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Sample records for accelerates mammary tumorprogression

  1. Activated type I TGFbeta receptor (Alk5) kinase confers enhancedsurvival to mammary epithelial cells and accelerates mammary tumorprogression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka-Cook, Rebecca S.; Shin, Incheol; Yi, Jae Youn; Easterly,Evangeline; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Yingling, Jonathan M.; Zent, Roy; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2005-01-02

    The transforming growth factor-betas (TGF{beta}s) are members of a large superfamily of pleiotropic cytokines that also includes the activins and the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Members of the TGF{beta} family regulate complex physiological processes such cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, motility, and cell death, among others (Massague, 1998). Dysregulation of TGF{beta} signaling contributes to several pathological processes including cancer, fibrosis, and auto-immune disorders (Massague et al., 2000). The TGF{beta}s elicit their biological effects by binding to type II and type I transmembrane receptor serine-threonine kinases (T{beta}RII and T{beta}RI) which, in turn, phosphorylated Smad 2 and Smad 3. Phosphorylated Smad 2/3 associate with Smad 4 and, as a heteromeric complex, translocate to the nucleus where they regulate gene transcription. The inhibitory Smad7 down regulates TGF{beta} signaling by binding to activated T{beta}RI and interfering with its ability to phosphorylate Smad 2/3 (Derynck and Zhang, 2003; Shi and Massague, 2003). Signaling is also regulated by Smad proteolysis. TGF{beta} receptor-mediated activation results in multi-ubiquitination of Smad 2 in the nucleus and subsequent degradation of Smad 2 by the proteasome (Lo and Massague, 1999). Activation of TGF{beta} receptors also induces mobilization of a Smad 7-Smurf complex from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; this complex recognizes the activated receptors and mediates their ubiquitination and internalization via caveolin-rich vesicles, leading to termination of TGF{beta} signaling (Di Guglielmo et al., 2003). Other signal transducers/pathways have been implicated in TGF{beta} actions. These include the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein phosphatase PP2A, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), and the family of Rho GTPases [reviewed in (Derynck and Zhang, 2003)]. Although signaling by Smads has been shown to be causally associated with the anti-proliferative effect of TGF{beta} (Datto et al., 1999; Liu et al., 1997), the role of non-Smad effectors on mediating the cellular effects of TGF{beta} is less well characterized.

  2. Cyclic-glycine-proline accelerates mammary involution by promoting apoptosis and inhibiting IGF-1 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Mallah, Gagandeep; McMahon, Christopher D; Guan, Jian; Singh, Kuljeet

    2017-12-01

    In rodents, post-lactational involution of mammary glands is characterized by the loss of mammary epithelial cells via apoptosis, which is associated with a decline in the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Overexpression of IGF-1 delays involution by inhibiting apoptosis of epithelial cells and preserving the remaining secretory alveoli. Cyclic-glycine-proline (cGP), a metabolite of IGF-1, normalizes IGF-1 function under pathological conditions by regulating the bioavailability of IGF-1. The present study investigated the effect of cGP on the physiological decline in IGF-1 function during post-lactational mammary involution. Rat dams were gavaged with either cGP (3 mg/kg) or saline once per day from post-natal d8-22. Before collecting tissue on post-natal d23, a pair of mammary glands were sealed on d20 (72 hr-engorgement, thus representative of late-involution) and d22 (24 hr-engorgement, thus representative of mid-involution), while the remaining glands were allowed to involute naturally (early-involution). During early-involution, cGP accelerated the loss of mammary cells through apoptosis, resulting in an earlier clearance of intact secretory alveoli compared with the control group. This coincided with an earlier up-regulation of the cell survival factors, Bcl-xl and IGF-1R, in the early-involution cGP glands compared with the control glands. During late-involution, cGP reduced the bioactivity of IGF-1, which was evident through decreased phosphorylation of IGF-1R in the regressed alveoli. Maternal administration of cGP did not alter milk production and composition during early-, peak-, or late-stage of lactation. These data show that cGP accelerates post-lactational involution by promoting apoptosis and the physiological decline in IGF-1 function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Do myoepithelial cells hold the key for breast tumorprogression?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyak, Kornelia; Hu, Min

    2005-11-18

    Mammary myoepithelial cells have been the foster child of breast cancer biology and have been largely ignored since they were considered to be less important for tumorigenesis than luminal epithelial cells from which most of breast carcinomas are thought to arise. In recent years as our knowledge in stem cell biology and the cellular microenvironment has been increasing myoepithelial cells are slowly starting to gain more attention. Emerging data raise the hypothesis if myoepithelial cells play a key role in breast tumor progression by regulating the in situ to invasive carcinoma transition and if myoepithelial cells are part of the mammary stem cell niche. Paracrine interactions between myoepithelial and luminal epithelial cells are known to be important for cell cycle arrest, establishing epithelial cell polarity, and inhibiting migration and invasion. Based on these functions normal mammary myoepithelial cells have been called ''natural tumor suppressors''. However, during tumor progression myoepithelial cells seem to loose these properties and eventually they themselves diminish as tumors become invasive. Better understanding of myoepithelial cell function and their role in tumor progression may lead to their exploitation for cancer therapeutic and preventative measures.

  4. Activation of Akt1 accelerates carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in mammary gland of virgin and post-lactating transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yanyuan; Kim, Juri; Elshimali, Yayha; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2014-01-01

    Data from in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that activation of Akt regulates cell survival signaling and plays a key role in tumorigenesis. Hence, transgenic mice were created to explore the oncogenic role of Akt1 in the development of mammary tumors. The transgenic mice were generated by expressing myristoylated-Akt1 (myr-Akt1) under the control of the MMTV-LTR promoter. The carcinogen 7, 12 dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) was used to induce tumor formation. The MMTV driven myr-Akt1 transgene expression was detected primarily in the mammary glands, uterus, and ovaries. The expression level increased significantly in lactating mice, suggesting that the response was hormone dependent. The total Akt expression level in the mammary gland was also higher in the lactating mice. Interestingly, the expression of MMTVmyr-Akt1 in the ovaries of the transgenic mice caused significant increase in circulating estrogen levels, even at the post-lactation stage. Expression of myr-Akt1 in mammary glands alone did not increase the frequency of tumor formation. However, there was an increased susceptibility of forming mammary tumors induced by DMBA in the transgenic mice, especially in mice post-lactation. Within 34 weeks, DMBA induced mammary tumors in 42.9% of transgenic mice post-lactation, but not in wild-type mice post-lactation. The myr-Akt1 mammary tumors induced by DMBA had increased phosphorylated-Akt1 and showed strong expression of estrogen receptor (ERα) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In addition, Cyclin D1 was more frequently up-regulated in mammary tumors from transgenic mice compared to tumors from wild-type mice. Overexpression of Cyclin D1, however, was not completely dependent on activated Akt1. Interestingly, mammary tumors that had metastasized to secondary sites had increased expression of Twist and Slug, but low expression of Cyclin D1. In summary, the MMTVmyr-Akt1 transgenic mouse model could be useful to study mechanisms of ER

  5. Selective expression of a splice variant of decay-accelerating factor in c-erbB-2-positive mammary carcinoma cells showing increased transendothelial invasiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Burkhard; Mikesch, Jan-Hendrik; Simon, Ronald; Roetger, Antje; Kemming, Dirk; Schier, Katrin; Sauter, Guido; Buerger, Horst

    2005-01-01

    By differential-display-PCR a subclone of the SK-BR-3 cell line with high in vitro transendothelial invasiveness was identified to express increased levels of a new alternative splice variant of decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF seems to play an important role in some malignant tumours since on the one hand the expression of complement inhibitors on the surface of tumour cells prevents the accumulation of complement factors and in consequence cell lysis. On the other hand, DAF has been identified as a ligand for the CD97 surface receptor which induces cell migration. Immunofluorescence procedures, Western blot analyses, and cDNA clone sequencing were employed to confirm the expression of DAF restricted to invasive tumour cells. Using a radioactive RNA-in situ hybridisation on freshly frozen tissue microarrays and RT-PCR on native tumour tissue, the expression of alternative spliced DAF mRNA was demonstrated in invasive breast cancer. Due to the fact that it could thereby not be detected in normal mammary tissues, it has to be confirmed in larger studies that the DAF splice variant might be a specific tumour marker for invasive breast cancer

  6. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  7. Soy isoflavone exposure through all life stages accelerates 17β-estradiol-induced mammary tumor onset and growth, yet reduces tumor burden, in ACI rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Frank Josef; Pemp, Daniela; Soukup, Sebastian T; Wende, Kathleen; Zhang, Xiajie; Zierau, Oliver; Muders, Michael H; Bosland, Maarten C; Kulling, Sabine E; Lehmann, Leane; Vollmer, Günter

    2016-08-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether the intake of soy-derived isoflavones (sISO) mediates beneficial or adverse effects with regard to breast cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated whether nutritional exposure to a sISO-enriched diet from conception until adulthood impacts on 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced carcinogenesis in the rat mammary gland (MG). August-Copenhagen-Irish (ACI) rats were exposed to dietary sISO from conception until postnatal day 285. Silastic tubes containing E2 were used to induce MG tumorigenesis. Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were recorded weekly. At necropsy, the number, position, size, and weight of each tumor were determined. Plasma samples underwent sISO analysis, and the morphology of MG was analyzed. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were reduced by 20 and 56 %, respectively, in the sISO-exposed rats compared to the control rats. Time-to-tumor onset was shortened from 25 to 20 weeks, and larger tumors developed in the sISO-exposed rats. The histological phenotype of the MG tumors was independent of the sISO diet received, and it included both comedo and cribriform phenotypes. Morphological analyses of the whole-mounted MGs also showed no diet-dependent differences. Lifelong exposure to sISO reduced the overall incidence of MG carcinomas in ACI rats, although the time-to-tumor was significantly shortened.

  8. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through...... the immunoglobulins found in mammary secretions in the context of their diversity of structure, origin, mechanisms of transfer, and function....

  9. Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The talk summarizes the principles of particle acceleration and addresses problems related to storage rings like LEP and LHC. Special emphasis will be given to orbit stability, long term stability of the particle motion, collective effects and synchrotron radiation.

  10. In Utero Exposure to Cadmium, Mammary Gland Development, and Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webster, Jennifer D

    2007-01-01

    .... Previous studies have shown that in utero exposure to cadmium at the levels present in some human environments accelerated puberty onset and altered some of the indicators of mammary gland development in rats...

  11. Use of mammary epithelial antigens as markers in mammary neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceriani, R.L.; Peterson, J.A.; Blank, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    Cell-type specific antigens of the mammary epithelial cells can be used as markers of breast neoplasia. Methods are proposed for the detection of metastatic mammary tissue in vivo by injection of [ 125 I]-labeled antibodies against the mammary epithelial antigens. In addition, the reduced expression of mammary epithelial cell antigens in neoplastic breast cells, quantitated here on a cell per cell basis by flow cytofluorimetry, is a marker of neoplasia and an indication of a deletion accompanying the neoplastic transformation of these cells. (Auth.)

  12. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  13. Mammary stem cells: angels or demons in mammary gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueman; Liu, Qiang; Song, Erwei

    2017-01-01

    A highly dynamic development process exits within the epithelia of mammary gland, featuring morphogenetic variation during puberty, pregnancy, lactation, and regression. The identification of mammary stem cells (MaSCs) via lineage-tracing studies has substantiated a hierarchical organization of the mammary epithelia. A single MaSC is capable of reconstituting the entirely functional mammary gland upon orthotopic transplantation. Although different mammary cell subpopulations can be candidate cells-of-origin for distinct breast tumor subtypes, it still lacks experimental proofs whether MaSCs, the most primitive cells, are the 'seeds' of malignant transformation during most, if not all, tumorigenesis in the breast. Here, we review current knowledge of mammary epithelial hierarchy, highlighting the roles of mammary stem/progenitor cells and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) along with their key molecular regulators in organ development and cancer evolution. Clarifying these issues will pave the way for developing novel interventions toward stem/progenitor cells in either prevention or treatment of breast cancer (BrCa).

  14. Mammary tuberculosis: percutaneous treatment of a mammary tuberculous abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, C.; Carreira, C.; Cereceda, C.; Pinto, J.; Lopez, R.; Bolanos, F.

    2000-01-01

    It is currently very rare to find mammary involvement in cases of tuberculosis, in either primary or secondary form. Diagnosis is classically clinical and microbiological, and the basic techniques used in imaging diagnosis are mammography and ultrasound. Computed tomography may define the involvement of the thoracic wall in those cases which present as mammary masses adhering to deep levels, and is also able to evaluate accompanying pulmonary disease, if it is present. Traditionally, treatment has consisted of quadrantectomy and specific antibiotic therapy. We present a case of tuberculous mammary abscess secondary to pulmonary disease, which was treated by percutaneous drainage controlled by CT and specific antibiotic therapy. We revise the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of mammary tuberculosis. (orig.)

  15. Mammary tuberculosis: percutaneous treatment of a mammary tuberculous abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, C.; Carreira, C.; Cereceda, C.; Pinto, J. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo (Spain); Lopez, R.; Bolanos, F. [Servicio de Cirugia, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo (Spain)

    2000-03-01

    It is currently very rare to find mammary involvement in cases of tuberculosis, in either primary or secondary form. Diagnosis is classically clinical and microbiological, and the basic techniques used in imaging diagnosis are mammography and ultrasound. Computed tomography may define the involvement of the thoracic wall in those cases which present as mammary masses adhering to deep levels, and is also able to evaluate accompanying pulmonary disease, if it is present. Traditionally, treatment has consisted of quadrantectomy and specific antibiotic therapy. We present a case of tuberculous mammary abscess secondary to pulmonary disease, which was treated by percutaneous drainage controlled by CT and specific antibiotic therapy. We revise the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of mammary tuberculosis. (orig.)

  16. Insulin receptors in the mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Insulin binding studies were conducted using mammary membrane preparations to further the authors understanding of insulin's role in regulating mammary metabolism, particularly ruminant mammary metabolism. Specific objectives were to: (1) characterize insulin binding to bovine mammary microsomes and determine if the specificity and kinetics of binding indicate the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland; (2) examine and compare insulin binding by liver and mammary microsomes of the pig and dairy cow; (3) examine insulin binding to bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) and evaluate this model's usefulness in assessing insulin receptor regulation in the mammary gland of the cow; (4) examine the effect of dietary fat in insulin binding by rat mammary and liver microsomes. The specificity and kinetics of 125 I-insulin binding of bovine mammary microsomes indicated the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland. Bovine liver and mammary microsomes specifically bound less 125 I-insulin than did the corresponding porcine microsomes, and mammary microsomes, regardless of species, specifically bound less 125 I-insulin than did liver microsomes. These differences in binding suggest differences in insulin responsiveness between pigs and cattle, as well as between the liver and mammary glands

  17. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy; Diagnostik und Therapie des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann (eds.) [Diagnostisches Brustzentrum Goettingen BZG, Goettingen(Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  18. Modifying factors in rat mammary gland carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellabarger, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    The spontaneous incidence of mammary adenocarcinomas and mammary fibroadenomas in rats was found to be related to the strain of rat studied. Strains of rats that are sensitive to chemical carcinogens in regard to induced mammary neoplasia tend to be the same strains of rats that are sensitive to radiation. Methylcholantrene (MCA) and x-rays appeared to act in an additive fashion on the induction of mammary adenocarcinomas when they were given together. Lactating and older rats lose responsiveness to chemical carcinogens but do not lose responsiveness to radiation. Radiation appears to act in a scopal fashion in the induction of mammary neoplasia. Mammary neoplasia induction was not changed when low LET radiation was split into 2 equal fractions and high LET radiation was more effective than low LET radiation in inducing mammary neoplasia. It is suggested that DMBA can act as an initiator for the induction of mammary adenocarcinomas, that phorbol can act as a promotor, and that viruses may induce mammary neoplasia. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and radiation appeared to act synergistically in the induction of mammary adenocarcinomas in one strain of rat but not in another strain. (U.S.)

  19. Mammary and femoral hydatid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2010-08-01

    Hydatid cyst disease most commonly affects liver and lungs, but it can affect all viscera and soft tissues of the body. Simultaneous mammary and femoral hydatid cysts, without any other visceral involvement, are extremely rare. This is a case report of 25-years-old female, presenting with lump in left breast mimicking fibroadenoma and lump in right thigh mimicking fibroma. Both turned out to be hydatid cysts.

  20. 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide (VCD) Inhibits Mammary Epithelial Differentiation and Induces Fibroadenoma Formation in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Laura E.; Frye, Jennifer B.; Lukefahr, Ashley L.; Marion, Samuel L.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Besselsen, David G.; Funk, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), an occupational chemical that targets ovarian follicles and accelerates ovarian failure in rodents, was used to test the effect of early-onset reproductive senescence on mammary fibroadenoma formation. One-month female Sprague Dawley rats were dosed with VCD (80 mg/kg or 160 mg/kg) and monitored for 22 months for persistent estrus and tumor development. Only high-dose VCD treatment accelerated the onset of persistent estrus relative to controls. However, both doses of VCD accelerated mammary tumor onset by 5 months, increasing incidence to 84% (vs. 38% in controls). Tumor development was independent of time in persistent estrus, 17β-estradiol, androstenedione and prolactin. Delay in VCD administration until after completion of mammary epithelial differentiation (3 months) did not alter tumor formation despite acceleration of ovarian senescence. VCD administration to 1-month rats acutely decreased mammary alveolar bud number and expression of β-casein, suggesting that VCD’s tumorigenic effect requires exposure during mammary epithelial differentiation. PMID:21621605

  1. Breast metastases primitive extra mammary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Vázquez, A.; Alonso, I.; Sabini, G.

    2004-01-01

    Less than 3% of all breast cancers originate from a primitive extra mammary. In 40% of cases it is the first manifestation of the primitive properly studied but 80% are associated with widely disseminated disease. It typically presents as a nodule on external quadrant s painful in half the cases. The majority (60%) of metastases derived from breast contralateral breast tumors are believed to via the lymphatic system. of the ; extra mammary the most common tumors are melanoma; hematologic and neuroendocrine. Although some imaging characteristics can guide diagnosis is histological. Cytology has good performance in experienced hands; but up to 25% of cases there may be difficulty in establishing diagnosis. Treatment depends on the type of tumor. Mastectomy should not be practiced or axillary clearance routine as is generally the context of disease disseminated. Radiation therapy may be useful for local control. It has been proposed laser ablation but no experience with it. The overall prognosis is bad. For a man of 45 with a breast metastasis occurs only a clear cell carcinoma of the kidney

  2. Mammary fibroadenoma in a lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Tolga; Yarim, Murat; Kabak, Yonca B.; Sozgen, Yuksel

    2007-01-01

    A fibroadenoma was diagnosed in the left udder of a 3-month-old female Chios lamb. No recurrence was observed after surgery. Grossly, the tumor had a whitish-gray lobular appearance, and the lobules were interlaced with thin septa. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of proliferating fibroepithelial tissue, including differentiated ducts lined by whorls and interlacing bundles of abundant loose fibrovascular stroma. Immunohistochemistry revealed the ductal epithelium to be positive for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and loose fibrovascular stroma was positive for vimentin and basal cells covering the ductal epithelium of alpha-smooth-muscle actin. Immunostaining for the estrogen and progesterone receptors was negative. A diagnosis of mammary fibroadenoma was made based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:17993758

  3. Stromal Adipocyte Enhancer-binding Protein (AEBP1) Promotes Mammary Epithelial Cell Hyperplasia via Proinflammatory and Hedgehog Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ryan W.; Bogachev, Oleg; Bharadwaj, Alamelu G.; McCluskey, Greg D.; Majdalawieh, Amin F.; Zhang, Lei; Ro, Hyo-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of mammary stromal-epithelial communication leads to aberrant mammary gland development and induces mammary tumorigenesis. Macrophages have been implicated in carcinogenesis primarily by creating an inflammatory microenvironment, which promotes growth of the adjacent epithelial cells. Adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 (AEBP1), a novel proinflammatory mediator, promotes macrophage inflammatory responsiveness by inducing NF-κB activity, which has been implicated in tumor cell growth and survival by aberrant sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression. Here, we show that stromal macrophage AEBP1 overexpression results in precocious alveologenesis in the virgin AEBP1 transgenic (AEBP1TG) mice, and the onset of ductal hyperplasia was accelerated in AEBP1TG mice fed a high fat diet, which induces endogenous AEBP1 expression. Transplantation of AEBP1TG bone marrow cells into non-transgenic (AEBP1NT) mice resulted in alveolar hyperplasia with up-regulation of NF-κB activity and TNFα expression as displayed in the AEBP1TG mammary macrophages and epithelium. Shh expression was induced in AEBP1TG macrophages and RAW264.7 macrophages overexpressing AEBP1. The Shh target genes Gli1 and Bmi1 expression was induced in the AEBP1TG mammary epithelium and HC11 mammary epithelial cells co-cultured with AEBP1TG peritoneal macrophages. The conditioned AEBP1TG macrophage culture media promoted NF-κB activity and survival signal, Akt activation, in HC11 cells, whereas such effects were abolished by TNFα neutralizing antibody treatment. Furthermore, HC11 cells displayed enhanced proliferation in response to AEBP1TG macrophages and their conditioned media. Our findings highlight the role of AEBP1 in the signaling pathways regulating the cross-talk between mammary epithelium and stroma that could predispose the mammary tissue to tumorigenesis. PMID:22995915

  4. Stromal adipocyte enhancer-binding protein (AEBP1) promotes mammary epithelial cell hyperplasia via proinflammatory and hedgehog signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ryan W; Bogachev, Oleg; Bharadwaj, Alamelu G; McCluskey, Greg D; Majdalawieh, Amin F; Zhang, Lei; Ro, Hyo-Sung

    2012-11-09

    Disruption of mammary stromal-epithelial communication leads to aberrant mammary gland development and induces mammary tumorigenesis. Macrophages have been implicated in carcinogenesis primarily by creating an inflammatory microenvironment, which promotes growth of the adjacent epithelial cells. Adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 (AEBP1), a novel proinflammatory mediator, promotes macrophage inflammatory responsiveness by inducing NF-κB activity, which has been implicated in tumor cell growth and survival by aberrant sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression. Here, we show that stromal macrophage AEBP1 overexpression results in precocious alveologenesis in the virgin AEBP1 transgenic (AEBP1(TG)) mice, and the onset of ductal hyperplasia was accelerated in AEBP1(TG) mice fed a high fat diet, which induces endogenous AEBP1 expression. Transplantation of AEBP1(TG) bone marrow cells into non-transgenic (AEBP1(NT)) mice resulted in alveolar hyperplasia with up-regulation of NF-κB activity and TNFα expression as displayed in the AEBP1(TG) mammary macrophages and epithelium. Shh expression was induced in AEBP1(TG) macrophages and RAW264.7 macrophages overexpressing AEBP1. The Shh target genes Gli1 and Bmi1 expression was induced in the AEBP1(TG) mammary epithelium and HC11 mammary epithelial cells co-cultured with AEBP1(TG) peritoneal macrophages. The conditioned AEBP1(TG) macrophage culture media promoted NF-κB activity and survival signal, Akt activation, in HC11 cells, whereas such effects were abolished by TNFα neutralizing antibody treatment. Furthermore, HC11 cells displayed enhanced proliferation in response to AEBP1(TG) macrophages and their conditioned media. Our findings highlight the role of AEBP1 in the signaling pathways regulating the cross-talk between mammary epithelium and stroma that could predispose the mammary tissue to tumorigenesis.

  5. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years

  6. Mammary gigantism and D-penicillamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, N; Emery, P; Hicks, B H

    1984-09-01

    Mammary gigantism is a rare complication of D-penicillamine treatment. We report a further case with pathological and endocrine details together with a review of the seven cases previously reported and possible mechanisms.

  7. Tumor-Specific Immunotherapy of Mammary Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    .... To enhance the activation of CD4(+) T helper cells, autologous mouse mammary tumor cells have been transfected with syngeneic MHC class II genes plus costimulatory and antigen presentation accessory molecules, including B7-1, B7-2...

  8. Metastatic mammary carcinoma in a cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Marchezan Piva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mammary gland neoplasms in cattle are rarely observed in the field veterinary diagnostics routine. Therefore, the objective of this study is to report a metastatic mammary carcinoma in a fourteen-year-old Holstein cow in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The animal was diagnosed by the field veterinarian with clinical mastitis that was unresponsive to treatment, and was euthanized due to the poor prognosis. At the necropsy, multiple yellow, firm, and sometimes friable nodules, ranging from 0.1 to 20cm were observed in all mammary glands, lymph nodes, kidneys, spleen, liver, pancreas, mediastinal lymph nodes, heart, and lungs. The final diagnosis of mammary carcinoma was established through the association of clinical, necropsy, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings. Differential diagnoses included diseases such as bovine tuberculosis and chronic fungal or bacterial mastitis.

  9. Mammary Stem Cells: Premise, Properties, and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Lewis, Bethan; Harris, Olivia B; Watson, Christine J; Davis, Felicity M

    2017-08-01

    Adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) drive postnatal organogenesis and remodeling in the mammary gland, and their longevity and potential have important implications for breast cancer. However, despite intense investigation the identity, location, and differentiation potential of MaSCs remain subject to deliberation. The application of genetic lineage-tracing models, combined with quantitative 3D imaging and biophysical methods, has provided new insights into the mammary epithelial hierarchy that challenge classical definitions of MaSC potency and behaviors. We review here recent advances - discussing fundamental unresolved properties of MaSC potency, dynamics, and plasticity - and point to evolving technologies that promise to shed new light on this intractable debate. Elucidation of the physiological mammary differentiation hierarchy is paramount to understanding the complex heterogeneous breast cancer landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Loss of Igfbp7 causes precocious involution in lactating mouse mammary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanta Chatterjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin like growth factors (IGFs and their binding proteins (IGFBPs are secreted peptides that play major roles in regulating the normal development and maturation of mammary gland. While Igfbp7 has been shown to decrease breast tumor growth, its role in regulating the normal mammary gland development has not been studied. To this end, we generated Igfbp7-null mice and examined the development and maturation of mammary glands in the virgin, pregnant and lactating animals. RESULTS: We report here that loss of Igfbp7 significantly retards mammary gland development in the virgin animals. More significantly, the pregnant Igfpb7-null glands contained fewer alveolar structures and that during lactation these glands exhibit the morphological changes that are associated with involution. The transcriptome profile of the Igfbp7-null glands on the lactation day 3 revealed a distinct involution-related gene signature compared to the lactating WT glands. Interestingly, we found that the lactating Igfbp7-null glands exhibit increased expression of Stat3 and enhanced activation of (phosphorylated Stat3, combined with decreased expression of Stat5 suggesting that the absence of Igfbp7 accelerates the onset of involution. We also found that in absence of Igfpb7, the lactating glands contain increased Igfbp5 protein along with decreased expression of IGF-1 Receptor and Akt activation. Finally, we show that during the normal course of involution, Igfbp7 expression is significantly decreased in the mammary gland. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that loss of Igfbp7 induces precocious involution possibly through diminished cell survival signals. Our findings identify Igfbp7 as major regulator of involution in the mammary gland.

  11. Mammary gland involution is associated with rapid down regulation of major mammary Ca**2+-ATPases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty percent of calcium in milk is transported across the mammary cells apical membrane by the plasma membrane Ca**2+-ATPase 2 (PMCA2). The effect of abrupt cessation of milk production on the Ca**2+-ATPases and mammary calcium transport is unknown. We found that 24 hours after stopping milk prod...

  12. Genetic susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Nitta, Yumiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    1999-06-01

    The Copenhagen (COP) rat strain has previously been shown to be genetically resistant to chemical induction of breast cancer, while Wistar/Furth (WF) and Fischer 344 (F344) animals are relatively susceptible. We have compared the carcinogenic response of these three strains of rats to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) with that to {sup 60}Co gamma rays. High incidences of mammary carcinomas were induced by MNU in the F344 and WF rats (100%), whereas the COP strain proved resistant (11.8%). In contrast, radiation-induced mammary carcinomas in COP rats developed in a similar incidence (37.0%) to those in the F344 (22.6%) and WF (26.9%) strains. The low incidence of papillary carcinomas in MNU-treated COP rats appeared to be directly related to the COP genetic resistance controlled by the Mcs genes. Ionizing radiation did, however, induce papillary carcinomas in all the three strains of rats. These carcinomas were more differentiated than MNU-induced cancers with regard to the two mammary differentiation markers, rat milk fat globule membrane (R-MFGM) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA). Furthermore, ionizing radiation but not MNU induced mammary adenomas in all three strains, especially in COP rats. Such adenomas had differentiation marker profiles similar to these of carcinomas induced by {sup 60}Co gamma rays. When transplanted into syngenic hosts, growth of adenomas was 17 {beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2})-dependent and they progressed to carcinomas. Furthermore, one microcarcinoma was observed to develop from adenoma tissue in a radiation-exposed COP rat. The findings suggest that radiation and chemical carcinogens are likely to induce mammary cancers through different pathways or from different cell populations. The induction of relatively high incidences of mammary carcinomas and adenomas by radiation in COP rats may correlate with the genetically modulated and highly differentiated physiological status of their mammary glands. (author)

  13. Pleural radio guide exploration of the internal mammary chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, R. del; Clavijo, J.C.; Garello, N.C.; Pierotti, E.; Castillo, S. del

    2003-01-01

    Sentinel node technique permits to observe the compromise axillary and the internal mammary chain. The patients were marked with Technetium 99 peritumoral. The ganglion state of the mammary chain provides information of the estate of the breast cancer [es

  14. Immunologic aspects of fibrosis in mouse mammary carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaage, J

    1992-01-02

    The nature of the fibrosis associated with mammary carcinomas MC2 and MC3 was investigated in syngeneic C3H mice. Accelerated and enhanced peri-tumor cellular and fibrotic responses and retarded tumor growth were observed in actively immunized and in adoptively immunized mice, and in mice treated with IL-2. T lymphocytes and, particularly, macrophages were closely associated with collagen deposition at the tumors. The collagen deposition frequently resulted in the encapsulation and regression of the less invasive tumor MC2. A cellular fibrous response was not observed at tumors implanted into athymic C3Hnu/nu mice. The results suggest that tumor fibrosis may in some circumstances be promoted by an immune response.

  15. Mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Lorraine M; Streicher, Katie L

    2002-04-01

    Lactation is considered the final phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle, and the mammary gland provides milk for nourishment and disease resistance to the newborn. However, the cellular and soluble immune components associated with mammary tissues and secretion also can play an important role in protecting the gland from infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Mastitis can affect essentially all lactating mammals, but is especially problematic for dairy cattle. The most recent estimates from the National Mastitis Council suggest that mastitis affects one third of all dairy cows and will cost the dairy industry over 2 billion dollars annually in the United States in lost profits (National Mastitis Council (1996) Current Concepts in Bovine Mastitis, National Mastitis Council, Madison, WI). The overall impact of mastitis on the quality and quantity of milk produced for human consumption has provided the impetus to better understand the pathophysiology of the mammary gland and develop ways to enhance disease resistance through immunoregulation. As such, the bovine species has played a critical and prominent role in our current understanding of mammary gland immunobiology. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of mammary gland immunity and how the stage of lactation can impact important host defenses While this review emphasizes the bovine system, comparisons to humans and other domestic mammals will be addressed as well.

  16. Scribble Modulates the MAPK/Fra1 Pathway to Disrupt Luminal and Ductal Integrity and Suppress Tumour Formation in the Mammary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godde, Nathan J.; Sheridan, Julie M.; Smith, Lorey K.; Pearson, Helen B.; Britt, Kara L.; Galea, Ryan C.; Yates, Laura L.; Visvader, Jane E.; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2014-01-01

    Polarity coordinates cell movement, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis to build and maintain complex epithelial tissues such as the mammary gland. Loss of polarity and the deregulation of these processes are critical events in malignant progression but precisely how and at which stage polarity loss impacts on mammary development and tumourigenesis is unclear. Scrib is a core polarity regulator and tumour suppressor gene however to date our understanding of Scrib function in the mammary gland has been limited to cell culture and transplantation studies of cell lines. Utilizing a conditional mouse model of Scrib loss we report for the first time that Scrib is essential for mammary duct morphogenesis, mammary progenitor cell fate and maintenance, and we demonstrate a critical and specific role for Scribble in the control of the early steps of breast cancer progression. In particular, Scrib-deficiency significantly induced Fra1 expression and basal progenitor clonogenicity, which resulted in fully penetrant ductal hyperplasia characterized by high cell turnover, MAPK hyperactivity, frank polarity loss with mixing of apical and basolateral membrane constituents and expansion of atypical luminal cells. We also show for the first time a role for Scribble in mammalian spindle orientation with the onset of mammary hyperplasia being associated with aberrant luminal cell spindle orientation and a failure to apoptose during the final stage of duct tubulogenesis. Restoring MAPK/Fra1 to baseline levels prevented Scrib-hyperplasia, whereas persistent Scrib deficiency induced alveolar hyperplasia and increased the incidence, onset and grade of mammary tumours. These findings, based on a definitive genetic mouse model provide fundamental insights into mammary duct maturation and homeostasis and reveal that Scrib loss activates a MAPK/Fra1 pathway that alters mammary progenitor activity to drive premalignancy and accelerate tumour progression. PMID:24852022

  17. Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2007-06-01

    In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  18. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  19. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF MAMMARY MASSES IN CAPTIVE LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize.

  20. MIBI-99mTc mammary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayosky, Maria C.; Parma, Elvira P.; Armesto, Amparo M.; Zarlenga, Ana C.; Cresta, Carlos; Azar, Maria E.; Noblia, Cristina

    1999-01-01

    121 patients suspected of breast cancer were studied with MIBI- 99m Tc to evaluate the suitability of the mammary scintigraphy in patients with doubtful cancer diagnosis.The results show 93 % sensitivity and 95 % specificity and indicate the usefulness of this procedure to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis

  1. STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Haricharan, S; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland is a unique organ that undergoes extensive and profound changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and involution. The changes that take place during puberty involve large-scale proliferation and invasion of the fat-pad. During pregnancy and lactation, the mammary cells are exposed to signaling pathways that inhibit apoptosis, induce proliferation and invoke terminal differentiation. Finally, during involution the mammary gland is exposed to milk stasis, prog...

  2. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, H; Alegria, N; Mendonça, A; Botelho, A; Alves, A; Pires, I

    2014-08-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas, Hélder; Alegria, Nuno; Mendonça, Álvaro; Botelho, A.; Alves, A.; Pires, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  4. Labeled estrogens as mammary tumor probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, A.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis estrogens labeled with a gamma or positron emitting nuclide, called estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are investigated as mammary tumour probes. The requirements for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are formulated and the literature on estrogens labeled for this purpose is reviewed. The potential of mercury-197/197m and of carbon-11 as label for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals is investigated. The synthesis of 197 Hg-labeled 4-mercury-estradiol and 2-mercury-estradiol and their properties in vitro and in vivo are described. It appears that though basically carbon-11 labeled compounds are very promising as mammary tumour probes, their achievable specific activity has to be increased. (Auth.)

  5. Mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Arsenovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman presented with a 1 year history of a painless, subcutaneous lump on the right buttock. Clinical examination showed an approximately 6 cm large subcutaneous mass covered by apparently normal-looking skin. No inguinal lymphadenopathy was found. The mass was excised with the clinical diagnosis of fibroma. Histologically, the lesion was consistent with mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue, a very rare, benign mesenchymal neoplasm with myofibroblastic differentiation. After surgical excision she was free of recurrence over a period of 8 months. This article also challenges the theory that suggests the origin of this tumor to be from the embryonic mammary tissue, adding another case of a site other than the milk lines.

  6. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, N. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nathalie_duchesne_22@yahoo.ca; Skolnik, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Family Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bilmer, S. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  7. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, N.; Skolnik, S.; Bilmer, S.

    2005-01-01

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  8. Mammary-type myofibroblastoma of popliteal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotti, C.; Camnasio, F.; Fontana, F.; Fraschini, G.; Rizzo, N.; De Cobelli, F.; Peretti, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mammary-type myofibroblastoma is a very rare, benign, spindle cell lesion, arising mainly in the inguinal region. This clinical entity strictly duplicates the features of its breast counterpart. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this particular lesion occurring in the popliteal fossa. We discuss the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of this case, emphasizing the role of incisional biopsy in such an unusual neoplasia. (orig.)

  9. FRACTAL DIMENSIONALITY ANALYSIS OF MAMMARY GLAND THERMOGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. E. Lyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermography may enable early detection of a cancer tumour within a mammary gland at an early, treatable stage of the illness, but thermogram analysis methods must be developed to achieve this goal. This study analyses the feasibility of applying the Hurst exponent readings algorithm for evaluation of the high dimensionality fractals to reveal any possible difference between normal thermograms (NT and malignant thermograms (MT.

  10. Progenitor Cell Fate Decisions in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    effects of co-transplantation of these populations. Understanding the relationships between normal and transformed mammary epithelial cells has... effect of E2 against double-strand break damage was dependent on ER expression. NBS1 mediated the E2 protective effects against ionizing radiation...transfected with 2 Jeg of pGL3 lucif - erase reporter vector containing S’ flanking constructs of the NBSl promoter, ellon 1 and intron 1 (-360/+1076

  11. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  12. Construction of mammary gland specific expression plasmid pIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... its function in expressing goat insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The backbone ... Liver and mammary gland were harvested from Saanen dairy goats. ..... lactating mammary of goat, sheep and cattle found that αs1- and ...

  13. Epidemiology of a mammary glands cancer in Semipalatinsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzykulov, Zh.A.; Kanaf'yanov, G.S.; Igisinov, S.I.; Sejtkazina, G.D.; Makhataeva, A.Zh.

    2003-01-01

    The tendency of mammary glands cancer morbidity for 1980-2000 years in the former Semipalatinsk test site has been studied. The trends of mammary glands cancer morbidity in dynamic are increase (T±5.4), moreover legalities have been presented in indices standardization for world standard

  14. Mammary Development and Breast Cancer: A Wnt Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing Cissy; Verheyen, Esther M.; Zeng, Yi Arial

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt pathway has emerged as a key signaling cascade participating in mammary organogenesis and breast oncogenesis. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of how the pathway regulates stem cells and normal development of the mammary gland, and discuss how its various components contribute to breast carcinoma pathology. PMID:27420097

  15. The Possible Relationship Between Mammary Dysplasia and Breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: There is need to resolve the continuing difficult question regarding the possible relationship between mammary dysplasia and breast cancer. Method: This is a 30-year study of the incidences of both mammary dysplasia and breast cancer occurring among the Igbos, a major ethnic group in Nigeria, West Africa. Results: ...

  16. Sonographic mammary gland density pattern in women in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are known to affect the mammary gland density. This study aims to determine mammary gland density pattern in selected population of women in Sothern Nigeria using the American College of Radiology Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR-BI-RADS) lexicon and to promote the use of ultrasound as a breast cancer ...

  17. Luminal progenitors restrict their lineage potential during mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Veronica; Dasti, Alessandro; Huyghe, Mathilde; Lafkas, Daniel; Laurent, Cécile; Reyal, Fabien; Fre, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The hierarchical relationships between stem cells and progenitors that guide mammary gland morphogenesis are still poorly defined. While multipotent basal stem cells have been found within the myoepithelial compartment, the in vivo lineage potential of luminal progenitors is unclear. Here we used the expression of the Notch1 receptor, previously implicated in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis, to elucidate the hierarchical organization of mammary stem/progenitor cells by lineage tracing. We found that Notch1 expression identifies multipotent stem cells in the embryonic mammary bud, which progressively restrict their lineage potential during mammary ductal morphogenesis to exclusively generate an ERαneg luminal lineage postnatally. Importantly, our results show that Notch1-labelled cells represent the alveolar progenitors that expand during pregnancy and survive multiple successive involutions. This study reveals that postnatal luminal epithelial cells derive from distinct self-sustained lineages that may represent the cells of origin of different breast cancer subtypes.

  18. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-01-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  19. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  20. Dosimetric evaluation of mammary tomosynthesis procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rayre Janaína Vieira; Perini, Ana Paula; Santos, William de Souza; Vedovato, Uly P.; Neves, Lucio Pereira

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the results of the research on the evaluation of radiation doses usually applied in mammary procedures, using the Monte Carlo method. A virtual environment was created, to mimic the procedures room, including the room, its components, patient and source. The spectrum was obtained from the literature. The percentage of energy deposited compared to energy deposited in the breast was determined, and the scattered radiation was absorbed in specific areas. The regions of the head and neck were the most affected by scattered radiation. (author)

  1. Mammary fibroadenoma with pleomorphic stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Najla; Kallel, Rim; Ellouze, Sameh; Mellouli, Manel; Gouiaa, Naourez; Mnif, Héla; Boudawara, Tahia

    2015-01-01

    The presence of enlarged and pleomorphic nuclei is usually regarded as a feature of malignancy, but it may on occasion be seen in benign lesions such as mammary fibroadenomas. We present such a case of fibroadenoma occurring in a 37-year-old woman presenting with a self-palpable right breast mass. Histological examination of the tumor revealed the presence of multi and mononucleated giant cells with pleomorphic nuclei. The recognition of the benign nature of these cells is necessary for differential diagnosis from malignant lesions of the breast. fibroadenoma - pleomorphic stromal cells - atypia - breast.

  2. Postsurgical telecobalt radiotherapy of mammary carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebl, R.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of the study is a literature survey. The second part deals with patients and results of radiotherapy of the Klinik and Poliklinik fuer Radiologie der Universitaet Muenchen. The patients with mammary carcinomas, who were treated between 1960 and 1969 were classified according to the TNM classification or they were attributed to stage I or II or III. When the therapy was begun, the mean age of the patients was 55 years, 80% of the patients was between 40 and 60 years old, 45% of the patients were in stage I, 35% in stage II and almost 20% in stage III. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  4. Adiponectin haploinsufficiency promotes mammary tumor development in MMTV-PyVT mice by modulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice B B Lam

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipokine possessing beneficial effects on obesity-related medical complications. A negative association of adiponectin levels with breast cancer development has been demonstrated. However, the precise role of adiponectin deficiency in mammary carcinogenesis remains elusive.In the present study, MMTV-polyomavirus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice with reduced adiponectin expressions were established and the stromal effects of adiponectin haploinsufficiency on mammary tumor development evaluated. In mice from both FVB/N and C57BL/6J backgrounds, insufficient adiponectin production promoted mammary tumor onset and development. A distinctive basal-like subtype of tumors, with a more aggressive phenotype, was derived from adiponectin haplodeficient MMTV-PyVT mice. Comparing with those from control MMTV-PyVT mice, the isolated mammary tumor cells showed enhanced tumor progression in re-implanted nude mice, accelerated proliferation in primary cultures, and hyperactivated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt/beta-catenin signaling, which at least partly attributed to the decreased phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN activities. Further analysis revealed that PTEN was inactivated by a redox-regulated mechanism. Increased association of PTEN-thioredoxin complexes was detected in tumors derived from mice with reduced adiponectin levels. The activities of thioredoxin (Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1 were significantly elevated, whereas treatment with either curcumin, an irreversible inhibitor of TrxR1, or adiponectin largely attenuated their activities and resulted in the re-activation of PTEN in these tumor cells. Moreover, adiponectin could inhibit TrxR1 promoter-mediated transcription and restore the mRNA expressions of TrxR1.Adiponectin haploinsufficiency facilitated mammary tumorigenesis by down-regulation of PTEN activity and activation of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway through a mechanism involving Trx1/TrxR1

  5. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  6. Lysosomal enzyme activation in irradiated mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.; Wills, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    Lysosomal enzyme activity of C3H mouse mammary tumors was measured quantitatively by a histochemical method. Following whole-body doses of 3600 rad or less no changes were observed in the lysosomal enzyme activity for 12 hr after the irradiation, but very large increases in acid phosphatase and β-naphthylamidase activity were, however, observed 24 hr after irradiation. Significant increases in enzyme activity were detected 72 hr after a dose of 300 rad and the increases of enzyme activity were dose dependent over the range 300 to 900 rad. Testosterone (80 mg/kg) injected into mice 2 hr before irradiation (850 rad) caused a significant increase of lysosomal enzyme activity over and above that of the same dose of irradiation alone. If the tumor-bearing mice were given 95 percent oxygen/5 percent carbon dioxide to breathe for 8 min before irradiation the effect of 850 rad on lysosomal acid phosphatase was increased to 160 percent/that of the irradiation given alone. Activitation of lysosomal enzymes in mammary tumors is an important primary or secondary consequence of radiation

  7. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    The induction of cancer by ionizing radiation is a matter of great practical importance to the nuclear industry, to national defense, to radiological medicine and to the general public. It is increasingly apparent that carcinogenesis is one of the leading dose-limiting effects of radiation exposure (Co90). Quantitative information at the cellular level is essential to an understanding of the mechanisms of radiogenic neoplastic initiation and the stages of promotion and progression to overt neoplasia. We have developed two experimental models, the rat thyroid and rat mammary clonogen transplant systems, for the quantitative study of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level in vivo (C185). The most important steps taken or completed during the current grant year include: (a) demonstration of the high age-dependent radiosensitivity of prepubertal rat mammary clonogens to radiogenic damage which may influence their susceptibility to neoplastic initiation, and (b) demonstration of the feasibility of using a molecular test for clonogenicity in which Simple Sequence Repeats in the DNA serve as identifying signals of the genotypic origin of the cells. We have also (c) set up a large carcinogenesis experiment to test the effect of close intercellular contact in thyroid glands in situ on promotion-progression of radiogenically initiated clonogens, (d) achieved considerable further concentration of thyroid clonogens, and (e) begun to explore whether thyroid cells can be induced to give rise to three dimensional multicellular structures in culture in reconstituted basement membrane. These are discussed in this report

  8. Extra-mammary findings in breast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Pierluigi; Costantini, M.; Belli, P.; Giuliani, M.; Bufi, E.; Fubelli, R.; Distefano, D.; Romani, M.; Bonomo, L. [Catholic University - Policlinic A. Gemelli, Department of Bio-Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Incidental extra-mammary findings in breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may be benign in nature, but may also represent a metastasis or another important lesion. We aimed to analyse the prevalence and clinical relevance of these unexpected findings. A retrospective review of 1535 breast MRIs was conducted. Only axial sequences were reassessed. Confirmation examinations were obtained in all cases. 285 patients had a confirmed incidental finding, which were located in the liver (51.9%), lung (11.2%), bone (7%), mediastinal lymph nodes (4.2%) or consisted of pleural/pericardial effusion (15.4%). 20.4% of incidental findings were confirmed to be malignant. Positive predictive value for MRI to detect a metastatic lesion was high if located within the bone (89%), lymph nodes (83%) and lung (59%), while it was low if located within the liver (9%) or if it consisted of pleural/pericardial effusion (6%). The axial enhanced sequence showed superior sensitivity to unenhanced images in detecting metastatic lesions, especially if only smaller ({<=}10 mm.) lesions were considered. The prevalence of metastatic incidental extra-mammary findings is not negligible. Particular attention should be to incidental findings located within the lung, bone and mediastinal lymph nodes. (orig.)

