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Sample records for accelerated molecular dynamics

  1. Introduction to Accelerated Molecular Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    Molecular Dynamics is the numerical solution of the equations of motion of a set of atoms, given an interatomic potential V and some boundary and initial conditions. Molecular Dynamics is the largest scale model that gives unbiased dynamics [x(t),p(t)] in full atomistic detail. Molecular Dynamics: is simple; is 'exact' for classical dynamics (with respect to a given V); can be used to compute any (atomistic) thermodynamical or dynamical properties; naturally handles complexity -- the system does the right thing at the right time. The physics derives only from the interatomic potential.

  2. Accelerating ab initio molecular dynamics simulations by linear prediction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Jonathan D.; Steele, Ryan P.

    2016-09-01

    Acceleration of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations can be reliably achieved by extrapolation of electronic data from previous timesteps. Existing techniques utilize polynomial least-squares regression to fit previous steps' Fock or density matrix elements. In this work, the recursive Burg 'linear prediction' technique is shown to be a viable alternative to polynomial regression, and the extrapolation-predicted Fock matrix elements were three orders of magnitude closer to converged elements. Accelerations of 1.8-3.4× were observed in test systems, and in all cases, linear prediction outperformed polynomial extrapolation. Importantly, these accelerations were achieved without reducing the MD integration timestep.

  3. Enhancing protein adsorption simulations by using accelerated molecular dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mücksch

    Full Text Available The atomistic modeling of protein adsorption on surfaces is hampered by the different time scales of the simulation ([Formula: see text][Formula: see text]s and experiment (up to hours, and the accordingly different 'final' adsorption conformations. We provide evidence that the method of accelerated molecular dynamics is an efficient tool to obtain equilibrated adsorption states. As a model system we study the adsorption of the protein BMP-2 on graphite in an explicit salt water environment. We demonstrate that due to the considerably improved sampling of conformational space, accelerated molecular dynamics allows to observe the complete unfolding and spreading of the protein on the hydrophobic graphite surface. This result is in agreement with the general finding of protein denaturation upon contact with hydrophobic surfaces.

  4. Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn

    2005-01-01

    We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...... an MD trajectory, as another route for final phase acceleration. Our suggestions may be implemented within most MD quench implementations with a few, straightforward lines of code, thus maintaining the appealing simplicity of the MD quench algorithms. In this paper, we also bridge the conceptual gap...

  5. Accelerated Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Reactive Hydrocarbon Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Steven J.

    2014-02-25

    The research activities in this project consisted of four different sub-projects. Three different accelerated dynamics techniques (parallel replica dynamics, hyperdynamics, and temperature-accelerated dynamics) were applied to the modeling of pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. In addition, parallel replica dynamics was applied to modeling of polymerization.

  6. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficient as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In many cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems

  7. Accelerated molecular dynamics methods: introduction and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Voter, Arthur F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shim, Y [UNIV OF TOLEDO; Amar, J G [UNIV OF TOLEDO

    2009-01-01

    reaction pathways may be important, we return instead to a molecular dynamics treatment, in which the trajectory itself finds an appropriate way to escape from each state of the system. Since a direct integration of the trajectory would be limited to nanoseconds, while we are seeking to follow the system for much longer times, we modify the dynamics in some way to cause the first escape to happen much more quickly, thereby accelerating the dynamics. The key is to design the modified dynamics in a way that does as little damage as possible to the probability for escaping along a given pathway - i.e., we try to preserve the relative rate constants for the different possible escape paths out of the state. We can then use this modified dynamics to follow the system from state to state, reaching much longer times than we could reach with direct MD. The dynamics within any one state may no longer be meaningful, but the state-to-state dynamics, in the best case, as we discuss in the paper, can be exact. We have developed three methods in this accelerated molecular dynamics (AMD) class, in each case appealing to TST, either implicitly or explicitly, to design the modified dynamics. Each of these methods has its own advantages, and we and others have applied these methods to a wide range of problems. The purpose of this article is to give the reader a brief introduction to how these methods work, and discuss some of the recent developments that have been made to improve their power and applicability. Note that this brief review does not claim to be exhaustive: various other methods aiming at similar goals have been proposed in the literature. For the sake of brevity, our focus will exclusively be on the methods developed by the group.

  8. Accelerating chemical reactions: Exploring reactive free-energy surfaces using accelerated ab initio molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Levi C. T.; Markwick, Phineus R. L.; McCammon, J. Andrew; Doltsinis, Nikos L.

    2011-01-01

    A biased potential molecular dynamics simulation approach, accelerated molecular dynamics (AMD), has been implemented in the framework of ab initio molecular dynamics for the study of chemical reactions. Using two examples, the double proton transfer reaction in formic acid dimer and the hypothetical adiabatic ring opening and subsequent rearrangement reactions in methylenecyclopropane, it is demonstrated that ab initio AMD can be readily employed to efficiently explore the reactive potential energy surface, allowing the prediction of chemical reactions and the identification of metastable states. An adaptive variant of the AMD method is developed, which additionally affords an accurate representation of both the free-energy surface and the mechanism associated with the chemical reaction of interest and can also provide an estimate of the reaction rate. PMID:21548673

  9. Accelerated Molecular Dynamics studies of He Bubble Growth in Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uberuaga, Blas; Sandoval, Luis; Perez, Danny; Voter, Arthur

    2015-11-01

    Understanding how materials respond to extreme environments is critical for predicting and improving performance. In materials such as tungsten exposed to plasmas for nuclear fusion applications, novel nanoscale fuzzes, comprised of tendrils of tungsten, form as a consequence of the implantation of He into the near surface. However, the detailed mechanisms that link He bubble formation to the ultimate development of fuzz are unclear. Molecular dynamics simulations provide insight into the He implantation process, but are necessarily performed at implantation rates that are orders of magnitudes faster than experiment. Here, using accelerated molecular dynamics methods, we examine the role of He implantation rates on the physical evolution of He bubbles in tungsten. We find that, as the He rate is reduced, new types of events involving the response of the tungsten matrix to the pressure in the bubble become competitive and change the overall evolution of the bubble as well as the subsequent morphology of the tungsten surface. We have also examined how bubble growth differs at various microstructural features. These results highlight the importance of performing simulations at experimentally relevant conditions in order to correctly capture the contributions of the various significant kinetic processes and predict the overall response of the material.

  10. Accelerating ring-polymer molecular dynamics with parallel-replica dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-Yaung; Perez, Danny; Voter, Arthur F

    2016-06-28

    Nuclear quantum effects are important for systems containing light elements, and the effects are more prominent in the low temperature regime where the dynamics also becomes sluggish. We show that parallel replica (ParRep) dynamics, an accelerated molecular dynamics approach for infrequent-event systems, can be effectively combined with ring-polymer molecular dynamics, a semiclassical trajectory approach that gives a good approximation to zero-point and tunneling effects in activated escape processes. The resulting RP-ParRep method is a powerful tool for reaching long time scales in complex infrequent-event systems where quantum dynamics are important. Two illustrative examples, symmetric Eckart barrier crossing and interstitial helium diffusion in Fe and Fe-Cr alloy, are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and long-time scale capability of this approach. PMID:27369499

  11. Accelerating ring-polymer molecular dynamics with parallel-replica dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-Yaung; Perez, Danny; Voter, Arthur F.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear quantum effects are important for systems containing light elements, and the effects are more prominent in the low temperature regime where the dynamics also becomes sluggish. We show that parallel replica (ParRep) dynamics, an accelerated molecular dynamics approach for infrequent-event systems, can be effectively combined with ring-polymer molecular dynamics, a semiclassical trajectory approach that gives a good approximation to zero-point and tunneling effects in activated escape processes. The resulting RP-ParRep method is a powerful tool for reaching long time scales in complex infrequent-event systems where quantum dynamics are important. Two illustrative examples, symmetric Eckart barrier crossing and interstitial helium diffusion in Fe and Fe-Cr alloy, are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and long-time scale capability of this approach.

  12. Accelerated electronic structure-based molecular dynamics simulations of shock-induced chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkwell, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The initiation and progression of shock-induced chemistry in organic materials at moderate temperatures and pressures are slow on the time scales available to regular molecular dynamics simulations. Accessing the requisite time scales is particularly challenging if the interatomic bonding is modeled using accurate yet expensive methods based explicitly on electronic structure. We have combined fast, energy conserving extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with the parallel replica accelerated molecular dynamics formalism to study the relatively sluggish shock-induced chemistry of benzene around 13-20 GPa. We model interatomic bonding in hydrocarbons using self-consistent tight binding theory with an accurate and transferable parameterization. Shock compression and its associated transient, non-equilibrium effects are captured explicitly by combining the universal liquid Hugoniot with a simple shrinking-cell boundary condition. A number of novel methods for improving the performance of reactive electronic structure-based molecular dynamics by adapting the self-consistent field procedure on-the-fly will also be discussed. The use of accelerated molecular dynamics has enabled us to follow the initial stages of the nucleation and growth of carbon clusters in benzene under thermodynamic conditions pertinent to experiments.

  13. Accelerated molecular dynamics and equation-free methods for simulating diffusion in solids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Brown, William Michael (Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN); Plimpton, Steven James; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Wagner, Gregory John; Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

    2011-09-01

    Many of the most important and hardest-to-solve problems related to the synthesis, performance, and aging of materials involve diffusion through the material or along surfaces and interfaces. These diffusion processes are driven by motions at the atomic scale, but traditional atomistic simulation methods such as molecular dynamics are limited to very short timescales on the order of the atomic vibration period (less than a picosecond), while macroscale diffusion takes place over timescales many orders of magnitude larger. We have completed an LDRD project with the goal of developing and implementing new simulation tools to overcome this timescale problem. In particular, we have focused on two main classes of methods: accelerated molecular dynamics methods that seek to extend the timescale attainable in atomistic simulations, and so-called 'equation-free' methods that combine a fine scale atomistic description of a system with a slower, coarse scale description in order to project the system forward over long times.

  14. Accelerated Molecular Dynamics Simulations with the AMOEBA Polarizable Force Field on Graphics Processing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Steffen; Bucher, Denis; Eastman, Peter; Pande, Vijay; McCammon, J Andrew

    2013-11-12

    The accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) method has recently been shown to enhance the sampling of biomolecules in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, often by several orders of magnitude. Here, we describe an implementation of the aMD method for the OpenMM application layer that takes full advantage of graphics processing units (GPUs) computing. The aMD method is shown to work in combination with the AMOEBA polarizable force field (AMOEBA-aMD), allowing the simulation of long time-scale events with a polarizable force field. Benchmarks are provided to show that the AMOEBA-aMD method is efficiently implemented and produces accurate results in its standard parametrization. For the BPTI protein, we demonstrate that the protein structure described with AMOEBA remains stable even on the extended time scales accessed at high levels of accelerations. For the DNA repair metalloenzyme endonuclease IV, we show that the use of the AMOEBA force field is a significant improvement over fixed charged models for describing the enzyme active-site. The new AMOEBA-aMD method is publicly available (http://wiki.simtk.org/openmm/VirtualRepository) and promises to be interesting for studying complex systems that can benefit from both the use of a polarizable force field and enhanced sampling.

  15. Accelerated ab-initio Molecular Dynamics: probing the weak dispersive forces in dense liquid hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Sorella, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    We propose an ab-initio molecular dynamics method, capable to reduce dramatically the autocorrelation time required for the simulation of classical and quantum particles at finite temperature. The method is based on an efficient implementation of a first order Langevin dynamics modified by means of a suitable, position dependent acceleration matrix $S$. Here we apply this technique, within a Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) based wavefuntion approach and within the Born-Oppheneimer approximation, for determining the phase diagram of high-pressure Hydrogen with simulations much longer than the autocorrelation time. With the proposed method, we are able to equilibrate in few hundreds steps even close to the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLT). Within our approach we find that the LLT transition is consistent with recent density functionals predicting a much larger transition pressures when the long range dispersive forces are taken into account.

  16. A GPU-accelerated immersive audio-visual framework for interaction with molecular dynamics using consumer depth sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, David R; O'Connor, Michael; Calabró, Gaetano; Price, James; Tew, Philip; Mitchell, Thomas; Hyde, Joseph; Tew, David P; Coughtrie, David J; McIntosh-Smith, Simon

    2014-01-01

    With advances in computational power, the rapidly growing role of computational/simulation methodologies in the physical sciences, and the development of new human-computer interaction technologies, the field of interactive molecular dynamics seems destined to expand. In this paper, we describe and benchmark the software algorithms and hardware setup for carrying out interactive molecular dynamics utilizing an array of consumer depth sensors. The system works by interpreting the human form as an energy landscape, and superimposing this landscape on a molecular dynamics simulation to chaperone the motion of the simulated atoms, affecting both graphics and sonified simulation data. GPU acceleration has been key to achieving our target of 60 frames per second (FPS), giving an extremely fluid interactive experience. GPU acceleration has also allowed us to scale the system for use in immersive 360° spaces with an array of up to ten depth sensors, allowing several users to simultaneously chaperone the dynamics. The flexibility of our platform for carrying out molecular dynamics simulations has been considerably enhanced by wrappers that facilitate fast communication with a portable selection of GPU-accelerated molecular force evaluation routines. In this paper, we describe a 360° atmospheric molecular dynamics simulation we have run in a chemistry/physics education context. We also describe initial tests in which users have been able to chaperone the dynamics of 10-alanine peptide embedded in an explicit water solvent. Using this system, both expert and novice users have been able to accelerate peptide rare event dynamics by 3-4 orders of magnitude. PMID:25340458

  17. Accelerating ab initio path integral molecular dynamics with multilevel sampling of potential surface

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Hua Y

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel approach to sample the potential energy surface in a path integral formalism is proposed. The purpose is to reduce the required number of ab initio evaluations of energy and forces in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulation, without compromising the overall accuracy. To validate the method, the internal energy and free energy of an Einstein crystal are calculated and compared with the analytical solutions. As a preliminary application, we assess the performance of the method in a realistic model, the FCC phase of dense atomic hydrogen, in which the calculated result shows that the acceleration rate is about 3 to 4 fold for a two-level implementation, and can be increased to 10 times if extrapolation is used. With only 16 beads used for the ab initio potential sampling, this method gives a well converged internal energy. The residual error in pressure is just about 3 GPa, whereas it is about 20 GPa for a plain AI-PIMD calculation with the same number of beads. The vibration...

  18. GPU Accelerated Discrete Element Method (DEM) Molecular Dynamics for Conservative, Faceted Particle Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Spellings, Matthew; Anderson, Joshua A; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2016-01-01

    Faceted shapes, such as polyhedra, are commonly found in systems of nanoscale, colloidal, and granular particles. Many interesting physical phenomena, like crystal nucleation and growth, vacancy motion, and glassy dynamics are challenging to model in these systems because they require detailed dynamical information at the individual particle level. Within the granular materials community the Discrete Element Method has been used extensively to model systems of anisotropic particles under gravity, with friction. We provide an implementation of this method intended for simulation of hard, faceted nanoparticles, with a conservative Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) interparticle potential, coupled to a thermodynamic ensemble. This method is a natural extension of classical molecular dynamics and enables rigorous thermodynamic calculations for faceted particles.

  19. Molecular dynamics study of accelerated ion-induced shock waves in biological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, Pablo; Mason, Nigel J.; Currell, Fred J.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2016-09-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the effects of carbon- and iron-ion induced shock waves in DNA duplexes in liquid water. We use the CHARMM force field implemented within the MBN Explorer simulation package to optimize and equilibrate DNA duplexes in liquid water boxes of different sizes and shapes. The translational and vibrational degrees of freedom of water molecules are excited according to the energy deposited by the ions and the subsequent shock waves in liquid water are simulated. The pressure waves generated are studied and compared with an analytical hydrodynamics model which serves as a benchmark for evaluating the suitability of the simulation boxes. The energy deposition in the DNA backbone bonds is also monitored as an estimation of biological damage, something which is not possible with the analytical model. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey V. Solov'yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.

  20. Molecular dynamics study of accelerated ion-induced shock waves in biological media

    CERN Document Server

    de Vera, Pablo; Currell, Fred J; Solov'yov, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the effects of carbon- and iron-ion induced shock waves in DNA duplexes in liquid water. We use the CHARMM force field implemented within the MBN Explorer simulation package to optimize and equilibrate DNA duplexes in liquid water boxes of different sizes and shapes. The translational and vibrational degrees of freedom of water molecules are excited according to the energy deposited by the ions and the subsequent shock waves in liquid water are simulated. The pressure waves generated are studied and compared with an analytical hydrodynamics model which serves as a benchmark for evaluating the suitability of the simulation boxes. The energy deposition in the DNA backbone bonds is also monitored as an estimation of biological damage, something which lies beyond the possibilities of the analytical model.

  1. Accelerated molecular dynamics simulations of the octopamine receptor using GPUs: discovery of an alternate agonist-binding position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Kevin W; Izaguirre, Jesús A

    2016-10-01

    Octopamine receptors (OARs) perform key biological functions in invertebrates, making this class of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) worth considering for insecticide development. However, no crystal structures and very little research exists for OARs. Furthermore, GPCRs are large proteins, are suspended in a lipid bilayer, and are activated on the millisecond timescale, all of which make conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations infeasible, even if run on large supercomputers. However, accelerated Molecular Dynamics (aMD) simulations can reduce this timescale to even hundreds of nanoseconds, while running the simulations on graphics processing units (GPUs) would enable even small clusters of GPUs to have processing power equivalent to hundreds of CPUs. Our results show that aMD simulations run on GPUs can successfully obtain the active and inactive state conformations of a GPCR on this reduced timescale. Furthermore, we discovered a potential alternate active-state agonist-binding position in the octopamine receptor which has yet to be observed and may be a novel GPCR agonist-binding position. These results demonstrate that a complex biological system with an activation process on the millisecond timescale can be successfully simulated on the nanosecond timescale using a simple computing system consisting of a small number of GPUs. Proteins 2016; 84:1480-1489. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Accelerated molecular dynamics simulations of the octopamine receptor using GPUs: discovery of an alternate agonist-binding position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Kevin W; Izaguirre, Jesús A

    2016-10-01

    Octopamine receptors (OARs) perform key biological functions in invertebrates, making this class of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) worth considering for insecticide development. However, no crystal structures and very little research exists for OARs. Furthermore, GPCRs are large proteins, are suspended in a lipid bilayer, and are activated on the millisecond timescale, all of which make conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations infeasible, even if run on large supercomputers. However, accelerated Molecular Dynamics (aMD) simulations can reduce this timescale to even hundreds of nanoseconds, while running the simulations on graphics processing units (GPUs) would enable even small clusters of GPUs to have processing power equivalent to hundreds of CPUs. Our results show that aMD simulations run on GPUs can successfully obtain the active and inactive state conformations of a GPCR on this reduced timescale. Furthermore, we discovered a potential alternate active-state agonist-binding position in the octopamine receptor which has yet to be observed and may be a novel GPCR agonist-binding position. These results demonstrate that a complex biological system with an activation process on the millisecond timescale can be successfully simulated on the nanosecond timescale using a simple computing system consisting of a small number of GPUs. Proteins 2016; 84:1480-1489. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27318014

  3. Acceleration Schemes for Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics and Electronic Structure Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Tassone, Francesco; Mauri, Francesco; Car, Roberto

    1994-01-01

    We study the convergence and the stability of fictitious dynamical methods for electrons. First, we show that a particular damped second-order dynamics has a much faster rate of convergence to the ground-state than first-order steepest descent algorithms while retaining their numerical cost per time step. Our damped dynamics has efficiency comparable to that of conjugate gradient methods in typical electronic minimization problems. Then, we analyse the factors that limit the size of the integ...

  4. Substructured multibody molecular dynamics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grest, Gary Stephen; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Plimpton, Steven James; Woolf, Thomas B. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Lehoucq, Richard B.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Ismail, Ahmed E.; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan M. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY); Draganescu, Andrei I.

    2006-11-01

    We have enhanced our parallel molecular dynamics (MD) simulation software LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator, lammps.sandia.gov) to include many new features for accelerated simulation including articulated rigid body dynamics via coupling to the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute code POEMS (Parallelizable Open-source Efficient Multibody Software). We use new features of the LAMMPS software package to investigate rhodopsin photoisomerization, and water model surface tension and capillary waves at the vapor-liquid interface. Finally, we motivate the recipes of MD for practitioners and researchers in numerical analysis and computational mechanics.

  5. Accelerating abelian gauge dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen Louis

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest a new acceleration method for Abelian gauge theories based on linear transformations to variables which weight all length scales equally. We measure the autocorrelation time for the Polyakov loop and the plaquette at β=1.0 in the U(1) gauge theory in four dimensions, for the new method and for standard Metropolis updates. We find a dramatic improvement for the new method over the Metropolis method. Computing the critical exponent z for the new method remains an important open issue.

  6. Dynamic accelerator modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object-Oriented Programming has been used extensively to model the LBL Advanced Light Source 1.5 GeV electron storage ring. This paper is on the present status of the class library construction with emphasis on a dynamic modeling

  7. Beam dynamics for induction accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward P., E-mail: eplee@lbl.gov

    2014-01-01

    An induction linac uses pulsed power that is applied directly, without any intervening resonant cavities, to accelerate a charged particle pulse. This approach can accommodate a large multiple-beam focusing lattice capable of transporting a large total beam current with a long pulse duration, which may be compressed while accelerating as well as afterward. The mean accelerating gradient is relatively low (less than about 1.5 MV/m), but the potential efficiency of energy transfer can be large up to about 50%. A multiple-beam induction linac is therefore a natural candidate accelerator for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver. However, the accelerated beams must meet stringent requirements on occupied phase space volume in order to be focused accurately and with small radius onto the fusion target. Dynamical considerations in the beam injector and linac, as well as in the final compression, final focus, and the fusion chamber, determine the quality of the driver beams as they approach the target. Requirements and tolerances derived from beam dynamics strongly influence the linac configuration and component design. After a summary of dynamical considerations, two major topics are addressed here: transportable current limits, which determine the choice of focal system for the linac, and longitudinal control of the beams, which are potentially destabilized by their interaction with the pulsed power system.

  8. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to ...

  9. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force....

  10. MOLECULAR REPLICATOR DYNAMICS

    OpenAIRE

    BÄRBEL M. R. STADLER; Stadler, Peter F

    2003-01-01

    Template-dependent replication at the molecular level is the basis of reproduction in nature. A detailed understanding of the peculiarities of the chemical reaction kinetics associated with replication processes is therefore an indispensible prerequisite for any understanding of evolution at the molecular level. Networks of interacting self-replicating species can give rise to a wealth of different dynamical phenomena, from competitive exclusion to permanent coexistence, from global stability...

  11. Molecular dynamics for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time-dependent variational principle for many-body trial states is used to discuss the relation between the approaches of different molecular dynamics models to describe indistinguishable fermions. Early attempts to include effects of the Pauli principle by means of nonlocal potentials as well as more recent models which work with antisymmetrized many-body states are reviewed under these premises. (orig.)

  12. Quantum optical device accelerating dynamic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoriev, D.; Kazakov, A.; Vakulenko, S

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss analogue computers based on quantum optical systems accelerating dynamic programming for some computational problems. These computers, at least in principle, can be realized by actually existing devices. We estimate an acceleration in resolving of some NP-hard problems that can be obtained in such a way versus deterministic computers

  13. Notes on beam dynamics in linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluckstern, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    A collection of notes, on various aspects of beam dynamics in linear accelerators, which were produced by the author during five years (1975 to 1980) of consultation for the LASL Accelerator Technology (AT) Division and Medium-Energy Physics (MP) Division is presented.

  14. Pulse Power Supply for Plasma Dynamic Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuanzong; LIU Jian; FENG Chunhua; WANG Long

    2008-01-01

    A new concept of a coaxial plasma dynamic accelerator with a self-energized mag-netic compressor coil to simulate the effects of space debris impact is demonstrated. A brief description is presented about the pulse power supply system including the charging circuit, start switch and current transfer system along with some of the key techniques for this kind of acceler-ator. Using this accelerator configuration, ceramic beads of 100 μm in diameter were accelerated to a speed as high as 18 km/sec. The facility can be used in a laboratory setting to study impact phenomena on solar array materials, potential structural materials for use in space.

  15. Beam dynamics in high energy particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Particle accelerators are essential tools for scientific research in fields as diverse as high energy physics, materials science and structural biology. They are also widely used in industry and medicine. Producing the optimum design and achieving the best performance for an accelerator depends on a detailed understanding of many (often complex and sometimes subtle) effects that determine the properties and behavior of the particle beam. Beam Dynamics in High Energy Particle Accelerators provides an introduction to the concepts underlying accelerator beam line design and analysis, taking an approach that emphasizes the elegance of the subject and leads into the development of a range of powerful techniques for understanding and modeling charged particle beams.

  16. From Molecular Dynamics to Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Flekkoy, Eirik G.; Coveney, Peter V.

    1999-01-01

    A procedure is introduced for deriving a coarse-grained dissipative particle dynamics from molecular dynamics. The rules of the dissipative particle dynamics are derived from the underlying molecular interactions, and a Langevin equation is obtained that describes the forces experienced by the dissipative particles and specifies the associated canonical Gibbs distribution for the system.

  17. Interactive molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, Daniel V

    2015-01-01

    Physics students now have access to interactive molecular dynamics simulations that can model and animate the motions of hundreds of particles, such as noble gas atoms, that attract each other weakly at short distances but repel strongly when pressed together. Using these simulations, students can develop an understanding of forces and motions at the molecular scale, nonideal fluids, phases of matter, thermal equilibrium, nonequilibrium states, the Boltzmann distribution, the arrow of time, and much more. This article summarizes the basic features and capabilities of such a simulation, presents a variety of student exercises using it at the introductory and intermediate levels, and describes some enhancements that can further extend its uses. A working simulation code, in HTML5 and JavaScript for running within any modern Web browser, is provided as an online supplement.

  18. Interactive molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Daniel V.

    2015-03-01

    Physics students now have access to interactive molecular dynamics simulations that can model and animate the motions of hundreds of particles, such as noble gas atoms, that attract each other weakly at short distances but repel strongly when pressed together. Using these simulations, students can develop an understanding of forces and motions at the molecular scale, nonideal fluids, phases of matter, thermal equilibrium, nonequilibrium states, the Boltzmann distribution, the arrow of time, and much more. This article summarizes the basic features and capabilities of such a simulation, presents a variety of student exercises using it at the introductory and intermediate levels, and describes some enhancements that can further extend its uses. A working simulation code, in html5 and javascript for running within any modern Web browser, is provided as an online supplement.

  19. Molecular confinement accelerates deformation of entangled polymers during squeeze flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Harry D; King, William P; Pethica, John B; Cross, Graham L W

    2008-10-31

    The squeezing of polymers in narrow gaps is important for the dynamics of nanostructure fabrication by nanoimprint embossing and the operation of polymer boundary lubricants. We measured stress versus strain behavior while squeezing entangled polystyrene films to large strains. In confined conditions where films were prepared to a thickness less than the size of the bulk macromolecule, resistance to deformation was markedly reduced for both solid-glass forging and liquid-melt molding. For melt flow, we further observed a complete inversion of conventional polymer viscosity scaling with molecular weight. Our results show that squeeze flow is accelerated at small scales by an unexpected influence of film thickness in polymer materials. PMID:18832609

  20. Acceleration-induced nonlocality: kinetic memory versus dynamic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the memory of accelerated motion in Minkowski spacetime are discussed within the framework of the nonlocal theory of accelerated observers. Two types of memory are distinguished: kinetic and dynamic. We show that only kinetic memory is acceptable, since dynamic memory leads to divergences for nonuniform accelerated motion.

  1. Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kühne, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    Computer simulations and molecular dynamics in particular, is a very powerful method to provide detailed and essentially exact informations of classical many-body problems. With the advent of \\textit{ab-initio} molecular dynamics, where the forces are computed on-the-fly by accurate electronic structure calculations, the scope of either method has been greatly extended. This new approach, which unifies Newton's and Schr\\"odinger's equations, allows for complex simulations without relying on any adjustable parameter. This review is intended to outline the basic principles as well as a survey of the field. Beginning with the derivation of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, the Car-Parrinello method as well as novel hybrid scheme that unifies best of either approach are discussed. The predictive power is demonstrated by a series of applications ranging from insulators to semiconductors and even metals in condensed phases.

  2. State-Dependent Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciann-Dong Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new mixed quantum mechanics (QM—molecular mechanics (MM approach, where MM is replaced by quantum Hamilton mechanics (QHM, which inherits the modeling capability of MM, while preserving the state-dependent nature of QM. QHM, a single mechanics playing the roles of QM and MM simultaneously, will be employed here to derive the three-dimensional quantum dynamics of diatomic molecules. The resulting state-dependent molecular dynamics including vibration, rotation and spin are shown to completely agree with the QM description and well match the experimental vibration-rotation spectrum. QHM can be incorporated into the framework of a mixed quantum-classical Bohmian method to enable a trajectory interpretation of orbital-spin interaction and spin entanglement in molecular dynamics.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of diffusivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juanfang LIU; Danling ZENG; Qin LI; Hong GAO

    2008-01-01

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation was performed on water to calculate its diffusivity by adopting different potential models. The results show that the potential models have great influence on the simulated results. In addition, the diffusivities obtained by the SPCE model conform well to the experimental values.

  4. Gravitational acceleration and edge effects in molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guang-Xing; Megeath, Tom; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Gravity plays important roles in the evolution of molecular clouds. We present an acceleration mapping method to estimate the acceleration induced by gravitational interactions in molecular clouds based on observational data. We find that the geometry of a region has a significant impact on the behavior of gravity. In the Pipe nebula which can be approximated as a gas filament, we find that gravitational acceleration can effectively compress the end of this filament, which may have triggered star formation. We identify this as the "gravitational focusing" effect proposed by Burkert & Hartman (2004). In the sheet-like IC348-B3 region, gravity can lead to collapse at its edge, while in the centrally condensed NGC1333 cluster-forming region gravity can drive accretion towards the center. In general, gravitational acceleration tends to be enhanced in the localized regions around the ends of the filaments and the edges of sheet-like structures. Neglecting magnetic fields, these "gravitational focusing" and "ed...

  5. Accelerating glassy dynamics using graphics processing units

    CERN Document Server

    Colberg, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    Modern graphics hardware offers peak performances close to 1 Tflop/s, and NVIDIA's CUDA provides a flexible and convenient programming interface to exploit these immense computing resources. We demonstrate the ability of GPUs to perform high-precision molecular dynamics simulations for nearly a million particles running stably over many days. Particular emphasis is put on the numerical long-time stability in terms of energy and momentum conservation. Floating point precision is a crucial issue here, and sufficient precision is maintained by double-single emulation of the floating point arithmetic. As a demanding test case, we have reproduced the slow dynamics of a binary Lennard-Jones mixture close to the glass transition. The improved numerical accuracy permits us to follow the relaxation dynamics of a large system over 4 non-trivial decades in time. Further, our data provide evidence for a negative power-law decay of the velocity autocorrelation function with exponent 5/2 in the close vicinity of the transi...

  6. Available Instruments for Analyzing Molecular Dynamics Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhachev, I V; Balabaev, N K; Galzitskaya, O V

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics trajectories are the result of molecular dynamics simulations. Trajectories are sequential snapshots of simulated molecular system which represents atomic coordinates at specific time periods. Based on the definition, in a text format trajectory files are characterized by their simplicity and uselessness. To obtain information from such files, special programs and information processing techniques are applied: from molecular dynamics animation to finding characteristics along the trajectory (versus time). In this review, we describe different programs for processing molecular dynamics trajectories. The performance of these programs, usefulness for analyses of molecular dynamics trajectories, strong and weak aspects are discussed. PMID:27053964

  7. From Molecular Dynamics to Brownian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Erban, Radek

    2014-01-01

    Three coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) models are investigated with the aim of developing and analyzing multiscale methods which use MD simulations in parts of the computational domain and (less detailed) Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations in the remainder of the domain. The first MD model is formulated in one spatial dimension. It is based on elastic collisions of heavy molecules (e.g. proteins) with light point particles (e.g. water molecules). Two three-dimensional MD models are then investigated. The obtained results are applied to a simplified model of protein binding to receptors on the cellular membrane. It is shown that modern BD simulators of intracellular processes can be used in the bulk and accurately coupled with a (more detailed) MD model of protein binding which is used close to the membrane.

  8. Dynamical Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ciccotti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss the Dynamical approach to Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (D-NEMD, which extends stationary NEMD to time-dependent situations, be they responses or relaxations. Based on the original Onsager regression hypothesis, implemented in the nineteen-seventies by Ciccotti, Jacucci and MacDonald, the approach permits one to separate the problem of dynamical evolution from the problem of sampling the initial condition. D-NEMD provides the theoretical framework to compute time-dependent macroscopic dynamical behaviors by averaging on a large sample of non-equilibrium trajectories starting from an ensemble of initial conditions generated from a suitable (equilibrium or non-equilibrium distribution at time zero. We also discuss how to generate a large class of initial distributions. The same approach applies also to the calculation of the rate constants of activated processes. The range of problems treatable by this method is illustrated by discussing applications to a few key hydrodynamic processes (the “classical” flow under shear, the formation of convective cells and the relaxation of an interface between two immiscible liquids.

  9. Molecular Dynamics for Dense Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    We review a molecular dynamics method for nucleon many-body systems called the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) and our studies using this method. These studies address the structure and the dynamics of nuclear matter relevant to the neutron star crusts, supernova cores, and heavy-ion collisions. A key advantage of QMD is that we can study dynamical processes of nucleon many-body systems without any assumptions on the nuclear structure. First we focus on the inhomogeneous structures of low-density nuclear matter consisting not only of spherical nuclei but also of nuclear "pasta", i.e., rod-like and slab-like nuclei. We show that the pasta phases can appear in the ground and equilibrium states of nuclear matter without assuming nuclear shape. Next we show our simulation of compression of nuclear matter which corresponds to the collapsing stage of supernovae. With increase of density, a crystalline solid of spherical nuclei change to a triangular lattice of rods by connecting neighboring nuclei. Finally, we dis...

  10. Rheology via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium molecular dynamics formulated by Newton, Lagrange, and Hamilton has been modified in order to simulate rheologial molecular flows with fast computers. This modified Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) has been applied to fluid and solid deformations, under both homogeneous and shock conditions, as well as to the transport of heat. The irreversible heating associated with dissipation could be controlled by carrying out isothermal NEMD calculations. The new isothermal NEMD equations of motion are consistent with Gauss' 1829 Least-Constraint principle as well as certain microscopic equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical formulations due to Gibbs and Boltzmann. Application of isothermal NEMD revealed high-frequency and high-strain-rate behavior for simple fluids which resembled the behavior of polymer solutions and melts at lower frequencies and strain rates. For solids NEMD produces plastic flows consistent with experimental observations at much lower strain rates. The new nonequilibrium methods also suggest novel formulations of thermodynamics in nonequilibrium systems and shed light on the failure of the Principle of Material Frame Indifference

  11. Rheology via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1982-10-01

    The equilibrium molecular dynamics formulated by Newton, Lagrange, and Hamilton has been modified in order to simulate rheologial molecular flows with fast computers. This modified Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) has been applied to fluid and solid deformations, under both homogeneous and shock conditions, as well as to the transport of heat. The irreversible heating associated with dissipation could be controlled by carrying out isothermal NEMD calculations. The new isothermal NEMD equations of motion are consistent with Gauss' 1829 Least-Constraint principle as well as certain microscopic equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical formulations due to Gibbs and Boltzmann. Application of isothermal NEMD revealed high-frequency and high-strain-rate behavior for simple fluids which resembled the behavior of polymer solutions and melts at lower frequencies and strain rates. For solids NEMD produces plastic flows consistent with experimental observations at much lower strain rates. The new nonequilibrium methods also suggest novel formulations of thermodynamics in nonequilibrium systems and shed light on the failure of the Principle of Material Frame Indifference.

  12. Accelerator dynamics of a fractional kicked rotor

    OpenAIRE

    Iomin, A.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the Weyl fractional derivative can quantize an open system. A fractional kicked rotor is studied in the framework of the fractional Schrodinger equation. The system is described by the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian by virtue of the Weyl fractional derivative. Violation of space symmetry leads to acceleration of the orbital momentum. Quantum localization saturates this acceleration, such that the average value of the orbital momentum can be a direct current and the system behaves ...

  13. Laser Controlled Molecular Orientation Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular orientation is a challenging control issue covering a wide range of applications from reactive collisions, high order harmonic generation, surface processing and catalysis, to nanotechnologies. The laser control scenario rests on the following three steps: (i) depict some basic mechanisms producing dynamical orientation; (ii) use them both as computational and interpretative tools in optimal control schemes involving genetic algorithms; (iii) apply what is learnt from optimal control to improve the basic mechanisms. The existence of a target molecular rotational state combining the advantages of efficient and post-pulse long duration orientation is shown. A strategy is developed for reaching such a target in terms of a train of successive short laser pulses applied at predicted time intervals. Each individual pulse imparts a kick to the molecule which orients. Transposition of such strategies to generic systems is now under investigation

  14. Evaluation of an Accelerated ELDRS Test Using Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Ronald L.; Adell, Philippe C.; Rax, Bernard; McClure, Steven; Barnaby, Hugh J.; Kruckmeyer, Kirby; Triggs, B.

    2011-01-01

    An accelerated total ionizing dose (TID) hardness assurance test for enhanced low dose rate sensitive (ELDRS) bipolar linear circuits, using high dose rate tests on parts that have been exposed to molecular hydrogen, has been proposed and demonstrated on several ELDRS part types. In this study several radiation-hardened "ELDRS-free" part types have been tested using this same approach to see if the test is overly conservative.

  15. Beam dynamics studies in a tesla positron pre-accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, V A; Flöttmann, K

    2001-01-01

    The TESLA linear collider is based on superconducting accelerating cavities.Behind the positron production target normal conducting cavities have to be used in order to cope with high particle losses and with focusing solenoid surrounding the cavities.The main purpose of this pre-accelerator is to provide maximum capture efficiency for the useful part of the totally acceptable positron beam with technically reasonable parameters of the linac.The coupled optimization of the capture optics behind the target and pre-accelerator rf-operation has been carried out.The beam dynamics simulation results as well as the pre-accelerator peculiarities are presented.

  16. Spectral Ewald Acceleration of Stokesian Dynamics for polydisperse suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mu; Brady, John F.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we develop the Spectral Ewald Accelerated Stokesian Dynamics (SEASD), a novel computational method for dynamic simulations of polydisperse colloidal suspensions with full hydrodynamic interactions. SEASD is based on the framework of Stokesian Dynamics (SD) with extension to compressible solvents, and uses the Spectral Ewald (SE) method [Lindbo & Tornberg, J. Comput. Phys. 229 (2010) 8994] for the wave-space mobility computation. To meet the performance requirement of dynamic simu...

