased the number of motorcycle taxis that are not willing and able to follow the rules. The increasing number of pedestrian accidents on sidewalks is related to the increase in the number of motorcycle taxis. According to a survey on pedestrian safety with 249 respondents, over 25% of walkers feel unsafe to walk, while 40% of motorcycle-taxi users riding to stations do not walk because they are afraid of accidents. In modal split, the share of walking reduces from 76% for areas <Â 500Â m, to 25% for areas between 500 and 1000Â m from transit stations, respectively. Hence, the number of motorcycle taxis in the 500â1000 m range is twice as high compared to that within the 500Â m area. If motorcycle taxi users would accept a longer walking distance to station by 36Â m or would be willing to walk to the station within 9.15Â min, 54% of them may switch to walking to stations. Moreover, based on the estimation results of the logistic regression models, middle-adult aged residents, office employees, residents owning a car, and people living far from stations are less likely to walk. Average income households and commuters during non-peak hours tend to use motorcycle taxis more. On the other hand, residents living far from stations tend to use motorcycle taxis less, because most of the motorcycle taxi services are located near transit stations. Keywords: Transit accessibility, Pedestrian, Walkability
Dolan, E.; Hovland, P.; More, J.; Norris, B.; Smith, B.
The network-oriented application services paradigm is becoming increasingly common for scientific computing. The popularity of this approach can be attributed to the numerous advantages to both user and developer provided by network-enabled mathematical software. The burden of installing and maintaining complex systems is lifted from the user, while enabling developers to provide frequent updates without disrupting service. Access to software with similar functionality can be unified under the same interface. Remote servers can utilize potentially more powerful computing resources than may be available locally. We discuss some of the application services developed by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory, including the Network Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) Server and the Automatic Differentiation of C (ADIC) Server, as well as preliminary work on Web access to the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computing (PETSc). We also provide a brief survey of related work
Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant
Today, data is money. Whether it is private users' personal data or confidential data and assets belonging to service providers, all parties have a strong need to protect their resources when interacting with each other, i.e. for access control and authorization measures to be deployed. Enabling...... advanced user controlled privacy is essential to realize the visions of 5G applications and services. For service providers and enterprises resources are usually well safeguarded, while private users are often missing the tools and the know-how to protect their own data and preserve their privacy. The user...... the framework of User Managed Access (UMA), can enable users to understand the value of their protected resources and possibly give them control of how their data will be used by service providers....
MacKenzie, Ronald R.
All Control Systems that grow to any size have a variety of data that are stored in different formats on different nodes in the network. Examples include sensor value and status, archived sensor data, device oriented support data and relationships, message logs, application and machine configurations etc. Each type of data typically has a different programming interface. Higher-level applications need to access a logically related set of data that is in different data stores and may require different processing. AIDA is envisioned to be a distributed service that allows applications access to this wide variety of Control System data in a consistent way that is language and machine independent. It has the additional goal of providing an object-oriented layer for constructing applications on top of multiple existing conventional systems like EPICS or the SLC Control System. Motivation, design overview and current status will be presented
Full Text Available Open access (OA may have been the ‘big thing’ in 2013 but the OA juggernaut is still rolling and plans are now afoot for the requirements for the ‘next REF’ (which from now on we will refer to as REF2020. In 2013, on behalf of the four UK Funding Councils, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE undertook a two-stage consultation exercise on open access requirements for articles submitted to REF2020. There are a number of nuances and caveats to the current proposals. This article will reflect on what the probable rules might be, and their implications for research managers, administrators and institutional repository managers alike.
Delgado Triana, Yanelys; Fariñas Wong, Ernesto Yoel
Energy is essential for the development of our life and for the development of production capacity. However, a number of people worldwide without this living, specifically power. To the extent that increase energy needs for domestic, industrial and agricultural use, each day more indispensable need access to this recognition as a human right or fundamental respect is made, so some questions in this paper are required both denominations, being essential to consider the emergence and evolution of these. An analysis of the international protection they receive the right of access to energy services, although currently there are no international treaties that specifically recognize it also performs a number of initiatives that promote its preservation manifested and recognized in several abstractly legal instruments, such as declarations, covenants and conventions. (full text)
Plante, R.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Graham, M.; Tody, D.; Young, W.
We introduce two products for accessing the VO from Python: PyVO and VOClient. PyVO is built on the widely-used Astropy package and is well suited for integrating automated access to astronomical data into highly customizable scripts and applications for data analysis in Python. VOClient is built on a collection of C-libraries and is well suited for integrating with multi-language analysis packages. It also provides a framework for integrating legacy software into the Python environment. In this demo, we will run through several examples demonstrate basic data discovery and retrieval of data. This includes finding archives containing data of interest (VO registry), retrieving datasets (SIA, SSA), and exploring (Cone Search, SLAP). VOClient features some extended capabilities including the ability to communicate to other desktop applications from a script using the SAMP protocol.
Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter
The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.
Chiavegatto, R B; Paula, C M P; Souza Sobrinho, F; Benites, F R G; Techio, V H
Cynodon is a genus of plants with forage potential that has attracted the interest of breeders. These species have high morphological variability in a large number of varieties and cytotypes, hampering identification. This study aimed to determine the karyotype asymmetry index among accessions of Cynodon to discriminate between them. Karyotype symmetry was based on three estimates, which were compared. The basic number for the genus is x = 9. The results of the chromosome count and DNA quantification, respectively, were as follows: two diploid accessions (2n = 2x = 18 and 1.08 ± 0.094 to 1.17 ± 0.036 pg DNA and ± standard deviation), one triploid accession (2n = 3x = 27 and 1.63 ± 0.017 pg DNA), four tetraploid accessions (2n = 4x = 36 and 1.88 ± 0.069 to 2.10 ± 0.07 pg DNA), and one pentaploid accession (2n = 5x = 45 and 2.55 ± 0.098 pg DNA). C. incompletus var. hirsutus had the longest total length of the haploid lot (29.05 µm), with chromosomes that ranged from 1.7 to 6.2 µm in length. On the basis of the karyotype asymmetry indices, the accessions were divided into two groups: 1) C. dactylon var. dactylon, C. transvaalensis, C. dactylon var. polevansii, three accessions of Cynodon sp, and C. nlemfuensis; and 2) C. incompletus var. hirsutus. This is the first description of tetraploidy in C. transvaalensis. The karyotypic data facilitated a determination of the degree of proximity between the accessions.