  9. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  10. Reconstitution of mammary epithelial morphogenesis by murine embryonic stem cells undergoing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Jiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the context of the intact epithelium-free mammary stroma, non-mammary epithelial cells may be sequestered and reprogrammed to perform mammary epithelial cell functions and to adopt mammary epithelial characteristics during reconstruction of mammary epithelium in regenerating mammary tissue in vivo.To examine whether other types of progenitor cells are able to contribute to mammary branching morphogenesis, we examined the potential of murine embryonic stem (mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to support mammary reconstitution in vivo. We observed that cells from day 14 embryoid bodies (EBs under hematopoietic differentiation condition, but not supernatants derived from these cells, when transplanted into denuded mammary fat pads, were able to contribute to both the luminal and myoepithelial lineages in branching ductal structures resembling the ductal-alveolar architecture of the mammary tree. No teratomas were observed when these cells were transplanted in vivo.Our data provide evidence for the dominance of the tissue-specific mammary stem cell niche and its role in directing mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to reprogram into mammary epithelial cells and to promote mammary epithelial morphogenesis. These studies should also provide insights into regeneration of damaged mammary gland and the role of the mammary microenvironment in reprogramming cell fate.

  11. STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, S; Li, Y

    2014-01-25

    The mammary gland is a unique organ that undergoes extensive and profound changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and involution. The changes that take place during puberty involve large-scale proliferation and invasion of the fat-pad. During pregnancy and lactation, the mammary cells are exposed to signaling pathways that inhibit apoptosis, induce proliferation and invoke terminal differentiation. Finally, during involution the mammary gland is exposed to milk stasis, programmed cell death and stromal reorganization to clear the differentiated milk-producing cells. Not surprisingly, the signaling pathways responsible for bringing about these changes in breast cells are often subverted during the process of tumorigenesis. The STAT family of proteins is involved in every stage of mammary gland development, and is also frequently implicated in breast tumorigenesis. While the roles of STAT3 and STAT5 during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis are well studied, others members, e.g. STAT1 and STAT6, have only recently been observed to play a role in mammary gland biology. Continued investigation into the STAT protein network in the mammary gland will likely yield new biomarkers and risk factors for breast cancer, and may also lead to novel prophylactic or therapeutic strategies against breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring the gain of function contribution of AKT to mammary tumorigenesis in mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Blanco-Aparicio

    Full Text Available Elevated expression of AKT has been noted in a significant percentage of primary human breast cancers, mainly as a consequence of the PTEN/PI3K pathway deregulation. To investigate the mechanistic basis of the AKT gain of function-dependent mechanisms of breast tumorigenesis, we explored the phenotype induced by activated AKT transgenes in a quantitative manner. We generated several transgenic mice lines expressing different levels of constitutively active AKT in the mammary gland. We thoroughly analyzed the preneoplastic and neoplastic mammary lesions of these mice and correlated the process of tumorigenesis to AKT levels. Finally, we analyzed the impact that a possible senescent checkpoint might have in the tumor promotion inhibition observed, crossing these lines to mammary specific p53(R172H mutant expression, and to p27 knock-out mice. We analyzed the benign, premalignant and malignant lesions extensively by pathology and at molecular level analysing the expression of proteins involved in the PI3K/AKT pathway and in cellular senescence. Our findings revealed an increased preneoplastic phenotype depending upon AKT signaling which was not altered by p27 or p53 loss. However, p53 inactivation by R172H point mutation combined with myrAKT transgenic expression significantly increased the percentage and size of mammary carcinoma observed, but was not sufficient to promote full penetrance of the tumorigenic phenotype. Molecular analysis suggest that tumors from double myrAKT;p53(R172H mice result from acceleration of initiated p53(R172H tumors and not from bypass of AKT-induced oncogenic senescence. Our work suggests that tumors are not the consequence of the bypass of senescence in MIN. We also show that AKT-induced oncogenic senescence is dependent of pRb but not of p53. Finally, our work also suggests that the cooperation observed between mutant p53 and activated AKT is due to AKT-induced acceleration of mutant p53-induced tumors. Finally, our

  13. Condition of mammary glands in adolescent girls in Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunina A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to estimate the condition of mammary glands in adolescent girls. Material and methods. The study included 867 girls (aged 12-18. The questioning, total clinical examination, hormonal analysis and ultrasound examination were conducted. Results. The investigation shows that girls had breast dysmorphies (macromastia, hypoplasia, striae, asymmetry etc.. The dysplasia of mammary glands was diagnosed in 26% patients with menstrual disorders, thyroid diseases, mastalgia and obesity. High estradiol, LH, TSH, insulin, cortisole, testosterone and low progesterone level are the most specific hormonal markers of mastopathy in adolescent girls. Conclusion. Thyroid disorders, breast asymmetric form, mastalgia, obesity are the indicators for observation and examination of mammary glands

  14. Control of ductal vs. alveolar differentiation of mammary clonogens and susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Yokoro, Kenjiro; Clifton, K.H.; Gould, M.N.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro-in vivo transplantation assay for measuring the concentration of clonogenic epithelial cells in cell suspensions of rat mammary tissue. Rat mammary clonogens from organoid cultures are capable of the same degree of PLDR as clonogens in vivo. The growth and differentiation of mammary clonogens to alveolar colonies or ductal colonies is regulated as follows: a) in the presence of E 2 and high prolactin (Prl), cortisol induces mammary clonogens to proliferate and differentiate to form alveolar colonies which secrete milk and begin losing clonogenic potential, b) in cortisol deficient rats, Prl and E 2 synergistically stimulate non-secretory ductal colonies, formation of which retain clonogenic potential, c) E 2 without progesterone stimulates alveolar colony formation in the presence of cortical and high Prl, d) progesterone inhibits mammary clonogen differentiation to milk-producing cells and induces ductogenesis in a dose responsive fashion in the presence of E 2 , cortisol and high Prl. High prolactin levels coupled with glucocorticoid deficiency increases the susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis following low dose radiation exposure by increasing the number of total mammary clonogens which are the presumptive target cells and by stimulating their proliferation after exposure. (author)

  15. Breast Cancer Prevention by Hormonally Induced Mammary Gland Differentiation: The Role of a Novel Mammary Growth Inhibitor and Differentiation Factor MRG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi, Y

    2000-01-01

    We have previously identified and characterized a novel tumor growth inhibitor and a fatty acid binding protein in human mammary gland and named it as Mammary derived growth inhibitor Related Gene MRG...

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and a Novel Mammary Derived Growth Inhibitor Fatty Acid Binding Protein MRG in Suppression of Mammary Tumor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yiliang

    2001-01-01

    We have previously identified and characterized a novel tumor growth inhibitor and a fatty acid binding protein in human mammary gland and named it as Mammary derived growth inhibitor Related Gene MRG...

  17. Accelerator Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champelovier, Y.; Ferrari, M.; Gardon, A.; Hadinger, G.; Martin, J.; Plantier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Since the cessation of the operation of hydrogen cluster accelerator in July 1996, four electrostatic accelerators were in operation and used by the peri-nuclear teams working in multidisciplinary collaborations. These are the 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, 2,5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, 400 kV ion implanter as well as the 120 kV isotope separator

  18. A moderate elevation of circulating levels of IGF-I does not alter ErbB2 induced mammary tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearth, Robert K; Kuiatse, Isere; Wang, Yu-Fen; Liao, Lan; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Brown, Powel H; Xu, Jianming; Lee, Adrian V

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderately elevated levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are associated with increased risk of breast cancer in women. How circulating IGF-I may promote breast cancer incidence is unknown, however, increased IGF-I signaling is linked to trastuzumab resistance in ErbB2 positive breast cancer. Few models have directly examined the effect of moderately high levels of circulating IGF-I on breast cancer initiation and progression. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of circulating IGF-I to independently initiate mammary tumorigenesis and/or accelerate the progression of ErbB2 mediated mammary tumor growth. We crossed heterozygous TTR-IGF-I mice with heterozygous MMTV-ErbB2 mice to generate 4 different genotypes: TTR-IGF-I/MMTV-ErbB2 (bigenic), TTR-IGF-I only, MMTV-ErbB2 only, and wild type (wt). Virgin females were palpated twice a week and harvested when tumors reached 1000 mm 3 . For study of normal development, blood and tissue were harvested at 4, 6 and 9 weeks of age in TTR-IGF-I and wt mice. TTR-IGF-I and TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic mice showed a moderate 35% increase in circulating total IGF-I compared to ErbB2 and wt control mice. Elevation of circulating IGF-I had no effect upon pubertal mammary gland development. The transgenic increase in IGF-I alone wasn't sufficient to initiate mammary tumorigenesis. Elevated circulating IGF-I had no effect upon ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis or metastasis, with median time to tumor formation being 30 wks and 33 wks in TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic and ErbB2 mice respectively (p = 0.65). Levels of IGF-I in lysates from ErbB2/TTR-IGF-I tumors compared to ErbB2 was elevated in a similar manner to the circulating IGF-I, however, there was no effect on the rate of tumor growth (p = 0.23). There were no morphological differences in tumor type (solid adenocarcinomas) between bigenic and ErbB2 mammary glands. Using the first transgenic animal model to

  19. Advances in mammary imaging for forty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulmont, C. de; Cherel, P.; Ouhioun, O.; Becette, V.; Stevens, D.; Plantet, M.M.; Hagay, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the sixties years the mammary diagnosis is just clinical, then the low contrast mammography, not very efficient, appears in the seventies years. During the eighties years, the ultrasound is set up while modern mammography with high contrast allows the non palpable breast lesions diagnosis. In the nineties years the mammography come before the clinical examination within the context of the breast cancer screening program. Some histological correlation are more specific about the ductal carcinoma in situ grading with microcalcifications, while new techniques (MRI, CT) are evaluated. At present the stereotactic large core breast biopsies are benefit from the digital prone table, allow a histological diagnosis and avoid surgical excision of some indeterminate images. After the pernicious effects of imaging, we assess the progress according to the cancerous disease results. We also consider the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ. (author)

  20. Radix bupleuri Extract Inhibits Hyperplasia of Mammary Gland in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golden Section, Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Haerbin 150010, ... lactation, occupation, sex hormone use, diet, and ... organ weight divided by body weight. .... Figure 1: Histologic images of mammary gland tissues.

  1. An Anti-Oncogenic Role for Decorin in Mammary Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iozzo, Renato V

    2004-01-01

    .... In the preliminary data that support the basis of this proposal, we discovered that decorin causes a functional inactivation of the oncogenic ErbB2 protein in mammary carcinoma cells overexpressing ErbB2...

  2. Molecular Markers of Metastasis in Ductal Mammary Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Achary, Patnala

    2002-01-01

    ...% of those patients, however, the disease spreads, and they are at risk of death. Our goal is to develop DNA markers that could be reliably used to identify the ductal mammary carcinomas that are prone to develop metastasis...

  3. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. During the end of the last grant year and the first half of the current grant year, we have completed analyses and summarized for publication: investigations on the relationship between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamicpituitary axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH- (thyrotropin-) responsive sub-population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and the results of the large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. We are testing new techniques for the culture, cytofluorescent analysis and characterization mammary epithelial cells and of clonogens in a parallel project, and plan to apply similar technology to the thyroid epithelial cells and clonogen population. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cells interactions during the neoplastic process

  4. Stromal and Epithelial Caveolin-1 Both Confer a Protective Effect Against Mammary Hyperplasia and Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terence M.; Sotgia, Federica; Lee, Hyangkyu; Hassan, Ghada; Di Vizio, Dolores; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Capozza, Franco; Mercier, Isabelle; Rui, Hallgeir; Pestell, Richard G.; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we investigate the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in breast cancer onset and progression, with a focus on epithelial-stromal interactions, ie, the tumor microenvironment. Cav-1 is highly expressed in adipocytes and is abundant in mammary fat pads (stroma), but it remains unknown whether loss of Cav-1 within mammary stromal cells affects the differentiated state of mammary epithelia via paracrine signaling. To address this issue, we characterized the development of the mammary ductal system in Cav-1−/− mice and performed a series of mammary transplant studies, using both wild-type and Cav-1−/− mammary fat pads. Cav-1−/− mammary epithelia were hyperproliferative in vivo, with dramatic increases in terminal end bud area and mammary ductal thickness as well as increases in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 hyperactivation, and up-regulation of STAT5a and cyclin D1. Consistent with these findings, loss of Cav-1 dramatically exacerbated mammary lobulo-alveolar hyperplasia in cyclin D1 Tg mice, whereas overexpression of Cav-1 caused reversion of this phenotype. Most importantly, Cav-1−/− mammary stromal cells (fat pads) promoted the growth of both normal mammary ductal epithelia and mammary tumor cells. Thus, Cav-1 expression in both epithelial and stromal cells provides a protective effect against mammary hyperplasia as well as mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:17071600

  5. Genomic and Phenomic Study of Mammary Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Shlomo E.; Heller, Elimelech D.; Sela, Shlomo; Elad, Daniel; Edery, Nir; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a major etiological agent of intra-mammary infections (IMI) in cows, leading to acute mastitis and causing great economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Particular strains cause persistent IMI, leading to recurrent mastitis. Virulence factors of mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC) involved pathogenesis of mastitis as well as those differentiating strains causing acute or persistent mastitis are largely unknown. This study aimed to identify virulence markers in MPEC through whole genome and phenome comparative analysis. MPEC strains causing acute (VL2874 and P4) or persistent (VL2732) mastitis were compared to an environmental strain (K71) and to the genomes of strains representing different E. coli pathotypes. Intra-mammary challenge in mice confirmed experimentally that the strains studied here have different pathogenic potential, and that the environmental strain K71 is non-pathogenic in the mammary gland. Analysis of whole genome sequences and predicted proteomes revealed high similarity among MPEC, whereas MPEC significantly differed from the non-mammary pathogenic strain K71, and from E. coli genomes from other pathotypes. Functional features identified in MPEC genomes and lacking in the non-mammary pathogenic strain were associated with synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and other membrane antigens, ferric-dicitrate iron acquisition and sugars metabolism. Features associated with cytotoxicity or intra-cellular survival were found specifically in the genomes of strains from severe and acute (VL2874) or persistent (VL2732) mastitis, respectively. MPEC genomes were relatively similar to strain K-12, which was subsequently shown here to be possibly pathogenic in the mammary gland. Phenome analysis showed that the persistent MPEC was the most versatile in terms of nutrients metabolized and acute MPEC the least. Among phenotypes unique to MPEC compared to the non-mammary pathogenic strain were uric acid and D-serine metabolism. This study

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov; Ivica Gjurovski; Trpe Ristoski; Goran Nikolovski; Pandorce Trenkoska; Plamen Trojacanec; Ksenija Ilievska; Toni Dovenski; Gordana Petrushevska

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs.They have a complex morphology, usually affecting middle age and older bitches. Almost 50% of the mammary tumors in dogs are malignant neoplasms. Prognosis is based on several factors: stage, age, tumor size, metastasis, histopathology, ovariectomy status and hormone-receptor activity. Immunohistochemical (IHC) measurement has become increasingly an important diagnostic and prognostic parameter, with the development of m...

  7. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate PTHrP secretion and milk calcium transport with calcium availability. To test this idea genetically, we bred BLG-Cre mice with CaSR-floxed mice to ablate the CaSR specifically from mammary epithelial cells only at the onset of lactation (CaSR-cKO mice). Loss of the CaSR in the lactating mammary gland did not disrupt alveolar differentiation or milk production. However, it did increase the secretion of PTHrP into milk and decreased the transport of calcium from the circulation into milk. CaSR-cKO mice did not show accelerated bone resorption, but they did have a decrease in bone formation. Loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in hypercalcemia, decreased PTH secretion, and increased renal calcium excretion in lactating mothers. Finally, loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in decreased calcium accrual by suckling neonates, likely due to the combination of increased milk PTHrP and decreased milk calcium. These results demonstrate that the mammary gland CaSR coordinates maternal bone and calcium metabolism, calcium transport into milk, and neonatal calcium accrual during lactation. PMID:23782944

  8. The Use of cDNA Microarray to Study Gene Expression in Wnt-1 Induced Mammary Tumors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Shixia

    2002-01-01

    .... Specifically, we have collected tissue samples from virgin mammary glands, hyperplastic mammary glands, Wnt- 1 mammary tumors, and tumors metastasized to the lung, and compared their gene expression patterns...

  9. Number and location of mouse mammary tumor virus proviral DNA in mouse DNA of normal tissue and of mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, B; Hynes, N E

    1980-01-01

    The Southern DNA filter transfer technique was used to characterize the genomic location of the mouse mammary tumor proviral DNA in different inbred strains of mice. Two of the strains (C3H and CBA) arose from a cross of a Bagg albino (BALB/c) mouse and a DBA mouse. The mouse mammary tumor virus-containing restriction enzyme DNA fragments of these strains had similar patterns, suggesting that the proviruses of these mice are in similar genomic locations. Conversely, the pattern arising from the DNA of the GR mouse, a strain genetically unrelated to the others, appeared different, suggesting that its mouse mammary tumor proviruses are located in different genomic sites. The structure of another gene, that coding for beta-globin, was also compared. The mice strains which we studied can be categorized into two classes, expressing either one or two beta-globin proteins. The macroenvironment of the beta-globin gene appeared similar among the mice strains belonging to one genetic class. Female mice of the C3H strain exogenously transmit mouse mammary tumor virus via the milk, and their offspring have a high incidence of mammary tumor occurrence. DNA isolated from individual mammary tumors taken from C3H mice or from BALB/c mice foster nursed on C3H mothers was analyzed by the DNA filter transfer technique. Additional mouse mammary tumor virus-containing fragments were found in the DNA isolated from each mammary tumor. These proviral sequences were integrated into different genomic sites in each tumor. Images PMID:6245257

  10. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  11. Prolactin, TNF alpha and nitric oxide expression in nitroso-N-methylurea-induced-mammary tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegh Irene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The N-Nitrosomethylurea breast cancer model induced in rats is used for the study of carcinogenesis in mammary cancer, prostate, pancreas, etc. This model is very similar to human neoplastic disease. Methods The present experimental study was designed to assess whether metoclopramide administration has any effect on development of MNU-induced tumours, and evaluate the treatment of goserelin acetate on PRL, TNF alpha and NO expression. NMU was administered to female Wistar rats on 2 occasions (5 mg/100 g body w/rat. PRL and TNF alpha were performed by immune-assay. Nitric Oxide by semi automated-assay and ploidy analyses by flow cytometry. Results The administration of metoclopramide made the induction time shorter and increased the incidence and average of tumours per rat. Tumours development was inhibited by a goserelin chronic administration. The ploidy of adenocarcinoma was polyploid-aneuploid type (average S = 60%. It was higher basal PRL plasma levels in rats with NMU induced tumours than in basal controls without tumour (p Conclusion The increase of blood PRL levels in NMU-induced rats may be an indicator of a poor prognosis of mammary cancer evolution. The metoclopramide administration accelerates tumour growth. However goserelin administration achieves regression in tumour development associated to inhibition PRL, TNF alpha and NO expression.

  12. Mammary sensitivity to protein restriction and re-alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, M G; Jessop, N S; Oldham, J D

    1996-09-01

    The present study tested the influence of protein undernutrition and re-alimentation on mammary gland size and secretory cell activity in lactating rats. During gestation, female Sprague-Dawley rats were offered a high-protein diet (215 g crude protein (N x 6.25; CP)/kg DM; H); litters were standardized to twelve pups at parturition. During lactation, two diets were offered ad libitum, diet H and a low-protein diet (90 g CP/kg DM; L). Lactational dietary treatments were the supply ad libitum of either diet H (HHH) or diet L (LLL) for the first 12 d of lactation, or diet L transferring to diet H on either day 6 (LHH) or 9 (LLH) of lactation. On days 1, 6, 9 and 12 of lactation, rats from each group (n > or = 6) were used to estimate mammary dry mass, fat, protein, DNA and RNA; the activities of lactose synthetase (EC 2.4.1.22) enzyme and Na+,K(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.37) were also measured. Rats offered a diet considered protein sufficient (H) from day 1 of lactation showed a decrease in mammary dry mass and fat but an increase in DNA, RNA and protein on day 6, after which there was no further change, except for mammary protein which continued to increase. However, rats offered diet L showed a steady loss in mammary mass and fat throughout the 12 d lactation period and no change in mammary DNA, RNA or protein. Rats previously protein restricted for either the first 6 or 9 d of lactation had their mammary dry mass and mammary fat loss halted and showed a rapid increase in mammary DNA, RNA and protein on re-alimentation. Lactose production in group HHH, as measured by lactose synthetase activity, was similar on days 1 and 6 of lactation, after which a significant increase was seen. Protein-restricted rats showed no change in lactose synthetase activity during the 12 d experimental period. Changing from diet L to diet H led to a significant increase in lactose synthetase activity to levels comparable with those offered diet H from day 1. These results show that rats

  13. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Lymphatic vessels assessment in feline mammary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarli, Giuseppe; Sassi, Francesco; Brunetti, Barbara; Rizzo, Antonio; Diracca, Laura; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatic vessels play a crucial role in a variety of human cancers since tumour cell lymphatic invasion significantly influences prognosis. It is not known if pre-existing lymphatics are enough for tumour dissemination or de novo development is necessary. VEGFR-3 is an angiogenetic mediator for both lymphatic and blood vessels during embryonic development, and only for lymphatics after birth. VEGF is a mediator of both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, regulates the growth of lymphatics in various experimental models, and is produced in many solid tumours. CD44 mediates hyaluronic acid (HA)-dependent cell adhesion: besides promoting invasion, this interaction also supports neoangiogenesis that indirectly stimulates tumour cell proliferation. The expression of VEGF-C (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor – C), its receptor VEGFR-3 and CD44, were studied on feline mammary samples to assess the importance of lymphangiogenesis and lymphangiotrophism in neoplasia. Samples were taken from six normal mammary glands (NMG), ten benign (BT) and 32 malignant (MT) tumours. Immunohistochemical laminin/VEGFR-3 double stain, VEGF-C and CD44 stains were applied to 4 μm-thick sections, and their expression evaluated in intratumoral/extratumoral and intramammary/extramammary fields. All groups revealed a higher number of lymphatics in the extratumoral/extramammary areas. VEGF-C expression in the epithelium paralleled the number of positive vessels in the NMG, BT and MT, whereas VEGF-C higher expression was noted in the intratumoral fields only in infiltrating MT. CD44 score was lower in extratumoral than intratumoral fields in tumours and showed a significant increase in extramammary/extratumoral fields from NMG to MT. Pearson test showed a significant and inversely proportional correlation between CD44 expression and the number of lymphatic vessels with VEGFR-3 in malignant infiltrating tumours. The number of both VEGFR-3 positive and negative lymphatics in the extratumoral

  15. Isolation and characterization of proteins of the mouse mammary tumour virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenbrink, F.

    1980-01-01

    A vaccination procedure was developed to mouse mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) induced mouse mammary tumorigenesis. The structural proteins of MuMTV were purified so that their immunogenic qualities were retained. Radioimmunoassays were developed for the proteins. (Auth.)

  16. Investigating the Role of FIP200 in Mammary Carcinogenesis Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagy, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    ...) deletion in mammary-specific polyoma middle-T transgenic mice. We monitored mammary carcinogenesis in positive control (FAKFlox/Flox; MMTV-PyVT) and target (FAKFlox/Flox; MMTV-Cre; MMTV-PyVT) females...

  17. The Role of Phosphatidylinositol 3' -OH Kinase Signaling in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutchinson, John

    2002-01-01

    ...) and its downstream target Akt kinase in the induction of mammary tumors. To assess the role of Akt in mammary development and tumorigenesis, we generated transgenic mice that express an activated Akt (Akt-DD...

  18. The Role of Phosphatidylinositol 3' -OH Kinase Signaling in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutchinson, John

    2001-01-01

    ...) and its downstream targets such as the Akt kinase in the induction of mammary tumors. To assess the role of Akt in mammary development and tumorigenesis, we have generated transgenic mice that express an activated Akt (Akt-DD...

  19. Modeling mechanical interactions between cancerous mammary acini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeffrey; Liphardt, Jan; Rycroft, Chris

    2015-03-01

    The rules and mechanical forces governing cell motility and interactions with the extracellular matrix of a tissue are often critical for understanding the mechanisms by which breast cancer is able to spread through the breast tissue and eventually metastasize. Ex vivo experimentation has demonstrated the the formation of long collagen fibers through collagen gels between the cancerous mammary acini responsible for milk production, providing a fiber scaffolding along which cancer cells can disorganize. We present a minimal mechanical model that serves as a potential explanation for the formation of these collagen fibers and the resultant motion. Our working hypothesis is that cancerous cells induce this fiber formation by pulling on the gel and taking advantage of the specific mechanical properties of collagen. To model this system, we employ a new Eulerian, fixed grid simulation method to model the collagen as a nonlinear viscoelastic material subject to various forces coupled with a multi-agent model to describe individual cancer cells. We find that these phenomena can be explained two simple ideas: cells pull collagen radially inwards and move towards the tension gradient of the collagen gel, while being exposed to standard adhesive and collision forces.

  20. X-ray characteristics of mammary gland changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popmikhajlova, Kh.

    1977-01-01

    The technical problems on the X-ray presentation of the mammary gland are discussed. The role of film mammography and electroroentgenography for detection of the structural changes in the gland is emphasized. The roentgenomorphologic characteristics of the most common X-ray shadows in the mammary glands, classified by their intensity, form, size, number, structure and arrangement, is presented. For a more rapid and easier characterization of the changes in the different mammary gland diseases, the author developed a practicable work formula. This formula is a decimal fraction, in whose numerator are written the morbidly altered numerically marked quadrants of the right mammary gland and in the dominator - those of the left. This formula is suitable for presentation both of diffuse and of solitary changes in the gland. A brief description of their types is given after the formula. The practical value of the formula for the diagnosis of mammary gland diseases is pointed out. It helps the roent--genologist and the surgeon in the exact localization of the changes and performance of an exact sectorial resection. This, in turn, furnishes better opportunities for the pathologist to gain access exactly to the morbidly altered area, which is of particular importance for detection of intraductal cancer. The convenience of the work formula for a rapid recognition and schematic designation of the findings and in mass prophylactic mammofluorographic screening of women is emphasized. (author)

  1. Quantification of progesterone binding in mammary tissue of pregnant ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.J.; Capuco, A.V.; Akers, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Progestin-binding sites in mammary tissue from 14 prepartum, multiparous ewes at 50, 80, 115, and 140 d of gestation were demonstrated by the binding of [ 3 H] R5020 (17,21-dimethyl-19-nor-4,9-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) to ovine mammary cytosol in the presence of sodium molybdate and excess cortisol. Homogenization extracted 89% of total mammary receptors (nuclear) into cytosol. Binding was specific for progestins and was of high affinity. The average dissociation constant for [ 3 H] R5020 specifically bound to receptors extracted into mammary cytosol was 1.9 (+/- .4) x 10 -9 M (n = 14) and did not change significantly over the test period. However, binding capacities (fmol/mg cytosolic protein) differed according to stage of gestation with averages of 125 +/- 53, 149 +/- 26, 656 +/- 216, 57 +/- 22 at 50, 80, 115, and 140 d of pregnancy, respectively. Increased number of progestin-binding sites at 115 d of gestation (whether data are expressed per unit of tissue weight, DNA, or cytosolic protein) suggests that an increase per mammary epithelial cell may be necessary to produce the full lobuloalveolar proliferation observed at this stage of gestation

  2. File list: Pol.Brs.20.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Brs.20.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Breast Mammary cells SRX852566,SR...X852567,SRX187510,SRX187515 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Brs.20.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 All antigens Breast Mammary cells SRX187508,SRX1...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 All antigens Breast Mammary cells SRX187511,SRX1...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Breast Mammary cells SRX187510,SR...X187515,SRX852567,SRX852566 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 TFs and others Breast Mammary cells SRX187508,SR...X403482,SRX852565,SRX187509,SRX403483,SRX187514,SRX852563,SRX852562,SRX187513,SRX852564 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Brs.20.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Brs.20.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 Input control Breast Mammary cells SRX403481,SRX...187517,SRX187512,SRX403484 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Brs.20.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 All antigens Breast Mammary cells SRX187511,SRX1...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  9. Mammary carcinogenesis in rats: basic facts and recent results in Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellabarger, C.J.; Stone, J.P.; Holtzman, s.

    1982-01-01

    Some research results from experiments investigating neutron-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats are presented. The additive effects of neutrons and 3-methylcholanthrene on mammary adenocarcinoma were determined. Synergism between diethylstilbestrol and neutrons was likewise studied. Differences in mammary neoplastic response between strains of laboratory rats was also investigated

  10. File list: InP.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 Input control Breast Mammary cells SRX403481,SRX...187512,SRX187517,SRX403484 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 Input control Breast Mammary cells SRX403481,SRX...187517,SRX187512,SRX403484 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 Histone Breast Mammary cells SRX187511,SRX187516...,SRX403480,SRX403479 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 Histone Breast Mammary cells SRX187511,SRX187516...,SRX403479,SRX403480 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Brs.10.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Brs.10.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 Input control Breast Mammary cells SRX403481,SRX...187517,SRX187512,SRX403484 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Brs.10.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Brs.10.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Brs.10.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 TFs and others Breast Mammary cells SRX187508,SR...X187509,SRX187514,SRX403482,SRX403483,SRX852562,SRX852565,SRX187513,SRX852563,SRX852564 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Brs.10.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

  16. Induction of mouse mammary tumor virus RNA in mammary tumors of BALB/c mice treated with urethane, x-irradiation, and hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalides, R.; van Deemter, L.; Nusse, R.; Hageman, P.

    1979-01-01

    The involvement of mouse mammary tumor virus (MTV) in the development of mammary tumors of nonviral etiology in BALB/c mice was studied by measuring the levels of MTV RNA, MTV DNA, and MTV proteins in spontaneously arising and hormally, chemically, and/or physically induced mammary tumors of BALB/c females. The following results were obtained: (1) spontaneous mammary tumors contained very low levels of MTV RNA; 4 x 10 -6 % of the cytoplasmic RNA was MTV RNA. No MTV proteins could be demonstrated by using sensitive radioimmunoassays for MTV proteins p27 and gp52. (2) Mammary tumors induced by treatments with urethane or x-irradiation alone contained higher levels of MTV RNA; these tumors contained 3- and 19-fold more MTV RNA, respectively, compared with spontaneous mammary tumors. (3) Mammary tumors induced by combined treatment with urethane and x-irradiation expressed high levels of MTV RNA in the mammary tumors; a 1,724-fold increase in MTV RNA content compared with spontaneous mammary tumors was observed. However, very low levels of MTV proteins gp52 and p27 were detected, suggesting some kind of impairment at the translation of MTV RNA. MTV RNA was also induced by this treatment in mammary glands and spleens, but not in the livers of tumor-bearing animals. (4) BALB/c females continuously exposed to prolactin contained high levels of MTV RNA and MTV proteins in stimulated mammary glands and in the hormonally induced mammary tumors. These findings suggest that MTV is not responsible for the maintenance and probably also not for the development of all murine mammary cancers

  17. Electrostatic accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We ...

  18. Electrostatic accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  19. Accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Because the use of accelerated heavy ions would provide many opportunities for new and important studies in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, as well as other disciplines, both the Chemistry and Physics Divisions are supporting the development of a heavy-ion accelerator. The design of greatest current interest includes a tandem accelerator with a terminal voltage of approximately 25 MV injecting into a linear accelerator with rf superconducting resonators. This combined accelerator facility would be capable of accelerating ions of masses ranging over the entire periodic table to an energy corresponding to approximately 10 MeV/nucleon. This approach, as compared to other concepts, has the advantages of lower construction costs, lower operating power, 100 percent duty factor, and high beam quality (good energy resolution, good timing resolution, small beam size, and small beam divergence). The included sections describe the concept of the proposed heavy-ion accelerator, and the development program aiming at: (1) investigation of the individual questions concerning the superconducting accelerating resonators; (2) construction and testing of prototype accelerator systems; and (3) search for economical solutions to engineering problems. (U.S.)

  20. Radioanatomic correlations in the study of the intact mammary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolganova, I P; Zolotarevskii, V B [Pervyj Moskovskii Meditsinskii Inst. (USSR)

    1981-03-01

    The technique and results of parallel X-ray and morphologic study of mammary gland preparations of 30 women of different age who have died for various reasons, are described. The whole preparation is X-rayed in the native state and after fixation in formalline under the same conditions as in the clinic. The mammary gland preparation is split layer-by-layer with the following roentgenography and the study of histological substrate of all shadow elements. The investigations permit to single out 4 types of shadows on the mammograms conditioned by connecting tissue structures with the elements of glandular tissue. A definite type of mammary gland structure on roentgenograms is characteristic of every age period (child-bearing, preclimacteric, climax).

  1. Mammary blood flow regulation in the nursing rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.; Creasy, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac output and mammary blood flow distribution prior to and after suckling were studied in 10 nursing rabbits by means of radionuclide-labeled microspheres. Suckling was followed by a 5.8% rise in cardiac output and a 20.4% rise in mammary blood flow. Determinations of intraglandular blood flow distribution have shown that there was a 43% increase in blood flow to the glands suckled from as compared to a 22.7% rise to the contralateral untouched glands and a 4.9% rise in the remainder of untouched glands. The conclusion is that a local mechanism may be involved in the regulation of mammary blood flow in the nursing rabbit

  2. Radioanatomic correlations in the study of the intact mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolganova, I.P.; Zolotarevskij, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    The technique and results of parallel X-ray and morphologic study of mammary gland preparations of 30 women of different age who have died for various reasons, are described. The whole preparation is X-rayed in the native state and after fixation in formalline under the same conditions as in the clinic. The mammary gland preparation is split layer-by-layer with the following roentgenography and the study of histological substrate of all shadow elements. The investigations permit to single out 4 types of shadows on the mammograms conditioned by connecting tissue structures with the elements of glandular tissue. A definite type of mammary gland structure on roentgenograms is characteristic of every age period (child-bearing, preclimacteric, climax) [ru

  3. Distribution of internal mammary lymphadenopathy in breast carcinoma: CT appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scatarige, J.C.; Fishman, E.K.; Zinreich, E.S.; Almaraz, R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the anatomic distribution of enlarged internal mammary lymph nodes in breast carcinoma by reviewing thoracic CT examinations in 219 women with operable, advanced or recurrent disease. Enlarged internal mammary lymph nodes were observed in 45 patients (20.5%); they were unilateral in 32 and bilateral in 13. Lymphadenopathy was limited to one anterior intercostal space in 43%, two spaces in 26%, and three or more species in 31%. Dominant modal disease was centered at the first anterior intercostal space in 14%, the second space in 60%, and the third space in 26%. Isolated adenopathy in the fourth intercostal space was not observed. The authors' data concur with current surgical practice when internal mammary lymph nodes are sampled. Implications for preoperative imaging strategy are discussed

  4. The mammary gland in domestic ruminants: a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana M; Bislev, Stine L; Bendixen, Emøke; Almeida, André M

    2013-12-06

    Milk and dairy products are central elements in the human diet. It is estimated that 108kg of milk per year are consumed per person worldwide. Therefore, dairy production represents a relevant fraction of the economies of many countries, being cattle, sheep, goat, water buffalo, and other ruminants the main species used worldwide. An adequate management of dairy farming cannot be achieved without the knowledge on the biological mechanisms behind lactation in ruminants. Thus, understanding the morphology, development and regulation of the mammary gland in health, disease and production is crucial. Presently, innovative and high-throughput technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics allow a much broader and detailed knowledge on such issues. Additionally, the application of a systems biology approach to animal science is vastly growing, as new advances in one field of specialization or animal species lead to new lines of research in other areas or/and are expanded to other species. This article addresses how modern research approaches may help us understand long-known issues in mammary development, lactation biology and dairy production. Dairy production depends upon the knowledge of the morphology and regulation of the mammary gland and lactation. High-throughput technologies allow a much broader and detailed knowledge on the biology of the mammary gland. This paper reviews the major contributions that genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and proteomics approaches have provided to understand the regulation of the mammary gland in health, disease and production. In the context of mammary gland "omics"-based research, the integration of results using a Systems Biology Approach is of key importance. © 2013.

  5. Mammary mechanisms for lactoferrin: interactions with IGFBP-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumrucker C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf is an iron-binding protein found in high concentrations in mammary secretions but synthesized by many tissues. Bovine mammary tissue secretes microg/ml mass of Lf in milk, but during involution and prepartum periods, 20-80 mg per ml concentrations may be observed. While a number of functions have been ascribed to lactoterrin, only the antimicrobial and lymphocyte interactions have compelling experimental evidence of support. We report a new finding that lactoferrin binds to insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 and not to other mammary secreted IGFBPs (IGFBP-2, -4. and -5. Furthermore, bovine Lf(bLf is found associated with membranes of mammary cells. We demonstrate that bovine Lf competes with IGF for binding to IGFBP-3 with ED50 competition of 3 microg per ml and displacement of 1 mg per ml to monomeric bLf. The tetrameric form that is favored by high concentrations of Lf and calcium, does not appear to bind IGFBP-3. Both IGFBP-3 and Lf have nuclear localization sequences that are reported to he key components of nuclear localization of proteins. We demonstrate that extracellular IGFBP-3 binds to membrane Lf and that Lf is the key to the entry of IGFBP-3 to mammary cellular nucleus. Additionally, we have shown that the internalization of Lf requires the presence of retinoids that also induces both IGFBP-3 and Lf synthesis in primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells. We hypothesize a new role for Lf in the regulation and integration into the IGF System.

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs.They have a complex morphology, usually affecting middle age and older bitches. Almost 50% of the mammary tumors in dogs are malignant neoplasms. Prognosis is based on several factors: stage, age, tumor size, metastasis, histopathology, ovariectomy status and hormone-receptor activity. Immunohistochemical (IHC measurement has become increasingly an important diagnostic and prognostic parameter, with the development of monoclonal antibodies against nuclear estrogen and progestin receptors. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of ER receptors in malignant canine mammary tumors and to identify their association with the clinical course of the tumor. Mammary tumor samples have been obtained by mastectomy from dogs presented at our clinic. Detailed clinical examination, CBC and basic serum biochemical profile were performed in all patients. Surgery was the only treatment. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical detection of estrogen α receptors (ERα was performed on 8 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, using the PT LINK immunoperoxidase technique. Histopathological examination of the mammary tumor samples (n=11 revealed tubular adenocarcinoma (n=6,54.5% and ductal adenocarcinoma (n=3, 27.3%, one patient with benign adenoma and one with mastitis. Patients with positive ER tumors are alive, without remission, while 3 of the patients that were ER negative died due to lung metastases. According to our results, it can be concluded that the appearance and development of canine mammary tumors is highly connected with ovarian steroid hormones and that immunostaining of the tumors may be used as a good prognostic parameter in these patients.

  7. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. Previous results indicated that these clonogens are the precursor cells of radiogenic cancer, and that initiation, is common event at the clonegenic cell level. Detailed information on the physiologic control of clonogen proliferation, differentiation, and total numbers is thus essential to an understanding of the carcinogenic process. We report here studies on investigations on the relationships between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary feedback axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH-(thyrotropin-) responsive sub- population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and a large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cell interactions during the neoplastic process

  8. NMR characteristics of rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbakken, M.; Kreider, J.; Taczanowsky, P.

    1984-01-01

    12 rats were injected intradermally with 13762A rat mammary adenocarcinoma (1 x 10/sup 6/ cells). 3 rats died before completion of the study and 2 rat had tumor regression; the first 3 were excluded from data analysis. NMR imaging with a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet at 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after injection demonstrated increasing tumor mass. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR), and spin echo (SE) pulse sequence images and T/sub 1/ calculation were done for tumor characterization. (Tumor size was too small to identify at 2 weeks.) 3 rats were sacrificed after the last 3 imaging periods for histological studies, done to distinguish solid tumor mass from necrosis. Planimetry of tumor areas showed that as tumors grew in size, the ratio of necrotic area to area of solid tumor increased (week 3 = .3 +- .11; week 4 = .45 +- .07; week 5 = .51 +- 05); simultaneous calculated T/sub 1/ values also increased (week 3 = .35 +- .15; week 4 = .45 +- .06; week 5 = .42 +- 03). Qualitative NMR image T/sub 1/ values also increased as evidenced by progression of SR and IR tumor image intensity from very bright compared to the rest of the body at week 3 to less intense than other structures at week 5. These findings indicate that change in T/sub 1/ may be secondary to the pathophysiological change in the tumor (the increasing in necrosis, associated with increased free water). Thus, the range of T/sub 1/ values obtained in tumors in this study (and in previous studies) may be due to change in tumor physiology and anatomy. Careful correlation of histological with NMR data may allow ultimate use of NMR relaxation characteristics for determination of the physiological state of tumors

  9. Proliferation of human mammary cancer cells exposed to 27-hydroxycholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    CRUZ, PAMELA; TORRES, CRISTIAN; RAMÍREZ, MARÍA EUGENIA; EPUÑÁN, MARÍA JOSÉ; VALLADARES, LUIS EMILIO; SIERRALTA, WALTER DANIEL

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the possible mechanisms by which certain estradiol receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumor cells remain resistant to treatment with anti-estrogens or inhibitors of local estradiol (E2) production. To this end, we compared the proliferative effects on mammary cancer cells of the novel selective ER modulator 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) to those of E2, and evaluated their inhibition by ICI 182,780 (ICI). Analysis of the effects on the cell cycle of 27O...

  10. Large mammary hamartoma with focal invasive ductal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervatikar Suneet

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammary hamartomas are uncommon benign lesions rarely associated with malignancy. We report a case of a 25-year-old female patient presenting with a lump in the left breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed features of invasive ductal carcinoma along with normal benign glands that were mistaken for normal breast tissue. However, the mastectomy specimen revealed the malignant mass within a larger hamartomatous mass. Mammary hamartomas are benign lesions but, on exceedingly rare occasions, they may be involved by incidental, coexisting carcinoma, as illustrated in this case report.

  11. Epidermal growth factor in mammary glands and milk from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba

    1993-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF-immunoreact......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF...

  12. Technical note: Measurement of mammary plasma flow in sows by downstream dilution of mammary vein infused para-aminohippuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Storm, Adam Christian; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    catheter was surgically implanted in the femoral artery, and another 2 were inserted in the right cranial mammary vein of 8 second- and third-parity sows on d 76 ± 2 SEM of gestation. On the 3rd and 17th days in milk, arterial and venous blood samples were drawn in hourly intervals from 0.5 h before until...... 6.5 h after feeding. The MPF in the right cranial mammary vein was measured by downstream dilution of infused pAH (3.0 mmol/h). Total MPF-pAH was calculated assuming that the measured flow constituted the flow from 5 out of 14 suckled glands on the basis of the anatomical structure of the mammary...

  13. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERG, J.S.; GARREN, A.A.; JOHNSTONE, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous

  14. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  15. Functional interactions between 17 β -estradiol and progesterone regulate autophagy during acini formation by bovine mammary epithelial cells in 3D cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielniok, Katarzyna; Motyl, Tomasz; Gajewska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland epithelium forms a network of ducts and alveolar units under control of ovarian hormones: 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) cultured on reconstituted basement membrane (rBM) form three-dimensional (3D) acini composed of polarized monolayers surrounding a lumen. Using the 3D culture of BME-UV1 bovine MECs we previously demonstrated that autophagy was induced in the centrally located cells of developing spheroids, and sex steroids increased this process. In the present study we showed that E2 and P4 enhanced the expression of ATG3, ATG5, and BECN1 genes during acini formation, and this effect was accelerated in the presence of both hormones together. The stimulatory action of E2 and P4 was also reflected by increased levels of Atg5, Atg3, and LC3-II proteins. Additionally, the activity of kinases involved in autophagy regulation, Akt, ERK, AMPK, and mTOR, was examined. E2 + P4 slightly increased the level of phosphorylated AMPK but diminished phosphorylated Akt and mTOR on day 9 of 3D culture. Thus, the synergistic actions of E2 and P4 accelerate the development of bovine mammary acini, which may be connected with stimulation of ATGs expression, as well as regulation of signaling pathways (PI3K/Akt/mTOR; AMPK/mTOR) involved in autophagy induction.