  17. Molecular potentials and relaxation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of empirical pseudopotentials, in evaluating interatomic potentials, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for obtaining highly accurate potential curves and permits the modeling of core-valence correlation, and the inclusion of relativistic effects when these are significant. Recent calculations of the X1Σ+ and a3Σ+ states of LiH, NaH, KH, RbH, and CsH and the X2Σ+ states of their anions are discussed. Pseudopotentials, including core polarization terms, have been used to replace the core electrons, and this has been coupled with the development of compact, higly-optimized basis sets for the corresponding one- and two-electron atoms. Comparisons of the neutral potential curves with experiment and other ab initio calculations show good agreement (within 1000 cm-1 over most of the potential curves) with the difference curves being considerably more accurate. In the method of computer molecular dynamics, the force acting on each particle is the resultant of all interactions with other atoms in the neighborhood and is obtained as the derivative of an effective many-body potential. Exploiting the pseudopotential approach, in obtaining the appropriate potentials may be very fruitful in the future. In the molecular dynamics example considered here, the conventional sum-of-pairwise-interatomic-potentials (SPP) approximation is used with the potentials derived either from experimental spectroscopic data or from Hartree-Fock calculations. The problem is the collisional de-excitation of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen at an Fe surface. The calculations have been carried out for an initial vibrotational state v = 8, J = 1 and a translational temperature corresponding to a gas temperature of 5000K. Different angles of approach and different initial random impact points on the surface have been selected. For any given collision with the wall, the molecule may pick up or lose vibrotatonal and translational energy

  18. GPU Acceleration of Nonbonded Forces for Molecular Dynamics Simulation%使用GPU加速分子动力学模拟中的非绑定力计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强; 杨灿群; 葛振; 陈娟

    2009-01-01

    The most costly computation required by molecular dynamics (MD) is the calculation of non-bonded forces. This paper presents two algorithms based on CUDA and Brook+ to accelerate the calculation of non-bonded forces and then examines them on two popular GPUs of NVIDIA and AMD. The algorithms enable fine-grained task decomposition and spatial decomposition of forces that map efficiently to the compute units of GPU. They also present optimization methods such as use of shared memory between threads and strip-mined. We then test our implementations for 432 thousand atoms. Our code executed on Tesla C1060 runs 6.5 times faster than the original application running on single core of Intel Intel Xeon 2.6GHZ CPU, while on HD4870 it runs 4.8 times faster.%在分子动力学模拟(MD)中,对非绑定力的计算需要花费大量的时间.本文提出了基于CUDA和Brook+的两种双精度算法,分别在NVIDIA和AMD两款主流GPU上实现了非绑定力的计算,借助GPU 的计算能力加速了整个MD程序.算法对MD进行了任务分割,采用区域分解的方法将非绑定力的计算映射到GPU的计算核心上,同时针对两款GPU的各自特点提出了线程块内共享存储、最小化数据集两种优化方法.性能测试结果表明,与Intel Xeon 2.6GHz CPU的单核相比,43.2万粒子的高速粒子碰撞模拟,在配置NVIDIA Tesla C1060的系统上性能提高了6.5倍,在配置AMD HD4870的系统上性能提高了4.8倍.

  19. The international entrepreneurial dynamics of accelerated internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Mathews; Zander, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    New forms of international business and multinational enterprises continue to be observed, and finding ways to account for their appearance constitutes a continuing challenge for IB scholars. In this paper we aim to delineate an emerging field of IB scholarship; we focus on the appearance of international new ventures, and the phenomenon of early and accelerated internationalization that they feature, as one that has slipped through the net of some of the existing IB frameworks. We propose th...

  20. Emergent Phenomena via Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, D. C.

    Emergent phenomena are unusual because they are not obvious consequences of the design of the systems in which they appear, a feature no less relevant when they are being simulated. Several systems that exhibit surprisingly rich emergent behavior, each studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, are described: (i) Modeling self-assembly processes associated with virus growth reveals the ability to achieve error-free assembly, where paradoxically, near-maximum yields are due to reversible bond formation. (ii) In fluids studied at the atomistic level, complex hydrodynamic phenomena in rotating and convecting fluids - the Taylor- Couette and Rayleigh-Bénard instabilities - can be reproduced, despite the limited length and time scales accessible by MD. (iii) Segregation studies of granular mixtures in a rotating drum reproduce the expected, but counterintuitive, axial and radial segregation, while for the case of a vertically vibrated layer a novel form of horizontal segregation is revealed.

  1. Theoretical Concepts in Molecular Photodissociation Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1995-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Quantum Dynamics of Molecular Photofragmentation The Total Reaction Probability Final Product Distributions Time-Independent Approach, Stationary Scattering States Gaussian Wave Packet Dynamics Wigner Phase Space Representation The Diatomic Mole...

  2. Molecular dynamics of membrane proteins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolf, Thomas B. (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD); Crozier, Paul Stewart; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2004-10-01

    Understanding the dynamics of the membrane protein rhodopsin will have broad implications for other membrane proteins and cellular signaling processes. Rhodopsin (Rho) is a light activated G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). When activated by ligands, GPCRs bind and activate G-proteins residing within the cell and begin a signaling cascade that results in the cell's response to external stimuli. More than 50% of all current drugs are targeted toward G-proteins. Rho is the prototypical member of the class A GPCR superfamily. Understanding the activation of Rho and its interaction with its Gprotein can therefore lead to a wider understanding of the mechanisms of GPCR activation and G-protein activation. Understanding the dark to light transition of Rho is fully analogous to the general ligand binding and activation problem for GPCRs. This transition is dependent on the lipid environment. The effect of lipids on membrane protein activity in general has had little attention, but evidence is beginning to show a significant role for lipids in membrane protein activity. Using the LAMMPS program and simulation methods benchmarked under the IBIG program, we perform a variety of allatom molecular dynamics simulations of membrane proteins.

  3. Programming an Interpreter Using Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Middelburg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PGA (ProGram Algebra is an algebra of programs which concerns programs in their simplest form: sequences of instructions. Molecular dynamics is a simple model of computation developed in the setting of PGA, which bears on the use of dynamic data structures in programming.We consider the programming of an interpreter for a program notation that is close to existing assembly languages using PGA with the primitives of molecular dynamics as basic instructions. It happens that, although primarily meant for explaining programming language features relating to the use of dynamic data structures, the collection of primitives of molecular dynamics in itself is suited to our programming wants.

  4. Laser fields in dynamically ionized plasma structures for coherent acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Luu-Thanh, Ph.; Pukhov, A.; Kostyukov, I.

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of the CAN (Coherent Amplification Network) laser technology, a new scheme for direct particle acceleration in periodic plasma structures has been proposed. By using our full electromagnetic relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code equipped with ionisation module, we simulate the laser fields dynamics in the periodic structures of different materials. We study how the dynamic ionization influences the field structure.

  5. Thermally driven molecular linear motors - A molecular dynamics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    We conduct molecular dynamics simulations of a molecular linear motor consisting of coaxial carbon nanotubes with a long outer carbon nanotube confining and guiding the motion of an inner short, capsule-like nanotube. The simulations indicate that the motion of the capsule can be controlled...

  6. Spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to survey the subject of spin dynamics in accelerators: to give a sense of the underlying physics, the typical analytic and numeric methods used, and an overview of results achieved. Consideration will be limited to electrons and protons. Examples of experimental and theoretical results in both linear and circular machines are included.

  7. FPGA Acceleration by Dynamically-Loaded Hardware Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomuscio, Andrea; Nannarelli, Alberto; Re, Marco

    Hardware acceleration is a viable solution to obtain energy efficiency in data intensive computation. In this work, we present a hardware framework to dynamically load hardware libraries, HLL, on reconfigurable platforms (FPGAs). Provided a library of application-specific processors, we load on...

  8. Dynamics of Kicked and Accelerated Massive Black Holes in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kornreich, David A

    2008-01-01

    A study is made of the behavior of massive black holes in disk galaxies that have received an impulsive kick from a merger or a sustained acceleration from an asymmetric jet. The motion of the gas, stars, dark matter, and massive black hole are calculated using the GADGET-2 simulation code. The massive black hole escapes the galaxy for kick velocities above about 600 km/s or accelerations above about 4*10^{-8} cm/s^2 over time-scales of the order of 10^8 yr. For smaller velocity kicks or smaller accelerations, the black hole oscillates about the center of mass with a frequency which decreases as the kick velocity or acceleration increases. The black hole displacements may give rise to observable nonaxisymmetries in the morphology and dynamics of the stellar and gaseous disk of the galaxy. In some cases the dynamical center of the galaxy is seen to be displaced towards the direction of the BH acceleration with a characteristic ``tongue--'' shaped extension of the velocity contours on the side of the galaxy opp...

  9. Accelerating Dynamic Cardiac MR Imaging Using Structured Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressed sensing (CS has produced promising results on dynamic cardiac MR imaging by exploiting the sparsity in image series. In this paper, we propose a new method to improve the CS reconstruction for dynamic cardiac MRI based on the theory of structured sparse representation. The proposed method user the PCA subdictionaries for adaptive sparse representation and suppresses the sparse coding noise to obtain good reconstructions. An accelerated iterative shrinkage algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem and achieve a fast convergence rate. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method improves the reconstruction quality of dynamic cardiac cine MRI over the state-of-the-art CS method.

  10. Dynamics of hydrogen-like atom bounded by maximal acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a maximal acceleration for massive objects was conjectured by Caianiello 30 years ago based on the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. Many consequences of this hypothesis have been studied, but until now, there has been no evidence that boundedness of the acceleration may lead to quantum behavior. In previous research, we predicted the existence of a universal maximal acceleration and developed a new dynamics for which all admissible solutions have an acceleration bounded by the maximal one. Based on W. K\\"{u}ndig's experiment, as reanalyzed by Kholmetskii et al, we estimated its value to be of the order $10^{19}m/s^2$. We present here a solution of our dynamical equation for a classical hydrogen-like atom and show that this dynamics leads to some aspects of quantum behavior. We show that the position of an electron in a hydrogen-like atom can be described only probabilistically. We also show that in this model, the notion of "center of mass" must be modified. This modification supports the no...

  11. Quantum dynamics of complex molecular systems

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, William H.

    2005-01-01

    This Perspective presents a broad overview of the present status of theoretical capabilities for describing quantum dynamics in molecular systems with many degrees of freedom, e.g., chemical reactions in solution, clusters, solids, or biomolecular environments.

  12. Dynamical processes in atomic and molecular physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ogurtsov, Gennadi

    2012-01-01

    Atomic and molecular physics underlie a basis for our knowledge of fundamental processes in nature and technology and in such applications as solid state physics, chemistry and biology. In recent years, atomic and molecular physics has undergone a revolutionary change due to great achievements in computing and experimental techniques. As a result, it has become possible to obtain information both on atomic and molecular characteristics and on dynamics of atomic and molecular processes. This e-book highlights the present state of investigations in the field of atomic and molecular physics. Rece

  13. Ab initio mass tensor molecular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchida, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Mass tensor molecular dynamics was first introduced by Bennett [J. Comput. Phys. 19, 267 (1975)] for efficient sampling of phase space through the use of generalized atomic masses. Here, we show how to apply this method to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with minimal computational overhead. Test calculations on liquid water show a threefold reduction in computational effort without making the fixed geometry approximation. We also present a simple recipe for estimating the optimal ato...

  14. Molecular Dynamic Simulation on High Performance Infrastrucutres

    OpenAIRE

    Bergant, Anže

    2016-01-01

    This thesis covers comparison between different computer platforms of high performance computing while performing molecular dynamics simulations, which falls under very complex problems and needs lots of processing power. Our goal was to critically evaluate different platforms while solving molecular dynamics, so we used 1 to 16 processor cores on a computer cluster and one and two graphics processing units (GPU) for simulations. The results will be used while planning on buying new computer ...

  15. Beam dynamics studies of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K+) and low normalized emittance (< 1 π mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The fully 3-D PIC code WARP together with EGUN and POISSON were used to design the machine and analyze measurements of voltage, current and phase space distributions. A comparison between beam dynamics characteristics as measured for the injector and corresponding computer calculations will be presented

  16. Fermionic Molecular Dynamics for nuclear dynamics and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hasnaoui, K H O; Gulminelli, F

    2008-01-01

    A new Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) model based on a Skyrme functional is proposed in this paper. After introducing the basic formalism, some first applications to nuclear structure and nuclear thermodynamics are presented

  17. Molecular dynamics studies of entangled polymer chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulacu, Monica Iulia

    2008-01-01

    The thesis presents three molecular dynamics studies of polymeric ensembles in which the chain entanglement plays the major role in the internal dynamics of the system. A coarse-grained model is used for representing the polymer chains as strings of beads connected by finite-extensible springs. In a

  18. Programming an interpreter using molecular dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; C.A. Middelburg

    2007-01-01

    PGA (ProGram Algebra) is an algebra of programs which concerns programs in their simplest form: sequences of instructions. Molecular dynamics is a simple model of computation developed in the setting of \\PGA, which bears on the use of dynamic data structures in programming. We consider the programmi

  19. Strain-accelerated dynamics of soft colloidal glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen

    2011-04-11

    We have investigated strain-accelerated dynamics of soft glasses theoretically and experimentally. Mechanical rheology measurements performed on a variety of systems reveal evidence for the speeding-up of relaxation at modest shear strains in both step and oscillatory shear flows. Using the soft glassy rheology (SGR) model framework, we show that the observed behavior is a fundamental, but heretofore unexplored attribute of soft glasses. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  20. Spectral Ewald Acceleration of Stokesian Dynamics for polydisperse suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Mu

    2015-01-01

    In this work we develop the Spectral Ewald Accelerated Stokesian Dynamics (SEASD), a novel computational method for dynamic simulations of polydisperse colloidal suspensions with full hydrodynamic interactions. SEASD is based on the framework of Stokesian Dynamics (SD) with extension to compressible solvents, and uses the Spectral Ewald (SE) method [Lindbo & Tornberg, J. Comput. Phys. 229 (2010) 8994] for the wave-space mobility computation. To meet the performance requirement of dynamic simulations, we use Graphic Processing Units (GPU) to evaluate the suspension mobility, and achieve an order of magnitude speedup compared to a CPU implementation. For further speedup, we develop a novel far-field block-diagonal preconditioner to reduce the far-field evaluations in the iterative solver, and SEASD-nf, a polydisperse extension of the mean-field Brownian approximation of Banchio & Brady [J. Chem. Phys. 118 (2003) 10323]. We extensively discuss implementation and parameter selection strategies in SEASD, a...

  1. Exciton dynamics in molecular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augulis, R.; Pugžlys, A.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Pugzlys, A

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of exciton dynamics in double-wall cylindrical aggregates of cyanine dyes are studied by means of frequency resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The collective excitations of the aggregates, resulting from intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions have the characteri

  2. Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Molecular Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Molecular machines, or molecular motors, are small biophysical devices that perform a variety of essential metabolic processes such as DNA replication, protein synthesis and intracellular transport. Typically, these machines operate by converting chemical energy into motion and mechanical work. Due...... to their microscopic size, molecular motors are governed by principles fundamentally different from those describing the operation of man-made motors such as car engines. In this dissertation the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of molecular machines are studied using the tools of nonequilibrium statistical...... mechanics. The first part focuses on noninteracting molecular machines described by a paradigmatic continuum model with the aim of comparing and contrasting such a description to the one offered by the widely used discrete models. Many molecular motors, for example, kinesin involved in cellular cargo...

  3. Advances in molecular vibrations and collision dynamics molecular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bacic, Zatko

    1998-01-01

    This volume focuses on molecular clusters, bound by van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds. Twelve chapters review a wide range of recent theoretical and experimental advances in the areas of cluster vibrations, spectroscopy, and reaction dynamics. The authors are leading experts, who have made significant contributions to these topics.The first chapter describes exciting results and new insights in the solvent effects on the short-time photo fragmentation dynamics of small molecules, obtained by combining heteroclusters with femtosecond laser excitation. The second is on theoretical work on effects of single solvent (argon) atom on the photodissociation dynamics of the solute H2O molecule. The next two chapters cover experimental and theoretical aspects of the energetics and vibrations of small clusters. Chapter 5 describes diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations and non additive three-body potential terms in molecular clusters. The next six chapters deal with hydrogen-bonded clusters, refle...

  4. Zebrafish scales respond differently to in vitro dynamic and static acceleration: analysis of interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Takahira, Koh; Inari, Masato; Satoh, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Kondo, Takashi; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Chen, Wenxi; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2013-09-01

    Zebrafish scales consist of bone-forming osteoblasts, bone-resorbing osteoclasts, and calcified bone matrix. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism of the effects induced by dynamic and static acceleration, we investigated the scale osteoblast- and osteoclast-specific marker gene expression involving osteoblast-osteoclast communication molecules. Osteoblasts express RANKL, which binds to the osteoclast surface receptor, RANK, and stimulates bone resorption. OPG, on the other hand, is secreted by osteoblast as a decoy receptor for RANKL, prevents RANKL from binding to RANK and thus prevents bone resorption. Therefore, the RANK-RANKL-OPG pathway contributes to the regulation of osteoclastogenesis by osteoblasts. Semaphorin 4D, in contrast, is expressed on osteoclasts, and binding to its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts results in suppression of bone formation. In the present study, we found that both dynamic and static acceleration at 3.0×g decreased RANKL/OPG ratio and increased osteoblast-specific functional mRNA such as alkaline phosphatase, while static acceleration increased and dynamic acceleration decreased osteoclast-specific mRNA such as cathepsin K. Static acceleration increased semaphorin 4D mRNA expression, while dynamic acceleration had no effect. The results of the present study indicated that osteoclasts have predominant control over bone metabolism via semaphorin 4D expression induced by static acceleration at 3.0×g.

  5. A gas-dynamical approach to radiation pressure acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    The study of high intensity ion beams driven by high power pulsed lasers is an active field of research. Of particular interest is the radiation pressure acceleration, for which simulations predict narrow band ion energies up to GeV. We derive a laser-piston model by applying techniques for non-relativistic gas-dynamics. The model reveals a laser intensity limit, below which sufficient laser-piston acceleration is impossible. The relation between target thickness and piston velocity as a function of the laser pulse length yields an approximation for the permissible target thickness. We performed one-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations to confirm the predictions of the analytical model. These simulations also reveal the importance of electromagnetic energy transport. We find that this energy transport limits the achievable compression and rarefies the plasma.

  6. Beam dynamics design for uranium drift tube linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Wei-Ping; He, Yuan; Lu, Yuan-Rong

    2014-07-01

    KONUS beam dynamics design of uranium DTL with LORASR code is presented. The 238U34+ beam, whose current is 5.0 emA, is accelerated from injection energy of 0.35 MeV/u to output energy of 1.30 MeV/u by IH-DTL operated at 81.25 MHz in HIAF project at IMP of CAS. It achieves a transmission efficiency of 94.95% with a cavity length of 267.8 cm. The optimization aims are the reduction of emittance growth, beam loss and project costs. Because of the requirements of CW mode operation, the designed average acceleration gradient is about 2.48 MV/m. The maximum axial field is 10.2 MV/m, meanwhile the Kilpatrick breakdown field is 10.56 MV/m at 81.25 MHz.

  7. Radio Frequency Station - Beam Dynamics Interaction in Circular Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The longitudinal beam dynamics in circular accelerators is mainly defined by the interaction of the beam current with the accelerating Radio Frequency (RF) stations. For stable operation, Low Level RF (LLRF) feedback systems are employed to reduce coherent instabilities and regulate the accelerating voltage. The LLRF system design has implications for the dynamics and stability of the closed-loop RF systems as well as for the particle beam, and is very sensitive to the operating range of accelerator currents and energies. Stability of the RF loop and the beam are necessary conditions for reliable machine operation. This dissertation describes theoretical formalisms and models that determine the longitudinal beam dynamics based on the LLRF implementation, time domain simulations that capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction, and measurements from the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that validate the models and simulations. These models and simulations are structured to capture the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They also provide the opportunity to study diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Coupled-bunch instabilities and RF station power were the performance limiting effects for PEP-II. The sensitivity of the instabilities to individual LLRF parameters, the effectiveness of alternative operational algorithms, and the possible tradeoffs between RF loop and beam stability were studied. New algorithms were implemented, with significant performance improvement leading to a world record current during the last PEP-II run of 3212 mA for the Low Energy Ring. Longitudinal beam emittance growth due to RF noise is a major concern for LHC

  8. Radio Frequency Station - Beam Dynamics Interaction in Circular Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The longitudinal beam dynamics in circular accelerators is mainly defined by the interaction of the beam current with the accelerating Radio Frequency (RF) stations. For stable operation, Low Level RF (LLRF) feedback systems are employed to reduce coherent instabilities and regulate the accelerating voltage. The LLRF system design has implications for the dynamics and stability of the closed-loop RF systems as well as for the particle beam, and is very sensitive to the operating range of accelerator currents and energies. Stability of the RF loop and the beam are necessary conditions for reliable machine operation. This dissertation describes theoretical formalisms and models that determine the longitudinal beam dynamics based on the LLRF implementation, time domain simulations that capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction, and measurements from the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that validate the models and simulations. These models and simulations are structured to capture the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They also provide the opportunity to study diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Coupled-bunch instabilities and RF station power were the performance limiting effects for PEP-II. The sensitivity of the instabilities to individual LLRF parameters, the effectiveness of alternative operational algorithms, and the possible tradeoffs between RF loop and beam stability were studied. New algorithms were implemented, with significant performance improvement leading to a world record current during the last PEP-II run of 3212 mA for the Low Energy Ring. Longitudinal beam emittance growth due to RF noise is a major concern for LHC

  9. Scalable Molecular Dynamics for Large Biomolecular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Brunner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an optimized parallelization scheme for molecular dynamics simulations of large biomolecular systems, implemented in the production-quality molecular dynamics program NAMD. With an object-based hybrid force and spatial decomposition scheme, and an aggressive measurement-based predictive load balancing framework, we have attained speeds and speedups that are much higher than any reported in literature so far. The paper first summarizes the broad methodology we are pursuing, and the basic parallelization scheme we used. It then describes the optimizations that were instrumental in increasing performance, and presents performance results on benchmark simulations.

  10. Collective Molecular Dynamics in Proteins and Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Rheinstadter, Maikel C

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of dynamics and functioning of biological membranes and in particular of membrane embedded proteins is one of the most fundamental problems and challenges in modern biology and biophysics. In particular the impact of membrane composition and properties and of structure and dynamics of the surrounding hydration water on protein function is an upcoming hot topic, which can be addressed by modern experimental and computational techniques. Correlated molecular motions might play a crucial role for the understanding of, for instance, transport processes and elastic properties, and might be relevant for protein function. Experimentally that involves determining dispersion relations for the different molecular components, i.e., the length scale dependent excitation frequencies and relaxation rates. Only very few experimental techniques can access dynamical properties in biological materials on the nanometer scale, and resolve dynamics of lipid molecules, hydration water molecules and proteins and t...

  11. Neutron Star Crust and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, C J; Schneider, A; Berry, D K

    2011-01-01

    In this book chapter we review plasma crystals in the laboratory, in the interior of white dwarf stars, and in the crust of neutron stars. We describe a molecular dynamics formalism and show results for many neutron star crust properties including phase separation upon freezing, diffusion, breaking strain, shear viscosity and dynamics response of nuclear pasta. We end with a summary and discuss open questions and challenges for the future.

  12. Molecular Exchange Dynamics in Block Copolymer Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Frank; Lu, Jie; Choi, Soohyung; Lodge, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    Poly(styrene-b-ethylene propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers were mixed with squalane (C30H62) at 1% by weight resulting in the formation of spherical micelles. The structure and dynamics of molecular exchange were characterized by synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and time resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS), respectively, between 100 C and 160 C. TR-SANS measurements were performed with solutions initially containing deuterium labeled micelle cores and normal cores dispersed in a contrast matched squalane. Monitoring the reduction in scattering intensity as a function of time at various temperatures revealed molecular exchange dynamics highly sensitive to the core molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. Time-temperature superposition of data acquired at different temperatures produced a single master curve for all the mixtures. Experiments conducted with isotopically labeled micelle cores, each formed from two different but relatively mondisperse PS blocks, confirmed a simple dynamical model based on first order kinetics and core Rouse single chain relaxation. These findings demonstrate a dramatic transition to nonergodicity with increasing micelle core molecular weight and confirm the origins of the logarithmic exchange kinetics in such systems.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of impact test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akahoshi, Y. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Schmauder, S.; Ludwig, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes an impact test by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to evaluate embrittlement of bcc Fe at different temperatures. A new impact test model is developed for MD simulation. The typical fracture behaviors show transition from brittle to ductile fracture, and a history of the impact loads also demonstrates its transition. We conclude that the impact test by MD could be feasible. (orig.)

  14. Reaction dynamics in polyatomic molecular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is the development of theoretical methods and models for describing the dynamics of chemical reactions, with specific interest for application to polyatomic molecular systems of special interest and relevance. There is interest in developing the most rigorous possible theoretical approaches and also in more approximate treatments that are more readily applicable to complex systems.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of weak detonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am-Shallem, Morag; Zeiri, Yehuda; Zybin, Sergey V; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2011-12-01

    Detonation of a three-dimensional reactive nonisotropic molecular crystal is modeled using molecular dynamics simulations. The detonation process is initiated by an impulse, followed by the creation of a stable fast reactive shock wave. The terminal shock velocity is independent of the initiation conditions. Further analysis shows supersonic propagation decoupled from the dynamics of the decomposed material left behind the shock front. The dependence of the shock velocity on crystal nonlinear compressibility resembles solitary behavior. These properties categorize the phenomena as a weak detonation. The dependence of the detonation wave on microscopic potential parameters was investigated. An increase in detonation velocity with the reaction exothermicity reaching a saturation value is observed. In all other respects the model crystal exhibits typical properties of a molecular crystal. PMID:22304055

  16. Multiscale coupling of molecular dynamics and peridynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qi; Li, Shaofan

    2016-10-01

    We propose a multiscale computational model to couple molecular dynamics and peridynamics. The multiscale coupling model is based on a previously developed multiscale micromorphic molecular dynamics (MMMD) theory, which has three dynamics equations at three different scales, namely, microscale, mesoscale, and macroscale. In the proposed multiscale coupling approach, we divide the simulation domain into atomistic region and macroscale region. Molecular dynamics is used to simulate atom motions in atomistic region, and peridynamics is used to simulate macroscale material point motions in macroscale region, and both methods are nonlocal particle methods. A transition zone is introduced as a messenger to pass the information between the two regions or scales. We employ the "supercell" developed in the MMMD theory as the transition element, which is named as the adaptive multiscale element due to its ability of passing information from different scales, because the adaptive multiscale element can realize both top-down and bottom-up communications. We introduce the Cauchy-Born rule based stress evaluation into state-based peridynamics formulation to formulate atomistic-enriched constitutive relations. To mitigate the issue of wave reflection on the interface, a filter is constructed by switching on and off the MMMD dynamic equations at different scales. Benchmark tests of one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) wave propagations from atomistic region to macro region are presented. The mechanical wave can transit through the interface smoothly without spurious wave deflections, and the filtering process is proven to be efficient.

  17. MDMovie: a molecular dynamics viewing tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J P

    1996-10-01

    The graphics program MDMovie (Molecular Dynamics Movie), written in C using IRIS GL graphics library calls, is designed to facilitate the visualization and interpretation of empirical force field data. MDMovie was created and initially adapted in accord with the needs of physical chemists and thereafter became an expandable analysis tool. Capabilities include the display of chemical structure, animation of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo trajectories, and the visual representation of various vector and scalar dynamical properties. In addition to being a research tool, MDMovie has features for creating presentation videos and hardcopy output. A library is also available for linking to Fortran simulation codes running on a remote machine and connecting to MDMovie via a socket connection. MDMovie continues to be an ongoing research project and new features are actively being added in collaboration with various research groups. Future plans include porting to OpenGL and the design of an XII-based user interface.

  18. The Acceleration Scale, Modified Newtonian Dynamics, and Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2012-01-01

    General Relativity is able to describe the dynamics of galaxies and larger cosmic structures only if most of the matter in the Universe is dark, namely it does not emit any electromagnetic radiation. Intriguingly, on the scale of galaxies, there is strong observational evidence that the presence of dark matter appears to be necessary only when the gravitational field inferred from the distribution of the luminous matter falls below an acceleration of the order of 10^(-10) m/s^2. In the standard model, which combines Newtonian gravity with dark matter, the origin of this acceleration scale is challenging and remains unsolved. On the contrary, the full set of observations can be neatly described, and were partly predicted, by a modification of Newtonian dynamics, dubbed MOND, that does not resort to the existence of dark matter. On the scale of galaxy clusters and beyond, however, MOND is not as successful as on the scale of galaxies, and the existence of some dark matter appears unavoidable. A model combining ...

  19. Beam Dynamics Studies for a Laser Acceleration Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, James; Noble, Robert; Palmer, Dennis T; Siemann, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The NLC Test Accelerator at SLAC was built to address various beam dynamics issues for the Next Linear Collider. An S-Band RF gun, originally proposed for the NLCTA, is being installed together with a large-angle extraction line at 60 MeV. This is followed by a matching section, final focus and buncher for the laser acceleration experiment, E163. The laser-electron interaction area is followed by a broad range, high resolution spectrometer (HES) for electron bunch analysis. The RF gun is discussed in another paper. We discuss only the beam dynamics and high resolution analysis system at 6 MeV based on using Parmela and high-order Transport for bunch charges from 50 pC to 1 nC. Beyond the diagnostics, this system uses the emittance compensating solenoids and a low energy, high resolution spectrometer (LES) to help tune for best operating point and match to the linac. Optical symmetries in the design of the 25.5° extraction line provide 1:1 phase space transfer without linear dispersion or use of sextu...

  20. Robust flight control using incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion and angular acceleration prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieberling, S.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a flight control strategy based on nonlinear dynamic inversion. The approach presented, called incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion, uses properties of general mechanical systems and nonlinear dynamic inversion by feeding back angular accelerations. Theoretically, feedback of

  1. Dynamical quenching of tunneling in molecular magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    José Santander, María, E-mail: maria.jose.noemi@gmail.com [Recursos Educativos Quántica, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Nunez, Alvaro S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile); Roldán-Molina, A. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile); Troncoso, Roberto E., E-mail: r.troncoso.c@gmail.com [Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-12-15

    It is shown that a single molecular magnet placed in a rapidly oscillating magnetic field displays the phenomenon of quenching of tunneling processes. The results open a way to manipulate the quantum states of molecular magnets by means of radiation in the terahertz range. Our analysis separates the time evolution into slow and fast components thereby obtaining an effective theory for the slow dynamics. This effective theory presents quenching of the tunnel effect, in particular, stands out its difference with the so-called coherent destruction of tunneling. We support our prediction with numerical evidence based on an exact solution of Schrödinger's equation. - Highlights: • Single molecular magnets under rapidly oscillating magnetic fields is studied. • It is shown that this system displays the quenching of tunneling processes. • Our findings provide a control of quantum molecular magnets via terahertz radiation.

  2. Acceleration of conventional data acquisition in dynamic contrast enhancement: comparing keyhole approaches with compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethanath, Sairam; Gulaka, Praveen K; Kodibagkar, Vikram D

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a valuable clinical tool for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. DCE MRI provides pharmacokinetic parameters dependent on the extravasation of small molecular contrast agents, and thus high temporal resolution and/or spatial resolution is required for accurate estimation of parameters. In this article we investigate the efficacy of 2 undersampling approaches to speed up DCE MRI: a conventional keyhole approach and compressed sensing-based imaging. Data reconstructed from variants of these methods has been compared with the full k-space reconstruction with respect to data quality and pharmacokinetic parameters Ktrans and ve. Overall, compressive sensing provides better data quality and reproducible parametric maps than key-hole methods with higher acceleration factors. In particular, an undersampling mask based on a priori precontrast data showed high fidelity of reconstructed data and parametric maps up to 5× acceleration.

  3. Implementing Molecular Dynamics for Hybrid High Performance Computers - 1. Short Range Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of accelerators such as general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) have become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high performance computers, machines with more than one type of floating-point processor, are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. In this work, we discuss several important issues in porting a large molecular dynamics code for use on parallel hybrid machines - (1) choosing a hybrid parallel decomposition that works on central processing units (CPUs) with distributed memory and accelerator cores with shared memory, (2) minimizing the amount of code that must be ported for efficient acceleration, (3) utilizing the available processing power from both many-core CPUs and accelerators, and (4) choosing a programming model for acceleration. We present our solution to each of these issues for short-range force calculation in the molecular dynamics package LAMMPS. We describe algorithms for efficient short range force calculation on hybrid high performance machines. We describe a new approach for dynamic load balancing of work between CPU and accelerator cores. We describe the Geryon library that allows a single code to compile with both CUDA and OpenCL for use on a variety of accelerators. Finally, we present results on a parallel test cluster containing 32 Fermi GPGPUs and 180 CPU cores.

  4. Open quantum system parameters from molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Wüster, Sebastian; Eisfeld, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We extract the site energies and spectral densities of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) pigment protein complex of green sulphur bacteria from simulations of molecular dynamics combined with energy gap calculations. Comparing four different combinations of methods, we investigate the origin of quantitative differences regarding site energies and spectral densities obtained previously in the literature. We find that different forcefields for molecular dynamics and varying local energy minima found by the structure relaxation yield significantly different results. Nevertheless, a picture averaged over these variations is in good agreement with experiments and some other theory results. Throughout, we discuss how vibrations external- or internal to the pigment molecules enter the extracted quantities differently and can be distinguished. Our results offer some guidance to set up more computationally intensive calculations for a precise determination of spectral densities in the future. These are required to determ...

  5. Molecular dynamics study of cyclohexane interconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Chandler, David

    1990-12-01

    Classical molecular dynamics calculations are reported for one C 6H 12 molecule in a bath of 250 CS 2 molecules at roomtemperature and liquid densities of 1.0, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 g/cm 3. The solvent contribution to the free energy of activation for the chair-boat isomerization has been determined to high accuracy. The transmission coefficient and reactive flux correlation functions have also been computed. The results obtained agree with earlier conclusions drawn from RISM integral equation calculations and stochastic molecular dynamics calculations. Namely, the solvent effect on the rate manifests a qualitative breakdown of transition state theory and the RRKM picture of unimolecular kinetics. Analysis of the activated trajectories indicate a significant degree of quasiperiodicity.

  6. Towards the molecular bases of polymerase dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One aspect of the strong relationship that is known to exist between the processes of DNA replication and transcription is manifest in the coupling of the rates of movement of the replication fork (rf) and RNA polymerase (rt). We address two issues concerning the largely unexplored area of polymerase dynamics: (i) The validity of an approximate kinematic formula linking rf and rt suggested by experiments in which transcription is initiated in some prokaryotes with the antibiotic streptolydigin, and (ii) What are the molecular bases of the kinematic formula? An analysis of the available data suggests possible molecular bases for polymerase dynamics. In particular, we are led to a hypothesis: In active chromatin rt may depend on the length (λt) of the transcript of the primary messenger RNA (pre-mRNA). This new effect is subject to experimental verification. We discuss possible experiments that may be performed in order to test this prediction. (author). Refs, 6 tabs

  7. Nonadiabatic Molecular Dynamics Based on Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Franco de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing molecular dynamics in electronically excited states requires the inclusion of nonadiabatic effects to properly describe phenomena beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. This article provides a survey of selected nonadiabatic methods based on quantum or classical trajectories. Among these techniques, trajectory surface hopping constitutes an interesting compromise between accuracy and efficiency for the simulation of medium- to large-scale molecular systems. This approach is, however, based on non-rigorous approximations that could compromise, in some cases, the correct description of the nonadiabatic effects under consideration and hamper a systematic improvement of the theory. With the help of an in principle exact description of nonadiabatic dynamics based on Bohmian quantum trajectories, we will investigate the origin of the main approximations in trajectory surface hopping and illustrate some of the limits of this approach by means of a few simple examples.

  8. Molecular quantum dynamics. From theory to applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An educational and accessible introduction to the field of molecular quantum dynamics. Illustrates the importance of the topic for broad areas of science: from astrophysics and the physics of the atmosphere, over elementary processes in chemistry, to biological processes. Presents chosen examples of striking applications, highlighting success stories, summarized by the internationally renowned experts. Including a foreword by Lorenz Cederbaum (University Heidelberg, Germany). This book focuses on current applications of molecular quantum dynamics. Examples from all main subjects in the field, presented by the internationally renowned experts, illustrate the importance of the domain. Recent success in helping to understand experimental observations in fields like heterogeneous catalysis, photochemistry, reactive scattering, optical spectroscopy, or femto- and attosecond chemistry and spectroscopy underline that nuclear quantum mechanical effects affect many areas of chemical and physical research. In contrast to standard quantum chemistry calculations, where the nuclei are treated classically, molecular quantum dynamics can cover quantum mechanical effects in their motion. Many examples, ranging from fundamental to applied problems, are known today that are impacted by nuclear quantum mechanical effects, including phenomena like tunneling, zero point energy effects, or non-adiabatic transitions. Being important to correctly understand many observations in chemical, organic and biological systems, or for the understanding of molecular spectroscopy, the range of applications covered in this book comprises broad areas of science: from astrophysics and the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere, over elementary processes in chemistry, to biological processes (such as the first steps of photosynthesis or vision). Nevertheless, many researchers refrain from entering this domain. The book ''Molecular Quantum Dynamics'' offers them an accessible introduction. Although the

  9. Molecular dynamics modelling of solidification in metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boercker, D.B.; Belak, J.; Glosli, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Molecular dynamics modeling is used to study the solidification of metals at high pressure and temperature. Constant pressure MD is applied to a simulation cell initially filled with both solid and molten metal. The solid/liquid interface is tracked as a function of time, and the data are used to estimate growth rates of crystallites at high pressure and temperature in Ta and Mg.

  10. Simulating granular flow with molecular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ristow, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    We investigate by means of Molecular Dynamics simulations an assembly of spheres to model a granular medium flowing from an upper rectangular chamber through a hole into a lower chamber. Two different two dimensional models are discussed one of them including rotations of the individual spheres. The outflow properties are investigated and compared to experimental data. The qualitative agreement suggests that our models contain the necessary ingredients to describe the outflow properties of gr...

  11. Temperature Dependent Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Friction

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, R A; Coura, P Z; Costa, B V

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present a molecular dynamics simulation of a FFM experiment. The tip-sample interaction is studied by varying the normal force in the tip and the temperature of the surface. The friction force, cA, at zero load and the friction coefficient, $\\mu$, were obtained. Our results strongly support the idea that the effective contact area, A, decreases with increasing temperature and the friction coefficient presents a clear signature of the premelting process of the surface.

  12. Beam Dynamics Studies for a Laser Acceleration Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NLC Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC was built to address various beam dynamics issues for the Next Linear Collider. An S-Band RF gun is being installed together with a large-angle extraction line at 60 MeV followed by a matching section, buncher and final focus for the laser acceleration experiment, E163. The laser-electron interaction area is followed by a broad range, high resolution spectrometer (HES) for electron bunch analysis. Another spectrometer at 6 MeV will be used for analysis of bunch charges up to 1 nC. Emittance compensating solenoids and the low energy spectrometer (LES) will be used to tune for best operating point and match to the linac. Optical symmetries in the design of the 25.5o extraction line provide 1:1 phase space transfer without use of sextupoles for a large, 6D phase space volume and range of input conditions. Design techniques, tolerances, tuning sensitivities and orthogonal knobs are discussed

  13. Optimally designed fields for controlling molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    1991-10-01

    This research concerns the development of molecular control theory techniques for designing optical fields capable of manipulating molecular dynamic phenomena. Although is has been long recognized that lasers should be capable of manipulating dynamic events, many frustrating years of intuitively driven laboratory studies only serve to illustrate the point that the task is complex and defies intuition. The principal new component in the present research is the recognition that this problem falls into the category of control theory and its inherent complexities require the use of modern control theory tools largely developed in the engineering disciplines. Thus, the research has initiated a transfer of the control theory concepts to the molecular scale. Although much contained effort will be needed to fully develop these concepts, the research in this grant set forth the basic components of the theory and carried out illustrative studies involving the design of optical fields capable of controlling rotational, vibrational and electronic degrees of freedom. Optimal control within the quantum mechanical molecular realm represents a frontier area with many possible ultimate applications. At this stage, the theoretical tools need to be joined with merging laboratory optical pulse shaping capabilities to illustrate the power of the concepts.