This report analyzes highway and railroad access to seven potentially acceptable salt repository sites: Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome in Mississippi, Vacherie Dome in Louisiana, Swisher County and Deaf Smith County in Texas, and Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon in utah. The objectives of the study were to investigate the routing of reasonable access corridors to the sites, describe major characteristics of each route, and estimate the costs for constructing or upgrading highways and railroads. The routes used in the analysis are not necessarily recommended or preferred over other routes, nor do they represent an implied final selection. Detailed engineering studies must be performed for the Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon highway access before the analyzed routes can be considered to be viable. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs
Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant
TODAY, DATA IS MONEY. Whether it is private users’ personal data or confidential data and assets belonging to service providers, all parties have a strong need to protect their resources when interacting with each other, i.e. for access control and authorization. For service providers and enterpr......TODAY, DATA IS MONEY. Whether it is private users’ personal data or confidential data and assets belonging to service providers, all parties have a strong need to protect their resources when interacting with each other, i.e. for access control and authorization. For service providers...... and enterprises resources are usually well safeguarded, while private users are often missing the tools and the know-how to protect their own data and preserve their privacy. The user’s personal data have become an economic asset, not necessarily to the owners of these data, but to the service providers, whose...... business mod- els often includes the use of these data. In this paper we focus on the user – service provider interaction and discuss how recent technological progress, in particular the framework of User Managed Access (UMA), can enable users to understand the value of their protected resources...
Rodríguez Hernández, J A; González Parra, E; Julián Gutiérrez, J M; Segarra Medrano, A; Almirante, B; Martínez, M T; Arrieta, J; Fernández Rivera, C; Galera, A; Gallego Beuter, J; Górriz, J L; Herrero, J A; López Menchero, R; Ochando, A; Pérez Bañasco, V; Polo, J R; Pueyo, J; Ruiz, Camps I; Segura Iglesias, R
Quality of vascular access (VA) has a remarkable influence in hemodialysis patients outcomes. Dysfunction of VA represents a capital cause of morbi-mortality of these patients as well an increase in economical. Spanish Society of Neprhology, aware of the problem, has decided to carry out a revision of the issue with the aim of providing help in comprehensión and treatment related with VA problems, and achieving an homogenization of practices in three mayor aspects: to increase arteriovenous fistula utilization as first vascular access, to increment vascular access monitoring practice and rationalise central catheters use. We present a consensus document elaborated by a multidisciplinar group composed by nephrologists, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologysts, infectious diseases specialists and nephrological nurses. Along six chapters that cover patient education, creation of VA, care, monitoring, complications and central catheters, we present the state of the art and propose guidelines for the best practice, according different evidence based degrees, with the intention to provide help at the professionals in order to make aproppiate decissions. Several quality standars are also included.
From 2007, the CERN Library now offers readers online access to the complete IEEE Electronic Library (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). This new licence gives unlimited online access to all IEEE and IET (previously IEE) journals and proceedings as well as all current IEEE standards and selected archived ones. Some of the titles offer volumes back to 1913. This service currently represents more than 1,400,000 full-text articles! This leading engineering information resource replaces the previous service, a sub-product of the IEEE database called 'IEEE Enterprise', which offered online access to the complete collection of IEEE journals and proceedings, but with limited features. The service had become so popular that the CERN Working Group for Acquisitions recommended that the Library subscribe to the complete IEEE Electronic Library for 2007. Usage statistics for recent months showed there was a demand for the service from a large community of CERN users and we were aware that many users h...
CERN's Executive Board recently endorsed a new policy of open access to the laboratory's results: Continuing CERN action on Open Access (OA) [http://cds.cern.ch/record/828991/files/open-2005-006.pdf]. What does this policy mean for you? CERN authors have two responsibilities: Submit your document to the CERN Document Server; Consider submitting future articles to an Open Access journal. Since 2001, Operational Circular No. 6 has required every CERN author (Staff member, Fellow, or any Associated member of personnel who is allowed to use CERN as his affiliation) to submit a copy of their scientific documents to the CERN Document Server (CDS). For some groups all approved documents are submitted by the secretary (see the Departments' policies at: http://library.cern.ch/cern_publications/cern_publication_policy.html). Each author should personally also ensure the submission of any other articles which are not added in this way, such as conference contributions and review articles. It is not sufficient to re...
Full Text Available The present study investigates the extent of utilization of two meta tags – “keywords” and “descriptors” – in Web-based Open-Access Journals. A sample composed of 707 journals taken from DOAJ was used. These were analyzed on the account of utilization of the said meta tags. Findings demonstrated that these journals utilized “keywords” and “descriptors” meta-tags, 33.1% and 29.9% respectively. It was further demonstrated that among various subject classifications, “General Journals” had been the highest while “Mathematics and Statistics Journals” had the least utilization as “keywords” meta-tags. Moreover, “General Journals” and “Chemistry journals”, with 55.6% and 15.4% utilization respectively, had the highest and the lowest “descriptors” meta-tag usage rate. Based on our findings, and when compared against other similar research findings, there had been no significant growth experienced in utilization of these meta tags.
Boles, Nathan C; Stone, Tyler; Bergeron, Charles; Kiehl, Thomas R
Big Data is no longer solely the purview of big organizations with big resources. Today's routine tools and experimental methods can generate large slices of data. For example, high-throughput sequencing can quickly interrogate biological systems for the expression levels of thousands of different RNAs, examine epigenetic marks throughout the genome, and detect differences in the genomes of individuals. Multichannel electrophysiology platforms produce gigabytes of data in just a few minutes of recording. Imaging systems generate videos capturing biological behaviors over the course of days. Thus, any researcher now has access to a veritable wealth of data. However, the ability of any given researcher to utilize that data is limited by her/his own resources and skills for downloading, storing, and analyzing the data. In this paper, we examine the necessary resources required to engage Big Data, survey the state of modern data analysis pipelines, present a few data repository case studies, and touch on current institutions and programs supporting the work that relies on Big Data. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Gastaldi, Luca; Ghezzi, Antonio; Mangiaracina, Riccardo; Rangone, Andrea; Cortimiglia, Marcelo N; Zanatta, Mateus; Amaral, Fernando G
It is well known that the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are important to assist people with disability in the workplace. In this context, this paper sheds light on the state of ICT accessibility for Italian employees with disabilities in private sector companies by mapping and critically analyzing the assistive role of ICT. To do this, empirical evidence was drawn from a multi-methods research with middle and top managers from 97 medium and large Italian companies. Quantitative data was collected using a survey was directed at personnel identified as Human Resource (HR) and Information System (IS) managers, followed by a qualitative study with selected firms whose aim was to understand the inner workings of assistive technology and the decision making process related to assistive technology acquisition and use. The main results show the role and the integration level of people with disabilities, and the presence and effectiveness of specific assistive technologies. Ways to improve the inclusion of people with disability in the workplace, as well as the use of assistive technologies are discussed. ICT could be more disseminated within companies and best used with modifications to improve usability.