  16. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  17. Heterogeneity of mammary lesions represent molecular differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Ruria; Gregg, Jeffrey P; Maglione, Jeannie E; Davis, Ryan R; Baron, Colin A; Liu, Stephenie; Carmack, Condie E; Young, Lawrence JT; Borowsky, Alexander D; Cardiff, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Human breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, histopathologically, molecularly and phenotypically. The molecular basis of this heterogeneity is not well understood. We have used a mouse model of DCIS that consists of unique lines of mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) outgrowths, the premalignant lesion in the mouse that progress to invasive carcinoma, to understand the molecular changes that are characteristic to certain phenotypes. Each MIN-O line has distinguishable morphologies, metastatic potentials and estrogen dependencies. We utilized oligonucleotide expression arrays and high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to investigate whole genome expression patterns and whole genome aberrations in both the MIN-O and tumor from four different MIN-O lines that each have different phenotypes. From the whole genome analysis at 35 kb resolution, we found that chromosome 1, 2, 10, and 11 were frequently associated with whole chromosome gains in the MIN-Os. In particular, two MIN-O lines had the majority of the chromosome gains. Although we did not find any whole chromosome loss, we identified 3 recurring chromosome losses (2F1-2, 3E4, 17E2) and two chromosome copy number gains on chromosome 11. These interstitial deletions and duplications were verified with a custom made array designed to interrogate the specific regions at approximately 550 bp resolution. We demonstrated that expression and genomic changes are present in the early premalignant lesions and that these molecular profiles can be correlated to phenotype (metastasis and estrogen responsiveness). We also identified expression changes associated with genomic instability. Progression to invasive carcinoma was associated with few additional changes in gene expression and genomic organization. Therefore, in the MIN-O mice, early premalignant lesions have the major molecular and genetic changes required and these changes have important phenotypic significance. In contrast, the changes

  18. FMIT accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    A 35-MeV 100-mA cw linear accelerator is being designed by Los Alamos for use in the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Essential to this program is the design, construction, and evaluation of performance of the accelerator's injector, low-energy beam transport, and radio-frequency quadrupole sections before they are shipped to the facility site. The installation and testing of some of these sections have begun as well as the testing of the rf, noninterceptive beam diagnostics, computer control, dc power, and vacuum systems. An overview of the accelerator systems and the performance to date is given

  19. Electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan.

    1981-01-01

    The USSR produces an electron accelerator family of a simple design powered straight from the mains. The specifications are given of accelerators ELITA-400, ELITA-3, ELT-2, TEUS-3 and RIUS-5 with maximum electron energies of 0.3 to 5 MeV, a mean power of 10 to 70 kW operating in both the pulsed and the continuous (TEUS-3) modes. Pulsed accelerators ELITA-400 and ELITA-3 and RIUS-5 in which TESLA resonance transformers are used are characterized by their compact size. (Ha)

  20. Altered oxidative stress and carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayasri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mammary tumors are the most prevalent type of neoplasms in canines. Even though cancer induced metabolic alterations are well established, the clinical data describing the metabolic profiles of animal tumors is not available. Hence, our present investigation was carried out with the aim of studying changes in carbohydrate metabolism along with the level of oxidative stress in canine mammary tumors. Materials and Methods: Fresh mammary tumor tissues along with the adjacent healthy tissues were collected from the college surgical ward. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione, protein, hexose, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were analyzed in all the tissues. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: More than two-fold increase in TBARS and three-fold increase in glutathione levels were observed in neoplastic tissues. Hexokinase activity and hexose concentration (175% was found to be increased, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase (33%, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (42%, and G6PD (5 fold activities were reduced in tumor mass compared to control. Conclusion: Finally, it was revealed that lipid peroxidation was increased with differentially altered carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors.

  1. Proliferation of human mammary cancer cells exposed to 27-hydroxycholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Pamela; Torres, Cristian; Ramírez, María Eugenia; Epuñán, María José; Valladares, Luis Emilio; Sierralta, Walter Daniel

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the possible mechanisms by which certain estradiol receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumor cells remain resistant to treatment with anti-estrogens or inhibitors of local estradiol (E(2)) production. To this end, we compared the proliferative effects on mammary cancer cells of the novel selective ER modulator 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) to those of E(2), and evaluated their inhibition by ICI 182,780 (ICI). Analysis of the effects on the cell cycle of 27OHC and E(2) in the absence or presence of ICI was conducted. In ER-positive mammary tumor cells, we detected the blocking of 27OHC proliferation-stimulatory activity by simvastatin, as well as the inhibition of E(2)-stimulated proliferation by an α-fetoprotein-derived cyclic nonapeptide. The effects reported herein may be extrapolated to infiltrating mammary cancer, where the activity of local macrophages may stimulate tumor growth. We suggest that increased breast cancer growth in obese patients may be related to increased 27OHC circulatory levels.

  2. A mouse model of mammary hyperplasia induced by oral hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and Materials: To address the mechanism, we developed a mouse model of mammary hyperplasia. We gave mice estradiol valerate tablets and progesterone capsules sequentially for one month by intragastric administration. Results: Mice treated by this method had a series of pathological changes which are ...

  3. Effect of Prunella vulgaris L extract on hyperplasia of mammary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p < 0.01) in rats treated with highdose PVE. Conclusion: These results suggest that PVE exerts anti-HMG effect in rats induced by estrogen and progestogen. Keywords: Prunella vulgaris L; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-hyperplasia of mammary gland ...

  4. Mammary gland chondrosarcoma in a German Shepherd bitch: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canine mammary tumours are the most common tumours in intact bitches and they constitute about 25% of the neoplasm in this species followed by skin tumours (Benjamin et al.,1999) and their incidence varies from 198 to 622.6 cases per 100,000 dogs per year (Vail and MacEwen,2000). According to Yager et al.(1993) ...

  5. Mammary remodeling in primiparous and multiparous dairy goats during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring

    2010-01-01

    Milk production is generally lower but lactation persistency higher in primiparous (PP) than in multiparous (MP) goats. This may be related to differences in development and maintenance of mammary gland function, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The present study aimed to el...

  6. Mammary remodelling and metabolic activity in dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina

    Milk production is generally lower, but lactation persistency higher in primiparous (PP) than multiparous (MP) ruminants. This may be related to differences in development and maintenance of mammary gland function, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Furthermore, milk productio...

  7. Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma of the Nasal Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baneckova, Martina; Agaimy, Abbas; Andreasen, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Secretory carcinoma, originally described as mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC), is a low-grade salivary gland tumor characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation, resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Most MASCs are localized to the parotid gland and intraoral minor salivary glands...

  8. Interrogation of the rat mammary gland using intraductal impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, E F; Quinn, D A; Davies, R J

    2010-01-01

    Extant technologies for the detection of breast cancer exploit changes in the morphology of the mammary ductal epithelial network and can involve ionizing radiation. Intraductal surveillance of mammary epithelium has the potential to allow for earlier detection based on changes in function of the epithelium. This study investigated the feasibility of using intraductal impedance spectroscopy (IIS) to assess changes in resistance in the mammary epithelium in a small group of female rats in resting, pregnant and ultimately lactating states. In resting rats, intraductal surveillance was able to detect only a single resistive capacitance (RC). In pregnant animals, a second RC became evident in the frequency range between 1 and 190 Hz. The real resistance of this low frequency RC increased when measurements were made after the animals had begun lactating. Equivalent circuit modeling revealed this increase to be a 1.7-fold change from pregnancy to lactation. A model of tight junction closure in the context of ductal expansion is proposed. These results suggest that physiologic measurements can be made in rodent mammary epithelium using this technique allowing for assessment of function in normal and disease states

  9. Mammary fibroadenoma: ductal pattern in pneumo-oncography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Pabon, I.; Garcia Alvarez, A.; Castello Camerlinck, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present 25 cases affected by mammary fibroadenoma which underwent pneumo-oncography; in all instances they obtained a characteristic pattern of air distribution, the ductal pattern, which allows fibroadenoma to be reliably diagnosed. No carcinoma demonstrated this type of air pattern. 9 refs.; 3 figs

  10. The Role of Src in Mammary Epithelial Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kusdra, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    ...') similar to the physiological lobular-aveoli structures found in the mammary tissue. Additionally, more invasive carcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) whereby Src signaling was pharmacologically or genetically inhibited were unable to form actin-rich invasive structures in 3D-rBM culture.

  11. Detection of Mouse Mammary Tumour Virus in house mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Lise K; Leirs, Herwig; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    The prevalence of human breast cancer (HBC) is affected by several parameters. For the past decades MMTV, Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus, known to cause breast cancer in mice, has been hypothesized to affect the frequency of hormone dependent HBC. Though conclusive evidence has not been produced, still...

  12. Intravital imaging of cancer stem cell plasticity in mammary tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, A.; Ellenbroek, S.I.; Ritsma, L.; Beerling, E.; Vrisekoop, N.; van Rheenen, J.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely debated whether all tumor cells in mammary tumors have the same potential to propagate and maintain tumor growth or whether there is a hierarchical organization. Evidence for the latter theory is mainly based on the ability or failure of transplanted tumor cells to produce detectable

  13. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. 3 per 100 000 people.[1,2] A rare salivary gland tumour, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), has only recently been described.[3] The few reports and studies concerning MASC have been published in several pathology journals. We report ...

  14. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Fre, Silvia

    2013-10-14

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive "triple negative" human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2(SAT) transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells.

  15. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Challana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2 cm (34 days to 108 cm CVRL (curved crown rump length (317 days were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days, mammary hillock at 1.7 cm (37 days, and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7 cm CVRL (58 days whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4 cm CVRL (62 days and 15 cm CVRL (96 days, respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1 cm CVRL (129 days. Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days, rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days, and keratin plug at 45.5 cm CVRL (176 days foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2 cm CVRL (122 days of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69 cm (229 days in group III foetuses.

  16. STUDY OF OVARIAN CHANGES IN RATS WITH MAMMARY CARCINOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zečević

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate ovarian changes in 7,12 dimethylbenz (α anthracene (DMBA induced rat mammary carcinomas. The study was carried out on female virgin albino Wistar rats (n=35, age=35-37days, body mass 120-140g, divided into control (n=10 and experimental group (n=25. Anesthetised animals of experimental group were inoculated with 2 mg mixture (1 mg of DMBA and 1 mg of cholesterol-buffer into the fifth left mammary gland. The animals were sacrificed 90 days after implantation, and ovaries and mammary glands were investigated. Mammary gland carcinomas (in situ and/or invasive were pathohistologically verified in 19 experimental animals. Histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical (cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and PCNA studies of ovaries were performed.Besides non-neoplastic changes, such as decrease in ovary’s volume, reduction in the rate of follicular development and numerous corpora lutea formation were found in the vicinity of preneoplastic changes: papillomatous epithelial hyperplasia and inclusion cysts, microglandular formations with dysplasia and seromucinous microcystic formation. Intensive diffuse PCNA expression was present in the epithelium of glandlike structures, follicular and inclusion cysts.These morphological changes confirmed that DMBA is a pluripotent carcinogen capable to induce a wide spectrum of preneoplastic lesions in the ovaries. The present dilemma is whether the changes described are the consequence of the direct effects of DMBA or of hormonal activity of the induced breast carcinomas, or both.

  17. Occurrence of mammary tumors in beagls given radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.; Huth, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    A total of 128 primary mammary tumors (66 of them malignant) occurred in 35 female beagles injected with 226 Ra at eight dose levels ranging from 0.2 to 440 kBq/kg body mass as young adults, while a total of 156 mammary tumors (57 of them malignant) were seen in 46 female control beagles not given any radioactivity. Sixty-three of 65 control dogs and 59 of 61 dogs given 226 Ra survived the minimum age for diagnosis of mammary tumors of 3.75 years. Based on the observed age-dependent tumor incidence rates in the controls and on the corresponding number of dog-years at risk, the total number of observed malignant tumors in the radium group was statistically greater than the number of expected malignant tumors (66 observed vs 34 expected, P < 0.005). There was no such difference for the benign tumors. Cox regression analysis indicated no increased risk for the first tumor occurrence in irradiated dogs. Cox regression analysis of the multivariate risk sets showed no significantly increased risk for the occurrence of benign tumors but a statistically higher risk of 1.66 with a confidence interval of 1.15-2.40 for the occurrence of malignant tumors. The increased risk was dependent on dose, but a dependence on the frequency of previous occurrence of mammary tumors could not be confirmed. Censoring ovariectomized dogs at time of surgery decreased the relative risks slightly but did not alter the significance. Exposure to diagnostic X rays with cumulative exposures below 0.2 Gy had no effect on tumor formation. It is unknown whether the increased risk for malignant mammary tumors was due to some initial deposition of radium in sensitive tissue, a possible irradiation of fatty mammary tissue from transient radon → polonium deposition, or a general effect of the overall radium deposition on the immune system of the dogs that lowered their resistance to formation of mammary tumors. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  19. Acceleration theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields can be separated into near and far components. Near fields are extensions of static fields. They do not radiate, and they fall off more rapidly from a source than far fields. Near fields can accelerate particles, but the ratio of acceleration to source fields at a distance R, is always less than R/λ or 1, whichever is smaller. Far fields can be represented as sums of plane parallel, transversely polarized waves that travel at the velocity of light. A single such wave in a vacuum cannot give continuous acceleration, and it is shown that no sums of such waves can give net first order acceleration. This theorem is proven in three different ways; each method showing a different aspect of the situation

  20. Epimorphin Functions as a Key Morphoregulator for Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, H.; Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Koshida, S.; Niwa, S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-10-13

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF have been reported to promote branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells. We now show that it is epimorphin that is primarily responsible for this phenomenon. In vivo, epimorphin was detected in the stromal compartment but not in lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland; in culture, however, a subpopulation of mammary epithelial cells produced significant amounts of epimorphin. When epimorphin-expressing epithelial cell clones were cultured in collagen gels they displayed branching morphogenesis in the presence of HGF, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor, a process that was inhibited by anti-epimorphin but not anti-HGF antibodies. The branch length, however, was roughly proportional to the ability of the factors to induce growth. Accordingly, epimorphin-negative epithelial cells simply grew in a cluster in response to the growth factors and failed to branch. When recombinant epimorphin was added to these collagen gels, epimorphin-negative cells underwent branching morphogenesis. The mode of action of epimorphin on morphogenesis of the gland, however, was dependent on how it was presented to the mammary cells. If epimorphin was overexpressed in epimorphin-negative epithelial cells under regulation of an inducible promoter or was allowed to coat the surface of each epithelial cell in a nonpolar fashion, the cells formed globular, alveoli-like structures with a large central lumen instead of branching ducts. This process was enhanced also by addition of HGF, EGF, or other growth factors and was inhibited by epimorphin antibodies. These results suggest that epimorphin is the primary morphogen in the mammary gland but that growth factors are necessary to achieve the appropriate cell numbers for the resulting morphogenesis to be visualized.

  1. Internal mammary lymph node management – further direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrana D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available D Vrana,1,2 J Gatek3,4 1Department of Oncology, 2Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, 3Department of Surgery, Atlas Hospital, 4Faculty of Humanities, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Zlín, Czech Republic We read the article titled “Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?” by Qiu et al with high interest. This was an excellent paper regarding the contemporary management of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN in early-stage breast cancer1 and we would like to take this opportunity to comment on this paper.There are several unresolved questions regarding early-stage breast management including axillary staging, clear resection margin, or IMLN.2–4 We have been focusing on the issues of IMLN for almost a decade and just recently published our data regarding IMLN management. We absolutely agree that one has to carefully balance the benefit and potential risks of biopsy or radiotherapy of IMLN.  Authors' reply Peng-Fei Qiu, Yong-Sheng WangBreast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China  We appreciate the letter from Professors Vrana and Gatek regarding our article titled “Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?”.1 We have been following their publications regarding internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN management since the publication of their article titled “Prognostic influence of internal mammary node drainage in patients with early-stage breast cancer” in December 20162 and we share their interest on this topic.  View the original paper by Qiu and colleagues.

  2. Comparative expression pathway analysis of human and canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconato Laura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous tumors in dog have been demonstrated to share many features with their human counterparts, including relevant molecular targets, histological appearance, genetics, biological behavior and response to conventional treatments. Mammary tumors in dog therefore provide an attractive alternative to more classical mouse models, such as transgenics or xenografts, where the tumour is artificially induced. To assess the extent to which dog tumors represent clinically significant human phenotypes, we performed the first genome-wide comparative analysis of transcriptional changes occurring in mammary tumors of the two species, with particular focus on the molecular pathways involved. Results We analyzed human and dog gene expression data derived from both tumor and normal mammary samples. By analyzing the expression levels of about ten thousand dog/human orthologous genes we observed a significant overlap of genes deregulated in the mammary tumor samples, as compared to their normal counterparts. Pathway analysis of gene expression data revealed a great degree of similarity in the perturbation of many cancer-related pathways, including the 'PI3K/AKT', 'KRAS', 'PTEN', 'WNT-beta catenin' and 'MAPK cascade'. Moreover, we show that the transcriptional relationships between different gene signatures observed in human breast cancer are largely maintained in the canine model, suggesting a close interspecies similarity in the network of cancer signalling circuitries. Conclusion Our data confirm and further strengthen the value of the canine mammary cancer model and open up new perspectives for the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics and the development of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers to be used in clinical studies.

  3. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  4. Effects of alpha-particles on survival and chromosomal aberrations in human mammary epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Gialanella, G.; Pugliese, M.; Nappo, M.; Yang, T. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the radiation responses of a human mammary epithelial cell line, H184B5 F5-1 M/10. This cell line was derived from primary mammary cells after treatment with chemicals and heavy ions. The F5-1 M/10 cells are immortal, density-inhibited in growth, and non-tumorigenic in athymic nude mice and represent an in vitro model of the human epithelium for radiation studies. Because epithelial cells are the target of alpha-particles emitted from radon daughters, we concentrated our studies on the efficiency of alpha-particles. Confluent cultures of M/10 cells were exposed to accelerated alpha-particles [beam energy incident at the cell monolayer = 3.85 MeV, incident linear energy transfer (LET) in cell = 109 keV/microns] and, for comparison, to 80 kVp x-rays. The following endpoints were studied: (1) survival, (2) chromosome aberrations at the first postirradiation mitosis, and (3) chromosome alterations at later passages following irradiation. The survival curve was exponential for alpha-particles (D0 = 0.73 +/- 0.04 Gy), while a shoulder was observed for x-rays (alpha/beta = 2.9 Gy; D0 = 2.5 Gy, extrapolation number 1.6). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-LET alpha-particles for human epithelial cell killing was 3.3 at 37% survival. Dose-response curves for the induction of chromosome aberrations were linear for alpha-particles and linearquadratic for x-rays. The RBE for the induction of chromosome aberrations varied with the type of aberration scored and was high (about 5) for chromosome breaks and low (about 2) for chromosome exchanges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  5. Downregulation of ATM Gene and Protein Expression in Canine Mammary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-Ferreira, T M M; Bueno, R C; Terra, E M; Avante, M L; Tinucci-Costa, M; Carvalho, M; Cassali, G D; Linde, S D; Rogatto, S R; Laufer-Amorim, R

    2016-11-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene encodes a protein associated with DNA damage repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. In women, ATM transcript and protein downregulation have been reported in sporadic breast carcinomas, and the absence of ATM protein expression has been associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ATM gene and protein expression in canine mammary tumors and their association with clinical outcome. ATM gene and protein expression was evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in normal mammary gland samples (n = 10), benign mammary tumors (n = 11), nonmetastatic mammary carcinomas (n = 19), and metastatic mammary carcinomas (n = 11). Lower ATM transcript levels were detected in benign mammary tumors and carcinomas compared with normal mammary glands (P = .011). Similarly, lower ATM protein expression was observed in benign tumors (P = .0003), nonmetastatic mammary carcinomas (P ATM gene or protein levels were detected among benign tumors and nonmetastatic and metastatic mammary carcinomas (P > .05). The levels of ATM gene or protein expression were not significantly associated with clinical and pathological features or with survival. Similar to human breast cancer, the data in this study suggest that ATM gene and protein downregulation is involved in canine mammary gland tumorigenesis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Autocrine-paracrine regulation of the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, S R; Hernandez, L L

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland has a remarkable capacity for regulation at a local level, particularly with respect to its main function: milk secretion. Regulation of milk synthesis has significant effects on animal and human health, at the level of both the mother and the neonate. Control by the mammary gland of its essential function, milk synthesis, is an evolutionary necessity and is therefore tightly regulated at a local level. For at least the last 60 yr, researchers have been interested in elucidating the mechanisms underpinning the mammary gland's ability to self-regulate, largely without the influence from systemic hormones or signals. By the 1960s, scientists realized the importance of milk removal in the capacity of the gland to produce milk and that the dynamics of this removal, including emptying of the alveolar spaces and frequency of milking, were controlled locally as opposed to traditional systemic hormonal regulation. Using both in vitro systems and various mammalian species, including goats, marsupials, humans, and dairy cows, it has been demonstrated that the mammary gland is largely self-regulating in its capacity to support the young, which is the evolutionary basis for milk production. Local control occurs at the level of the mammary epithelial cell through pressure and stretching negative-feedback mechanisms, and also in an autocrine fashion through bioactive factors within the milk which act as inhibitors, regulating milk secretion within the alveoli themselves. It is only within the last 20 to 30 yr that potential candidates for these bioactive factors have been examined at a molecular level. Several, including parathyroid hormone-related protein, growth factors (transforming growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, epidermal growth factor), and serotonin, are synthesized within and act upon the gland and possess dynamic receptor activity resulting in diverse effects on growth, calcium homeostasis, and milk composition. This review will focus on the

  7. Cadmium in milk and mammary gland in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson Grawe, K.; Oskarsson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the uptake of cadmium in mammary tissue, effects on milk secretion and composition, and lactational transport of cadmium to the sucklings. Cadmium exposure during lactation resulted in retention of cadmium in the mammary tissue in mice and rats. The uptake of cadmium in the mammary tissue was rapid, as shown in lactating mice by whole-body autoradiography 4 h after an intravenous injection of a tracer dose of 109 CdCl 2 . Retention of cadmium in kidneys of suckling pups was observed in the autoradiograms at 7 days after exposure of the dams. Lactating rats were intravenously infused with 109 CdCl 2 in 0.9% saline via osmotic minipumps from day 3 to day 16 after parturition. The cadmium dose given was 0, 8.8, 62 and 300 μg Cd/kg body wt. per day. Plasma and milk were collected at day 10 and 16 after parturition. Plasma cadmium levels in dams increased from day 10 to day 16. Cadmium levels were higher in milk than in plasma, with milk/plasma ratios varying from 2 to 6. Zinc levels in milk were positively correlated to cadmium levels in milk (r 2 =0.26; P=0.03). In milk, 109 Cd was distributed in fat (46-52%), casein fraction (40-46%), and whey fraction (6-8%). There was a high correlation between cadmium concentrations in pups' kidney and cadmium concentrations in dam's milk (r 2 =0.98; P 109 Cd was bound to metallothionein in mammary tissue. The fraction of radiolabelled cadmium bound to metallothionein increased in a dose-dependent manner in both the liver (88-98%) and mammary tissue (57-80%). The present results indicate a low transfer of cadmium to the suckling pup, which might be due to binding of cadmium to metallothionein in the mammary tissue. However, during the susceptible developmental period even a low cadmium exposure may be of concern. (orig.)

  8. Heat shock protein expression in canine malignant mammary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanucci, Mariarita; Marinelli, Alessia; Sarli, Giuseppe; Salda, Leonardo Della

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal levels of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) have been observed in many human neoplasms including breast cancer and it has been demonstrated that they have both prognostic and therapeutic implications. In this study, we evaluated immunohistochemical expression of HSPs in normal and neoplastic canine mammary glands and confronted these results with overall survival (OS), in order to understand the role of HSPs in carcinogenesis and to establish their potential prognostic and/or therapeutic value. Immunohistochemical expression of Hsp27, Hsp72, Hsp73 and Hsp90 was evaluated in 3 normal canine mammary glands and 30 malignant mammary tumours (10 in situ carcinomas, 10 invasive carcinomas limited to local structures without identifiable invasion of blood or lymphatic vessels, 10 carcinomas with invasion of blood or lymphatic vessels and/or metastases to regional lymph nodes). A semi-quantitative method was used for the analysis of the results. Widespread constitutive expression of Hsp73 and Hsp90 was detected in normal tissue, Hsp72 appeared to be focally distributed and Hsp27 showed a negative to rare weak immunostaining. In mammary tumours, a significant increase in Hsp27 (P < 0.01), Hsp72 (P < 0.05) and Hsp90 (P < 0.01) expression was observed as well as a significant reduction in Hsp73 (P < 0.01) immunoreactivity compared to normal mammary gland tissue. Hsp27 demonstrated a strong positivity in infiltrating tumour cells and metaplastic squamous elements of invasive groups. High Hsp27 expression also appeared to be significantly correlated to a shorter OS (P = 0.00087). Intense immunolabelling of Hsp72 and Hsp73 was frequently detected in infiltrative or inflammatory tumour areas. Hsp90 expression was high in all tumours and, like Hsp73, it also showed an intense positivity in lymphatic emboli. These results suggest that Hsp27, Hsp72 and Hsp90 are involved in canine mammary gland carcinogenesis. In addition, Hsp27 appears to be implicated in tumour invasiveness and

  9. Accelerator microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1997-01-01

    Particle accelerators have been developed more than sixty years ago to investigate nuclear and atomic phenomena. A major shift toward applications of accelerators in the study of materials structure and composition in inter-disciplinary projects has been witnessed in the last two decades. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has developed advanced research programs based on the use of particle and photon beams. Atmospheric pollution problems are investigated at the 3 MV Van de Graff accelerator using ion beam analysis techniques to detect toxic elements in aerosol particles. High temperature superconductor and semiconductor materials are characterised using the recoil of iodine and other heavy ions produced at ANTARES, the 10-MV Tandem accelerator. A heavy-ion microprobe is presently being developed at ANTARES to map elemental concentrations of specific elements with micro-size resolution. An Accelerator mass Spectrometry (AMS) system has been developed at ANSTO for the ultra-sensitive detection of Carbon-14, Iodine-129 and other long-lived radioisotopes. This AMS spectrometer is a key instrument for climate change studies and international safeguards. ANSTO is also managing the Australian Synchrotron Research program based on facilities developed at the Photon Factory (Japan) and at the Advanced Photon Source (USA). Advanced projects in biology, materials chemistry, structural condensed matter and other disciplines are being promoted by a consortium involving Australian universities and research institutions. This paper will review recent advances in the use of particle accelerators, with a particular emphasis on applications developed at ANSTO and related to problems of international concern, such as global environmental change, public health and nuclear proliferation

  10. Unique expression pattern of the three insulin receptor family members in the rat mammary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Henning; Klopfleisch, Robert; Vienberg, Sara Gry

    2011-01-01

    mammary gland. Using laser micro-dissection, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of IR (insulin receptor), IGF-1R (IGF-1 receptor), IRR (insulin receptor-related receptor), ERα (estrogen receptor alpha), ERβ (estrogen receptor beta) and PR (progesteron receptor......) in young, virgin, female Sprague-Dawley rats and compared to expression in reference organs. The mammary gland displayed the highest expression of IRR and IGF-1R. In contrast, low expression of IR transcripts was observed in the mammary gland tissue with expression of the IR-A isoform being 5-fold higher...... than the expression of the IR-B. By immunohistochemistry, expression of IR and IGF-1R was detected in all mammary gland epithelial cells. Expression of ERα and PR was comparable between mammary gland and ovary, whereas expression of ERβ was lower in mammary gland than in the ovary. Finally, expression...

  11. Single-cell RNA-Seq reveals cell heterogeneity and hierarchy within mouse mammary epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Heng; Miao, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Xin; Chan, Un In; Su, Sek Man; Guo, Sen; Wong, Chris Koon Ho; Xu, Xiaoling; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2018-04-17

    The mammary gland is very intricately and well organized into distinct tissues, including epithelia, endothelia, adipocytes, and stromal and immune cells. Many mammary gland diseases, such as breast cancer arise from abnormalities in the mammary epithelium, which is mainly composed of two distinct lineages, the basal and luminal cells. Because of the limitation of traditional transcriptome analysis of bulk mammary cells, the hierarchy and heterogeneity of mammary cells within these two lineages remain unclear. To this end, using single-cell RNA-Seq coupled with FACS analysis and principal component analysis, we determined gene expression profiles of mammary epithelial cells of virgin and pregnant mice. These analyses revealed a much higher heterogeneity among the mammary cells than has been previously reported and enabled cell classification into distinct subgroups according to signature gene markers present in each group. We also identified and verified a rare CDH5+ cell subpopulation within a basal cell lineage as quiescent mammary stem cells (MaSCs). Moreover, using pseudo-temporal analysis, we reconstructed the developmental trajectory of mammary epithelia and uncovered distinct changes in gene expression and in biological functions of mammary cells along the developmental process. In conclusion, our work greatly refines the resolution of the cellular hierarchy in developing mammary tissues. The discovery of CDH5+ cells as MaSCs in these tissues may have implications for our understanding of the initiation, development, and pathogenesis of mammary tumors. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Transcriptomic response of goat mammary epithelial cells to Mycoplasma agalactiae challenge – a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogorevc, Jernej; Mihevc, Sonja Prpar; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is one of the main aetiological agents of intramammary infections in small ruminants, causing contagious agalactia. To better understand the underlying disease patterns a primary goat mammary epithelial cell (pgMEC) culture was established from the mammary tissue and ch....... Additionally, the results represent comprehensive goat mammary transcriptome information and demonstrate the applicability of the comparative genomics approach for annotation of goat data, using transcriptome information of a closely related species (Bos taurus) as a reference....

  13. A tumoriform lesion of the vulva with features of mammary-type fibrocystic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2013-10-01

    : Fibrocystic disease is a common benign lesion of the breast. Variably sized cysts, apocrine metaplasia, fibrosis, calcification, chronic inflammation, and epithelial hyperplasia are the basic morphological changes seen in mammary fibrocystic disease. We report a rare tumoriform lesion of the vulva with features of fibrocystic disease, which seems to be the first description of this condition in the vulva. The pertinent literature is discussed. The reported lesion further demonstrates the analogy between tumors of anogenital mammary-like glands and mammary neoplasms.

  14. Transcriptomic response of goat mammary epithelial cells to Mycoplasma agalactiae challenge – a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogorevc, Jernej; Mihevc, Sonja Prpar; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is one of the main aetiological agents of intramammary infections in small ruminants, causing contagious agalactia. To better understand the underlying disease patterns a primary goat mammary epithelial cell (pgMEC) culture was established from the mammary tissue......, steroid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, apoptosis signalling, transcription regulation, and cell cycle regulation. Based on the results we suggest that mammary epithelial cells in vivo contribute to the immune system by the induced expression of cytokines and other chemotactic agents, activation...

  15. Stromal fibroblasts derived from mammary gland of bovine with mastitis display inflammation-specific changes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qing; He, Guiliang; Zhang, Wenyao; Xu, Tong; Qi, Hongliang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblasts are predominant components of mammary stromal cells and play crucial roles in the development and involution of bovine mammary gland; however, whether these cells contribute to mastitis has not been demonstrated. Thus, we have undertaken biological and molecular characterization of inflammation-associated fibroblasts (INFs) extracted from bovine mammary glands with clinical mastitis and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from slaughtered dairy cows because of fractured legs during lactation...

  16. Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnini, Didier Q; Salgado, Breno S; Linardi, Juliana L; Grandi, Fabrizio; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S; Teixeira, Carlos R; Del Piero, Fabio; Sequeira, Julio L

    2012-09-25

    Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo). The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. This is the first description of these tumor in African lions.

  17. Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagnini Didier Q

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. Case presentation An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo. The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. Conclusions This is the first description of these tumor in African lions.

  18. Modeling and analysis of transport in the mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quezada, Ana; Vafai, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    The transport of three toxins moving from the blood stream into the ducts of the mammary glands is analyzed in this work. The model predictions are compared with experimental data from the literature. The utility of the model lies in its potential to improve our understanding of toxin transport as a pre-disposing factor to breast cancer. This work is based on a multi-layer transport model to analyze the toxins present in the breast milk. The breast milk in comparison with other sampling strategies allows us to understand the mass transport of toxins once inside the bloodstream of breastfeeding women. The multi-layer model presented describes the transport of caffeine, DDT and cimetidine. The analysis performed takes into account the unique transport mechanisms for each of the toxins. Our model predicts the movement of toxins and/or drugs within the mammary glands as well as their bioaccumulation in the tissues. (paper)

  19. Mammary gland tumor formation in transgenic mice overexpressing stromelysin-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1995-06-01

    An intact basement membrane (BM) is essential for the proper function, differentiation and morphology of many epithelial cells. The disruption or loss of this BM occurs during normal development as well as in the disease state. To examine the importance of BM during mammary gland development in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that inappropriately express autoactivating isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. The mammary glands from these mice are both functionally and morphologically altered throughout development. We have now documented a dramatic incidence of breast tumors in several independent lines of these mice. These data suggest that overexpression of stromelysin-1 and disruption of the BM may be a key step in the multi-step process of breast cancer.

  20. Hormonal homeostasis during radiotherapy in patients with mammary gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozins'ka, Yi.M.; Yakimova, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    248 patients with mammary gland cancer (stages 2 and 3) were studied. In 3 stage patients, inhibition of the thyroid gland function, increase of somatotropic hormones (STH) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration, when compared with the respective data in stage 2 patients, were noted. Radiotherapy at stages 2 and 3 of the disease causes various changes of the above-mentioned values. Increase of CEA blood concentration results in inhibition of cellular immune reactions in the tumor stroma and its bed, which influences 5-years' survival of the patients. The authors suggest that at stage 3 mammary gland cancer, homeostasis state occurs in the organism; it differs from that occurring at stage 3 of the disease. Thus, different approaches to treatment at these two stages of the disease are required

  1. Phyllodes malignant mammary tumors:communication of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beschizza, V.; Rosasco, M.; Episcopo, S.; Dorfman, N.; Centurion, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three cases of phyllode malignant mammary tumors were studied in the Anatomo-Pathology Chair of the Montevideo, Uruguay.The discussion covered epidemiology, morphologic staging and biological significance of phyllode tumor within the broader spectrum of libro-epithelial breast tumors.An overview of literature shows that histo-pathological criteria recommended by world Health Organization(WHO) are the ones which determine the behaviour of phyllode mammary tumors, wheter bening, malignant of borderline.Prognostic factors of metastases are those involved in stroma overgrowth, anaplasia high mitotic index and infiltrative edge of tumor.None of the clinical aspects,including tumor size, are significant from the viewpoint of prognosis.Efective treatment is broad extended surgical excision (adequate margins),mastectomy being reserved for large tummors that are borderline, malignant or recurrent

  2. Modeling and analysis of transport in the mammary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Ana; Vafai, Kambiz

    2014-08-01

    The transport of three toxins moving from the blood stream into the ducts of the mammary glands is analyzed in this work. The model predictions are compared with experimental data from the literature. The utility of the model lies in its potential to improve our understanding of toxin transport as a pre-disposing factor to breast cancer. This work is based on a multi-layer transport model to analyze the toxins present in the breast milk. The breast milk in comparison with other sampling strategies allows us to understand the mass transport of toxins once inside the bloodstream of breastfeeding women. The multi-layer model presented describes the transport of caffeine, DDT and cimetidine. The analysis performed takes into account the unique transport mechanisms for each of the toxins. Our model predicts the movement of toxins and/or drugs within the mammary glands as well as their bioaccumulation in the tissues.

  3. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mammary gland in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahira, R; Michishita, M; Yoshimura, H; Hatakeyama, H; Takahashi, K

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old female border collie was presented with a mass (2 cm diameter) in the fifth mammary gland. The mass was located in the subcutis and the cut surface was grey-white in colour. Microscopically, the mass was composed of tumour cells arranged in nests of various sizes separated by delicate fibrovascular stroma. The tumour cells had small, round hypochromatic nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. Metastases were observed in the inguinal lymph node. Immunohistochemically, most tumour cells expressed cytokeratin (CK) 20, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and oestrogen receptor-β, but not low molecular weight CK (CAM5.2), p63 and insulin. Ultrastructurally, the tumour cells contained a large number of electron-dense granules corresponding to neuroendocrine granules. Based on these findings, this case was diagnosed as a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mammary gland. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  5. CNSTN Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbassi, Afifa; Trabelsi, Adel

    2010-01-01

    This project give a big idea about the measurement of the linear accelerator in the CNSTN. During this work we control dose distribution for different product. For this characterisation we have to make an installation qualification ,operational qualification,performance qualification and of course for every step we have to control temperature and the dose ,even the distribution of the last one.

  6. Accelerators course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA; Métral, E

    2006-01-01

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges

  7. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Operations of the SuperHILAC, the Bevatron/Bevalac, and the 184-inch Synchrocyclotron during the period from October 1977 to September 1978 are discussed. These include ion source development, accelerator facilities, the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System, and Bevelac biomedical operations

  8. Accelerator update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    When the Accelerator Conference, combined International High Energy and US Particle versions, held in Dallas in May, was initially scheduled, progress nearby for the US Superconducting Supercollider was high on the preliminary agenda. With the SSC voted down by Congress in October 1993, this was no longer the case. However the content of the meeting, in terms of both its deep implications for ambitious new projects and the breadth of its scope, showed that the worldwide particle accelerator field is far from being moribund. A traditional feature of such accelerator conferences is the multiplicity of parallel sessions. No one person can attend all sessions, so that delegates can follow completely different paths and emerge with totally different impressions. Despite this overload, and despite the SSC cancellation, the general picture is one of encouraging progress over a wide range of major new projects throughout the world. At the same time, spinoff from, and applications of, accelerators and accelerator technology are becoming increasingly important. Centrestage is now CERN's LHC proton-proton collider, where a test string of superconducting magnets is operating over long periods at the nominal LHC field of 8.36 tesla or more. The assignment of the underground areas in the existing 27- kilometre LEP tunnel is now quasidefinitive (see page 3). For CERN's existing big machine, the LEP electron-positron collider, ongoing work concentrates on boosting performance using improved optics and bunch trains. But the main objective is the LEP2 scheme using superconducting accelerating cavities to boost the beam energy (see page 6). After some initial teething problems, production and operation of these cavities appears to have been mastered, at least under test conditions. A highlight at CERN last year was the first run with lead ions (December 1994, page 15). Handling these heavy particles with systems originally designed for protons calls for ingenuity. The SPS

  9. Accelerator update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    When the Accelerator Conference, combined International High Energy and US Particle versions, held in Dallas in May, was initially scheduled, progress nearby for the US Superconducting Supercollider was high on the preliminary agenda. With the SSC voted down by Congress in October 1993, this was no longer the case. However the content of the meeting, in terms of both its deep implications for ambitious new projects and the breadth of its scope, showed that the worldwide particle accelerator field is far from being moribund. A traditional feature of such accelerator conferences is the multiplicity of parallel sessions. No one person can attend all sessions, so that delegates can follow completely different paths and emerge with totally different impressions. Despite this overload, and despite the SSC cancellation, the general picture is one of encouraging progress over a wide range of major new projects throughout the world. At the same time, spinoff from, and applications of, accelerators and accelerator technology are becoming increasingly important. Centrestage is now CERN's LHC proton-proton collider, where a test string of superconducting magnets is operating over long periods at the nominal LHC field of 8.36 tesla or more. The assignment of the underground areas in the existing 27- kilometre LEP tunnel is now quasidefinitive (see page 3). For CERN's existing big machine, the LEP electron-positron collider, ongoing work concentrates on boosting performance using improved optics and bunch trains. But the main objective is the LEP2 scheme using superconducting accelerating cavities to boost the beam energy (see page 6). After some initial teething problems, production and operation of these cavities appears to have been mastered, at least under test conditions. A highlight at CERN last year was the first run with lead ions (December 1994, page 15). Handling these heavy particles with systems originally designed for protons calls for ingenuity. The SPS has managed

  10. Nutrition-induced Changes of Growth from Birth to First Calving and Its Impact on Mammary Development and First-lactation Milk Yield in Dairy Heifers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohakare, J D; Südekum, K-H; Pattanaik, A K

    2012-09-01

    This review focuses on the nutritional effects from birth until age at first calving on growth, mammary developmental changes, and first-lactation milk yield in heifer calves. The advancement in the genetic potential and the nutritional requirements of the animals has hastened the growth rate. Genetic selection for high milk yield has suggested higher growth capacity and hence increasing nutritional inputs are required. Rapid rearing by feeding high energy or high concentrate diets not only reduces the age of sexual maturity but also lowers the time period of attaining the age of first calving. However, high energy diets may cause undesirable fat deposition thereby affecting future milk yield potential. Discrepancies exist whether overfed or overweight heifers at puberty can influence the mammary development and future milk yield potential and performance. The data on post-pubertal nutritional management suggested that body weight at calving and post-pubertal growth rate is important in first lactation milk yield. There is a continuous research need for strategic feeding that accelerates growth of dairy heifers without reduction in subsequent production. Nutritional management from birth, across puberty and during pregnancy is critical for mammary growth and for producing a successful cow. This review will mostly highlight studies carried out on dairy breeds and possible available opportunities to manipulate nutritional status from birth until age at first calving.

  11. Migrastatin analogues inhibit canine mammary cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Majchrzak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer spread to other organs is the main cause of death of oncological patients. Migration of cancer cells from a primary tumour is the crucial step in the complex process of metastasis, therefore blocking this process is currently the main treatment strategy. Metastasis inhibitors derived from natural products, such as, migrastatin, are very promising anticancer agents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of six migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-1 to 6 on migration and invasion of canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines isolated from primary tumours and their metastases to the lungs. Canine mammary tumours constitute a valuable tool for studying multiple aspect of human cancer. RESULTS: OUR RESULTS SHOWED THAT TWO OF SIX FULLY SYNTHETIC ANALOGUES OF MIGRASTATIN: MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were potent inhibitors of canine mammary cancer cells migration and invasion. These data were obtained using the wound healing test, as well as trans-well migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, the treatment of cancer cells with the most effective compound (MGSTA-6 disturbed binding between filamentous F-actin and fascin1. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that treatment with MGSTA-6 increased the presence of unbound fascin1 and reduced co-localization of F-actin and fascin1 in canine cancer cells. Most likely, actin filaments were not cross-linked by fascin1 and did not generate the typical filopodial architecture of actin filaments in response to the activity of MGSTA-6. Thus, administration of MGSTA-6 results in decreased formation of filopodia protrusions and stress fibres in canine mammary cancer cells, causing inhibition of cancer migration and invasion. CONCLUSION: Two synthetic migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were shown to be promising compounds for inhibition of cancer metastasis. They may have beneficial therapeutic effects in cancer therapy in dogs, especially in combination with other anticancer drugs

  12. Cell kinetic parameters of a solid mammary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porschen, R.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Several cell kinetic parameters of the mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 were evaluated by means of tumor volume measurements and of 125 I-UdR. The in-situ measured activity loss rate is disturbed by a slow elimination of labelled necrotic cells and by reutilization of 125 I-UdR. The restrictions of the I-UdR method are mentioned and the measured activity loss rates are compared with calculated volume loss rates. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Comparison of mouse mammary gland imaging techniques and applications: Reflectance confocal microscopy, GFP Imaging, and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilli, Maddalena T; Parrish, Angela R; Cotarla, Ion; Jones, Laundette P; Johnson, Michael D; Furth, Priscilla A

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models of mammary gland cancer enable the in vivo study of molecular mechanisms and signaling during development and cancer pathophysiology. However, traditional whole mount and histological imaging modalities are only applicable to non-viable tissue. We evaluated three techniques that can be quickly applied to living tissue for imaging normal and cancerous mammary gland: reflectance confocal microscopy, green fluorescent protein imaging, and ultrasound imaging. In the current study, reflectance confocal imaging offered the highest resolution and was used to optically section mammary ductal structures in the whole mammary gland. Glands remained viable in mammary gland whole organ culture when 1% acetic acid was used as a contrast agent. Our application of using green fluorescent protein expressing transgenic mice in our study allowed for whole mammary gland ductal structures imaging and enabled straightforward serial imaging of mammary gland ducts in whole organ culture to visualize the growth and differentiation process. Ultrasound imaging showed the lowest resolution. However, ultrasound was able to detect mammary preneoplastic lesions 0.2 mm in size and was used to follow cancer growth with serial imaging in living mice. In conclusion, each technique enabled serial imaging of living mammary tissue and visualization of growth and development, quickly and with minimal tissue preparation. The use of the higher resolution reflectance confocal and green fluorescent protein imaging techniques and lower resolution ultrasound were complementary

  14. Age and radiation sensitivity of rat mammary clonogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Yasukawa-Barnes, J.; Kim, R.Y.; Gould, M.N.; Clifton, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The relative risk of breast cancer is very high among women who were exposed to ionizing radiation during or before puberty. In the current studies, the surviving fractions of clonogenic mammary cells of groups of virgin rats were estimated after single exposures to 137 Cs γ rays at intervals from 1 to 12 weeks after birth. The radiosensitivity of clonogens from prepubertal rats was high and changed with the onset of puberty at between 4 and 6 weeks of age. By this time, the increase in the size of the clonogenic cell subpopulation was slowing and differentiation of terminal mammary end buds and alveolar structures was occurring. Analysis of the relationship of clonogen survival and radiation dose according to the α/β model showed that the exponential αD term predominated at the second and fourth weeks of age. By the eighth week of age, the βD 2 term had come to predominate and the survival curve had a pronounced initial convex shoulder. Further experiments are required to determine whether there is an association between the high sensitivity of the prepubertal and pubertal mammary clonogens to radiation killing and a high susceptibility to radiogenic initiation of cancer. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Clinicopathologic evaluation of mammary Paget′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary and extramammary Paget′s diseases are rare neoplasms of epidermis and mucosal epithelium. Due to their nonspecific and variable clinical view, they have differential diagnosis with eczema, melanoma, Bowen′s disease, etc. To the best of our knowledge, no such study has been performed in Iran regarding the prevalence, clinical aspects, underlying disease and pathological characteristics of these two diseases. In this study, we have evaluated the clinical and histopathological aspects of this disorder. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, all Paget′s biopsied samples referred to the Pathology Department of Imam-Reza hospital, Mashhad, since 1984 till 2004 were evaluated. Collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods. Results: Among 98925 specimens, there were 29 cases of Paget′s disease. All cases were married women suffering from mammary Paget. The mean age was 53 ± 11 years. Left and right breast involvement was observed in 17 and 12 cases, all unilateral. The most common clinical view was ulcerated (27% and then erythematosus exudative plaques. More than 50% of patients were symptomatic. Most common symptoms were itching, pain and burning. The exclusive underlying pathological diagnosis was ductal carcinoma (55%. Discussion: In most cases, the clinical view of mammary Paget′s disease was helpful. Unilateral ulcerated plaque was the most common clinical sign. Majority of the accompanying pathology was ductal carcinoma. We had no cases of extramammary Paget′s disease in our study.