  14. A Concurrent Multiscale Micromorphic Molecular Dynamics. Part I. Theoretical Formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shaofan

    2014-01-01

    Based on a novel concept of multiplicative multiscale decomposition, we have derived a multiscale micromorphic molecular dynamics (MMMD)to extent the (Andersen)-Parrinello-Rahman molecular dynamics to mesoscale and macroscale. The multiscale micromorphic molecular dynamics is a con-current three-scale particle dynamics that couples a fine scale molecular dynamics, a mesoscale particle dynamics of micromorphic medium, and a coarse scale nonlocal particle dynamics of nonlinear continuum. By choosing proper statistical closure conditions, we have shown that the original Andersen-Parrinello-Rahman molecular dynamics can be rigorously formulated and justified from first principle, and it is a special case of the proposed multiscale micromorphic molecular dynamics. The discovered mutiscale structure and the corresponding multiscale dynamics reveal a seamless transition channel from atomistic scale to continuum scale and the intrinsic coupling relation among them, and it can be used to solve finite size nanoscale sc...

  15. Dynamical structure of fluid mercury: Molecular-dynamics simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshino, Kozo; Tanaka, Shunichiro; Shimojo, Fuyuki

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out molecular-dynamics simulations for nonmetallic fluid mercury in liquid and vapor phases using a Lennard-Jones type effective potential and shown that the structure factors S(Q) and the dynamic structure factors S(Q, omega) of nonmetallic fluid mercury obtained by our MD simulations are in good agreement with recent X-ray diffraction and inelastic X-ray scattering experiments. We conclude from these results that, though the fluid mercury which shows a metal-nonmetal transit...

  16. Improved scaling of temperature-accelerated dynamics using localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques G

    2016-07-01

    While temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) is a powerful method for carrying out non-equilibrium simulations of systems over extended time scales, the computational cost of serial TAD increases approximately as N(3) where N is the number of atoms. In addition, although a parallel TAD method based on domain decomposition [Y. Shim et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 205439 (2007)] has been shown to provide significantly improved scaling, the dynamics in such an approach is only approximate while the size of activated events is limited by the spatial decomposition size. Accordingly, it is of interest to develop methods to improve the scaling of serial TAD. As a first step in understanding the factors which determine the scaling behavior, we first present results for the overall scaling of serial TAD and its components, which were obtained from simulations of Ag/Ag(100) growth and Ag/Ag(100) annealing, and compare with theoretical predictions. We then discuss two methods based on localization which may be used to address two of the primary "bottlenecks" to the scaling of serial TAD with system size. By implementing both of these methods, we find that for intermediate system-sizes, the scaling is improved by almost a factor of N(1/2). Some additional possible methods to improve the scaling of TAD are also discussed. PMID:27394097

  17. Nano-tribology through molecular dynamics simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Hui(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Burkert, U., Allinger, N. L., Molecular Mechanics, York: Maple Press Company, 1982.[2]Daw, M. S. , Baskes, M. I., Embedded-atom method: derivation and application to impurities, surface and other defects in metals, Phys. Rev. B, 1984, 29: 6443-6453.[3]Frenke, D., Smit, B., Understanding Molecular Simulation, San Diego: Academic Press, 1996, 60-67, 125-140.[4]Granick, S., Motions and relaxation of confined liquids, Science, 1991, 253: 1374-1379.[5]Koplik, J., Banavar, J., Willemsen, J., Molecular dynamics of Poisewulle flow and moving contact line, Phys. Rev.Lett., 1988, 60: 1282-1285.[6]Hu, Y. Z., Wang, H., Guo, Y. et al., Simulation of lubricant rheology in thin film lubrication, Part I: simulation of Poiseuille flow, Wear, 1996, 196: 243-259.[7]Zou, K., Li, Z. J, Leng, Y. S. et al. , Surface force apparatus and its application in the study of solid contacts, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1999, 44: 268-271.[8]Stevens, M. , Mondello, M., Grest, G. et al. , Comparison of shear flow of hexadecane in a confined geometry and in bulk,J. Chem. Phys., 1997, 106: 7303-7314.[9]Huang, P., Luo, J. B., Wen, S. Z., Theoretical study on the lubrication failure for tthe lubricants with a limiting shear stress, Tribology International, 1999, 32: 421-426.[10]Ryckaert, J. P. , Bellemans. , A molecular dynamics of alkanes, Faraday Soc. , 1978, 66: 95-106.[11]Wang, H. , Hu, Y. Z., A molecular dynamics study on slip phenomenon at solid-liquid interface, in Proceedings of tthe First AICT, Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 1998, 295-299.[12]Landman, U., Luedtke, W., Burnham, N. et al., Mechanisms and dynamics of adhesion, nanoindentation, and fracture, Science, 1990, 248: 454-461.[13]Leng, Y. S., Hu, Y. Z., Zheng, L. Q., Adhesive contact of flat-ended wedges: theory and computer experiments, Journal of Tribology, 1999, 121: 128-132.

  18. Molecular dynamic results on transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alder, B.J.; Alley, W.E.

    1978-06-01

    Following a broad discussion of generalized hydrodynamics, three examples are given to illustrate how useful this approach is in extending hydrodynamics to nearly the scale of molecular dimensions and the time between collisions, principally by including viscoelastic effects. The three examples concern the behavior of the velocity autocorrelation function, the decay of fluctuations in a resonating system, and the calculation of the dynamic structure factor obtained from neutron scattering. In the latter case the molecular dynamics results are also compared to the predictions of generalized kinetic theory. Finally it is shown how to implement generalized hydrodynamics both on a microscopic and macroscopic level. Hydrodynamics is unable to account for the long time tails in the velocity autocorrelation functions and the divergent Burnett coefficients observed for the Lorentz gas. Instead, the long time behavior of the Burnett coefficient and the distribution of displacements (the self part of the dynamic structure factor) can be accounted for by a random walk with a waiting time distribution which is chosen to give the correct velocity autocorrelation function. This random walk predicts, in agreement with the observations, that this displacement distribution is Gaussian at long times for the Lorentz gas, while for hard disks it has been found not to be so.

  19. Electronic continuum model for molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontyev, I V; Stuchebrukhov, A A

    2009-02-28

    A simple model for accounting for electronic polarization in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is discussed. In this model, called molecular dynamics electronic continuum (MDEC), the electronic polarization is treated explicitly in terms of the electronic continuum (EC) approximation, while the nuclear dynamics is described with a fixed-charge force field. In such a force-field all atomic charges are scaled to reflect the screening effect by the electronic continuum. The MDEC model is rather similar but not equivalent to the standard nonpolarizable force-fields; the differences are discussed. Of our particular interest is the calculation of the electrostatic part of solvation energy using standard nonpolarizable MD simulations. In a low-dielectric environment, such as protein, the standard MD approach produces qualitatively wrong results. The difficulty is in mistreatment of the electronic polarizability. We show how the results can be much improved using the MDEC approach. We also show how the dielectric constant of the medium obtained in a MD simulation with nonpolarizable force-field is related to the static (total) dielectric constant, which includes both the nuclear and electronic relaxation effects. Using the MDEC model, we discuss recent calculations of dielectric constants of alcohols and alkanes, and show that the MDEC results are comparable with those obtained with the polarizable Drude oscillator model. The applicability of the method to calculations of dielectric properties of proteins is discussed. PMID:19256627

  20. Attosecond VUV Coherent Control of Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ranitovic, P; Riviere, P; Palacios, A; Tong, X M; Toshima, N; Gonzalez-Castrillo, A; Martin, L; Martin, F; Murnane, M M; Kapteyn, H C

    2014-01-01

    High harmonic light sources make it possible to access attosecond time-scales, thus opening up the prospect of manipulating electronic wave packets for steering molecular dynamics. However, two decades after the birth of attosecond physics, the concept of attosecond chemistry has not yet been realized. This is because excitation and manipulation of molecular orbitals requires precisely controlled attosecond waveforms in the deep ultraviolet, which have not yet been synthesized. Here, we present a novel approach using attosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulse-trains to coherently excite and control the outcome of a simple chemical reaction in a deuterium molecule in a non-Born Oppenheimer regime. By controlling the interfering pathways of electron wave packets in the excited neutral and singly-ionized molecule, we unambiguously show that we can switch the excited electronic state on attosecond timescales, coherently guide the nuclear wave packets to dictate the way a neutral molecule vibrates, and steer and manipula...

  1. Molecular Dynamics: New Frontier in Personalized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneha, P; Doss, C George Priya

    2016-01-01

    The field of drug discovery has witnessed infinite development over the last decade with the demand for discovery of novel efficient lead compounds. Although the development of novel compounds in this field has seen large failure, a breakthrough in this area might be the establishment of personalized medicine. The trend of personalized medicine has shown stupendous growth being a hot topic after the successful completion of Human Genome Project and 1000 genomes pilot project. Genomic variant such as SNPs play a vital role with respect to inter individual's disease susceptibility and drug response. Hence, identification of such genetic variants has to be performed before administration of a drug. This process requires high-end techniques to understand the complexity of the molecules which might bring an insight to understand the compounds at their molecular level. To sustenance this, field of bioinformatics plays a crucial role in revealing the molecular mechanism of the mutation and thereby designing a drug for an individual in fast and affordable manner. High-end computational methods, such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has proved to be a constitutive approach to detecting the minor changes associated with an SNP for better understanding of the structural and functional relationship. The parameters used in molecular dynamic simulation elucidate different properties of a macromolecule, such as protein stability and flexibility. MD along with docking analysis can reveal the synergetic effect of an SNP in protein-ligand interaction and provides a foundation for designing a particular drug molecule for an individual. This compelling application of computational power and the advent of other technologies have paved a promising way toward personalized medicine. In this in-depth review, we tried to highlight the different wings of MD toward personalized medicine.

  2. Molecular Dynamics: New Frontier in Personalized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneha, P; Doss, C George Priya

    2016-01-01

    The field of drug discovery has witnessed infinite development over the last decade with the demand for discovery of novel efficient lead compounds. Although the development of novel compounds in this field has seen large failure, a breakthrough in this area might be the establishment of personalized medicine. The trend of personalized medicine has shown stupendous growth being a hot topic after the successful completion of Human Genome Project and 1000 genomes pilot project. Genomic variant such as SNPs play a vital role with respect to inter individual's disease susceptibility and drug response. Hence, identification of such genetic variants has to be performed before administration of a drug. This process requires high-end techniques to understand the complexity of the molecules which might bring an insight to understand the compounds at their molecular level. To sustenance this, field of bioinformatics plays a crucial role in revealing the molecular mechanism of the mutation and thereby designing a drug for an individual in fast and affordable manner. High-end computational methods, such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has proved to be a constitutive approach to detecting the minor changes associated with an SNP for better understanding of the structural and functional relationship. The parameters used in molecular dynamic simulation elucidate different properties of a macromolecule, such as protein stability and flexibility. MD along with docking analysis can reveal the synergetic effect of an SNP in protein-ligand interaction and provides a foundation for designing a particular drug molecule for an individual. This compelling application of computational power and the advent of other technologies have paved a promising way toward personalized medicine. In this in-depth review, we tried to highlight the different wings of MD toward personalized medicine. PMID:26827606

  3. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics: A Virtual Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbi Mobarhan, Milad

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we perform ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at the Hartree-Fock level, where the forces are computed on-the-fly using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The theory behind the Hartree-Fock method is discussed in detail and an implementation of this method based on Gaussian basis functions is explained. We also demonstrate how to calculate the analytic energy derivatives needed for obtaining the forces acting on the nuclei. Hartree-Fock calculations on the ground s...

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of ribosome jam

    KAUST Repository

    Matsumoto, Shigenori

    2011-09-01

    We propose a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model of ribosome molecules to study the dependence of translation process on environmental parameters. We found the model exhibits traffic jam property, which is consistent with an ASEP model. We estimated the influence of the temperature and concentration of molecules on the hopping probability used in the ASEP model. Our model can also treat environmental effects on the translation process that cannot be explained by such cellular automaton models. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular dynamics of surfactant protein C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, Eunice; Santana, Alberto; Cruz, Anthony;

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a membrane-associated protein essential for normal respiration. It has been found that the alpha-helix form of SP-C can undergo, under certain conditions, a transformation from an alpha-helix to a beta-strand conformation that closely resembles amyloid fibrils, which...... are possible contributors to the pathogenesis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Molecular dynamics simulations using the NAMD2 package were performed for systems containing from one to seven SP-C molecules to study their behavior in water. The results of our simulations show that unfolding of the protein...

  6. Extension of Isospin Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengZhaoqing; ZhangFengshou; LiWenfei; JinGenming

    2003-01-01

    Isospin dependent molecular dynamics (IQMD) has been used with success for studying isospin effects in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies[1,2]. However, this model meets difficulty to study heavy ion collisions at low energies near Coulomb barrier since unsuitable dealing with the deformation, such as surface term induced by deformation during approaching projectile and target, which is not important at high energies, and it results in the calculated cross sections with IQMD which are much smaller than the experimental data at low energies. In this report, we propose a new method in which the surface term in the mean field is included in a proper way, the switch function method.

  7. [Oligoglycine surface structures: molecular dynamics simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus'kova, O A; Khalatur, P G; Khokhlov, A R; Chinarev, A A; Tsygankova, S V; Bovin, N V

    2010-01-01

    The full-atomic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of adsorption mode for diantennary oligoglycines [H-Gly4-NH(CH2)5]2 onto graphite and mica surface is described. The resulting structure of adsorption layers is analyzed. The peptide second structure motives have been studied by both STRIDE (structural identification) and DSSP (dictionary of secondary structure of proteins) methods. The obtained results confirm the possibility of polyglycine II (PGII) structure formation in diantennary oligoglycine (DAOG) monolayers deposited onto graphite surface, which was earlier estimated based on atomic-force microscopy measurements.

  8. Fermionic Molecular Dynamics and short range correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmeier, H; Roth, R S; Schnack, J

    1998-01-01

    Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) models a system of fermions by means of many-body states which are composed of antisymmetrized products of single-particle states. These consist of one or several Gaussians localized in coordinate and momentum space. The parameters specifying them are the dynamical variables of the model. As the repulsive core of the nucleon-nucleon interaction induces short range correlations which cannot be accommodated by a Slater determinant, a novel approach, the unitary correlation operator method (UCOM), is applied. The unitary correlator moves two particles away from each other whenever their relative distance is within the repulsive core. The time-dependent variational principle yields the equations of motion for the variables. Energies of the stationary ground states are calculated and compared to exact many-body results for nuclei up to Ca 48. Time-dependent solutions are shown for collisions between nuclei.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations through GPU video games technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukatou, Styliani; Papageorgiou, Louis; Fakourelis, Paraskevas; Filntisi, Arianna; Polychronidou, Eleftheria; Bassis, Ioannis; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Makałowski, Wojciech; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Kossida, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatics is the scientific field that focuses on the application of computer technology to the management of biological information. Over the years, bioinformatics applications have been used to store, process and integrate biological and genetic information, using a wide range of methodologies. One of the most de novo techniques used to understand the physical movements of atoms and molecules is molecular dynamics (MD). MD is an in silico method to simulate the physical motions of atoms and molecules under certain conditions. This has become a state strategic technique and now plays a key role in many areas of exact sciences, such as chemistry, biology, physics and medicine. Due to their complexity, MD calculations could require enormous amounts of computer memory and time and therefore their execution has been a big problem. Despite the huge computational cost, molecular dynamics have been implemented using traditional computers with a central memory unit (CPU). A graphics processing unit (GPU) computing technology was first designed with the goal to improve video games, by rapidly creating and displaying images in a frame buffer such as screens. The hybrid GPU-CPU implementation, combined with parallel computing is a novel technology to perform a wide range of calculations. GPUs have been proposed and used to accelerate many scientific computations including MD simulations. Herein, we describe the new methodologies developed initially as video games and how they are now applied in MD simulations.

  10. GPU-enabled molecular dynamics simulations of ankyrin kinase complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Vertika; Chong, Wei Lim; Wisitponchai, Tanchanok; Nimmanpipug, Piyarat; Zain, Sharifuddin M.; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd.; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran

    2014-10-01

    The ankyrin repeat (AR) protein can be used as a versatile scaffold for protein-protein interactions. It has been found that the heterotrimeric complex between integrin-linked kinase (ILK), PINCH, and parvin is an essential signaling platform, serving as a convergence point for integrin and growth-factor signaling and regulating cell adhesion, spreading, and migration. Using ILK-AR with high affinity for the PINCH1 as our model system, we explored a structure-based computational protocol to probe and characterize binding affinity hot spots at protein-protein interfaces. In this study, the long time scale dynamics simulations with GPU accelerated molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in AMBER12 have been performed to locate the hot spots of protein-protein interaction by the analysis of the Molecular Mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area/Generalized Born Solvent Area (MM-PBSA/GBSA) of the MD trajectories. Our calculations suggest good binding affinity of the complex and also the residues critical in the binding.

  11. Coupling all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of ions in water with Brownian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Erban, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ions (K$^+$, Na$^+$, Ca$^{2+}$ and Cl$^-$) in aqueous solutions are investigated. Water is described using the SPC/E model. A stochastic coarse-grained description for ion behaviour is presented and parameterized using MD simulations. It is given as a system of coupled stochastic and ordinary differential equations, describing the ion position, velocity and acceleration. The stochastic coarse-grained model provides an intermediate description between all-atom MD simulations and Brownian dynamics (BD) models. It is used to develop a multiscale method which uses all-atom MD simulations in parts of the computational domain and (less detailed) BD simulations in the remainder of the domain.

  12. Dynamic Shear Modulus of Polymers from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byutner, Oleksiy; Smith, Grant

    2001-03-01

    In this work we describe the methodology for using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (MD) simulations to obtain the viscoelastic properties of polymers in the glassy regime. Specifically we show how the time dependent shear stress modulus and frequency dependent complex shear modulus in the high-frequency regime can be determined from the off-diagonal terms of the stress-tensor autocorrelation function obtained from MD trajectories using the Green-Kubo method and appropriate Fourier transforms. In order to test the methodology we have performed MD simulations of a low-molecular-weight polybutadiene system using quantum chemistry based potential functions. Values of the glassy modulus and the maximum loss frequency were found to be in good agreement with experimental data for polybutadiene at 298 K.

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Janus Particle Dynamics in Uniform Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Archereau, Aurelien Y M; Willmott, Geoff R

    2016-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the dynamics of Janus particles, micro- or nanoparticles which are not spherically symmetric, in the uniform flow of a simple liquid. In particular we consider spheres with an asymmetry in the solid-liquid interaction over their surfaces and calculate the forces and torques experienced by the particles as a function of their orientation with respect to the flow. We also examine particles that are deformed slightly from a spherical shape. We compare the simulation results to the predictions of a previously introduced theoretical approach, which computes the forces and torques on particles with variable slip lengths or aspherical deformations that are much smaller than the particle radius. We find that there is good agreement between the forces and torques computed from our simulations and the theoretical predictions, when the slip condition is applied to the first layer of liquid molecules adjacent to the surface.

  14. The 2011 Dynamics of Molecular Collisions Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesbitt, David J. [JILA, NIST

    2011-07-11

    The Dynamics of Molecular Collisions Conference focuses on all aspects of molecular collisions--experimental & theoretical studies of elastic, inelastic, & reactive encounters involving atoms, molecules, ions, clusters, & surfaces--as well as half collisions--photodissociation, photo-induced reaction, & photodesorption. The scientific program for the meeting in 2011 included exciting advances in both the core & multidisciplinary forefronts of the study of molecular collision processes. Following the format of the 2009 meeting, we also invited sessions in special topics that involve interfacial dynamics, novel emerging spectroscopies, chemical dynamics in atmospheric, combustion & interstellar environments, as well as a session devoted to theoretical & experimental advances in ultracold molecular samples. Researchers working inside & outside the traditional core topics of the meeting are encouraged to join the conference. We invite contributions of work that seeks understanding of how inter & intra-molecular forces determine the dynamics of the phenomena under study. In addition to invited oral sessions & contributed poster sessions, the scientific program included a formal session consisting of five contributed talks selected from the submitted poster abstracts. The DMC has distinguished itself by having the Herschbach Medal Symposium as part of the meeting format. This tradition of the Herschbach Medal was first started in the 2007 meeting chaired by David Chandler, based on a generous donation of funds & artwork design by Professor Dudley Herschbach himself. There are two such awards made, one for experimental & one for theoretical contributions to the field of Molecular Collision Dynamics, broadly defined. The symposium is always held on the last night of the meeting & has the awardees are asked to deliver an invited lecture on their work. The 2011 Herschbach Medal was dedicated to the contributions of two long standing leaders in Chemical Physics, Professor

  15. Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  16. Detecting Allosteric Networks Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, S; Wereszczynski, J

    2016-01-01

    Allosteric networks allow enzymes to transmit information and regulate their catalytic activities over vast distances. In principle, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be used to reveal the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon; in practice, it can be difficult to discern allosteric signals from MD trajectories. Here, we describe how MD simulations can be analyzed to reveal correlated motions and allosteric networks, and provide an example of their use on the coagulation enzyme thrombin. Methods are discussed for calculating residue-pair correlations from atomic fluctuations and mutual information, which can be combined with contact information to identify allosteric networks and to dynamically cluster a system into highly correlated communities. In the case of thrombin, these methods show that binding of the antagonist hirugen significantly alters the enzyme's correlation landscape through a series of pathways between Exosite I and the catalytic core. Results suggest that hirugen binding curtails dynamic diversity and enforces stricter venues of influence, thus reducing the accessibility of thrombin to other molecules. PMID:27497176

  17. Dynamics of electron acceleration in laser-driven wakefields. Acceleration limits and asymmetric plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Antonia

    2011-12-16

    The experiments presented in this thesis study several aspects of electron acceleration in a laser-driven plasma wave. High-intensity lasers can efficiently drive a plasma wave that sustains electric fields on the order of 100 GV/m. Electrons that are trapped in this plasma wave can be accelerated to GeV-scale energies. As the accelerating fields in this scheme are 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than in conventional radio-frequency accelerators, the necessary acceleration distance can be reduced by the same factor, turning laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA) into a promising compact, and potentially cheaper, alternative. However, laser-accelerated electron bunches have not yet reached the parameter standards of conventional accelerators. This work will help to gain better insight into the acceleration process and to optimize the electron bunch properties. The 25 fs, 1.8 J-pulses of the ATLAS laser at the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics were focused into a steady-state flow gas cell. This very reproducible and turbulence-free gas target allows for stable acceleration of electron bunches. Thus the sensitivity of electron parameters to subtle changes of the experimental setup could be determined with meaningful statistics. At optimized experimental parameters, electron bunches of {approx}50 pC total charge were accelerated to energies up to 450 MeV with a divergence of {approx}2 mrad FWHM. As, in a new design of the gas cell, its length can be varied from 2 to 14 mm, the electron bunch energy could be evaluated after different acceleration distances, at two different electron densities. From this evolution important acceleration parameters could be extracted. At an electron density of 6.43. 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} the maximum electric field strength in the plasma wave was determined to be {approx}160 GV/m. The length after which the relativistic electrons outrun the accelerating phase of the electric field and are decelerated again, the so-called dephasing length

  18. Dynamics of electron acceleration in laser-driven wakefields. Acceleration limits and asymmetric plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments presented in this thesis study several aspects of electron acceleration in a laser-driven plasma wave. High-intensity lasers can efficiently drive a plasma wave that sustains electric fields on the order of 100 GV/m. Electrons that are trapped in this plasma wave can be accelerated to GeV-scale energies. As the accelerating fields in this scheme are 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than in conventional radio-frequency accelerators, the necessary acceleration distance can be reduced by the same factor, turning laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA) into a promising compact, and potentially cheaper, alternative. However, laser-accelerated electron bunches have not yet reached the parameter standards of conventional accelerators. This work will help to gain better insight into the acceleration process and to optimize the electron bunch properties. The 25 fs, 1.8 J-pulses of the ATLAS laser at the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics were focused into a steady-state flow gas cell. This very reproducible and turbulence-free gas target allows for stable acceleration of electron bunches. Thus the sensitivity of electron parameters to subtle changes of the experimental setup could be determined with meaningful statistics. At optimized experimental parameters, electron bunches of ∼50 pC total charge were accelerated to energies up to 450 MeV with a divergence of ∼2 mrad FWHM. As, in a new design of the gas cell, its length can be varied from 2 to 14 mm, the electron bunch energy could be evaluated after different acceleration distances, at two different electron densities. From this evolution important acceleration parameters could be extracted. At an electron density of 6.43. 1018 cm-3 the maximum electric field strength in the plasma wave was determined to be ∼160 GV/m. The length after which the relativistic electrons outrun the accelerating phase of the electric field and are decelerated again, the so-called dephasing length, was found to be 4.9 mm

  19. Dynamics of a current bridge in a coaxial plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, A. V.; Gusev, V. K.; Kobyakov, S. V.

    2011-07-01

    The pioneering investigation of the behavior of a current bridge in a coaxial accelerator with pulsed delivery of a working gas liberated from titanium hydride by an electrical discharge is reported. A new method to trace the motion of the current bridge using LEDs is suggested. The behavior of the current bridge in accelerators with axial and radial gas injection is studied. The parameters of an accelerator generating a pure plasma jet with a high kinetic energy (such as the size and polarity of electrodes, gas flow direction, and time delay between the delivery of the gas to the accelerator and its ionization) are optimized. The applicability of an electrodynamic model to this type of accelerator is discussed. Good agreement between experimental data and calculation results is obtained.

  20. Dynamics of dewetting at the nanoscale using molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, E; Blake, T D; Ledauphin, V; Ogonowski, G; Coninck, J De; Fornasiero, D; Ralston, J

    2007-03-27

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to model the dewetting of solid surfaces by partially wetting thin liquid films. Two levels of solid-liquid interaction are considered that give rise to large equilibrium contact angles. The initial length and thickness of the films are varied over a wide range at the nanoscale. Spontaneous dewetting is initiated by removing a band of molecules either from each end of the film or from its center. As observed experimentally and in previous simulations, the films recede at an initially constant speed, creating a growing rim of liquid with a constant receding dynamic contact angle. Consistent with the current understanding of wetting dynamics, film recession is faster on the more poorly wetted surface to an extent that cannot be explained solely by the increase in the surface tension driving force. In addition, the rates of recession of the thinnest films are found to increase with decreasing film thickness. These new results imply not only that the mobility of the liquid molecules adjacent to the solid increases with decreasing solid-liquid interactions, but also that the mobility adjacent to the free surface of the film is higher than in the bulk, so that the effective viscosity of the film decreases with thickness. PMID:17328565

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Predicting Surface Wetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of wetting of a solid surface by a liquid provides important insights; the contact angle of a liquid droplet on a surface provides a quantitative measurement of this interaction and the degree of attraction or repulsion of that liquid type by the solid surface. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations are a useful way to examine the behavior of liquids on solid surfaces on a nanometer scale. Thus, we surveyed the state of this field, beginning with the fundamentals of wetting calculations to an examination of the different MD methodologies used. We highlighted some of the advantages and disadvantages of the simulations, and look to the future of computer modeling to understand wetting and other liquid-solid interaction phenomena.

  2. Statistical mechanics and dynamics of molecular fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quack, M. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie)

    1981-05-11

    The foundations of the use of statistical-mechanical equations of motion, in particular the Pauli equation, for the description of intramolecular processes and molecular fragmentation are discussed briefly. Quantum-mechanical trajectories for model systems illustrate how the statistical behaviour may emerge from the dynamical equations of motion. Product state distributions resulting from the fragmentation of strongly coupled, metastable intermediates in chemical-activation experiments can be calculated by using restricted equipartition, which applies as the long-time limit of the Pauli equation. A simple Pauli-equation model is proposed to calculate lifetimes of metastable intermediates. The consequences of the finite rate of intramolecular relaxation processes for the specific rate constants for fragmentation and possible deviations from microcanonical equilibrium are explored.

  3. Statistical mechanics and dynamics of molecular fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foundations of the use of statistical-mechanical equations of motion, in particular the Pauli equation, for the description of intramolecular processes and molecular fragmentation are discussed briefly. Quantum-mechanical trajectories for model systems illustrate how the statistical behaviour may emerge from the dynamical equations of motion. Product state distributions resulting from the fragmentation of strongly coupled, metastable intermediates in chemical-activation experiments can be calculated by using restricted equipartition, which applies as the long-time limit of the Pauli equation. A simple Pauli-equation model is proposed to calculate lifetimes of metastable intermediates. The consequences of the finite rate of intramolecular relaxation processes for the specific rate constants for fragmentation and possible deviations from microcanonical equilibrium are explored. (author)

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of laser shock phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Ichirou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan).

    2001-10-01

    Recently, ultrashort-pulse lasers with high peak power have been developed, and their application to materials processing is expected as a tool of precision microfabrication. When a high power laser irradiates, a shock wave propagates into the material and dislocations are generated. In this paper, laser shock phenomena of the metal were analyzed using the modified molecular dynamics method, which has been developed by Ohmura and Fukumoto. The main results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The shock wave induced by the Gaussian beam irradiation propagates radially from the surface to the interior. (2) A lot of dislocations are generated at the solid-liquid interface by the propagation of a shock wave. (3) Some dislocations are moved instantaneously with the velocity of the longitudinal wave when the shock wave passes, and their velocity is not larger than the transverse velocity after the shock wave has passed. (author)

  5. Nano-tribology through molecular dynamics simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 胡元中; 邹鲲; 冷永胜

    2001-01-01

    The solidification and interfacial slip in nanometer-scale lubricating films as well as the contact and adhesion of metal crystals have been studied via molecular dynamics simulations. Results show that the critical pressure for the solid-liquid transition declines as the film thickness decreases, in-dicating that the lubricant in the thin films may exist in a solid-like state. It is also found that the interfa-cial slip may occur in thin films at relatively low shear rate, and there is a good correlation between the slip phenomenon and the lubricant solidification. The simulations reveal that a micro-scale adhesion may take place due to the atomic jump during the process of approaching or separating of two smooth crystal surfaces, which provides important information for understanding the origin of interfacial friction.

  6. DMS: A Package for Multiscale Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Somogyi, Endre; Ortoleva, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Advances in multiscale theory and computation provide a novel paradigm for simulating many-classical particle systems. The Deductive Multiscale Simulator (DMS) is a multiscale molecular dynamics (MD) program built on two of these advances, i.e., multiscale Langevin (ML) and multiscale factorization (MF). Both capture the coevolution of the the coarse-grained (CG) state and the microstate. This provides these methods with great efficiency over conventional MD. Neither involve the introduction of phenomenological governing equations for the CG state with attendant uncertainty in both their form of the governing equations and the data needed to calibrate them. The design and implementation of DMS as an open source computational platform is presented here. DMS is written in Python, uses Gromacs to achieve the microphase, and then advances the microstate via a CG-guided evolution. DMS uses MDAnalysis, a Python library for analyzing MD trajectories, to perform computations required to construct CG-related variables...

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of shock compressed graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present molecular dynamic simulations of the shock compression of graphite with the LCBOPII potential. The range of shock intensities covers the full range of available experimental data, including near-tera-pascal pressures. The results are in excellent agreement with the available DFT data and point to a graphite-diamond transition for shock pressures above 65 GPa, a value larger than the experimental data (20 to 50 GPa). The transition mechanism leads preferentially to hexagonal diamond through a diffusion-less process but is submitted to irreversible re-graphitization upon release: this result is in good agreement with the lack of highly ordered diamond observed in post-mortem experimental samples. Melting is found for shock pressures ranging from 200 to 300 GPa, close to the approximate LCBOPII diamond melting line. A good overall agreement is found between the calculated and experimental Hugoniot data up to 46% compression rate. (authors)

  8. Report of the workshop on accelerator-based atomic and molecular science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Workshop, held in New London, NH on July 27-30, 1980, had a registration of 43, representing an estimated one-third of all principal investigators in the United States in this research subfield. The workshop was organized into 5 working groups for the purpose of (1) identifying some vital physics problems which experimental and theoretical atomic and molecular science can address with current and projected techniques; (2) establishing facilities and equipment needs required to realize solutions to these problems; (3) formulating suggestions for a coherent national policy concerning this discipline; (4) assessing and projecting the manpower situation; and (5) evaluating the relations of this interdisciplinary science to other fields. Recommedations deal with equipment and operating costs for small accelerator laboratories, especially at universities; instrumentation of ion beam lines dedicated to atomic and molecular science at some large accelerators; development of low-velocity, high charge-state ion sources; synchrotron light sources; improvement or replacement of tandem van de Graaff accelerators; high-energy beam lines for atomic physics; the needs for postdoctoral support in this subfield; new accelerator development; need for representatives from atomic and molecular science on program committees for large national accelerator facilities; and the contributions the field can make to applied physics problems

  9. Continuous Finite Element Methods of Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations are necessary to perform very long integration times. In this paper, we discuss continuous finite element methods for molecular dynamics simulation problems. Our numerical results about AB diatomic molecular system and A2B triatomic molecules show that linear finite element and quadratic finite element methods can better preserve the motion characteristics of molecular dynamics, that is, properties of energy conservation and long-term stability. So finite element method is also a reliable method to simulate long-time classical trajectory of molecular systems.

  10. Scale Invariance at low accelerations (aka MOND) and the dynamical anomalies in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2016-01-01

    Galactic systems, and the Universe at large, exhibit large dynamical anomalies: The observed matter in them falls very short of providing enough gravity to account for their dynamics. The mainstream response to this conundrum is to invoke large quantities of `dark matter' (DM) -- which purportedly supplies the needed extra gravity -- and also of `dark energy' (DE), to account for further anomalies in cosmology, such as the observed, accelerated expansion. The MOND paradigm offers a different solution: a breakdown of standard dynamics (gravity and/or inertia) in the limit of low accelerations -- below some acceleration $a_0$. In this limit, dynamics become space-time scale invariant, and is controlled by a gravitational constant $\\mathcal{A}_0\\equiv Ga_0$, which replaces Newton's $G$. With the new dynamics, the various detailed manifestations of the anomalies in galaxies disappear with no need for DM. The cosmological anomalies could, but need not have to do with small accelerations. For example, the need for ...

  11. Supernova Remnant Kes 17: Efficient Cosmic Ray Accelerator inside a Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, Joseph D; Slane, Patrick O; Temim, Tea; Hughes, John P; Rakowski, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Supernova remnant Kes 17 (SNR G304.6+0.1) is one of a few but growing number of remnants detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we analyze recent radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray observations of this object, determining that efficient cosmic ray acceleration is required to explain its broadband non-thermal spectrum. These observations also suggest that Kes 17 is expanding inside a molecular cloud, though our determination of its age depends on whether thermal conduction or clump evaporation is primarily responsible for its center-filled thermal X-ray morphology. Evidence for efficient cosmic ray acceleration in Kes 17 supports recent theoretical work that the strong magnetic field, turbulence, and clumpy nature of molecular clouds enhances cosmic ray production in supernova remnants. While additional observations are needed to confirm this interpretation, further study of Kes 17 is important for understanding how cosmic rays are accelerated in supernova remnants.

  12. Molecular-dynamic study of liquid ethylenediamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabaev, N. K.; Kraevskii, S. V.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Solonina, I. A.

    2016-10-01

    Models of liquid ethylenediamine (ED) are built using the molecular dynamics approach at temperatures of 293-363 K and a size of 1000 molecules in a basic cell as a cuboid. The structural and dynamic characteristics of liquid ED versus temperature are derived. The gauche conformation of the ED molecule that is characteristic of the gas phase is shown to transition easily into the trans conformation of the molecules in the liquid. NH···N hydrogen bonds are analyzed in liquid ED. The number of H-bonds per ED molecule is found to vary from 5.02 at 293 K to 3.86 at 363 K. The lifetimes in the range of the temperatures and dissociation activation energy for several H-bonds in liquid ED are found to range from 0.574 to 4.524 ps at 293 K; the activation energies are 8.8 kJ/mol for 50% of the H-bonds and 16.3 kJ/mol for 6.25% of them. A weaker and more mobile spatial grid of H-bonds in liquid ED is observed, compared to data calculated earlier for monoethanolamine.

  13. Molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The major thrust of this research project is to elucidate detailed dynamics of simple elementary reactions that are theoretically important and to unravel the mechanism of complex chemical reactions or photochemical processes that play important roles in many macroscopic processes. Molecular beams of reactants are used to study individual reactive encounters between molecules or to monitor photodissociation events in a collision-free environment. Most of the information is derived from measurement of the product fragment energy, angular, and state distributions. Recent activities are centered on the mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions involving oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons, the dynamics of endothermic substitution reactions, the dependence of the chemical reactivity of electronically excited atoms on the alignment of excited orbitals, the primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules, intramolecular energy transfer of chemically activated and locally excited molecules, the energetics of free radicals that are important to combustion processes, the infrared-absorption spectra of carbonium ions and hydrated hydronium ions, and bond-selective photodissociation through electric excitation.

  14. Hybrid particle-field molecular dynamics simulation for polyelectrolyte systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, You-Liang; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Milano, Giuseppe; Shi, An-Chang; Sun, Zhao-Yan

    2016-04-14

    To achieve simulations on large spatial and temporal scales with high molecular chemical specificity, a hybrid particle-field method was proposed recently. This method is developed by combining molecular dynamics and self-consistent field theory (MD-SCF). The MD-SCF method has been validated by successfully predicting the experimentally observable properties of several systems. Here we propose an efficient scheme for the inclusion of electrostatic interactions in the MD-SCF framework. In this scheme, charged molecules are interacting with the external fields that are self-consistently determined from the charge densities. This method is validated by comparing the structural properties of polyelectrolytes in solution obtained from the MD-SCF and particle-based simulations. Moreover, taking PMMA-b-PEO and LiCF3SO3 as examples, the enhancement of immiscibility between the ion-dissolving block and the inert block by doping lithium salts into the copolymer is examined by using the MD-SCF method. By employing GPU-acceleration, the high performance of the MD-SCF method with explicit treatment of electrostatics facilitates the simulation study of many problems involving polyelectrolytes. PMID:27001709

  15. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: Vibrational Dynamics of Polyatomic Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this research is the understanding of elementary chemical and physical processes important in the combustion of fossil fuels. Interest centers on reactions and properties of short-lived chemical intermediates. High-resolution, high-sensitivity, laser absorption methods are augmented by high- temperature, flow-tube reaction kinetics studies with mass-spectrometric sampling. These experiments provide information on the energy levels, structures and reactivity of molecular free radical species and in turn, provide new tools for the study of energy flow and chemical bond cleavage in the radicals involved in chemical systems. The experimental work is supported by theoretical studies using time-dependent quantum wave packet calculations, which provide insight into energy flow among the vibrational modes of polyatomic molecules and interference effects in multiple-surface dynamics

  16. Parametrizing linear generalized Langevin dynamics from explicit molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental understanding of complex dynamics in many-particle systems on the atomistic level is of utmost importance. Often the systems of interest are of macroscopic size but can be partitioned into a few important degrees of freedom which are treated most accurately and others which constitute a thermal bath. Particular attention in this respect attracts the linear generalized Langevin equation, which can be rigorously derived by means of a linear projection technique. Within this framework, a complicated interaction with the bath can be reduced to a single memory kernel. This memory kernel in turn is parametrized for a particular system studied, usually by means of time-domain methods based on explicit molecular dynamics data. Here, we discuss that this task is more naturally achieved in frequency domain and develop a Fourier-based parametrization method that outperforms its time-domain analogues. Very surprisingly, the widely used rigid bond method turns out to be inappropriate in general. Importantly, we show that the rigid bond approach leads to a systematic overestimation of relaxation times, unless the system under study consists of a harmonic bath bi-linearly coupled to the relevant degrees of freedom

  17. Static and dynamic characteristics of angular velocity and acceleration transducers based on optical tunneling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busurin, V. I.; Korobkov, V. V.; Htoo Lwin, Naing; Tuan, Phan Anh

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of quasi-linear conversion function of angular velocity and acceleration microoptoelectromechnical (MOEM) transducers based on optical tunneling effect (OTE) are conducted. Equivalent oscillating circuit is developed and dynamic characteristics of angular velocity and acceleration MOEM-transducers are investigated.