Petersen, Jakob; Simons, Hilary; Patel, Dipti
More than 700,000 trips were made by residents in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (EWNI) in 2015 to tropical countries endemic for yellow fever, a potentially deadly, yet vaccine-preventable disease transmitted by mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to map the geographical accessibility of yellow fever vaccination centres (YFVC) in EWNI. The location of 3208 YFVC were geocoded and the average geodetic distance to nearest YFVC was calculated for each population unit. Data on trips abroad and centres were obtained regionally for EWNI and nationally for the World Top20 countries in terms of travel. The mean distance to nearest YFVC was 2.4 km and only 1% of the population had to travel more than 16.1 km to their nearest centre. The number of vaccines administered regionally in EWNI was found correlated with the number of trips to yellow fever countries. The number of centres per 100,000 trips was 6.1 in EWNI, which was below United States (12.1) and above the rest of Top20 countries. The service availability was in line with demand regionally. With the exception of remote, rural areas, yellow fever vaccination services were widely available with only short distances to cover for the travelling public. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pousada, Thais; Pareira, Javier; Groba, Betania; Nieto, Laura; Pazos, Alejandro
The purpose of this study is to describe the process of assessment of three assistive devices to meet the needs of a woman with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to provide her with computer access and use. The user has quadriplegic CP, with anarthria, using a syllabic keyboard. Devices were evaluated through a three-step approach: (a) use of a questionnaire to preselect potential assistive technologies, (b) use of an eTAO tool to determine the effectiveness of each devised, and (c) a conducting semi-structured interview to obtain qualitative data. Touch screen, joystick, and trackball were the preselected devices. The best device that met the user's needs and priorities was joystick. The finding was corroborated by both the eTAO tool and the semi-structured interview. Computers are a basic form of social participation. It is important to consider the special needs and priorities of users and to try different devices when undertaking a device-selection process. Environmental and personal factors have to be considered, as well. This leads to a need to evaluate new tools in order to provide the appropriate support. The eTAO could be a suitable instrument for this purpose. Additional research is also needed to understand how to better match devices with different user populations and how to comprehensively evaluate emerging technologies relative to users with disabilities.
Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn
In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein concentra......In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein...
Kamateri, Eleni; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Tambouris, Efthimios; Tarabanis, Konstantinos
The integration of medical data coming from multiple sources is important in clinical research. Amongst others, it enables the discovery of appropriate subjects in patient-oriented research and the identification of innovative results in epidemiological studies. At the same time, the integration of medical data faces significant ethical and legal challenges that impose access constraints. Some of these issues can be addressed by making available aggregated instead of raw record-level data. In many cases however, there is still a need for controlling access even to the resulting aggregated data, e.g., due to data provider's policies. In this paper we present the Linked Medical Data Access Control (LiMDAC) framework that capitalizes on Linked Data technologies to enable controlling access to medical data across distributed sources with diverse access constraints. The LiMDAC framework consists of three Linked Data models, namely the LiMDAC metadata model, the LiMDAC user profile model, and the LiMDAC access policy model. It also includes an architecture that exploits these models. Based on the framework, a proof-of-concept platform is developed and its performance and functionality are evaluated by employing two usage scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thittamaranahalli Muguregowda Honnegowda
Full Text Available Background: Negative pressure wound therapy has emerged as an attractive treatment modality for the management and healing of chronic ulcers. Though numerous clinical studies are available, there is a lack of biochemical and histological studies evaluating the healing of chronic wounds. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total 60 patients were divided into two groups: Limited access dressing (LAD group (n = 30 and conventional dressing group (n = 30. Various biochemical parameters such as hydroxyproline, total protein and antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and oxidative biomarker malondialdhyde (MDA are measured in the granulation tissue. Histologically amount of inflammatory infiltrate, angiogenesis, and collagen deposition are studied to assess wound healing. Results: Patients treated with LAD have shown significant increase in the mean (±standard deviation hydroxyproline (77.3 ± 30.1 vs. 32.3 ± 16.18; P = 0.026, total protein (13.89 ± 9.0 vs. 8.9 ± 4.59; P = 0.004, GSH (7.4 ± 1.91 vs. 5.1 ± 1.28; P = 0.039, GPx (122.3 ± 59.3 vs. 88.7 ± 34.11; P = 0.030, CAT (1.80 ± 1.14 vs. 0.9 ± 0.71; P = 0.002 and decrease in MDA (13.4 ± 5.5 vs. 8.6 ± 3.8; P = 0.004. Histological study showed comparatively fewer inflammatory cells, increased and well organised collagen bundles, and more angiogenesis in the LAD group when compared with that with conventional dressing after 10 days of treatment. Conclusion: In the present study, we have found beneficial effect of newer intermittent negative pressure therapy in combination with moist environment (LAD on chronic wound healing by increasing collagen deposition and angiogenesis; and reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory infiltrate.
Full Text Available As a high level development environment, the Java technologies offer support to the development of distributed applications, independent of the platform, providing a robust set of methods to access the databases, used to create software components on the server side, as well as on the client side. Analyzing the evolution of Java tools to access data, we notice that these tools evolved from simple methods that permitted the queries, the insertion, the update and the deletion of the data to advanced implementations such as distributed transactions, cursors and batch files. The client-server architectures allows through JDBC (the Java Database Connectivity the execution of SQL (Structured Query Language instructions and the manipulation of the results in an independent and consistent manner. The JDBC API (Application Programming Interface creates the level of abstractization needed to allow the call of SQL queries to any DBMS (Database Management System. In JDBC the native driver and the ODBC (Open Database Connectivity-JDBC bridge and the classes and interfaces of the JDBC API will be described. The four steps needed to build a JDBC driven application are presented briefly, emphasizing on the way each step has to be accomplished and the expected results. In each step there are evaluations on the characteristics of the database systems and the way the JDBC programming interface adapts to each one. The data types provided by SQL2 and SQL3 standards are analyzed by comparison with the Java data types, emphasizing on the discrepancies between those and the SQL types, but also the methods that allow the conversion between different types of data through the methods of the ResultSet object. Next, starting from the metadata role and studying the Java programming interfaces that allow the query of result sets, we will describe the advanced features of the data mining with JDBC. As alternative to result sets, the Rowsets add new functionalities that
Yu, Weiyu; Bain, Robert E S; Mansour, Shawky; Wright, Jim A
Measuring inequality in access to safe drinking-water and sanitation is proposed as a component of international monitoring following the expiry of the Millennium Development Goals. This study aims to evaluate the utility of census data in measuring geographic inequality in access to drinking-water and sanitation. Spatially referenced census data were acquired for Colombia, South Africa, Egypt, and Uganda, whilst non-spatially referenced census data were acquired for Kenya. Four variants of the dissimilarity index were used to estimate geographic inequality in access to both services using large and small area units in each country through a cross-sectional, ecological study. Inequality was greatest for piped water in South Africa in 2001 (based on 53 areas (N) with a median population (MP) of 657,015; D = 0.5599) and lowest for access to an improved water source in Uganda in 2008 (N = 56; MP = 419,399; D = 0.2801). For sanitation, inequality was greatest for those lacking any facility in Kenya in 2009 (N = 158; MP = 216,992; D = 0.6981), and lowest for access to an improved facility in Uganda in 2002 (N = 56; MP = 341,954; D = 0.3403). Although dissimilarity index values were greater for smaller areal units, when study countries were ranked in terms of inequality, these ranks remained unaffected by the choice of large or small areal units. International comparability was limited due to definitional and temporal differences between censuses. This five-country study suggests that patterns of inequality for broad regional units do often reflect inequality in service access at a more local scale. This implies household surveys designed to estimate province-level service coverage can provide valuable insights into geographic inequality at lower levels. In comparison with household surveys, censuses facilitate inequality assessment at different spatial scales, but pose challenges in harmonising water and sanitation typologies across countries.