  16. Localization of mammary tumors in vivo with 131I-labeled Fab fragments of antibodies against mouse mammary epithelial (MME) antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbanks, T.; Peterson, J.A.; Miller, S.; Kaufman, L.; Ortendahl, D.; Ceriani, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Fab fragments of antibodies against cell-type-specific surface antigens of mouse mammary epithelial cells (MME-antigens) were used to localize mammary tumors successfully. The radioiodine-labeled anti-MME (Fab) was injected into mice carrying simulated mammary metastases, and after 24 hours the amount of label per gram of excised tissue was several times greater in the tumor than in liver, brain, lung, or muscle. Kidney showed considerable accumulation of label but this appeared to be nonspecific. Kinetic studies revealed a rapid elimination of labeled Fab in the urine with only 1% of the injected dose remaining in the entire blood pool after 24 hours. Wit a high-purity germanium camera, mammary tumors were clearly located ty the 131 I-labeled anti-MME (Fab), and normalization to /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate distribution in the animal increased the specificity. The density of 131 I-label was fourfold greater over the mammary tumor than over comparable areas of the mouse. No accumulation of 131 I-anti-MME (Fab) was observed in nonmammary tumors nor in mammary tumors when labeled nonspecific Fab was used. An analogous system using an antihuman mammary epithelial antiserum is being developed for localization of breast metastases in humans

  17. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    and developing the best business ideas and support the due diligence process. Even universities are noticing that the learning experience of the action learning approach is an effective way to develop capabilities and change cultures. Accelerators related to what has historically been associated...

  18. Association of cellular and molecular responses in the rat mammary gland to 17β-estradiol with susceptibility to mammary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Lina; Zhao, Yang; Warren, Christopher L; Sullivan, Ruth; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Shull, James D

    2013-01-01

    We are using ACI and BN rats, which differ markedly in their susceptibility to 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary cancer, to identify genetic variants and environmental factors that determine mammary cancer susceptibility. The objective of this study was to characterize the cellular and molecular responses to E2 in the mammary glands of ACI and BN rats to identify qualitative and quantitative phenotypes that associate with and/or may confer differences in susceptibility to mammary cancer. Female ACI and BN rats were treated with E2 for 1, 3 or 12 weeks. Mammary gland morphology and histology were examined by whole mount and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Cell proliferation and epithelial density were evaluated by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was evaluated by quantitative western blotting and flow cytometry. Mammary gland differentiation was examined by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression was evaluated by microarray, qRT-PCR and quantitative western blotting assays. Extracellular matrix (ECM) associated collagen was evaluated by Picrosirius Red staining and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. The luminal epithelium of ACI rats exhibited a rapid and sustained proliferative response to E2. By contrast, the proliferative response exhibited by the mammary epithelium of BN rats was restrained and transitory. Moreover, the epithelium of BN rats appeared to undergo differentiation in response to E2, as evidenced by production of milk proteins as well as luminal ectasia and associated changes in the ECM. Marked differences in expression of genes that encode proteins with well-defined roles in mammary gland development (Pgr, Wnt4, Tnfsf11, Prlr, Stat5a, Areg, Gata3), differentiation and milk production (Lcn2, Spp1), regulation of extracellular environment (Mmp7, Mmp9), and cell-cell or cell-ECM interactions (Cd44, Cd24, Cd52) were observed. We propose that these cellular and molecular phenotypes are heritable and may underlie, at least in

  19. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  20. Laser acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental idea of LaserWakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wake fields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ∼ c and ultra fastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nano materials is also emerging.

  1. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David M D; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F

    2007-01-01

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  2. Development of novel murine mammary imaging windows to examine wound healing effects on leukocyte trafficking in mammary tumors with intravital imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolik, Tammy; Su, Ying-Jun; Ashby, Will; Schaffer, David K; Wells, Sam; Wikswo, John P; Zijlstra, Andries; Richmond, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We developed mammary imaging windows (MIWs) to evaluate leukocyte infiltration and cancer cell dissemination in mouse mammary tumors imaged by confocal microscopy. Previous techniques relied on surgical resection of a skin flap to image the tumor microenvironment restricting imaging time to a few hours. Utilization of mammary imaging windows offers extension of intravital imaging of the tumor microenvironment. We have characterized strengths and identified some previously undescribed potential weaknesses of MIW techniques. Through iterative enhancements of a transdermal portal we defined conditions for improved quality and extended confocal imaging time for imaging key cell-cell interactions in the tumor microenvironment.

  3. Quantitative Assessment of Mammary Gland Density in Rodents Using Digital Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Henry J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodent models have been used extensively to study mammary gland development and for studies of toxicology and carcinogenesis. Mammary gland gross morphology can visualized via the excision of intact mammary gland chains following fixation and staining with carmine using a tissue preparation referred to as a whole mount. Methods are described for the automated collection of digital images from an entire mammary gland whole mount and for the interrogation of digital data using a "masking" technique available with Image-Pro® plus image analysis software (Mediacybernetics. Silver Spring, MD. Results Parallel to mammographic analysis in humans, measurements of rodent mammary gland density were derived from area-based or volume-based algorithms and included: total circumscribed mammary fat pad mass, mammary epithelial mass, and epithelium-free fat pad mass. These values permitted estimation of absolute mass of mammary epithelium as well as breast density. The biological plausibility of these measurements was evaluated in mammary whole mounts from rats and mice. During mammary gland development, absolute epithelial mass increased linearly without significant changes in mammographic density. Treatment of rodents with tamoxifen, 9-cis-retinoic acid, or ovariectomy, and occurrence of diet induced obesity decreased both absolute epithelial mass and mammographic density. The area and volumetric methods gave similar results. Conclusions Digital image analysis can be used for screening agents for potential impact on reproductive toxicity or carcinogenesis as well as for mechanistic studies, particularly for cumulative effects on mammary epithelial mass as well as translational studies of mechanisms that explain the relationship between epithelial mass and cancer risk.

  4. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Simian, Marina; Hirai, Yohei; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J.

    2001-01-01

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth fa...

  5. Tamoxifen induces regression of estradiol-induced mammary cancer in ACI.COP-Ept2 rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhlen, Rachel L.; Willbrand, Dana M.; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L.; Ma, Lixin; Shull, James D.; Sauter, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The ACI rat is a unique model of human breast cancer in that mammary cancers are induced by estrogen without carcinogens, irradiation, xenografts or transgenic manipulations. We sought to characterize mammary cancers in a congenic variant of the ACI rat, the ACI.COP-Ept2. All rats with estradiol implants developed mammary cancers in 5–7 months. Rats bearing estradiol-induced mammary cancers were treated with tamoxifen for three weeks. Tamoxifen reduced tumor mass, measured by magnetic resonan...

  6. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations

  7. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  8. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process

  9. Regulation of gene expression in human mammary epithelium: effect of breast pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the molecular regulation of human milk production because of limitations in obtaining mammary tissue from lactating women. Our objectives were to evaluate whether RNA isolated from breast milk fat globules (MFGs) could be an alternative to mammary biopsies and to determine whether...

  10. The Role of PTHrP in Mammary Gland Development and Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wysolmerski, John

    1999-01-01

    .... The PTHrP receptor is expressed throughout the sub-epidermal mesenchyme. In those mesenchymal cells closest to the mammary epithelial bud, PTHrP induces a change in cell fate allowing those cells to become functional mammary mesenchymal cells...

  11. Development of mammary glands of fat sheep submitted to restricted feeding during late pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2008-01-01

    Mammary gland development in sheep occurs mainly during puberty and pregnancy. We have investigated the effects of a late gestation feed restriction on mammary gland development in sheep. Five control ewes were slaughtered d -38 from parturition, whereas 10 ewes were fed ad libitum and another 10...

  12. Over-expression of ST3Gal-I promotes mammary tumorigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picco, Gianfranco; Julien, Sylvain; Brockhausen, Inka

    2010-01-01

    and lactating mammary glands, the stomach, lungs and intestine. Although no obvious defects were observed in the fully developed mammary gland, when these mice were crossed with PyMT mice, a highly significant decrease in tumor latency was observed compared to the PyMT mice on an identical background...

  13. Mammary alveolar epithelial cells convert to brown adipocytes in post-lactating mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Antonio; Perugini, Jessica; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2017-01-01

    During pregnancy and lactation, subcutaneous white adipocytes in the mouse mammary gland transdifferentiate reversibly to milk-secreting epithelial cells. In this study, we demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that in the post-lactating mammary gland interscapular multilocular adipocyt...... organ plasticity...

  14. Pregnancy-dependent initiation in tumorigenesis of Wistar rat mammary glands by 60Co-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inano, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Keiko; Ishii-Ohba, Hiroko; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Wakabayashi, Katsumi

    1991-01-01

    Pregnant Wistar rats received whole body irradiation with 260 cGy γ-rays at days 7, 14 and 20 of pregnancy and then were treated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) for 1 year. The highest incidence (92.9%) for tumorigenesis of mammary glands was observed in the rats irradiated in late pregnancy. Histological examination showed that tumors were classified as fibroadenoma and adenocarcinoma. To determine the reasons for specific induction of mammary tumors by irradiation in late pregnancy, hormone concentrations in serum and estrogen receptors in mammary glands during pregnancy were measured. Concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone and placental lactogen at day 20 were higher than at days 7 and/or 14, but no difference was observed in the concentrations of prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone during pregnancy. The estrogen receptor in mammary glands at day 20 was indicated to have the highest affinity and the highest binding capacity during pregnancy. Normal mammary glands at day 20 were suggested to have more abundant epithelial cells in the mammary lobes than those at days 7 and 14. The data suggest that the critical requirements for the initiation of tumorigenesis by γ-rays are dependent upon the differentiated state of mammary glands exposed to various hormones, and that the concentration and persistence of the synthetic estrogen (DES) are necessary for the promotion of tumorigenesis of the irradiated mammary glands. (Author)

  15. The Role of DN-GSK3beta in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    factors and dramatically increases their transcriptional activity. Genes up- regulated by TCF/LEF include embryologic genes, such as siamois and engrailed...and increased apoptosis occurs in the mammary epithelia (33). Overexpression of the regulator CK2a also promotes mammary tumorigenesis (34). In this

  16. Id-1 is not expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Norihisa; Chou, Yu-Chien; Galvez, Jose J; Candia, Paola de; Cardiff, Robert D; Benezra, Robert; Shyamala, Gopalan

    2003-01-01

    The family of inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding (Id) proteins is known to regulate development in several tissues. One member of this gene family, Id-1, has been implicated in mammary development and carcinogenesis. Mammary glands contain various cell types, among which the luminal epithelial cells are primarily targeted for proliferation, differentiation and carcinogenesis. Therefore, to assess the precise significance of Id-1 in mammary biology and carcinogenesis, we examined its cellular localization in vivo using immunohistochemistry. Extracts of whole mammary glands from wild type and Id-1 null mutant mice, and tissue sections from paraffin-embedded mouse mammary glands from various developmental stages and normal human breast were subjected to immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses, respectively. In both these procedures, an anti-Id-1 rabbit polyclonal antibody was used for detection of Id-1. In immunoblot analyses, using whole mammary gland extracts, Id-1 was detected. In immunohistochemical analyses, however, Id-1 was not detected in the luminal epithelial cells of mammary glands during any stage of development, but it was detected in vascular endothelial cells. Id-1 is not expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of mammary glands

  17. Mammary stem cells: Novel markers and novel approaches to increase lactation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue r...

  18. Ring accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

    1983-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package

  19. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  20. Internal mammary chain irradiation in breast cancer: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auberdiac, P.; Cartier, L.; Hau Desbat, N.H.; De Laroche, G.; Magne, N.; Chargari, C.; Zioueche, A.; Melis, A.; Kirova, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy has a major role in the management of infiltrative breast cancers. However, there is no consensus for the prophylactic treatment of the internal mammary chain (IMC), with strategies that show strong differences according to centers and physicians. Indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy are debated, since this treatment significantly increases the dose delivered to the heart and leads to potential technical difficulties. Important prospective data recently suggested that internal mammary chain radiotherapy would not be necessary, even in cases of internal or central tumor locations, or in patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Although these data warrant confirmation by two other prospective trials, there is evidence that the indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy should be careful and that high quality techniques should be used for decreasing the dose delivered to the heart. This review of literature presents the state of art on the radiotherapy of internal mammary chain, with special focus on the indications, techniques, and potential toxicity. (authors)

  1. Relationship between histology, development and tumorigenesis of mammary gland in female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    LÍŠKA, Ján; BRTKO, Július; DUBOVICKÝ, Michal; MACEJOVÁ, Dana; KISSOVÁ, Viktória; POLÁK, Štefan; UJHÁZY, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes structural and functional changes associated with growth, reproduction, and post-menopausal regression. The postnatal transformations of the epithelium and stromal cells of the mammary gland may contribute to its susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The increased cancer incidence in mammary glands of humans and similarly of rodents in association with their development is believed to be partly explained by proliferative activity together with lesser degree of differentiation, but it is not completely understood how the virgin gland retains its higher susceptibility to carcinogenesis. During its developmental cycle, the mammary gland displays many of the properties associated with breast cancer. An early first full-term pregnancy may have a protective effect. Rodent models are useful for investigating potential breast carcinogens. The purpose of this review is to help recognizing histological appearance of the epithelium and the stroma of the normal mammary gland in rats, and throughout its development in relation to tumorigenic potential. PMID:26424555

  2. Cosmic ray acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1982-09-01

    We present a brief summary of some of the most popular theories of cosmic ray acceleration: Fermi acceleration, its application to acceleration by shocks in a scattering medium, and impulsive acceleration by relativistic shocks

  3. Tumor-associated macrophages: Oblivious confederates in invasive mammary carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The infiltrating margins of carcinomas are associated with presence of inflammatory cell infiltrate which are an integral part of the tumor microenvironment. Amongst the inflammatory cells, Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs play a key role in the tumorigenesis. This study elucidates the density of TAMs in invasive mammary carcinomas and attempts to establish aa association with the following pathological variables: tumor size, histological grade, nodal status, hormonal expression status and Her2Neu overexpression. Materials and Methods: 90 diagnosed archival cases of invasive mammary carcinomas at a tertiary care centre were included. Density of TAMs was assessed by using CD68 which is a pan-macrophage marker by immunohistochemistry on the archival tissue blocks. The density TAMs (CD68 positive cells was dichotomised into high (>50 CD68 positive cells/ HPF and low (<5050 CD68 positive cells/ HPF and compared with the above mentioned pathological variables using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The density of TAMs was significantly higher around the infiltrating edge of the carcinoma in comparison to the adjoining normal terminal duct lobular units. The density of TAMs was more in the infiltrating edge of the tumor than within the tumor nodule/nests. A higher TAM density showed a significant association in tumors having large tumor size, higher histological grade, nodal metastasis, absence of ER and PR expression and Her2Neu overexpression (p value <0.05. Conclusion: TAMs play an important role in tumor progression in invasive mammary carcinomas. This is as a result of the multiple roles enacted by TAMs in the various stages of tumor development starting from tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastases. Targeted therapy against TAMs has great potential in the being important components of future treatment strategies against breast carcinomas.

  4. Interlobular and intralobular mammary stroma: Genotype may not reflect phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltzer PS

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The normal growth and function of mammary epithelial cells depend on interactions with the supportive stroma. Alterations in this communication can lead to the progression or expansion of malignant growth. The human mammary gland contains two distinctive types of fibroblasts within the stroma. The epithelial cells are surrounded by loosely connected intralobular fibroblasts, which are subsequently surrounded by the more compacted interlobular fibroblasts. The different proximity of these fibroblasts to the epithelial cells suggests distinctive functions for these two subtypes. In this report, we compared the gene expression profiles between the two stromal subtypes. Methods Fresh normal breast tissue was collected from reduction mammoplasty patients and immediately placed into embedding medium and frozen on dry ice. Tissue sections were subjected to laser capture microscopy to isolate the interlobular from the intralobular fibroblasts. RNA was prepared and subjected to microarray analysis using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 GeneChip®. Data was analyzed using the Affy and Limma packages available from Bioconductor. Findings from the microarray analysis were validated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results No statistically significant difference was detected between the gene expression profiles of the interlobular and intralobular fibroblasts by microarray analysis and RT-PCR. However, for some of the genes tested, the protein expression patterns between the two subtypes of fibroblasts were significantly different. Conclusion This study is the first to report the gene expression profiles of the two distinct fibroblast populations within the human mammary gland. While there was no significant difference in the gene expression profiles between the groups, there was an obvious difference in the expression pattern of several proteins tested. This report also highlights the importance of studying gene regulation at both the

  5. Can the sentinel lymph node technique affect decisions to offer internal mammary chain irradiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourre, Jean-Cyril; Payan, Raoul; Collomb, Delphine; Gallazzini-Crepin, Celine; Calizzano, Alex; Desruet, Marie-Dominique; Pasquier, Dominique; Bolla, Michel; Fagret, Daniel; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) for small mammary tumours (cT1N0) sometimes leads to detection of internal mammary chain (IMC) drainage. This information is often ignored by physicians. The present study sought to determine the frequency with which an internal mammary SLN was identified by peritumoral injection of radioactive tracer, and then to determine the patients in whom identification of an internal mammary SLN could have an impact on the radiation treatment plan. Between March 2002 and March 2008, 622 SLN biopsies performed in a cohort of 608 patients were analysed. Technetium-labelled nanocolloids were administered via three peritumoral injections, completed by a deep prepectoral injection, with the entire procedure performed under echographic guidance. The SLN was identified in 607 of the 622 patients, including 174 (28.7%) in the IMC. A total of 161 successful internal mammary biopsies were performed. Of the 622 patients, 18 showed SLN involvement in the IMC. In 7 of these patients, only the internal mammary SLN was affected. Prophylactic irradiation of the IMC was indicated in 376 patients, but only in 18 (4.8%) of these patients was there effectively IMC involvement; internal mammary SLN biopsy failed in 7 patients (1.9%). SLN detection by peritumoral injection, combined with the systematic removal of the internal mammary SLN, enabled the involvement of this region to be found in a nonnegligible number of patients. Such information should make it possible to personalize treatment for patients with stage cT1 mammary cancer and thereby avoid needless internal mammary radiation therapy in a large number of patients (93.4% in our study). (orig.)

  6. Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Apiaceae Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Aqil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence suggests that many herbs and spices have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. In this study, we examined the chemopreventive effects of the Apiaceae spices, anise, caraway, and celery seeds against 17β-estrogen (E2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in an ACI (August-Copenhagen Irish rat model. Female ACI rats were given either control diet (AIN 93M or diet supplemented with 7.5% (w/w of anise, caraway, or celery seed powder. Two weeks later, one half of the animals in each group received subcutaneous silastic implants of E2. Diet intake and body weight were recorded weekly, and animals were euthanized after 3 and 12 weeks. E2-treatment showed significantly (2.1- and 3.4-fold enhanced growth of pituitary gland at 3 and 12 weeks, respectively. All test spices significantly offset the pituitary growth by 12 weeks, except celery which was effective as early as three weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in mammary tissues showed significant reduction in E2-mediated mammary cell proliferation. Test spices reduced the circulating levels of both E2 and prolactin at three weeks. This protection was more pronounced at 12 weeks, with celery eliciting the highest effect. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the potential molecular targets of the spices. Anise and caraway diets significantly offset estrogen-mediated overexpression of both cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor α (ERα. The effect of anise was modest. Likewise, expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 was inhibited by all test spices. Based on short-term molecular markers, caraway was selected over other spices based on its enhanced effect on estrogen-associated pathway. Therefore, a tumor-end point study in ACI rats was conducted with dietary caraway. Tumor palpation from 12 weeks onwards revealed tumor latency of 29 days in caraway-treated animals compared with first tumor appearance at 92

  7. Internal mammary artery aneurysm in Marfan syndrome: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Common, A A; Pressacco, J; Wilson, J K [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Mecial Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-02-01

    Marfan syndrome has a pleomorphic phenotype. Those affected have abnormalities in the eyes and in the nervous, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Among these abnormalities are many reported aneurysms, involving the ascending, descending thoracic and abdominal aorta, the sinus of Valsalva, and the internal carotid artery. We report a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) aneurysm in a patient with Marfan syndrome and no other known predisposition to such an aneurysm. No other case of LIMA aneurysm in Marfan syndrome has, to our knowledge, been reported. (author)

  8. Internal mammary artery aneurysm in Marfan syndrome: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common, A.A.; Pressacco, J.; Wilson, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Marfan syndrome has a pleomorphic phenotype. Those affected have abnormalities in the eyes and in the nervous, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Among these abnormalities are many reported aneurysms, involving the ascending, descending thoracic and abdominal aorta, the sinus of Valsalva, and the internal carotid artery. We report a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) aneurysm in a patient with Marfan syndrome and no other known predisposition to such an aneurysm. No other case of LIMA aneurysm in Marfan syndrome has, to our knowledge, been reported. (author)

  9. Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Apiaceae Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqil, Farrukh; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Munagala, Radha; Ravoori, Srivani; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Schultz, David J; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2017-02-16

    Scientific evidence suggests that many herbs and spices have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. In this study, we examined the chemopreventive effects of the Apiaceae spices, anise, caraway, and celery seeds against 17β-estrogen (E2)-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in an ACI (August-Copenhagen Irish) rat model. Female ACI rats were given either control diet (AIN 93M) or diet supplemented with 7.5% ( w / w ) of anise, caraway, or celery seed powder. Two weeks later, one half of the animals in each group received subcutaneous silastic implants of E2. Diet intake and body weight were recorded weekly, and animals were euthanized after 3 and 12 weeks. E2-treatment showed significantly (2.1- and 3.4-fold) enhanced growth of pituitary gland at 3 and 12 weeks, respectively. All test spices significantly offset the pituitary growth by 12 weeks, except celery which was effective as early as three weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in mammary tissues showed significant reduction in E2-mediated mammary cell proliferation. Test spices reduced the circulating levels of both E2 and prolactin at three weeks. This protection was more pronounced at 12 weeks, with celery eliciting the highest effect. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the potential molecular targets of the spices. Anise and caraway diets significantly offset estrogen-mediated overexpression of both cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The effect of anise was modest. Likewise, expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 was inhibited by all test spices. Based on short-term molecular markers, caraway was selected over other spices based on its enhanced effect on estrogen-associated pathway. Therefore, a tumor-end point study in ACI rats was conducted with dietary caraway. Tumor palpation from 12 weeks onwards revealed tumor latency of 29 days in caraway-treated animals compared with first tumor appearance at 92 days in

  10. Brachial edema after treatment of mammary carcinoma. Significance of phlebography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsch, H; Soerensen, R [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Physikalische Therapie

    1977-01-01

    The frequency of thromboses or of obstacles to the venous flow in brachial or axillary regions has been examined by a phlebographic survey of 102 patients who were treated surgically and radiotherapeutically because of cancers of the breast. Thromboses or venous obstruction were found in the 86 patients with brachial edema. Ten of the patients with brachial edema had thromboses. Further 15 suffered from an obstruction to the venous flow. The results are discussed in detail, and compared with the rather contradictory data in literature. As a consequence of this study an indication for brachial phlebography would be justified on a larger scale with patients having been treated surgically because of mammary carcinoma.

  11. Mammary cancer in man: analysis of 22 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola Alles, A.; Notejane, R.; Signorelli, S.; Muse, I.

    1997-01-01

    22 cases of male patients,averaging 63 years of age(ranging 50-80)were diagnosed as mammary cancer carriers. None of them presented a clear risk factor. Three of them had family history of mammary cancer in females. The clinical presentation was 27.2% E I, 27,2% E II, 30% E III and 13% E IV. In most cases consulting was late, with an average delay of 10 months.Pathology corresponded an infiltrating ductal form in 19 cases, non-infiltrating ductal form in 2 cases and ductal in situ non infiltrating form in 1 case. Dosification of hormonal receptor was not carried out in any of these patients. Regional treatment consisted in surgery plus radiotherapy. Modified radical mastectomy predominated in 12 cases,mastectomy in 6 cases and cuadrantectomy in 2 cases. Two cases were considered non surgical. Techniques and dadiatin doses were conventional. Systemic treatments consisted in tamoxifen o or poli chemotherapy CMF type in 'adyuvancia' cases and tamoxifen o of poli chemotherapy FAC type in the metastatic forms. It was concluded that there is a need of hysthological confirmation of this type of tumor as well as the compulsory dosification of hormonal receptors in order to determine the therapeutic strategy [es

  12. Etoricoxib in the Prevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orendáš

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Several experimental studies suggest that non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs have chemopreventive effects in mammary carcinogenesis. In this study, tumour suppressive effects of a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 etoricoxib in the prevention of N-methyl-Nnitrosourea (NMU-induced mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated. Etoricoxib was administered in the diet, at two concentrations: 1 0.01 mg/g (ETO 0.001% and 2 0.025 mg/g (ETO 0.0025%. Although the chemopreventive effects were not statistically significant, remarkable tumour suppressive effects with the concentration of ETO 0.0025% were recorded. The incidence decreased by 4.31% and tumour frequency per group decreased by 6.67% when compared to the control group. Latency (the period from carcinogen administration to the first tumour appearance increased by 7.28% in dose-dependent manner. The results of our experiments point to dose-dependent tumour suppressive effects of a higher concentration of etoricoxib (ETO 0.0025% when compared to the control group. They suggest that higher etoricoxib concentrations may enhance its tumour suppressive effects.

  13. Aberrant E-cadherin staining patterns in invasive mammary carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brogi Edi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background E-cadherin, a cell surface protein involved in cell adhesion, is present in normal breast epithelium, benign breast lesions, and in breast carcinoma. Alterations in the gene CDH1 on chromosome 16q22 are associated with changes in E-cadherin protein expression and function. Inactivation of E-cadherin in lobular carcinomas and certain diffuse gastric carcinomas may play a role in the dispersed, discohesive "single cell" growth patterns seen in these tumors. The molecular "signature" of mammary lobular carcinomas is the loss of E-cadherin protein expression as evidenced by immunohistochemistry, whereas ductal carcinomas are typically E-cadherin positive. Patients and methods We report on E-cadherin immunostaining patterns in five cases of invasive mammary carcinoma Results These were five exceptional instances in which the E-cadherin immunophenotype did not correspond to the apparent histologic classification of the lesion. These cases which are exceedingly rare in our experience are the subject of this report. Conclusion Findings such as those illustrated in this study occur in virtually all biologic phenomena and they do not invalidate the very high degree of correlation between the expression of E-cadherin and the classification of breast carcinomas as ductal or lobular type on the basis of conventional histologic criteria.

  14. PHYLLOID TUMORS OF MAMMARY GLANDS. CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM

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    A. D. Zikiryakhodzhaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylloid (leaf-shaped breast tumors are a rare disease and constitute 0.3–0.5% of all breast tumors. Due to the rare frequency of occurrence, as well as the small number of randomized studies that have been conducted on this pathology, there is currently no standardized approach to the diagnosis and treatment of phylloid tumors. The reports about these rare cases appearing in the literature are, as a rule, descriptive, which only emphasizes the difficulty of differential diagnosis, the development of the correct tactics for treating such patients. In connection with the rarity, it is very difficult to diagnose correctly this pathology, which requires a highly qualified doctor as a diagnostician in the initial contact with such a patient, and a pathologist doctor who establishes the final morphological diagnosis. Often, leaf-shaped tumors are mistaken for mammary fibroadenomas. Such difficulties in correct diagnosis in the preoperative period can lead to errors in the planning of treatment. Also, the recommendations for the treatment of patients with this diagnosis are not fully understood, since up to now there are no accepted treatment standards in both Russian and foreign recommendations. Due to the fact that this pathology of mammary glands is rare, the principles of treatment are based on small retrospective studies and clinical observations. In this review, we will discuss the results of major retrospective studies, including data on epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic approach, strategies and results of treatment of this complex group of breast pathologies.

  15. Targeted overexpression of EZH2 in the mammary gland disrupts ductal morphogenesis and causes epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gonzalez, Maria E; Toy, Katherine; Filzen, Tracey; Merajver, Sofia D; Kleer, Celina G

    2009-09-01

    The Polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), which has roles during development of numerous tissues, is a critical regulator of cell type identity. Overexpression of EZH2 has been detected in invasive breast carcinoma tissue samples and is observed in human breast tissue samples of morphologically normal lobules up to 12 years before the development of breast cancer. The function of EZH2 during preneoplastic progression in the mammary gland is unknown. To investigate the role of EZH2 in the mammary gland, we targeted the expression of EZH2 to mammary epithelial cells using the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat. EZH2 overexpression resulted in aberrant terminal end bud architecture. By the age of 4 months, 100% of female mouse mammary tumor virus-EZH2 virgin mice developed intraductal epithelial hyperplasia resembling the human counterpart accompanied by premature differentiation of ductal epithelial cells and up-regulation of the luminal marker GATA-3. In addition, remodeling of the mammary gland after parturition was impaired and EZH2 overexpression caused delayed involution. Mechanistically, we found that EZH2 physically interacts with beta-catenin, inducing beta-catenin nuclear accumulation in mammary epithelial cells and activating Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. The biological significance of these data to human hyperplasias is demonstrated by EZH2 up-regulation and colocalization with beta-catenin in human intraductal epithelial hyperplasia, the earliest histologically identifiable precursor of breast carcinoma.

  16. Gastrointestinal parasite control during prepuberty improves mammary parenchyma development in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Adrián F; Mejía, Miguel E; Licoff, Nicolás; Diab, Santiago S; Formía, Néstor; Ornstein, Ana; Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M

    2013-12-06

    Parasitism during development impairs normal growth and delays the onset of puberty through altered hormone profiles, including insulin-like growth factor one (IGF-1). As mammary gland development during prepuberty is strongly dependent on IGF-1, we determined if antiparasitic treatment during this stage of growth improved mammary gland development. One group of Holstein heifers was treated monthly, rotationally with antiparasitic drugs from birth to 70 weeks of age, a second group was untreated. Treated heifer calves had between 56% and 65% less EPG counts than untreated ones. Presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus was demonstrated. Treatment effectively advanced the onset of puberty and increased IGF-1 levels. At 20, 30, 40 and 70 weeks of age biopsies from the mammary gland were taken and histological sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Pictures were analyzed to compare parenchyma area in relation to total mammary tissue between groups. Mammary samples from treated heifers had higher ratios of parenchyma/total area than untreated ones. As mammary development during prepuberty is crucial for mammary performance during lactation, these results add new evidence to the importance of gastrointestinal parasite control in heifers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention of mammary carcinogenesis by short-term estrogen and progestin treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkumar, Lakshmanaswamy; Guzman, Raphael C; Yang, Jason; Thordarson, Gudmundur; Talamantes, Frank; Nandi, Satyabrata

    2004-01-01

    Women who have undergone a full-term pregnancy before the age of 20 have one-half the risk of developing breast cancer compared with women who have never gone through a full-term pregnancy. This protective effect is observed universally among women of all ethnic groups. Parity in rats and mice also protects them against chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis. Seven-week-old virgin Lewis rats were given N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Two weeks later the rats were treated with natural or synthetic estrogens and progestins for 7–21 days by subcutaneous implantation of silastic capsules. In our current experiment, we demonstrate that short-term sustained exposure to natural or synthetic estrogens along with progestins is effective in preventing mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Treatment with 30 mg estriol plus 30 mg progesterone for 3 weeks significantly reduced the incidence of mammary cancer. Short-term exposure to ethynyl estradiol plus megesterol acetate or norethindrone was effective in decreasing the incidence of mammary cancers. Tamoxifen plus progesterone treatment for 3 weeks was able to confer only a transient protection from mammary carcinogenesis, while 2-methoxy estradiol plus progesterone was effective in conferring protection against mammary cancers. The data obtained in the present study demonstrate that, in nulliparous rats, long-term protection against mammary carcinogenesis can be achieved by short-term treatments with natural or synthetic estrogen and progesterone combinations

  18. DNMT1 is essential for mammary and cancer stem cell maintenance and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Rajneesh; Ramachandran, Sabarish; Elangovan, Selvakumar; Padia, Ravi; Yang, Pengyi; Cinghu, Senthilkumar; Veeranan-Karmegam, Rajalakshmi; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Gnana-Prakasam, Jaya P; Sadanand, Fulzele; Pei, Lirong; Chang, Chang-Sheng; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Shi, Huidong; Manicassamy, Santhakumar; Prasad, Puttur D; Sharma, Suash; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Jothi, Raja; Thangaraju, Muthusamy

    2015-04-24

    Mammary stem/progenitor cells (MaSCs) maintain self-renewal of the mammary epithelium during puberty and pregnancy. DNA methylation provides a potential epigenetic mechanism for maintaining cellular memory during self-renewal. Although DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are dispensable for embryonic stem cell maintenance, their role in maintaining MaSCs and cancer stem cells (CSCs) in constantly replenishing mammary epithelium is unclear. Here we show that DNMT1 is indispensable for MaSC maintenance. Furthermore, we find that DNMT1 expression is elevated in mammary tumours, and mammary gland-specific DNMT1 deletion protects mice from mammary tumorigenesis by limiting the CSC pool. Through genome-scale methylation studies, we identify ISL1 as a direct DNMT1 target, hypermethylated and downregulated in mammary tumours and CSCs. DNMT inhibition or ISL1 expression in breast cancer cells limits CSC population. Altogether, our studies uncover an essential role for DNMT1 in MaSC and CSC maintenance and identify DNMT1-ISL1 axis as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment.

  19. ATM is required for SOD2 expression and homeostasis within the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Lisa M; Kepple, Jessica D; Ai, Lingbao; Kim, Wan-Ju; Stanton, Virginia L; Reinhard, Mary K; Backman, Lindsey R F; Streitfeld, W Scott; Babu, Nivetha Ramesh; Treiber, Nicolai; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; McKinnon, Peter J; Brown, Kevin D

    2017-12-01

    ATM activates the NF-κB transcriptional complex in response to genotoxic and oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to examine if the NF-κB target gene and critical antioxidant SOD2 (MnSOD) in cultured mammary epithelium is also ATM-dependent, and what phenotypes arise from deletion of ATM and SOD2 within the mammary gland. SOD2 expression was studied in human mammary epithelial cells and MCF10A using RNAi to knockdown ATM or the NF-κB subunit RelA. To study ATM and SOD2 function in mammary glands, mouse lines containing Atm or Sod2 genes containing LoxP sites were mated with mice harboring Cre recombinase under the control of the whey acidic protein promoter. Quantitative PCR was used to measure gene expression, and mammary gland structure was studied using histology. SOD2 expression is ATM- and RelA-dependent, ATM knockdown renders cells sensitive to pro-oxidant exposure, and SOD mimetics partially rescue this sensitivity. Mice with germline deletion of Atm fail to develop mature mammary glands, but using a conditional knockout approach, we determined that Atm deletion significantly diminished the expression of Sod2. We also observed that these mice (termed Atm Δ/Δ ) displayed a progressive lactation defect as judged by reduced pup growth rate, aberrant lobulo-alveolar structure, diminished milk protein gene expression, and increased apoptosis within lactating glands. This phenotype appears to be linked to dysregulated Sod2 expression as mammary gland-specific deletion of Sod2 phenocopies defects observed in Atm Δ/Δ dams. We conclude that ATM is required to promote expression of SOD2 within the mammary epithelium, and that both ATM and SOD2 play a crucial role in mammary gland homeostasis.

  20. From genes to milk: genomic organization and epigenetic regulation of the mammary transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Danielle G; Pollard, Katherine S; Martin, William F; Freeman Zadrowski, Courtneay; Hernandez, Joseph; Korf, Ian; German, J Bruce; Rijnkels, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Even in genomes lacking operons, a gene's position in the genome influences its potential for expression. The mechanisms by which adjacent genes are co-expressed are still not completely understood. Using lactation and the mammary gland as a model system, we explore the hypothesis that chromatin state contributes to the co-regulation of gene neighborhoods. The mammary gland represents a unique evolutionary model, due to its recent appearance, in the context of vertebrate genomes. An understanding of how the mammary gland is regulated to produce milk is also of biomedical and agricultural importance for human lactation and dairying. Here, we integrate epigenomic and transcriptomic data to develop a comprehensive regulatory model. Neighborhoods of mammary-expressed genes were determined using expression data derived from pregnant and lactating mice and a neighborhood scoring tool, G-NEST. Regions of open and closed chromatin were identified by ChIP-Seq of histone modifications H3K36me3, H3K4me2, and H3K27me3 in the mouse mammary gland and liver tissue during lactation. We found that neighborhoods of genes in regions of uniquely active chromatin in the lactating mammary gland, compared with liver tissue, were extremely rare. Rather, genes in most neighborhoods were suppressed during lactation as reflected in their expression levels and their location in regions of silenced chromatin. Chromatin silencing was largely shared between the liver and mammary gland during lactation, and what distinguished the mammary gland was mainly a small tissue-specific repertoire of isolated, expressed genes. These findings suggest that an advantage of the neighborhood organization is in the collective repression of groups of genes via a shared mechanism of chromatin repression. Genes essential to the mammary gland's uniqueness are isolated from neighbors, and likely have less tolerance for variation in expression, properties they share with genes responsible for an organism's survival.

  1. Physical Confirmation and Comparative Genomics of the Rat Mammary carcinoma susceptibility 3 Quantitative Trait Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saasha Le

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human breast and rat mammary cancer susceptibility are complex phenotypes where complete sets of risk associated loci remain to be identified for both species. We tested multiple congenic rat strains to physically confirm and positionally map rat Mammary carcinoma susceptibility 3 (Mcs3—a mammary cancer resistance allele previously predicted at Rattus norvegicus chromosome 1 (RNO1. The mammary cancer susceptible Wistar Furth (WF strain was the recipient, and the mammary cancer resistant Copenhagen (Cop strain was the RNO1-segment donor for congenics. Inbred WF females averaged 6.3 carcinogen-induced mammary carcinomas per rat. Two WF.Cop congenic strains averaged 2.8 and 3.4 mammary carcinomas per rat, which confirmed Mcs3 as an independently acting allele. Two other WF.Cop congenic strains averaged 6.6 and 8.1 mammary carcinomas per rat, and, thus, did not contain Mcs3. Rat Mcs3 was delimited to 27.8 Mb of RNO1 from rs8149408 to rs105131702 (RNO1:143700228-171517317 of RGSC 6.0/rn6. Human genetic variants with p values for association to breast cancer risk below 10−7 had not been reported for Mcs3 orthologous loci; however, human variants located in Mcs3-orthologous regions with potential association to risk (10−7 < p < 10−3 were listed in some population-based studies. Further, rat Mcs3 contains sequence orthologous to human 11q13/14—a region frequently amplified in female breast cancer. We conclude that Mcs3 is an independently acting mammary carcinoma resistance allele. Human population-based, genome-targeted association studies interrogating Mcs3 orthologous loci may yield novel breast cancer risk associated variants and genes.

  2. Mifepristone inhibits MPA-and FGF2-induced mammary tumor growth but not FGF2-induced mammary hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Cerliani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a crosstalk between fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 and progestins inducing experimental breast cancer growth. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of FGF2 and of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA on the mouse mammary glands and to investigate whether the antiprogestin RU486 was able to reverse the MPA- or FGF2-induced effects on both, mammary gland and tumor growth. We demonstrate that FGF2 administered locally induced an intraductal hyperplasia that was not reverted by RU486, suggesting that FGF2-induced effects are progesterone receptor (PR-independent. However, MPA-induced paraductal hyperplasia was reverted by RU486 and a partial agonistic effect was observed in RU486-treated glands. Using C4-HD tumors which only grow in the presence of MPA, we showed that FGF2 administered intratumorally was able to stimulate tumor growth as MPA. The histology of FGF2-treated tumors showed different degrees of gland differentiation. RU486 inhibited both, MPA or FGF2 induced tumor growth. However, only complete regression was observed in MPA-treated tumors. Our results support the hypothesis that stromal FGF2 activates PR inducing hormone independent tumor growth.

  3. 78. Coronary bypass using bilateral internal mammary arteries in an achondroplast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdulwahab Alassal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Coronary bypass grafting for ischemic heart disease in achondroplastic dwarfs is very rare. Shortage of veins and sometimes, inadequate vein quality can cause difficulties during surgery. Only two achondroplastic cases were reported in literature that underwent coronary bypass surgery, in which the left internal mammary artery and vein grafts were used. To the best of our knowledge using bilateral internal mammary arteries in such patients was not reported. We report here a 55 years old male achondroplastic dwarf who had triple vessels coronary disease that underwent successful coronary bypass surgery using bilateral mammary arteries. Anatomic and surgical challenges in achondroplasia are highlighted

  4. ELEVATED TRANS-MAMMARY TRANSMISSION OF Toxocara canis LARVAE IN BALB/c MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Lima Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts.

  5. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on mammary gland development in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup; Boberg, Julie; Isling, Louise Krag

    2016-01-01

    was to perform a study robust enough to contribute to the risk assessment of BPA and to elucidate possible biphasic dose–response relationships. We investigated mammary gland effects in the offspring at 22, 100, and 400 days of age. Male offspring showed increased mammary outgrowth on pup day (PD) 22 at 0.025 mg...... intraductal hyperplasia in female rats could be associated with an increased risk for developing hyperplastic lesions, which are parallels to early signs of breast neoplasia in women. Collectively, current knowledge on effects of BPA on mammary gland at low doses indicates that highly exposed humans may...

  6. Molecular mechanisms involved in casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.Y.H.P.; Lee, W.H.; Parry, G.; Bissell, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMEC) secrete a group of milk-specific proteins including various caseins and whey proteins. Dissociated mammary epithelial cells maintain expression of most of their differentiated functions only if cells are plated on a suitable substratum. Casein production and section, cell morphology, and production of α-lactalbumin have been used as markers to assess the degree of differentiation of mammary cells in culture. The general consensus is that cells express their differentiated properties at high levels and for longer periods of time on such substrata. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that modulation of the expression of caseins by floating collagen gels is manifested at several regulatory points

  7. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat mammary glands following combinational exposure to bisphenol A and genistein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Jenkins, Sarah; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2014-01-01

    Humans are exposed to an array of both harmful and beneficial hormonally active compounds in the environment and through diet. Two such chemicals are Bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer, and genistein, a component of soy. Prepubertal exposure to BPA increased mammary carcinogenesis, while genistein suppressed cancer in a chemically-induced model of rodent mammary cancer. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of combinational exposure to genistein and BPA on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and associated proteins as markers of cancer in mammary glands of rats exposed prepubertally to these environmental chemicals. Prepubertal rats (postpartum days (PND) 2–20) were exposed through lactation via nursing dams treated orally with sesame oil (SO), BPA, genistein, or a combination of BPA and genistein (BPA + Gen). Cell proliferation, apoptosis and protein expressions were investigated for mechanistic studies in mammary glands of rats exposed to these environmental chemicals. Prepubertal exposure to genistein increased cell proliferation in mammary glands of PND21 rats, while BPA increased cell proliferation in adult (PND50) rats. Prepubertal combinational exposure to BPA + Gen increased cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis in PND21 rats, but reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in PND50 rats. The altered mechanisms behind these cellular responses appear to be centered on differential protein expression of caspases, PARP, Bad, p21, Akts, PTEN, ER-β and SRCs 1–3, in the rat mammary gland. Prepubertal BPA exposure resulted in increased cell proliferation in mammary glands of PND50 rats, a process associated with increased risk of cancer development in a chemically-induced mammary cancer. On the other hand, genistein stimulated cell proliferation at PND21, a process that correlates with mammary gland maturation and chemoprevention. In contrast to single chemical exposure, combinational exposure to BPA + Gen performed most similarly to

  8. Sector ring accelerator ''RESATRON''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, E.

    1980-01-01

    Project of sector ring accelerator RESATRON is described. The curiosity of this accelerator is the second cycle of acceleration of the beam after stripping it on the foil. In such an accelerator heavy ions with a different ratio Z to A can be accelerated. (S.B.)

  9. Multiperiodic accelerator structures for linear particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, D.T.

    1975-01-01

    High efficiency linear accelerator structures, comprised of a succession of cylindrical resonant cavities for acceleration, are described. Coupling annular cavities are located at the periphery, each being coupled to two adjacent cylindrical cavities. (auth)

  10. Accelerators of atomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarancev, V.

    1975-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of accelerators and methods of accelerating elementary particles. The principle of collective accelerating of elementary particles is clarified and the problems are discussed of its realization. (B.S.)

  11. Msx-1 and Msx-2 in mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kennichi; Ginsburg, Erika; Vonderhaar, Barbara K

    2004-04-01

    Homeobox genes do not generally function alone to determine cell fate and morphogenesis. Rather it is the distinct combination of various members of the homeobox family of genes and their spatiotemporal patterns of expression that determine cell identity and function. Functional redundancy often makes it difficult to clearly discern the role of any one given homeobox gene. The roles that Msx1 and Msx2 play in branching morphogenesis of the mammary gland are only now becoming more evident. Many signaling pathways and transcription factors are implicated in how these homeobox genes correctly determine the morphological development of the gland. Overexpression of Msx1 and Msx2 may also be involved in tumorigenesis. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the roles of these genes in both breast development and cancer.