  18. Beam and spin dynamics of hadron beams in intermediate-energy ring accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis beam and spin dynamics of ring accelerators are described. After a general theoretical treatment methods for the beam optimization and polarization conservation are discussed. Then experiments on spin manipulation at the COSY facility are considered. Finally the beam simulation and accelerator lay-out for the HESR with regards to the FAIR experiment are described. (HSI)

  19. Nanoscale deicing by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Senbo; He, Jianying; Zhang, Zhiliang

    2016-07-01

    Deicing is important to human activities in low-temperature circumstances, and is critical for combating the damage caused by excessive accumulation of ice. The aim of creating anti-icing materials, surfaces and applications relies on the understanding of fundamental nanoscale ice adhesion mechanics. Here in this study, we employ all-atom modeling and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate ice adhesion. We apply force to detach and shear nano-sized ice cubes for probing the determinants of atomistic adhesion mechanics, and at the same time investigate the mechanical effect of a sandwiched aqueous water layer between ice and substrates. We observe that high interfacial energy restricts ice mobility and increases both ice detaching and shearing stresses. We quantify up to a 60% decrease in ice adhesion strength by an aqueous water layer, and provide atomistic details that support previous experimental studies. Our results contribute quantitative comparison of nanoscale adhesion strength of ice on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, and supply for the first time theoretical references for understanding the mechanics at the atomistic origins of macroscale ice adhesion.Deicing is important to human activities in low-temperature circumstances, and is critical for combating the damage caused by excessive accumulation of ice. The aim of creating anti-icing materials, surfaces and applications relies on the understanding of fundamental nanoscale ice adhesion mechanics. Here in this study, we employ all-atom modeling and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate ice adhesion. We apply force to detach and shear nano-sized ice cubes for probing the determinants of atomistic adhesion mechanics, and at the same time investigate the mechanical effect of a sandwiched aqueous water layer between ice and substrates. We observe that high interfacial energy restricts ice mobility and increases both ice detaching and shearing stresses. We quantify up to a 60% decrease in ice

  20. Acceleration and holographic studies on different types of dynamization of external fixators of the bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Halina; Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Voloshin, Arkady S.; Pennig, Dietmar; von Bally, Gert

    1992-08-01

    The unilateral axially dynamic fixator (Orthofix) was mounted on a sheep tibial shaft. Three fixation modes: static, dynamic controlled, and dynamic free were examined by means of double exposure holographic interferometry. Simultaneously, the acceleration was measured by an accelerometer and displayed on the monitor together with loading characteristics. The first exposure was made before the acting force was applied to the tibia plateau. The second one after the moment when the acceleration wave started to propagate through the specimen. We stated that in the case of dynamization less torsion occurs at the fracture site. So far, we have not been able to determine any correlation between results of holographic and accelerometric measurements.

  1. Dynamics on the positron capture and accelerating sections of CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Poirier, Freddy; Vivoli, Alessandro; Dadoun, Olivier; Lepercq, Pierre; Variola, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC Pre-Injector Linac for the e+ beam is composed of an Adiabatic Matching Device (AMD) followed by 4 (or 5) accelerating RF structures embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field. The accelerating sections are based on 2 GHz long travelling wave structures. In this note, the positrons capture strategy downstream the AMD is reviewed. The first RF structure can be phased either for full acceleration or for deceleration. In the latter case, the simulations results show that the number of e+ capture at the end of the 200 MeV Pre-Injector Linac is increased. Then the impact of the space charge is presented. Additional techniques are also studied to explore the potentiality of increasing the number of e+ namely an extra RF field at the beginning of the capture section and a higher solenoidal field.

  2. Supernova Remnant Shock - Molecular Cloud Interactions: Masers as tracers of hadronic particle acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, Dale A

    2011-01-01

    We review the class of galactic supernova remnants which show strong interactions with molecular clouds, revealed through shock-excited hydroxyl masers. These remnants are preferentially found among the known GeV and TeV detections of supernova remnants. It has been argued that the masers trace out the sites of hadronic particle acceleration. We discuss what is known about the physical conditions of these shocked regions and we introduce a potential new maser tracer for identifying the sites of cosmic ray acceleration. This review includes a reasonably complete bibliography for researchers new to the topic of shock-excited masers and supernova remnants.

  3. Imaging the Breakdown of Molecular Frame Dynamics through Rotational Uncoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Zipp, Lucas J; Bucksbaum, Philip H

    2016-01-01

    We have observed directly in the time domain the uncoupling of electron motion from the molecular frame due to rotational-electronic coupling in a molecular Rydberg system. In contrast to Born- Oppenheimer dynamics, in which the electron is firmly fixed to the molecular frame, there exists a regime of molecular dynamics known as $l$-uncoupling where the motion of a non-penetrating Rydberg electron decouples from the instantaneous alignment of the molecular frame. We have imaged this unusual regime in time-dependent photoelectron angular distributions of a coherently prepared electron wave packet in the 4$f$ manifold of $N_2$.

  4. Efficient compression of molecular dynamics trajectory files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Patrick; Kenwood, Julian; Smith, Keegan Carruthers; Kuttel, Michelle M; Gain, James

    2012-10-15

    We investigate whether specific properties of molecular dynamics trajectory files can be exploited to achieve effective file compression. We explore two classes of lossy, quantized compression scheme: "interframe" predictors, which exploit temporal coherence between successive frames in a simulation, and more complex "intraframe" schemes, which compress each frame independently. Our interframe predictors are fast, memory-efficient and well suited to on-the-fly compression of massive simulation data sets, and significantly outperform the benchmark BZip2 application. Our schemes are configurable: atomic positional accuracy can be sacrificed to achieve greater compression. For high fidelity compression, our linear interframe predictor gives the best results at very little computational cost: at moderate levels of approximation (12-bit quantization, maximum error ≈ 10(-2) Å), we can compress a 1-2 fs trajectory file to 5-8% of its original size. For 200 fs time steps-typically used in fine grained water diffusion experiments-we can compress files to ~25% of their input size, still substantially better than BZip2. While compression performance degrades with high levels of quantization, the simulation error is typically much greater than the associated approximation error in such cases.

  5. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, L.; Kress, J.; Troullier, N.; Lenosky, T.; Kwon, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The authors have developed a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulation method for investigating the properties of dense matter in a variety of environments. The technique treats a periodically-replicated reference cell containing N atoms in which the nuclei move according to the classical equations-of-motion. The interatomic forces are generated from the quantum mechanical interactions of the (between?) electrons and nuclei. To generate these forces, the authors employ several methods of varying sophistication from the tight-binding (TB) to elaborate density functional (DF) schemes. In the latter case, lengthy simulations on the order of 200 atoms are routinely performed, while for the TB, which requires no self-consistency, upwards to 1000 atoms are systematically treated. The QMD method has been applied to a variety cases: (1) fluid/plasma Hydrogen from liquid density to 20 times volume-compressed for temperatures of a thousand to a million degrees Kelvin; (2) isotopic hydrogenic mixtures, (3) liquid metals (Li, Na, K); (4) impurities such as Argon in dense hydrogen plasmas; and (5) metal/insulator transitions in rare gas systems (Ar,Kr) under high compressions. The advent of parallel versions of the methods, especially for fast eigensolvers, presage LDA simulations in the range of 500--1000 atoms and TB runs for tens of thousands of particles. This leap should allow treatment of shock chemistry as well as large-scale mixtures of species in highly transient environments.

  6. Fracture simulations via massively parallel molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holian, B.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Abraham, F.F. [IBM Research Div., San Jose, CA (United States). Almaden Research Center; Ravelo, R. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Fracture simulations at the atomistic level have heretofore been carried out for relatively small systems of particles, typically 10,000 or less. In order to study anything approaching a macroscopic system, massively parallel molecular dynamics (MD) must be employed. In two spatial dimensions (2D), it is feasible to simulate a sample that is 0.1 {mu}m on a side. We report on recent MD simulations of mode I crack extension under tensile loading at high strain rates. The method of uniaxial, homogeneously expanding periodic boundary conditions was employed to represent tensile stress conditions near the crack tip. The effects of strain rate, temperature, material properties (equation of state and defect energies), and system size were examined. We found that, in order to mimic a bulk sample, several tricks (in addition to expansion boundary conditions) need to be employed: (1) the sample must be pre-strained to nearly the condition at which the crack will spontaneously open; (2) to relieve the stresses at free surfaces, such as the initial notch, annealing by kinetic-energy quenching must be carried out to prevent unwanted rarefactions; (3) sound waves emitted as the crack tip opens and dislocations emitted from the crack tip during blunting must be absorbed by special reservoir regions. The tricks described briefly in this paper will be especially important to carrying out feasible massively parallel 3D simulations via MD.

  7. Nanoscale deicing by molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Senbo; He, Jianying; Zhang, Zhiliang

    2016-08-14

    Deicing is important to human activities in low-temperature circumstances, and is critical for combating the damage caused by excessive accumulation of ice. The aim of creating anti-icing materials, surfaces and applications relies on the understanding of fundamental nanoscale ice adhesion mechanics. Here in this study, we employ all-atom modeling and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate ice adhesion. We apply force to detach and shear nano-sized ice cubes for probing the determinants of atomistic adhesion mechanics, and at the same time investigate the mechanical effect of a sandwiched aqueous water layer between ice and substrates. We observe that high interfacial energy restricts ice mobility and increases both ice detaching and shearing stresses. We quantify up to a 60% decrease in ice adhesion strength by an aqueous water layer, and provide atomistic details that support previous experimental studies. Our results contribute quantitative comparison of nanoscale adhesion strength of ice on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, and supply for the first time theoretical references for understanding the mechanics at the atomistic origins of macroscale ice adhesion.

  8. Resonance, particle dynamics, and particle transmission in the micro-accelerator platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe particle dynamics in the Micro-Accelerator Platform (MAP), a slab-symmetric dielectric laser accelerator (DLA), and model the expected performance of recently fabricated MAP structures. The quality of the structure resonances has been characterized optically, and results are compared with simulation. 3D trajectory analysis is used to model acceleration in those same structures “as built.” Results are applied to ongoing beam transmission and acceleration tests at NLCTA/E-163, in which transmission of 60 MeV injected electrons through the beam channel of the MAP was clearly observed, despite the overfilling of the structure by the beam.

  9. Measurement of dynamic comfort in cycling using wireless acceleration sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, Mark; Marin-Perianu, Raluca; Marin-Perianu, Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Comfort in cycling is related to the level of vibration of the bicycle: more vibration results in less comfort for the rider. In this study, the level of vibration is measured in real time using wireless inertial acceleration sensors mounted at four places on the bike: front wheel axel, rear wheel a

  10. Electron beam dynamics in the DARHT-II linear induction accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abeyta, Epifanio O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aragon, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Rita [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cook, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dalmas, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esquibel, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gallegos, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garnett, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harrison, James F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Jeffrey B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jacquez, Edward B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mccuistian, Brian T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montoya, Nicholas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nath, Subrata [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nielsen, Kurt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prichard, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowton, Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Manolito [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scarpetti, Raymond [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schauer, Martin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seitz, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schulze, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bender, Howard A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Broste, William B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Carl A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Frayer, Daniel K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Douglas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tom, C Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trainham, C [NSTEC/STL; Williams, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Genoni, Thomas [VOSS; Hughes, Thomas [VOSS; Toma, Carsten [VOSS

    2008-01-01

    The DARHT-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) accelerates a 2-kA electron beam to more than 17 MeV. The beam pulse has a greater than 1.5-microsecond flattop region over which the electron kinetic energy is constant to within 1%. The beam dynamics are diagnosed with 21 beam-position monitors located throughout the injector, accelerator, and after the accelerator exit, where we also have beam imaging diagnostics. We discuss the tuning of the injector and accelerator, and present data for the resulting beam dynamics. We discuss the tuning procedures and other methods used to minimize beam motion, which is undesirable for its application as a bremsstrahlung source for multi-pulse radiography of exlosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. We also present beam stability measurements, which we relate to previous stability experiments at lower current and energy.

  11. Molecular dynamics in cytochrome c oxidase Moessbauer spectra deconvolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossis, Fabrizio [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical Biology and Medical Physics (DIBIFIM), University of Bari ' Aldo Moro' , Bari (Italy); Palese, Luigi L., E-mail: palese@biochem.uniba.it [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical Biology and Medical Physics (DIBIFIM), University of Bari ' Aldo Moro' , Bari (Italy)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase molecular dynamics serve to predict Moessbauer lineshape widths. {yields} Half height widths are used in modeling of Lorentzian doublets. {yields} Such spectral deconvolutions are useful in detecting the enzyme intermediates. -- Abstract: In this work low temperature molecular dynamics simulations of cytochrome c oxidase are used to predict an experimentally observable, namely Moessbauer spectra width. Predicted lineshapes are used to model Lorentzian doublets, with which published cytochrome c oxidase Moessbauer spectra were simulated. Molecular dynamics imposed constraints to spectral lineshapes permit to obtain useful information, like the presence of multiple chemical species in the binuclear center of cytochrome c oxidase. Moreover, a benchmark of quality for molecular dynamic simulations can be obtained. Despite the overwhelming importance of dynamics in electron-proton transfer systems, limited work has been devoted to unravel how much realistic are molecular dynamics simulations results. In this work, molecular dynamics based predictions are found to be in good agreement with published experimental spectra, showing that we can confidently rely on actual simulations. Molecular dynamics based deconvolution of Moessbauer spectra will lead to a renewed interest for application of this approach in bioenergetics.

  12. Beam manipulation techniques, nonlinear beam dynamics, and space charge effect in high energy high power accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y.

    2014-04-07

    We had carried out a design of an ultimate storage ring with beam emittance less than 10 picometer for the feasibility of coherent light source at X-ray wavelength. The accelerator has an inherent small dynamic aperture. We study method to improve the dynamic aperture and collective instability for an ultimate storage ring. Beam measurement and accelerator modeling are an integral part of accelerator physics. We develop the independent component analysis (ICA) and the orbit response matrix method for improving accelerator reliability and performance. In collaboration with scientists in National Laboratories, we also carry out experimental and theoretical studies on beam dynamics. Our proposed research topics are relevant to nuclear and particle physics using high brightness particle and photon beams.

  13. Gas-dynamic acceleration of bodies till the hyper sonic velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N

    2014-01-01

    The article considers an opportunity of gas-dynamic acceleration of body from the initial zero velocity till the finite velocity: five kilometers per second. When the gas flow rate of the body pre-acceleration reaches one kilometer per second, the body is accelerated at the front of the explosion wave propagating along the coils of the hexogen spiral. This wave accelerates the body and, finally, it reaches the velocity of five kilometers per second. The accelerated body has mass one-tenth of a kilogram and diameter eleven and three tenths of a millimeter. Acceleration length is six meters. At the slope of the spiral to the horizon equal to seventy degrees the flight range of the body is equal to sixteen hundred kilometers and the maximum height of the flight is eleven hundred kilometers.

  14. Beam dynamics in resonant plasma wakefield acceleration at SPARC_LAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, S.; Anania, M. P.; Chiadroni, E.; Croia, M.; Ferrario, M.; Marocchino, A.; Pompili, R.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2016-09-01

    Strategies to mitigate the increase of witness emittance and energy spread in beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration are investigated. Starting from the proposed resonant wakefield acceleration scheme in quasi-non-linear regime that is going to be carried out at SPARC_LAB, we performed systematic scans of the parameters to be used for drivers. The analysis will show that one of the main requirements to preserve witness quality during the acceleration is to have accelerating and focusing fields that are very stable during all the accelerating length. The difference between the dynamics of the leading bunch and the trailing bunch is pointed out. The classical condition on bunch length kpσz =√{ 2 } seems to be an ideal condition for the first driver within long accelerating lengths. The other drivers show to follow different longitudinal matching conditions. In the end a new method for the investigation of the matching for the first driver is introduced.

  15. Dynamics and transport of laser-accelerated particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Stefan

    2010-04-19

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation and optimization of beam transport elements in the context of the steadily growing field of laser-driven particle acceleration. The first topic is the examination of the free vacuum expansion of an electron beam at high current density. It could be shown that particle tracking codes which are commonly used for the calculation of space charge effects will generate substantial artifacts in the regime considered here. The artifacts occurring hitherto predominantly involve insufficient prerequisites for the Lorentz transformation, the application of inadequate initial conditions and non negligible retardation artifacts. A part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a calculation approach which uses a more adequate ansatz calculating space charge effects for laser-accelerated electron beams. It can also be used to validate further approaches for the calculation of space charge effects. The next elements considered are miniature magnetic quadrupole devices for the focusing of charged particle beams. General problems involved with their miniaturization concern distorting higher order field components. If these distorting components cannot be controlled, the field of applications is very limited. In this thesis a new method for the characterization and compensation of the distorting components was developed, which might become a standard method when assembling these permanent magnet multipole devices. The newly developed characterization method has been validated at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) electron accelerator. Now that we can ensure optimum performance, the first application of permanent magnet quadrupole devices in conjunction with laser-accelerated ion beams is presented. The experiment was carried out at the Z-Petawatt laser system at Sandia National Laboratories. A promising application for laser-accelerated electron beams is the FEL in a university-scale size. The first discussion of all relevant aspects

  16. Self-accelerating Universe in modified gravity with dynamical torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Nikiforova, V; Rubakov, V

    2016-01-01

    We consider a model belonging to the class of Poincare gauge gravities. The model is free of ghosts and gradient instabilities about Minkowski and torsionless Einstein backgrounds. We find that at zero cosmological constant, the model admits a self-accelerating solution with non-Riemannian connection. Small value of the effective cosmological constant is obtained at the expense of the hierarchy between the dimensionless couplings.

  17. Jet acceleration of the fast molecular outflows in the Seyfert galaxy IC5063

    CERN Document Server

    Tadhunter, C; Rose, M; Oonk, J B R; Oosterloo, T

    2014-01-01

    Massive outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are widely recognised to play a key role in the evolution of galaxies, heating the ambient gas, expelling it from the nuclear regions, and thereby affecting the star formation histories of the galaxy bulges. It has been proposed that the powerful jets of relativistic particles launched by some AGN can both accelerate and heat the molecular gas, which often dominates the mass budgets of the outflows. However, clear evidence for this mechanism in the form of detailed associations between the molecular gas kinematics and features in the radio-emitting jets has been lacking. Here we show that the warm molecular hydrogen gas in the western radio lobe of the Seyfert galaxy IC5063 is moving at high velocities - up to 600 km/s - relative to the galaxy disk. This suggests that the molecules have been accelerated by fast shocks driven into the interstellar medium (ISM) by the expanding radio jets. These results demonstrate the general feasibility of accelerating m...

  18. Exploring the free energy surface using ab initio molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Amit; Morales, Miguel A; Schwegler, Eric

    2016-04-28

    Efficient exploration of configuration space and identification of metastable structures in condensed phase systems are challenging from both computational and algorithmic perspectives. In this regard, schemes that utilize a set of pre-defined order parameters to sample the relevant parts of the configuration space [L. Maragliano and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 168 (2006); J. B. Abrams and M. E. Tuckerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 15742 (2008)] have proved useful. Here, we demonstrate how these order-parameter aided temperature accelerated sampling schemes can be used within the Born-Oppenheimer and the Car-Parrinello frameworks of ab initio molecular dynamics to efficiently and systematically explore free energy surfaces, and search for metastable states and reaction pathways. We have used these methods to identify the metastable structures and reaction pathways in SiO2 and Ti. In addition, we have used the string method [W. E, W. Ren, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Phys. Rev. B 66, 052301 (2002); L. Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)] within the density functional theory to study the melting pathways in the high pressure cotunnite phase of SiO2 and the hexagonal closed packed to face centered cubic phase transition in Ti. PMID:27131525

  19. Implementing molecular dynamics on hybrid high performance computers - Particle-particle particle-mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. Michael; Kohlmeyer, Axel; Plimpton, Steven J.; Tharrington, Arnold N.

    2012-03-01

    The use of accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs) has become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high-performance computers, machines with nodes containing more than one type of floating-point processor (e.g. CPU and GPU), are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. In this paper, we present a continuation of previous work implementing algorithms for using accelerators into the LAMMPS molecular dynamics software for distributed memory parallel hybrid machines. In our previous work, we focused on acceleration for short-range models with an approach intended to harness the processing power of both the accelerator and (multi-core) CPUs. To augment the existing implementations, we present an efficient implementation of long-range electrostatic force calculation for molecular dynamics. Specifically, we present an implementation of the particle-particle particle-mesh method based on the work by Harvey and De Fabritiis. We present benchmark results on the Keeneland InfiniBand GPU cluster. We provide a performance comparison of the same kernels compiled with both CUDA and OpenCL. We discuss limitations to parallel efficiency and future directions for improving performance on hybrid or heterogeneous computers.

  20. Molecular dynamics using quasielastic neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, S

    2003-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is well suited to study the molecular motions (rotations and translations) in solids or liquids. It offers a unique possibility of analysing spatial dimensions of atomic or molecular processes in their development over time. We describe here some of the systems studied using the QENS spectrometer, designed, developed and commissioned at Dhruva reactor in Trombay. We have studied a variety of systems to investigate the molecular motion, for example, simple molecular solids, molecules adsorbed in confined medium like porous systems or zeolites, monolayer-protected nano-sized metal clusters, water in Portland cement as it cures with time, etc. (author)

  1. Visualization and orchestration of the dynamic molecular society in cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuebiao Yao; Guowei Fang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Visualization of specific molecules and their interactions in real space and time is essential to delineate how cellular plasticity and dynamics are achieved and orchestrated as perturbation of cellular plasticity and dynamics is detrimental to health. Elucidation of cellular dynamics requires molecular imaging at nanometer scale at millisecond resolution. The 1st International Conference on Cellular Dynamics and Chemical Biology held in Hefei, China (from 12 September to 15 September,2008) launched the quest by bringing synergism among photonics, chemistry and biology.

  2. Measurement of dynamic comfort in cycling using wireless acceleration sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Olieman, Mark; Marin-Perianu, Raluca; Marin-Perianu, Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Comfort in cycling is related to the level of vibration of the bicycle: more vibration results in less comfort for the rider. In this study, the level of vibration is measured in real time using wireless inertial acceleration sensors mounted at four places on the bike: front wheel axel, rear wheel axel, stem and seatpost. In this way, we measure both the input and output of the frame and fork, and consequently establish the transfer function of the frame and front fork. Besides the transfer o...

  3. dynamics of armature acceleration in a railgun channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Yu. G.; Glushkov, I. S.; Kareev, Yu. A.; Nikolashin, A. A.; Novikov, V. P.; Halimullin, Yu. A.

    2013-04-01

    We have analyzed the results of experiments on the acceleration of an aluminum armature with a mass of about 3 g in a railgun with steel rails. The experiment was aimed at studying processes in a high-velocity contact at a velocity close to the transition value related to the contact velocity skin effect. In the absence of high-current arcs, a velocity of 1.2 km/s has been reached with the aid of armature pressing to the rails. A retarding force that acts upon the armature that moves in the railgun channel has been determined.

  4. Dynamic Model for the Z Accelerator Vacuum Section Based on Transmission Line Code%Dynamic Model for the Z Accelerator Vacuum Section Based on Transmission Line Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼义翔; 雷天时; 吴撼宇; 郭宁; 韩娟娟; 邱爱慈; 王亮平; 黄涛; 丛培天; 张信军; 李岩; 曾正中; 孙铁平

    2011-01-01

    The transmission-line-circuit model of the Z accelerator, developed originally by W. A. STYGAR, P. A. CORCORAN, et al., is revised. The revised model uses different calculations for the electron loss and flow impedance in the magnetically insulated transmission line system of the Z accelerator before and after magnetic insulation is established. By including electron pressure and zero electric field at the cathode, a closed set of equations is obtained at each time step, and dynamic shunt resistance (used to represent any electron loss to the anode) and flow impedance are solved, which have been incorporated into the transmission line code for simulations of the vacuum section in the Z accelerator. Finally, the results are discussed in comparison with earlier findings to show the effectiveness and limitations of the model.

  5. Las Palmeras Molecular Dynamics: A flexible and modular molecular dynamics code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sergio; Loyola, Claudia; González, Felipe; Peralta, Joaquín

    2010-12-01

    Las Palmeras Molecular Dynamics (LPMD) is a highly modular and extensible molecular dynamics (MD) code using interatomic potential functions. LPMD is able to perform equilibrium MD simulations of bulk crystalline solids, amorphous solids and liquids, as well as non-equilibrium MD (NEMD) simulations such as shock wave propagation, projectile impacts, cluster collisions, shearing, deformation under load, heat conduction, heterogeneous melting, among others, which involve unusual MD features like non-moving atoms and walls, unstoppable atoms with constant-velocity, and external forces like electric fields. LPMD is written in C++ as a compromise between efficiency and clarity of design, and its architecture is based on separate components or plug-ins, implemented as modules which are loaded on demand at runtime. The advantage of this architecture is the ability to completely link together the desired components involved in the simulation in different ways at runtime, using a user-friendly control file language which describes the simulation work-flow. As an added bonus, the plug-in API (Application Programming Interface) makes it possible to use the LPMD components to analyze data coming from other simulation packages, convert between input file formats, apply different transformations to saved MD atomic trajectories, and visualize dynamical processes either in real-time or as a post-processing step. Individual components, such as a new potential function, a new integrator, a new file format, new properties to calculate, new real-time visualizers, and even a new algorithm for handling neighbor lists can be easily coded, compiled and tested within LPMD by virtue of its object-oriented API, without the need to modify the rest of the code. LPMD includes already several pair potential functions such as Lennard-Jones, Morse, Buckingham, MCY and the harmonic potential, as well as embedded-atom model (EAM) functions such as the Sutton-Chen and Gupta potentials. Integrators to

  6. A stochastic model for the semiclassical collective dynamics of charged beams in particle accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    A recent proposal (see quant-ph/9803068) to simulate semiclassical corrections to classical dynamics by suitable classical stochastic fluctuations is applied to the specific instance of charged beam dynamics in particle accelerators. The resulting picture is that the collective beam dynamics, at the leading semiclassical order in Planck constant can be described by a particular diffusion process, the Nelson process, which is time-reversal invariant. Its diffusion coefficient $\\sqrt{N}\\lambda_...

  7. Shaping of intensive secondary pulsed molecular beam and production of accelerated molecules and radicals in it

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, G N

    2001-01-01

    The method is described for shaping the intensive secondary pulsed molecular beam, wherein the molecules kinetic energy may be controlled through the powerful IR laser radiation by means of the molecules oscillatory excitation in the source itself. The thickening jump (the shock wave), which is formed by interaction of the intensive pulsed supersonic molecular beam (or flux) with a solid surface, is used as the secondary beam source. The intensive (>= 10 sup 2 sup 0 molecules/stere. s) beams of the SF sub 6 and CF sub 3 I molecules with the kinetic energy correspondingly equal to approximately 1.5 eV and 1.2 eV without gas-carrier and molecular SF sub 6 beams with kinetic energy approx = 2.5 eV are obtained. The spectral and energy characteristics of the SF sub 6 molecules acceleration in the secondary beam are studied. The possibility of obtaining the accelerated radicals in the secondary molecular beam is indicated

  8. Entanglement dynamics for uniformly accelerated two-level atoms coupled with electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yiquan; Yu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement dynamics of two uniformly accelerated atoms with the same acceleration perpendicular to their separation. The two-atom system is treated as an open system coupled with fluctuating electromagnetic fields in the Minkowski vacuum, and in the Born-Markov approximation the master equation that describes the completely positive time evolution of the two-atom system is derived. In particular, we investigate the phenomena of entanglement degradation, generation, revival and enhancement. As opposed to the scalar-field case, the entanglement dynamics is crucially dependent on the polarization directions of the atoms. For the two-atom system with certain acceleration and separation, the polarization directions of the atoms may determine whether entanglement generation, revival or enhancement happens, while for entanglement degradation, they affect the decay rate of entanglement. A comparison between the entanglement evolution of accelerated atoms and that of static ones immersed in a ther...

  9. Single Particle Dynamics in a Quasi-Integrable Nonlinear Accelerator Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Antipov, Sergey A; Valishev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Fermilab is constructing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) as the centerpiece of the Accelerator R&D Program towards high-intensity circular machines. One of the factors limiting the beam intensity in present circular accelerators is collective instabilities, which can be suppressed by a spread of betatron frequencies (tunes) through the Landau damping mechanism or by an external damper, if the instability is slow enough. The spread is usually created by octupole magnets, which introduce the tune dependence on the amplitude and, in some cases, by a chromatic spread (tune dependence on particle's momentum). The introduction of octupoles usually lead to a resonant behavior and a reduction of the dynamic aperture. One of the goals of the IOTA research program is to achieve a high betatron tune spread, while retaining a large dynamic aperture using conventional octupole magnets in a special but realistic accelerator configuration. In this report, we present results of computer simulations of an el...

  10. Linear Scaling First-Principles Molecular Dynamics with Controlled Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygi, F; Fattebert, J

    2004-03-10

    In our quest for accurate linear scaling first-principles molecular dynamics methods for pseudopotential DFT calculations, we investigate the accuracy of real-space grid approaches, with finite differences and spherical localization regions. We examine how the positions of the localization centers affect the accuracy and the convergence rate of the optimization process. In particular we investigate the accuracy of the atomic forces computation compared to the standard O(N{sup 3}) approach. We show the exponential decay of the error on the energy and forces with the size of the localization regions for a variety of realistic physical systems. We propose a new algorithm to automatically adapt the localization centers during the ground state computation which allows for molecular dynamics simulations with diffusion processes. The combination of algorithms proposed lead to a genuine linear scaling First-Principles Molecular Dynamics method with controlled accuracy. We illustrate our approach with examples of microcanonical molecular dynamics with localized orbitals.

  11. Linear Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics.

  12. Electron cloud dynamics in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator wiggler

    OpenAIRE

    Celata, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The interference of stray electrons (also called “electron clouds”) with accelerator beams is important in modern intense-beam accelerators, especially those with beams of positive charge. In magnetic wigglers, used, for instance, for transverse emittance damping, the intense synchrotron radiation produced by the beam can generate an electron cloud of relatively high density. In this paper the complicated dynamics of electron clouds in wigglers is examined using the example of a wiggler in th...

  13. Acceleration-Extended Galilean Symmetries with Central Charges and their Dynamical Realizations

    OpenAIRE

    Lukierski, J.; Stichel, P. C.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    We add to Galilean symmetries the transformations describing constant accelerations. The corresponding extended Galilean algebra allows, in any dimension $D=d+1$, the introduction of one central charge $c$ while in $D=2+1$ we can have three such charges: c, \\theta and \\theta'. We present nonrelativistic classical mechanics models, with higher order time derivatives and show that they give dynamical realizations of our algebras. The presence of central charge $c$ requires the acceleration squa...

  14. Dynamical analysis of highly excited molecular spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, M.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is new methods for analysis of spectra and dynamics of highly excited vibrational states of molecules. In these systems, strong mode coupling and anharmonicity give rise to complicated classical dynamics, and make the simple normal modes analysis unsatisfactory. New methods of spectral analysis, pattern recognition, and assignment are sought using techniques of nonlinear dynamics including bifurcation theory, phase space classification, and quantization of phase space structures. The emphasis is chaotic systems and systems with many degrees of freedom.

  15. Combining Optimal Control Theory and Molecular Dynamics for Protein Folding

    OpenAIRE

    Yaman Arkun; Mert Gur

    2012-01-01

    Combining Optimal Control Theory and Molecular Dynamics for Protein Folding Yaman Arkun1*, Mert Gur2¤ 1 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey, 2 Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract A new method to develop low-energy folding routes for proteins is presented. The novel aspect of the proposed approach is the synergistic use of optimal control theory with Molecular Dynamic...

  16. Soft matter dynamics: Accelerated fluid squeeze-out during slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, W.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2016-03-01

    Using a Leonardo da Vinci experimental setup (constant driving force), we study the dependency of lubricated rubber friction on the time of stationary contact and on the sliding distance. We slide rectangular rubber blocks on smooth polymer surfaces lubricated by glycerol or by a grease. We observe a remarkable effect: during stationary contact the lubricant is only very slowly removed from the rubber-polymer interface, while during slip it is very rapidly removed resulting (for the grease lubricated surface) in complete stop of motion after a short time period, corresponding to a slip distance typically of order only a few times the length of the rubber block in the sliding direction. For an elastically stiff material, poly(methyl methacrylate), we observe the opposite effect: the sliding speed increases with time (acceleration), and the lubricant film thickness appears to increase. We propose an explanation for the observed effect based on transient elastohydrodynamics, which may be relevant also for other soft contacts.

  17. Phase Space Dynamics of Ionization Injection in Plasma Based Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X L; Li, F; Zhang, C J; Yan, L X; Du, Y C; Huang, W H; Chen, H B; Tang, C X; Lu, W; Yu, P; An, W; Mori, W B; Joshi, C

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of beam phase space in ionization-induced injection into plasma wakefields is studied using theory and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The injection process causes special longitudinal and transverse phase mixing leading initially to a rapid emittance growth followed by oscillation, decay, and eventual slow growth to saturation. An analytic theory for this evolution is presented that includes the effects of injection distance (time), acceleration distance, wakefield structure, and nonlinear space charge forces. Formulas for the emittance in the low and high space charge regimes are presented. The theory is verified through PIC simulations and a good agreement is obtained. This work shows how ultra-low emittance beams can be produced using ionization-induced injection.

  18. Kalman filter techniques for accelerated Cartesian dynamic cardiac imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Salerno, Michael; Kramer, Christopher M; Meyer, Craig H

    2013-05-01

    In dynamic MRI, spatial and temporal parallel imaging can be exploited to reduce scan time. Real-time reconstruction enables immediate visualization during the scan. Commonly used view-sharing techniques suffer from limited temporal resolution, and many of the more advanced reconstruction methods are either retrospective, time-consuming, or both. A Kalman filter model capable of real-time reconstruction can be used to increase the spatial and temporal resolution in dynamic MRI reconstruction. The original study describing the use of the Kalman filter in dynamic MRI was limited to non-Cartesian trajectories because of a limitation intrinsic to the dynamic model used in that study. Here the limitation is overcome, and the model is applied to the more commonly used Cartesian trajectory with fast reconstruction. Furthermore, a combination of the Kalman filter model with Cartesian parallel imaging is presented to further increase the spatial and temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Simulations and experiments were conducted to demonstrate that the Kalman filter model can increase the temporal resolution of the image series compared with view-sharing techniques and decrease the spatial aliasing compared with TGRAPPA. The method requires relatively little computation, and thus is suitable for real-time reconstruction.

  19. HTMD: High-Throughput Molecular Dynamics for Molecular Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, S; Harvey, M J; Noé, Frank; De Fabritiis, G

    2016-04-12

    Recent advances in molecular simulations have allowed scientists to investigate slower biological processes than ever before. Together with these advances came an explosion of data that has transformed a traditionally computing-bound into a data-bound problem. Here, we present HTMD, a programmable, extensible platform written in Python that aims to solve the data generation and analysis problem as well as increase reproducibility by providing a complete workspace for simulation-based discovery. So far, HTMD includes system building for CHARMM and AMBER force fields, projection methods, clustering, molecular simulation production, adaptive sampling, an Amazon cloud interface, Markov state models, and visualization. As a result, a single, short HTMD script can lead from a PDB structure to useful quantities such as relaxation time scales, equilibrium populations, metastable conformations, and kinetic rates. In this paper, we focus on the adaptive sampling and Markov state modeling features. PMID:26949976

  20. DTL cavity design and beam dynamics for a TAC linear proton accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, A.; Yılmaz, M.

    2012-02-01

    A 30 mA drift tube linac (DTL) accelerator has been designed using SUPERFISH code in the energy range of 3-55 MeV in the framework of the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) project. Optimization criteria in cavity design are effective shunt impedance (ZTT), transit-time factor and electrical breakdown limit. In geometrical optimization we have aimed to increase the energy gain in each RF gap of the DTL cells by maximizing the effective shunt impedance (ZTT) and the transit-time factor. Beam dynamics studies of the DTL accelerator have been performed using beam dynamics simulation codes of PATH and PARMILA. The results of both codes have been compared. In the beam dynamical studies, the rms values of beam emittance have been taken into account and a low emittance growth in both x and y directions has been attempted.

  1. DTL cavity design and beam dynamics for a TAC linear proton accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Caliskan; M. Yi1maz

    2012-01-01

    A 30 mA drift tube linac (DTL) accelerator has been designed using SUPERFISH code in the energy range of 3-55 MeV in the framework of the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) project.Optimization criteria in cavity design are effective shunt impedance (ZTT),transit-time factor and electrical breakdown limit.In geometrical optimization we have aimed to increase the energy gain in each RF gap of the DTL cells by maximizing the effective shunt impedance (ZTT) and the transit-time factor.Beam dynamics studies of the DTL accelerator have been performed using beam dynamics simulation codes of PATH and PARMILA.The results of both codes have been compared.In the beam dynamical studies,the rms values of beam emittance have been taken into account and a low emittance growth in both x and y directions has been attempted.

  2. Capturing Structural Dynamics in Crystalline Silicon Using Chirped Electrons from a Laser Wakefield Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    He, Z -H; Nees, J A; Gallé, G; Scott, S A; Pérez, J R Sanchez; Lagally, M G; Krushelnick, K; Thomas, A G R; Faure, J

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in laser wakefield acceleration has led to the emergence of a new generation of electron and X-ray sources that may have enormous benefits for ultrafast science. These novel sources promise to become indispensable tools for the investigation of structural dynamics on the femtosecond time scale, with spatial resolution on the atomic scale. Here, we demonstrate the use of laser-wakefield-accelerated electron bunches for time-resolved electron diffraction measurements of the structural dynamics of single-crystal silicon nano-membranes pumped by an ultrafast laser pulse. In our proof-of-concept study, we resolve the silicon lattice dynamics on a picosecond time scale by deflecting the momentum-time correlated electrons in the diffraction peaks with a static magnetic field to obtain the time-dependent diffraction efficiency. Further improvements may lead to femtosecond temporal resolution, with negligible pump-probe jitter being possible with future laser-wakefield-accelerator ultrafast-electron-di...