Whitney, Rachel; Langhan, Melissa; Pade, Kathryn H
Vascular access is a potentially life-saving procedure that is a mainstay of emergency medicine practice. There are a number of challenges associated with obtaining and maintaining vascular access, and the choice of the route of access and equipment used will depend on patient- and provider-specific factors. In this issue, the indications and complications of peripheral intravenous access, intraosseous access, and central venous access are reviewed. Timely and effective assessment and management of difficult-access patients, pain control techniques that can assist vascular access, and contraindications to each type of vascular access are also discussed. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].
Full Text Available In the study; the assessment of accessibility has been conducted in Istanbul public libraries within the scope of public area. Public libraries commonly serve with its user of more than 20 million in total, spread to the general of Turkey, having more than one thousand branches in the centrums and having more than one million registered members. The building principles and standards covering the subjects such as the selection of place, historical and architectural specification of the region, distance to the centre of population and design in a way that the disabled people could benefit from the library services fully have been determined with regulations in the construction of new libraries. There are works for the existent libraries such as access for the disabled, fire safety precautions etc. within the scope of the related standards. Easy access by everyone is prioritized in the public libraries having a significant role in life-long learning. The purpose of the study is to develop solution suggestions for the accessibility problems in the public libraries. The study based on the eye inspection and assessments carried out within the scope of accessibility in the public libraries subsidiary to Istanbul Culture and Tourism Provincial Directorate Library and Publications Department within the provincial borders of Istanbul. The arrangements such as reading halls, study areas, book shelves etc. have been examined within the frame of accessible building standards. Building entrances, ramps and staircases, horizontal and vertical circulation of building etc. have been taken into consideration within the scope of accessible building standards. The subjects such as the reading and studying areas and book shelf arrangements for the library have been assessed within the scope of specific buildings. There are a total of 34 public libraries subsidiary to Istanbul Culture and Tourism Provincial Directorate on condition that 20 ea. of them are in the
By looking into a group of 13 Chinese master's in business administration students' study abroad experience in the United States, this study contends that being situated in the second language (L2) communicative context does not guarantee international students complete access to language and cultural resources in the host society. Due to limited…
Pastorino, Roberta; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Efremov, Ljupcho; Amore, Rosarita; Boccia, Stefania
Along with the proliferation of Open Access (OA) publishing, the interest for comparing the scientific quality of studies published in OA journals versus subscription journals has also increased. With our study we aimed to compare the methodological quality and the quality of reporting of primary epidemiological studies and systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in OA and non-OA journals. In order to identify the studies to appraise, we listed all OA and non-OA journals which published in 2013 at least one primary epidemiologic study (case-control or cohort study design), and at least one systematic review or meta-analysis in the field of oncology. For the appraisal, we picked up the first studies published in 2013 with case-control or cohort study design from OA journals (Group A; n = 12), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group B; n = 26); the first systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in 2013 from OA journals (Group C; n = 15), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group D; n = 32). We evaluated the methodological quality of studies by assessing the compliance of case-control and cohort studies to Newcastle and Ottawa Scale (NOS) scale, and the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale. The quality of reporting was assessed considering the adherence of case-control and cohort studies to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist, and the adherence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. Among case-control and cohort studies published in OA and non-OA journals, we did not observe significant differences in the median value of NOS score (Group A: 7 (IQR 7-8) versus Group B: 8 (7-9); p = 0.5) and in the adherence to STROBE checklist (Group A, 75% versus Group B, 80%; p = 0.1). The results did not change after adjustment
Ndumele, Chima D; Cohen, Michael S; Cleary, Paul D
Medicaid recipients have consistently reported less timely access to specialists than patients with other types of coverage. By 2018, state Medicaid agencies will be required by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to enact time and distance standards for managed care organizations to ensure an adequate supply of specialist physicians for enrollees; however, there have been no published studies of whether these policies have significant effects on access to specialty care. To compare ratings of access to specialists for adult Medicaid and commercial enrollees before and after the implementation of specialty access standards. We used Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey data to conduct a quasiexperimental difference-in-differences (DID) analysis of 20 163 nonelderly adult Medicaid managed care (MMC) enrollees and 54 465 commercially insured enrollees in 5 states adopting access standards, and 37 290 MMC enrollees in 5 matched states that previously adopted access standards. Reported access to specialty care in the previous 6 months. Seven thousand six hundred ninety-eight (69%) Medicaid enrollees and 28 423 (75%) commercial enrollees reported that it was always or usually easy to get an appointment with a specialist before the policy implementation (or at baseline) compared with 11 889 (67%) of Medicaid enrollees in states that had previously implemented access standards. Overall, there was no significant improvement in timely access to specialty services for MMC enrollees in the period following implementation of standard(s) (adjusted difference-in-differences, -1.2 percentage points; 95% CI, -2.7 to 0.1), nor was there any impact of access standards on insurance-based disparities in access (0.6 percentage points; 95% CI, -4.3 to 5.4). There was heterogeneity across states, with 1 state that implemented both time and distance standards demonstrating significant improvements in access and reductions in disparities
Seyoum, Dinberu; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Brandt, Patrick; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel
Introduction : A large proportion of the Ethiopian population (approximately 68%) lives in malaria risk areas. Millions of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) have been distributed as part of the malaria prevention and control strategy in the country. This study assessed the ownership, access and use of LLNs in the malaria endemic southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in southwest Ethiopia during October-November 2015, including 836 households from sixteen villages around Gilgel-Gibe dam area. Indicators of ownership, access and use of LLINs were derived following the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) guidelines. Factors associated with failure for both LLIN access and use were analysed at household level using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: The proportion of households with at least one LLIN was 82.7% (95% CI: 80.0, 85.1). However, only 68.9% (95% CI: 65.6, 71.9) had enough LLINs to cover all family members (with ≥one LLIN for every two persons). While 75.3% (95% CI: 68.4, 83.0) of the population was estimated to have accessed to LLINs, only 63.8% (95% CI: 62.3, 65.2) reported to have used a LLIN the previous night. The intra-household gap (i.e., households owning at least one LLIN, but unable to cover all family members) and the behavioral gap (i.e., household members who did not sleep under a LLIN despite having access to one) were 16.8% and 10.5%, respectively. Age, marital status and education of household heads, as well as household size and cooking using firewood were associated with the access to enough LLINs within households. Decreased access to LLINs at households was the main determinant for not achieving ≥80% household members sleeping under a LLIN the previous night. Other associated factors were household size and education level of household head. Conclusions: LLIN coverage levels in study villages remain below national targets of 100% for ownership and 80% for use. The access to
Suguimoto S Pilar
Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282. Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%, under 40 years of age (64.5% and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00. We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8% among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209, 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population.