  12. Transgenic mouse models of hormonal mammary carcinogenesis: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirma, Nameer B; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R

    2012-09-01

    Mouse models of breast cancer, especially transgenic and knockout mice, have been established as valuable tools in shedding light on factors involved in preneoplastic changes, tumor development and malignant progression. The majority of mouse transgenic models develop estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors. This is seen as a drawback because the majority of human breast cancers present an ER positive phenotype. On the other hand, several transgenic mouse models have been developed that produce ER positive mammary tumors. These include mice over-expressing aromatase, ERα, PELP-1 and AIB-1. In this review, we will discuss the value of these models as physiologically relevant in vivo systems to understand breast cancer as well as some of the pitfalls involving these models. In all, we argue that the use of transgenic models has improved our understanding of the molecular aspects and biology of breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cyclin D1 and mammary carcinoma: new insights from transgenic mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, Robert L; Musgrove, Elizabeth A

    2002-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is one of the most commonly overexpressed oncogenes in breast cancer, with 45–50% of primary ductal carcinomas overexpressing this oncoprotein. Targeted deletion of the gene encoding cyclin D1 demonstrates an essential role in normal mammary gland development while transgenic studies provide evidence that cyclin D1 is a weak oncogene in mammary epithelium. In a recent exciting development, Yu et al. demonstrate that cyclin D1-deficient mice are resistant to mammary carcinomas induced by c-neu and v-Ha-ras, but not those induced by c-myc or Wnt-1. These findings define a pivotal role for cyclin D1 in a subset of mammary cancers in mice and imply a functional role for cyclin D1 overexpression in human breast cancer

  14. Tubulopapillary carcinoma of the mammary gland in a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus: histopathological and immunophenotypical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Gamba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A maned female wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus showed nodules in the inguinal and left abdominal cranial mammary glands. The mammary gland was surgically excised, and microscopic analysis revealed epithelial cell proliferation in a tubular and papillary pattern; delicate fibrovascular stalks presenting numerous layers of moderately pleomorfic epithelial cells were observed. This histologic appearance was compatible with a diagnosis of mammary tubulopapillary carcinoma. The immunohistochemical profile revealed nuclear positivity for estrogen (70% and progesterone (at least 90% of the neoplastic cells. The myoepithelium-associated with neoplastic cells lacked integrity, as evidenced by failed smooth muscle alpha actin reactivity in microinvasive areas. A low proliferation index was observed (3.4%. To the authors' knowledge, the present case represents the first finding of female tubulopapillary carcinoma in a mammary gland in this species.

  15. Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: Fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Control of the Mammary Cell Cycle Clock by Estrogen and Progesterone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinberg, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Both the growth and the development of the mammary gland are controlled by the female hormones estrogen, prolactin and progesterone, and by interactions between the epithelial and stromal compartments of the breast...

  17. Control of the Mammary Cell Cycle Clock by Estrogen and Progesterone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinberg, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Both the growth and the development of the mammary gland are controlled by the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, and by interactions between the epithelial and stromal compartments of the breast...

  18. On Cell–Matrix Interactions in Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Talhouk, Rabih

    2012-01-01

    Remarkable strides have been made in understanding the role of the extracellular matrix in mammary gland biology. But future efforts should employ a more physiologically relevant model system (i.e., a non-culture-based system).

  19. Wnt-5a and Wnt-4 Regulates Cell Growth in C57MG Mammary Epithelial Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    .... That is, it is important ultimately to understand whether the inappropriate down regulation of certain wnt-genes that are spatially-temporally expressed in developing mammary glands, such as wnt-5a...

  20. Exposure to ionizing radiation induced persistent gene expression changes in mouse mammary gland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Six to eight week old female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy of whole body xce xb3 radiation and mammary glands were surgically removed 2-month after radiation....

  1. Genotype x diet interactions in mice predisposed to mammary cancer: II. Tumors and metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan R; Hunter, Kent W; Merrill, Michele La

    2008-01-01

    either a very high-fat or a matched-control-fat diet, and we measured growth, body composition, age at mammary tumor onset, tumor number and severity, and formation of pulmonary metastases. SNP genotyping across the genome facilitated analyses of QTL and QTL × diet interaction effects. Here we describe......High dietary fat intake and obesity may increase the risk of susceptibility to certain forms of cancer. To study the interactions of dietary fat, obesity, and metastatic mammary cancer, we created a population of F2 mice cosegregating obesity QTL and the MMTV-PyMT transgene. We fed the F2 mice...... effects of diet on mammary tumor and metastases phenotypes, mapping of tumor/metastasis modifier genes, and the interaction between dietary fat levels and effects of cancer modifiers. Results demonstrate that animals fed a high-fat diet are not only more likely to experience decreased mammary cancer...

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Spontaneous Mammary Carcinoma with Dendritic Tumor Fusion Cell Vaccine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gong, Jianlin

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, the prevention of cancer development by vaccination with fusion cells was evaluated In a genetically engineered murine model which develops spontaneous mammary carcinomas. The mice (MMT...

  3. Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensman, H.; Goransson, H.; Leuchowius, K.J.; Stromberg, S.; Ponten, F.; Isaksson, A.; Rutteman, G.R.; Heldin, N.; Pejler, G.; Hellmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas Journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment Publisher Springer Netherlands ISSN 0167-6806 (Print) 1573-7217 (Online) Issue Volume 118, Number 2 / November, 2009 Category Preclinical Study DOI

  4. Msx2 Plays a central Role in Regulating Branching Morphogenesis During Mammary Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the role of a transcriptional factor, Msx2, in regulating branching events in the development of the mouse mammary gland To define the function of Msx2 gene...

  5. Inducible transgenics. New lessons on events governing the induction and commitment in mammary tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulit, James; Di Vizio, Dolores; Pestell, Richard G

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer arises from multiple genetic events that together contribute to the established, irreversible malignant phenotype. The development of inducible tissue-specific transgenics has allowed a careful dissection of the events required for induction and subsequent maintenance of tumorigenesis. Mammary gland targeted expression of oncogenic Ras or c-Myc is sufficient for the induction of mammary gland tumorigenesis in the rodent, and when overexpressed together the rate of tumor onset is substantially enhanced. In an exciting recent finding, D'Cruz et al discovered tetracycline-regulated c-Myc overexpression in the mammary gland induced invasive mammary tumors that regressed upon withdrawal of c-Myc expression. Almost one-half of the c-Myc-induced tumors harbored K-ras or N-ras gene point mutations, correlating with tumor persistence on withdrawal of c-Myc transgene expression. These findings suggest maintenance of tumorigenesis may involve a second mutation within the Ras pathway

  6. Accessory mammary tissue associated with congenital and hereditary nephrourinary malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, C E; Betti, R

    1996-05-01

    The association between polythelia (supernumerary nipple) and kidney and urinary tract malformations (KUTM) is controversial. Some authors reported this association in newborns and infants. Case-control studies dealing with adult subjects are not found in the literature. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of the association between accessory mammary tissue (AMT) and congenital and hereditary nephrourinary defects in an adult population compared to a control group. The study was performed in 146 white patients (123 men, 23 women) with AMT out of 2645 subjects consecutively referred to us for physical examination. The following investigations were undertaken: ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen and the kidneys, ECG, echocardiogram, roentgenogram of the vertebral column, urinalysis, and other laboratory tests. A sex- and age-matched control group without any evidence of AMT or lateral displacement of the nipples underwent the same examinations. Kidney and urinary tract malformations were detected in 11 patients with AMT (nine men, two women) and in one control. These data indicate a significantly higher frequency of KUTM in the AMT-affected patients compared to controls (7.53% vs. 0.68%, P < 0.001). A broad spectrum of KUTM was discovered in association with AMT: adult dominant polycystic kidney disease, unilateral renal agenesis, cystic renal dysplasia, familial renal cysts, and congenital stenosis of the pyeloureteral joint. Accessory mammary tissue offers an important clue for congenital and hereditary anomalies of the kidneys and urinary collecting systems. Patients with AMT should, therefore, be extensively examined for the presence of occult nephrouropathies.

  7. Bovine mammary gene expression profiling during the onset of lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactogenesis includes two stages. Stage I begins a few weeks before parturition. Stage II is initiated around the time of parturition and extends for several days afterwards. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the molecular events underlying these changes, genome-wide gene expression profiling was conducted using digital gene expression (DGE on bovine mammary tissue at three time points (on approximately day 35 before parturition (-35 d, day 7 before parturition (-7 d and day 3 after parturition (+3 d. Approximately 6.2 million (M, 5.8 million (M and 6.1 million (M 21-nt cDNA tags were sequenced in the three cDNA libraries (-35 d, -7 d and +3 d, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the three cDNA libraries included 8,662, 8,363 and 8,359 genes, respectively. With a fold change cutoff criteria of ≥ 2 or ≤-2 and a false discovery rate (FDR of ≤ 0.001, a total of 812 genes were significantly differentially expressed at -7 d compared with -35 d (stage I. Gene ontology analysis showed that those significantly differentially expressed genes were mainly associated with cell cycle, lipid metabolism, immune response and biological adhesion. A total of 1,189 genes were significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with -7 d (stage II, and these genes were mainly associated with the immune response and cell cycle. Moreover, there were 1,672 genes significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with -35 d. Gene ontology analysis showed that the main differentially expressed genes were those associated with metabolic processes. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the mammary gland begins to lactate not only by a gain of function but also by a broad suppression of function to effectively push most of the cell's resources towards lactation.

  8. Bilateral Internal Mammary Artery Utilization in Diabetics: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Todd C; Zhou, Xun; Fraser, Charles D; Magruder, J Trent; Suarez-Pierre, Alejandro; Alejo, Diane; Bobbitt, Jennifer; Fonner, Clifford E; Wehberg, Kurt; Taylor, Brad; Kwon, Christopher; Fiocco, Michael; Conte, John V; Salenger, Rawn; Whitman, Glenn J

    2018-05-11

    Bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) grafting in diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains controversial. Our study compared morbidity and mortality between 1)diabetic and non-diabetic BIMA patients and 2)diabetic BIMA versus diabetic patients who underwent left internal mammary artery (LIMA) grafting only. Patients who underwent isolated CABG from July 2011 - June 2016 at any of the 10 centers in Maryland were propensity scored across 16 variables. Diabetic BIMA were matched 1:1 by nearest neighbor matching to non-diabetic BIMA patients, and were separately matched 1:1 to diabetic LIMA patients. We calculated observed to expected (O/E) ratios for composite morbidity/mortality, operative mortality, unplanned reoperation, stroke, renal failure, prolonged ventilation, and deep sternal wound infection) and compared ratios among matched populations. Over the study period, 812 CABG patients received BIMA grafts, including 302 patients (37%) with diabetes. We matched 259 diabetic and non-diabetic BIMA patients. O/E ratios were higher in matched diabetic (vs non-diabetic) BIMA patients when comparing composite morbidity/mortality, reoperation, stroke, renal failure, and prolonged ventilation (all O/E>1.0), however, O/E for operative mortality was higher in non-diabetic BIMA patients. We additionally matched 292 diabetic BIMA to diabetic LIMA patients. Diabetic BIMA patients had a higher O/E for composite morbidity/mortality, operative mortality, stroke, renal failure, and prolonged ventilation. In this statewide analysis, diabetics who received BIMA grafts (compared to diabetics with LIMA grafts or non-diabetics with BIMA grafts) had higher O/E ratios for composite morbidity/mortality as a result of higher O/E ratios for major complications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Pericentriolar Targeting of the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus GAG Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhi Zhang

    Full Text Available The Gag protein of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV is the chief determinant of subcellular targeting. Electron microscopy studies show that MMTV Gag forms capsids within the cytoplasm and assembles as immature particles with MMTV RNA and the Y box binding protein-1, required for centrosome maturation. Other betaretroviruses, such as Mason-Pfizer monkey retrovirus (M-PMV, assemble adjacent to the pericentriolar region because of a cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal in the Matrix protein. Previous studies suggest that the MMTV Matrix protein may also harbor a similar cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal. Herein, we show that a substantial fraction of MMTV Gag localizes to the pericentriolar region. This was observed in HEK293T, HeLa human cell lines and the mouse derived NMuMG mammary gland cells. Moreover, MMTV capsids were observed adjacent to centrioles when expressed from plasmids encoding either MMTV Gag alone, Gag-Pro-Pol or full-length virus. We found that the cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal in the MMTV Matrix protein was sufficient for pericentriolar targeting, whereas mutation of the glutamine to alanine at position 56 (D56/A resulted in plasma membrane localization, similar to previous observations from mutational studies of M-PMV Gag. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy studies showed that MMTV capsids accumulate around centrioles suggesting that, similar to M-PMV, the pericentriolar region may be a site for MMTV assembly. Together, the data imply that MMTV Gag targets the pericentriolar region as a result of the MMTV cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal, possibly aided by the Y box protein-1 required for the assembly of centrosomal microtubules.

  10. Functional development of the adult ovine mammary gland--insights from gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paten, Amy M; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Pain, Sarah J; Peterson, Sam W; Kenyon, Paul R; Blair, Hugh T; Dearden, Peter K

    2015-10-05

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes dramatic physiological adaptations during the transition from late pregnancy to lactation. Investigation of the molecular basis of mammary development and function will provide fundamental insights into tissue remodelling as well as a better understanding of milk production and mammary disease. This is important to livestock production systems and human health. Here we use RNA-seq to identify differences in gene expression in the ovine mammary gland between late pregnancy and lactation. Between late pregnancy (135 days of gestation ± 2.4 SD) and lactation (15 days post partum ± 1.27 SD) 13 % of genes in the sheep genome were differentially expressed in the ovine mammary gland. In late pregnancy, cell proliferation, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and translation were identified as key biological processes. During lactation, high levels of milk fat synthesis were mirrored by enrichment of genes associated with fatty acid biosynthesis, transport and lipogenesis. Protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum was enriched during lactation, likely in support of active milk protein synthesis. Hormone and growth factor signalling and activation of signal transduction pathways, including the JAK-STAT and PPAR pathways, were also differently regulated, indicating key roles for these pathways in functional development of the ovine mammary gland. Changes in the expression of epigenetic regulators, particularly chromatin remodellers, indicate a possible role in coordinating the large-scale transcriptional changes that appear to be required to switch mammary processes from growth and development during late pregnancy to synthesis and secretion of milk during lactation. Coordinated transcriptional regulation of large numbers of genes is required to switch between mammary tissue establishment during late pregnancy, and activation and maintenance of milk production during lactation. Our findings indicate the remarkable

  11. Cloning and Characterizing Genes Involved in Monoterpene Induced Mammary Tumor Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    AD GRANT NUMBER DAMDI7-94-J-4041 TITLE: Cloning and Characterizing Genes Involved in Monoterpene Induced Mammary Tumor Regression PRINCIPAL...October 1996 Annual (1 Sep 95 - 31 Aug 96) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cloning and Characterizing Genes Involved in Monoterpene Induced... Monoterpene -induced/repressed genes were identified in regressing rat mammary carcinomas treated with dietary limonene using a newly developed method

  12. Management of mastitis and abscessation of mammary glands secondary to fibroadenomatous hyperplasia in a primiparturient cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, Uri

    2010-02-01

    A 1-year-old sexually intact female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of an 8-week history of pronounced mammary gland hyperplasia that had progressed to mastitis and abscessation of the mammary glands since parturition 7 days earlier. The cat was anorectic, was febrile, and had signs of discomfort. Its kittens were weak and appeared to have difficulty nursing. Physical examination revealed pyrexia, mastitis with abscessation in the 6 caudal mammary glands, skin ulceration over the nipples, and areas of skin necrosis over the abscessed mammary glands. A CBC revealed nonregenerative anemia and leukocytosis with a left shift (2.160 x 10(9) band cells/L) and toxic changes. Mastitis and incipient septicemia were considered the most likely causes. The history of mammary gland hyperplasia since the second week of pregnancy suggested a diagnosis of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia that predisposed the cat to subsequent mastitis. Surgical drainage of the abscessed mammary glands, debridement of necrotic skin, and placement of a Penrose drain resulted in rapid improvement in clinical status. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) was prescribed, and the cat was discharged from the hospital. Mastitis and fibroadenomatous mammary gland hyperplasia resolved rapidly afterward. Management of abscessed mammary glands through surgical drainage and drain placement is an option for treatment of cats with complications of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. In the cat of this report, the treatment approach resulted in rapid resolution of mastitis, was less invasive than mastectomy, and avoided the potential complications of treatment with a progesterone-receptor antagonist.

  13. Risk of mammary oncogenesis from exposure to neutrons or gamma rays: experimental methodology and early findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Sridharan, B.N.; Gould, M.N.

    1976-01-01

    A project has been initiated to define the risk of oncogenesis per rad of high or low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation per surviving mammary cell and its modification by hormones. This work was undertaken because: (a) mammary carcinoma is the principle neoplastic disease of American women; (b) rats have been demonstrated to be remarkably susceptible to mammary oncogenesis following neutron irradiation; (c) rats are similar to women in the importance of hormones to carcinoma induction and progression in their mammary glands; and (d) exposure to neutrons is likely to increase with increasing use of nuclear reactors and development of neutron radiotherapy sources. To measure mammary cell survival and, ultimately, postirradiation repair capacity, the authors are developing an in-vivo end-point dilution assay based on the formation of glandular structures after the transplantation of known numbers of monodispersed rat mammary epithelial cell suspensions. Such grafts initially give rise to alveolus-like spheres and, with time, to complete glands. Growth and secretion can be stimulated in them by hormonal manipulation. In the short-term assays and the longer-term carcinogenesis studies, elevated endogenous mammotropic hormone, prolactin (MtH) levels have been induced by grafting of anterior pituitary tissue or of MtT (MtH-secreting pituitary tumours). Steroid hormone levels have been manipulated by surgical ablation or injection. Irradiations have been performed with a modified neutron fission spectrum generated by a Triga reactor, or with 137 Cs γ rays. Results with two inbred rat strains indicate: (a) that the type (carcinoma or fibroadenoma), incidence and latency of mammary tumours is markedly influenced by the circulating levels of MtH: and (b) that adrenal deficiency markedly enhances the induction of mammary carcinomas in irradiated rats with high endogenous MtH levels. Further studies are in progress. (author)

  14. Advanced Imaging Approaches to Characterize Stromal and Metabolic Changes in In Vivo Mammary Tumor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Bird , L. Yan, K. M. Vrotsos, K. W. Eliceiri, E. M. Vaughan, P. J. Keely, J. G. White, N. Ramanujam, Metabolic mapping of MCF10A human breast cells...1   Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0025 TITLE: Advanced Imaging Approaches to Characterize Stromal and Metabolic Changes in In Vivo Mammary... Metabolic Changes in In Vivo Mammary Tumor Models 5b. GRANT NUMBER BC112240 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Betty Diamond 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  15. Characterisation of microRNA expression in post-natal mouse mammary gland development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagavriilidou Konstantina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differential expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs during mammary gland development might provide insights into their role in regulating the homeostasis of the mammary epithelium. Our aim was to analyse these regulatory functions by deriving a comprehensive tissue-specific combined miRNA and mRNA expression profile of post-natal mouse mammary gland development. We measured the expression of 318 individual murine miRNAs by bead-based flow-cytometric profiling of whole mouse mammary glands throughout a 16-point developmental time course, including juvenile, puberty, mature virgin, gestation, lactation, and involution stages. In parallel whole-genome mRNA expression data were obtained. Results One third (n = 102 of all murine miRNAs analysed were detected during mammary gland development. MicroRNAs were represented in seven temporally co-expressed clusters, which were enriched for both miRNAs belonging to the same family and breast cancer-associated miRNAs. Global miRNA and mRNA expression was significantly reduced during lactation and the early stages of involution after weaning. For most detected miRNA families we did not observe systematic changes in the expression of predicted targets. For miRNA families whose targets did show changes, we observed inverse patterns of miRNA and target expression. The data sets are made publicly available and the combined expression profiles represent an important community resource for mammary gland biology research. Conclusion MicroRNAs were expressed in likely co-regulated clusters during mammary gland development. Breast cancer-associated miRNAs were significantly enriched in these clusters. The mechanism and functional consequences of this miRNA co-regulation provide new avenues for research into mammary gland biology and generate candidates for functional validation.

  16. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Invasion into Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells by Contact with Live Lactobacillus casei

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, Damien S.; Rault, Lucie; Berkova, Nadia; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that is responsible for mastitis in dairy herds. S. aureus mastitis is difficult to treat and prone to recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. The ability of S. aureus to invade bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) is evoked to explain this chronicity. One sustainable alternative to treat or prevent mastitis is the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as mammary probiotics. In this study, we tested the ability of Lactobacillus casei strains to prevent...

  17. A study on mammary gland tumors in rats born of parents irradiated before mating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsova, V.N.; Pavlenko-Mikhajlov, Yu.N.; Oshchepkov, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of exposure of male or female rats to radiation 5 days before conception on the frequency of development of mammary tumors in their progeny is described. It was shown that mammary tumor incidence and the rate of their development increase in a population of female rats-descendants of one of parents exposed. Irradiation of would-be mothers produced a stronger blastogenic reaction in their progeny than that of fathers

  18. Susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary carcinoma in genetically resistant Copenhagen rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Nitta, Yumiko; Gould, M.N.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the cellular basis of mammary cancer induction by a chemical carcinogen with induction by ionizing radiation in three strains of rats (inbred that have different genetic susceptibilities: COP rats, F344 rats, and WF rats). Rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg MNU/kg body weight as a mammary-tumor-inducing chemical carcinogen and were irradiated with a 3.0 Gy dose of 60 Co gamma rays at a dose rate of 26.58±1.19 cGy/min. The rats were inspected weekly, and they were killed and necropsied whenever palpable tumors were detected or they became moribund. The histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the mammary tumors were investigated. A transplantation experiment using selected primary mammary tumors that developed in COP rats exposed to gamma rays was also performed to investigate the transplantability of mammary tumors induced by ionizing radiation. The sensitivity of the WF and F344 rats and the resistance of the COP rats to mammary carcinoma induction by the chemical carcinogen MNU was confirmed. In contrast to the chemical carcinogens, no difference in susceptibility to radiation induction of mammary carcinomas was detected among the three strains of rats, and immunohistochemical examination indicated that the radiation-induced carcinomas consisted of more highly differentiated cells than the MNU-induced cancers. The results of the experiment appear to support the hypothesis that differentiated mammary gland tissue is more resistant to chemical carcinogens than to cancer induction by radiation. The authors conclude that radiation-induced cancers in rats may develop via different pathways or from different cell populations than chemically induced cancers. (K.H.)

  19. [Clinical results of double versus single mammary artery myocardiac revascularization: 15 years of follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Rodríguez, F J; Voces, R; Lima, P; Reyes, G; Silva, J; Ruiz, M; Rico, M; González De Diego, F; Fortuny, R; Garrido, G; González Santos, J M; Albertos, J; Fernández Calella, D; Vallejo, J L

    2001-07-01

    Use of the left internal mammary artery to bypass the left anterior descending coronary artery reduces cardiac events and increases survival. However, there is some controversy as to the benefits of using both mammary arteries. To assess the long-term outcome of the use of both mammary arteries in comparison with the use of only one. A retrospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 9.0 +/- 4.2 years was performed including 108 patients consecutively revascularized using both mammary arteries (II) and 108 patients randomly chosen in whom one mammary artery (I) was used for this purpose. Both groups were similar. There were no differences between the groups in operative morbidity or mortality. The survival at 10 years was similar (II: 84.61 +/- 4%; I: 85.18 +/- 3.8%), whereas recurrence of angina (II: 29.63 +/- 5.3%; I: 47.55 +/- 5.6%) (p = 0.012), the requirement for percutaneous angioplasty (II: 3.98 +/- 2%; I: 12.99 +/- 4.1%) (p = 0.009) and cardiologic events (II: 33.48 +/- 5.5%; I: 48.48 +/- 5.5%)(p = 0.022) were all lower in the group in which both mammary arteries were used. In the multivariate analysis, the use of both mammary arteries was an independent protective factor against angina recurrence (RR = 0.55), angioplasty (RR = 0.18) and cardiologic event (RR = 0.60). The use of both mammary arteries for revascularization does not increase operative morbidity. Since this procedure acts as an independent factor against angina recurrence, angioplasty and cardiologic event

  20. Susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary carcinoma in genetically resistant Copenhagen rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Nitta, Yumiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Gould, M.N.

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the cellular basis of mammary cancer induction by a chemical carcinogen with induction by ionizing radiation in three strains of rats (inbred that have different genetic susceptibilities: COP rats, F344 rats, and WF rats). Rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg MNU/kg body weight as a mammary-tumor-inducing chemical carcinogen and were irradiated with a 3.0 Gy dose of {sup 60} Co gamma rays at a dose rate of 26.58{+-}1.19 cGy/min. The rats were inspected weekly, and they were killed and necropsied whenever palpable tumors were detected or they became moribund. The histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the mammary tumors were investigated. A transplantation experiment using selected primary mammary tumors that developed in COP rats exposed to gamma rays was also performed to investigate the transplantability of mammary tumors induced by ionizing radiation. The sensitivity of the WF and F344 rats and the resistance of the COP rats to mammary carcinoma induction by the chemical carcinogen MNU was confirmed. In contrast to the chemical carcinogens, no difference in susceptibility to radiation induction of mammary carcinomas was detected among the three strains of rats, and immunohistochemical examination indicated that the radiation-induced carcinomas consisted of more highly differentiated cells than the MNU-induced cancers. The results of the experiment appear to support the hypothesis that differentiated mammary gland tissue is more resistant to chemical carcinogens than to cancer induction by radiation. The authors conclude that radiation-induced cancers in rats may develop via different pathways or from different cell populations than chemically induced cancers. (K.H.)

  1. Histological features in the mammary glands of female dogs throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanou, D C; Pourlis, A; Ververidis, H N; Mavrogianni, V S; Taitzoglou, I A; Boscos, C M; Fthenakis, G C

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the histology of the mammary glands of female dogs throughout lactation. Twelve lactating female dogs were operated 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56, 70 and 84 days post-partum; four mammary glands of each animal were excised for histological, ultrastructural and morphometric examination. During early lactation and mid-lactation, all lobes and lobules within the same gland had similar features; alveoli were well developed and distended and had a spherical to slightly ovoid structure, with muscular fibres grasping them around; inflammatory cells were seen in the inter- and intra-alveolar space; mammary lobules were separated with a scant amount of connective tissue. In late lactation, connective tissue was abundant and dense, with large numbers of inflammatory cells; alveoli appeared to be irregularly shaped and collapsing, shrunken or fully collapsed. Number of alveoli per lobule and number of epithelial cells per alveolus, as well as diameter of alveoli and height of epithelial cells decreased as lactation progressed. The third mammary glands (from caudal to cranial) had a significantly smaller number of alveoli, but not of epithelial cells per alveolus, than each of the two mammary glands caudally to that. The results suggest that progressive involution of the normal mammary gland starts around the end of the 2nd month of lactation and continues until the end of the 3rd month. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Biological and genetic properties of the p53 null preneoplastic mammary epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel; Kittrell, Frances S.; Shepard, Anne; Stephens, L. Clifton; Jiang, Cheng; Lu, Junxuan; Allred, D. Craig; McCarthy, Maureen; Ullrich, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The absence of the tumor suppressor gene p53 confers an increased tumorigenic risk for mammary epithelial cells. In this report, we describe the biological and genetic properties of the p53 null preneoplastic mouse mammary epithelium in a p53 wild-type environment. Mammary epithelium from p53 null mice was transplanted serially into the cleared mammary fat pads of p53 wild-type BALB/c female to develop stable outgrowth lines. The outgrowth lines were transplanted for 10 generations. The outgrowths were ductal in morphology and progressed through ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ before invasive cancer. The preneoplastic outgrowth lines were immortal and exhibited activated telomerase activity. They are estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive, and aneuploid, and had various levels of tumorigenic potential. The biological and genetic properties of these lines are distinct from those found in most hyperplastic alveolar outgrowth lines, the form of mammary preneoplasia occurring in most traditional models of murine mammary tumorigenesis. These results indicate that the preneoplastic cell populations found in this genetically engineered model are similar in biological properties to a subset of precurser lesions found in human breast cancer and provide a unique model to identify secondary events critical for tumorigenicity and invasiveness.

  3. Presence of lung metastases in bitches affected by malignant mammary neoplasms in Medellin (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Gómez J.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define the presence of lung metastasis in bitches with malignant mammary neoplasms. Materials and methods. Thirty female dogs that were attended at Veterinary Hospital (University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia were selected for the study. At consultation clinical variables and grade of mammary and inguinal lymph node compromise were registered. Latero-lateral and ventral-dorsal radiographic images of thorax were done for identification of radiographic lesions suggestive of lung metastasis. At surgery biopsies of affected mammary glands were taken for histopathological study and classification of tumors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results. The average (± standard error age at clinical diagnosis was 10.87±2.65 year old. French poodle (46.6% cross-breed (13.3% and Schnauzer (10% were the breeds most frequently affected by mammary tumors. The most frequent tumor found was carcinoma (81%, followed by adenoma (8.1%, and other types (10.8%. The most frequently affected mammary glands by tumors were the right and the left inguinal glands (70% and 66.6%, respectively. Five out of 30 bitches (16.6% had lung metastasis according to radiographic examination. From this group of dogs, 4 out of 5 neoplasms (80% were diagnosed as complex carcinoma by histopathology diagnosis. Conclusions. We provide evidence suggesting that complex carcinoma is the most frequent mammary tumor in bitches in our city and it is highly related to lung metastasis.

  4. Immunodetection of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in mammary carcinomas of female dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara C. Rosolem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells have attracted great interest from researchers as they may be used as targets of tumor immune evasion mechanisms. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the dendritic cells (DCs subpopulation in simple type mammary carcinomas in female dogs. Two groups of samples were used: the control group consisted of 18 samples of mammary tissue without changes and the tumor group with 26 simple type mammary carcinomas. In these groups, we evaluated the immunodetection of immature and mature myeloid DCs, plasmacytoid DCs and MHC-II. In mammary tumor, mature myeloid DCs predominated in the peritumoral region, while immature myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs were evident in the intratumoral region. Immunostaining of MHC-II was visualized in mammary acini (control group, in tumor cells and inflammatory infiltration associated with tumors. The comparison between the control and tumor groups showed a statistically significant difference between immature myeloid DCs, mature myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs. The immunodetection of MHC-II was not significant when comparing the groups. The predominance of immature DCs in the tumor group is possibly related to an inefficient immune response, promoting the development and survival of tumor cells. The presence of plasmacytoid DCs in the same group suggests a worse prognosis for female dogs with mammary tumors. Therefore, the ability of differentiation of canine dendritic cells could be influenced by neoplastic cells and by the tumor microenvironment.

  5. Arterial anatomosurgical segments of the mammary glands in dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, C.R.; Miglino, M.A.; Santos, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty mammary complexes (sixty antimers) from cross bred multiparous bitches, were injected with latex and then studied by means of radiology and dissection. The different anatomo-surgical arterial segments thus obtained were identified and designated according to the anatomical zone of irrigation of each mammary gland as follows: 1. Thoracic segment, by means of the fourth and fifth perforant arteries, penetrates the first mammary gland in 85% of the cases; 2. Thoracoabdominal segment, by means of the sixth and seventh perforant arteries, penetrates the second mammary gland in 48.33 % of the cases. This segment can also be divided as follows: 2.1. Retrograde branches of the cranial superficial epigastric artery that penetrates the second mammary gland in about 51.66% of the cases, as the toracoabdominal cranial segment; 2.2. Terminal branches of the last artery penetrate the third mammary gland in 73.32% of the cases, as the toracoabdominal caudal segment. 3. Inguinoabdominal segment may also possess two sub-- segments: 3.1. Caudal superficial epigastric artery with primary branches penetrating the fourth mamma and the ventral labial branches, penetrating the fifth mamma in 96.66% of the cases, as inguinoabdomninal caudal segment. 3.2. Terminal branches of the caudal superficial epigastric artery penetrates the third mamma in 51.66% of the cases as inguinoabdominal cranial segment. The anastomosis observed in 78.33% of the cases may not have significance in mastectomy [pt

  6. Serum acute phase protein concentrations in female dogs with mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecles, Fernando; Caldín, Marco; Zanella, Anna; Membiela, Francisco; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Subiela, Silvia Martínez; Cerón, José Joaquín

    2009-03-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) are proteins whose concentrations in serum change after any inflammatory stimulus or tissue damage. The aim of the current study was to evaluate 3 positive APPs (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin) and 1 negative APP (albumin) in female dogs with mammary neoplasia. Acute phase proteins were studied in 70 female dogs aged 8-12 years in the following groups: healthy (n = 10); mammary tumors in stages I (n = 19), II (n = 5), III (n = 6), IV (n = 5), and V (n = 7); and with mammary neoplasia plus a concomitant disease (n = 18). In animals with mammary neoplasia, significant increases of positive APPs were only detected in those that had metastasis or a neoplasm with a diameter greater than 5 cm and ulceration. Dogs with mammary neoplasia and a concomitant disease also had high C-reactive protein concentrations. Albumin concentration was decreased in animals with metastasis and with a concomitant disease. The results of the present study indicate that the acute phase response could be stimulated in female dogs with mammary gland tumors because of different factors, such as metastasis, large size of the primary mass, and ulceration or secondary inflammation of the neoplasm.

  7. Mammary tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ mice is enhanced by X-irradiation with a characteristic age dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuhiko, Imaoka; Mayumi, Nishimura; Shizuko, Kakinuma; Yoshiya, Shimada; Mieko, Okamoto

    2006-01-01

    The ApcM min/+ (Min) mouse is a genetically predisposed model of both intestinal and mammary tumorigenesis. We investigated age-related changes in the susceptibility of mice (before, during and after puberty) to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis using this model. Female Min and wild-type mice having the C57BL/6J background were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays at 2, 5, 7 and 10 weeks and sacrificed at 18 weeks of age. Min mice irradiated at 7 to 10 weeks of age (after puberty) developed mammary tumors with squamous metaplasia, whereas their wild-type litter-mates did not. Interestingly, irradiation of Min mice at 2 to 5 weeks (before and during puberty, respectively) did not induce mammary tumors but rather cystic nodules with metaplasia. The mammary tumors exhibited increased nuclear beta-catenin protein and loss of the wild-type Apc allele. Our results show that susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis increases after puberty in Min mice, suggesting that the tumorigenic effect of ionizing radiation targets the lobular-alveolar progenitor cells, which increase in number with age and are controlled by beta-catenin signaling. (author)

  8. Redefining the expression and function of the inhibitor of differentiation 1 in mammary gland development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of poorly differentiated cells is a hallmark of breast neoplasia and progression. Thus an understanding of the factors controlling mammary differentiation is critical to a proper understanding of breast tumourigenesis. The Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1 protein has well documented roles in the control of mammary epithelial differentiation and proliferation in vitro and breast cancer progression in vivo. However, it has not been determined whether Id1 expression is sufficient for the inhibition of mammary epithelial differentiation or the promotion of neoplastic transformation in vivo. We now show that Id1 is not commonly expressed by the luminal mammary epithelia, as previously reported. Generation and analysis of a transgenic mouse model of Id1 overexpression in the mammary gland reveals that Id1 is insufficient for neoplastic progression in virgin animals or to prevent terminal differentiation of the luminal epithelia during pregnancy and lactation. Together, these data demonstrate that there is no luminal cell-autonomous role for Id1 in mammary epithelial cell fate determination, ductal morphogenesis and terminal differentiation.

  9. 20neon ion- and x-ray-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellabarger, C.J.; Baum, J.W.; Holtzman, S.; Stone, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    One of the proposed uses of heavy ion irradiation is to image lesions of the human female breast. The rat model system was chosen to assess the carcinogenic potential of heavy ion irradiation in the belief that data obtained from rat studies would have a qualitatively predictive value for the human female. Accordingly, female rats were exposed to 20 Ne ions at the BEVALAC and studied for the development of mammary neoplasia for 312 +- 2 days at Brookhaven along with rats exposed concurrently to x-irradiation or to no irradiation. As the dose of either type of radiation was increased the percent of rats with mammary adenocarcinomas, and the percent of rats with mammary fibroadenomas, tended to increase. At a prevalence of 20%, the RBE for 20 Neon ions for mammary adenocarcinomas was estimated to be larger than 5 and for mammary fibroadenomas the RBE was estimated to be less than 2. No conclusion was reached concerning whether or not the RBE might vary with dose. We suggest that 20 Ne ions do have a carcinogenic potential for rat mammary tissue and that this carcinogenic potential is likely to be greater than for x-irradiation. (DT)

  10. A Study of Using Massage Therapy Accompanied with Stretching Exercise for Rehabilitation of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pin; Chong, Yuping; Zou, Huagang; Chen, Xiangxian

    2016-01-01

    To apply massage therapy accompanied with stretching exercises for treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, evaluate the clinical outcome in patients, and estimate the therapy as a novel treatment method for mammary hyperplasia. 28 adult female patients were selected and treated with massage therapy and stretching exercises focusing on skeleton muscles of chest, abdomen, and axilla. The mammary gland oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb) levels were detected before and after treatment after 15, 30, and 45 days. In this cohort, pretreatment OxyHb (mean ± SD) is 1.32 ± 0.14 (medium-high), and DeoxyHb is 0.87 ± 0.13 (normal). All patients were clinically diagnosed with benign mammary gland hyperplasia and mastitis. The posttreatment OxyHb levels are 1.23 ± 0.09 (normal-medium, 15-day), 1.16 ± 0.08 (normal, 30-day), and 1.05 ± 0.04 (normal, 45-day), and DeoxyHb levels are 0.90 ± 0.11 (normal, 15-day), 0.94 ± 0.18 (normal, 30-day), and 0.98 ± 0.12 (normal, 45-day). Patients were diagnosed with decreased hyperplasia 15 and 30 days after treatment and with no symptom of hyperplasia in mammary gland 45 days after treatment. Mammary gland hyperplasia is closely correlated with pathological changes of skeletal muscles and could be significantly improved by massage therapy and stretching exercises targeting neighboring skeletal muscles.

  11. Transcript profiling of Elf5+/- mammary glands during pregnancy identifies novel targets of Elf5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee L Rogers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elf5, an epithelial specific Ets transcription factor, plays a crucial role in the pregnancy-associated development of the mouse mammary gland. Elf5(-/- embryos do not survive, however the Elf5(+/- mammary gland displays a severe pregnancy-associated developmental defect. While it is known that Elf5 is crucial for correct mammary development and lactation, the molecular mechanisms employed by Elf5 to exert its effects on the mammary gland are largely unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transcript profiling was used to investigate the transcriptional changes that occur as a result of Elf5 haploinsufficiency in the Elf5(+/- mouse model. We show that the development of the mouse Elf5(+/- mammary gland is delayed at a transcriptional and morphological level, due to the delayed increase in Elf5 protein in these glands. We also identify a number of potential Elf5 target genes, including Mucin 4, whose expression, is directly regulated by the binding of Elf5 to an Ets binding site within its promoter. CONCLUSION: We identify novel transcriptional targets of Elf5 and show that Muc4 is a direct target of Elf5, further elucidating the mechanisms through which Elf5 regulates proliferation and differentiation in the mammary gland.

  12. A comparative study of the biologic and molecular basis of murine mammary carcinoma: a model for human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlom, J.; Kufe, D.; Hehlman, R.; Spiegelman, S.; Bentvelzen, P.; Michalides, R.; Hageman, P.

    1976-01-01

    Tritiated-DNA complementary to mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) RNA was synthesized in an endogeneous reaction with MMTV particles. This DNA was used as a probe via molecular hybridization to detect MMTV-specific RNA in 'spontaneous' mammary tumors of several strains of mice, including the 'nonproducer' BALB/c mammary tumors. MMTV-specific RNA was also found in certain normal tissues (spleen, kidney, and epididymis) of a high-mammary-cancer strain (GR). Aging or treatment with nonviral carcinogens also induced the appearance of MMTV-specific RNA in certain normal tissues of the low-mammary-cancer strains, C57BL and BALB/c. The relationship of the presence of MMTV-specific RNA to the etiology and pathogenesis of murine mammary neoplasia and its potential application to human breast cancer are discussed

  13. The mammary gland in small ruminants: major morphological and functional events underlying milk production – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lérias, Joana R; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Suárez-Trujillo, Aridany

    2014-01-01

    the modifications occurring in the mammary gland through the lactation period in production animals, particularly in the small ruminants, sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Nevertheless, understanding the different mammary gland patterns throughout lactation is essential to improve dairy production......, as well as a reduction of stroma, corresponding macroscopically to the increase in mammary gland volume. Throughout late lactation, the mammary gland volume decreases owing to the regression of the secretory structure. In general, common mammary gland patterns have been shown for both goats and sheep...... throughout the several lactation stages, although the number of studies is limited. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the colostrogenesis and lactogenesis processes as well as to highlight the mammary gland morphological patterns underlying milk production during the lactation cycle...

  14. Lipoestructura y relleno del polo superior de la mama frente a implantes Structural fat graft and lipofilling of mammary upper pole versus mammary implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Cervilla Lozano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La lipoestructura mamaria ofrece nuevas alternativas de tratamiento en la cirugía estética de aumento mamario, cumpliendo en algunos casos las expectativas esperadas y en otros no. Analizamos este hecho en 4 tipos de aplicación de lipoestructura mamaria que hemos venido realizando en los últimos años, centrándonos en un aspecto importante de esta cirugía que es el relleno del polo superior de la mama. Los tipos de aplicación empleados son: aumento mamario simple mediante lipoestructura en comparación con implantes; pexia más lipoestructura frente a pexia más implantes mamarios; reconstrucción de mama tuberosa mediante lipoestructura o implantes y finalmente, relleno periprotésico mediante lipoestructura en mamas sometidas a cirugía de aumento mamario con implantes. En definitiva, podríamos resumir este trabajo en una frase diciendo que la lipoestructura mamaria, a nuestro juicio, no sirve si lo que prima es conseguir el relleno del polo superior de la mama, siendo en este caso de elección la colocación de implantes mamarios. No obstante, en alguno de los casos señalados no solo es una alternativa, sino que obtiene resultados superiores a los logrados sólamente con implantes.The mammary structural fat graft offers news treatment options in breast augmentation cosmetic surgery, but it sometimes meets expectations and sometimes doesn´t. We analyze 4 different types of lipostructure mammary applications that we have been using in the last years, focused in an important aspect of this surgery as it´s the filling of the upper mammary pole. These applications are: mammary augmentation by simple structural fat compared with the use of mammary implants; structural fat graft and mastopexy versus implants and mastopexy; tuberous breast reconstruction using structural fat graft or implants and finally, periprosthetic filling in breast augmentation with mammary implants using structural fat graft. In short, we could summarize this paper

  15. Influence of prevastein (R), an isoflavone-rich soy product, on mammary gland development and Tumorigenesis in Tg.NK (MMTV/c-neu) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anni R.; Mortensen, Alicja; Breinholt, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    We investigated spontaneous mammary tumor development and mammary gland morphogenesis in female Tg.NK mice postnatally exposed to dietary soy isoflavones (0, 11, 39, and 130 mg aglycones/kg diet) added to a Western-style diet. Instead of preventing mammary tumorigenesis, the highest dose of isofl......We investigated spontaneous mammary tumor development and mammary gland morphogenesis in female Tg.NK mice postnatally exposed to dietary soy isoflavones (0, 11, 39, and 130 mg aglycones/kg diet) added to a Western-style diet. Instead of preventing mammary tumorigenesis, the highest dose...

  16. The Role of Nuclear Receptor Coactivator A1B1 in Growth Factor-Mediated Mammary Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    chemotherapies also develop resistance to the treatment , resulting ultimately in the recurrence of breast cancer growth. Interestingly, the mechanism of...gland development, dwarfism and abnormal reproductive function [8]. I want to determine whether the loss of AIB1 in MMTV-Neu mice alters the mammary...study display dwarfism and the retardation of mammary gland growth [9]. At the 4-month time point, I similarly observed an overall decrease in mammary

  17. Mammary Specific Expression of Cre Recombinase Under the Control of an Endogenous MMTV LTR: A Conditional Knock-Out System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czarneski, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    .... Mice that carried the Mtv-17 Cre fusion vector would then be mated to mice that had the p53 locus flanked by loxP sites, resulting in the tissue-specific loss of p53 in the mammary gland only. The prediction is that these animals would only develop mammary and not other tumors. We believed that the cre-transgenic mice would also prove useful for other investigators in the mammary gland development and tumorigenesis field.