  3. Unified rotational dynamics of molecular crystals with orientational phase transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, K.H.; Raedt, H. De

    1976-01-01

    A unified theory for the rotational dynamics of molecular crystals with orientational phase transitions is given. As basic secular variables one takes symmetry adapted functions, which describe the molecular orientations, and the angular momenta of the molecules. Using Mori’s projection operator tec

  4. Acceleration-extended Galilean symmetries with central charges and their dynamical realizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukierski, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. Maxa Borna 9, 50-205 Wroclaw (Poland)]. E-mail: lukier@ift.uni.wroc.pl; Stichel, P.C. [An der Krebskuhle 21, D-33619 Bielefeld (Germany)]. E-mail: peter@physik.uni-bielefeld.de; Zakrzewski, W.J. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: W.J.Zakrzewski@durham.ac.uk

    2007-06-28

    We add to Galilean symmetries the transformations describing constant accelerations. The corresponding extended Galilean algebra allows, in any dimension D=d+1, the introduction of one central charge c while in D=2+1 we can have three such charges: c,{theta} and {theta}{sup '}. We present nonrelativistic classical mechanics models, with higher order time derivatives and show that they give dynamical realizations of our algebras. The presence of central charge c requires the acceleration square Lagrangian term. We show that the general Lagrangian with three central charges can be reinterpreted as describing an exotic planar particle coupled to a dynamical electric and a constant magnetic field.

  5. Acceleration-Extended Galilean Symmetries with Central Charges and their Dynamical Realizations

    CERN Document Server

    Lukierski, J; Zakrzewski, W J

    2007-01-01

    We add to Galilean symmetries the transformations describing constant accelerations. The corresponding extended Galilean algebra allows, in any dimension $D=d+1$, the introduction of one central charge $c$ while in $D=2+1$ we can have three such charges: c, \\theta and \\theta'. We present nonrelativistic classical mechanics models, with higher order time derivatives and show that they give dynamical realizations of our algebras. The presence of central charge $c$ requires the acceleration square Lagrangian term. We show that the general Lagrangian with three central charges can be reinterpreted as describing an exotic planar particle coupled to a dynamical electric and a constant magnetic field.

  6. Acceleration-extended Galilean symmetries with central charges and their dynamical realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We add to Galilean symmetries the transformations describing constant accelerations. The corresponding extended Galilean algebra allows, in any dimension D=d+1, the introduction of one central charge c while in D=2+1 we can have three such charges: c,θ and θ'. We present nonrelativistic classical mechanics models, with higher order time derivatives and show that they give dynamical realizations of our algebras. The presence of central charge c requires the acceleration square Lagrangian term. We show that the general Lagrangian with three central charges can be reinterpreted as describing an exotic planar particle coupled to a dynamical electric and a constant magnetic field

  7. LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARIN ENHANCES THE EFFECT OF aFGF IN ACCELERATING NEOVASCULA- RIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈书艳; 荣烨之; 吕宝经; 赵美华; 张建军

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in combination cooperated with aFGF in accelerating neovascularization in vivo. Methods Ischemic model was set up in the right hindlimbs of 28 New Zealand white rabbits. Four groups of animals treated with saline, LMWH, aFGF and aFGF plus LMWH were allocated equally in group Ⅰ, group Ⅱ, group Ⅲ and group Ⅳ respectively. Vascular neovascularization and smooth muscular thickness of the ischemic hindlimb vessels of each animal in different groups were compared with each other on the 28th day postoperatively by angiography with DSA and the standard immunoperoxidase technique. Results No significant neovascularization was seen when aFGF adiministered in low dosage by venous infusion. But when the same dosage of aFGF plus LMWH were administered by venous infusion, a significant neovascularization was observed. Conclusion LMWH can potentiate aFGF in accelerating neovascularization.

  8. Energy conservation in molecular dynamics simulations of classical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren; Heilmann, Ole; Dyre, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Classical Newtonian dynamics is analytic and the energy of an isolated system is conserved. The energy of such a system, obtained by the discrete “Verlet” algorithm commonly used in molecular dynamics simulations, fluctuates but is conserved in the mean. This is explained by the existence...

  9. Embarrassingly Parallel Acceleration of Global Tractography via Dynamic Domain Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyong; Chen, Geng; Jin, Yan; Shen, Dinggang; Yap, Pew-Thian

    2016-01-01

    Global tractography estimates brain connectivity by organizing signal-generating fiber segments in an optimal configuration that best describes the measured diffusion-weighted data, promising better stability than local greedy methods with respect to imaging noise. However, global tractography is computationally very demanding and requires computation times that are often prohibitive for clinical applications. We present here a reformulation of the global tractography algorithm for fast parallel implementation amendable to acceleration using multi-core CPUs and general-purpose GPUs. Our method is motivated by the key observation that each fiber segment is affected by a limited spatial neighborhood. In other words, a fiber segment is influenced only by the fiber segments that are (or can potentially be) connected to its two ends and also by the diffusion-weighted signal in its proximity. This observation makes it possible to parallelize the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm used in the global tractography algorithm so that concurrent updating of independent fiber segments can be carried out. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can significantly speed up global tractography, while at the same time maintain or even improve tractography performance. PMID:27468263

  10. Embarrassingly Parallel Acceleration of Global Tractography via Dynamic Domain Partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyong; Chen, Geng; Jin, Yan; Shen, Dinggang; Yap, Pew-Thian

    2016-01-01

    Global tractography estimates brain connectivity by organizing signal-generating fiber segments in an optimal configuration that best describes the measured diffusion-weighted data, promising better stability than local greedy methods with respect to imaging noise. However, global tractography is computationally very demanding and requires computation times that are often prohibitive for clinical applications. We present here a reformulation of the global tractography algorithm for fast parallel implementation amendable to acceleration using multi-core CPUs and general-purpose GPUs. Our method is motivated by the key observation that each fiber segment is affected by a limited spatial neighborhood. In other words, a fiber segment is influenced only by the fiber segments that are (or can potentially be) connected to its two ends and also by the diffusion-weighted signal in its proximity. This observation makes it possible to parallelize the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm used in the global tractography algorithm so that concurrent updating of independent fiber segments can be carried out. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can significantly speed up global tractography, while at the same time maintain or even improve tractography performance.

  11. Temperature dependence of protein hydration hydrodynamics by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, E Y; Krishnan, V V

    2007-07-18

    The dynamics of water molecules near the protein surface are different from those of bulk water and influence the structure and dynamics of the protein itself. To elucidate the temperature dependence hydration dynamics of water molecules, we present results from the molecular dynamic simulation of the water molecules surrounding two proteins (Carboxypeptidase inhibitor and Ovomucoid) at seven different temperatures (T=273 to 303 K, in increments of 5 K). Translational diffusion coefficients of the surface water and bulk water molecules were estimated from 2 ns molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. Temperature dependence of the estimated bulk water diffusion closely reflects the experimental values, while hydration water diffusion is retarded significantly due to the protein. Protein surface induced scaling of translational dynamics of the hydration waters is uniform over the temperature range studied, suggesting the importance protein-water interactions.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Amyloid Beta Dimer Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Urbanc, B; Ding, F; Sammond, D; Khare, S; Buldyrev, S V; Stanley, H E; Dokholyan, N V

    2004-01-01

    Recent experiments with amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide suggest that formation of toxic oligomers may be an important contribution to the onset of Alzheimer's disease. The toxicity of Abeta oligomers depends on their structure, which is governed by assembly dynamics. Due to limitations of current experimental techniques, a detailed knowledge of oligomer structure at the atomic level is missing. We introduce a molecular dynamics approach to study Abeta dimer formation: (1) we use discrete molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model to identify a variety of dimer conformations, and (2) we employ all-atom molecular mechanics simulations to estimate the thermodynamic stability of all dimer conformations. Our simulations of a coarse-grained Abeta peptide model predicts ten different planar beta-strand dimer conformations. We then estimate the free energies of all dimer conformations in all-atom molecular mechanics simulations with explicit water. We compare the free energies of Abeta(1-42) and Abeta(1-40...

  13. Interfacial Molecular Searching Using Forager Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserud, Jon H.; Schwartz, Daniel K.

    2016-03-01

    Many biological and technological systems employ efficient non-Brownian intermittent search strategies where localized searches alternate with long flights. Coincidentally, molecular species exhibit intermittent behavior at the solid-liquid interface, where periods of slow motion are punctuated by fast flights through the liquid phase. Single-molecule tracking was used here to observe the interfacial search process of DNA for complementary DNA. Measured search times were qualitatively consistent with an intermittent-flight model, and ˜10 times faster than equivalent Brownian searches, suggesting that molecular searches for reactive sites benefit from similar efficiencies as biological organisms.

  14. GPU-accelerated visualization of protein dynamics in ribbon mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, Manuel; Birmanns, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Proteins are biomolecules present in living organisms and essential for carrying out vital functions. Inherent to their functioning is folding into different spatial conformations, and to understand these processes, it is crucial to visually explore the structural changes. In recent years, significant advancements in experimental techniques and novel algorithms for post-processing of protein data have routinely revealed static and dynamic structures of increasing sizes. In turn, interactive visualization of the systems and their transitions became more challenging. Therefore, much research for the efficient display of protein dynamics has been done, with the focus being space filling models, but for the important class of abstract ribbon or cartoon representations, there exist only few methods for an efficient rendering. Yet, these models are of high interest to scientists, as they provide a compact and concise description of the structure elements along the protein main chain. In this work, a method was developed to speed up ribbon and cartoon visualizations. Separating two phases in the calculation of geometry allows to offload computational work from the CPU to the GPU. The first phase consists of computing a smooth curve along the protein's main chain on the CPU. In the second phase, conducted independently by the GPU, vertices along that curve are moved to set up the final geometrical representation of the molecule.

  15. Molecular dynamics with deterministic and stochastic numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Leimkuhler, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the mathematical underpinnings of algorithms used for molecular dynamics simulation, including both deterministic and stochastic numerical methods. Molecular dynamics is one of the most versatile and powerful methods of modern computational science and engineering and is used widely in chemistry, physics, materials science and biology. Understanding the foundations of numerical methods means knowing how to select the best one for a given problem (from the wide range of techniques on offer) and how to create new, efficient methods to address particular challenges as they arise in complex applications.  Aimed at a broad audience, this book presents the basic theory of Hamiltonian mechanics and stochastic differential equations, as well as topics including symplectic numerical methods, the handling of constraints and rigid bodies, the efficient treatment of Langevin dynamics, thermostats to control the molecular ensemble, multiple time-stepping, and the dissipative particle dynamics method...

  16. Dynamics of molecular superrotors in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Korobenko, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    We excite diatomic oxygen and nitrogen to high rotational states with an optical centrifuge and study their dynamics in external magnetic field. Ion imaging is employed to directly visualize, and follow in time, the rotation plane of molecular superrotors. The two different mechanisms of interaction between the magnetic field and the molecular angular momentum in paramagnetic oxygen and non-magnetic nitrogen lead to the qualitatively different behaviour. In nitrogen, we observe the precession of the molecular angular momentum around the field vector. In oxygen, strong spin-rotation coupling results in faster and richer dynamics, encompassing the splitting of the rotation plane in three separate components. As the centrifuged molecules evolve with no significant dispersion of the molecular wave function, the observed magnetic interaction presents an efficient mechanism for controlling the plane of molecular rotation.

  17. Dynamics Studies on Molecular Diffusion in Zeolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋霞; 樊建芬; 肖鹤鸣

    2003-01-01

    A review about the applications of molecular dynamics(MD)simulation in zeolites is presented. MD simulation has been proved to be a useful tool due to its applications in this field for the recent two decades. The fundamental theory of MD is introduced and the hydrocarbon diffusion in zeolites is mainly focused on in this paper.

  18. Scale Invariance at low accelerations (aka MOND) and the dynamical anomalies in the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2016-01-01

    Galactic systems, and the Universe at large, exhibit large dynamical anomalies: The observed matter in them falls very short of providing enough gravity to account for their dynamics. The mainstream response to this conundrum is to invoke large quantities of `dark matter' -- which purportedly supplies the needed extra gravity -- and also of `dark energy', to account for further anomalies in cosmology, such as the observed, accelerated expansion. The MOND paradigm offers a different solution: ...

  19. Quantitative assessment of molecular dynamics-grown amorphous silicon and germanium films on silicon (111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käshammer, Peter; Borgardt, Nikolai I.; Seibt, Michael; Sinno, Talid

    2016-09-01

    Molecular dynamics based on the empirical Tersoff potential was used to simulate the deposition of amorphous silicon and germanium on silicon(111) at various deposition rates and temperatures. The resulting films were analyzed quantitatively by comparing one-dimensional atomic density profiles to experimental measurements. It is found that the simulations are able to capture well the structural features of the deposited films, which exhibit a gradual loss of crystalline order over several monolayers. A simple mechanistic model is used to demonstrate that the simulation temperature may be used to effectively accelerate the surface relaxation processes during deposition, leading to films that are consistent with experimental samples grown at deposition rates many orders-of-magnitude slower than possible in a molecular dynamics simulation.

  20. Research on Acceleration Disturbance Suppression for Dynamic Detection of Level Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Linxia; Zhang, Fuxue

    The paper presents a new method to eliminate acceleration disturbance in level attitude measurement and control of moving carrier. Output signals of micro-machined inclinometer and gyroscope are analyzed in different states of moving carrier by experimental simulation, results show that gyroscope almost keeps the zero output voltage while inclinometer outputs in significant fluctuations. With the analysis results, a new method on acceleration disturbance suppression is developed base on a combination of inclinometers and gyroscopes, which includes establishment and derivation of its mathematical model and implementation, and an algorithm software design. Finally, tests to the acceleration disturbance suppression effect are demonstrated in line motion, line vibration, angular motion and angular motion plus pitch swing. Experimental results show that the method achieves its expected effect. The inertial system constitutes of inclinometers and gyros interacting with acceleration disturbance suppression method can dynamic detect the level attitude of moving carrier.

  1. BEAM DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF SARAF ACCELERATOR INCLUDING ERROR PROPAGATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EURISOL DRIVER

    CERN Document Server

    J. Rodnizki, D. Berkovits, K. Lavie, I. Mardor, A. Shor and Y. Yanay (Soreq NRC, Yavne), K. Dunkel, C. Piel (ACCEL, Bergisch Gladbach), A. Facco (INFN/LNL, Legnaro, Padova), V. Zviagintsev (TRIUMF, Vancouver)

    AbstractBeam dynamics simulations of SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting RF linear accelerator have been performed in order to establish the accelerator design. The multi-particle simulation includes 3D realistic electromagnetic field distributions, space charge forces and fabrication, misalignment and operation errors. A 4 mA proton or deuteron beam is accelerated up to 40 MeV with a moderated rms emittance growth and a high real-estate gradient of 2 MeV/m. An envelope of 40,000 macro-particles is kept under a radius of 1.1 cm, well below the beam pipe bore radius. The accelerator design of SARAF is proposed as an injector for the EURISOL driver accelerator. The Accel 176 MHZ β0=0.09 and β0=0.15 HWR lattice was extended to 90 MeV based on the LNL 352 MHZ β0=0.31 HWR. The matching between both lattices ensures smooth transition and the possibility to extend the accelerator to the required EURISOL ion energy.

  2. VUV studies of molecular photofragmentation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    State-resolved, photoion and photoelectron methods are used to study the neutral fragmentation and ionization dynamics of small molecules relevant to atmospheric and combustion chemistry. Photodissociation and ionization are initiated by coherent VUV radiation and the fragmentation dynamics are extracted from measurements of product rovibronic state distributions, kinetic energies and angular distributions. The general aim of these studies is to investigate the multichannel interactions between the electronic and nuclear motions which determine the evolution of the photoexcited {open_quotes}complex{close_quotes} into the observed asymptotic channels.

  3. Tunneling Dynamics Between Atomic and Molecular Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-Yong

    2004-01-01

    Tunneling dynamics of multi-atomic molecules between atomic and multi-atomic molecular Bose-Einstein condensates with Feshbach resonance is investigated.It is indicated that the tunneling in the two Bose-Einstein condensates depends on not only the inter-atomic-molecular nonlinear interactions and the initial number of atoms in these condensates,but also the tunneling coupling between the atomic condensate and the multi-atomic molecular condensate.It is discovered that besides oscillating tunneling current between the atomic condensate and the multi-atomic molecular condensate,the nonlinear multi-atomic molecular tunneling dynamics sustains a self-locked population imbalance:a macroscopic quantum self-trapping effect.The influence of de-coherence caused by non-condensate atoms on the tunneling dynamics is studied.It is shown that de-coherence suppresses the multi-atomic molecular tunneling.Moreover,the conception of the molecular Bose-Einstein condensate,which is different from the conventional single-atomic Bose-Einstein condensate,is specially emphasized in this paper.

  4. Molecular evolution of scorpion a-toxins--Accelerated substitutions and functional divergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Scorpion α-toxins are a family of toxic proteins with similar scaffold, but possess divergent pharmacological properties.Analysis of cDNA sequences reveals that the numbers of nucleotide substitutions per site (K) for 5' and 3' UTRs are smaller than those per synonymous site (Ks) for the mature peptide-coding sequences, whereas the numbers of nucleotide substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka) are close to or larger than Ks values for relevant pairs of cDNAs. These results, together with phylogenetic analysis, indicate that scorpion a-toxins have evolved by accelerated substitutions in the mature toxin regions. In addition, the 15 amino acids, absolutely conserved in all the scorpion α-toxins described so far, are mostly located in molecular interior, which may be involved in structural constraints for stabilizing the CSαβ fold in evolution of these molecules. Four hot spot mutation sites in the molecular surface are found to dis tribute in the putative functional regions of α-toxins, suggesting that positive Darwinian selection drives the accelerated evolution of scorpion α-toxins. These findings reasonably explain the relationship between three-dimensional structure conservation and functional divergence of scorpion α-toxins and are of important value in guiding us in our engineering experiments to obtain higher affinity ligands to Na+ channels.

  5. Accelerate!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, John P

    2012-11-01

    The old ways of setting and implementing strategy are failing us, writes the author of Leading Change, in part because we can no longer keep up with the pace of change. Organizational leaders are torn between trying to stay ahead of increasingly fierce competition and needing to deliver this year's results. Although traditional hierarchies and managerial processes--the components of a company's "operating system"--can meet the daily demands of running an enterprise, they are rarely equipped to identify important hazards quickly, formulate creative strategic initiatives nimbly, and implement them speedily. The solution Kotter offers is a second system--an agile, networklike structure--that operates in concert with the first to create a dual operating system. In such a system the hierarchy can hand off the pursuit of big strategic initiatives to the strategy network, freeing itself to focus on incremental changes to improve efficiency. The network is populated by employees from all levels of the organization, giving it organizational knowledge, relationships, credibility, and influence. It can Liberate information from silos with ease. It has a dynamic structure free of bureaucratic layers, permitting a level of individualism, creativity, and innovation beyond the reach of any hierarchy. The network's core is a guiding coalition that represents each level and department in the hierarchy, with a broad range of skills. Its drivers are members of a "volunteer army" who are energized by and committed to the coalition's vividly formulated, high-stakes vision and strategy. Kotter has helped eight organizations, public and private, build dual operating systems over the past three years. He predicts that such systems will lead to long-term success in the 21st century--for shareholders, customers, employees, and companies themselves. PMID:23155997

  6. Accelerate!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, John P

    2012-11-01

    The old ways of setting and implementing strategy are failing us, writes the author of Leading Change, in part because we can no longer keep up with the pace of change. Organizational leaders are torn between trying to stay ahead of increasingly fierce competition and needing to deliver this year's results. Although traditional hierarchies and managerial processes--the components of a company's "operating system"--can meet the daily demands of running an enterprise, they are rarely equipped to identify important hazards quickly, formulate creative strategic initiatives nimbly, and implement them speedily. The solution Kotter offers is a second system--an agile, networklike structure--that operates in concert with the first to create a dual operating system. In such a system the hierarchy can hand off the pursuit of big strategic initiatives to the strategy network, freeing itself to focus on incremental changes to improve efficiency. The network is populated by employees from all levels of the organization, giving it organizational knowledge, relationships, credibility, and influence. It can Liberate information from silos with ease. It has a dynamic structure free of bureaucratic layers, permitting a level of individualism, creativity, and innovation beyond the reach of any hierarchy. The network's core is a guiding coalition that represents each level and department in the hierarchy, with a broad range of skills. Its drivers are members of a "volunteer army" who are energized by and committed to the coalition's vividly formulated, high-stakes vision and strategy. Kotter has helped eight organizations, public and private, build dual operating systems over the past three years. He predicts that such systems will lead to long-term success in the 21st century--for shareholders, customers, employees, and companies themselves.

  7. On the stochastic dynamics of molecular conformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An important functioning mechanism of biological macromolecules is the transition between different conformed states due to thermal fluctuation. In the present paper, a biological macromolecule is modeled as two strands with side chains facing each other, and its stochastic dynamics including the statistics of stationary motion and the statistics of conformational transition is studied by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi Hamiltonian systems. The theoretical results are confirmed with the results from Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Molecular Mechanotransduction: how forces trigger cytoskeletal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlicher, Allen

    2012-02-01

    Mechanical stresses elicit cellular reactions mediated by chemical signals. Defective responses to forces underlie human medical disorders, such as cardiac failure and pulmonary injury. Despite detailed knowledge of the cytoskeleton's structure, the specific molecular switches that convert mechanical stimuli into chemical signals have remained elusive. Here we identify the actin-binding protein, filamin A (FLNa) as a central mechanotransduction element of the cytoskeleton by using Fluorescence Loss After photoConversion (FLAC), a novel high-speed alternative to FRAP. We reconstituted a minimal system consisting of actin filaments, FLNa and two FLNa-binding partners: the cytoplasmic tail of ß-integrin, and FilGAP. Integrins form an essential mechanical linkage between extracellular and intracellular environments, with ß integrin tails connecting to the actin cytoskeleton by binding directly to filamin. FilGAP is a FLNa-binding GTPase-activating protein specific for Rac, which in vivo regulates cell spreading and bleb formation. We demonstrate that both externally-imposed bulk shear and myosin II driven forces differentially regulate the binding of integrin and FilGAP to FLNa. Consistent with structural predictions, strain increases ß-integrin binding to FLNa, whereas it causes FilGAP to dissociate from FLNa, providing a direct and specific molecular basis for cellular mechanotransduction. These results identify the first molecular mechanotransduction element within the actin cytoskeleton, revealing that mechanical strain of key proteins regulates the binding of signaling molecules. Moreover, GAP activity has been shown to switch cell movement from mesenchymal to amoeboid motility, suggesting that mechanical forces directly impact the invasiveness of cancer.

  9. Combining Molecular Dynamics and Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2015-03-01

    The time evolution of a system consisting of electrons and ions is often treated in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, with electrons in their instantaneous ground state. This approach cannot capture many interesting processes that involved excitation of electrons and its effects on the coupled electron-ion dynamics. The time scale needed to accurately resolve the evolution of electron dynamics is atto-seconds. This poses a challenge to the simulation of important chemical processes that typically take place on time scales of pico-seconds and beyond, such as reactions at surfaces and charge transport in macromolecules. We will present a methodology based on time-dependent density functional theory for electrons, and classical (Ehrenfest) dynamics for the ions, that successfully captures such processes. We will give a review of key features of the method and several applications. These illustrate how the atomic and electronic structure evolution unravels the elementary steps that constitute a chemical reaction. In collaboration with: G. Kolesov, D. Vinichenko, G. Tritsaris, C.M. Friend, Departments of Physics and of Chemistry and Chemical Biology.

  10. Molecular dynamics insights into human aquaporin 2 water channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, A R; Kamali, R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the first molecular dynamics simulation of the human aquaporin 2 is performed and for a better understanding of the aquaporin 2 permeability performance, the characteristics of water transport in this protein channel and key biophysical parameters of AQP2 tetramer including osmotic and diffusive permeability constants and the pore radius are investigated. For this purpose, recently recovered high resolution X-ray crystal structure of` the human aquaporin 2 is used to perform twenty nanosecond molecular dynamics simulation of fully hydrated tetramer of this protein embedded in a lipid bilayer. The resulting water permeability characteristics of this protein channel showed that the water permeability of the human AQP2 is in a mean range in comparison with other human aquaporins family. Finally, the results reported in this research demonstrate that molecular dynamics simulation of human AQP2 provided useful insights into the mechanisms of water permeation and urine concentration in the human kidney. PMID:26489820

  11. Theoretical analysis of dynamic processes for interacting molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological transport is supported by the collective dynamics of enzymatic molecules that are called motor proteins or molecular motors. Experiments suggest that motor proteins interact locally via short-range potentials. We investigate the fundamental role of these interactions by carrying out an analysis of a new class of totally asymmetric exclusion processes, in which interactions are accounted for in a thermodynamically consistent fashion. This allows us to explicitly connect microscopic features of motor proteins with their collective dynamic properties. A theoretical analysis that combines various mean-field calculations and computer simulations suggests that the dynamic properties of molecular motors strongly depend on the interactions, and that the correlations are stronger for interacting motor proteins. Surprisingly, it is found that there is an optimal strength of interactions (weak repulsion) that leads to a maximal particle flux. It is also argued that molecular motor transport is more sensitive to attractive interactions. Applications of these results for kinesin motor proteins are discussed. (paper)

  12. Ab initio nonadiabatic dynamics of multichromophore complexes: a scalable graphical-processing-unit-accelerated exciton framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Aaron; Glowacki, David R; Martinez, Todd J

    2014-09-16

    ("fragmenting") a molecular system and then stitching it back together. In this Account, we address both of these problems, the first by using graphical processing units (GPUs) and electronic structure algorithms tuned for these architectures and the second by using an exciton model as a framework in which to stitch together the solutions of the smaller problems. The multitiered parallel framework outlined here is aimed at nonadiabatic dynamics simulations on large supramolecular multichromophoric complexes in full atomistic detail. In this framework, the lowest tier of parallelism involves GPU-accelerated electronic structure theory calculations, for which we summarize recent progress in parallelizing the computation and use of electron repulsion integrals (ERIs), which are the major computational bottleneck in both density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The topmost tier of parallelism relies on a distributed memory framework, in which we build an exciton model that couples chromophoric units. Combining these multiple levels of parallelism allows access to ground and excited state dynamics for large multichromophoric assemblies. The parallel excitonic framework is in good agreement with much more computationally demanding TDDFT calculations of the full assembly. PMID:25186064

  13. Limited utility of Birkhoff's theorem in modified Newtonian dynamics: Nonzero accelerations inside a shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the consequences of Birkhoff's theorem in general relativity (GR) and in modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). We study, in particular, the system of a finite-mass test particle inside a spherical shell. In both GR and MOND, we find nonvanishing acceleration for that test particle. The direction of the acceleration is such that it pushes the test particle toward the center of the shell. In GR, the acceleration is found analytically in the case of a small test mass with a small displacement from the center of the shell. In MOND, the acceleration is found analytically in the limit of large test mass and small displacement, and a comparison to numerical values is made. Numerical simulations are done for more general cases with parameters that mimic the system of a galaxy in a cluster. In GR, the acceleration is highly suppressed and physically insignificant. In MOND, on the contrary, the acceleration of the point particle can be a significant fraction of the field just outside of the spherical shell.

  14. Femtochemistry and femtobiology ultrafast dynamics in molecular science

    CERN Document Server

    Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2002-01-01

    This book contains important contributions from top international scientists on the-state-of-the-art of femtochemistry and femtobiology at the beginning of the new millennium. It consists of reviews and papers on ultrafast dynamics in molecular science.The coverage of topics highlights several important features of molecular science from the viewpoint of structure (space domain) and dynamics (time domain). First of all, the book presents the latest developments, such as experimental techniques for understanding ultrafast processes in gas, condensed and complex systems, including biological mol

  15. Charge and Energy Transfer Dynamics in Molecular Systems

    CERN Document Server

    May, Volkhard

    2004-01-01

    This second edition is based on the successful concept of the first edition in presenting a unified perspective on molecular charge and energy transfer processes. The authors bridge the regimes of coherent and dissipative dynamics, thus establishing the connection between classic rate theories and modern treatments of ultrafast phenomena. The book serves as an introduction for graduate students and researchers. Among the new topics of this second edition are. - semiclassical and quantum-classical hybrid formulations of molecular dynamics. - the basics of femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy. - e

  16. State-to-state dynamics of molecular energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, W.R.; Giese, C.F. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this research program is to elucidate the elementary dynamical mechanisms of vibrational and rotational energy transfer between molecules, at a quantum-state resolved level of detail. Molecular beam techniques are used to isolate individual molecular collisions, and to control the kinetic energy of collision. Lasers are used both to prepare specific quantum states prior to collision by stimulated-emission pumping (SEP), and to measure the distribution of quantum states in the collision products by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The results are interpreted in terms of dynamical models, which may be cast in a classical, semiclassical or quantum mechanical framework, as appropriate.

  17. Simulation of the relativistic electron dynamics and acceleration in a linearly-chirped laser pulse

    CERN Document Server

    Jisrawi, Najeh M; Salamin, Yousef I

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical investigations are presented, and their results are discussed, of the laser acceleration of a single electron by a chirped pulse. Fields of the pulse are modeled by simple plane-wave oscillations and a $\\cos^2$ envelope. The dynamics emerge from analytic and numerical solutions to the relativistic Lorentz-Newton equations of motion of the electron in the fields of the pulse. All simulations have been carried out by independent Mathematica and Python codes, with identical results. Configurations of acceleration from a position of rest as well as from injection, axially and sideways, at initial relativistic speeds are studied.

  18. Electron-phonon interaction within classical molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, A.; Samolyuk, G.; Correa, A. A.; Klintenberg, M.; Aabloo, A.; Caro, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a model for nonadiabatic classical molecular dynamics simulations that captures with high accuracy the wave-vector q dependence of the phonon lifetimes, in agreement with quantum mechanics calculations. It is based on a local view of the e -ph interaction where individual atom dynamics couples to electrons via a damping term that is obtained as the low-velocity limit of the stopping power of a moving ion in a host. The model is parameter free, as its components are derived from ab initio-type calculations, is readily extended to the case of alloys, and is adequate for large-scale molecular dynamics computer simulations. We also show how this model removes some oversimplifications of the traditional ionic damped dynamics commonly used to describe situations beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

  19. A Coupling Tool for Parallel Molecular Dynamics-Continuum Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    We present a tool for coupling Molecular Dynamics and continuum solvers. It is written in C++ and is meant to support the developers of hybrid molecular - continuum simulations in terms of both realisation of the respective coupling algorithm as well as parallel execution of the hybrid simulation. We describe the implementational concept of the tool and its parallel extensions. We particularly focus on the parallel execution of particle insertions into dense molecular systems and propose a respective parallel algorithm. Our implementations are validated for serial and parallel setups in two and three dimensions. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Deposition of Small Clusters on Surface: a Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Xiang-Mei; GONG Xin-Gao

    2000-01-01

    By using the molecular dynamics simulation, we have studied the dynamic behaviors of small energetic clusters deposited on the surface. We find that, at incident energy as low as 1.0eV/atom, the structure of the cluster is destroyed and cluster atoms form an epitaxial layer above the surface. At high energy incidence, the site exchange between cluster atom and surface atom is observed. The effects of the cluster size and orientation are discussed.

  1. Investigation of nuclear multifragmentation using molecular dynamics and restructured aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the stability of excited 197 Au nuclei with respect to multifragmentation. For that we use a dynamical simulation based on molecular dynamics and restructured aggregation. A particular attention is paid to check the stability of the ground state nuclei generated by the simulation. Four kinds of excitations are considered: heat, compression, rotation and a geometrical instability created when a projectile drills a hole in a 197 Au nucleus

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Nitrobenzene Dioxygenase Using AMBER Force Field

    OpenAIRE

    Pabis, Anna; Geronimo, Inacrist; York, Darrin M.; Paneth, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation of the oxygenase component of nitrobenzene dioxygenase (NBDO) system, a member of the naphthalene family of Rieske nonheme iron dioxygenases, has been carried out using the AMBER force field combined with a new set of parameters for the description of the mononuclear nonheme iron center and iron–sulfur Rieske cluster. Simulation results provide information on the structure and dynamics of nitrobenzene dioxygenase in an aqueous environment and shed light on specif...

  3. Simplistic Coulomb Forces in Molecular Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare the Wolf method to the shifted forces (SF) method for efficient computer simulation of bulk systems with Coulomb forces, taking results from the Ewald summation and particle mesh Ewald methods as representing the true behavior. We find that for the Hansen–McDonald molten...... salt model the SF approximation overall reproduces the structural and dynamical properties as accurately as does the Wolf method. It is shown that the optimal Wolf damping parameter depends on the property in focus and that neither the potential energy nor the radial distribution function are useful...... measures for the convergence of the Wolf method to the Ewald summation method. The SF approximation is also tested for the SPC/Fw model of liquid water at room temperature, showing good agreement with both the Wolf and the particle mesh Ewald methods; this confirms previous findings [Fennell, C. J...

  4. A stochastic model for the semiclassical collective dynamics of charged beams in particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; Martino, Salvatore De; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    1999-01-01

    A recent proposal (see quant-ph/9803068) to simulate semiclassical corrections to classical dynamics by suitable classical stochastic fluctuations is applied to the specific instance of charged beam dynamics in particle accelerators. The resulting picture is that the collective beam dynamics, at the leading semiclassical order in Planck constant can be described by a particular diffusion process, the Nelson process, which is time-reversal invariant. Its diffusion coefficient $\\sqrt{N}\\lambda_{c}$ represents a semiclassical unit of emittance (here $N$ is the number of particles in the beam, and $\\lambda_{c}$ is the Compton wavelength). The stochastic dynamics of the Nelson type can be easily recast in the form of a Schroedinger equation, with the semiclassical unit of emittance replacing Planck constant. Therefore we provide a physical foundation to the several quantum-like models of beam dynamics proposed in recent years. We also briefly touch upon applications of the Nelson and Schroedinger formalisms to inc...

  5. Thermostatted molecular dynamics: How to avoid the Toda demon hidden in Nose-Hoover dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nose-Hoover thermostat, which is often used in the hope of modifying molecular dynamics trajectories in order to achieve canonical-ensemble averages, has hidden in it a Toda ''demon,'' which can give rise to unwanted, noncanonical undulations in the instantaneous kinetic temperature. We show how these long-lived oscillations arise from insufficient coupling of the thermostat to the atoms, and give straightforward, practical procedures for avoiding this weak-coupling pathology in isothermal molecular dynamics simulations

  6. Superspreading: molecular dynamics simulations and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakis, Panagiotis; Kovalchuk, Nina; Starov, Victor; Muller, Erich; Craster, Richard; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    The intriguing ability of certain surfactant molecules to drive the superspreading of liquids to complete wetting on hydrophobic substrates is central to numerous applications that range from coating flow technology to enhanced oil recovery. Recently, we have observed that for superspreading to occur, two key conditions must be simultaneously satisfied: the adsorption of surfactants from the liquid-vapor surface onto the three-phase contact line augmented by local bilayer formation. Crucially, this must be coordinated with the rapid replenishment of liquid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces with surfactants from the interior of the droplet. Here, we present the structural characteristics and kinetics of the droplet spreading during the different stages of this process, and we compare our results with experimental data for trisiloxane and poly oxy ethylene surfactants. In this way, we highlight and explore the differences between surfactants, paving the way for the design of molecular architectures tailored specifically for applications that rely on the control of wetting. EPSRC Platform Grant MACIPh (EP/L020564/).

  7. An accelerated iterative method for the dynamics of constrained multibody systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kisu

    1993-01-01

    An accelerated iterative method is suggested for the dynamic analysis of multibody systems consisting of interconnected rigid bodies. The Lagrange multipliers associated with the kinematic constraints are iteratively computed by the monotone reduction of the constraint error vector, and the resulting equations of motion are easily time-integrated by a well established ODE technique. The velocity and acceleration constraints as well as the position constraints are made to be satisfied at the joints at each time step. Exact solution is obtained without the time demanding procedures such as selection of the independent coordinates, decomposition of the constraint Jacobian matrix, and Newton Raphson iterations. An acceleration technique is employed for the faster convergence of the iterative scheme and the convergence analysis of the proposed iterative method is presented. Numerical solutions for the verification problems are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the suggested technique.

  8. Stability of molecular dynamics simulations of classical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a shadow Hamiltonian for discrete classical dynamics, obtained by an asymptotic expansion for a discrete symplectic algorithm, is employed to determine the limit of stability for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with respect to the time-increment h of the discrete dynamics....... The method is also used to investigate higher-order central difference algorithms, which are symplectic and also have shadow Hamiltonians, and for which one can also determine the exact criteria for the limit of stability of a single harmonic mode. A fourth-order central difference algorithm gives...

  9. A Formulation of the Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Horikoshi, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The exact formulation of the path integral centroid dynamics is extended to include composites of the position and momentum operators. We present the generalized centroid dynamics (GCD), which provides a basis to calculate Kubo-transformed correlation functions by means of classical averages. We define various types of approximate GCD, one of which is equivalent to the ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). The RPMD and another approximate GCD are tested in one-dimensional harmonic system, and it is shown that the RPMD works better in the short time region.

  10. Probing Molecular Dynamics by Laser-Induced Backscattering Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertelt, Marko; Bian, Xue-Bin; Spanner, Michael; Staudte, André; Corkum, Paul B.

    2016-04-01

    We use differential holography to overcome the forward scattering problem in strong-field photoelectron holography. Our differential holograms of H2 and D2 molecules exhibit a fishbonelike structure, which arises from the backscattered part of the recolliding photoelectron wave packet. We demonstrate that the backscattering hologram can resolve the different nuclear dynamics between H2 and D2 with subangstrom spatial and subcycle temporal resolution. In addition, we show that attosecond electron dynamics can be resolved. These results open a new avenue for ultrafast studies of molecular dynamics in small molecules.

  11. Molecular co-catalyst accelerating hole transfer for enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wentuan; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Lei; Jin, Tao; Zhang, Lidong; Zhang, Qun; Luo, Yi; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2015-10-01

    In artificial photocatalysis, sluggish kinetics of hole transfer and the resulting high-charge recombination rate have been the Achilles' heel of photocatalytic conversion efficiency. Here we demonstrate water-soluble molecules as co-catalysts to accelerate hole transfer for improved photocatalytic H2 evolution activity. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), by virtue of its reversible redox couple TFA./TFA-, serves as a homogeneous co-catalyst that not only maximizes the contact areas between co-catalysts and reactants but also greatly promotes hole transfer. Thus K4Nb6O17 nanosheet catalysts achieve drastically increased photocatalytic H2 production rate in the presence of TFA, up to 32 times with respect to the blank experiment. The molecular co-catalyst represents a new, simple and highly effective approach to suppress recombination of photogenerated charges, and has provided fertile new ground for creating high-efficiency photosynthesis systems, avoiding use of noble-metal co-catalysts.

  12. On higher ground: how well can dynamic body acceleration determine speed in variable terrain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen R Bidder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Animal travel speed is an ecologically significant parameter, with implications for the study of energetics and animal behaviour. It is also necessary for the calculation of animal paths by dead-reckoning. Dead-reckoning uses heading and speed to calculate an animal's path through its environment on a fine scale. It is often used in aquatic environments, where transmission telemetry is difficult. However, its adoption for tracking terrestrial animals is limited by our ability to measure speed accurately on a fine scale. Recently, tri-axial accelerometers have shown promise for estimating speed, but their accuracy appears affected by changes in substrate and surface gradients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate four metrics of acceleration; Overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA, vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VDBA, acceleration peak frequency and acceleration peak amplitude, as proxies for speed over hard, soft and inclined surfaces, using humans as a model species. RESULTS: A general linear model (GLM showed a significant difference in the relationships between the metrics and speed depending on substrate or surface gradient. When the data from all surface types were considered together, VeDBA had the highest coefficient of determination. CONCLUSIONS: All of the metrics showed some variation in their relationship with speed according to the surface type. This indicates that changes in the substrate or surface gradient during locomotion by animals would produce errors in speed estimates, and also in dead-reckoned tracks if they were calculated from speeds based entirely on a priori calibrations. However, we describe a method by which the relationship between acceleration metrics and speed can be corrected ad hoc, until tracks accord with periodic ground truthed positions, obtained via a secondary means (e.g. VHF or GPS telemetry. In this way, dead-reckoning provides a means to obtain fine scale movement data

  13. THE REFINEMENT OF NMR STRUCTURES BY MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TORDA, AE; VANGUNSTEREN, WF

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the use of molecular dynamics simulations as a tool for the refinement of structures based on NMR data. The procedure always involves the construction of a pseudo-energy term to model the experimental data and we consider the various approaches to this problem. We detail recent work where

  14. Thermodynamics of small clusters of atoms: A molecular dynamics simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard Kristensen, W.; Jensen, E. J.; Cotterill, Rodney M J

    1974-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of clusters containing 55, 135, and 429 atoms have been calculated using the molecular dynamics method. Structural and vibrational properties of the clusters were examined at different temperatures in both the solid and the liquid phase. The nature of the melting...