Marcus, Adrian J.; Lotzof, Kevin; Howard, Adam
Purpose. Lower limb angioplasty is commonly performed via antegrade common femoral artery (CFA) puncture, followed by selective superficial femoral artery (SFA) catheterization. Arterial access can be complicated by a 'hostile groin' (scarring, obesity, or previous failed CFA puncture). We prospectively investigated color duplex ultrasound (CDU)-guided SFA access for radiological interventions. Methods. Antegrade CDU-guided CFA and SFA puncture were compared in 30 patients requiring intervention for severe leg ischemia who had hostile groins. Demographics, screen time, radiation dose, intervention, and complications were prospectively recorded. Results. Treatment in 30 patients involved 44 angioplasties (40 transluminal, 4 subintimal) and 2 diagnostic angiograms. Fifteen of these patients had CDU-guided CFA punctures; in 8 of these patients CDU-guided CFA puncture 'failed' (i.e., there was failure to pass a guidewire or catheter into the CFA or SFA), necessitating immediate direct CDU-guided SFA puncture. Overall, the mean screen time and radiation dosage, via direct CDU-guided SFA puncture in 30 patients, was 4.8 min and 464 Gy cm 2 respectively. With CDU-guided CFA puncture, mean screen time (10 min), radiation dose (2023 Gy cm 2 ), and complications (13%) were greater when compared with the SFA puncture results overall and in the same patients at subsequent similar procedures (2.7 min, 379 Gy cm 2 (p < 0.05), no complications in this subgroup). Five complications occurred: 2 each at CFA and SFA entry sites, and 1 angioplasty embolus. Conclusions. The CDU-guided SFA puncture technique was both more effective than CDU-guided CFA access in patients with scarred groins, obesity, or failed CFA punctures and safer, with reduced screen times, radiation doses, and complications
Biere Arenas, Rolando Mauricio; Arellano Ramos, Blanca; Roca Cladera, Josep
Financed in the framework of the Call 2013, of the Program RecerCaixa (RecerCaixa and ACUP) This paper is the presentation of the results and developed tasks in the framework of the research project titled City without barriers. Tool for the evaluation and visualization of the accessibility into public space, using TLS, GIS and GPS Technologies,1 developed during 2014 and 2015 by the authors and others researchers and technicians in the Centre of Land Policy and Valuations (CPSV) and the V...
Shariati, Mohammed; Babazadeh, Raheleh; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii
Adolescence is a critical period of transition from childhood to adulthood. In today's world, to pass through this period successfully it is necessary to have adequate information and knowledge about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues. In Iran, it is crucial that special attention be paid to reproductive health services for adolescents, especially for girls. This study aimed to explore the views and experiences of adolescent girls and key adults around the barriers to access of Iranian adolescent girls to SRH information and services. In this qualitative study, data were gathered through focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 247 adolescent girls and 71 key adults including mothers, teachers, health providers, governmental, nongovernmental and international managers of health programmes, health policymakers, sociologists and clergy in four Iranian cities. Data were coded and categorised using content analysis by MAXQDA10. The main barriers identified were classified in four categories: (1) social and cultural barriers such as taboos; (2) structural and administrative barriers such as inappropriate structure of the health system; (3) political barriers such as lack of an adopted strategy by the government and (4) non-use of religious potential. Adolescent SRH in Iran should be firmly established as a priority for government leaders and policymakers. They should try to provide those services that are consistent with the community's cultural and religious values for adolescent girls. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
GU Xue-lin; YAN Wei; TIAN Hui; ZHANG Ping
This article presents a dynamic random access scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems. The key features of the proposed scheme are:it is a combination of both the distributed and the centralized schemes, it can accommodate several delay sensitivity classes,and it can adjust the number of random access channels in a media access control (MAC) frame and the access probability according to the outcome of Mobile Terminals access attempts in previous MAC frames. For floating populated packet-based networks, the proposed scheme possibly leads to high average user satisfaction.
Knierman, Karen A.; Diaz Merced, Wanda; Aarnio, Alicia; Garcia, Beatriz; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold
The AAS Working Group on Accessibility and Disability (WGAD) was formed in January of 2016 with the express purpose of seeking equity of opportunity and building inclusive practices for disabled astronomers at all educational and career stages. In this presentation, we will provide a summary of current activities, focusing on developing best practices for accessibility with respect to astronomical databases, publications, and meetings. Due to the reliance of space sciences on databases, it is important to have user centered design systems for data retrieval. The cognitive overload that may be experienced by users of current databases may be mitigated by use of multi-modal interfaces such as xSonify. Such interfaces would be in parallel or outside the original database and would not require additional software efforts from the original database. WGAD is partnering with the IAU Commission C1 WG Astronomy for Equity and Inclusion to develop such accessibility tools for databases and methods for user testing. To collect data on astronomical conference and meeting accessibility considerations, WGAD solicited feedback from January AAS attendees via a web form. These data, together with upcoming input from the community and analysis of accessibility documents of similar conferences, will be used to create a meeting accessibility document. Additionally, we will update the progress of journal access guidelines and our social media presence via Twitter. We recommend that astronomical journals form committees to evaluate the accessibility of their publications by performing user-centered usability studies.
Costa, Marta Cocco da; Silva, Ethel Bastos da; Soares, Joannie Dos Santos Fachinelli; Borth, Luana Cristina; Honnef, Fernanda
To analyze the access and accessibility to the healthcare network of women dwelling in rural contexts undergoing violence situation, as seen from the professionals' speeches. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study with professionals from the healthcare network services about coping with violence in four municipalities in the northern region of Rio Grande do Sul. The information derived from interviews, which have been analyzed by thematic modality. (Lack of) information of women, distance, restricted access to transportation, dependence on the partner and (lack of) attention by professionals to welcome women undergoing violence situation and (non)-articulation of the network are factors that limit the access and, as a consequence, they result in the lack of confrontation of this problem. To bring closer the services which integrate the confrontation network of violence against women and to qualify professionals to welcome these situations are factors that can facilitate the access and adhesion of rural women to the services.