  18. Arginine inhibits the malignant transformation induced by interferon-gamma through the NF-κB-GCN2/eIF2α signaling pathway in mammary epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenbo; Li, Yang; Xia, Xiaojing; Guo, Wenfei; Zhai, Taiyu; Jin, Yuting; Che, Yanyi; Gao, Haidi; Duan, Xiumei; Ma, Hongxi; Huang, Tinghao; Huang, Jing; Lei, Liancheng

    2018-07-15

    Breast cancer is the most common female malignant tumors in the world. It seriously affects women's physical and mental health and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Our previous study demonstrated that diet-derived IFN-γ promoted the malignant transformation of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells by accelerating arginine depletion. The current study aimed to explore whether arginine addition could inhibit the degree of malignant transformation and its molecular mechanism. The results indicate that arginine addition could alleviate the malignant transformation of mammary epithelial cells induced by IFN-γ, including reducing cell proliferation, cell migration and colony formation, through the NF-κB-GCN2/eIF2α pathway. The in vivo experiments also consistently confirmed that arginine supplementation could significantly inhibit tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, the investigation of the clinical data also revealed that the plasma or tissue from human breast cancer patients owned lower arginine level and higher IFN-γ level than that from patients with benign breast disease, showing IFN-γ may be a potential control target. Our findings demonstrate that arginine supplement could antagonize the malignant transformation of mammary epithelial cells induced by IFN-γ (nutritionally induced) both in vitro and in vivo, and IFN-γ was higher in breast cancer women. This might provide a novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer regarding to nutrition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Accelerators of future generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomenskij, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review of the prospects of development of various of types accelerator over next 10 to 15 years is given. The following directions are considered: superhign energy proton accelerators and storage rings, electron-positron colliding beams, heavy ion accelerators, medium energy, high-current proton accelerators superhigh power particle beams (electrons light- and heavy ions) for inertial fusion

  20. Future accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1986-05-01

    A general discussion is presented of the acceleration of particles. Upon this foundation is built a categorization scheme into which all accelerators can be placed. Special attention is devoted to accelerators which employ a wake-field mechanism and a restricting theorem is examined. It is shown how the theorem may be circumvented. Comments are made on various acceleration schemes

  1. Role of Notch signaling in cell-fate determination of human mammary stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dontu, Gabriela; Jackson, Kyle W; McNicholas, Erin; Kawamura, Mari J; Abdallah, Wissam M; Wicha, Max S

    2004-01-01

    Notch signaling has been implicated in the regulation of cell-fate decisions such as self-renewal of adult stem cells and differentiation of progenitor cells along a particular lineage. Moreover, depending on the cellular and developmental context, the Notch pathway acts as a regulator of cell survival and cell proliferation. Abnormal expression of Notch receptors has been found in different types of epithelial metaplastic lesions and neoplastic lesions, suggesting that Notch may act as a proto-oncogene. The vertebrate Notch1 and Notch4 homologs are involved in normal development of the mammary gland, and mutated forms of these genes are associated with development of mouse mammary tumors. In order to determine the role of Notch signaling in mammary cell-fate determination, we have utilized a newly described in vitro system in which mammary stem/progenitor cells can be cultured in suspension as nonadherent 'mammospheres'. Notch signaling was activated using exogenous ligands, or was inhibited using previously characterized Notch signaling antagonists. Utilizing this system, we demonstrate that Notch signaling can act on mammary stem cells to promote self-renewal and on early progenitor cells to promote their proliferation, as demonstrated by a 10-fold increase in secondary mammosphere formation upon addition of a Notch-activating DSL peptide. In addition to acting on stem cells, Notch signaling is also able to act on multipotent progenitor cells, facilitating myoepithelial lineage-specific commitment and proliferation. Stimulation of this pathway also promotes branching morphogenesis in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. These effects are completely inhibited by a Notch4 blocking antibody or a gamma secretase inhibitor that blocks Notch processing. In contrast to the effects of Notch signaling on mammary stem/progenitor cells, modulation of this pathway has no discernable effect on fully committed, differentiated, mammary epithelial cells. These studies

  2. Charles River Sprague Dawley rats lack early age-dependent susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, R B; Yan, M; Schneider, J; Succop, P; Heffelfinger, S C; Clegg, D J

    2007-10-04

    Developmental stages of mammary glands influence their susceptibility to initiating events related to carcinogenesis. The "window of susceptibility" to mammary carcinogenesis is classically defined as the time in early puberty when the mammary gland morphology is most sensitive to initiation events. Administration of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), in a single oral dose yields maximal mammary tumor formation when administered in this "window". We examined the DMBA treated mammary glands, precursor lesions, and morphology of the uninvolved mammary epithelium for the first 100 days of life for Charles River Sprague Dawley CD(R) IGS. Our goal was to determine the DMBA dose at which 50% of the rats (IC50) developed carcinoma in situ (CIS) within three months of dosing. Here we demonstrate, rather than the classical U-shaped dose curve in which there is maximum sensitivity for DMBA at 50 days, there is an increasing degree of sensitivity with age in the CD(R) IGS rat. Additionally, we report that vehicle-treated animals developed mammary CIS without any known initiator, and 100 day virgin animals demonstrated lactational changes, independent of DMBA exposure or dose. Lastly, we demonstrate this strain of virgin female rats has elevated pituitary prolactin immunoreactivity independent of the level of mammary differentiation. We conclude this strain of Charles River Sprague Dawley rats has prolactin-induced pituitary stimulation, and therefore, the window of susceptibility for mammary tumorigenesis is absent.

  3. Evolution of the mammary capillary network and carbonic anhydrase activity throughout lactation and during somatotropin treatment in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Cvek, Katarina; Dahlborn, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    involved in the coordination of mammary blood flow (MBF) and metabolic activity. Milk vein blood velocity was determined as a measure of MBF, and fine needle mammary biopsies were obtained at different time points during lactation and by the end of a 14-d bovine somatotropin (BST) treatment initiated 3...... almost tripled in size, whereas number of capillaries surrounding each alveolus decreased by 1/3, and CA activity more than halved. BST treatment did not affect capillary traits but increased number of alveoli in mammary sections, and BST thus appeared to be targeted mostly towards the mammary epithelial...

  4. Incidental extra-mammary findings in breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduk, A.M.; Prutki, M.; Stern-Padovan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the frequency, distribution, and nature of incidental extra-mammary findings detected with breast MRI. Materials and methods: Incidental findings were defined as unexpected lesions outside the breast, not previously known or suspected at the time of referral. Five hundred consecutive breast MRI studies performed from June 2010 to September 2012 were reviewed in this retrospective study for which the institutional review board granted approval and waived the requirement for informed consent. MRI findings were compared with subsequent diagnostic procedures in order to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Results: One hundred and thirty-eight incidental findings were found in 107 of the 500 (21.4%) examined patients. The most common site was the liver (61/138; 44.2%), followed by the lung (24/138; 17.4%), mediastinum (22/138; 15.9%), pleural cavity (15/138; 10.9%), bone tissue (9/138; 6.5%), spleen (3/138; 2.2%), major pectoral muscle (3/138; 2.2%), and kidney (1/138; 0.7%). Twenty-five of the 138 (18.1%) incidental findings were confirmed to be malignant, whereas the remaining 113 (81.9%) were benign. Malignant findings were exclusively detected in patients with known breast carcinoma, whereas incidental findings in patients without a history of carcinoma were all benign. Twenty-five of 100 (24.8%) incidental findings among patients with history of breast cancer were malignant. Conclusion: Although many of incidental findings were benign, some were malignant, altering the diagnostic work-up, staging, and treatment. Therefore, it is important to assess the entire field of view carefully for abnormalities when reviewing breast MRI studies. - Highlights: • 500 consecutive breast MRI studies were retrospectively reviewed. • Incidental findings were found in 107/500 (21.4%) of examined patients. • Incidental extra-mammary findings on breast MRI are common. • Malignant findings were exclusively detected in patients with known breast

  5. Identification and characterization of long intergenic noncoding RNAs in bovine mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chao; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhao, Lili; Ma, Junfei; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Zhao, Xin

    2017-06-19

    Mammary glands of dairy cattle produce milk for the newborn offspring and for human consumption. Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) play various functions in eukaryotic cells. However, types and roles of lincRNAs in bovine mammary glands are still poorly understood. Using computational methods, 886 unknown intergenic transcripts (UITs) were identified from five RNA-seq datasets from bovine mammary glands. Their non-coding potentials were predicted by using the combination of four software programs (CPAT, CNCI, CPC and hmmscan), with 184 lincRNAs identified. By comparison to the NONCODE2016 database and a domestic-animal long noncoding RNA database (ALDB), 112 novel lincRNAs were revealed in bovine mammary glands. Many lincRNAs were found to be located in quantitative trait loci (QTL). In particular, 36 lincRNAs were found in 172 milk related QTLs, whereas one lincRNA was within clinical mastitis QTL region. In addition, targeted genes for 10 lincRNAs with the highest fragments per kilobase of transcript per million fragments mapped (FPKM) were predicted by LncTar for forecasting potential biological functions of these lincRNAs. Further analyses indicate involvement of lincRNAs in several biological functions and different pathways. Our study has provided a panoramic view of lincRNAs in bovine mammary glands and suggested their involvement in many biological functions including susceptibility to clinical mastitis as well as milk quality and production. This integrative annotation of mammary gland lincRNAs broadens and deepens our understanding of bovine mammary gland biology.

  6. Slug controls stem/progenitor cell growth dynamics during mammary gland morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssa Nassour

    Full Text Available Morphogenesis results from the coordination of distinct cell signaling pathways controlling migration, differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation, along stem/progenitor cell dynamics. To decipher this puzzle, we focused on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT "master genes". EMT has emerged as a unifying concept, involving cell-cell adhesion, migration and apoptotic pathways. EMT also appears to mingle with stemness. However, very little is known on the physiological role and relevance of EMT master-genes. We addressed this question during mammary morphogenesis. Recently, a link between Slug/Snai2 and stemness has been described in mammary epithelial cells, but EMT master genes actual localization, role and targets during mammary gland morphogenesis are not known and we focused on this basic question.Using a Slug-lacZ transgenic model and immunolocalization, we located Slug in a distinct subpopulation covering about 10-20% basal cap and duct cells, mostly cycling cells, coexpressed with basal markers P-cadherin, CK5 and CD49f. During puberty, Slug-deficient mammary epithelium exhibited a delayed development after transplantation, contained less cycling cells, and overexpressed CK8/18, ER, GATA3 and BMI1 genes, linked to luminal lineage. Other EMT master genes were overexpressed, suggesting compensation mechanisms. Gain/loss-of-function in vitro experiments confirmed Slug control of mammary epithelial cell luminal differentiation and proliferation. In addition, they showed that Slug enhances specifically clonal mammosphere emergence and growth, cell motility, and represses apoptosis. Strikingly, Slug-deprived mammary epithelial cells lost their potential to generate secondary clonal mammospheres.We conclude that Slug pathway controls the growth dynamics of a subpopulation of cycling progenitor basal cells during mammary morphogenesis. Overall, our data better define a key mechanism coordinating cell lineage dynamics and morphogenesis, and

  7. Inhibition of peripubertal sheep mammary gland development by cysteamine through reducing progesterone and growth factor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Feng, Yanni; Zhang, Hongfu; Kou, Xin; Li, Lan; Liu, Xinqi; Zhang, Pengfei; Cui, Liantao; Chu, Meiqiang; Shen, Wei; Min, Lingjiang

    2017-02-01

    Cysteamine has been used for treating cystinosis for many years, and furthermore it has also been used as a therapeutic agent for different diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, malaria, cancer, and others. Although cysteamine has many potential applications, its use may also be problematic. The effects of low doses of cysteamine on the reproductive system, especially the mammary glands are currently unknown. In the current investigation, low dose (10 mg/kg BW/day) of cysteamine did not affect sheep body weight gain or organ index of the liver, spleen, or heart; it did, however, increase the levels of blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets. Most interestingly, it inhibited mammary gland development after 2 or 5 months of treatment by reducing the organ index and the number of mammary gland ducts. Plasma growth hormone and estradiol remained unchanged; however, plasma progesterone levels and the protein level of HSD3β1 in sheep ovaries were decreased by cysteamine. In addition to steroid hormones, growth factors produced in the mammary glands also play crucial roles in mammary gland development. Results showed that protein levels of HGF, GHR, and IGF1R were decreased after 5 months of cysteamine treatment. These findings together suggest that progesterone and local growth factors in mammary glands might be involved in cysteamine initiated inhibition of pubertal ovine mammary gland development. Furthermore, it may lead to a reduction in fertility. Therefore, cysteamine should be used with great caution until its actions have been further investigated and its limitations overcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Loss of Panx1 Impairs Mammary Gland Development at Lactation: Implications for Breast Tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K G Stewart

    Full Text Available Pannexin1 (Panx1 subunits oligomerize to form large-pore channels between the intracellular and extracellular milieu that have been shown to regulate proliferation, differentiation and cell death mechanisms. These key cellular responses are ultimately necessary for normal tissue development and function but the role of Panx1 in development, differentiation and function in many tissues remains unexplored, including that of the breast. Panx1 was identified to be expressed in the mammary gland through western blot and immunofluorescent analysis and is dynamically upregulated during pregnancy and lactation. In order to evaluate the role of Panx1 in the context of mammary gland development and function, Panx1-/- mice were evaluated in comparison to wild-type mice in the mammary glands of virgin, lactating and involuting mice. Our results revealed that Panx1 ablation did not affect virgin or involuting mammary glands following histological and whole mount analysis. Panx1 was necessary for timely alveolar development during early lactation based on a decreased number of alveolar lumen following histological analysis and reduced proliferation following Ki67 immunofluorescent labelling. Importantly, the loss of Panx1 in lactating mammary glands did not overtly affect epithelial or secretory differentiation of the mammary gland suggesting that Panx1 is not critical in normal mammary gland function. In addition, PANX1 mRNA expression was correlated with negative clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer using in silico arrays. Together, our results suggest that Panx1 is necessary for timely alveolar development following the transition from pregnancy to lactation, which may have implications extending to patients with breast cancer.

  9. Peripheral serotonin regulates maternal calcium trafficking in mammary epithelial cells during lactation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Laporta

    Full Text Available Lactation is characterized by massive transcellular flux of calcium, from the basolateral side of the mammary alveolar epithelium (blood into the ductal lumen (milk. Regulation of calcium transport during lactation is critical for maternal and neonatal health. The monoamine serotonin (5-HT is synthesized by the mammary gland and functions as a homeostatic regulation of lactation. Genetic ablation of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in non-neuronal serotonin synthesis, causes a deficiency in circulating serotonin. As a consequence maternal calcium concentrations decrease, mammary epithelial cell morphology is altered, and cell proliferation is decreased during lactation. Here we demonstrate that serotonin deficiency decreases the expression and disrupts the normal localization of calcium transporters located in the apical (PMCA2 and basolateral (CaSR, ORAI-1 membranes of the lactating mammary gland. In addition, serotonin deficiency decreases the mRNA expression of calcium transporters located in intracellular compartments (SERCA2, SPCA1 and 2. Mammary expression of serotonin receptor isoform 2b and its downstream pathways (PLCβ3, PKC and MAP-ERK1/2 are also decreased by serotonin deficiency, which might explain the numerous phenotypic alterations described above. In most cases, addition of exogenous 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan to the Tph1 deficient mice rescued the phenotype. Our data supports the hypothesis that serotonin is necessary for proper mammary gland structure and function, to regulate blood and mammary epithelial cell transport of calcium during lactation. These findings can be applicable to the treatment of lactation-induced hypocalcemia in dairy cows and can have profound implications in humans, given the wide-spread use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as antidepressants during pregnancy and lactation.

  10. Th-POK regulates mammary gland lactation through mTOR-SREBP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Ma, Huimin; Gao, Yuan; Wu, Yanjun; Qiao, Yuemei; Geng, Ajun; Cai, Cheguo; Han, Yingying; Zeng, Yi Arial; Liu, Xiaolong; Ge, Gaoxiang

    2018-02-01

    The Th-inducing POK (Th-POK, also known as ZBTB7B or cKrox) transcription factor is a key regulator of lineage commitment of immature T cell precursors. It is yet unclear the physiological functions of Th-POK besides helper T cell differentiation. Here we show that Th-POK is restrictedly expressed in the luminal epithelial cells in the mammary glands that is upregulated at late pregnancy and lactation. Lineage restrictedly expressed Th-POK exerts distinct biological functions in the mammary epithelial cells and T cells in a tissue-specific manner. Th-POK is not required for mammary epithelial cell fate determination. Mammary gland morphogenesis in puberty and alveologenesis in pregnancy are phenotypically normal in the Th-POK-deficient mice. However, Th-POK-deficient mice are defective in triggering the onset of lactation upon parturition with large cellular lipid droplets retained within alveolar epithelial cells. As a result, Th-POK knockout mice are unable to efficiently secret milk lipid and to nurse the offspring. Such defect is mainly attributed to the malfunctioned mammary epithelial cells, but not the tissue microenvironment in the Th-POK deficient mice. Th-POK directly regulates expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and insulin-induced Akt-mTOR-SREBP signaling. Th-POK deficiency compromises IRS-1 expression and Akt-mTOR-SREBP signaling in the lactating mammary glands. Conversely, insulin induces Th-POK expression. Thus, Th-POK functions as an important feed-forward regulator of insulin signaling in mammary gland lactation.

  11. Basic fibroblast growth factor in an animal model of spontaneous mammary tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Steven; Mo, Jeffrey; Baird, Andrew; Eliceiri, Brian P

    2012-06-01

    Although basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) was the first pro-angiogenic molecule discovered, it has numerous activities on the growth and differentiation of non-vascular cell types. FGF2 is both stimulatory and inhibitory, depending on the cell type evaluated, the experimental design used and the context in which it is tested. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulating endogenous FGF2 on the development of mammary cancer to determine whether its endogenous contribution in vivo is pro- or anti-tumorigenic. Specifically, we examined the effects of FGF2 gene dosing in a cross between a spontaneous breast tumor model (PyVT+ mice) and FGF2-/- (FGF KO) mice. Using these mice, the onset and progression of mammary tumors was determined. As predicted, female FGF2 WT mice developed mammary tumors starting around 60 days after birth and by 80 days, 100% of FGF2 WT female mice had mammary tumors. In contrast, 80% of FGF2 KO female mice had no palpable tumors until nearly three weeks later (85 days) at times when 100% of the WT cohort was tumor positive. All FGF KO mice were tumor-bearing by 115 days. When we compared the onset of mammary tumor development and the tumor progression curves between FGF het and FGF KO mice, we observed a difference, which suggested a gene dosing effect. Analysis of the tumors demonstrated that there were significant differences in tumor size depending on FGF2 status. The delay in tumor onset supports a functional role for FGF2 in mammary tumor progression, but argues against an essential role for FGF2 in overall mammary tumor progression.

  12. Mammary tuberculosis mimicking breast cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroulis Ioannis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The incidence of tuberculosis is rising worldwide and rare manifestations of the past are seen more often nowadays. Mammary tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity, often mimicking breast cancer or abscesses of benign or malignant origin. Clinical awareness is necessary during diagnostic work-up for establishing the correct diagnosis and treatment. Case presentation We present a case of breast tuberculosis diagnosed in a 73 year old woman at our institution. The patient presented with a palpable mass of the right breast with clinical, laboratory and mammographic findings indicative of breast carcinoma. The patient underwent lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Frozen section of the tumor and the sentinel node revealed "granulomatous inflammation", while gross examination confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculous mastitis. The patient received anti-tuberculosis therapy for six months with no side effects or any further complications. Conclusion Breast tuberculosis is an obscure disease often mistaken for carcinoma or pyogenic abscess of the breast, especially if well-defined clinical features are absent. A high index of suspicion is required because the disease can usually be treated conservatively with current antituberculous modalities while surgical intervention is reserved for rare cases only.

  13. Mammary neoplasm inflammatory: clinic presentation: combined treatment value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola Alles, A.; Sabini Gaye, G.; Barrios Herrera, E.; Muse Sevrini, I.

    1995-01-01

    On a total of 1152 patients bearing of cancer of she suckles tried in the period 1978-1988, 41 of she(3.5% )corresponding to the variety inflamatory. Her ages was understood between 26 and 73 years , was been 15(63,5% )postmenopause. Clinically they presented commitment mammary exclusive 34,1%, invasion ganglionar lorregional 48,7% and 17% was disseminated remaining. The initial treatment bases on 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy type FCA, safe in patient with more years that they received the association CMF. All then were irradiated with dose of 5000-6000 cGy on she suckles and territories ganglionares. Finish the treatment with 6 to 8 additional cycles of the patients' chemotherapy. Nobody it was subjected to surgical. The middle survive of the population's total it was of 22 meses, has been of 26 for the premenopause and 15 for the posmenopause. The percentage of relapses arrive to 30% and 45% in the located ways they were disseminated during its evolution. It highlights that the therapeutic strategy you bases on the association open chemotherapy, radiotherapy remaining the possibility of the handling of high citostatics dose with or without transplants of osseous medulla osea (Author) [es

  14. Exploration of inner mammary chains by isotopic lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, D.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Blanquet, P.; Dilhuydy, J.M.; Ducassou, D.

    1978-01-01

    The indirect isotopic lymphography of the internal mammary lymph nodes, is an interesting method of investigations as it is the only one which allows the visualization of these nodes, quite difficult to explore. The radioactive molecule used for this study is an antimony sulfocolloid labelled by technetium-99m. This material seems to be the most suitable more for its physical than physiological properties; it is injected into the posterium wall of the rectus muscle on both sides of the medium line. The main parameters obtained from this study on 30 normal and 20 pathological patients give morphological data: number of nodes, their position within intercostal spaces, the width of both chains, their aspect, the presence of subclavicular nodes, or the intercatenar spontaneous passage. On the other hand, the semeiologic data are much more difficult to individualize because of the very great variability of those nodes. Some special shapes give us no doubt as to the spreading of the nodes; but most of the time, just a modification of the scintigram aspect at the time assures us of the extension of neoplasm. This method, almost non invasive for the patient, and for which no local reaction of intolerance has been found, allows the radiotherapist to define its scope of irradiation on each patient, instead of referring himself to literature data, which are only average values [fr

  15. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2000-11-10

    Human pre-malignant breast diseases, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)3 already display several of the aberrant phenotypes found in primary breast cancers, including chromosomal abnormalities, telomerase activity, inactivation of the p53 gene and overexpression of some oncogenes. Efforts to model early breast carcinogenesis in human cell cultures have largely involved studies in vitro transformation of normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to immortality and malignancy. We present a model of HMEC immortal transformation consistent with the know in vivo data. This model includes a recently described, presumably epigenetic process, termed conversion, which occurs in cells that have overcome stringent replicative senescence and are thus able to maintain proliferation with critically short telomeres. The conversion process involves reactivation of telomerase activity, and acquisition of good uniform growth in the absence and presence of TFGB. We propose th at overcoming the proliferative constraints set by senescence, and undergoing conversion, represent key rate-limiting steps in human breast carcinogenesis, and occur during early stage breast cancer progression.

  16. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  17. High-Dimensional Phenotyping Identifies Age-Emergent Cells in Human Mammary Epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny A. Pelissier Vatter

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Aging is associated with tissue-level changes in cellular composition that are correlated with increased susceptibility to disease. Aging human mammary tissue shows skewed progenitor cell potency, resulting in diminished tumor-suppressive cell types and the accumulation of defective epithelial progenitors. Quantitative characterization of these age-emergent human cell subpopulations is lacking, impeding our understanding of the relationship between age and cancer susceptibility. We conducted single-cell resolution proteomic phenotyping of healthy breast epithelia from 57 women, aged 16–91 years, using mass cytometry. Remarkable heterogeneity was quantified within the two mammary epithelial lineages. Population partitioning identified a subset of aberrant basal-like luminal cells that accumulate with age and originate from age-altered progenitors. Quantification of age-emergent phenotypes enabled robust classification of breast tissues by age in healthy women. This high-resolution mapping highlighted specific epithelial subpopulations that change with age in a manner consistent with increased susceptibility to breast cancer. : Vatter et al. find that single-cell mass cytometry of human mammary epithelial cells from 57 women, from 16 to 91 years old, depicts an in-depth phenotyping of aging mammary epithelia. Subpopulations of altered luminal and progenitor cells that accumulate with age may be at increased risk for oncogenic transformation. Keywords: human mammary epithelia, aging, mass cytometry, single-cell analysis, heterogeneity, breast cancer

  18. Effects of radiation of cells in vivo: a rat mammary gland model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for the quantitative transplantation of monodispersed mammary cells. When adequate numbers of cells are transplanted, normal functional mammary tissue containing both secretory and myoepithelial cells in their normal tissue locations is formed. The analysis of the shape of cell dose-transplantation curves indicates a single cell origin of this tissue. Quantitative transplantation data from density gradient separated mammary cell subpopulations indicate that this cell is not of a unique type. With the use of an assay based on development of such structures from inoculated cells, in vivo radiation dose-cell survival curves have been generated under two hormonal conditions which result in differing rates of cell proliferation in the mammary gland. Survival curves generated under hormonal states that result in slow and rapid mammary cell proliferation are superimposable. In these assays tissue was removed immediately after irradiation for transplantation. If, however, the cells (slowly proliferating) are allowed to remain in situ for 24 hrs before removal for transplantation, the value of D 0 remains the same while n and D/sub q/ increase. Evidence is presented that indicates that these changes are due to a unique component of the repair of radiation damage which is dependent on the retention of the cells in their in situ tissue environment following the radiation period. This repair process is termed in situ repair

  19. Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) function is necessary for maintaining mammary tissue architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edmund C; Debnath, Shawon; Varriano, Sophia; Gundry, Stephen; Fata, Jimmie E

    2014-02-01

    The mammary gland is an ideal model to study the link between form and function in normal tissue. Perhaps as interesting as the cues necessary to generate this structure are the signals required to maintain its branched architecture over the lifetime of the organism, since likely these pathways are de-regulated in malignancies. Previously, we have shown that the Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), a critical regulator of intracellular pH, was necessary for mammary branching morphogenesis. Here we provide strong evidence that NHE1 function is also necessary for maintaining mammary branched architecture. Inhibition of NHE1 with 5-N-Methy-N-isobutyl amiloride (MIA) on branched structures resulted in a rapid (within 24 hr) and reversible loss of branched architecture that was not accompanied by any overt changes in cell proliferation or cell death. NHE1 inhibition led to a significant acidification of intracellular pH in the branched end buds that preceded a number of events, including altered tissue polarity of myoepithelial cells, loss of NHE1 basal polarity, F-actin rearrangements, and decreased E-cadherin expression. Our results implicate NHE1 function and intracellular pH homeostasis as key factors that maintain mammary tissue architecture, thus, indirectly allowing for mammary function as a milk-providing (form) and -producing (function) gland. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. In vitro culture and characterization of a mammary epithelial cell line from Chinese Holstein dairy cow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro. METHODOLOGY: Mammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells successively grew and extended from the culturing mammary tissue at the third day. Pure epithelial cells were obtained by passages culture. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The strong positive immunostaining to cytokeratin 18 suggested that the resulting cell line exhibited the specific character of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells cultured in the presence of 10% FBS, supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin, and hydrocortisone maintained a normal diploid chromosome modal number of 2n=60. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing beta-casein (CSN2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha (ACACA and butyrophilin (BTN1A1. An important finding was that frozen preservation in a mixture of 90% FBS and 10% DMSO did not influence the growth characteristics, chromosome number, or protein secretion of the isolated epithelial cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained mammary epithelial cell line had normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetic and secretory characteristics, thus, it might represent an useful tool for studying the function of Chinese Holstein dairy cows mammary epithelial cell (CMECs.

  1. Effects of glucose on lactose synthesis in mammary epithelial cells from dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ye; Sun, Xiaoxu; Hou, Xiaoming; Qu, Bo; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2016-05-26

    Lactose, as the primary osmotic component in milk, is the major determinant of milk volume. Glucose is the primary precursor of lactose. However, the effect of glucose on lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary glands and the mechanism governing this process are poorly understood. Here we showed that glucose has the ability to induce lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells, as well as increase cell viability and proliferation. A concentration of 12 mM glucose was the optimum concentration to induce cell growth and lactose synthesis in cultured dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. In vitro, 12 mM glucose enhanced lactose content, along with the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the lactose biosynthesis pathway, including GLUT1, SLC35A2, SLC35B1, HK2, β4GalT-I, and AKT1. In addition, we found that AKT1 knockdown inhibited cell growth and lactose synthesis as well as expression of GLUT1, SLC35A2, SLC35B1, HK2, and β4GalT-I. Glucose induces cell growth and lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. Protein kinase B alpha acts as a regulator of metabolism in dairy cow mammary gland to mediate the effects of glucose on lactose synthesis.

  2. Functional adaptations of the transcriptome to mastitis-causing pathogens: the mammary gland and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Juan J; Moyes, Kasey M; Bionaz, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    Application of microarrays to the study of intramammary infections in recent years has provided a wealth of fundamental information on the transcriptomics adaptation of tissue/cells to the disease. Due to its heavy toll on productivity and health of the animal, in vivo and in vitro transcriptomics works involving different mastitis-causing pathogens have been conducted on the mammary gland, primarily on livestock species such as cow and sheep, with few studies in non-ruminants. However, the response to an infectious challenge originating in the mammary gland elicits systemic responses in the animal and encompasses tissues such as liver and immune cells in the circulation, with also potential effects on other tissues such as adipose. The susceptibility of the animal to develop mastitis likely is affected by factors beyond the mammary gland, e.g. negative energy balance as it occurs around parturition. Objectives of this review are to discuss the use of systems biology concepts for the holistic study of animal responses to intramammary infection; providing an update of recent work using transcriptomics to study mammary and peripheral tissue (i.e. liver) as well as neutrophils and macrophage responses to mastitis-causing pathogens; discuss the effect of negative energy balance on mastitis predisposition; and analyze the bovine and murine mammary innate-immune responses during lactation and involution using a novel functional analysis approach to uncover potential predisposing factors to mastitis throughout an animal's productive life.

  3. Cdk2-Null Mice Are Resistant to ErbB-2-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of targeting G1 cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs in breast cancer treatments is supported by the fact that the genetic ablation of Cdk4 had minimal impacts on normal cell proliferation in majority of cell types, resulting in near-normal mouse development, whereas such loss of Cdk4 completely abrogated ErbB-2/neu-induced mammary tumorigenesis in mice. In most human breast cancer tissues, another G1-regulatory CDK, CDK2, is also hyperactivated by various mechanisms and is believed to be an important therapeutic target. In this report, we provide genetic evidence that CDK2 is essential for proliferation and oncogenesis of murine mammary epithelial cells. We observed that 87% of Cdk2-null mice were protected from ErbB-2-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from Cdk2-null mouse showed resistance to various oncogene-induced transformation. Previously, we have reported that hemizygous loss of Cdc25A, the major activator of CDK2, can also protect mice from ErbB-2-induced mammary tumorigenesis [Cancer Res (2007 67(14: 6605–11]. Thus, we propose that CDC25A-CDK2 pathway is critical for the oncogenic action of ErbB-2 in mammary epithelial cells, in a manner similar to Cyclin D1/CDK4 pathway.

  4. CDB-4124, a progesterone receptor modulator, inhibits mammary carcinogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehle, Ronald; Lantvit, Daniel; Yamada, Tohru; Christov, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    CDB-4124 (Proellex or telapristone acetate) is a modulator of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling, which is currently employed in preclinical studies for prevention and treatment of breast cancer and has been used in clinical studies for treatment of uterine fibroids and endometriosis. Here we provide evidence for its action on steroid hormone-signaling, cell cycle-regulated genes and in vivo on mammary carcinogenesis. When CDB-4124 is given to rats at 200 mg/kg for 24 months, it prevents the development of spontaneous mammary hyperplastic and premalignant lesions. Also, CDB-4124 given as subcutaneous pellets at two different doses suppressed, dose dependently, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary carcinogenesis. The high dose (30 mg, over 84 days) increased tumor latency from 66 ± 24 days to 87 ± 20 days (P CDB-4124 inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MNU-induced mammary tumors, which correlated with a decreased proportion of PR(+) tumor cells and with decreased serum progesterone. CDB-4124 did not affect serum estradiol. In a mechanistic study employing T47D cells we found that CDB-4124 suppressed G(1)/G(0)-S transition by inhibiting CDK2 and CDK4 expressions, which correlated with inhibition of estrogen receptor (ER) expression. Taken together, these data indicate that CDB-4124 can suppress the development of precancerous lesions and carcinogen-induced ER(+) mammary tumors in rats, and may have implications for prevention and treatment of human breast cancer.

  5. Podoplanin regulates mammary stem cell function and tumorigenesis by potentiating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresson, Laura; Faraldo, Marisa M; Di-Cicco, Amandine; Quintanilla, Miguel; Glukhova, Marina A; Deugnier, Marie-Ange

    2018-02-21

    Stem cells (SCs) drive mammary development, giving rise postnatally to an epithelial bilayer composed of luminal and basal myoepithelial cells. Dysregulation of SCs is thought to be at the origin of certain breast cancers; however, the molecular identity of SCs and the factors regulating their function remain poorly defined. We identified the transmembrane protein podoplanin (Pdpn) as a specific marker of the basal compartment, including multipotent SCs, and found Pdpn localized at the basal-luminal interface. Embryonic deletion of Pdpn targeted to basal cells diminished basal and luminal SC activity and affected the expression of several Wnt/β-catenin signaling components in basal cells. Moreover, Pdpn loss attenuated mammary tumor formation in a mouse model of β-catenin-induced breast cancer, limiting tumor-initiating cell expansion and promoting molecular features associated with mesenchymal-to-epithelial cell transition. In line with the loss-of-function data, we demonstrated that mechanistically Pdpn enhances Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mammary basal cells. Overall, this study uncovers a role for Pdpn in mammary SC function and, importantly, identifies Pdpn as a new regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a key pathway in mammary development and tumorigenesis. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Inhibition of rat mammary microsomal oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde by plant polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, María Eugenia; Castro, José Alberto; Castro, Gerardo Daniel

    2011-07-01

    We previously reported that the microsomal fraction from rat mammary tissue is able to oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, a mutagenic-carcinogenic metabolite, depending on the presence of NADPH and oxygen but not inhibited by carbon monoxide or other cytochrome P450 inhibitors. The process was strongly inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium, a known inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and by nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of lipoxygenases. This led us to suggest that both enzymes could be involved. With the purpose of identifying natural compounds present in food with the ability to decrease the production of acetaldehyde in mammary tissue, in the present studies, several plant polyphenols having inhibitory effects on lipoxygenases and of antioxidant nature were tested as potential inhibitors of the rat mammary tissue microsomal pathway of ethanol oxidation. We included in the present screening study 32 polyphenols having ready availability and that were also tested against the rat mammary tissue cytosolic metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Several polyphenols were also able to inhibit the microsomal ethanol oxidation at concentrations as low was 10-50 μM. The results of these screening experiments suggest the potential of several plant polyphenols to prevent in vivo production and accumulation of acetaldehyde in mammary tissue.

  7. Experimental study on the clinical effects of Xiaoru Sanjie Jiaonang on mammary glands hyperplasia and ki-67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zi-Hao; Liu, Lin; Zou, Shi-Fang; Xu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Cui-Cui; Liang, Wen-Long; Guo, Bao-Liang; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Kai-Yuan; Liu, Jie-Na; Xu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Ji-Yan; Lin, Jia-Yan; Liu, Li; Zhang, Jian Guo; Chen, Xi

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to observe the effect and mechanism of Xiaoru Sanjie Jiaonang (XRSJ) on the treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, and provide a theoretical basis and clinical evidence for clinical expansion. Methods: Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: high-, middle- and low-dose groups; Xiaoyao Pill group; model control group; normal control group. The observation points were as follows: before XRSJ administration, three months after XRSJ administration, and three months after XRSJ discontinuance. Changes in breast height, morphological changes of the mammary gland under a light and electron microscope, and the expression of ki-67 were observed. At the same time, patients diagnosed with mammary gland hyperplasia at an Outpatient Clinic were selected and divided into treatment groups. These patients received XRSJ and Xiaoyao Pills, respectively, for one month, while patients in the control group did not receive any drug treatment. Clinical efficacy was observed while rechecking at the Outpatient Clinic after three months. Treatment with a therapeutic dose of XRSJ could significantly reduce breast height, decrease the number of lobules and acini in hyperplastic mammary glands and the layer number of ductal glandular epithelial cells, substantially lower the content of serum estradiol (E2), significantly downregulate the expression of ki-67 protein in mammary tissues, and inhibit mammary gland hyperplasia. Conclusion: XRSJ treatment can relieve mammary tissue hyperplastic lesions, reduce E2 levels and downregulate the expression of ki-67. It has a significant therapeutic effect on mammary gland hyperplasia. PMID:29636873

  8. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simian, M.; Harail, Y.; Navre, M.; Werb, Z.; Lochter, A.; Bissell, M.J.

    2002-03-06

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor was strongly reduced by inhibitors of MMPs, indicating the requirement of MMPs for three-dimensional growth involved in morphogenesis. Recombinant stromelysin 1/MMP-3 alone was sufficient to drive branching in the absence of growth factors in the organoids. Plasmin also stimulated branching; however, plasmin-dependent branching was abolished by both inhibitors of plasmin and MMPs, suggesting that plasmin activates MMPs. To differentiate between signals for proliferation and morphogenesis, we used a cloned mammary epithelial cell line that lacks epimorphin, an essential mammary morphogen. Both epimorphin and MMPs were required for morphogenesis, but neither was required for epithelial cell proliferation. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of MMPs in branching in mammary epithelium and suggest that, in addition to epimorphin, MMP activity is a minimum requirement for branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland.

  9. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simian, Marina; Hirai, Yohei; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-01-01

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor was strongly reduced by inhibitors of MMPs, indicating the requirement of MMPs for three-dimensional growth involved in morphogenesis. Recombinant stromelysin 1/MMP-3 alone was sufficient to drive branching in the absence of growth factors in the organoids. Plasmin also stimulated branching; however, plasmin-dependent branching was abolished by both inhibitors of plasmin and MMPs, suggesting that plasmin activates MMPs. To differentiate between signals for proliferation and morphogenesis, we used a cloned mammary epithelial cell line that lacks epimorphin, an essential mammary morphogen. Both epimorphin and MMPs were required for morphogenesis, but neither was required for epithelial cell proliferation. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of MMPs in branching in mammary epithelium and suggest that, in addition to epimorphin, MMP activity is a minimum requirement for branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland

  10. Marginal activity of progesterone receptor B (PR-B) in dogs but high incidence of mammary cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracanin, Ana; Voorwald, Fabiana A; van Wolferen, Monique; Timmermans-Sprang, Elpetra; Mol, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone plays an important role in the normal development and carcinogenesis of the mammary gland. In vitro studies have shown that the canine progesterone receptor B (cPR-B), which is essential for mammary development in the mouse, does not transactivate reporter constructs containing

  11. EMMPRIN (basigin/CD147) expression is not correlated with MMP activity during adult mouse mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowska, Malgorzata; Hendry, Kay A K; Robinson, Claire; Kolb, Andreas F

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/basigin/CD147) is a cell surface protein, which has been associated with the induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes during cancer metastasis. EMMPRIN plays a role in a variety of physiological processes as is evident by the diverse deficiencies detectable in EMMPRIN knockout mice. We have analysed the role of EMMPRIN in the induction of MMP genes during mammary gland differentiation and involution. Co-transfection studies showed that EMMPRIN has diverse effects on MMP promoter activity in different mammary and non-mammary cell lines. Expression of EMMPRIN mRNA is enhanced markedly by insulin in a mammary gland cell line but appears to have no direct effect on MMP gene expression in these cells. Microarray analysis and quantitative PCR show that EMMPRIN is expressed throughout mammary gland differentiation in the mouse. Its expression decreases during early pregnancy and briefly after induction of mammary gland involution by litter removal. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that EMMPRIN expression is limited to the stromal compartment during pregnancy, whereas it is strongly expressed in the epithelium during lactation. In summary the data argue against a causal role for EMMPRIN for the induction of MMP gene expression during adult mammary gland development. These data therefore support a physiological role for EMMPRIN other than MMP induction in mammary gland biology. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Alteration of gene expression in mammary gland tissue of dairy cows in response to dietary unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Jacobs, A.A.A.; Kruijt, L.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from different plant oils on gene expression in the mammary gland of grazing dairy cows. Milk composition and gene expression in the mammary gland tissue were evaluated in grazing dairy cows

  13. Effects of xanthosine on gene expression of mammary epithelial cells using RNA sequencing of goat milk fat globules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although intramammary xanthosine (XS) treatment was reported to increase the mammary stem cell population and milk yield in bovine and caprine, underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study was to evaluate effects of XS treatment on the mammary transcriptome in early lactati...

  14. Other people's accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-06-15

    The first report from the Washington Accelerator Conference concentrated on news from the particle physics centres. But the bulk of the Conference covered the use of accelerators in other fields, underlining this valuable spinoff from particle physics.

  15. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  16. The electron accelerator Ridgetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashizaki, N.; Hattori, T.; Odera, M.; Fujisawa, T.

    1999-01-01

    Many electron accelerators of DC or RF type have been widely used for electron beam irradiation (curing, crosslinking of polymers, sterilization of medical disposables, preservation of food, etc.). Regardless of the acceleration energy, the accelerators to be installed in industrial facilities, have to satisfy the requires of compact size, low power consumption and stable operation. The DC accelerator is realized very compact in the energy under 300 keV, however, it is large to prevent the discharge of an acceleration column in the energy over 300 keV. The RF electron accelerator Ridgetron has been developed to accelerate the continuous beam of the 0.5-10 MeV range in compact space. It is the first example as an electron accelerator incorporated a ridged RF cavity. A prototype system of final energy of 2.5 MeV has been studied to confirm the feasibility at present

  17. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  18. Unified accelerator libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malitsky, Nikolay; Talman, Richard

    1997-01-01

    A 'Universal Accelerator Libraries' (UAL) environment is described. Its purpose is to facilitate program modularity and inter-program and inter-process communication among heterogeneous programs. The goal ultimately is to facilitate model-based control of accelerators

  19. YEREVAN: Acceleration workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Sponsored by the Yerevan Physics Institute in Armenia, a Workshop on New Methods of Charged Particle Acceleration in October near the Nor Amberd Cosmic Ray Station attracted participants from most major accelerator centres in the USSR and further afield

  20. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, Brian

    1991-01-01

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  1. Large tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of tandem accelerators designed to operate at maximum terminal potentials in the range 14 to 30 MV. In addition, a number of older tandem accelerators are now being significantly upgraded to improve their heavy ion performance. Both of these developments have reemphasized the importance of negative heavy ion sources. The new large tandem accelerators are described, and the requirements placed on negative heavy ion source technology by these and other tandem accelerators used for the acceleration of heavy ions are discussed. First, a brief description is given of the large tandem accelerators which have been completed recently, are under construction, or are funded for construction, second, the motivation for construction of these accelerators is discussed, and last, criteria for negative ion sources for use with these accelerators are presented

  2. Vp x B acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Ryo.

    1987-05-01

    A unique particle acceleration by an electrostatic (ES) wave, a magnetosonic shock wave as well as an electromagnetic (EM) wave is reviewed. The principle of the acceleration is that when a charged particle is carried across an external magnetic field the charge feels a DC field (the Lorentz force) and is accelerated. The theory for the ES wave acceleration is experimentally verified thought it is semi-quantitative. The shock acceleration is extensively studied theoretically and in a particle simulation method and the application is extended to phenomena in interplanetary space. The EM wave acceleration is based on a trapping in a moving neutral sheet created by the wave magnetic field and the external magnetic field, and the particle can be accelerated indefinitely. A brief sketch on a slow-wave-structure for this acceleration will be given. (author)

  3. Accelerator-timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, E.; Heine, E.

    1985-01-01

    Along the NIKHEF accelerator in Amsterdam (Netherlands), at several places a signal is needed for the sychronisation of all devices with the acceleration process. In this report, basic principles and arrangements of this timing system are described

  4. Linear accelerator: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzberg, J.

    1972-01-01

    Design is proposed for inexpensive accelerometer which would work by applying pressure to fluid during acceleration. Pressure is used to move shuttle, and shuttle movement is sensed and calibrated to give acceleration readings.

  5. Heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, C.

    1974-01-01

    This review of the present state of work on heavy-ion accelerators pays particular attention to the requirements for nuclear research. It is divided into the following sections: single-particle versus collective acceleration, heavy-ion accelerators, beam quality, and a status report on the UNILAC facility. Among the topics considered are the recycling cyclotron, linacs with superconducting resonators, and acceleration to the GeV/nucleon range. (8 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  6. Accelerators at school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required

  7. Accelerators at school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-06-15

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required.

  8. Accelerators for Medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    This lecture will review the different applications of particle accelerators to the medical field, from cancer treatment with beams of accelerator-produced particles (photons, electrons, protons, ions and neutrons) to the generation of radioactive isotopes used in medical diagnostics, in cancer therapy and in the new domain of theragnostics. For each application will be outlined the state of the art, the potential, and the accelerator challenges to be faced to meet the increasing demand for therapeutic procedures based on accelerators.

  9. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is divided into four parts: a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year

  10. Particle beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A particle beam accelerator is described which has several electrodes that are selectively short circuited together synchronously with changes in the magnitude of a DC voltage applied to the accelerator. By this method a substantially constant voltage gradient is maintained along the length of the unshortened electrodes despite variations in the energy applied to the beam by the accelerator. The invention has particular application to accelerating ion beams that are implanted into semiconductor wafers. (U.K.)

  11. Superconducting accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  12. Applications of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, O.

    1994-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  13. A simple ductal mammary papilloma in a male maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassali, Geovanni D; Bertagnolli, Angélica C; Ferreira, Enio; Malta, Marcelo C C

    2009-01-01

    A 1-cm-diameter nodule was identified in the left inguinal mammary gland of a 9-year-old male maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). The mass was surgically excised and examined histologically. Microscopically, the neoplasm consisted of papillary proliferations of epithelial cells on well-defined fibrovascular stalks. A myoepithelial layer was located between the single layer of epithelial cells and the fibrovascular stalk. This histologic appearance was compatible with a diagnosis of simple ductal mammary papilloma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for p63, cytokeratins AE1/AE3, and estrogen receptors. The clinical and histologic observations in the present case indicate that male maned wolves may develop mammary tumors that are similar to those observed in domestic dogs and humans.

  14. Luminal epithelial cells within the mammary gland can produce basal cells upon oncogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, S M; Haricharan, S; Johnston, A N; Toneff, M J; Reddy, J P; Dong, J; Bu, W; Li, Y

    2016-03-17

    In the normal mammary gland, the basal epithelium is known to be bipotent and can generate either basal or luminal cells, whereas the luminal epithelium has not been demonstrated to contribute to the basal compartment in an intact and normally developed mammary gland. It is not clear whether cellular heterogeneity within a breast tumor results from transformation of bipotent basal cells or from transformation and subsequent basal conversion of the more differentiated luminal cells. Here we used a retroviral vector to express an oncogene specifically in a small number of the mammary luminal epithelial cells and tested their potential to produce basal cells during tumorigenesis. This in-vivo lineage-tracing work demonstrates that luminal cells are capable of producing basal cells on activation of either polyoma middle T antigen or ErbB2 signaling. These findings reveal the plasticity of the luminal compartment during tumorigenesis and provide an explanation for cellular heterogeneity within a cancer.