  15. C60 molecular dynamics studied by muon spin relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In muonium-substituted organic radicals, the muon spin can serve as a probe of molecular dynamics. The motional perturbation induces transitions between the coupled spin states of muon and unpaired electron. Studies of the resultant muon spin relaxation in C60Mu, the species formed by muon implantation in solid C60, yield the correlation time characteristic of the reorientational motion

  16. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of laser melting of silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestrelli, P.-L.; Alavi, A.; Parrinello, M.; Frenkel, D.

    1996-01-01

    The method of ab initio molecular dynamics, based on finite temperature density functional theory, is used to simulate laser heating of crystal silicon. We have found that a high concentration of excited electrons dramatically weakens the covalent bond. As a result, the system undergoes a melting tr

  17. Improved Angle Potentials for Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulacu, Monica; Goga, Nicolae; Zhao, Wei; Rossi, Giulia; Monticelli, Luca; Periole, Xavier; Tieleman, D. Peter; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2013-01-01

    Potentials routinely used in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are not always suitable for modeling systems at coarse-grained resolution. For example, in the calculation of traditional torsion angle potentials, numerical instability is often encountered in the case of very flexible molecules.

  18. Quantum Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Nanotube Tip Assisted Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Madhu

    1998-01-01

    In this report we detail the development and application of an efficient quantum molecular dynamics computational algorithm and its application to the nanotube-tip assisted reactions on silicon and diamond surfaces. The calculations shed interesting insights into the microscopic picture of tip surface interactions.

  19. Active site modeling in copper azurin molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizzuti, B; Swart, M; Sportelli, L; Guzzi, R

    2004-01-01

    Active site modeling in molecular dynamics simulations is investigated for the reduced state of copper azurin. Five simulation runs (5 ns each) were performed at room temperature to study the consequences of a mixed electrostatic/constrained modeling for the coordination between the metal and the po

  20. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF STRUCTURE STABILITY OF SILVER NANOCLUSTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.H. Qi

    2006-01-01

    The structures of Ag clusters with sizes n=13 to 1157 are studied by tight binding molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the stable structures of Ag clusters follow the sequence amorphous-crystalline-amorphous-crystalline with the cluster size increasing from 13 to 1157.Furthermore, all the shells of Ag clusters are different from the structure of the corresponding bulk Ag.

  1. Metal cluster fission: jellium model and Molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia;

    2004-01-01

    Fission of doubly charged sodium clusters is studied using the open-shell two-center deformed jellium model approximation and it ab initio molecular dynamic approach accounting for all electrons in the system. Results of calculations of fission reactions Na_10^2+ --> Na_7^+ + Na_3^+ and Na_18^2+ ...

  2. Open boundary molecular dynamics of sheared star-polymer melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablić, Jurij; Praprotnik, Matej; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael

    2016-02-28

    Open boundary molecular dynamics (OBMD) simulations of a sheared star polymer melt under isothermal conditions are performed to study the rheology and molecular structure of the melt under a fixed normal load. Comparison is made with the standard molecular dynamics (MD) in periodic (closed) boxes at a fixed shear rate (using the SLLOD dynamics). The OBMD system exchanges mass and momentum with adjacent reservoirs (buffers) where the external pressure tensor is imposed. Insertion of molecules in the buffers is made feasible by implementing there a low resolution model (blob-molecules with soft effective interactions) and then using the adaptive resolution scheme (AdResS) to connect with the bulk MD. Straining with increasing shear stress induces melt expansion and a significantly different redistribution of pressure compared with the closed case. In the open sample, the shear viscosity is also a bit lowered but more stable against the viscous heating. At a given Weissenberg number, molecular deformations and material properties (recoverable shear strain and normal stress ratio) are found to be similar in both setups. We also study the modelling effect of normal and tangential friction between monomers implemented in a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) thermostat. Interestingly, the tangential friction substantially enhances the elastic response of the melt due to a reduction of the kinetic stress viscous contribution. PMID:26820315

  3. Molecular Dynamics ofa Coulomb System with Deformable Periodic Boundary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Totsuji, Hiroo; Shirokoshi, Hideki; Nara, Shigetoshi

    1991-01-01

    Variable shape molecular dynamics is formulated for the one-component plasma and the structural transition from the fcc lattice to the bcc lattice has been observed. It is emphasized that the condition of constant volume should be imposed when deformations of periodic boundary conditions are taken into account.

  4. Simulations of boundary migration during recrystallization using molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Rasmus Brauner; Trautt, Z.T.; Upmanyu, M.;

    2007-01-01

    We have applied an atomistic simulation methodology based on molecular dynamics to study grain boundary migration in crystalline materials, driven by the excess energy of dislocation arrangements. This method is used to simulate recrystallization in metals. The simulations reveal that the migrati...

  5. Clustering Molecular Dynamics Trajectories for Optimizing Docking Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata De Paris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations of protein receptors have become an attractive tool for rational drug discovery. However, the high computational cost of employing molecular dynamics trajectories in virtual screening of large repositories threats the feasibility of this task. Computational intelligence techniques have been applied in this context, with the ultimate goal of reducing the overall computational cost so the task can become feasible. Particularly, clustering algorithms have been widely used as a means to reduce the dimensionality of molecular dynamics trajectories. In this paper, we develop a novel methodology for clustering entire trajectories using structural features from the substrate-binding cavity of the receptor in order to optimize docking experiments on a cloud-based environment. The resulting partition was selected based on three clustering validity criteria, and it was further validated by analyzing the interactions between 20 ligands and a fully flexible receptor (FFR model containing a 20 ns molecular dynamics simulation trajectory. Our proposed methodology shows that taking into account features of the substrate-binding cavity as input for the k-means algorithm is a promising technique for accurately selecting ensembles of representative structures tailored to a specific ligand.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of a charged biological membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Cascales, J.J.; García de la Torre, J.; Marrink, S.J.; Berendsen, H.J.C.

    1996-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of a membrane with net charge in its liquid-crystalline state was carried out. It was modeled by dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine lipids with net charge, sodium ions as counterions and water molecules. The behavior of this membrane differs from that was shown by other me

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations on PGLa using NMR orientational constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.sternberg@partner.kit.edu; Witter, Raiker [Tallinn University of Technology, Technomedicum (Estonia)

    2015-11-15

    NMR data obtained by solid state NMR from anisotropic samples are used as orientational constraints in molecular dynamics simulations for determining the structure and dynamics of the PGLa peptide within a membrane environment. For the simulation the recently developed molecular dynamics with orientational constraints technique (MDOC) is used. This method introduces orientation dependent pseudo-forces into the COSMOS-NMR force field. Acting during a molecular dynamics simulation these forces drive molecular rotations, re-orientations and folding in such a way that the motional time-averages of the tensorial NMR properties are consistent with the experimentally measured NMR parameters. This MDOC strategy does not depend on the initial choice of atomic coordinates, and is in principle suitable for any flexible and mobile kind of molecule; and it is of course possible to account for flexible parts of peptides or their side-chains. MDOC has been applied to the antimicrobial peptide PGLa and a related dimer model. With these simulations it was possible to reproduce most NMR parameters within the experimental error bounds. The alignment, conformation and order parameters of the membrane-bound molecule and its dimer were directly derived with MDOC from the NMR data. Furthermore, this new approach yielded for the first time the distribution of segmental orientations with respect to the membrane and the order parameter tensors of the dimer systems. It was demonstrated the deuterium splittings measured at the peptide to lipid ratio of 1/50 are consistent with a membrane spanning orientation of the peptide.

  8. Young Modulus of Crystalline Polyethylene from ab Initio Molecular Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.C.L.; Meier, Robert J.; Heinemann, M.; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    The Young modulus for crystalline polyethylene is calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics based on density functional theory in the local density approximation (DFT-LDA). This modulus, which can be seen as the ultimate value for the Young modulus of polyethylene fibers, is found to be 334 GPa.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations on PGLa using NMR orientational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR data obtained by solid state NMR from anisotropic samples are used as orientational constraints in molecular dynamics simulations for determining the structure and dynamics of the PGLa peptide within a membrane environment. For the simulation the recently developed molecular dynamics with orientational constraints technique (MDOC) is used. This method introduces orientation dependent pseudo-forces into the COSMOS-NMR force field. Acting during a molecular dynamics simulation these forces drive molecular rotations, re-orientations and folding in such a way that the motional time-averages of the tensorial NMR properties are consistent with the experimentally measured NMR parameters. This MDOC strategy does not depend on the initial choice of atomic coordinates, and is in principle suitable for any flexible and mobile kind of molecule; and it is of course possible to account for flexible parts of peptides or their side-chains. MDOC has been applied to the antimicrobial peptide PGLa and a related dimer model. With these simulations it was possible to reproduce most NMR parameters within the experimental error bounds. The alignment, conformation and order parameters of the membrane-bound molecule and its dimer were directly derived with MDOC from the NMR data. Furthermore, this new approach yielded for the first time the distribution of segmental orientations with respect to the membrane and the order parameter tensors of the dimer systems. It was demonstrated the deuterium splittings measured at the peptide to lipid ratio of 1/50 are consistent with a membrane spanning orientation of the peptide

  10. Ice Formation on Kaolinite: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Sosso, Gabriele C; Zen, Andrea; Pedevilla, Philipp; Michaelides, Angelos

    2016-01-01

    The formation of ice affects many aspects of our everyday life as well as technologies such as cryotherapy and cryopreservation. Foreign substances almost always aid water freezing through heterogeneous ice nucleation, but the molecular details of this process remain largely unknown. In fact, insight into the microscopic mechanism of ice formation on different substrates is difficult to obtain even via state-of-the-art experimental techniques. At the same time, atomistic simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation frequently face extraordinary challenges due to the complexity of the water-substrate interaction and the long timescales that characterize nucleation events. Here, we have investigated several aspects of molecular dynamics simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation considering as a prototypical ice nucleating material the clay mineral kaolinite, which is of relevance in atmospheric science. We show via seeded molecular dynamics simulations that ice nucleation on the hydroxylated (001) face of kaol...

  11. Watching coherent molecular structural dynamics during photoreaction: beyond kinetic description

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Henrik T; Hartsock, Robert; van Driel, Tim Brandt; Chollet, Matthieu; Glownia, J M; Song, Sanghoon; Zhu, Diling; Pace, Elisabetta; Nielsen, Martin M; Benfatto, Maurizio; Gaffney, Kelly J; Collet, Eric; Cammarata, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A deep understanding of molecular photo-transformations occurring is challenging because of the complex interaction between electronic and nuclear structure. The initially excited electronic energy dissipates into electronic and structural reconfigurations often in less than a billionth of a second. Molecular dynamics induced by photoexcitation have been very successfully studied with femtosecond optical spectroscopies, but electronic and nuclear dynamics are often very difficult to disentangle. X-ray based spectroscopies can reduce the ambiguity between theoretical models and experimental data, but it is only with the recent development of bright ultrafast X-ray sources, that key information during transient molecular processes can be obtained on their intrinsic timescale. We use Free Electron Laser (FEL) based time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) measurements around the Iron K-edge of a spin crossover prototypical compound. We reveal its transformation from the ligand-located electroni...

  12. Beam dynamics of a double-gap acceleration cell for ion implantation with multiple atomic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of our work on ion implantation, we derived equations for the beam dynamics of a two-gap-resonator cavity for accelerating and bunching various ion species of varying energies with the cavity designed for one particular ion species of a given energy (the design-reference particle). A two gap structure is useful at low resonant frequencies where lumped circuit elements (inductors) can be used and the structure kept small. A single gap structure has the advantage that each gap can be independently phased to produce the desired beam dynamics behavior for various ion species and ion energies. However at low frequencies, single gap resonant structures can be large. We find that the two-gap structure, where the phase difference between gaps, for the design reference particle, is fixed at π radians can give acceptable performance provided that the individual two gap cells in the entire accelerator are optimized for the ion species having the largest mass to charge ratio and having the maximum required output energy. Our equations show how to adjust the cavity phases and electric fields to obtain equivalent first-order accelerator performance for various ion species and energies. These equations allow for the effective evaluation of various accelerator concepts and can facilitate the tuning of a linac when changing energies and ion species. Extensive simulations have confirmed the efficacy of our equations. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Object-Oriented Parallel Particle-in-Cell Code for Beam Dynamics Simulation in Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.D.; Habib, S.; Decky, V.

    1999-11-13

    In this paper, we present an object-oriented three-dimensional parallel particle-in-cell code for beam dynamics simulation in linear accelerators. A two-dimensional parallel domain decomposition approach is employed within a message passing programming paradigm along with a dynamic load balancing. Implementing object-oriented software design provides the code with better maintainability, reusability, and extensibility compared with conventional structure based code. This also helps to encapsulate the details of communications syntax. Performance tests on SGI/Cray T3E-900 and SGI Origin 2000 machines show good scalability of the object-oriented code. Some important features of this code also include employing symplectic integration with linear maps of external focusing elements and using z as the independent variable, typical in accelerators. A successful application was done to simulate beam transport through three superconducting sections in the APT linac design.

  14. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF AXIALLY ACCELERATING VISCOELASTIC BEAMS BASED ON DIFFERENTIAL QUADRATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ding; Liqun Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates nonlinear dynamical behaviors in transverse motion of an axially accelerating viscoelastic beam via the differential quadrature method. The governing equa-tion, a nonlinear partial-differential equation, is derived from the viscoelastic constitution relation using the material derivative. The differential quadrature scheme is developed to solve numeri-cally the governing equation. Based on the numerical solutions, the nonlinear dynamical behaviors presented in the case that the mean axial speed and the amplitude of the speed fluctuation are respectively varied while other parameters are fixed. The Lyapunov exponent and the initial value sensitivity of the different points of the beam, calculated from the time series based on the numer-ical solutions, are used to indicate periodic motions or chaotic motions occurring in the transverse motion of the axially accelerating viscoelastic beam.

  15. Influence of conformational molecular dynamics on matter wave interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gring, Michael; Eibenberger, Sandra; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Berrada, Tarik; Arndt, Markus; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Hornberger, Klaus; Müri, Marcel; Mayor, Marcel; Böckmann, Marcus; Doltsinis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the influence of thermally activated internal molecular dynamics on the phase shifts of matter waves inside a molecule interferometer. While de Broglie physics generally describes only the center-of-mass motion of a quantum object, our experiment demonstrates that the translational quantum phase is sensitive to dynamic conformational state changes inside the diffracted molecules. The structural flexibility of tailor-made hot organic particles is sufficient to admit a mixture of strongly fluctuating dipole moments. These modify the electric susceptibility and through this the quantum interference pattern in the presence of an external electric field. Detailed molecular dynamics simulations combined with density functional theory allow us to quantify the time-dependent structural reconfigurations and to predict the ensemble-averaged square of the dipole moment which is found to be in good agreement with the interferometric result. The experiment thus opens a new perspective on matter wave interfe...

  16. Reaction dynamics of molecular hydrogen on silicon surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratu, P.; Brenig, W.; Gross, A.;

    1996-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results on the dynamics of dissociative adsorption and recombinative desorption of hydrogen on silicon are presented. Using optical second-harmonic generation, extremely small sticking probabilities in the range 10(-9)-10(-5) could be measured for H-2 and D-2 on Si(111...... of the preexponential factor by about one order of magnitude per lateral degree of freedom. Molecular vibrations have practically no effect on the adsorption/desorption dynamics itself, but lead to vibrational heating in desorption with a strong isotope effect. Ab initio calculations for the H-2 interaction...... between the two surfaces. These results indicate that tunneling, molecular vibrations, and the structural details of the surface play only a minor role for the adsorption dynamics. Instead, they appear to be governed by the localized H-Si bonding and Si-Si lattice vibrations. Theoretically, an effective...

  17. A large scale molecular dynamics calculation of a lipid bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Susumu [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Long time molecular dynamics simulations for the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer in the liquid crystal phase could successfully be performed in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble using the Nose-Parrinello-Rahman extended system method. Three independent 2 ns calculations show excellent convergence to the same equilibrium state of the system in about 0.5 ns. Various structural properties such a atomic distribution, order parameter, gauche fraction in the alkyl chains, and bent structure of the head group and sn-2 chain were satisfactorily reproduced. Dynamic quantities such as trans-gauche transition were qualitatively in good correspondence the experiment. The calculations presented a microscopic picture of the whole molecular conformations, including the finding that there is not a collective tilt in bilayer. Some interesting dynamical observations concerning large structural fluctuations and pendulum motion of the alkyl chains were also made. (author)

  18. Nonlinear Accelerator Problems via Wavelets; 2, Orbital Dynamics in General Multipolar Field

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorova, A N; Fedorova, Antonina N.; Zeitlin, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    In this series of eight papers we present the applications of methods from wavelet analysis to polynomial approximations for a number of accelerator physics problems. In this part we consider orbital motion in transverse plane for a single particle in a circular magnetic lattice in case when we take into account multipolar expansion up to an arbitrary finite number. We reduce initial dynamical problem to the finite number (equal to the number of n-poles) of standard algebraical problem and represent all dynamical variables via an expansion in the base of periodical wavelets.

  19. Nonlinear Accelerator Problems via Wavelets; 3, Effects of Insertion Devices on Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorova, A N; Fedorova, Antonina N.; Zeitlin, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    In this series of eight papers we present the applications of methods from wavelet analysis to polynomial approximations for a number of accelerator physics problems. In this part, assuming a sinusoidal field variation, we consider the analytical treatment of the effects of insertion devices on beam dynamics. We investigate via wavelet approach a dynamical model which has polynomial nonlinearities and variable coefficients. We construct the corresponding wavelet representation. As examples we consider wigglers and undulator magnets. We consider the further modification of our variational approach which may be applied in each scale.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of silicate and borate glasses and melts : structure, diffusion dynamics and vibrational properties

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of silicate and borate glasses and melts: Structure, diffusion dynamics and vibrational properties. In this work computer simulations of the model glass formers SiO2 and B2O3 are presented, using the techniques of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum mechanical calculations, based on density functional theory (DFT). The latter limits the system size to about 100−200 atoms. SiO2 and B2O3 are the two most important network formers for industri...

  1. Molecular dynamics computer simulation of permeation in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, P.I.; Heffelfinger, G.S.; Fisler, D.K.; Ford, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this work the authors simulate permeation of gases and cations in solid models using molecular mechanics and a dual control volume grand canonical molecular dynamics technique. The molecular sieving nature of microporous zeolites are discussed and compared with that for amorphous silica made by sol-gel methods. One mesoporous and one microporous membrane model are tested with Lennard-Jones gases corresponding to He, H{sub 2}, Ar and CH{sub 4}. The mesoporous membrane model clearly follows a Knudsen diffusion mechanism, while the microporous model having a hard-sphere cutoff pore diameter of {approximately}3.4 {angstrom} demonstrates molecular sieving of the methane ({sigma} = 3.8 {angstrom}) but anomalous behavior for Ar ({sigma} = 3.4 {angstrom}). Preliminary results of Ca{sup +} diffusion in calcite and He/H{sub 2} diffusion in polyisobutylene are also presented.

  2. Molecular Mechanism of Allosteric Communication in Hsp70 Revealed by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappori, Federica; Merelli, Ivan; Colombo, Giorgio; Milanesi, Luciano; Morra, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary Allostery, or the capability of proteins to respond to ligand binding events with a variation in structure or dynamics at a distant site, is a common feature for biomolecular function and regulation in a large number of proteins. Intra-protein connections and inter-residue coordinations underlie allosteric mechanisms and react to binding primarily through a finely tuned modulation of motions and structures at the microscopic scale. Hence, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations...

  3. A stochastic phase-field model determined from molecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    von Schwerin, Erik

    2010-03-17

    The dynamics of dendritic growth of a crystal in an undercooled melt is determined by macroscopic diffusion-convection of heat and by capillary forces acting on the nanometer scale of the solid-liquid interface width. Its modelling is useful for instance in processing techniques based on casting. The phase-field method is widely used to study evolution of such microstructural phase transformations on a continuum level; it couples the energy equation to a phenomenological Allen-Cahn/Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling the dynamics of an order parameter determining the solid and liquid phases, including also stochastic fluctuations to obtain the qualitatively correct result of dendritic side branching. This work presents a method to determine stochastic phase-field models from atomistic formulations by coarse-graining molecular dynamics. It has three steps: (1) a precise quantitative atomistic definition of the phase-field variable, based on the local potential energy; (2) derivation of its coarse-grained dynamics model, from microscopic Smoluchowski molecular dynamics (that is Brownian or over damped Langevin dynamics); and (3) numerical computation of the coarse-grained model functions. The coarse-grained model approximates Gibbs ensemble averages of the atomistic phase-field, by choosing coarse-grained drift and diffusion functions that minimize the approximation error of observables in this ensemble average. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2010.

  4. Molecular dynamics analysis on impact behavior of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifoori, Sajjad, E-mail: sajjad.seifoori@vru.ac.ir

    2015-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present an analytical solution of impact based on two degree of freedom model. • The accuracy is verified by Molecular dynamics simulations. • The effects of the small-size effects on the dynamic deflections are investigated. • The relative motion is also accounted that is due to local indentation. - Abstract: Dynamic analysis of impact of a nanoparticle on carbon nanotubes is investigated based on two degree of freedom model. The accuracy and stability of the present methods are verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The effect of different types of boundary condition on the maximum dynamic deflections is studied for zigzag and armchair SWCNTs with various aspect ratios (length/diameter). Besides, the influences of velocity of impactor on the dynamic deflections are studied. It is shown that the dynamic behavior on the armchair and zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes are almost similar. Finally, by making use of the above MD simulation and theoretical results some insight has been obtained about the dynamic characteristics of the impact problems of nanobeam structures. Nonlocal Timoshenko beam models TBT2 should be employed for an accurate prediction of the dynamic deflection rather than nonlocal Euler–Bernoulli beam models EBT2 which ignores the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia that is especially significant for short beams. The results from nonlocal EBT2 and TBT2 models demonstrated good agreement with MD simulation. The EBT2 and TBT2 models also account for the relative motion between the nanoparticle and the nanobeam that is due to local indentation as can be seen in MD simulation.

  5. Molecular dynamics analysis on impact behavior of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present an analytical solution of impact based on two degree of freedom model. • The accuracy is verified by Molecular dynamics simulations. • The effects of the small-size effects on the dynamic deflections are investigated. • The relative motion is also accounted that is due to local indentation. - Abstract: Dynamic analysis of impact of a nanoparticle on carbon nanotubes is investigated based on two degree of freedom model. The accuracy and stability of the present methods are verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The effect of different types of boundary condition on the maximum dynamic deflections is studied for zigzag and armchair SWCNTs with various aspect ratios (length/diameter). Besides, the influences of velocity of impactor on the dynamic deflections are studied. It is shown that the dynamic behavior on the armchair and zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes are almost similar. Finally, by making use of the above MD simulation and theoretical results some insight has been obtained about the dynamic characteristics of the impact problems of nanobeam structures. Nonlocal Timoshenko beam models TBT2 should be employed for an accurate prediction of the dynamic deflection rather than nonlocal Euler–Bernoulli beam models EBT2 which ignores the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia that is especially significant for short beams. The results from nonlocal EBT2 and TBT2 models demonstrated good agreement with MD simulation. The EBT2 and TBT2 models also account for the relative motion between the nanoparticle and the nanobeam that is due to local indentation as can be seen in MD simulation

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation: A tool for exploration and discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, Dennis C.

    2009-03-01

    The exploratory and didactic aspects of science both benefit from the ever-growing role played by computer simulation. One particularly important simulational approach is the molecular dynamics method, used for studying the nature of matter from the molecular to much larger scales. The effectiveness of molecular dynamics can be enhanced considerably by employing visualization and interactivity during the course of the computation and afterwards, allowing the modeler not only to observe the detailed behavior of the systems simulated in different ways, but also to steer the computations in alternative directions by manipulating parameters that govern the actual behavior. This facilitates the creation of potentially rich simulational environments for examining a multitude of complex phenomena, as well as offering an opportunity for enriching the learning process. A series of relatively advanced examples involving molecular dynamics will be used to demonstrate the value of this approach, in particular, atomistic simulations of spontaneously emergent structured fluid flows (the classic Rayleigh--B'enard and Taylor--Couette problems), supramolecular self-assembly of highly symmetric shell structures (involved in the formation of viral capsids), and that most counterintuitive of phenomena, granular segregation (e.g., axial and radial separation in a rotating cylinder).

  7. Combining Coarse-Grained Protein Models with Replica-Exchange All-Atom Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wabik, Jacek; Gront, Dominik; Kouza, Maksim; Kolinski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We describe a combination of all-atom simulations with CABS, a well-established coarse-grained protein modeling tool, into a single multiscale protocol. The simulation method has been tested on the C-terminal beta hairpin of protein G, a model system of protein folding. After reconstructing atomistic details, conformations derived from the CABS simulation were subjected to replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations with OPLS-AA and AMBER99sb force fields in explicit solvent. Such a combination accelerates system convergence several times in comparison with all-atom simulations starting from the extended chain conformation, demonstrated by the analysis of melting curves, the number of native-like conformations as a function of time and secondary structure propagation. The results strongly suggest that the proposed multiscale method could be an efficient and accurate tool for high-resolution studies of protein folding dynamics in larger systems.

  8. Orbital free molecular dynamics; Approche sans orbitale des plasmas denses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, F

    2007-08-15

    The microscopic properties of hot and dense plasmas stay a field essentially studied thanks to classical theories like the One Component Plasma, models which rely on free parameters, particularly ionization. In order to investigate these systems, we have used, in this PhD work, a semi-classical model, without free parameters, that is based on coupling consistently classical molecular dynamics for the nuclei and orbital free density functional theory for the electrons. The electronic fluid is represented by a free energy entirely determined by the local density. This approximation was validated by a comparison with an ab initio technique, quantum molecular dynamics. This one is identical to the previous except for the description of the free energy that depends on a quantum-independent-particle model. Orbital free molecular dynamics was then used to compute equation of state of boron and iron plasmas in the hot and dense regime. Furthermore, comparisons with classical theories were performed on structural and dynamical properties. Finally, equation of state and transport coefficients mixing laws were studied by direct simulation of a plasma composed of deuterium and copper. (author)

  9. A molecular dynamics study of polymer/graphene interfacial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissanou, Anastassia N.; Harmandaris, Vagelis [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Crete, GR-71409, Heraklion, Crete, Greece and Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics (IACM), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), GR-71110, Heraklion, Cret (Greece)

    2014-05-15

    Graphene based polymer nanocomposites are hybrid materials with a very broad range of technological applications. In this work, we study three hybrid polymer/graphene interfacial systems (polystyrene/graphene, poly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene and polyethylene/graphene) through detailed atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Density profiles, structural characteristics and mobility aspects are being examined at the molecular level for all model systems. In addition, we compare the properties of the hybrid systems to the properties of the corresponding bulk ones, as well as to theoretical predictions.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of diffusion mechanisms in NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soule De Bas, B.; Farkas, D

    2003-03-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the diffusion process in ordered B2 NiAl at high temperature were performed using an embedded atom interatomic potential. Diffusion occurs through a variety of cyclic mechanisms that accomplish the motion of the vacancy through nearest neighbor jumps restoring order to the alloy at the end of the cycle. The traditionally postulated six-jump cycle is only one of the various cycles observed and some of these are quite complex. A detailed sequential analysis of the observed six-jump cycles was performed and the results are analyzed in terms of the activation energies for individual jumps calculated using molecular statics simulations.

  11. Rarefied Gas Flow in Rough Microchannels by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹炳阳; 陈民; 过增元

    2004-01-01

    The molecular dynamics simulation method is applied to investigate the rarefied gas flow in a submicron channel with surface roughness which is modelled by an array of triangle modules. The boundary conditions are found to be determined not only by the Knudsen number but also the roughness, which implies that the breakdown of the Maxwell slip model under the conditions that the surface roughness is comparable to the molecular mean free path. The effects of the rarefaction and the surface roughness on the boundary conditions and the flow characteristics are strongly coupled. The flow friction increases with increasing roughness and with decreasing Knudsen number.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of liquid-vapor surface tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德; ZENG; Danling; 等

    2002-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation model is established based on the well-known Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential function to determine the surface tension of a Lennard-Jones liquid-vapor interface.The simulation is carried out with argon as the working fluid of a given molecular number at different temperature and different truncated radius.It is found that the surface tension of a Lennard-Jones fluid is likely to be bigger for a bigger truncated radius,and tends to be constant after the truncated radius increased to a certain value.It is also found that the surface tension becomes smaller as the temperature increases.

  13. Chemical Dynamics, Molecular Energetics, and Kinetics at the Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-03-14

    Scientists at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley are continuously reinventing synchrotron investigations of physical chemistry and chemical physics with vacuum ultraviolet light. One of the unique aspects of a synchrotron for chemical physics research is the widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet light that permits threshold ionization of large molecules with minimal fragmentation. This provides novel opportunities to assess molecular energetics and reaction mechanisms, even beyond simple gas phase molecules. In this perspective, significant new directions utilizing the capabilities at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline are presented, along with an outlook for future synchrotron and free electron laser science in chemical dynamics. Among the established and emerging fields of investigations are cluster and biological molecule spectroscopy and structure, combustion flame chemistry mechanisms, radical kinetics and product isomer dynamics, aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, planetary and interstellar chemistry, and secondary neutral ion-beam desorption imaging of biological matter and materials chemistry.

  14. Accelerating molecular simulations of proteins using Bayesian inference on weak information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alberto; MacCallum, Justin L.; Dill, Ken A.

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of protein molecules are too computationally expensive to predict most native structures from amino acid sequences. Here, we integrate “weak” external knowledge into folding simulations to predict protein structures, given their sequence. For example, we instruct the computer “to form a hydrophobic core,” “to form good secondary structures,” or “to seek a compact state.” This kind of information has been too combinatoric, nonspecific, and vague to help guide MD simulations before. Within atomistic replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD), we develop a statistical mechanical framework, modeling using limited data with coarse physical insight(s) (MELD + CPI), for harnessing weak information. As a test, we apply MELD + CPI to predict the native structures of 20 small proteins. MELD + CPI samples to within less than 3.2 Å from native for all 20 and correctly chooses the native structures (<4 Å) for 15 of them, including ubiquitin, a millisecond folder. MELD + CPI is up to five orders of magnitude faster than brute-force MD, satisfies detailed balance, and should scale well to larger proteins. MELD + CPI may be useful where physics-based simulations are needed to study protein mechanisms and populations and where we have some heuristic or coarse physical knowledge about states of interest. PMID:26351667

  15. A Series of Molecular Dynamics and Homology Modeling Computer Labs for an Undergraduate Molecular Modeling Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Donald E.; Guayasamin, Ryann C.; Kieffer, Madeleine E.

    2010-01-01

    As computational modeling plays an increasingly central role in biochemical research, it is important to provide students with exposure to common modeling methods in their undergraduate curriculum. This article describes a series of computer labs designed to introduce undergraduate students to energy minimization, molecular dynamics simulations,…

  16. Evolution on neutral networks accelerates the ticking rate of the molecular clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrubia, Susanna; Cuesta, José A

    2015-01-01

    Large sets of genotypes give rise to the same phenotype, because phenotypic expression is highly redundant. Accordingly, a population can accept mutations without altering its phenotype, as long as the genotype mutates into another one on the same set. By linking every pair of genotypes that are mutually accessible through mutation, genotypes organize themselves into neutral networks (NNs). These networks are known to be heterogeneous and assortative, and these properties affect the evolutionary dynamics of the population. By studying the dynamics of populations on NNs with arbitrary topology, we analyse the effect of assortativity, of NN (phenotype) fitness and of network size. We find that the probability that the population leaves the network is smaller the longer the time spent on it. This progressive 'phenotypic entrapment' entails a systematic increase in the overdispersion of the process with time and an acceleration in the fixation rate of neutral mutations. We also quantify the variation of these effects with the size of the phenotype and with its fitness relative to that of neighbouring alternatives.

  17. Study on the Characteristics of Gas Molecular Mean Free Pathin Nanopores by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents studies on the characteristics of gas molecular mean freepath in nanopores by molecular dynamics simulation. Our study results indicate that themean free path of all molecules in nanopores depend on both the radius of the nanoporeand the gas-solid interaction strength. Besides mean free path of all molecules in thenanopore, this paper highlights the gas molecular mean free path at different positions ofthe nanopore and the anisotropy of the gas molecular mean free path at nanopores. Themolecular mean free path varies with the molecule’s distance from the center of thenanopore. The least value of the mean free path occurs at the wall surface of the nanopore.The present paper found that the gas molecular mean free path is anisotropic when gas isconfined in nanopores. The radial gas molecular mean free path is much smaller than themean free path including all molecular collisions occuring in three directions. Our studyresults also indicate that when gas is confined in nanopores the gas molecule number densitydoes not affect the gas molecular mean free path in the same way as it does for the gas inunbounded space. These study results may bring new insights into understanding the gasflow’s characteristic at nanoscale.

  18. Microscopic study of nuclear 'pasta' by quantum molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure of cold dense matter at subnuclear densities is investigated by quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. We succeeded in showing that the phases with slab-like and rod-like nuclei etc. and be formed dynamically from hot uniform nuclear matter without any assumptions on nuclear shape. We also observe intermediate phases, which has complicated nuclear shapes. Geometrical structures of matter are analyzed with Minkowski functionals, and it is found out that intermediate phases can be characterized as ones with negative Euler characteristic. Our result suggests the existence of these kinds of phases in addition to the simple 'pasta' phases in neutron star crusts. (author)

  19. Molecular dynamical simulations of melting behaviors of metal clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyar Hamid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The melting behaviors of metal clusters are studied in a wide range by molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated results show that there are fluctuations in the heat capacity curves of some metal clusters due to the strong structural competition; For the 13-, 55- and 147-atom clusters, variations of the melting points with atomic number are almost the same; It is found that for different metal clusters the dynamical stabilities of the octahedral structures can be inferred in general by a criterion proposed earlier by F. Baletto et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 116 3856 (2002] for the statically stable structures.

  20. Finite Temperature Quasicontinuum: Molecular Dynamics without all the Atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, L; Tadmor, E B; Miller, R E; Phillips, R

    2005-02-02

    Using a combination of statistical mechanics and finite-element interpolation, the authors develop a coarse-grained (CG) alternative to molecular dynamics (MD) for crystalline solids at constant temperature. The new approach is significantly more efficient than MD and generalizes earlier work on the quasi-continuum method. The method is validated by recovering equilibrium properties of single crystal Ni as a function of temperature. CG dynamical simulations of nanoindentation reveal a strong dependence on temperature of the critical stress to nucleate dislocations under the indenter.

  1. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol

    CERN Document Server

    Handgraaf, J W; Meijer, E J; Handgraaf, Jan-Willem; Erp, Titus S. van; Meijer, Evert Jan

    2003-01-01

    We present a density-functional theory based molecular-dynamics study of the structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid methanol under ambient conditions. The calculated radial distribution functions involving the oxygen and hydroxyl hydrogen show a pronounced hydrogen bonding and compare well with recent neutron diffraction data, except for an underestimate of the oxygen-oxygen correlation. We observe that, in line with infrared spectroscopic data, the hydroxyl stretching mode is significantly red-shifted in the liquid. A substantial enhancement of the dipole moment is accompanied by significant fluctuations due to thermal motion. Our results provide valuable data for improvement of empirical potentials.

  2. Dynamics of double layers, ion acceleration, and heat flux suppression during solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of flare-heated electrons in the corona typically suggest confinement of electrons. The confinement mechanism, however, remains unclear. The transport of coronal hot electrons into ambient plasma was recently investigated by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Electron transport was significantly suppressed by the formation of a highly localized, nonlinear electrostatic potential in the form of a double layer (DL). In this work large-scale PIC simulations are performed to explore the dynamics of DLs in larger systems where, instead of a single DL, multiple DLs are generated. The primary DL accelerates return current electrons, resulting in high velocity electron beams that interact with ambient ions. This forms a Buneman unstable system that spawns more DLs. Trapping of heated return current electrons between multiple DLs strongly suppresses electron transport. DLs also accelerate ambient ions and produce strong ion flows over an extended region. This clarifies the mechanism by which hot electrons in the corona couple to and accelerate ions to form the solar wind. These new dynamics in larger systems reveal a more likely picture of DL development and their impact on the ambient plasma in the solar corona. They are applicable to the preparation for in situ coronal space missions like the Solar Probe Plus.

  3. Dynamics of double layers, ion acceleration, and heat flux suppression during solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. C. [Current address: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. (United States); Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M., E-mail: takchu-li@uiowa.edu [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    Observations of flare-heated electrons in the corona typically suggest confinement of electrons. The confinement mechanism, however, remains unclear. The transport of coronal hot electrons into ambient plasma was recently investigated by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Electron transport was significantly suppressed by the formation of a highly localized, nonlinear electrostatic potential in the form of a double layer (DL). In this work large-scale PIC simulations are performed to explore the dynamics of DLs in larger systems where, instead of a single DL, multiple DLs are generated. The primary DL accelerates return current electrons, resulting in high velocity electron beams that interact with ambient ions. This forms a Buneman unstable system that spawns more DLs. Trapping of heated return current electrons between multiple DLs strongly suppresses electron transport. DLs also accelerate ambient ions and produce strong ion flows over an extended region. This clarifies the mechanism by which hot electrons in the corona couple to and accelerate ions to form the solar wind. These new dynamics in larger systems reveal a more likely picture of DL development and their impact on the ambient plasma in the solar corona. They are applicable to the preparation for in situ coronal space missions like the Solar Probe Plus.

  4. Identification of electrically stimulated quadriceps - lower leg dynamics - the use of accelerometers for estimating knee joint acceleration and quadriceps torque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Peter H.; Tijsmans, Roel; Franken, Henry M.; Boom, Herman B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Knee joiiit acceleration aid quadriceps torque call be estbated from the signals of two tangentially yliiced accelerometers. This euables the ideutificatiou of qundriceps dynamics, loaded with a freely swiugiug lower leg, during electrical stimulation.

  5. Optical spectra and lattice dynamics of molecular crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhizhin, GN

    1995-01-01

    The current volume is a single topic volume on the optical spectra and lattice dynamics of molecular crystals. The book is divided into two parts. Part I covers both the theoretical and experimental investigations of organic crystals. Part II deals with the investigation of the structure, phase transitions and reorientational motion of molecules in organic crystals. In addition appendices are given which provide the parameters for the calculation of the lattice dynamics of molecular crystals, procedures for the calculation of frequency eigenvectors of utilizing computers, and the frequencies and eigenvectors of lattice modes for several organic crystals. Quite a large amount of Russian literature is cited, some of which has previously not been available to scientists in the West.