Hinenoya, Kimiko; Lyster, Roy
The present study investigated the effects of instruction on the use of the definite article "the" by Japanese learners of English by implementing two instructional treatments that varied in the extent to which they emphasized identifiability and accessibility. One instructional treatment, referred to as the traditional (TR) treatment,…
Gu, Xiaoqing; Ding, Rui; Fu, Shirong
Senior citizens are comparatively vulnerable in accessing learning opportunities offered on the Internet due to usability problems in current web design. In an effort to build a senior-friendly learning web as a part of the Life-long Learning Network in Shanghai, usability studies of two websites currently available to Shanghai senior citizens…
Beal, Carole R.; Rosenblum, L. Penny
Introduction: The present study evaluated the feasibility of using an iPad application or "app" for algebra-readiness mathematics, with accompanying braille materials and accessible graphics, when used in authentic educational settings. Methods: Twenty-nine students with visual impairments in grades 4-11 used the materials under the…
Peisner, Elizabeth Suzanne
Utilizing a qualitative case study, this dissertation analyzed how one university provided accessibility to international experiential learning opportunities for a primarily disabled student population. The Council for the Advancement of Standards (CAS, 2006) in Higher Education consists of a self-assessment guide adapted as a framework to analyze…
Spätgens, T.; Schoonen, R.
Using a semantic priming experiment, the influence of lexical access and knowledge of semantic relations on reading comprehension was studied in Dutch monolingual and bilingual minority children. Both context-independent semantic relations in the form of category coordinates and context-dependent
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 [Docket No. USCG-2005-21650] Port...: The Coast Guard announces the availability of Preliminary Study Recommendations of a Port Access Route... help reduce the risk of marine casualties and increase vessel traffic management efficiency in the...
Vries, H. de; Riet, J.P. van 't; Panday, S.; Reubsaet, A.
This study analyzed possibilities to access European adolescents for tobacco control activities in out-of-school settings as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs. Data on leisure time behaviors of secondary school students were gathered during three waves from six European Union countries
Cochrane, Pauline A.; Markey, Karen
This review of the transition from library card catalogs to online public access catalogs (OPAC) (1981-1982) discusses methods employed by online catalog use studies (self-administered questionnaires, OPAC transaction logs, focused-group interviews, feature analysis, online search and retrieval experiments) and new directions for OPAC research…
Full Text Available Penetration of the clivus is required for surgical access of the brain stem. The endoscopic transclivus approach is a difficult procedure with high risk of injury to important neurovascular structures. We undertook a novel anatomical and radiological investigation to understand the structure of the clivus and neurovascular structures relevant to the extended trans-nasal trans-sphenoid procedure and determine a safe corridor for the penetration of the clivus.We examined the clivus region in the computed tomographic angiography (CTA images of 220 adults, magnetic resonance (MR images of 50 adults, and dry skull specimens of 10 adults. Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR of the CT images was performed, and the anatomical features of the clivus were studied in the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes. The data from the images were used to determine the anatomical parameters of the clivus and neurovascular structures, such as the internal carotid artery and inferior petrosal sinus.The examination of the CTA and MR images of the enrolled subjects revealed that the thickness of the clivus helped determine the depth of the penetration, while the distance from the sagittal midline to the important neurovascular structures determined the width of the penetration. Further, data from the CTA and MR images were consistent with those retrieved from the examination of the cadaveric specimens.Our findings provided certain pointers that may be useful in guiding the surgery such that inadvertent injury to vital structures is avoided and also provided supportive information for the choice of the appropriate endoscopic equipment.
Pettit, Sophie; Qureshi, Adam; Lee, William; Stirzaker, Alex; Gibson, Alex; Henley, William; Byng, Richard
Older people with common mental health problems (CMHPs) are known to have reduced rates of referral to psychological therapy. To assess referral rates to the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services, contact with a therapist, and clinical outcome by age. Empirical research study using patient episodes of care from South West of England IAPT services. By analysing 82 513 episodes of care (2010-2011), referral rates and clinical improvement were compared with both total population and estimated prevalence in each age group using IAPT data. Probable recovery of those completing treatment was calculated for each group. Estimated prevalence of CMHPs peaks in 45-49-year-olds (20.59% of population). The proportions of patients identified with CMHPs being referred peaks at 20-24 years (22.95%) and reduces with increase in age thereafter to 6.00% for 70-74-year-olds. Once referred, the proportion of those attending first treatment increases with age between 20 years (57.34%) and 64 years (76.97%). In addition, the percentage of those having a clinical improvement gradually increases from the age of 18 years (12.94%) to 69 years (20.74%). Younger adults are more readily referred to IAPT services. However, as a proportion of those referred, probabilities of attending once, attending more than once, and clinical improvement increase with age. It is uncertain whether optimum levels of referral have been reached for young adults. It is important to establish whether changes to service configuration, treatment options, and GP behaviour can increase referrals for middle-aged and older adults. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality is the vital indicator with the greatest disparity between developed and developing countries. The challenging nature of measuring maternal mortality has made it necessary to perform an action-oriented means of gathering information on where, how and why deaths are occurring; what kinds of action are needed and have been taken. A maternal death review is an in-depth investigation of the causes and circumstances surrounding maternal deaths. The objectives of the present study were to describe the socio-cultural and health service factors associated with maternal deaths in rural Gambia. Methods We reviewed the cases of 42 maternal deaths of women who actually tried to reach or have reached health care services. A verbal autopsy technique was applied for 32 of the cases. Key people who had witnessed any stage during the process leading to death were interviewed. Health care staff who participated in the provision of care to the deceased was also interviewed. All interviews were tape recorded and analyzed by using a grounded theory approach. The standard WHO definition of maternal deaths was used. Results The length of time in delay within each phase of the model was estimated from the moment the woman, her family or health care providers realized that there was a complication until the decision to seeking or implementing care was made. The following items evolved as important: underestimation of the severity of the complication, bad experience with the health care system, delay in reaching an appropriate medical facility, lack of transportation, prolonged transportation, seeking care at more than one medical facility and delay in receiving prompt and appropriate care after reaching the hospital. Conclusion Women do seek access to care for obstetric emergencies, but because of a variety of problems encountered, appropriate care is often delayed. Disorganized health care with lack of prompt response to
Dallmeier-Tiessen, Suenje; Goerner, Bettina; Hyppoelae, Jenni; Igo-Kemenes, Peter; Kahn, Deborah; Lamber, Simon; Lengenfelder, Anja; Leonard, Chris; Mele, Salvatore; Nowicka, Malgorzata; Polydoratou, Panayiota; Ross, David; Ruiz-Perez, Sergio; Schimmer, Ralf; Swaisland, Mark; van der Stelt, Wim
The SOAP (Study of Open Access Publishing) project has analyzed the current supply and demand situation in the open access journal landscape. Starting from the Directory of Open Access Journals, several sources of data were considered, including journal websites and direct inquiries within the publishing industry to comprehensively map the present supply of online peer-reviewed OA journals. The demand for open access publishing is summarised, as assessed through a large-scale survey of researchers' opinions and attitudes. Some forty thousand answers were collected across disciplines and around the world, reflecting major support for the idea of open access, while highlighting drivers of and barriers to open access publishing.