  15. Mammographic manifestations of mammary hamartoma (with an analysis of 10 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Cheng; Luo Zebin; Chen Yun; Lin Wenmiao; Diao Shenglin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the mammographic characteristics and the pathological basis of mammary hamartoma. Methods: The mammogram of 10 cases of mammary hamartoma proved by pathology were retrospectively analyzed. The patients aged from 25 to 56 years with an average age of (40.1 ± 5.4 years ). Results: According to the fat/parenchyma ratio, the mammgraphic manifestations of mammary hamartoma were divided into three types. 2 highly radiolucent lesions were classified as fat type, 2 lesions with high density were classified as dense type and the rest 6 lesions were the mixed type composed of adipose and glandular tissue. The mixed type was the most distinctive, while the dense or rat type was easy to be misdiagnosed. Accurate diagnosis was made in 6 cases out of, and the overall diagnostic accuracy was 60%. Conclusion: Mammography is the choice of diagnosis, and an accurate diagnosis will help surgical planning. (authors)

  16. Prepubertal exposure to cow's milk reduces susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Khan, Galam; Davis, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk contains high levels of estrogens, progesterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), all of which are associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether prepubertal milk exposure affects mammary gland development and carcinogenesis in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were given either...... whole milk or tap water to drink from postnatal day (PND) 14 to PND 35, and thereafter normal tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administering 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on PND 50. Milk exposure increased circulating E2 levels on PND 25 by 10-fold (p ... opening, which marks puberty onset, by 2.5 days (p milk before puberty exhibited reduced carcinogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis; that is, their tumor latency was longer (p

  17. Anal Papilloma: An Exceptional Presentation of Fibrocystic Disease in Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subashchandrabose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously ectopic breast tissue was thought to be derived from the caudal remnants of the primitive embryonic milk ridges; anogenital mammary-like glands are presently considered as normal constituents of the anogenital region. We report a case of young female, who presented with an anal papilloma. Histopathological examination revealed extensive fibrocystic changes in anogenital mammary-like glands. To date, a lot of benign changes and a wide range of benign and malignant neoplasms have been reported in these glands. However, extensive fibrocystic change of these glands in anal region is very rare. In addition, fibrocystic disease of anal mammary glands, masquerading clinically as an anal papilloma, has not been reported in literature. Hence, it is essential for clinicians and the pathologists to be aware of such a rare presentation. The features of fibrocystic disease in perianal region are also discussed.

  18. Anal Papilloma: An Exceptional Presentation of Fibrocystic Disease in Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, Priya; Esakkai, Muthuvel; Venugopal, Palani; Kannaiyan, Ilavarasan; Srinivasan, Chitra; Reddy, Punuru Tejashwini; Ebenezer, Evelyn Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previously ectopic breast tissue was thought to be derived from the caudal remnants of the primitive embryonic milk ridges; anogenital mammary-like glands are presently considered as normal constituents of the anogenital region. We report a case of young female, who presented with an anal papilloma. Histopathological examination revealed extensive fibrocystic changes in anogenital mammary-like glands. To date, a lot of benign changes and a wide range of benign and malignant neoplasms have been reported in these glands. However, extensive fibrocystic change of these glands in anal region is very rare. In addition, fibrocystic disease of anal mammary glands, masquerading clinically as an anal papilloma, has not been reported in literature. Hence, it is essential for clinicians and the pathologists to be aware of such a rare presentation. The features of fibrocystic disease in perianal region are also discussed.

  19. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  20. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  1. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    CERN Multimedia

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  2. Far field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail

  3. Tamoxifen induces regression of estradiol-induced mammary cancer in the ACI.COP-Ept2 rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlen, Rachel L; Willbrand, Dana M; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Ma, Lixin; Shull, James D; Sauter, Edward R

    2009-10-01

    The ACI rat is a unique model of human breast cancer in that mammary cancers are induced by estrogen without carcinogens, irradiation, xenografts or transgenic manipulations. We sought to characterize mammary cancers in a congenic variant of the ACI rat, the ACI.COP-Ept2. All rats with estradiol implants developed mammary cancers in 5-7 months. Rats bearing estradiol-induced mammary cancers were treated with tamoxifen for three weeks. Tamoxifen reduced tumor mass, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, by 89%. Tumors expressed estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Erbb2. ERalpha and PR were overexpressed in tumor compared to adjacent non-tumor mammary gland. Thus, this model is highly relevant to hormone responsive human breast cancers.

  4. The Wnt Signaling Landscape of Mammary Stem Cells and Breast Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Caroline M

    2018-01-01

    Attention has been focused on Wnt signaling in the mouse mammary gland for several decades, firstly by the discovery of several Wnt loci among the oncogenes revealed by MMTV-based insertional mutagenesis screening of mouse mammary gland, and then by the remarkable visualization of Wnt-dependent specification of mammary placodes in embryonic skin. This review aims to summarize the impact of recent data for our understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in these roles. The amount and identity of both familiar and novel Wnt signaling components is examined for mouse mammary epithelial cells. The hierarchical arrangement of mammary epithelial cell progenitors and stem cells inferred from the study of isolated cells is reinterpreted in an era that has demonstrated almost limitless cellular plasticity. Functional definitions of stem and progenitor activities are reevaluated with the discovery of novel stem cell activities and regulators, and we draw parallels with the arrangement of replication-competent cells in other tissues. Although Wnt signaling is highly oncogenic for mouse mammary epithelia, the data supporting Wnt signaling as a tumor driver for human breast cancer are still flimsy, and there is little support for the recruitment of normal Wnt-dependent breast stem cells as tumor precursor cells for either mouse or human. We discuss possible explanations for this paradox and questions still unanswered, including the potential impact of recent discoveries of Wnt-secreting microenvironments, oncogenic changes in the Rspo/Lgr/Ubiquitin ligase amplifier complex, as they could apply to breast tissues, and the feedback suppression of Wnt signaling that characterizes its developmental activity and may hide Wnt signatures in tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for normal mammary gland development and stem cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Adam C; Bin, Xue; Batts, Torey; Roarty, Kevin; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling plays an important role in embryonic stem cells and adult tissue homeostasis, but the function of FGFs in mammary gland stem cells is less well defined. Both FGFR1 and FGFR2 are expressed in basal and luminal mammary epithelial cells (MECs), suggesting that together they might play a role in mammary gland development and stem cell dynamics. Previous studies have demonstrated that the deletion of FGFR2 resulted only in transient developmental defects in branching morphogenesis. Using a conditional deletion strategy, we investigated the consequences of FGFR1 deletion alone and then the simultaneous deletion of both FGFR1 and FGFR2 in the mammary epithelium. FGFR1 deletion using a keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre-recombinase resulted in an early, yet transient delay in development. However, no reduction in functional outgrowth potential was observed following limiting dilution transplantation analysis. In contrast, a significant reduction in outgrowth potential was observed upon the deletion of both FGFR1 and FGFR2 in MECs using adenovirus-Cre. Additionally, using a fluorescent reporter mouse model to monitor Cre-mediated recombination, we observed a competitive disadvantage following transplantation of both FGFR1/R2-null MECs, most prominently in the basal epithelial cells. This correlated with the complete loss of the mammary stem cell repopulating population in the FGFR1/R2-attenuated epithelium. FGFR1/R2-null MECs were partially rescued in chimeric outgrowths containing wild-type MECs, suggesting the potential importance of paracrine mechanisms involved in the maintenance of the basal epithelial stem cells. These studies document the requirement for functional FGFR signaling in mammary stem cells during development. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Histopathological and in vivo evidence of regucalcin as a protective molecule in mammary gland carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Ricardo; Vaz, Cátia V.; Maia, Cláudio J. [CICS-UBI, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal); Gomes, Madalena [IPATIMUP, Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Gama, Adelina [Department of Veterinary Sciences, Animal and Veterinary Science Research Center (CECAV), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD) (Portugal); Alves, Gilberto; Santos, Cecília R. [CICS-UBI, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal); Schmitt, Fernando [IPATIMUP, Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Medical Faculty, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Pathology, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Socorro, Sílvia, E-mail: ssocorro@fcsaude.ubi.pt [CICS-UBI, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal)

    2015-01-15

    Regucalcin (RGN) is a calcium-binding protein, which has been shown to be underexpressed in cancer cases. This study aimed to determine the association of RGN expression with clinicopathological parameters of human breast cancer. In addition, the role of RGN in malignancy of mammary gland using transgenic rats overexpressing the protein (Tg-RGN) was investigated. Wild-type (Wt) and Tg-RGN rats were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA). Carcinogen-induced tumors were histologically classified and the Ki67 proliferation index was estimated. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that RGN immunoreactivity was negatively correlated with the histological grade of breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma suggesting that progression of breast cancer is associated with loss of RGN. Tg-RGN rats displayed lower incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary gland tumors, as well as lower incidence of invasive forms. Moreover, higher proliferation was observed in non-invasive tumors of Wt animals comparatively with Tg-RGN. Overexpression of RGN was associated with diminished expression of cell-cycle inhibitors and increased expression of apoptosis inducers. Augmented activity of apoptosis effector caspase-3 was found in the mammary gland of Tg-RGN. RGN overexpression protected from carcinogen-induced mammary gland tumor development and was linked with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. These findings indicated the protective role of RGN in the carcinogenesis of mammary gland. - Highlights: • RGN immunoreactivity was negatively correlated with breast cancer differentiation. • Transgenic overexpression of RGN diminished incidence of carcinogen-induced tumors. • Transgenic overexpression of RGN restricted proliferation and fostered apoptosis. • RGN has a protective role in the carcinogenesis of mammary gland.

  7. A Study of Using Massage Therapy Accompanied with Stretching Exercise for Rehabilitation of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To apply massage therapy accompanied with stretching exercises for treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, evaluate the clinical outcome in patients, and estimate the therapy as a novel treatment method for mammary hyperplasia. Methods. 28 adult female patients were selected and treated with massage therapy and stretching exercises focusing on skeleton muscles of chest, abdomen, and axilla. The mammary gland oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb levels were detected before and after treatment after 15, 30, and 45 days. Results. In this cohort, pretreatment OxyHb (mean ± SD is 1.32±0.14 (medium-high, and DeoxyHb is 0.87±0.13 (normal. All patients were clinically diagnosed with benign mammary gland hyperplasia and mastitis. The posttreatment OxyHb levels are 1.23±0.09 (normal-medium, 15-day, 1.16±0.08 (normal, 30-day, and 1.05±0.04 (normal, 45-day, and DeoxyHb levels are 0.90±0.11 (normal, 15-day, 0.94±0.18 (normal, 30-day, and 0.98±0.12 (normal, 45-day. Patients were diagnosed with decreased hyperplasia 15 and 30 days after treatment and with no symptom of hyperplasia in mammary gland 45 days after treatment. Conclusion. Mammary gland hyperplasia is closely correlated with pathological changes of skeletal muscles and could be significantly improved by massage therapy and stretching exercises targeting neighboring skeletal muscles.

  8. Immunomodulation of Host Chitinase 3-Like 1 During a Mammary Pathogenic Escherichia coli Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Breyne

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is a N-acetyl-d-glucosamine biopolymer that can be recognized by chitin-binding proteins. Although mammals lack chitin synthase, they induce proteins responsible for detecting chitin in response to bacterial infections. Our aim was to investigate whether chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1 has a potential role in the innate immunity of the Escherichia coli (E. coli infected mammary gland. CHI3L1 protein was found to be secreted in whey of naturally coliform-affected quarters compared to whey samples isolated from healthy udders. In addition, gene expression of CHI3L1 was confirmed in udder tissue of cows experimentally infected with a mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC strain. Despite the known anatomical differences, the bovine udders’ innate immune response was mimicked by applying an experimental mouse model using MPEC or non-MPEC isolates. The effect of CHI3L1 expression in the murine mammary gland in response to coliform bacteria was investigated through the use of CHI3L1−/− mice as well as through treatment with either a pan-caspase inhibitor or chitin particles in wild-type mice. The local induction of CHI3L1 postinfection with different E. coli strains was demonstrated to be independent of both bacterial growth and mammary interleukin (IL-8 levels. Indeed, CHI3L1 emerged as a regulator impacting on the transcytosis of Ly6G-positive cells from the interstitial space into the alveolar lumen of the mammary tissue. Furthermore, CHI3L1 was found to be upstream regulated by caspase activity and had a major downstream effect on the local pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, including IL-1beta, IL-6, and RANTES/CCL5. In conclusion, CHI3L1 was demonstrated to play a key role in the cytokine and caspase signaling during E. coli triggered inflammation of the mammary gland.

  9. Virtual Accelerator for Accelerator Optics Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Yan Yi Ton; Decker, Franz Josef; Ecklund, Stanley; Irwin, John; Seeman, John; Sullivan, Michael K; Turner, J L; Wienands, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Through determination of all quadrupole strengths and sextupole feed-downs by fitting quantities derivable from precision orbit measurement, one can establish a virtual accelerator that matches the real accelerator optics. These quantities (the phase advances, the Green's functions, and the coupling eigen-plane ellipses tilt angles and axis ratios) are obtained by analyzing turn-by-turn Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data with a model-independent analysis (MIA). Instead of trying to identify magnet errors, a limited number of quadrupoles are chosen for optimized strength adjustment to improve the virtual accelerator optics and then applied to the real accelerator accordingly. These processes have been successfully applied to PEP-II rings for beta beating fixes, phase and working tune adjustments, and linear coupling reduction to improve PEP-II luminosity.

  10. Suppression of ICE and Apoptosis in Mammary Epithelial Cells by Extracellular Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreau, Nancy; Sympson, C. J.; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J.

    1994-12-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) plays a major role in development and tissue regeneration. Basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM), but not fibronectin or collagen, was shown to suppress apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells in tissue culture and in vivo. Apoptosis was induced by antibodies to beta 1 integrins or by overexpression of stromelysin-1, which degrades ECM. Expression of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) correlated with the loss of ECM, and inhibitors of ICE activity prevented apoptosis. These results suggest that ECM regulates apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells through an integrin-dependent negative regulation of ICE expression.

  11. Vitamin D Pathway Status and the Identification of Target Genes in the Mouse Mammary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    breast cancer stem cells with oncolytic herpes simplex virus. Cancer Gene Therapy 2012;19(10):707-14. June 21, 2012 – Poster Presentation – Presented...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0152 TITLE: Vitamin D Pathway Status and the Identification of Target Genes in the Mouse Mammary... Identification of Target Genes in the 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0152 Mouse Mammary Gland 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  12. Inhibition of Mammary Cancer Progression in Fetal Alcohol Exposed Rats by β-Endorphin Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changqing; Franklin, Tina; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) increases the susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary cancer progression in rodent models. FAE also decreases β-endorphin (β-EP) level and causes hyperstress response, which leads to inhibition of immune function against cancer. Previous studies have shown that injection of nanosphere-attached dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) into the third ventricle increases the number of β-EP neurons in the hypothalamus. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic potential of stress regulation using methods to increase hypothalamic levels of β-EP, a neuropeptide that inhibits stress axis activity, in treatment of carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in fetal alcohol exposed rats. Fetal alcohol exposed and control Sprague Dawley rats were given a dose of N-Nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) at postnatal day 50 to induce mammary cancer growth. Upon detection of mammary tumors, the animals were either transplanted with β-EP neurons or injected with dbcAMP-delivering nanospheres into the hypothalamus to increase β-EP peptide production. Spleen cytokines were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Metastasis study was done by injecting mammary cancer cells MADB106 into jugular vein of β-EP-activated or control fetal alcohol exposed animals. Both transplantation of β-EP neurons and injection of dbcAMP-delivering nanospheres inhibited MNU-induced mammary cancer growth in control rats, and reversed the effect of FAE on the susceptibility to mammary cancer. Similar to the previously reported immune-enhancing and stress-suppressive effects of β-EP transplantation, injection of dbcAMP-delivering nanospheres increased the levels of interferon-γ and granzyme B and decreased the levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine in fetal alcohol exposed rats. Mammary cancer cell metastasis study also showed that FAE increased incidence of lung tumor retention, while β-EP transplantation inhibited lung tumor growth in

  13. A Mammary Type Myofibroblastoma in the Pelvic Cavity: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Lee, Il Gi; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Ji Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Mammary-type myofibroblastoma is very rare, benign mesenchymal neoplasm that's composed of spindleshaped cells with features of myofibroblasts, and these cells are embedded in a stroma with hyalinization. The most common location of the tumor is the inguinal area and to the best of our our knowledge, there has been no such case that this type of tumor has presented as a pelvic space mass. We report here on a very rare form of mammary-type myofibroblastoma and we include the ultrasound and CT images

  14. Progesterone receptor isoform A may regulate the effects of neoadjuvant aglepristone in canine mammary carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guil-Luna, Silvia; Stenvang, Jan; Brünner, Nils

    2014-01-01

    RNA expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in mammary carcinomas in dogs treated with 20 mg/Kg of aglepristone (n¿=¿22) or vehicle (n¿=¿5) twice before surgery.ResultsFormalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples taken before and after treatment were used to analyse total progesterone receptor......-receptor positive and isoform-A positive tumours in aglepristone-treated dogs.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that the antiproliferative effects of aglepristone in canine mammary carcinomas are mediated by progesterone receptor isoform A....

  15. Mammary gland leptin in relation to lactogenesis in the periparturient dairy goat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Alice Neess; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2008-01-01

    The role of leptin in development of mammary gland secretory function was studied during the periparturient period in dairy goats. Changes in mammary leptin and leptin receptor (short cytoplasmic form) expression were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and related to changes in milk and plasma leptin...... peak in milk leptin 2 days post-partum needs to be understood. We did not find evidence that milk leptin can be absorbed, and thus play a role in systemic regulation, of the neonatal goat....

  16. Imaging diagnosis--ultrasonographic appearance of small bowel metastasis from canine mammary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Elisabet; Anadón, Eduard; Espada, Yvonne; Grau-Roma, Llorenç; Majó, Natàlia; Novellas, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    A 10-year-old entire female Beagle dog was evaluated for an acute history of lethargy, anorexia, and diarrhea. Mammary tumors were detected during physical examination. Ultrasonographic scanning revealed the presence of a unique pattern of multiple, well-defined and well-marginated hypoechoic nodules in the muscularis layer of the jejunum. These nodules were not associated with changes in the rest of the normal intestinal layering and were not causing signs of intestinal obstruction. Mammary carcinoma metastases to the intestinal muscularis layer were diagnosed based on histopathological examination. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  17. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are productsof interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaBarge, Mark A.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Villadsen, René

    2009-01-01

    factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify...... combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells.Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well...

  18. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  19. Notes on Laser Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    2008-01-01

    This note intends to motivate our effort toward the advent of new methods of particle acceleration, utilizing the fast rising laser technology. By illustrating the underlying principles in an intuitive manner and thus less jargon-clad fashion, we seek a direction in which we shall be able to properly control and harness the promise of laser acceleration. First we review the idea behind the laser wakefield. We then go on to examine ion acceleration by laser. We examine the sheath acceleration in particular and look for the future direction that allows orderly acceleration of ions in high energies

  20. Inhibition of aromatase activity by methyl sulfonyl PCB metabolites in primary culture of human mammary fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M. van den; Heneweer, M.; Geest, M. de; Sanderson, T. [Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences and Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Jong, P. de [St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Methyl sulfonyl PCB metabolites (MeSO2-PCBs) are persistent contaminants and are ubiquitously present in humans and the environment. Lipophilicity of MeSO2- PCB metabolites is similar to the parent compounds and they have been detected in human milk, adipose, liver and lung tissue. 4- MeSO2-PCB-149 is the most abundant PCB metabolite in human adipose tissue and milk at a level of 1.5 ng/g lipids. Human blood concentration of 4-MeSO2-PCB-149 is approximately 0.03 nM. 3- MeSO2-PCB-101 is the predominant PCB metabolite in muscle and blubber in wildlife, such as otter, mink and grey seal. In the environment, they have been linked to chronic and reproductive toxicity in exposed mink. Additionaly, some MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs have been shown to be glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonists. Since approximately 60% of all breast tumors are estrogen responsive, exposure to compounds that are able to alter estrogen synthesis through interference with the aromatase enzyme, can lead to changes in estrogen levels and possibly to accelerated or inhibit breast tumor growth. Therefore, it is important to identify exogenous compounds that can alter aromatase activity in addition to those compounds which have direct interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER). Aromatase (CYP19) comprises the ubiquitous flavoprotein, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and a unique cytochrome P450 that is exclusively expressed in estrogen producing cells. Previous studies have revealed that expression of the aromatase gene is regulated in a species- and tissue specific manner. In healthy breast tissue, the predominantly active aromatase promoter region I.4 is regulated by glucocorticoids and class I cytokines. Therefore, it is important to investigate possible aromatase inhibiting properties of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs (as anti glucocorticoids?) in relevant human tissues. We used primary human mammary fibroblasts because of their role in breast cancer development. We compared the results in primary fibroblasts with

  1. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Univer...

  2. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Uni...

  3. Accelerations in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, J H

    1925-01-01

    This work on accelerometry was done at McCook Field for the purpose of continuing the work done by other investigators and obtaining the accelerations which occur when a high-speed pursuit airplane is subjected to the more common maneuvers. The accelerations obtained in suddenly pulling out of a dive with well-balanced elevators are shown to be within 3 or 4 per cent of the theoretically possible accelerations. The maximum acceleration which a pilot can withstand depends upon the length of time the acceleration is continued. It is shown that he experiences no difficulty under the instantaneous accelerations as high as 7.8 G., but when under accelerations in excess of 4.5 G., continued for several seconds, he quickly loses his faculties.

  4. Accelerators for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    A particle accelerator is a device to consume energy but not to produce it. Then, the titled accelerator seems to mean an accelerator for using devices related to nuclear energy. For an accelerator combined to nuclear fissionable fuel, neutron sources are D-T type, (gamma, n) reaction using electron beam type spallation type, and so forth. At viewpoints of powers of incident beam and formed neutron, a spallation type source using high energy proton is told to be effective but others have some advantages by investigation on easy operability, easy construction, combustion with target, energy and directivity of neutron, and so forth. Here were discussed on an accelerator for research on accelerator driven energy system by dividing its researching steps, and on kind, energy, beam intensity, and so forth of an accelerator suitable for it. And, space electric charge effect at beam propagation direction controlled by beam intensity of cyclotron was also commented. (G.K.)

  5. EMMPRIN (CD 147): Ein Schlüsselprotein in der Tumorprogression des Harnblasenkarzinoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kurzrock, Andreas Robert

    2013-01-01

    In dieser Studie wurden Expression und Funktion des multifunktionalen Proteins EMMPRIN (CD 147) im Urothelkarzinom (UCa) charakterisiert. EMMPRIN Expression wurde an primärem Tumorgewebe und in UCa Zelllinien nachgewiesen. Es wurden Modelle für die Inhibition der EMMPRIN Expression in vitro etabliert und gezeigt, dass EMMPRIN Einfluss auf Zellzyklus, Apoptose und das Migrationsverhalten hat. EMMPRIN stellt ein potentielles Zielmolekül in der Prognose und Therapie des UCa dar. The present s...

  6. Human Breast Cancer Cells Are Redirected to Mammary Epithelial Cells upon Interaction with the Regenerating Mammary Gland Microenvironment In-Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussard, Karen M.; Smith, Gilbert H.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. At present, the etiology of breast cancer is unknown; however the possibility of a distinct cell of origin, i.e. a cancer stem cell, is a heavily investigated area of research. Influencing signals from the tissue niche are known to affect stem cells. Literature has shown that cancer cells lose their tumorigenic potential and display ‘normal’ behavior when placed into ‘normal’ ontogenic environments. Therefore, it may be the case that the tissue microenvironment is able to generate signals to redirect cancer cell fate. Previously, we showed that pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells could be redirected by the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment to contribute epithelial progeny for ‘normal’ gland development in-vivo. Here, we show that that human metastatic, non-metastatic, and metastasis-suppressed breast cancer cells proliferate and contribute to normal mammary gland development in-vivo without tumor formation. Immunochemistry for human-specific mitochondria, keratin 8 and 14, as well as human-specific milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, impregnated transplant hosts) confirmed the presence of human cell progeny. Features consistent with normal mammary gland development as seen in intact hosts (duct, lumen formation, development of secretory acini) were recapitulated in both primary and secondary outgrowths from chimeric implants. These results suggest the dominance of the tissue microenvironment over cancer cell fate. This work demonstrates that cultured human breast cancer cells (metastatic and non-metastatic) respond developmentally to signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in-vivo. PMID:23155468

  7. Human breast cancer cells are redirected to mammary epithelial cells upon interaction with the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment in-vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Bussard

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. At present, the etiology of breast cancer is unknown; however the possibility of a distinct cell of origin, i.e. a cancer stem cell, is a heavily investigated area of research. Influencing signals from the tissue niche are known to affect stem cells. Literature has shown that cancer cells lose their tumorigenic potential and display 'normal' behavior when placed into 'normal' ontogenic environments. Therefore, it may be the case that the tissue microenvironment is able to generate signals to redirect cancer cell fate. Previously, we showed that pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells could be redirected by the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment to contribute epithelial progeny for 'normal' gland development in-vivo. Here, we show that that human metastatic, non-metastatic, and metastasis-suppressed breast cancer cells proliferate and contribute to normal mammary gland development in-vivo without tumor formation. Immunochemistry for human-specific mitochondria, keratin 8 and 14, as well as human-specific milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, impregnated transplant hosts confirmed the presence of human cell progeny. Features consistent with normal mammary gland development as seen in intact hosts (duct, lumen formation, development of secretory acini were recapitulated in both primary and secondary outgrowths from chimeric implants. These results suggest the dominance of the tissue microenvironment over cancer cell fate. This work demonstrates that cultured human breast cancer cells (metastatic and non-metastatic respond developmentally to signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in-vivo.

  8. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  9. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration

  10. Morinda citrifolia (Noni Juice Augments Mammary Gland Differentiation and Reduces Mammary Tumor Growth in Mice Expressing the Unactivated c-erbB2 Transgene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Clafshenkel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia (noni is reported to have many beneficial properties, including on immune, inflammatory, quality of life, and cancer endpoints, but little is known about its ability to prevent or treat breast cancer. To test its anticancer potential, the effects of Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ on mammary carcinogenesis were examined in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. Mammary tumor latency, incidence, multiplicity, and metastatic incidence were unaffected by TNJ treatment, which suggests that it would not increase or decrease breast cancer risk in women taking TNJ for its other benefits. However, noni may be useful to enhance treatment responses in women with existing HER2/neu breast cancer since TNJ resulted in significant reductions in tumor weight and volume and in longer tumor doubling times in mice. Remarkably, its ability to inhibit the growth of this aggressive form of cancer occurred with the mouse equivalent of a recommended dose for humans (<3 oz/day. A 30-day treatment with TNJ also induced significant changes in mammary secondary ductule branching and lobuloalveolar development, serum progesterone levels, and estrous cycling. Additional studies investigating TNJ-induced tumor growth suppression and modified reproductive responses are needed to characterize its potential as a CAM therapy for women with and without HER2+ breast cancer.

  11. Molecular alterations in lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands and their mammary counterparts including hidradenoma papilliferum, intraductal papilloma, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Vanecek, Tomas; Martinek, Petr; Kyrpychova, Liubov; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Stewart, Colin J R; Portelli, Francesca; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2017-06-01

    Lesions affecting anogenital mammary-like glands (AGMLG) are histopathologically very similar to those seen in the breast but whether this morphological similarity is also reflected at the genetic level is unknown. To compare the underlying molecular mechanisms in lesions of AGMLG and their mammary counterparts, we analyzed the mutational profile of 16 anogenital neoplasms including 5 hidradenomas papilliferum (HP), 1 lesion with features of HP and fibroadenoma (FA), 7 FA, 3 phyllodes tumors (PhT)) and 18 analogous breast lesions (6 intraductal papillomas (IDP), 9 FA, and 3 PhT) by high-coverage next generation sequencing (NGS) using a panel comprising 50 cancer-related genes. Additionally, all cases were analyzed for the presence of a mutation in the MED12 gene. All detected mutations with allele frequencies over 20% were independently validated by Sanger sequencing (concordance: 100%). Mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1, MET, ABL1 and TP53 genes were found in lesions of AGMLG and also their mammary counterparts. The PI3K-AKT cascade plays a role in tumors arising at both sites. It appears that some histopathologically similar anogenital and breast lesions develop along similar molecular pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extramedullary hematopoiesis in a case of benign mixed mammary tumor in a female dog: cytological and histopathological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão João

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH is defined as the presence of hematopoietic stem cells such as erythroid and myeloid lineage plus megakaryocytes in extramedullary sites like liver, spleen and lymph nodes and is usually associated with either bone marrow or hematological disorders. Mammary EMH is a rare condition either in human and veterinary medicine and can be associated with benign mixed mammary tumors, similarly to that described in this case. Case presentation Hematopoietic stem cells were found in a benign mixed mammary tumor of a 7-year-old female mongrel dog that presents a nodule in the left inguinal mammary gland. The patient did not have any hematological abnormalities. Cytological evaluation demonstrated two distinct cell populations, composed of either epithelial or mesenchymal cells, sometimes associated with a fibrillar acidophilic matrix, apart from megakaryocytes, osteoclasts, metarubricytes, prorubricytes, rubricytes, rubriblasts, promyelocytes, myeloblasts. Histological examination confirmed the presence of an active hematopoietic bone marrow within the bone tissue of a benign mammary mixed tumor. Conclusions EMH is a rare condition described in veterinary medicine that can be associated with mammary mixed tumors. It's detection can be associated with several neoplastic and non-neoplastic mammary lesions, i.e. osteosarcomas, mixed tumors and bone metaplasia.

  13. SU-E-I-59: Investigation of the Usefulness of a Standard Deviation and Mammary Gland Density as Indexes for Mammogram Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarabe, S; Yabuuchi, H; Morishita, J

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the standard deviation of pixel values in a whole mammary glands region and the percentage of a high- density mammary glands region to a whole mammary glands region as features for classification of mammograms into four categories based on the ACR BI-RADS breast composition. We used 36 digital mediolateral oblique view mammograms (18 patients) approved by our IRB. These images were classified into the four categories of breast compositions by an experienced breast radiologist and the results of the classification were regarded as a gold standard. First, a whole mammary region in a breast was divided into two regions such as a high-density mammary glands region and a low/iso-density mammary glands region by using a threshold value that was obtained from the pixel values corresponding to a pectoral muscle region. Then the percentage of a high-density mammary glands region to a whole mammary glands region was calculated. In addition, as a new method, the standard deviation of pixel values in a whole mammary glands region was calculated as an index based on the intermingling of mammary glands and fats. Finally, all mammograms were classified by using the combination of the percentage of a high-density mammary glands region and the standard deviation of each image. The agreement rates of the classification between our proposed method and gold standard was 86% (31/36). This result signified that our method has the potential to classify mammograms. The combination of the standard deviation of pixel values in a whole mammary glands region and the percentage of a high-density mammary glands region to a whole mammary glands region was available as features to classify mammograms based on the ACR BI- RADS breast composition. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Genes involved in immortalization of human mammary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2001-09-27

    Breast cancer progression is characterized by inappropriate cell growth. Normal cells cease growth after a limited number of cell divisions--a process called cellular senescence-while tumor cells may acquire the ability to proliferate indefinitely (immortality). Inappropriate expression of specific oncogenes in a key cellular signaling pathway (Ras, Raf) can promote tumorigenicity in immortal cells, while causing finite lifespan cells to undergo a rapid senescence-like arrest. We have studied when in the course of transformation of cultured human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), the response to overexpressed oncogenic Raf changes from being tumor-suppressive to tumor enhancing, and what are the molecular underpinnings of this response. Our data indicate: (1) HMEC acquire the ability to maintain growth in the presence of oncogenic Raf not simply as a consequence of overcoming senescence, but as a result of a newly discovered step in the process of immortal transformation uncovered by our lab, termed conversion. Immortal cells that have not undergone conversion (e.g., cells immortalized by exogenous introduction of the immortalizing enzyme, telomerase) remain growth inhibited. (2) Finite lifespan HMEC growth arrest in response to oncogenic Raf using mediators of growth inhibition that are very different from those used in response to oncogenic Raf by rodent cells and certain other human cell types, including the connective tissue cells from the same breast tissue. While many diverse cell types appear to have in common a tumor-suppressive response to this oncogenic signal, they also have developed multiple mechanisms to elicit this response. Understanding how cancer cells acquire the crucial capacity to be immortal and to abrogate normal tumor-suppressive mechanisms may serve both to increase our understanding of breast cancer progression, and to provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. Our results indicate that normal HMEC have novel means of enforcing a Raf

  15. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  16. 2014 Accelerators meeting, Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucotte, Arnaud; Lamy, Thierry; De Conto, Jean-Marie; Fontaine, Alain; Revol, Jean-Luc; Nadolski, Laurent S.; Kazamias, Sophie; Vretenar, Maurizio; Ferrando, Philippe; Laune, Bernard; Vedrine, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    The Accelerators meeting is organised every two years by the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (SFP). It brings together about 50 participants during a one-day meeting. The morning sessions are devoted to scientific presentations while the afternoon is dedicated to technical visits of facilities. This document brings together the available presentations (slides): 1 - Presentation of the Laboratory of subatomic physics and cosmology - LPSC-Grenoble (Lucotte, Arnaud; Lamy, Thierry); 2 - Presentation of the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (Fontaine, Alain; Revol, Jean-Luc); 3 - Presentation of Grenoble's master diplomas in Accelerator physics (Nadolski, Laurent S.); 4 - Presentation of Paris' master diplomas in big instruments (Kazamias, Sophie); 5 - Particle accelerators and European Union's projects (Vretenar, Maurizio); 6 - French research infrastructures (Ferrando, Philippe); 7 - Coordination of accelerators activity in France (Laune, Bernard; Vedrine, Pierre)

  17. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L; Duru, Ph; Koch, J M; Revol, J L; Van Vaerenbergh, P; Volpe, A M; Clugnet, K; Dely, A; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  18. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D.

    2002-01-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  19. Acceleration of radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdal, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    There is an intense interest world-wide in the use of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for experiment. In many existing or proposed facilities ions are produced or collected at source potential, ionized and re-accelerated. Within the past year three new ISOL based facilities have added dedicated post-accelerators to deliver accelerated RIBs to experiment. The paper gives an overview of RIB accelerators present and future, and explores the inherent features in the various acceleration methods with an emphasis on heavy ion linacs. The ISAC-I and ISAC-II post-accelerators are discussed as examples. Commissioning results and initial operating experience with ISAC-I will be presented

  20. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This paper describes many of the nuclear physics heavy-ion accelerator facilities in the US and the research programs being conducted. The accelerators described are: Argonne National Laboratory--ATLAS; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (Proposed); Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--Bevalac; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--88-Inch Cyclotron; Los Alamos National Laboratory--Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF); Massachusetts Institute of Technology--Bates Linear Accelerator Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center--Nuclear Physics Injector; Texas AandM University--Texas AandM Cyclotron; Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL); University of Washington--Tandem/Superconducting Booster; and Yale University--Tandem Van de Graaff

  1. Sensitivity and Specificity of Bioassay of Estrogenicity on Mammary Gland and Uterus of Female Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škarda, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2002), s. 407-412 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/99/0843; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : Bioassay * Estrogenicity * Mammary gland Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2002

  2. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...

  3. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of diuron in a rat mammary two-stage carcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Tony Fernando; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan; de Camargo, João Lauro Viana; Barbisan, Luís Fernando

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of the herbicide Diuron in a two-stage rat medium-term mammary carcinogenesis model initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Female seven-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were allocated to six groups: groups G1 to G4 received intragastrically (i.g.) a single 50 mg/kg dose of DMBA; groups G5 and G6 received single administration of canola oil (vehicle of DMBA). Groups G1 and G5 received a basal diet, and groups G2, G3, G4, and G6 were fed the basal diet with the addition of Diuron at 250, 1250, 2500, and 2500 ppm, respectively. After twenty-five weeks, the animals were euthanized and mammary tumors were histologically confirmed and quantified. Tumor samples were also processed for immunohistochemical evaluation of the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cleaved caspase-3, estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), p63, bcl-2, and bak. Diuron treatment did not increase the incidence or multiplicity of mammary tumors (groups G2 to G4 versus Group G1). Also, exposure to Diuron did not alter tumor growth (cell proliferation and apoptosis indexes) or immunoreactivity to ER-α, p63 (myoephitelial marker), or bcl-2 and bak (apoptosis regulatory proteins). These findings indicate that Diuron does not have a promoting potential on mammary carcinogenesis in female SD rats initiated with DMBA.

  4. Extracellular matrix in canine mammary tumors with special focus on versican, a versatile extracellular proteoglycan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdélyi, Ildikó

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) research has become fundamental to understand cancer. This thesis focuses on the exploration of ECM composition and organization in canine mammary tumors, with a special interest in the large chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan (PG), versican. Chapter 1 gives an

  5. ABC- and SLC-Transporters in Murine and Bovine Mammary Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagdiran, Yagmur; Oskarsson, Agneta; Knight, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Some chemicals are ligands to efflux transporters which may result in high concentrations in milk. Limited knowledge is available on the influence of maternal exposure to chemicals on the expression and function of transporters in the lactating mammary gland. We determined gene expression of ABC ...

  6. Expression of human erythropoietin gene in the mammary gland of a transgenic mouse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuš, Tomáš; Malý, Petr; Poplštein, M.; Landa, Vladimír; Trefil, P.; Lidický, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2001), s. 187-195 ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : erythropoietin, mammary gland, transgenic mouse Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  7. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hou, Lei

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to 1) elucidate whether continuous milking during late gestation in dairy goats negatively affects mammary remodeling and hence milk production in the subsequent lactation, and 2) identify the regulatory factors responsible for changes in cell turnover and angiogenesis in ...

  8. A Role for T-Lymphocytes in Human Breast Cancer and in Canine Mammary Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment has a prominent role in carcinogenesis and benefits the proliferation and survival of malignant cells, promoting angiogenesis and metastasis. Mammary tumors are frequently infiltrated by a heterogeneous population of immune cells where T-lymphocytes have a great importance. Interestingly, similar inflammatory cell infiltrates, cytokine and chemokine expression in humans and canine mammary tumors were recently described. However, in both species, despite all the scientific evidences that appoint for a significant role of T-lymphocytes, a definitive conclusion concerning the effectiveness of T-cell dependent immune mechanisms has not been achieved yet. In the present review, we describe similarities between human breast cancer and canine mammary tumors regarding tumor T-lymphocyte infiltration, such as relationship of TILs and mammary tumors malignancy, association of ratio CD4+/ CD8+ T-cells with low survival rates, promotion of tumor progression by Th2 cells actions, and association of great amounts of Treg cells with poor prognostic factors. This apparent parallelism together with the fact that dogs develop spontaneous tumors in the context of a natural immune system highlight the dog as a possible useful biological model for studies in human breast cancer immunology.

  9. Casein gene expression in mouse mammary epithelial cell lines: Dependence upon extracellular matrix and cell type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, D.; Oborn, C.J.; Li, M.L.; Bissell, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The COMMA-D mammary cell line exhibits mammary-specific functional differentiation under appropriate conditions in cell culture. The cytologically heterogeneous COMMA-D parental line and the clonal lines DB-1, TA-5, and FA-1 derived from the COMMA-D parent were examined for similar properties of functional differentiation. In monolayer cell culture, the cell lines DB-1, TA-5, FA-1, and MA-4 were examined for expression of mammary-specific and epithelial-specific proteins by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The clonal cell lines were relatively homogeneous in their respective staining properties and seemed to represent three subpopulations found in the heterogeneous parental COMMA-D lines. None of the four clonal lines appeared to represent myoepithelial cells. The cell lines were examined for expression of β-casein mRNA in the presence or absence of prolactin. The inducibility of β-casein in the COMMA-D cell line was further enhanced by a reconstituted basement membrane preparation enriched in laminin, collagen IV, and proteoglycans. These results support the hypothesis that the functional response of inducible mammary cell populations is a result of interaction among hormones, multiple extracellular matrix components, and specific cell types

  10. Soy Components Genistein and Lunasin Regulate E-Cadherin and Wnt Signaling in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhanced Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and loss of E-cadherin expression are considered hallmarks of tumorigenesis. We previously showed by microarray gene profiling that dietary intake of soy-based AIN-93G diets altered components of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in rat mammary epithelial cells. To furth...

  11. In-Silico Genomic Approaches To Understanding Lactation, Mammary Development, And Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation-related traits are influenced by genetics. From a quantitative standpoint, these traits have been well studied in dairy species, but there has also been work on the genetics of lactation in humans and mice. In addition, there is evidence to support the notion that other mammary gland trait...

  12. Immunohistochemical analysis of oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins in normal mammary and breast cancer tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Carol D; Thorngren, Daniel L; Nardulli, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    During the course of normal cellular metabolism, oxygen is consumed and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced. If not effectively dissipated, ROS can accumulate and damage resident proteins, lipids, and DNA. Enzymes involved in redox regulation and DNA repair dissipate ROS and repair the resulting damage in order to preserve a functional cellular environment. Because increased ROS accumulation and/or unrepaired DNA damage can lead to initiation and progression of cancer and we had identified a number of oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins that influence estrogen responsiveness of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it seemed possible that these proteins might be differentially expressed in normal mammary tissue, benign hyperplasia (BH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer (IBC). Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of a number of oxidative stress proteins, DNA repair proteins, and damage markers in 60 human mammary tissues which were classified as BH, DCIS or IBC. The relative mean intensity was determined for each tissue section and ANOVA was used to detect statistical differences in the relative expression of BH, DCIS and IBC compared to normal mammary tissue. We found that a number of these proteins were overexpressed and that the cellular localization was altered in human breast cancer tissue. Our studies suggest that oxidative stress and DNA repair proteins not only protect normal cells from the damaging effects of ROS, but may also promote survival of mammary tumor cells

  13. A comparative study between mixed-type tumours from human salivary and canine mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genelhu, Marisa CLS; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Gobbi, Helenice; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2007-01-01

    In comparative pathology, canine mammary tumours have special interest because of their similarities with human breast cancer. Mixed tumours are uncommon lesions in the human breast, but they are found most frequently in the mammary gland of the female dogs and in the human salivary glands. The aim of the study was to compare clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours, in order to evaluate the latter as an experimental model for salivary gland tumours. Ten examples of each mixed tumour type (human pleomorphic adenoma and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas and canine mixed tumour and metaplastic carcinoma) were evaluated. First, clinical and morphologic aspects of benign and malignant variants were compared between the species. Then, streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of cytokeratins, vimentin, p63 protein, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. After standardization, similar age and site distributions were observed in human and canine tumours. Histological similarities were identified in the comparison of the benign lesions as well. Metaplastic carcinomas also resembled general aspects of carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas in morphological evaluation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining further presented similar antigenic expression between lesions. There are many similar features between human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours. This observation is of great relevance for those interested in the study and management of salivary gland tumours, since canine lesions may constitute useful comparative models for their investigations

  14. Sequestration of human cytomegalovirus by human renal and mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twite, Nicolas [Institute for Medical Immunology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium); Andrei, Graciela [Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven (Belgium); Kummert, Caroline [ImmuneHealth, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium); Donner, Catherine [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erasme Hospital, Route de Lennik 808, 1070 Brussels (Belgium); Perez-Morga, David [Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Institut de Biologie et Médecine Moléculaires, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies (Belgium); De Vos, Rita [Pathology Department, U.Z. Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 12, Leuven (Belgium); Snoeck, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Snoeck@Rega.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven (Belgium); Marchant, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.marchant@ulb.ac.be [Institute for Medical Immunology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium); ImmuneHealth, Rue A. Bolland 8, B-6041 Charleroi (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Urine and breast milk represent the main routes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) transmission but the contribution of renal and mammary epithelial cells to viral excretion remains unclear. We observed that kidney and mammary epithelial cells were permissive to HCMV infection and expressed immediate early, early and late antigens within 72 h of infection. During the first 24 h after infection, high titers of infectious virus were measured associated to the cells and in culture supernatants, independently of de novo synthesis of virus progeny. This phenomenon was not observed in HCMV-infected fibroblasts and suggested the sequestration and the release of HCMV by epithelial cells. This hypothesis was supported by confocal and electron microscopy analyses. The sequestration and progressive release of HCMV by kidney and mammary epithelial cells may play an important role in the excretion of the virus in urine and breast milk and may thereby contribute to HCMV transmission. - Highlights: • Primary renal and mammary epithelial cells are permissive to HCMV infection. • HCMV is sequestered by epithelial cells and this phenomenon does not require viral replication. • HCMV sequestration by epithelial cells is reduced by antibodies and IFN-γ.

  15. Mammary radioiodine accumulation due to functional sodium iodide symporter expression in a benign fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, F.; Unterholzner, S.; Diebold, J.; Knesewitsch, P.; Hahn, K.; Spitzweg, C.

    2006-01-01

    The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has been characterized to mediate the active transport of iodide not only in the thyroid gland but also in various non-thyroidal tissues, including lactating mammary gland and the majority of breast cancers, thereby offering the possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic radioiodine application in breast cancer. In this report, we present a 57-year-old patient with multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma, who showed focal radioiodine accumulation in a lesion in the right breast on a posttherapy 131 I scan following radioiodine therapy. CT and MR-mammography showed a focal solid lesion in the right breast suggestive of a fibroadenoma, which was confirmed by histological examination. Immunostaining of paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections using a human NIS antibody demonstrated NIS-specific immunoreactivity confined to epithelial cells of mammary ducts. In conclusion, in a thyroid cancer patient we identified a benign fibroadenoma of the breast expressing high levels of functionally active NIS protein as underlying cause of focal mammary radioiodine accumulation on a posttherapy 131 I scan. These data show for the first time that functional NIS expression is not restricted to lactating mammary gland and malignant breast tissue, but can also be detected in benign breast lesions, such as fibroadenomata of the breast

  16. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other

  17. A NOVEL EFFECT OF DIOXIN: EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY SEVERELY IMPAIRS MAMMARY GLAND DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel effect of dioxin: Exposure during pregnancy severely impairs mammary gland differentiation.Beth A. Vorderstrasse1, Suzanne E. Fenton2, Andrea A. Bohn3, Jennifer A. Cundiff1, and B. Paige Lawrence1,3,4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State Universi...

  18. Oxytocin injections in the postpartal period affect mammary tight junctions in sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, C.; Lessard, M.; Knight, C. H.

    2017-01-01

    The potential impacts of injecting oxytocin (OXY) to sows in the early postpartum period on the quality of mammary tight junctions, milk composition, and immune status of sows and piglets were studied. Postparturient sows received i.m. injections of either saline (control [CTL]; n = 10) or 75 IU ...