  6. Kinetic distance and kinetic maps from molecular dynamics simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Noe, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing macromolecular kinetics from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations requires a distance metric that can distinguish slowly-interconverting states. Here we build upon diffusion map theory and define a kinetic distance for irreducible Markov processes that quantifies how slowly molecular conformations interconvert. The kinetic distance can be computed given a model that approximates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors (reaction coordinates) of the MD Markov operator. Here we employ the time-lagged independent component analysis (TICA). The TICA components can be scaled to provide a kinetic map in which the Euclidean distance corresponds to the kinetic distance. As a result, the question of how many TICA dimensions should be kept in a dimensionality reduction approach becomes obsolete, and one parameter less needs to be specified in the kinetic model construction. We demonstrate the approach using TICA and Markov state model (MSM) analyses for illustrative models, protein conformation dynamics in bovine...

  7. Shock induced phase transition of water: Molecular dynamics investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neogi, Anupam, E-mail: anupamneogi@atdc.iitkgp.ernet.in [Advanced Technology Development Center, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Mitra, Nilanjan, E-mail: nilanjan@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out using numerous force potentials to investigate the shock induced phenomenon of pure bulk liquid water. Partial phase transition was observed at single shock velocity of 4.0 km/s without requirement of any external nucleators. Change in thermodynamic variables along with radial distribution function plots and spectral analysis revealed for the first time in the literature, within the context of molecular dynamic simulations, the thermodynamic pathway leading to formation of ice VII from liquid water on shock loading. The study also revealed information for the first time in the literature about the statistical time-frame after passage of shock in which ice VII formation can be observed and variations in degree of crystallinity of the sample over the entire simulation time of 100 ns.

  8. Molecular Modeling of Enzyme Dynamics Towards Understanding Solvent Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar

    ) in water and organic solvents. The effects of solvent on structural and dynamical enzyme properties are studied, and special attention is given to how enzyme properties in organic solvents are affected by the hydration level, which is shown to be related to the water activity. In experimental studies......This thesis describes the development of a molecular simulation methodology to study properties of enzymes in non-aqueous media at fixed thermodynamic water activities. The methodology is applied in a molecular dynamics study of the industrially important enzyme Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB...... of enzyme kinetics in non-aqueous media, it has been a fruitful approach to fix the enzyme hydration level by controlling the water activity of the medium. In this work, a protocol is therefore developed for determining the water activity in non-aqueous protein simulations. The method relies on determining...

  9. Fermionic molecular dynamics for ground states and collisions of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antisymmetric many-body trial state which describes a system of interacting fermions is parametrized in terms of localized wave packets. The equations of motion are derived from the time-dependent quantum variational principle. The resulting Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) equations include a wide range of semi-quantal to classical physics extending from deformed Hartree-Fock theory to Newtonian molecular dynamics. Conservation laws are discussed in connection with the choice of the trial state. The model is applied to heavy-ion collisions with which its basic features are illustrated. The results show a great variety of phenomena including deeply inelastic collisions, fusion, incomplete fusion, fragmentation, neck emission, promptly emitted nucleons and evaporation. (orig.)

  10. Coherent Amplification of Ultrafast Molecular Dynamics in an Optical Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Igal; Pe'er, Avi

    2016-02-19

    Optical oscillators present a powerful optimization mechanism. The inherent competition for the gain resources between possible modes of oscillation entails the prevalence of the most efficient single mode. We harness this "ultrafast" coherent feedback to optimize an optical field in time, and show that, when an optical oscillator based on a molecular gain medium is synchronously pumped by ultrashort pulses, a temporally coherent multimode field can develop that optimally dumps a general, dynamically evolving vibrational wave packet, into a single vibrational target state. Measuring the emitted field opens a new window to visualization and control of fast molecular dynamics. The realization of such a coherent oscillator with hot alkali dimers appears within experimental reach.

  11. Tensor-optimized antisymmetrized molecular dynamics in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Myo, Takayuki; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Suhara, Tadahiro

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new formalism to treat nuclear many-body systems using bare nucleon-nucleon interaction. It has become evident that the tensor interaction plays important role in nuclear many-body systems due to the role of the pion in strongly interacting system. We take the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) as a basic framework and add a tensor correlation operator acting on the AMD wave function using the concept of the tensor-optimized shell model (TOSM). We demonstrate a systematical and straightforward formulation utilizing the Gaussian integration and differentiation method and the antisymmetrization technique to calculate all the matrix elements of the many-body Hamiltonian. We can include the three-body interaction naturally and calculate the matrix elements systematically in the progressive order of the tensor correlation operator. We call the new formalism "tensor-optimized antisymmetrized molecular dynamics".

  12. Surface hopping methodology in laser-driven molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fiedlschuster, T; Gross, E K U; Schmidt, R

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical justification of the empirical surface hopping method for the laser-driven molecular dynamics is given utilizing the formalism of the exact factorization of the molecular wavefunction [Abedi et al., PRL $\\textbf{105}$, 123002 (2010)] in its quantum-classical limit. Employing an exactly solvable $\\textrm H_2^{\\;+}$-like model system, it is shown that the deterministic classical nuclear motion on a single time-dependent surface in this approach describes the same physics as stochastic (hopping-induced) motion on several surfaces, provided Floquet surfaces are applied. Both quantum-classical methods do describe reasonably well the exact nuclear wavepacket dynamics for extremely different dissociation scenarios. Hopping schemes using Born-Oppenheimer surfaces or instantaneous Born-Oppenheimer surfaces fail completely.

  13. An implicit divalent counterion force field for RNA molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Paul S.; Mak, Chi H.

    2016-03-01

    How to properly account for polyvalent counterions in a molecular dynamics simulation of polyelectrolytes such as nucleic acids remains an open question. Not only do counterions such as Mg2+ screen electrostatic interactions, they also produce attractive intrachain interactions that stabilize secondary and tertiary structures. Here, we show how a simple force field derived from a recently reported implicit counterion model can be integrated into a molecular dynamics simulation for RNAs to realistically reproduce key structural details of both single-stranded and base-paired RNA constructs. This divalent counterion model is computationally efficient. It works with existing atomistic force fields, or coarse-grained models may be tuned to work with it. We provide optimized parameters for a coarse-grained RNA model that takes advantage of this new counterion force field. Using the new model, we illustrate how the structural flexibility of RNA two-way junctions is modified under different salt conditions.

  14. Shock induced phase transition of water: Molecular dynamics investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out using numerous force potentials to investigate the shock induced phenomenon of pure bulk liquid water. Partial phase transition was observed at single shock velocity of 4.0 km/s without requirement of any external nucleators. Change in thermodynamic variables along with radial distribution function plots and spectral analysis revealed for the first time in the literature, within the context of molecular dynamic simulations, the thermodynamic pathway leading to formation of ice VII from liquid water on shock loading. The study also revealed information for the first time in the literature about the statistical time-frame after passage of shock in which ice VII formation can be observed and variations in degree of crystallinity of the sample over the entire simulation time of 100 ns.

  15. Shock induced phase transition of water: Molecular dynamics investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out using numerous force potentials to investigate the shock induced phenomenon of pure bulk liquid water. Partial phase transition was observed at single shock velocity of 4.0 km/s without requirement of any external nucleators. Change in thermodynamic variables along with radial distribution function plots and spectral analysis revealed for the first time in the literature, within the context of molecular dynamic simulations, the thermodynamic pathway leading to formation of ice VII from liquid water on shock loading. The study also revealed information for the first time in the literature about the statistical time-frame after passage of shock in which ice VII formation can be observed and variations in degree of crystallinity of the sample over the entire simulation time of 100 ns

  16. Serine Proteases an Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study

    CERN Document Server

    De Santis, L

    1999-01-01

    In serine proteases (SP's), the H-bond between His-57 and Asp-102, and that between Gly-193 and the transition state intermediate play a crucial role for enzymatic function. To shed light on the nature of these interactions, we have carried out ab initio molecular dynamics simulations on complexes representing adducts between the reaction intermediate and elastase (one protein belonging to the SP family). Our calculations indicate the presence of a low--barrier H-bond between His-57 and Asp-102, in complete agreement with NMR experiments on enzyme--transition state analog complexes. Comparison with an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on a model of the substrate--enzyme adduct indicates that the Gly-193--induced strong stabilization of the intermediate is accomplished by charge/dipole interactions and not by H-bonding as previously suggested. Inclusion of the protein electric field in the calculations does not affect significantly the charge distribution.

  17. Simulational nanoengineering: Molecular dynamics implementation of an atomistic Stirling engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, D C

    2009-04-01

    A nanoscale-sized Stirling engine with an atomistic working fluid has been modeled using molecular dynamics simulation. The design includes heat exchangers based on thermostats, pistons attached to a flywheel under load, and a regenerator. Key aspects of the behavior, including the time-dependent flows, are described. The model is shown to be capable of stable operation while producing net work at a moderate level of efficiency. PMID:19518394

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of melittin in a dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernèche, S; Nina, M; Roux, B

    1998-01-01

    Molecular dynamics trajectories of melittin in an explicit dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer are generated to study the details of lipid-protein interactions at the microscopic level. Melittin, a small amphipathic peptide found in bee venom, is known to have a pronounced effect on the lysis of membranes. The peptide is initially set parallel to the membrane-solution interfacial region in an alpha-helical conformation with unprotonated N-terminus. Solid-state nuclear magnetic reso...

  19. Understanding disordered and membrane protein recognition by molecular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, Nathaniel H., 1983-

    2015-01-01

    This thesis has been about the use of a simulation technique, known as molecular dynamics simulations, to study biophysics in proteins that have historically been difficult to study with other methods. We have studied numerous systems, namely binding to the membrane proteins Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1R), and folding in the disordered protein kinase inducible domain (KID). In each case we have been able to analyze processes and uncover be...

  20. Quantum tunneling splittings from path-integral molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátyus, Edit; Wales, David J; Althorpe, Stuart C

    2016-03-21

    We illustrate how path-integral molecular dynamics can be used to calculate ground-state tunnelling splittings in molecules or clusters. The method obtains the splittings from ratios of density matrix elements between the degenerate wells connected by the tunnelling. We propose a simple thermodynamic integration scheme for evaluating these elements. Numerical tests on fully dimensional malonaldehyde yield tunnelling splittings in good overall agreement with the results of diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. PMID:27004863

  1. Simulational nanoengineering: Molecular dynamics implementation of an atomistic Stirling engine

    CERN Document Server

    Rapaport, D C

    2009-01-01

    A nanoscale-sized Stirling engine with an atomistic working fluid has been modeled using molecular dynamics simulation. The design includes heat exchangers based on thermostats, pistons attached to a flywheel under load, and a regenerator. Key aspects of the behavior, including the time-dependent flows, are described. The model is shown to be capable of stable operation while producing net work at a moderate level of efficiency.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation study of polyelectrolyte adsorption on cellulose surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Biermann, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The adsorption of two polyelectrolyte ((carboxy methyl) cellulose and poly(acrylate) in water on crystalline cellulose is studied in this work. The multi-component problem has been splitted up into simulations of solutions of the polyelectrolyte (polyanions including sodium counterions) in water, into simulations of the interface of crystalline cellulose towards water. Finally polyelectrolyte-cellulose systems were studied. Molecular dynamics simulations of diluted (_ 2:5 weight percent) aque...

  3. Hydration of polyelectrolytes studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Biermann, Oliver; Haedicke, Erich; Koltzenburg, Sebastian; Seufert, Michael; Mueller-Plathe, Florian

    2001-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of diluted (~2.5 weight percent) aqueous solutions of two polyelectrolytes, namely sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium poly(acrylate) (PAA) have been performed. Water and counterions were taken into account explicitly. For CMC the substitution pattern and starting conformation is all-important. Two simulations of CMC oligomers resulted in different structures: One molecule takes a stretched conformation, while the second one keeps a globule-like, to...

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline nickel: structure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swygenhoven, H. van [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Caro, A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche

    1997-09-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations of low temperature elastic and plastic deformation of Ni nanophase samples (3-7 nm) are performed. The samples are polycrystals nucleated from different seeds, with random locations and orientations. Bulk and Young`s modulus, onset of plastic deformation and mechanism responsible for the plastic behaviour are studied and compared with the behaviour of coarse grained samples. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of nanoindentation on nanocomposite pearlite

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffarian, Hadi; Taheri, Ali Karimi; Ryu, Seunghwa; Kang, Keonwook

    2016-01-01

    We carry out molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation to investigate the effect of cementite size and temperature on the deformation behavior of nanocomposite pearlite composed of alternating ferrite and cementite layers. We find that, instead of the coherent transmission, dislocation propagates by forming a widespread plastic deformation in cementite layer. We also show that increasing temperature enhances the distribution of plastic strain in the ferrite layer, which reduces the st...

  6. Efficient stochastic thermostatting of path integral molecular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ceriotti, Michele; Parrinello, Michele; Markland, Thomas E.; Manolopoulos, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) method provides a convenient way to compute the quantum mechanical structural and thermodynamic properties of condensed phase systems at the expense of introducing an additional set of high-frequency normal modes on top of the physical vibrations of the system. Efficiently sampling such a wide range of frequencies provides a considerable thermostatting challenge. Here we introduce a simple stochastic path integral Langevin equation (PILE) thermostat...

  7. Molecular dynamics in electrospun amorphous plasticized polylactide fibers

    OpenAIRE

    MONNIER, X; DELPOUVE, N; BASSON, N; GUINAULT, A; DOMENEK, S; Saiter, A; MALLON, P.E; Dargent, E

    2015-01-01

    The molecular dynamics in the amorphous phase of electrospun fibers of polylactide (PLA) has been investigated using the cooperative rearranging region concept. An unusual and significant increase of the cooperativity length at the glass transition induced by the electrospinning has been observed. This behavior is attributed to the singularity of the amorphous phase organization. Electrospun PLA fibers rearrange in a pre-ordered metastable state which is characterized by highly oriented but n...

  8. Viscosity in molecular dynamics with periodic boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Viscardy, S.; Gaspard, P.

    2003-01-01

    We report a study of viscosity by the method of Helfand moment in systems with periodic boundary conditions. We propose a new definition of Helfand moment which takes into account the minimum image convention used in molecular dynamics with periodic boundary conditions. Our Helfand-moment method is equivalent to the method based on the Green-Kubo formula and is not affected by ambiguities due to the periodic boundary conditions. Moreover, in hard-ball systems, our method is equivalent to the ...

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Shear Moduli for Coulomb Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, C J

    2008-01-01

    Torsional (shear) oscillations of neutron stars may have been observed in quasiperiodic oscillations of Magnetar Giant Flares. The frequencies of these modes depend on the shear modulus of neutron star crust. We calculate the shear modulus of Coulomb crystals from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that electron screening reduces the shear modulus by about 10% compared to previous Ogata et al. results. Our MD simulations can be extended to calculate the effects of impurities and or polycrystalline structures on the shear modulus.

  10. Thermal conductivity of ZnTe investigated by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal conductivity of ZnTe with zinc-blende structure has been computed by equilibrium molecular dynamics method based on Green-Kubo formalism. A Tersoff's potential is adopted in the simulation to model the atomic interactions. The calculations are performed as a function of temperature up to 800 K. The calculated thermal conductivities are in agreement with the experimental values between 150 K and 300 K, while the results above the room temperature are comparable with the Slack's equation.

  11. Chemical Dynamics, Molecular Energetics, and Kinetics at the Synchrotron

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Scientists at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley are continuously reinventing synchrotron investigations of physical chemistry and chemical physics with vacuum ultraviolet light. One of the unique aspects of a synchrotron for chemical physics research is the widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet light that permits threshold ionization of large molecules with minimal fragmentation. This provides novel opportunities to assess molecular energetics and reaction me...

  12. Spin dynamics of an ultra-small nanoscale molecular magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciftja Orion

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe present mathematical transformations which allow us to calculate the spin dynamics of an ultra-small nanoscale molecular magnet consisting of a dimer system of classical (high Heisenberg spins. We derive exact analytic expressions (in integral form for the time-dependent spin autocorrelation function and several other quantities. The properties of the time-dependent spin autocorrelation function in terms of various coupling parameters and temperature are discussed in detail.

  13. Young Modulus of Crystalline Polyethylene from ab Initio Molecular Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hageman, J.C.L.; Meier, Robert J.; M. Heinemann; de Groot, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The Young modulus for crystalline polyethylene is calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics based on density functional theory in the local density approximation (DFT-LDA). This modulus, which can be seen as the ultimate value for the Young modulus of polyethylene fibers, is found to be 334 GPa. For the first time the modulus is evaluated ab initio (no bias from experimental data) with demonstrated basis set convergence.

  14. Molecular dynamics modeling of a nanomaterials-water surface interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat Pishkenari, Hossein; Keramati, Ramtin; Abdi, Ahmad; Minary-Jolandan, Majid

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we study the formation of nanomeniscus around a nanoneedle using molecular dynamics simulation approach. The results reveal three distinct phases in the time-evolution of meniscus before equilibrium according to the contact angle, meniscus height, and potential energy. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the nanoneedle diameter and nanomeniscus characteristics. The results have applications in various fields such as scanning probe microscopy and rheological measurements.

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Myoglobin Collision with Low Energy Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei; ZHANG Feng-Shou; ZHOU Hong-Yu

    2007-01-01

    Collisions of a low energy heavy ion with a myoglobin in water are simulated by molecular dynamics model. The increase of total energy is very small. The mean squared fluctuation decreases at 300 K and increases at 250K.This is an important novel cooling effect that protects the protein from ion damage. The possible collision side effect is the change of tertiary structure that blocks the normal functions of the myogiobin.

  16. Molecular dynamics of a water jet from a carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasaki, Itsuo; Yonebayashi, Toru; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2009-04-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) can be viewed as a molecular nozzle. It has a cylindrical shape of atomistic regularity, and the diameter can be even less than 1 nm. We have conducted molecular-dynamics simulations of water jet from a (6,6) CNT that confines water in a form of single-file molecular chain. The results show that the water forms nanoscale clusters at the outlet and they are released intermittently. The jet breakup is dominated by the thermal fluctuations, which leads to the strong dependence on the temperature. The cluster size n decreases and the release frequency f increases at higher temperatures. The f roughly follows the reaction kinetics by the transition state theory. The speed of a cluster is proportional to the 1/sqrt[n] because of the central limit theorem. These properties make great contrast with the macroscopic liquid jets. PMID:19518333

  17. Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Buffalo Prion Protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to TSEs (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) (same as rabbits, horses and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (in humans prion diseases are (v)CJDs, GSS, FFI, and kulu etc). It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to prion diseases (as rabbits, dogs, horses). In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein, predominantly with alpha-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions, rich in beta-sheets. This paper studies the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo prion protein, in order to find out the reason why buffaloes are resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the Nuclear Magnetic Resonanc...

  18. Ultrafast Molecular Dynamics probed by Vacuum Ultraviolet Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, James; Champenois, Elio; Shivaram, Niranjan; Wright, Travis; Yang, Chan-Shan; Falcone, Roger; Belkacem, Ali

    2014-05-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of the relaxation dynamics in small molecular systems (CO2 and C2H4) following ultraviolet (UV) photo-excitation. We probe these excitations through photoionization and velocity map imaging (VMI) spectroscopy. Vacuum and extreme ultraviolet (VUV/XUV) pump and probe pulses are created by exploiting strong-field high harmonic generation (HHG) from our state-of-the-art 30 mJ, 1 kHz laser system. Three dimensional photoelectron and photoion momentum images recorded with our VMI spectrometer reveal non-Born Oppenheimer dynamics in the vicinity of a conical intersection, and allow us track the state of the system as a function of time. We also present initial experiments with the goal of controlling the dynamics near a conical intersection using a strong-field IR pulse. Finally, we will show progress towards measurements of time-resolved molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions (TRMFPADs) by applying our VUV/XUV pulse sequence to an aligned molecular ensemble. Supported by Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences division of BES/DOE.

  19. Excitation dynamics and relaxation in a molecular heterodimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balevicius, V.; Gelzinis, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Avenue 9, build. 3, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Physics, Savanoriu Avenue 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Abramavicius, D. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Avenue 9, build. 3, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Mancal, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, CZ-121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Valkunas, L., E-mail: leonas.valkunas@ff.vu.lt [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Avenue 9, build. 3, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Physics, Savanoriu Avenue 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamics of excitation within a heterogenous molecular dimer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excited states can be swapped due to different reorganization energies of monomers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional excitonic basis becomes renormalized due to interaction with the bath. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relaxation is independent of mutual positioning of monomeric excited states. -- Abstract: The exciton dynamics in a molecular heterodimer is studied as a function of differences in excitation and reorganization energies, asymmetry in transition dipole moments and excited state lifetimes. The heterodimer is composed of two molecules modeled as two-level systems coupled by the resonance interaction. The system-bath coupling is taken into account as a modulating factor of the molecular excitation energy gap, while the relaxation to the ground state is treated phenomenologically. Comparison of the description of the excitation dynamics modeled using either the Redfield equations (secular and full forms) or the Hierarchical quantum master equation (HQME) is demonstrated and discussed. Possible role of the dimer as an excitation quenching center in photosynthesis self-regulation is discussed. It is concluded that the system-bath interaction rather than the excitonic effect determines the excitation quenching ability of such a dimer.

  20. Radiative damping and electron beam dynamics in plasma-based accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, P; Schroeder, C B; Shadwick, B A; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P

    2006-08-01

    The effects of radiation reaction on electron beam dynamics are studied in the context of plasma-based accelerators. Electrons accelerated in a plasma channel undergo transverse betatron oscillations due to strong focusing forces. These oscillations lead to emission by the electrons of synchrotron radiation, with a corresponding energy loss that affects the beam properties. An analytical model for the single particle orbits and beam moments including the classical radiation reaction force is derived and compared to the results of a particle transport code. Since the betatron amplitude depends on the initial transverse position of the electron, the resulting radiation can increase the relative energy spread of the beam to significant levels (e.g., several percent). This effect can be diminished by matching the beam into the channel, which could require micron sized beam radii for typical values of the beam emittance and plasma density.

  1. Radiative damping and electron beam dynamics in plasma-based accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, P.; Schroeder, C. B.; Shadwick, B. A.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2006-08-01

    The effects of radiation reaction on electron beam dynamics are studied in the context of plasma-based accelerators. Electrons accelerated in a plasma channel undergo transverse betatron oscillations due to strong focusing forces. These oscillations lead to emission by the electrons of synchrotron radiation, with a corresponding energy loss that affects the beam properties. An analytical model for the single particle orbits and beam moments including the classical radiation reaction force is derived and compared to the results of a particle transport code. Since the betatron amplitude depends on the initial transverse position of the electron, the resulting radiation can increase the relative energy spread of the beam to significant levels (e.g., several percent). This effect can be diminished by matching the beam into the channel, which could require micron sized beam radii for typical values of the beam emittance and plasma density.

  2. Electron-beam dynamics for an advanced flash-radiography accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-22

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in cell (PIC) codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup (BBU), image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and the resistive wall instability. Beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.

  3. Assessment of penetration of Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate into biological membranes by molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, N C F; Dos Santos, L; Carvalho, B G; Singh, P; Téllez Soto, C A; Azoia, N G; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Martin, A A; Favero, P P

    2016-08-01

    The present work, involves the simulation of the transport of a vitamin C derivative, Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate (ATI), through human skin by molecular dynamics. Percutaneous absorption of the ATI molecule through the infundibulum, an important route of absorption into the hair follicle of the human skin, has been modeled and compared with the stratum corneum membrane. The comparative study was done using molecular dynamics with Martini force field. In infundibulum, a single ATI molecule require more time to penetrate, and the data obtained suggested that a high concentration of ATI molecule accelerated the process of penetration. In conclusion, the ATI molecule was found to have more affinity towards the stratum corneum as compared with the infundibulum, and it followed a straight pathway to penetrate (until 600ns of simulation). In the infundibulum, it showed less affinity, more mobility and followed a lateral pathway. Thus, this work contributes to a better understanding of the different molecular interactions during percutaneous absorption of active molecules in these two different types of biological membranes. PMID:27289538

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of triclinic lysozyme in a crystal lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowski, Pawel A; Liu, Chunmei; Deckman, Jason; Case, David A

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of crystals can enlighten interpretation of experimental X-ray crystallography data and elucidate structural dynamics and heterogeneity in biomolecular crystals. Furthermore, because of the direct comparison against experimental data, they can inform assessment of molecular dynamics methods and force fields. We present microsecond scale results for triclinic hen egg-white lysozyme in a supercell consisting of 12 independent unit cells using four contemporary force fields (Amber ff99SB, ff14ipq, ff14SB, and CHARMM 36) in crystalline and solvated states (for ff14SB only). We find the crystal simulations consistent across multiple runs of the same force field and robust to various solvent equilibration schemes. However, convergence is slow compared with solvent simulations. All the tested force fields reproduce experimental structural and dynamic properties well, but Amber ff14SB maintains structure and reproduces fluctuations closest to the experimental model: its average backbone structure differs from the deposited structure by 0.37Å; by contrast, the average backbone structure in solution differs from the deposited by 0.65Å. All the simulations are affected by a small progressive deterioration of the crystal lattice, presumably due to imperfect modeling of hydrogen bonding and other crystal contact interactions; this artifact is smallest in ff14SB, with average lattice positions deviating by 0.20Å from ideal. Side-chain disorder is surprisingly low with fewer than 30% of the nonglycine or alanine residues exhibiting significantly populated alternate rotamers. Our results provide helpful insight into the methodology of biomolecular crystal simulations and indicate directions for future work to obtain more accurate energy models for molecular dynamics. PMID:26013419

  5. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall G. E.; Goncharov, V.

    2012-05-29

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  6. A flexible, grid-enabled web portal for GROMACS molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, M.; Wassenaar, T.A.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are becoming a standard part of workflows in structural biology. They are used for tasks as diverse as assessing molecular flexibility, probing conformational changes, assessing the impact of mutations, or gaining information about molecular interactions. However, perf

  7. A Flexible, Grid-Enabled Web Portal for GROMACS Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Marc; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A.; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are becoming a standard part of workflows in structural biology. They are used for tasks as diverse as assessing molecular flexibility, probing conformational changes, assessing the impact of mutations, or gaining information about molecular interactions. However, perf

  8. Molecular structure and elastic properties of thermotropic liquid crystals: integrated molecular dynamics--statistical mechanical theory vs molecular field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk Capar, M; Nar, A; Ferrarini, A; Frezza, E; Greco, C; Zakharov, A V; Vakulenko, A A

    2013-03-21

    The connection between the molecular structure of liquid crystals and their elastic properties, which control the director deformations relevant for electro-optic applications, remains a challenging objective for theories and computations. Here, we compare two methods that have been proposed to this purpose, both characterized by a detailed molecular level description. One is an integrated molecular dynamics-statistical mechanical approach, where the bulk elastic constants of nematics are calculated from the direct correlation function (DCFs) and the single molecule orientational distribution function [D. A. McQuarrie, Statistical Mechanics (Harper & Row, New York, 1973)]. The latter is obtained from atomistic molecular dynamics trajectories, together with the radial distribution function, from which the DCF is then determined by solving the Ornstein-Zernike equation. The other approach is based on a molecular field theory, where the potential of mean torque experienced by a mesogen in the liquid crystal phase is parameterized according to its molecular surface. In this case, the calculation of elastic constants is combined with the Monte Carlo sampling of single molecule conformations. Using these different approaches, but the same description, at the level of molecular geometry and torsional potentials, we have investigated the elastic properties of the nematic phase of two typical mesogens, 4'-n-pentyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl and 4'-n-heptyloxy-4-cyanobiphenyl. Both methods yield K3(bend) >K1 (splay) >K2 (twist), although there are some discrepancies in the average elastic constants and in their anisotropy. These are interpreted in terms of the different approximations and the different ways of accounting for the structural properties of molecules in the two approaches. In general, the results point to the role of the molecular shape, which is modulated by the conformational freedom and cannot be fully accounted for by a single descriptor such as the aspect ratio

  9. Correlation of chemical shifts predicted by molecular dynamics simulations for partially disordered proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Jerome M.; Erylimaz, Ertan; Cowburn, David, E-mail: cowburn@cowburnlab.org, E-mail: David.cowburn@einstein.yu.edu [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Biochemistry (United States)

    2015-01-15

    There has been a longstanding interest in being able to accurately predict NMR chemical shifts from structural data. Recent studies have focused on using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation data as input for improved prediction. Here we examine the accuracy of chemical shift prediction for intein systems, which have regions of intrinsic disorder. We find that using MD simulation data as input for chemical shift prediction does not consistently improve prediction accuracy over use of a static X-ray crystal structure. This appears to result from the complex conformational ensemble of the disordered protein segments. We show that using accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations improves chemical shift prediction, suggesting that methods which better sample the conformational ensemble like aMD are more appropriate tools for use in chemical shift prediction for proteins with disordered regions. Moreover, our study suggests that data accurately reflecting protein dynamics must be used as input for chemical shift prediction in order to correctly predict chemical shifts in systems with disorder.

  10. Recursive Factorization of the Inverse Overlap Matrix in Linear-Scaling Quantum Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negre, Christian F A; Mniszewski, Susan M; Cawkwell, Marc J; Bock, Nicolas; Wall, Michael E; Niklasson, Anders M N

    2016-07-12

    We present a reduced complexity algorithm to compute the inverse overlap factors required to solve the generalized eigenvalue problem in a quantum-based molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our method is based on the recursive, iterative refinement of an initial guess of Z (inverse square root of the overlap matrix S). The initial guess of Z is obtained beforehand by using either an approximate divide-and-conquer technique or dynamical methods, propagated within an extended Lagrangian dynamics from previous MD time steps. With this formulation, we achieve long-term stability and energy conservation even under the incomplete, approximate, iterative refinement of Z. Linear-scaling performance is obtained using numerically thresholded sparse matrix algebra based on the ELLPACK-R sparse matrix data format, which also enables efficient shared-memory parallelization. As we show in this article using self-consistent density-functional-based tight-binding MD, our approach is faster than conventional methods based on the diagonalization of overlap matrix S for systems as small as a few hundred atoms, substantially accelerating quantum-based simulations even for molecular structures of intermediate size. For a 4158-atom water-solvated polyalanine system, we find an average speedup factor of 122 for the computation of Z in each MD step. PMID:27267207

  11. Accelerating MP2C dispersion corrections for dimers and molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanhang; Shao, Yihan; Beran, Gregory J. O.

    2013-06-01

    The MP2C dispersion correction of Pitonak and Hesselmann [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 168 (2010)], 10.1021/ct9005882 substantially improves the performance of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for non-covalent interactions, albeit with non-trivial computational cost. Here, the MP2C correction is computed in a monomer-centered basis instead of a dimer-centered one. When applied to a single dimer MP2 calculation, this change accelerates the MP2C dispersion correction several-fold while introducing only trivial new errors. More significantly, in the context of fragment-based molecular crystal studies, combination of the new monomer basis algorithm and the periodic symmetry of the crystal reduces the cost of computing the dispersion correction by two orders of magnitude. This speed-up reduces the MP2C dispersion correction calculation from a significant computational expense to a negligible one in crystals like aspirin or oxalyl dihydrazide, without compromising accuracy.

  12. Molecular dynamics-based refinement of nanodiamond size measurements obtained with dynamic light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Koniakhin, S V; Terterov, I N; Shvidchenko, A V; Eidelman, E D; Dubina, M V

    2016-01-01

    The determination of particle size by dynamic light scattering uses the Stokes-Einstein relation, which can break down for nanoscale objects. Here we employ a molecular dynamics simulation of fully solvated 1-5 nm carbon nanoparticles for the refinement of the experimental data obtained for nanodiamonds in water by using dynamic light scattering. We performed molecular dynamics simulations in differently sized boxes and calculated nanoparticles diffusion coefficients using the velocity autocorrelation function and mean-square displacement. We found that the predictions of the Stokes-Einstein relation are accurate for nanoparticles larger than 3 nm while for smaller nanoparticles the diffusion coefficient should be corrected and different boundary conditions should be taken into account.

  13. Wave packet dynamics in molecular excited electronic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We theoretically explore the use of UV pump – UV probe schemes to resolve in time the dynamics of nuclear wave packets in excited electronic states of the hydrogen molecule. The pump pulse ignites the dynamics in singly excited states, that will be probed after a given time delay by a second identical pulse that will ionize the molecule. The field-free molecular dynamics is first explored by analyizing the autocorrelation function for the pumped wave packet and the excitation probabilities. We investigate both energy and angle differential ionization probabilities and demonstrate that the asymmetry induced in the electron angular distributions gives a direct map of the time evolution of the pumped wave packet

  14. Femtosecond Excited State Dynamics of Size Selected Neutral Molecular Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Raúl; León, Iker; Fernández, José A; Longarte, Asier

    2016-07-21

    The work describes a novel experimental approach to track the relaxation dynamics of an electronically excited distribution of neutral molecular clusters formed in a supersonic expansion, by pump-probe femtosecond ionization. The introduced method overcomes fragmentation issues and makes possible to retrieve the dynamical signature of a particular cluster from each mass channel, by associating it to an IR transition of the targeted structure. We have applied the technique to study the nonadiabatic relaxation of pyrrole homoclusters. The results obtained exciting at 243 nm, near the origin of the bare pyrrole electronic absorption, allow us to identify the dynamical signature of the dimer (Py)2, which exhibits a distinctive lifetime of τ1 ∼ 270 fs, considerably longer than the decays recorded for the monomer and bigger size clusters (Py)n>2. A possible relationship between the measured lifetime and the clusters geometries is tentatively discussed.

  15. The classical and quantum dynamics of molecular spins on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetti, Christian; Rettori, Angelo; Pini, Maria Gloria; Cornia, Andrea; Repollés, Ana; Luis, Fernando; Dressel, Martin; Rauschenbach, Stephan; Kern, Klaus; Burghard, Marko; Bogani, Lapo

    2016-02-01

    Controlling the dynamics of spins on surfaces is pivotal to the design of spintronic and quantum computing devices. Proposed schemes involve the interaction of spins with graphene to enable surface-state spintronics and electrical spin manipulation. However, the influence of the graphene environment on the spin systems has yet to be unravelled. Here we explore the spin-graphene interaction by studying the classical and quantum dynamics of molecular magnets on graphene. Whereas the static spin response remains unaltered, the quantum spin dynamics and associated selection rules are profoundly modulated. The couplings to graphene phonons, to other spins, and to Dirac fermions are quantified using a newly developed model. Coupling to Dirac electrons introduces a dominant quantum relaxation channel that, by driving the spins over Villain's threshold, gives rise to fully coherent, resonant spin tunnelling. Our findings provide fundamental insight into the interaction between spins and graphene, establishing the basis for electrical spin manipulation in graphene nanodevices. PMID:26641019

  16. Molecular dynamics of coalescence and collisions of silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study how different relative orientations and impact velocity on the collision of two silver nanoparticles affect the first stages of the formation of a new, larger nanoparticle. In order to do this, we implemented a set of molecular dynamics simulations on the NVE ensemble on pairs of silver icosahedral nanoparticles at several relative orientations, that allowed us to follow the dynamics of the first nanoseconds of the coalescence processes. Using bond angle analysis, we found that the initial relative orientation of the twin planes has a critical role on the final stability of the resulting particle, and on the details of the dynamics itself. When the original particles have their closest twins aligned to each other, the formed nanoparticle will likely stabilize its structure onto a particle with a defined center and a low surface-to-volume ratio, while nanoparticles with misaligned twins will promote the formation of highly defective particles with a high inner energy

  17. Two methods for molecular dynamics on curved surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Paquay, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Lateral diffusion along membranes is an important transport mechanism in biology. Dynamical simulations of this transport can greatly aid in understanding biological processes where this diffusion plays a role. Brownian dynamics simulations in local coordinates are one possibility, but we show here that it is also possible to combine constraint algorithms with a velocity Verlet scheme to perform molecular dynamics simulations of particles confined on arbitrary time-independent curved surfaces. The main advantage is that this method is based on Cartesian coordinates instead of local coordinates, allowing the reuse of many other standard tools, including parallelisation through domain decomposition, without adapting those to local coordinates. Of the two constraint algorithms we considered, RATTLE is more computationally efficient and easier to implement, while the symmetric projection method has slightly better energy conservation. By applying the schemes to the Langevin equation, Brownian motion on various cu...

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of zigzag molecular chains (in Russian)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, A. V.; Manevitsch, L. I.; Christiansen, Peter Leth;

    1999-01-01

    models (two-dimensional alpha-spiral, polyethylene transzigzag backbone, and the zigzag chain of hydrogen bonds) shows that the zigzag structure essentially limits the soliton dynamics to finite, relatively narrow, supersonic soliton velocity intervals and may also result in that several acoustic soliton......Nonlinear, collective, soliton type excitations in zigzag molecular chains are analyzed. It is shown that the nonlinear dynamics of a chain dramatically changes in passing from the one-dimensional linear chain to the more realistic planar zigzag model-due, in particular, to the geometry......-dependent anharmonism that comes into the picture. The existence or otherwise of solitons is determined in this case by the interplay between the geometrical anharmonism and the physical anharmonism of the interstitial interaction, of opposite signs. The nonlinear dynamic analysis of the three most typical zigzag...

  19. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of protein-ligand interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Yechun; SHEN; Jianhua; LUO; Xiaomin; SHEN; Xu; CHEN; Ka

    2004-01-01

    Studies of protein-ligand interactions are helpful to elucidating the mechanisms of ligands, providing clues for rational drug design. The currently developed steered molecular dynamics (SMD) is a complementary approach to experimental techniques in investigating the biochemical processes occurring at microsecond or second time scale, thus SMD may provide dynamical and kinetic processes of ligand-receptor binding and unbinding, which cannot be accessed by the experimental methods. In this article, the methodology of SMD is described, and the applications of SMD simulations for obtaining dynamic insights into protein-ligand interactions are illustrated through two of our own examples. One is associated with the simulations of binding and unbinding processes between huperzine A and acetylcholinesterase, and the other is concerned with the unbinding process of α-APA from HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  20. Confinement of conjugated polymers into soft nanoparticles: molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2013-03-01

    The structure and dynamics of conjugated polymers confined into soft nanoparticles (SNPs) have been studies by molecular dynamic simulations. This new class of tunable luminescent SNPs exhibits an immense potential as bio-markers as well as targeted drug delivery agents where tethering specific groups to the surface particles offers a means to target specific applications. Of particular interest are SNPs that consist of non- crosslinked polymers, decorated with polar groups. These SNPs are potentially tunable through the dynamics of the polymer chains, whereas the polar entity serves as internal stabilizer and surface encore. Confinement of a polymer whose inherent conformation is extended impacts not only their dynamics and as a result their optical properties. Here we will present insight into the structure and dynamics of dialkyl poly para phenylene ethynylene (PPE), decorated by a carboxylate groups, confined into a soft particle. The conformation and dynamics of polymer within SNP will be discussed and compared with that of the linear chain in solution. This work in partially supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-12ER46843

  1. Anomalous Molecular Weight Dependence of Chain Dynamics in Unentangled Polymer Blends with Strong Dynamic Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Arrese-Igor, Silvia; Alegría, Ángel; Moreno Segurado, Ángel J.; Colmenero de León, Juan

    2011-01-01

    We address the general question of how the molecular weight dependence of chain dynamics in unentangled polymers is modified by blending. By dielectric spectroscopy we measure the normal mode relaxation of polyisoprene in blends with a slower component of poly(ter-butylstyrene). Unentangled polyisoprene in the blend exhibits strong deviations from Rouse scaling, approaching 'entangled-like' behavior at low temperatures in concomitance with the increase of the dynamic asymmetry in the blend. T...