The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts
Janne Beate Reitan
Full Text Available Interest in open access (OA to scientific publications is steadily increasing, both in Norway and internationally. From the outset, FORMakademisk has been published as a digital journal, and it was one of the first to offer OA in Norway. We have since the beginning used Open Journal Systems (OJS as publishing software. OJS is part of the Public Knowledge Project (PKP, which was created by Canadian John Willinsky and colleagues at the Faculty of Education at the University of British Columbia in 1998. The first version of OJS came as an open source software in 2001. The programme is free for everyone to use and is part of a larger collective movement wherein knowledge is shared. When FORMakademisk started in 2008, we received much help from the journal Acta Didactic (n.d. at the University of Oslo, which had started the year before us. They had also translated the programme to Norwegian. From the start, we were able to publish in both Norwegian and English. Other journals have used FORMakademisk as a model and source of inspiration when starting or when converting from subscription-based print journals to electronic OA, including the Journal of Norwegian Media Researchers [Norsk medietidsskrift]. It is in this way that the movement around PKP works and continues to grow to provide free access to research. As the articles are OA, they are also easily accessible to non-scientists. We also emphasise that the language should be readily available, although it should maintain a high scientific quality. Often there may be two sides of the same coin. We on the editorial team are now looking forward to adopting the newly developed OJS 3 this spring, with many new features and an improved design for users, including authors, peer reviewers, editors and readers.
The easy, visual way to learn this popular database program Part of the Office 2013 productivity suite, Access enables you to organize, present, analyze, and share data on a network or over the web. With this Visual guide to show you how, you'll master the fundamentals of this robust database application in no time. Clear, step-by-step instructions are illustrated with full-color screen shots that show exactly what you should see on your screen. Learn to enter new records; create, edit, and design tables and forms; develop queries that generate specific reports; add smart tags to y
are in decreasing order Polish, German and British nationals. Debates among politicians reflected in the media have since the enlargement of the EU to 10 new Member States in 2004 focused on and off on the issue of access by migrants to social benefits and the issue of social tourism. The debate and discussions...... 2014. The reason for that is the government’s change of practice in administrating family benefits, granting them to all Union citizens lawfully residing in Denmark without any requirement of prior residence in the country. This change was the result of a request from the European Commission...
Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Pavlov, Todor; Niemelä, Jay Russell
Computer-based representation of chemicals makes it possible to organize data in chemical databases-collections of chemical structures and associated properties. Databases are widely used wherever efficient processing of chemical information is needed, including search, storage, retrieval......, and dissemination. Structure and functionality of chemical databases are considered. The typical kinds of information found in a chemical database are considered-identification, structural, and associated data. Functionality of chemical databases is presented, with examples of search and access types. More details...... are included about the OASIS database and platform and the Danish (Q)SAR Database online. Various types of chemical database resources are discussed, together with a list of examples....
The objective of this research thesis was to design and to develop a set of software aimed at an efficient management of a document file system by using methods of selective access to information. Thus, the three main aspects of file processing (creation, modification, reorganisation) have been addressed. The author first presents the main problems related to the development of a comprehensive automatic documentation system, and their conventional solutions. Some future aspects, notably dealing with the development of peripheral computer technology, are also evoked. He presents the characteristics of INIS bibliographic records provided by the IAEA which have been used to create the files. In the second part, he briefly describes the file system general organisation. This system is based on the use of two main files: an inverse file which contains for each descriptor a list of of numbers of files indexed by this descriptor, and a dictionary of descriptor or input file which gives access to the inverse file. The organisation of these both files is then describes in a detailed way. Other related or associated files are created, and the overall architecture and mechanisms integrated into the file data input software are described, as well as various processing applied to these different files. Performance and possible development are finally discussed
Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse
PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese.
Bjoernes Charlotte D
Full Text Available Abstract Background In today’s short stay hospital settings the contact time for patients is reduced. However, it seems to be more important for the patients that the healthcare professionals are easy to get in contact with during the whole course of treatment, and to have the opportunity to exchange information, as a basis for obtaining individualized information and support. Therefore, the aim was to explore the ability of a dialogue-based application to contribute to accessibility of the healthcare professionals and exchangeability of information. Method An application for online written and asynchronous contacts was developed, implemented in clinical practice, and evaluated. The qualitative effect of the online contact was explored using a Web-based survey comprised of open-ended questions. Results Patients valued the online contacts and experienced feelings of partnership in dialogue, in a flexible and calm environment, which supported their ability to be active partners and feelings of freedom and security. Conclusion The online asynchronous written environment can contribute to accessibility and exchangeability, and add new possibilities for dialogues from which the patients can benefit. The individualized information obtained via online contact empowers the patients. The Internet-based contacts are a way to differentiate and expand the possibilities for contacts outside the few scheduled face-to-face hospital contacts.
Sood, Rishi K; Bocour, Angelica; Kumar, Supriya; Guclu, Hasan; Potter, Margaret; Shah, Tanya B
Assess Hurricane Sandy's impact on primary care providers' services in the Rockaways. In-person surveys were conducted in 2014. A list of 46 health care sites in the area of interest was compiled and each site was called to offer participation in our survey. Respondents included physicians and practice administrators who remained familiar with Sandy-related operational challenges. Of the 40 sites that opted in, most had been in their current location for more than 10 years (73%) and were a small practice (1 or 2 physicians) before Hurricane Sandy (75%). All but 2 (95%) had to temporarily close or relocate. All sites experienced electrical problems that impacted landline, fax, and Internet. Less than one-quarter (n = 9) reported having a plan for continuity of services before Hurricane Sandy, and 43% reported having a plan poststorm. The majority (80%) did not report coordinating with other primary care stakeholders or receiving support from government agencies during the Sandy response. Hurricane Sandy significantly disrupted access to primary care in the Rockaways. Severe impact to site operations and infrastructure forced many practices to relocate. Greater emergency response and recovery planning is needed, including with government agencies, to minimize disruptions of access to primary care during disaster recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:492-495).