  19. Stromal fibroblasts derived from mammary gland of bovine with mastitis display inflammation-specific changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; He, Guiliang; Zhang, Wenyao; Xu, Tong; Qi, Hongliang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing

    2016-06-07

    Fibroblasts are predominant components of mammary stromal cells and play crucial roles in the development and involution of bovine mammary gland; however, whether these cells contribute to mastitis has not been demonstrated. Thus, we have undertaken biological and molecular characterization of inflammation-associated fibroblasts (INFs) extracted from bovine mammary glands with clinical mastitis and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from slaughtered dairy cows because of fractured legs during lactation. The functional contributions of INFs to normal epithelial cells were also investigated by using an in vitro co-culture model. We present evidence that the INFs were activated fibroblasts and showed inflammation-related features. Moreover, INFs significantly inhibited the proliferation and β-casein secretion of epithelial cells, as well as upregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in epithelial cells. These findings indicate that functional alterations can occur in stromal fibroblasts within the bovine mammary gland during mastitis, demonstrating the importance of stromal fibroblasts in bovine mastitis and its treatment.

  20. Breast Cancer and Early Onset Childhood Obesity: Cell Specific Gene Expression in Mammary Epithelia and Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    G, Lee AV, McCarty M, Van Horn K, Chu O, Chou YC, Yang J, Guzman RC, Nandi S, Talamantes F. Growth and characterization of N-methyl-N- nitrosourea ...G, Lee AV, McCarty M, et al. Growth and characteriza- tion of N-methyl-N- nitrosourea -induced mammary tumors in intact and ovariectomized rats

  1. The Role of DN-GSK3b in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    transcription factors and dramatically increases their transcriptional activity. Genes up- regulated by TCF/LEF include embryologic genes, such as siamois...in transgenic mice that overexpress Axin, the expression of cyclin D1 is attenuated and increased apoptosis occurs in the mammary epithelia (33

  2. ARTERIAL REVASCULARIZATION WITH THE RIGHT GASTROEPIPLOIC ARTERY AND INTERNAL MAMMARY ARTERIES IN 300 PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRANDJEAN, JG; BOONSTRA, PW; DENHEYER, P; EBELS, T; KIRKLIN, JW

    From September 1989 to September 1992, the right gastroepiploic artery in combination with one or both internal mammary arteries was used as a graft in 300 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. The gastroepiploic artery was the primary choice in preference to the saphenous vein.

  3. The role of mammary gland on 131-I uptake by neonatal of wistar mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darussalam, M.; Soedjono, I.; Ilyas, R.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to know the role of mammary gland of Wistar mice in transfering Iodine (I) to neonatal that fit in the role of I itself, and the degree of neonate need to I. Twenty four albino Wistar mouse post natal, were divided into 4 groups of six mouse for each, based on the interval observation. Each mice was given per oral 0.25 ml Na131-I with the activity of 300 uCi. The observation were pointed to tissues and organs such as: blood, liver, kidney, digestion cannal, tiroid gland, lymphe, mammary gland and urine; where as for neonatal: blood, kidney, digestion cannal, and the tiroid gland. The resuls show thet the high 131-I repentions were bound on tiroid gland (between 5.72 and 21.76 %) and on mammary gland (batween 9.30 and 21.90 %) of Wistar mice at lactation period in line with the increasing of mammary gland function and increasing the need of iodine for neonatal. In uptake of 131-I the thyroid gland of neonatal seemed superior compared to tissue or other neonatal organs. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Cell line established starting with a mouse mammary tumor. Effect of the addition of hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouriquand, J

    1973-12-31

    From 7th international conference on mammary tumors; SaintPierre-de- Chartreuse, France (12 Jun 1972). The PS-MT cell line was defined (18th passage); isolated from a pool of mammary tumors of the PS strain of mice, it remained dormant for 6 months and then grew out very slowly. Subcultures were possible only after 19 months. The morphology is epithelial. After storage in liquid nitrogen in a medium containing 5% DMSO, the viability was approximately 80%. It was not possible to disclose the presence of mycoplasmas. With the standard insulincontaining medium, a few C-type particles were observed by electron-microscopic examination. The addition of hydrocortisone or prolactin, or both hormones together, increases slightly the production of C-type particles. If the secretory stimulating activity of hydrocortisone is maintained for one week before the addition of prolactin for another week, a large amount of A and B particles are found, mixed with C-type particles. They are present in large number in the pellets obtained from the tissue culture media. Five mammary tumors within 6 months were obtained in BALB/c females. Thus, the production of A- and B-type particles is hormone-dependent and requires the same sequence of hormones as the production of casein by mammary glands in organ cultures. (auth)

  5. Activation of int-1 and int-2 loci in GRf mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D A; Jackson, D P; Percy, D H; Morris, V L

    1986-10-30

    The Mtv-2 locus is known to be associated with a high mammary tumor incidence (97%) and early development of mammary tumors (3-13 months) in GR mice. However, it was not previously known whether the provirus which resides at the Mtv-2 locus is tumorigenic in and of itself or whether reintegration of proviruses generated from Mtv-2 is required for tumorigenesis. Foster-nursing GR mice on C57/BL mice eliminates the milk-borne source of GR virus, and allows the study of Mtv-2 derived proviruses alone. Using this approach, we have tested predictions which follow from the "positional" versus "reintegrational" models of tumorigenesis. Specifically, we have examined tumors from primary foster-nursed (GRf) mice to determine if MMTV proviruses derived from Mtv-2 were scattered randomly throughout the genome or were clustered in the vicinity of the int-1 and int-2 loci, which are thought to be associated with mammary tumorigenesis. It was found that the majority of spontaneous GRf mammary tumors that were tested have MMTV proviral integrations in either or both of the int-1 and int-2 loci and have transcription of either or both of the int loci. Tumors induced by Mtv-2, therefore, appear to have arisen via a mechanism similar to the activation of the int loci by exogenous (milk-borne) MMTV proviruses.

  6. A few attempts for brachial edema following postoperative irradiation of mammary cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishina, H; Hariu, T [Tohoku Rosai Hospital (Japan)

    1975-07-01

    Of 40 cases of pre- and postoperative irradiation of malignant tumor of the mammary gland (/sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays, atmospheric dose more than 4000 R), the injection of low molecule dextran, which improves blood stream, and urokinase were combined in 15 cases with a longterm complaint of pain due to brachial edema, and was effective in 12 cases.

  7. Japan Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  8. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author)

  9. Plasma particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) will require an 87-kilometer accelerator ring to boost particles to 40 TeV. The SSC's size is due in part to the fact that its operating principle is the same one that has dominated accelerator design for 50 years: it guides particles by means of magnetic fields and propels them by strong electric fields. If one were to build an equally powerful but smaller accelerator, one would need to increase the strength of the guiding and propelling fields. Actually, however, conventional technology may not be able to provide significant increases in field strength. There are two reasons. First, the forces from magnetic fields are becoming greater than the structural forces that hold a magnetic material together; the magnets that produce these fields would themselves be torn apart. Second, the energy from electric fields is reaching the energies that bind electrons to atoms; it would tear electrons from nuclei in the accelerator's support structures. It is the electric field problem that plasma accelerators can overcome. Plasma particle accelerators are based on the principle that particles can be accelerated by the electric fields generated within a plasma. Because the plasma has already been ionized, plasma particle accelerators are not susceptible to electron dissociation. They can in theory sustain accelerating fields thousands of times stronger that conventional technologies. So far two methods for creating plasma waves for accelerators have been proposed and tested: the wakefield and the beat wave. Although promising electric fields have been produced, more research is necessary to determine whether plasma particle accelerators can compete with the existing accelerators. 7 figs

  10. Wake field accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-02-01

    In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered

  11. CONFERENCE: Computers and accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-01-15

    In September of last year a Conference on 'Computers in Accelerator Design and Operation' was held in West Berlin attracting some 160 specialists including many from outside Europe. It was a Europhysics Conference, organized by the Hahn-Meitner Institute with Roman Zelazny as Conference Chairman, postponed from an earlier intended venue in Warsaw. The aim was to bring together specialists in the fields of accelerator design, computer control and accelerator operation.

  12. Japan Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-11-15

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation.

  13. CERN Accelerator School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently held its Advanced Accelerator Physics course in Greece on the island of Rhodes. Complementing the general course in Finland last year, this course was organized together with the University of Athens and NCSR. Demokritos. Accelerator specialists from Europe, CIS, Japan and USA followed two weeks of ''state-of-theart'' lectures designed to complete their education in the field

  14. Applying the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbalat, Oscar

    1989-12-15

    Originally developed as tools for frontier physics, particle accelerators provide valuable spinoff benefits in applied research and technology. These accelerator applications are the subject of a biennial meeting in Denton, Texas, but the increasing activity in this field resulted this year (5-9 September) in the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, organized by K. Bethge of Frankfurt's Goethe University. The meeting reflected a wide range of applications - ion beam analysis, exploitation of nuclear microbeams, accelerator mass spectrometry, applications of photonuclear reactions, ion beam processing, synchrotron radiation for semiconductor technology, specialized technology.

  15. Laser-driven accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Several devices for using laser fields have been proposed and they can be classified in three broad categories - 'far-field' accelerators (such as the principle of inverse free electron lasers), 'media' accelerators (which, for example, use the inverse Cherenkov effect or laser-controlled plasma waves), and 'near-field' accelerators (using a loaded guiding structure such as cavities or gratings). These different approaches come from the fact that a particle cannot be accelerated by the absorption of single photons (because of momentum conservation) and thus some other element has to intervene. (orig./HSI).

  16. Illinois Accelerator Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Cooper, Charlie A.

    The Illinois Accelerator Research Center (IARC) hosts a new accelerator development program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. IARC provides access to Fermi's state-of-the-art facilities and technologies for research, development and industrialization of particle accelerator technology. In addition to facilitating access to available existing Fermi infrastructure, the IARC Campus has a dedicated 36,000 ft2 Heavy Assembly Building (HAB) with all the infrastructure needed to develop, commission and operate new accelerators. Connected to the HAB is a 47,000 ft2 Office, Technology and Engineering (OTE) building, paid for by the state, that has office, meeting, and light technical space. The OTE building, which contains the Accelerator Physics Center, and nearby Accelerator and Technical divisions provide IARC collaborators with unique access to world class expertise in a wide array of accelerator technologies. At IARC scientists and engineers from Fermilab and academia work side by side with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in accelerator science and translate them into applications for the nation's health, wealth and security.

  17. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  18. Interacting with accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, S.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerators are research machines which produce energetic particle beam for use as projectiles to effect nuclear reactions. These machines along with their services and facilities may occupy very large areas. The man-machine interface of accelerators has evolved with technological changes in the computer industry and may be partitioned into three phases. The present paper traces the evolution of man-machine interface from the earliest accelerators to the present computerized systems incorporated in modern accelerators. It also discusses the advantages of incorporating expert system technology for assisting operators. (author). 8 ref

  19. FFAGS for muon acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J. Scott; Kahn, Stephen; Palmer, Robert; Trbojevic, Dejan; Johnstone, Carol; Keil, Eberhard; Aiba, Masamitsu; Machida, Shinji; Mori, Yoshiharu; Ogitsu, Toru; Ohmori, Chihiro; Sessler, Andrew; Koscielniak, Shane

    2003-01-01

    Due to their finite lifetime, muons must be accelerated very rapidly. It is challenging to make the magnets ramp fast enough to accelerate in a synchrotron, and accelerating in a linac is very expensive. One can use a recirculating accelerator (like CEBAF), but one needs a different arc for each turn, and this limits the number of turns one can use to accelerate, and therefore requires significant amounts of RF to achieve the desired energy gain. An alternative method for muon acceleration is using a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator. Such an accelerator has a very large energy acceptance (a factor of two or three), allowing one to use the same arc with a magnetic field that is constant over time. Thus, one can in principle make as many turns as one can tolerate due to muon decay, therefore reducing the RF cost without increasing the arc cost. This paper reviews the current status of research into the design of FFAGs for muon acceleration. Several current designs are described and compared. General design considerations are also discussed

  20. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Applying the accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, Oscar

    1989-01-01

    Originally developed as tools for frontier physics, particle accelerators provide valuable spinoff benefits in applied research and technology. These accelerator applications are the subject of a biennial meeting in Denton, Texas, but the increasing activity in this field resulted this year (5-9 September) in the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, organized by K. Bethge of Frankfurt's Goethe University. The meeting reflected a wide range of applications - ion beam analysis, exploitation of nuclear microbeams, accelerator mass spectrometry, applications of photonuclear reactions, ion beam processing, synchrotron radiation for semiconductor technology, specialized technology

  2. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  3. Effect of pH 5 enzyme from liver on the protein synthesis by mammary gland subcellular fractions in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jaspal; Singh, Ajit; Ganguli, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of pH 5 enzyme fraction of liver on the protein synthesizing activity of the subcellular fractions of the mammary gland has been investigated. Results indicate that (1) lactating liver pH 5 enzyme stimulates protein synthesis which is enhanced by the addition of ATP-generating system and (2) the enzyme fractions from the non-lactating liver inhibits the protein synthesis by mammary fractions, but in some cases like mitochondrial and supernatant fractions of mammary it elevates the synthesis when supplemented with ATP-generating system. Chlorella protein hydrolysate- 14 C was used as a tracer and rabits were used as experimental animals. (M.G.B.)

  4. The use of film imaging techniques in the diagnosis of mammary intraductal papilloma (report of 23 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shaohua; Liu Genshou

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the value of the film imaging techniques in the diagnosis of mammary intraductal papilloma. Methods: Retrospectively analysis 23 in patients with mammary intraductal papilloma which was confirmed by diagnosis with multiple function ultrasound instrument, mammography and breast duct imaging techniques. Results: The diagnosis sensitivities of multiple function ultrasound instrument and breast duct imaging techniques were 66.7% and 70.6% respectively (P > 0.05). Both of them had a definite value in diagnosis of mammary intraductal papilloma. Conclusion: Film imaging techniques are valuable to locate lesions, but is not useful for making pathological diagnosis

  5. Genetic mapping in mice identifies DMBT1 as a candidate modifier of mammary tumors and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Anneke C; Hill, Linda Z; Roberts, Amy L

    2007-01-01

    Low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles seem to play a significant role in breast cancer risk but are difficult to identify in human cohorts. A genetic screen of 176 N2 backcross progeny of two Trp53(+/-) strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, which differ in their susceptibility to mammary...... tumors, identified a modifier of mammary tumor susceptibility in an approximately 25-Mb interval on mouse chromosome 7 (designated SuprMam1). Relative to heterozygotes, homozygosity for BALB/c alleles of SuprMam1 significantly decreased mammary tumor latency from 70.7 to 61.1 weeks and increased risk...

  6. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zagozdzon, Agnieszka M

    2012-05-30

    AbstractBackgroundNumerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study.ResultsA new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice) expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal.ConclusionsWe have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and\\/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  7. Mixed tocopherols prevent mammary tumorigenesis by inhibiting estrogen action and activating PPAR-γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jin; Ju, Jihyeung; Paul, Shiby; So, Jae-Young; DeCastro, Andrew; Smolarek, Amanda; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S.; Newmark, Harold L.; Suh, Nanjoo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Tocopherols are lipophilic antioxidants present in vegetable oils. Although the antioxidant and anticancer activities of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) have been studied for decades, recent intervention studies with α-tocopherol have been negative for protection from cancer in humans. The tocopherols consist of 4 isoforms, α, β, γ, and δ variants, and recent attention is being made to other isoforms. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a tocopherol mixture rich in γ- and δ-tocopherols against mammary tumorigenesis. Experimental Design Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU), and then fed diets containing 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% mixed tocopherols rich in γ- and δ-tocopherols for 9 weeks. Tumor burden and multiplicity were determined, and the levels of markers of inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in the serum and in mammary tumors. The regulation of nuclear receptor signaling by tocopherols was studied in mammary tumors and in breast cancer cells. Results Dietary administration of 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% mixed tocopherols suppressed mammary tumor growth by 38%, 50%, or 80%, respectively. Tumor multiplicity was also significantly reduced in all three mixed tocopherol groups. Mixed tocopherols increased the expression of p21, p27, caspase-3 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and inhibited AKT and estrogen signaling in mammary tumors. Our mechanistic study found that γ- and δ-tocopherols, but not α-tocopherol, activated PPAR-γ and antagonized estrogen action in breast cancer. Conclusion The results suggest that γ- and δ-tocopherols may be effective agents for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:19509159

  8. Obesity-Associated Alterations in Inflammation, Epigenetics, and Mammary Tumor Growth Persist in Formerly Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Emily L; de Angel, Rebecca E; Bowers, Laura W; Khatib, Subreen A; Smith, Laura A; Van Buren, Eric; Bhardwaj, Priya; Giri, Dilip; Estecio, Marcos R; Troester, Melissa A; Hair, Brionna Y; Kirk, Erin L; Gong, Ting; Shen, Jianjun; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hursting, Stephen D

    2016-05-01

    Using a murine model of basal-like breast cancer, we tested the hypothesis that chronic obesity, an established breast cancer risk and progression factor in women, induces mammary gland epigenetic reprogramming and increases mammary tumor growth. Moreover, we assessed whether the obesity-induced epigenetic and protumor effects are reversed by weight normalization. Ovariectomized female C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet or diet-induced obesity (DIO) regimen for 17 weeks, resulting in a normal weight or obese phenotype, respectively. Mice on the DIO regimen were then randomized to continue the DIO diet or were switched to the control diet, resulting in formerly obese (FOb) mice with weights comparable with control mice. At week 24, all mice were orthotopically injected with MMTV-Wnt-1 mouse mammary tumor cells. Mean tumor volume, serum IL6 levels, expression of proinflammatory genes in the mammary fat pad, and mammary DNA methylation profiles were similar in DIO and FOb mice and higher than in controls. Many of the genes found to have obesity-associated hypermethylation in mice were also found to be hypermethylated in the normal breast tissue of obese versus nonobese human subjects, and nearly all of these concordant genes remained hypermethylated after significant weight loss in the FOb mice. Our findings suggest that weight normalization may not be sufficient to reverse the effects of chronic obesity on epigenetic reprogramming and inflammatory signals in the microenvironment that are associated with breast cancer progression. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 339-48. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Raloxifene inhibits tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model of metastatic mammary cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhong-Lian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of raloxifene, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, were studied in a mouse metastatic mammary cancer model expressing cytoplasmic ERα. Methods Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of syngeneic BALB/c mice with BJMC3879luc2 cells, were subsequently treated with raloxifene at 0, 18 and 27 mg/kg/day using mini-osmotic pumps. Results In vitro study demonstrated that the ERα in BJMC3879luc2 cells was smaller (between 50 and 64 kDa than the normal-sized ERα (66 kDa and showed cytoplasmic localization. A statistically significant but weak estradiol response was observed in this cell line. When BJMC3879luc2 tumors were implanted into mice, the ERα mRNA levels were significantly higher in females than in males. In vitro studies showed that raloxifene induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in the G1-phase and a decrease in the cell population in the S-phase. In animal experiments, tumor volumes were significantly suppressed in the raloxifene-treated groups. The multiplicity of lymph node metastasis was significantly decreased in the 27 mg/kg group. Levels of apoptosis were significantly increased in the raloxifene-treated groups, whereas the levels of DNA synthesis were significantly decreased in these groups. No differences in microvessel density in tumors were observed between the control and raloxifene-treated groups. The numbers of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal tumor cells were significantly reduced in mammary tumors in the raloxifene-treated groups. The levels of ERα mRNA in mammary tumors tended to be decreased in the raloxifene-treated groups. Conclusion These results suggest that the antimetastatic activity of raloxifene in mammary cancer expressing cytoplasmic ERα may be a crucial finding with clinical applications and that raloxifene may be useful as an adjuvant therapy and for the chemoprevention of breast cancer development.

  10. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagozdzon Agnieszka M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study. Results A new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal. Conclusions We have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  11. Canine mammary minute oncocytomas with neuroendocrine differentiation associated with multifocal acinar cell oncocytic metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Rei; Kimura, Masayuki; Itahashi, Megu; Sugahara, Go; Kawashima, Masashi; Murayama, Hirotada; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Two solitary and minute tumors of 1 and 1.5 mm diameter were identified by microscopy in the left fourth mammary gland of a 13-year-old female Labrador Retriever dog, in addition to multiple mammary gland tumors. The former tumors were well circumscribed and were composed of small-to-large polyhedral neoplastic oncocytes with finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and were arranged in solid nests separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Scattered lumina of variable sizes containing eosinophilic secretory material were evident. Cellular atypia was minimal, and no mitotic figures were visible. One tumor had several oncocytic cellular foci revealing cellular transition, with perivascular pseudorosettes consisting of columnar epithelial cells surrounding the fine vasculature. Scattered foci of mammary acinar cell hyperplasia showing oncocytic metaplasia were also observed. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells of the 2 microtumors showed diffuse immunoreactivity to anti-cytokeratin antibody AE1/AE3, and finely granular immunoreactivity for 60-kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase complex V beta subunit, and chromogranin A. One tumor also had oncocytic cellular foci forming perivascular pseudorosettes showing cellular membrane immunoreactivity for neural cell adhesion molecule. The tumors were negative for smooth muscle actin, neuron-specific enolase, vimentin, desmin, S100, and synaptophysin. Ultrastructural observation confirmed the abundant mitochondria in the cytoplasm of both neoplastic and hyperplastic cells, the former cells also having neuroendocrine granule-like electron-dense bodies. From these results, our case was diagnosed with mammary oncocytomas accompanied by neuroendocrine differentiation. Scattered foci of mammary oncocytosis might be related to the multicentric occurrence of these oncocytomas. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassali Geovanni D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  13. In vitro expansion of the mammary stem/progenitor cell population by xanthosine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary Ratan K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary stem cells are critical for growth and maintenance of the mammary gland and therefore are of considerable interest for improving productivity and efficiency of dairy animals. Xanthosine treatment has been demonstrated to promote expansion of putative mammary stem cells in vivo, and hepatic and hair follicle stem cells in vitro. In the latter, xanthosine promoted the symmetrical division of hepatic and hair follicle stem cells. The objective of this study was to determine if treating primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells (MEC with xanthosine increases the stem/progenitor cell population by promoting symmetrical division of mammary stem cells. Results In vitro treatment with xanthosine increased the population of MEC during the exponential phase of cell growth, reducing the doubling time from 86 h in control cultures to 60 h in xanthosine-treated cultures. The bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU labeling index and the proportion of MEC in S-phase both were increased by xanthosine treatment, indicating that increased cell accretion was due to increased cell proliferation. Analysis of daughter-pairs indicated that xanthosine promoted a shift from asymmetric to symmetric cell division. Moreover, the 30 % increase in symmetric cell division was concomitant with an increase in the proportion of MEC that were positive for a putative stem cell marker (FNDC3B and a trend toward increased telomerase activity. These results suggest that xanthosine treatment in vitro can increase cell proliferation, promote symmetric cell division and enhance stem/progenitor cell activity. Conclusions Xanthosine treatment increased the proliferation rate of bovine MEC in vitro. This was likely to be mediated by an increase in the proportion of stem/progenitor cells in the MEC population due to promotion of symmetrical stem cell division by xanthosine.

  14. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Enio; Gobbi, Helenice; Saraiva, Bruna S; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions

  15. Sulfur amino acid metabolism in the whole body and mammary gland of the lactating Saanen goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.J.; Knutson, R.J.; Louie, K.; Harris, P.M.; Davis, S.R.; Mackenzie, D.D.S.

    1999-01-01

    Five multiparous Saanen goats in late lactation were infused with 35 S-cysteine into the mammary gland via the external pudic artery. A further 2 goats were infused with 35 S-methionine via the same artery and later with 35 S-methionine into the jugular vein. Total uptake of cysteine from the arterial blood supply by the mammary gland was approximately 6% of the 35 S-cysteine flux past the gland, whereas uptake of methionine was 30-40%. Total mammary uptake of cysteine was also lower than that of methionine when expressed as a percentage of whole body utilisation (6.5 and 14%, respectively). The uptake from the blood did not account for output in the milk for either cysteine or methionine. Both amino acids were highly conserved by the gland as shown by little release of any degraded constitutive protein amino acids and no evidence of oxidation products of either cysteine or methionine being released into the blood. Comparison of 35 S activity in the milk from the infused and non-infused sides of the gland showed up to 10% trans-sulfuration of methionine to cysteine within the gland, none of which was exported in the venous drainage. Total ATP production by one side of the gland was 12.1 mol/day or 13 mmol/min.kg mammary tissue, of which 15% was required for gland protein synthesis. The experimental measurements from both the cysteine and methionine infusions were used to solve a model of gland amino acid uptake and partitioning. Modelling radioactivity of both amino acids in the blood, intracellular free pool, and milk protein suggested that a single intracellular pool cannot be the only source of amino acid for protein synthesis. The model also provides support for the hypothesis that a significant proportion of the uptake of at least some amino acids by the mammary gland is from intracellular hydrolysis of extracellularly derived peptides. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Australia

  16. Histological analysis of low dose NMU effects in the rat mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenschein Carlos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to assess the histological changes in mammary glands of the female Wistar-Furth rat as a result of low dose exposure to N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU. Methods Groups of 30–40 virgin female rats of between 49–58 days old received a single injection of 10, 20, 30 or 50 mg NMU/kg body weight (BW. A group of 10 control rats received 0.9% NaCl solution only. The formation of palpable mammary gland tumors was assessed weekly and, upon sacrifice at 12, 22 and 25–30 weeks after treatment, we performed a comprehensive histological analysis of all mammary gland lesions and tumors. Results Alongside the predicted increase in tumor number and decrease in tumor latency with increasing NMU dose, we observed a number of microscopic lesions and other epithelial abnormalities in the mammary glands for all NMU doses. Two types of non-neoplastic histological changes were observed in rats exposed to 10 or 20 mg NMU/kg BW: namely, (i an increase in the number of acinar structures often accompanied by secretion into the lumen which is normally associated with pregnancy and lactation, and (ii an increase in the number of epithelial cells sloughed into the lumen of the epithelial ducts. Conclusion This study establishes a baseline for low-dose exposure and defines the histological features in the mammary gland resulting from NMU exposure. Furthermore, this system provides an ideal platform for evaluating the relative susceptibility of animals protected from, or predisposed to, developing cancer through environmental influences.

  17. Accelerator Modeling with MATLAB Accelerator Toolbox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model storage rings and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. The objective is to illustrate the flexibility and efficiency of the AT-MATLAB framework. The paper discusses three examples of problems that are analyzed frequently in connection with ring-based synchrotron light sources

  18. Santa Fe Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The 10th USA National Particle Accelerator Conference was hosted this year by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Santa Fe from 21-23 March. It was a resounding success in emphasizing the ferment of activity in the accelerator field. About 900 people registered and about 500 papers were presented in invited and contributed talks and poster sessions

  19. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  20. CERN Accelerator School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-01-15

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) offers a regular course on general accelerator physics. The first basic course was given in September 1984 at Orsay, France, and last September the advanced course was jointly organized by CAS, Oxford's Nuclear Physics Laboratory and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and held at The Queen's College, Oxford.

  1. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program [fr

  2. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960's to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore's Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail

  3. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from the early 1960s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400-ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore close-quote s Site 300 produced 10,000-Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high-current, short-pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N. [CERN Accelerator School (Switzerland)

    1992-11-15

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval.

  5. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Kazuo.

    1969-01-01

    An accelerator is disclosed having a device which permits the electrodes of an accelerator tube to be readily conditioned in an uncomplicated manner before commencing operation. In particle accelerators, it is necessary to condition the accelerator electrodes before a stable high voltage can be applied. Large current accelerators of the cockcroft-walton type require a complicated manual operation which entails applying to the electrodes a low voltage which is gradually increased to induce a vacuum discharge and then terminated. When the discharge attains an extremely low level, the voltage is again impressed and again raised to a high value in low current type accelerators, a high voltage power supply charges the electrodes once to induce discharge followed by reapplying the voltage when the vacuum discharge reaches a low level, according to which high voltage is automatically applied. This procedure, however, requires that the high voltage power supply be provided with a large internal resistance to limit the current to within several milliamps. The present invention connects a high voltage power supply and an accelerator tube through a discharge current limiting resistor wired in parallel with a switch. Initially, the switch is opened enabling the power supply to impress a voltage limited to a prescribed value by a suitably chosen resistor. Conditioning is effected by allowing the voltage between electrodes to increase and is followed by closing the switch through which high voltage is applied directly to the accelerator for operation. (K.J. Owens)

  6. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  7. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  8. CERN Accelerator School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) offers a regular course on general accelerator physics. The first basic course was given in September 1984 at Orsay, France, and last September the advanced course was jointly organized by CAS, Oxford's Nuclear Physics Laboratory and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and held at The Queen's College, Oxford

  9. Thoughts on accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  10. KEK digital accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iwashita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  11. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  12. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  13. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses microwave technology (similar to that used for radar) to accelerate electrons in a part of the accelerator called the "wave guide," then allows ... risk of accidental exposure is extremely low. top of page This page was ... No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  14. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N.

    1992-01-01

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval

  15. Optimization of accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiljev, N.D.; Mozin, I.V.; Shelekhov, V.A.; Efremov, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Expensive exploitation of charged particle accelerators is inevitably concerned with requirements of effectively obtaining of the best characteristics of accelerated beams for physical experiments. One of these characteristics is intensity. Increase of intensity is hindered by a number of effects, concerned with the influence of the volume charge field on a particle motion dynamics in accelerator's chamber. However, ultimate intensity, determined by a volume charge, is almost not achieved for the most of the operating accelerators. This fact is caused by losses of particles during injection, at the initial stage of acceleration and during extraction. These losses are caused by deviations the optimal from real characteristics of the accelerating and magnetic system. This is due to a number of circumstances, including technological tolerances on structural elements of systems, influence of measuring and auxiliary equipment and beam consumers' installations, placed in the closed proximity to magnets, and instability in operation of technological systems of accelerator. Control task consists in compensation of deviations of characteristics of magnetic and electric fields by optimal selection of control actions. As for technical means, automatization of modern accelerators allows to solve optimal control problems in real time. Therefore, the report is devoted to optimal control methods and experimental results. (J.P.N.)

  16. Accelerator breeder concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, G.A.; Fraser, J.S.; Garvey, P.M.

    1978-10-01

    The principal components and functions of an accelerator breeder are described. The role of the accelerator breeder as a possible long-term fissile production support facility for CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) thorium advanced fuel cycles and the Canadian research and development program leading to such a facility are outlined. (author)

  17. Semiconductor acceleration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyanagi, Katsumichi; Kobayashi, Mitsuo; Goto, Tomoaki

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports a practical semiconductor acceleration sensor especially suited for automotive air bag systems. The acceleration sensor includes four beams arranged in a swastika structure. Two piezoresistors are formed on each beam. These eight piezoresistors constitute a Wheatstone bridge. The swastika structure of the sensing elements, an upper glass plate and a lower glass plate exhibit the squeeze film effect which enhances air dumping, by which the constituent silicon is prevented from breakdown. The present acceleration sensor has the following features. The acceleration force component perpendicular to the sensing direction can be cancelled. The cross-axis sensitivity is less than 3 percent. And, the erroneous offset caused by the differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of the constituent materials can be canceled. The high aspect ratio configuration realized by plasma etching facilitates reducing the dimensions and improving the sensitivity of the acceleration sensor. The present acceleration sensor is 3.9 mm by 3.9 mm in area and 1.2 mm in thickness. The present acceleration sensor can measure from -50 to +50 G with sensitivity of 0.275 mV/G and with non-linearity of less than 1 percent. The acceleration sensor withstands shock of 3000 G.

  18. Molecular ion acceleration using tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yuichi; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    In TIARA compound beam radiation system, cluster beams have been produced using 3 MV tandem accelerator (9SDH-2) to supply them to various radiation on injection experiments. Till now, productions of C{sub 2-8}, Si{sub 2-4} and O{sub 2} and their accelerations up to 6 MeV have been succeeded. This study aimed at production and acceleration of B{sub 2-4} and LiF. Anion clusters were produced using the conventional ion source of cesium sputter type. The proportions of atoms, molecules and clusters elicited from the ion source were varied depending on the material`s properties and the operating conditions of ion source such as sample temperature, sputter voltage and the shape of sample. The anion clusters were accelerated toward the high voltage terminal in the center of tandem accelerator, leading to cations through losing their electrons by the collision to N{sub 2} gas in a charge conversion cell at the terminal. Positively charged cluster ions could be obtained by modulating the pressure of N{sub 2} gas. Thus, B{sub 2} (64 nA), B{sub 3} (4.4 nA) and B{sub 4} (2.7 nA) have been produced and their maximum survival probabilities were higher than those of carbon or silicon clusters. In addition, the relationship between beam current and gas pressure was investigated for Bn (n = 2-4) and LiF. (M.N.)

  19. Plasma based accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Allen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The concept of laser-induced plasma wakefields as a technique to accelerate charged particles was introduced 35 years ago as a means to go beyond the accelerating gradients possible with metallic cavities supporting radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Significant developments in laser technology have made possible the pulse intensity needed to realize this concept, and rapid progress is now underway in the realization of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. It has also been realized that similar accelerating gradients can be produced by particle beams propagating in plasmas, and experimental programs have also been undertaken to study this possibility. Positive results have been achieved with electron-driven plasma wakefields, and a demonstration experiment with proton-driven wakefields is under construction at CERN. The concepts behind these different schemes and their pros and cons are described, as well as the experimental results achieved. An outlook for future practical uses of plasma based accelerators will also be given.

  20. TIARA electrostatic accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Satoshi; Takada, Isao; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Uno, Sadanori; Ohkoshi, Kiyonori; Nakajima, Yoshinori; Saitoh, Yuichi; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    1996-07-01

    In order to promote the Advanced Radiation Technology Project, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute constructed TIARA facility composed of four ion accelerators at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment for the period from 1988 to 1993. A 3MV tandem accelerator and an AVF cycrotron were completed in 1991 as the first phase of the construction, and a 3MV single-ended accelerator and a 400kV ion implanter were completed in 1993 as the second phase. Three electrostatic accelerators, the tandem, the single-ended and the implanter, were installed in the Multiple-beam facility of TIARA and have been operated for various experiments with using single, dual and triple beams without any serious trouble. This report describes the constructive works, machine performances, control systems, safety systems and accessory equipments of the electrostatic accelerators. (author)

  1. 2016 Accelerators meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, Michel; Revol, Jean-Luc; Biarrotte, Jean-Luc; Napoly, Olivier; Jardin, Pascal; Chautard, Frederic; Thomas, Jean Charles; Petit, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The Accelerators meeting is organised every two years by the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (SFP). It brings together about 50 participants during a one-day meeting. The morning sessions are devoted to scientific presentations while the afternoon is dedicated to technical visits of facilities. This document brings together the available presentations (slides): 1 - Presentation of the Ganil - Grand accelerateur national d'ions lourds/Big national heavy-ion accelerator, Caen (Jardin, Pascal); 2 - Presentation of the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (Revol, Jean-Luc); 3 - Forward-looking and Prospective view (Napoly, Olivier); 4 - Accelerators at the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics, situation, Forward-looking and Prospective view (Biarrotte, Jean-Luc); 5 - GANIL-SPIRAL2, missions and goals (Thomas, Jean Charles); 6 - The SPIRAL2 project (Petit, Eric)

  2. Collinear wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs

  3. Standing wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavadtsev, A.A.; Zverev, B.V.; Sobepin, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Accelerating ELA structures are considered and chosen for applied purposes of special designation. Accelerating structures with the standing wave are considered most effective for small size ELA. Designs and results of experimental investigation of two new accelerating structures are described. These are structures of the ''ring'' type with a decreased number of excitinq oscillation types and strucuture with transverse rods with a twice smaller transverse size as compared with the biperiodical structure with internal connection resonators. The accelerating biperiodical structures of the conventional type by the fact that the whole structure is not a linear chain of connected resonators, but a ring one. Model tests have shown that the homogeneous structure with transverse rods (STR) at the frequency of 2.8 GHz in the regime of the standing wave has an effective shunt resistance equalling 23 MOhm/m. It is shown that the small transverse size of biperiodic STR makes its application in logging linear electron accelerators

  4. An approach to malignant mammary phyllodes tumors detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Mammary phyllodes tumors (MPT are uncommon fibroepithelial (biphasic neoplasms whose clinical behavior is difficult to predict on the basis of histological criteria only. They are divided into benign, borderline malignant and malignant groups. Sometimes it appears difficult to distinguish these tumors from other types of soft tissue sarcomas. Because of the relatively scant data on the role of biological markers in MPT histogenesis, we have decided to undertake the following study, trying to shed more light on the issue by investigating the following elements that make up MPT: their histological patterns, biological behavior, enzymohistochemical, histochemical and immunohistochemical characteristics (ICH together with the mast cell analysis. Methods. We examined the biopsy material of 35 MPT in our laboratory. Enzymohistochemistry was performed on frozen sections (method of Crowford, Nachlas and Seligman. The used methods were classical hematoxylin-eosin (H&E; histochemical Massontrichrome, Alcian-blue, Periodic acid Schiff and immunohistochemical LSAB2 method (DacoCytomation. Ki-67, ckit, vimentin, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and Her-2 oncoprotein immunohistochemistry was performed on all tumors. Results. The patients were ranged per age from 30-62 years (mean 43.3 years, median 39 years. A total of 35 cases of MPT were included: 20 benign (57%, 6 borderline malignant (17% and 9 malignant (26%. Twenty-two patients (62.8 % underwent segmental mastectomy, while 13 (37.2% had total mastectomies. Twenty-eight patients had negative surgical margins at original resection. The mean size of malignant MPT (7.8 cm was larger than that of benign MPT (4.5 cm. Significant features of the malignant MPT were: stromal cellularity, stromal cellular atypism, high mitotic activity, atypic mitoses, stromal overgrowth, infiltrative tumor contour and heterologous stromal elements. Benign MPT showed strong enzymohistochemical

  5. Role of the Adherens Junction Protein Fascin in the Regulation of Tight Junction Permeability in the Mouse Mammary Gland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beeman, Neal

    2001-01-01

    .... Transduced cells are morphologically normal and produce milk. This gene delivery system was used to express an N-terminally truncated mutant of the tight junction protein occluding in the mammary gland and in cultured cells...

  6. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on human mammary carcinoma cell line (michigan cancer foundation-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The study demonstrates a potent anticancer property of P. ostreatus against human mammary carcinoma cells which might be of value in nutraceutical industry. Further investigations are essential to establish it as a treatment against breast cancer.

  7. Response of mammary tissue to high-LET HZE particle (Silicon ions) radiation or low-LET gamma-rays

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Transcriptional profiling of mammary tissue irradiated at 10 weeks of age with either 100 cGy sparsely ionizing gamma-rays or 10 cGy or 30 cGy densely ionizing...

  8. Measurement by radioimmunoassay of casein content in rabbit mammary gland during pregnancy and after prolactin stimulation in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, G.; Dusanter-Fourt, I.; Kelly, P.A.; Houdebine, L.M.; Djiane, J.

    1987-01-01

    A specific homologous radioimmunoassay was developed to measure rabbit β-casein in rabbit mammary gland with a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml protein. It was used to measure casein concentration during pregnancy and in organ culture of mammary gland explants. Casein was detectable in virgin mammary glands, showed a small increase during the first half of pregnancy, increased more than 20-fold between Days 21 and 27, and diminished somewhat on the first days of lactation. After 24 hr of culture, mammary gland explants had no detectable casein, but the addition of increasing concentrations of prolactin to a culture medium which contained insulin (5 μg/ml) and cortisol (0.5 μg/ml) induced a regular increase in the casein content of the tissue. Casein started to increase when 10 ng/ml of prolactin was present and maximal values were achieved for 100 ng/ml of the hormone

  9. A Novel Strategy for Isolation, Molecular and Functional Characterization of Embryonic Mammary Stem Cells Using Molecular Genetics and Microfluidic Sorting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wahl, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    .... Our system consists of both activator and reporter components. The activator component is dependent both on Wnt signaling which is essential for mammary gland development and on doxycycline to toggle the system on and off...

  10. Non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation act via TGF-beta to promote mammary carcinogenesis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a genome-wide approach to identifying genes persistently induced in the mouse mammary gland by acute whole body low dose ionizing radiation (10cGy) 1 and 4...

  11. Developing a System for Directed Gene Introduction into Mammary Gland Via Targeted Infection of Retrovirus Receptor Transgenics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bates, Paul

    1998-01-01

    ... (the Rous sarcoma virus receptor). Directed infection, and thus directed gene expression of cells expressing the viral receptor should provide a rapid and efficient method to test the mammary tumorigenic potential of genes in an animal model...

  12. Mammary Specific Expression of Cre Recombinase Under the Control of an Endogenous MMTV LTR: A Conditional Knock-Out System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czarneski, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    .... The hypothesis of the project was to develop a novel breast cancer model using the tissue-specific expression of the Mtv-17 locus, which was previously shown by this lab to only be expressed in the mammary gland...

  13. The Role and Regulation of TNF-Alpha in Normal Rat Mammary Gland During Development and in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varela, Linda

    1998-01-01

    The pleiotropic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) has previously been shown to regulate both the proliferation and differentiation of normal rat mammary epithelial cells (MEC) in primary culture...

  14. Mechanisms of Altered Control of Proliferation by Cyclic Amp/Protein Kinase A During Mammary Tumor Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imagawa, Walter

    1999-01-01

    We hypothesize that alterations in the regulation of growth by growth factors and cAMP during mammary tumor progression are related to MAP kinase signaling pathways known to be affected by cAMP and pertussis toxin (PT...

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: mouse mammary tumor virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term mouse mammary tumor virus 名詞 一般 *... * * * マウス乳癌ウイルス マウスニュウガンウイルス マウスニューガンウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906026078109489 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 mouse mammary tumor virus

  16. From Normalcy to Neoplasia. The Role of Epithelial-Stromal Interactions in Regulating Mammary Growth and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    stromal steroid hormone receptors in mammary gland growth and development using tissue recombinants. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 2, 393-402. Debatin...Birkedal-Hansen (1999) MT1-MMP- deficient mice develop dwarfism , osteopenia, arthritis, and connective tissue disease due to inadequate collagen...al., 1988). Ligands of the epidermal growth hormonally regulated ductal development during puberty and factor receptor (EGFR) are believed to be

  17. Regulation of hTERT Expression and Function in Newly Immortalized p53(+) Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    human mammary epithelial cell types by human papilloma virus 16 e6 or e7. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1995; 92:3687-91. 54. Shay JW, Pereira-Smith OM, Wright...Liu X-L, Chu Q, Gao Q, Band V. Immortalization of distinct human mammary epithelial cell types by human papilloma virus 16 e6 or e7. Proc Nat Acad

  18. Cripto-1 Ablation Disrupts Alveolar Development in the Mouse Mammary Gland through a Progesterone Receptor–Mediated Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauzinska, Malgorzata; McCurdy, David; Rangel, Maria Cristina; Vaidyanath, Arun; Castro, Nadia P.; Shen, Michael M.; Gonzales, Monica; Bertolette, Daniel; Bianco, Caterina; Callahan, Robert; Salomon, David S.; Raafat, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Cripto-1, a member of the epidermal growth factor–Cripto-1/FRL-1/Cryptic family, is critical for early embryonic development. Together with its ligand Nodal, Cripto-1 has been found to be associated with the undifferentiated status of mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Several studies have clearly shown that Cripto-1 is involved in regulating branching morphogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the mammary gland both in vitro and in vivo and together with the cofactor GRP78 is critical for the maintenance of mammary stem cells ex vivo. Our previous studies showed that mammary-specific overexpression of human Cripto-1 exhibited dramatic morphological alterations in nulliparous mice mammary glands. The present study shows a novel mechanism for Cripto-1 regulation of mammary gland development through direct effects on progesterone receptor expression and pathways regulated by progesterone in the mammary gland. We demonstrate a strict temporal regulation of mouse Cripto-1 (mCripto-1) expression that occurs during mammary gland development and a stage-specific function of mCripto-1 signaling during mammary gland development. Our data suggest that Cripto-1, like the progesterone receptor, is not required for the initial ductal growth but is essential for subsequent side branching and alveologenesis during the initial stages of pregnancy. Dissection of the mechanism by which this occurs indicates that mCripto-1 activates receptor activator NF-κB/receptor activator NF-κB ligand, and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:26429739

  19. Effects of age and parity on mammary gland lesions and progenitor cells in the FVB/N-RC mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Raafat

    Full Text Available The FVB/N mouse strain is extensively used in the development of animal models for breast cancer research. Recently it has been reported that the aging FVB/N mice develop spontaneous mammary lesions and tumors accompanied with abnormalities in the pituitary glands. These observations have a great impact on the mouse models of human breast cancer. We have developed a population of inbred FVB/N mice (designated FVB/N-RC that have been genetically isolated for 20 years. To study the effects of age and parity on abnormalities of the mammary glands of FVB/N-RC mice, twenty-five nulliparous and multiparous (3-4 pregnancies females were euthanized at 16-22 months of age. Examination of the mammary glands did not reveal macroscopic evidence of mammary gland tumors in either aged-nulliparous or multiparous FVB/N-RC mice (0/25. However, histological analysis of the mammary glands showed rare focal nodules of squamous changes in 2 of the aged multiparous mice. Mammary gland hyperplasia was detected in 8% and 71% of the aged-nulliparous and aged-multiparous mice, respectively. Epithelial contents and serum levels of triiodothyronine were significantly higher in the experimental groups than the 14-wk-old control mice. Immuno-histochemical staining of the pituitary gland pars distalis showed no difference in prolactin staining between the control and the aged mice. Tissue transplant and dilution studies showed no effect of age and/or parity on the ability of putative progenitor cells present among the injected mammary cells to repopulate a cleared fat pad and develop a full mammary gland outgrowth. This FVB/N-RC mouse substrain is suitable to develop mouse models for breast cancer.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to human mammary tumor-associated antigens and their use for radiolocalization of xenografts in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colcher, D.; Schlom, J.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have utilized membrane-enriched extracts of human metastatic mammary tumor cells as immunogens to generate and characterize monoclonal antibodies reactive with determinants that would be maintained on metastatic, as well as primary, human mammary carcinoma cells. Multiple assays using tumor cells extracts, tissue sections, and live cells in culture have been employed to reveal the diversity of the monoclonal antibodies generated. Then the utility of these antibodies for radiolocalization studies was examined. (Auth.)