Shankar, Mridula; Black, Kirsten I; Goldstone, Philip; Hussainy, Safeera; Mazza, Danielle; Petersen, Kerry; Lucke, Jayne; Taft, Angela
To examine access and equity to induced abortion services in Australia, including factors associated with presenting beyond nine weeks gestation. Cross-sectional survey of 2,326 women aged 16+ years attending for an abortion at 14 Dr Marie clinics. Associations with later presentation assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Over a third of eligible women opted for a medical abortion. More than one in 10 (11.2%) stayed overnight. The median Medicare rebated upfront cost of a medical abortion was $560, compared to $470 for a surgical abortion at ≤9 weeks. Beyond 12 weeks, costs rose considerably. More than two-thirds (68.1%) received financial assistance from one or more sources. Women who travelled ≥4 hours (AdjOR: 3.0, 95%CI 1.2-7.3), had no prior knowledge of the medical option (AdjOR: 2.1, 95%CI 1.4-3.1), had difficulty paying (AdjOR: 1.5, 95%CI 1.2-1.9) and identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (AdjOR: 2.1, 95%CI 1.2-3.4) were more likely to present ≥9 weeks. Abortion costs are substantial, increase at later gestations, and are a financial strain for many women. Poor knowledge, geographical and financial barriers restrict method choice. Implications for public health: Policy reform should focus on reducing costs and enhancing early access. © 2017 The Authors.
Liddy, Clare; Johnston, Sharon; Irving, Hannah; Nash, Kate; Ward, Natalie
To assess patients' experiences with and perceptions of health coaching as part of their ongoing care. A qualitative research design using semistructured interviews that were recorded and transcribed verbatim.Setting Ottawa, Ont. Eleven patients (> 18 years of age) enrolled in a health coaching pilot program who were at risk of or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Patients' perspectives were assessed with semistructured interviews. Interviews were conducted with 11 patients at the end of the pilot program, using a stratified sampling approach to ensure maximum variation. All patients found the overall experience with the health coaching program to be positive. Patients believed the health coaching program was effective in increasing awareness of how diabetes affected their bodies and health, in building accountability for their health-related actions, and in improving access to care and other health resources. Patients perceive one-on-one health coaching as an acceptable intervention in their ongoing care. Patients enrolled in the health coaching pilot program believed that there was an improvement in access to care, health literacy, and accountability,all factors considered to be precursors to behavioural change.
Davidson, O.R.; Mwakasonda, S.A.
This study focuses on the accessibility of electricity to the poor in South Africa and Zimbabwe as a means to improve understanding of the various factors that affect the provision of modern energy to the poor in these countries. The study examines the impact on the poor of power sector reforms. Specifically, it makes an assessment of the impact of the electrification programmes in the two countries. The situation in the two countries is discussed separately, followed by a comparative analysis. South Africa is the most industrialised country in Africa and it is endowed with a wide variety of natural resources. It is currently going through major changes in many spheres of its economy, including energy, following the democratic elections in 1994. An important consideration that is directing all aspects of government policy is the need to address the enormous disparities in income levels and living conditions betaveen the different racial groups, a result of apartheid. The rural areas are even more impoverished than urban ones. Alter the 1994 democratic elections, the South African Government launched the first phase of the National Electrification Programme (1994-99), aimed at increasing electrification from 36 per cent to about 66 per cent nationally by 2001 - 46 per cent rural and 80 per cent urban. By the end of 2001, 66.1 per cent of households were electrified, with more than 3.4 million connections made since 1994. Since then, several polities have been introduced in the electricity sector that are of direct relevance to this work. The most important of these concern the restructuring of the electricity supply industry and direct subsidies for the poor and disadvantaged. The South African Government established a National Electrification Fund to subsidise a portion of the capital costs of new electricity connections under the National Electrifcation Programme. The Fund derives its income not only from the electricity industry, but also from fiscal allocations
Kenning, Cassandra; Daker-White, Gavin; Blakemore, Amy; Panagioti, Maria; Waheed, Waquas
It is estimated that there are about 25,000 people from UK ethnic minority groups with dementia. It is clear that there is an increasing need to improve access to dementia services for all ethnic groups to ensure that everyone has access to the same potential health benefits. The aim was to systematically review qualitative studies and to perform a meta-synthesis around barriers and facilitators to accessing care for dementia in ethnic minorities. Databases were searched to capture studies on barriers and facilitators to accessing care for dementia in ethnic minorities. Analysis followed the guidelines for meta-ethnography. All interpretations of data as presented by the authors of the included papers were extracted and grouped into new themes. Six hundred and eighty four papers were identified and screened. Twenty eight studies were included in the meta-synthesis. The analysis developed a number of themes and these were incorporated into two overarching themes: 'inadequacies' and 'cultural habitus'. The two overarching themes lend themselves to interventions at a service level and a community level which need to happen in synergy. The review was registered with PROSPERO: CRD42016049326 .
Full Text Available SAMENVATTING Mensen in armoede toegang bieden tot sport? Een studie naar lokaal sociaal sportbeleid Onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat armoede een impact heeft op de kansen voor sportdeelname. Mensen in armoede participeren minder in sport in vergelijking met mensen die gemakkelijk(er rondkomen. Op Vlaams beleidsniveau werden initiatieven genomen om lokale besturen aan te moedigen tot het promoten en faciliteren van sportdeelname voor mensen in armoede. Het is echter nog onduidelijk in welke mate dit ingang vond op lokaal niveau. In deze studie wordt onderzocht in welke mate lokale sportdiensten momenteel initiatieven nemen om sportdeelname bij mensen in armoede te faciliteren, met welke moeilijkheden sportdiensten worden geconfronteerd om dit doel te bereiken, en in welke mate lokaal sociaal sportbeleid tot stand komt door middel van samenwerkingsverbanden tussen de sportsector enerzijds, en de sociale sector anderzijds. De data zijn afkomstig van het Vlaamse Sportdiensten Panel (2014. De resultaten geven onder meer aan dat de publieke sportsector en de sociale sector nog in grote mate twee “gescheiden” werelden zijn. Het blijkt een uitdaging om de afstand tussen beiden te overbruggen. Aanbevelingen voor verder onderzoek en voor de ontwikkeling van een sociaal sportbeleid worden aangereikt. ABSTRACTFacilitating access to sports for people in poverty? A study on local social sports policy Research has shown that living in poverty affects the opportunities for engaging in practicing sports. People in poverty participate less in sports than people who have no (or fewer difficulties making ends meet. At the Flemish policy level, initiatives have been undertaken to ensure that more local sports authorities promote and facilitate participation in sports for people in poverty. However, it remains unclear how these concerns are being translated at the local level. In this study, we investigate the extent to which local sports authorities are currently
North, David J.; Baldock, Robert; Deakins, David; Whittam, Geoff
There is evidence that some SMEs may still face difficulties in accessing bank finance from lenders (CEEDR, 2007). This paper reports an in-depth study into demand and supply side issues relating to access to bank finance by Scottish SMEs and whether there is still market\\ud failure associated with good, bankable business cases from SMEs that do not receive finance. We argue that our study utilises innovative methodology and is relatively rare as a robust study in this area. We combine demand...