  2. Molecular imaging with dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is a quantitative technique that employs rapid sequences of CT images after bolus administration of intravenous contrast material to measure a range of physiological processes related to the microvasculature of tissues. By combining knowledge of the molecular processes underlying changes in vascular physiology with an understanding of the relationship between vascular physiology and CT contrast enhancement, DCE-CT can be redefined as a molecular imaging technique. Some DCE-CT derived parameters reflect tissue hypoxia and can, therefore, provide information about the cellular microenvironment. DCE-CT can also depict physiological processes, such as vasodilatation, that represent the physiological consequences of molecular responses to tissue hypoxia. To date the main applications have been in stroke and oncology. Unlike some other molecular imaging approaches, DCE-CT benefits from wide availability and ease of application along with the use of contrast materials and software packages that have achieved full regulatory approval. Hence, DCE-CT represents a molecular imaging technique that is applicable in clinical practice today.

  3. Direct imaging of the dynamics of a laser-plasma accelerator operating in the bubble-regime

    CERN Document Server

    Sävert, A; Schnell, M; Cole, J M; Nicolai, M; Reuter, M; Schwab, M B; Möller, M; Poder, K; Jäckel, O; Paulus, G G; Spielmann, C; Najmudin, Z; Kaluza, M C

    2014-01-01

    Laser-plasma accelerators operating in the bubble-regime generate quasi-monoenergetic multi-gigaelectronvolt electron beams with femtosecond duration and micrometre size. These beams are produced by accelerating in laser-driven plasma waves in only centimetre distances. Hence they have the potential to be compact alternatives to conventional accelerators. However, since the plasma wave moves at ultra-relativistic speed making detailed observation extremely difficult, most of our current understanding has been gained from high-performance computer simulations. Here, we present experimental results from an ultra-fast optical imaging technique visualising for the first time the non-linear dynamics in a laser-plasma accelerator. By freezing the relativistic motion of the plasma wave, our measurements reveal insight of unprecedented detail. In particular, we observe the plasma wave's non-linear formation, breaking, and transformation into a single bubble for the first time. Understanding the acceleration dynamics ...

  4. Integrating atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, experiments, and network analysis to study protein dynamics: strength in unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, we have been observing remarkable improvements in the field of protein dynamics. Indeed, we can now study protein dynamics in atomistic details over several timescales with a rich portfolio of experimental and computational techniques. On one side, this provides us with the possibility to validate simulation methods and physical models against a broad range of experimental observables. On the other side, it also allows a complementary and comprehensive view on protein structure and dynamics. What is needed now is a better understanding of the link between the dynamic properties that we observe and the functional properties of these important cellular machines. To make progresses in this direction, we need to improve the physical models used to describe proteins and solvent in molecular dynamics, as well as to strengthen the integration of experiments and simulations to overcome their own limitations. Moreover, now that we have the means to study protein dynamics in great details, we need new tools to understand the information embedded in the protein ensembles and in their dynamic signature. With this aim in mind, we should enrich the current tools for analysis of biomolecular simulations with attention to the effects that can be propagated over long distances and are often associated to important biological functions. In this context, approaches inspired by network analysis can make an important contribution to the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations.

  5. Beam dynamics design of the main accelerating section with KONUS in the CSR-LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Hu, Zhang; Jia-Wen, Xia; Xue-Jun, Yin; Heng, Du

    2013-01-01

    The CSR-LINAC injector has been proposed in Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The linac mainly consists of two parts, the RFQ and the IH-DTL. The KONUS (Kombinierte Null Grad Struktur) concept has been introduced into the DTL section. In this paper, the re-matching of the main accelerating section will be finished in the 3.7 MeV/u scheme and the new beam dynamics design up to 7 MeV/u will be also shown. Through the beam re-matching, the relative emittance growth has been suppressed greatly along the linac.

  6. Saturated sodium chloride solution under an external static electric field: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gan; Wang, Yan-Ting

    2015-12-01

    The behavior of saturated aqueous NaCl solutions under a constant external electric field (E) was studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our dynamic MD simulations indicated that the irreversible nucleation process towards crystallization is accelerated by a moderate E but retarded or even prohibited under a stronger E, which can be understood by the competition between self-diffusion and drift motion. The former increases with E, thereby accelerating the nucleation process, whereas the latter pulls oppositely charged ions apart under a stronger E, thereby decelerating nucleation. Additionally, our steady-state MD simulations indicated that a first-order phase transition occurs in saturated solutions at a certain threshold Ec. The magnitude of Ec increases with concentration because larger clusters form more easily when the solution is more concentrated and require a stronger E to dissociate. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB932804) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91227115, 11274319, and 11421063).

  7. Computational Studies on the Anharmonic Dynamics of Molecular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, John S.

    Molecular nanoclusters present ideal systems to probe the physical forces and dynamics that drive the behavior of larger bulk systems. At the nanocluster limit the first instances of several phenomena can be observed including the breaking of hydrogen and molecular bonds. Advancements in experimental and theoretical techniques have made it possible to explore these phenomena in great detail. The most fruitful of these studies have involved the use of both experimental and theoretical techniques to leverage to strengths of the two approaches. This dissertation seeks to explore several important phenomena of molecular clusters using new and existing theoretical methodologies. Three specific systems are considered, hydrogen chloride clusters, mixed water and hydrogen chloride clusters and the first cluster where hydrogen chloride autoionization occurs. The focus of these studies remain as close as possible to experimentally observable phenomena with the intention of validating, simulating and expanding on experimental work. Specifically, the properties of interested are those related to the vibrational ground and excited state dynamics of these systems. Studies are performed using full and reduced dimensional potential energy surface alongside advanced quantum mechanical methods including diffusion Monte Carlo, vibrational configuration interaction theory and quasi-classical molecular dynamics. The insight gained from these studies are great and varied. A new on-they-fly ab initio method for studying molecular clusters is validated for (HCl)1--6. A landmark study of the dissociation energy and predissociation mechanism of (HCl)3 is reported. The ground states of mixed (HCl)n(H2O)m are found to be highly delocalized across multiple stationary point configurations. Furthermore, it is identified that the consideration of this delocalization is required in vibrational excited state calculations to achieve agreement with experimental measurements. Finally, the theoretical

  8. Structural and Dynamic Properties of Amorphous Silicon:Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shi-Ping; WANG Wen-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    @@ The tight-binding molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to study structural and dynamical properties of amorphous silicon. It is found that the radial distribution function and static structure factor are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The bond order parameters Ql are sensitive to the structure change at different quenching rates. For the dynamical properties, we have calculated the vibration and electronic density of states. The simulation results show that the transverse acoustic is in good agreement with the experimental data, and the high frequency transverse optical (TO) peak shifts to the right of the experimental TO peak.

  9. Study of critical dynamics in fluids via molecular dynamics in canonical ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sutapa; Das, Subir K

    2015-12-01

    With the objective of understanding the usefulness of thermostats in the study of dynamic critical phenomena in fluids, we present results for transport properties in a binary Lennard-Jones fluid that exhibits liquid-liquid phase transition. Various collective transport properties, calculated from the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in canonical ensemble, with different thermostats, are compared with those obtained from MD simulations in microcanonical ensemble. It is observed that the Nosé-Hoover and dissipative particle dynamics thermostats are useful for the calculations of mutual diffusivity and shear viscosity. The Nosé-Hoover thermostat, however, as opposed to the latter, appears inadequate for the study of bulk viscosity. PMID:26687057

  10. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: Theoretical Studies In Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu H. G.; Muckerman, J.T.

    2012-05-29

    The main goal of this program is the development and application of computational methods for studying chemical reaction dynamics and molecular spectroscopy in the gas phase. We are interested in developing rigorous quantum dynamics algorithms for small polyatomic systems and in implementing approximate approaches for complex ones. Particular focus is on the dynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions and on the rovibrational spectra of species involved in combustion processes. This research also explores the potential energy surfaces of these systems of interest using state-of-the-art quantum chemistry methods, and extends them to understand some important properties of materials in condensed phases and interstellar medium as well as in combustion environments.

  11. Acceleration and dynamics of an electron in the degenerate and magnetized plasma elliptical waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdoli-Arani, A.; Jazi, B. [Department of Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Physics Department and Laser-Plasma Research Institute, G. C. Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The dynamics and energy gain of an electron in the field of a transverse magnetic wave propagating inside an elliptical degenerate plasma waveguide is analytically investigated by finding the field components of the TM{sub mr} mode in this waveguide. Besides, by solving the relativistic momentum and energy equations the deflection angle and the acceleration gradient of the electron in the waveguide are obtained. Furthermore, the field components of the hybrid mode and the transferred power in the presence of the magnetic field in this waveguide are found. Also by applying the boundary conditions at the plasma-conductor interface, we calculate the dispersion relation. It is shown that the cutoff frequency of this mode is dependent on the plasma density but independent of the magnetic field. Then, a single-electron model for numerical calculations of the electron deflection angle and acceleration gradient inside the magnetized plasma-filled elliptical waveguide is generally presented to be used as a cascading process for the acceleration purposes.

  12. Dynamical Simulations of Molecular Clouds in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Jesus; Morris, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The formation of the central massive cluster of young stars orbiting the Galactic black hole, Sgr A*, has been modeled by several groups by invoking an almost radially infalling molecular cloud that interacts with the black hole and creates a dense, gaseous disk in which stars can then form. However, the dynamical origin of such a cloud remains an open question. We present simulations of the central 30-100 pc of the Milky Way, starting from a population of molecular clouds located in a disk with scale height of ~30 pc, using the N-body/smoothed-particle hydrodynamics code, Gadget2. We followed the dynamical evolution of clouds in a galactic potential that includes a bar to explore whether cloud collisions or a succession of cloud scatterings can remove sufficient angular momentum from a massive cloud to endow it with a predominantly radial orbit. Initial results illustrate the importance of tidal shear; while dense cloud cores remain identifiable for extended periods of time, much of the molecular mass ends up in tidal streams, so cannot be deflected onto low angular momentum orbits by their mutual interactions. At the completion of our ongoing computations, we will report on whether the cloud cores can undergo sufficient scattering to achieve low-angular-momentum orbits.

  13. A molecular understanding of the dynamic mechanism of aquaporin osmosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shua, Liangsuo; Qian, Xin; Wanga, Xiyun; Lin, Yixin; Tan, Kai; Shu, Chaohui; Jin, Shiping

    2014-01-01

    AQPs (aquaporins), the rapid water channels of cells, play a key role in maintaining osmotic equilibrium of cells. In this paper, we reported the dynamic mechanism of AQP osmosis at the molecular level. A theoretical model based on molecular dynamics was carried out and verified by the published experimental data. The reflection coefficients ({\\sigma}) of neutral molecules are mainly decided by their relative size with AQPs, and increase with a third power up to a constant value 1. This model also indicated that the reflection coefficient of a complete impermeable solute can be smaller than 1. The H+ concentration of solution can influence the driving force of the AQPs by changing the equivalent diameters of vestibules surrounded by loops with abundant polar amino acids. In this way, pH of solution can regulate water permeability of AQPs. Therefore, an AQP may not only work as a switch to open or close, but as a rapid response molecular valve to control its water flow. The vestibules can prevent the channel b...

  14. Fast and dynamic generation of linear octrees for geological bodies under hardware acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the application of 3D Geoscience Modeling,we often need to generate the volumetric representations of geological bodies from their surface representations.Linear octree,as an efficient and easily operated volumetric model,is widely used in 3D Geoscience Modeling.This paper proposes an algorithm for fast and dynamic generation of linear octrees of geological bodies from their surface models under hardware acceleration.The Z-buffers are used to determine the attributes of octants and voxels in a fast way,and a divide-and-conquer strategy is adopted.A stack structure is exploited to record the subdivision,which allows generating linear octrees dynamically.The algorithm avoids large-scale sorting process and bypasses the compression in linear octrees generation.Experimental results indicate its high efficiency in generating linear octrees for large-scale geologic bodies.

  15. Protein Dynamics in Organic Media at Varying Water Activity Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar; Abildskov, Jens; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2012-01-01

    In nonaqueous enzymology, control of enzyme hydration is commonly approached by fixing the thermodynamic water activity of the medium. In this work, we present a strategy for evaluating the water activity in molecular dynamics simulations of proteins in water/organic solvent mixtures. The method...

  16. DYNAMIC SURFACE BOUNDARY-CONDITIONS - A SIMPLE BOUNDARY MODEL FOR MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JUFFER, AH; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1993-01-01

    A simple model for the treatment of boundaries in molecular dynamics simulations is presented. The method involves the positioning of boundary atoms on a surface that surrounds a system of interest. The boundary atoms interact with the inner region and represent the effect of atoms outside the surfa

  17. Hydrotropic Solubilization by Urea Derivatives: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrotropy is a phenomenon where the presence of a large quantity of one solute enhances the solubility of another solute. The mechanism of this phenomenon remains a topic of debate. This study employed molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the hydrotropic mechanism of a series of urea derivatives, that is, urea (UR, methylurea (MU, ethylurea (EU, and butylurea (BU. A poorly water-soluble compound, nifedipine (NF, was used as the model solute that was solubilized. Structural, dynamic, and energetic changes upon equilibration were analyzed to supply insights to the solubilization mechanism. The study demonstrated that NF and urea derivatives underwent significant nonstoichiometric molecular aggregation in the aqueous solution, a result consistent with the self-aggregation of urea derivatives under the same conditions. The analysis of hydrogen bonding and energy changes revealed that the aggregation was driven by the partial restoration of normal water structure. The energetic data also suggested that the promoted solubilization of NF is favored in the presence of urea derivatives. While the solutes aggregated to a varying degree, the systems were still in single-phase liquid state as attested by their active dynamics.

  18. Collisional deactivation of CF 3I - a molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedung, Harald; Marković, Nikola; Nordholm, Sture

    1999-10-01

    The detailed mechanisms of ro-vibrational energy transfer in collisions between CF 3I and argon or propane are investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations of collisions between a reactant CF 3I molecule at energies from 50 to 200 kJ/mol with medium argon or propane at selected initial temperatures are interpreted in terms of ergodic collision limits. The intramolecular potential used for CF 3I is a Morse-stretch/harmonic-bend type function with parameters fitted to equilibrium structure, normal mode frequencies and dissociation energies. Simple generic Buckingham type pair-potentials are used for intermolecular atom-atom interactions. Energy transfer is related to (i) geometry of collision, (ii) impact parameter, (iii) number of atom-atom encounters, (iv) average dynamical hardness of interaction at atom-atom collisions, (v) number of minima in the center of mass separation and (vi) lifetime of the collisional complex. The energy transfer in our molecular dynamics calculations is compared with experimental results for the same colliders. The observed trends are interpreted in terms of detailed collisional mechanisms. Our results highlight the importance of rotational excitation and the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential.

  19. Dynamics of water and solute transport in polymeric reverse osmosis membranes via molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Meng; Lueptow, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    The Angstrom-scale transport characteristics of water and six different solutes, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, urea, Na+, and Cl-, were studied for a polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, FT-30, using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. Results indicate that water transport increases with an increasing fraction of connected percolated free volume, or water-accessible open space, in the membrane polymer structure. This free volume is enhanced by the dynamic structure of the membrane at the molecular level as it swells when hydrated and vibrates due to molecular collisions allowing a continuous path connecting the opposite membrane surfaces. The tortuous paths available for transport of solutes result in Brownian motion of solute molecules and hopping from pore to pore as they pass through the polymer network structure of the membrane. The transport of alcohol solutes decreases for solutes with larger Van der Waals volume, which corresponds to less available percolated free volume, or sol...

  20. Dynamical Transition of Myoglobin and Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase Revealed by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉莉; 张建华; 周林祥

    2002-01-01

    We have carried out parallel molecular dynamics simulations of solvated and non-solvated myoglobin and solvated Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase at different temperatures. By analysis of several methods, the simulations reproduce the quasielastic neutron scattering experimental results. Below 200 K these two proteins behave as harmonic solids with essentially only vibrational motion, while above this temperature, there is a striking dynamic transition into anharmonic motion. Moreover, the simulations further show that water molecules play an important role for this dynamical transition. There is no such sharp dynamical transition in non-solvated proteins and the higher the solvate density is, the steeper at transition point the curve of mean square displacement versus temperature will be. The simulations also display that the dynamical transition is a general property for globular protein and this transition temperature is a demarcation of enzyme activity.

  1. Dynamics of Nanoscale Grain-Boundary Decohesion in Aluminum by Molecular-Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakov, V.; Saether, E.; Phillips, D. R.; Glaessegen, E. H.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics and energetics of intergranular crack growth along a flat grain boundary in aluminum is studied by a molecular-dynamics simulation model for crack propagation under steady-state conditions. Using the ability of the molecular-dynamics simulation to identify atoms involved in different atomistic mechanisms, it was possible to identify the energy contribution of different processes taking place during crack growth. The energy contributions were divided as: elastic energy, defined as the potential energy of the atoms in fcc crystallographic state; and plastically stored energy, the energy of stacking faults and twin boundaries; grain-boundary and surface energy. In addition, monitoring the amount of heat exchange with the molecular-dynamics thermostat gives the energy dissipated as heat in the system. The energetic analysis indicates that the majority of energy in a fast growing crack is dissipated as heat. This dissipation increases linearly at low speed, and faster than linear at speeds approaching 1/3 the Rayleigh wave speed when the crack tip becomes dynamically unstable producing periodic dislocation bursts until the crack is blunted.

  2. Nanochannel flow past permeable walls via molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian-Fei; Cao, Bing-Yang

    2016-07-01

    The nanochannel flow past permeable walls with nanopores is investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, including the density distribution, velocity field, molecular penetration mechanism and surface friction coefficient. A low density distribution has been found at the gas-wall interface demonstrating the low pressure region. In addition, there exists a jump of the gas density on the permeable surface, which indicates the discontinuity of the density distribution across the permeable surface. On the other hand, the nanoscale vortices are observed in nanopores of the permeable wall, and the reduced mass flux of the flow in nanopores results in a shifted hydrodynamic boundary above the permeable surface. Particularly the slip length of the gas flow on the permeable surface is pronounced a non-linear function of the molecular mean free path, which produces a large value of the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC) and a big portion of the diffusive refection. Moreover, the gas-gas interaction and multi-collision among gas molecules may take place in nanopores, which contribute to large values of TMAC. Consequently the boundary friction coefficient on the permeable surface is increased because of the energy dissipation consumed by the nanoscale vortices in nanopores. The molecular boundary condition provides us with a new picture of the nanochannel flow past the permeable wall with nanopores.

  3. Generalized master equations for exciton dynamics in molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Michael; May, V.

    1995-02-01

    The paper demonstrates the applicability of a special type of density matrix theory for the derivation of generalized Master equations. The density matrix theory has been formulated for the description of the dissipative electron transfer dynamics in molecular complexes. The theoretical approach is based on a representation of the density matrix in appropriately taken diabatic electron-vibrational states. Dissipative effects are taken into account by a coupling of these states to further vibrational modes of the molecular complex as well as to environmental degrees of freedom. The approach is applied to a two-center system as well as to a molecular chain. Memory kernels are derived in second order with respect to the inter-center coupling. The kernels are discussed under the assumption of a quick intra-center relaxation for a part of the vibrational modes as well as for all vibrational modes. Standard expressions for the transition rates between different sites are extended to include finite life times of the vibrational levels. Results which have been obtained in the study of the so-called spin boson model can be simply reproduced. The application of the derived generalized Master equations to the investigation of the motion of Frenkel excitons in molecular chains is also presented.

  4. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of binary charged lipid membranes: Phase separation and morphological dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hiroaki; Shimokawa, Naofumi

    2016-01-01

    Biomembranes, which are mainly composed of neutral and charged lipids, exhibit a large variety of functional structures and dynamics. Here, we report a coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the phase separation and morphological dynamics in charged lipid bilayer vesicles. The screened long-range electrostatic repulsion among charged head groups delays or inhibits the lateral phase separation in charged vesicles compared with neutral vesicles, suggesting the transition of the phase-separation mechanism from spinodal decomposition to nucleation or homogeneous dispersion. Moreover, the electrostatic repulsion causes morphological changes, such as pore formation, and further transformations into disk, string, and bicelle structures, which are spatiotemporally coupled to the lateral segregation of charged lipids. Based on our coarse-grained MD simulation, we propose a plausible mechanism of pore formation at the molecular level. The pore formation in a charged-lipid-rich domain is initiated by the p...

  5. Thermal Transport in Carbon Nanotubes using Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew; Khatun, Mahfuza

    2011-10-01

    We will present results of thermal transport phenomena in Carbon Nanotube (CNT) structures. CNTs have many interesting physical properties, and have the potential for device applications. Specifically, CNTs are robust materials with high thermal conductance and excellent electrical conduction properties. A review of electrical and thermal conduction of the structures will be discussed. The research requires analytical analysis as well as simulation. The major thrust of this study is the usage of the molecular dynamics (MD) simulator, LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator). A significant investigation using the LAMMPS code is conducted on the existing Beowulf Computing Cluster at BSU. NanoHUB, an open online resource to the entire nanotechnology community developed by the researchers of Purdue University, is used for further supplementary resources. Results will include the time-dependence of temperature, kinetic energy, potential energy, heat flux correlation, and heat conduction.

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Solutions at Constant Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Perego, Claudio; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics studies of chemical processes in solution are of great value in a wide spectrum of applications, that range from nano-technology to pharmaceutical chemistry. However, these calculations are affected by severe finite-size effects, such as the solution being depleted as the chemical process proceeds, that influence the outcome of the simulations. To overcome these limitations, one must allow the system to exchange molecules with a macroscopic reservoir, thus sampling a Grand-Canonical ensemble. Despite the fact that different remedies have been proposed, this still represents a key challenge in molecular simulations. In the present work we propose the C$\\mu$MD method, which introduces an external force that controls the environment of the chemical process of interest. This external force, drawing molecules from a finite reservoir, maintains the chemical potential constant in the region where the process takes place. We have applied the C$\\mu$MD method to the paradigmatic case of urea crystall...

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Homogeneous Crystallization in Polymer Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Molecular mechanisms of homogeneous nucleation and crystal growth from the melt of polyethylene-like polymer were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The crystallinity was determined by using the site order parameter method (SOP), which described local order degree around an atom. Snapshots of the simulations showed evolution of the nucleation and the crystal growth through SOP images clearly. The isothermal crystallization kinetics was determined at different temperatures. The rate of crystallization, Kc, and the Avrami exponents, n, were determined as a function of temperature. The forming of nucleis was traced to reveal that the nucleis were formed with more ordered cores and less ordered shells. A detailed statistical analysis of the MD snapshots and trajectories suggested conformations of the polymer chains changed smoothly from random coil to chain folded lamella in the crystallization processes.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of amyloid fibrils: an in silico approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ye; Wei Wang; Cheng Jiang; Qingfen Yu; Haifeng Chen

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils play causal roles in the pathogenesis of amyloid-related degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease,type Ⅱ diabetes mellitus,and the prion-related transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.The mechanism of fibril formation and protein aggregation is still hotly debated and remains an important open question in order to develop therapeutic method of these diseases.However,traditional molecular biological and crystallographic experiments could hardly observe atomic details and aggregation process.Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations could provide explanations for experimental results and detailed pathway of protein aggregation.In this review,we focus on the applications of MD simulations on several amyloidogenic protein systems.Furthermore,MD simulations could help us to understand the mechanism of amyloid aggregation and how to design the inhibitors.

  9. Molecular dynamics study of the water/n-alkane interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations on the interface between liquid water and liquid n-alkane (including octane, nonane, decane, undecane and dodecane) have been performed with the purpose to study the interfacial properties: (Ⅰ) density profile; (Ⅱ) molecular orientation; (Ⅲ) interfacial tension and the temperature effect on the interfacial tension. Simulation results show that at the interface the structures of both water and n-alkane are different from those in the bulk. Water has an orientational preference due to the number of hydrogen bonds per molecule maximized. N-alkane has a more lateral orientation with respect to the interface in order to be in close contact with water. The calculated individual phase bulk density and interfacial tension of water/n-alkane systems are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones.

  10. Prototyping Bio-Nanorobots using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdi, Mustapha; Ferreira, A; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a molecular mechanics study using a molecular dynamics software (NAMD) coupled to virtual reality (VR) techniques for intuitive Bio-NanoRobotic prototyping. Using simulated Bio-Nano environments in VR, the operator can design and characterize through physical simulation and 3-D visualization the behavior of Bio-NanoRobotic components and structures. The main novelty of the proposed simulations is based on the characterization of stiffness performances of passive joints-based deca-alanine protein molecule and active joints-based viral protein motor (VPL) in their native environment. Their use as elementary Bio-NanoRobotic components (1 dof platform) are also simulated and the results discussed.

  11. Sugar transport across lactose permease probed by steered molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Yin, Ying; Tajkhorshid, Emad;

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli lactose permease (LacY) transports sugar across the inner membrane of the bacterium using the proton motive force to accumulate sugar in the cytosol. We have probed lactose conduction across LacY using steered molecular dynamics, permitting us to follow molecular and energetic......, forcing it to interact with channel lining residues. Lactose forms a multitude of direct sugar-channel hydrogen bonds, predominantly with residues of the flexible N-domain, which is known to contribute a major part of LacY's affinity for lactose. In the periplasmic half-channel lactose predominantly...... interacts with hydrophobic channel lining residues, whereas in the cytoplasmic half-channel key protein-substrate interactions are mediated by ionic residues. A major energy barrier against transport is found within a tight segment of the periplasmic half-channel where sugar hydration is minimal and protein-sugar...

  12. Dynamic behavior of chemical reactivity indices in density functional theory: A Bohn-Oppenheimer quantum molecular dynamics study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shubin Liu

    2005-09-01

    Dynamic behaviors of chemical concepts in density functional theory such as frontier orbitals (HOMO/LUMO), chemical potential, hardness, and electrophilicity index have been investigated in this work in the context of Bohn-Oppenheimer quantum molecular dynamics in association with molecular conformation changes. Exemplary molecular systems like CH$^{+}_{5}$ , Cl- (H2O)30 and Ca2+ (H2O)15 are studied at 300 K in the gas phase, demonstrating that HOMO is more dynamic than LUMO, chemical potential and hardness often fluctuate concurrently. It is argued that DFT concepts and indices may serve as a good framework to understand molecular conformation changes as well as other dynamic phenomena.

  13. Estimation of atomic hydrophobicities using molecular dynamics simulation of peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Marie; Nicolau, Dan V.

    2007-12-01

    The hydrophobic force is one of the main driving forces in protein folding and binding. However, its nature is not yet well understood and consequently there are more than 80 different scales published trying to quantify it. Most of the hydrophobicity scales are amino acid-based, but the interaction between the molecular surface of the proteins (and DNA) and surfaces they are immobilized on, e.g., on biomedical micro/nanodevices, occurs on fractions of, rather than whole amino acids. This fragmented structure of the biomolecular surface requires the derivation of atom-level hydrophobicity. Most attempts for the evaluation of atomic hydrophobicities are derived from amino acid-based values, which ignore dynamic and steric factors. This contribution reports on the Molecular Dynamics simulations that aim to overcome this simplification. The calculations examine various tripeptides in an aqueous solution and the analysis focuses on the distance of the nearest water molecules to the individual atoms in the peptides. Different environments result in a variation of average distances for similar atoms in different tripeptides. Comparison with the atomic hydrophobicities derived from the amino acid-based hydrophobicity obtained from peptide partition in water-octanol (Dgoct) and transport through the membrane interface (Dgwif) shows a similar trend to the calculated distances. The variations are likely due to the steric differences of similar types of atoms in different geometric contexts. Therefore, Molecular Dynamics simulations proved convenient for the evaluation of atomic hydrophobicities and open new research avenues. The atomic hydrophobicities can be used to design surfaces that mimic the biomolecular surfaces and therefore elicit an expected biomolecular activity from the immobilized biomolecules.

  14. Vectorization of molecular dynamics Fortran programs using the cyber 205 vector processing computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, R.; Schoen, M.; Hoheisel, C.

    1983-11-01

    A concept of vectorization of molecular dynamics Fortran programs for the use of the Cyber 205 machine is presented. It is shown that for calculations with larger particle systems the program runs faster on the 205 than on the Cray-1 by about a factor of two. Against conventional computers like the Cyber 175 an acceleration by a factor 10-15 is expected. A bit control vector is used instead of a neighbour list, which in principal provides calculations up to 6912 particles for the memory capacity of the Cyber 205. However, because the application of the bit vector requires computation times which grow proportional to N2, the CPU time for particle numbers of more than 2048 becomes prohibitively large.

  15. Implementing molecular dynamics on hybrid high performance computers—Three-body potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. Michael; Yamada, Masako

    2013-12-01

    The use of coprocessors or accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs) has become popular in scientific computing applications due to their low cost, impressive floating-point capabilities, high memory bandwidth, and low electrical power requirements. Hybrid high-performance computers, defined as machines with nodes containing more than one type of floating-point processor (e.g. CPU and GPU), are now becoming more prevalent due to these advantages. Although there has been extensive research into methods to use accelerators efficiently to improve the performance of molecular dynamics (MD) codes employing pairwise potential energy models, little is reported in the literature for models that include many-body effects. 3-body terms are required for many popular potentials such as MEAM, Tersoff, REBO, AIREBO, Stillinger-Weber, Bond-Order Potentials, and others. Because the per-atom simulation times are much higher for models incorporating 3-body terms, there is a clear need for efficient algorithms usable on hybrid high performance computers. Here, we report a shared-memory force-decomposition for 3-body potentials that avoids memory conflicts to allow for a deterministic code with substantial performance improvements on hybrid machines. We describe modifications necessary for use in distributed memory MD codes and show results for the simulation of water with Stillinger-Weber on the hybrid Titan supercomputer. We compare performance of the 3-body model to the SPC/E water model when using accelerators. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach can attain a speedup of 5.1 with acceleration on Titan for production simulations to study water droplet freezing on a surface.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of DPPC bilayer in DMSO.

    OpenAIRE

    Smondyrev, A M; Berkowitz, M L

    1999-01-01

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) system that has the same lipid:solvent weight ratio as in our previous simulation done on DPPC/water. We did not observe a large change in the size of DPPC membrane when the solvent was changed from water to DMSO. Also, we did not observe that a large number of DMSO molecules is permeating into the membrane, as it was suggested to explain the observed change in the bilayer repeat peri...

  17. Porting of serial molecular dynamics code on MIMD platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A molecular Dynamics (MD) code, utilized for the study of atomistic models of metallic systems has been parallelized for MIMD (Multiple Instructions Multiple Data) parallel platforms by means of the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) message passing library. Since the parallelization implies modifications of the sequential algorithms, these are described from the point of view of the Statistical Mechanics theory. Furthermore, techniques and parallelization strategies utilized and the MD parallel code are described in detail. Benchmarks on several MIMD platforms (IBM SP1 and SP2, Cray T3D, Cluster of workstations) allow performances evaluation of the code versus the different characteristics of the parallel platforms

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of thermodynamical properties of copper clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhi-Min; Wang Xin-Qiang; Yang Yuan-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    The melting and freezing processes of CuN (N = 180, 256, 360, 408, 500, 628 and 736) nanoclusters are simulated by using micro-canonical molecular dynamics simulation technique. The potential energies and the heat capacities as a function of temperature are obtained. The results reveal that the melting and freezing points increase almost linearly with the atom number in the cluster increasing. All copper nanoclusters have negative heat capacity around the melting and freezing points, and hysteresis effect in the melting/freezing transition is derived in CuN nanoclusters for the first time.

  19. Thermal transport properties of uranium dioxide by molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Taku; Sinnott, Susan B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Tulenko, James S. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Grimes, Robin W. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Schelling, Patrick K. [AMPAC and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Phillpot, Simon R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)], E-mail: sphil@mse.ufl.edu

    2008-04-30

    The thermal conductivities of single crystal and polycrystalline UO{sub 2} are calculated using molecular dynamics simulations, with interatomic interactions described by two different potential models. For single crystals, the calculated thermal conductivities are found to be strongly dependent on the size of the simulation cell. However, a scaling analysis shows that the two models predict essentially identical values for the thermal conductivity for infinite system sizes. By contrast, simulations with the two potentials for identical fine polycrystalline structures yield estimated thermal conductivities that differ by a factor of two. We analyze the origin of this difference.

  20. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Microstructure of Nanocrystalline Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yu-Hua; ZHOU Fu-Xin; LIU Yue-Wu

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure of computer generated nanocrystalline coppers is simulated by using molecular dynamics with the Finnis-Sinclair potential, analysed by means of radial distribution functions, coordination number, atomic energy and local crystalline order. The influence of the grain size on the nanocrystalline structure is studied.The results reveal that as the grain size is reduced, the grain boundary shows no significant structural difference,but the grain interior becomes more disordered, and their structural difference diminishes gradually; however,the density and the atomic average energy of the grain boundary present different tendencies from those of the grain interior.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of Ni3Al melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongshan Wang; Huaiyu Hou; Xiaodong Ni; Guoliang Chen

    2008-01-01

    With the Voter-Chert version of embedded-atom model (EAM) potential and molecular dynamics, the melting of Ni3A1 alloy was simulated by one-phase (conventional) and two-phase approaches. It is shown that the simulated melting point is dependent on the potential and the simulation method. The structures of the melts obtained by different simulation methods were analyzed by the pair correlation function, the coordination number, and the distribution of atom pair type (indexed by the Honeycutt-Andersen pair analysis technique). The results show that the structures are very similar.

  2. Molecular dynamics calculations for sodium using pseudopotential theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equation of state of sodium is studied using the molecular dynamics technique whereby the classical motion of a system of ions is solved with the aid of computers. The interaction potential between pairs of sodium ions consists of Coulomb and Born-Mayer repulsion terms and an effective ion-ion interaction derived from pseudopotential theory. This theory includes the effects of electron gas screening, exchange, and correlation. A model pseudopotential with parameters fit to experimental low-temperature data is used. By using this technique, an atomic description of a simple metal proceeds to the calculation of macroscopic thermodynamic properties

  3. A molecular dynamics study of freezing in a confined geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen-Jong; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Koplik, Joel

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls is studied by computer simulation. The time development of ordering is quantified and a novel freezing mechanism is observed. The liquid forms layers and subsequent in-plane ordering within a layer is accompanied by a sharpening of the layer in the transverse direction. The effects of channel size, the methods of quench, the liquid-wall interaction and the roughness of walls on the freezing mechanism are elucidated. Comparison with recent experiments on freezing in confined geometries is presented.

  4. Simulation of a flowing snow avalanche using molecular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Güçer, Denizhan; ÖZGÜÇ, Halil Bülent

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for the modeling and simulation of a flowing snow avalanche, which is formed of dry and liquefied snow that slides down a slope, using molecular dynamics and the discrete element method. A particle system is utilized as a base method for the simulation and marching cubes with real-time shaders are employed for rendering. A uniform grid-based neighbor search algorithm is used for collision detection for interparticle and particle-terrain interactions. A mass-spr...

  5. The A = 8 isotriplet in Fermionic Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, KR

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear structure of the A = 8 isotriplet is investigated in the Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) model. All three nuclei have importance to astrophysics, and exhibit clustering or haloes. FMD uses a wave-packet basis and is well-suited for modelling such structures. For a multiconfiguration treatment we construct the many-body Hilbert space from antisymmetrised angular-momentum projected 8-particle states. First results show formation of a proton halo in 8B, and reasonable reproduction of the T =1 states in 8Be.

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Field Emission From a Planar Nanodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Torfason, Kristinn; Manolescu, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    High resolution molecular dynamics simulations with full Coulomb interactions of electrons are used to investigate field emission in planar nanodiodes. The effects of space charge and emitter radius are examined and compared to previous results concerning transition from Fowler-Nordheim to Child-Langmuir current. The Fowler-Nordheim law is used to determine the current density injected into the system and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to find a favourable point of emission on the emitter surface. A simple fluid like model is also developed and its results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations.

  7. Easy creation of polymeric systems for molecular dynamics with Assemble!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiacomi, Matteo T.; Erastova, Valentina; Wilson, Mark R.

    2016-05-01

    We present Assemble!, a program greatly simplifying the preparation of molecular dynamics simulations of polymeric systems. The program is controlled either via command line or an intuitive Graphical User Interface, and runs on all major operating systems. Assemble! allows the creation of a desired system of polymer chains from constituent monomers, packs the chains into a box according to the required concentration and returns all the files needed for simulation with Gromacs. We illustrate the capabilities of Assemble! by demonstrating the easy preparation of a 300 monomers-long polyisoprene in hexane, and a heterogeneous mixture of polybutadiene.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Glass Transition Behavior of Polyimide Ensemble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of chromophores to the glass transition temperature of polyimide ensemble has been investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulation in conjunction with barrier analysis. Simulated Tg results indicated a good agreement with experimental value. This study showed the MD simulation could estimate the effect of chromophores to the Tg of polyimide ensemble conveniently and an estimation approach method had a surprising deviation of Tg from experiment. At the same time, a polyimide structure with higher barrier energy was designed and validated by MD simulation.

  9. Molecular dynamics computer simulations based on NMR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work described in this thesis atom-atom distance information obtained from two-dimensional cuclear magnetic resonance is combined with molecular dynamics simulaitons. The simulation is used to improve the accuracy of a structure model constructed on the basis of NMR data. During the MD refinement the crude NMR structure is simultaneously optimized with respect to the atomic interaction function and to the set of atom-atom distances or other NMR information. This means that insufficient experimental data is completed with theoretical knowledge and the combination will lead to more reliable structures than would be obtained from one technique alone. (author). 191 refs.; 17 figs.; 12 schemes; 22 tabs

  10. Molecular dynamics of MgSiO3 perovskite melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zi-Jiang; Cheng Xin-Lu; Yang Xiang-Dong; Zhang Hong; Cai Ling-Cang

    2006-01-01

    The melting curve of MgSiO3 perovskite is simulated using molecular dynamics simulations method at high pressure. It is shown that the simulated equation of state of MgSiO3 perovskite is very successful in reproducing accurately the experimental data. The pressure dependence of the simulated melting temperature of MgSiO3 perovskite reproduces the stability of the orthorhombic perovskite phase up to high pressure of 13OGPa at ambient temperature, consistent with the theoretical data of the other calculations. It is shown that its transformation to the cubic phase and melting at high pressure and high temperature are in agreement with recent experiments.

  11. Parallel-in-time molecular-dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffico, L.; Bernard, S.; Maday, Y.; Turinici, G.; Zérah, G.

    2002-11-01

    While there have been many progress in the field of multiscale simulations in the space domain, in particular, due to efficient parallelization techniques, much less is known in the way to perform similar approaches in the time domain. In this paper we show on two examples that, provided we can describe in a rough but still accurate way the system under consideration, it is indeed possible to parallelize molecular dynamics simulations in time by using the recently introduced pararealalgorithm. The technique is most useful for ab initio simulations.

  12. Molecular dynamic study of pressure fluctuations spectrum in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystryi, R. G.

    2015-11-01

    Pressure of plasma is calculated by using classical molecular dynamics method. The formula based on virial theorem was used. Spectrum pressure's fluctuations of singly ionized non-ideal plasma are studied. 1/f-like spectrum behavior is observed. In other words, flicker noise is observed in fluctuations of pressure equilibrium non-ideal plasma. Relations between the obtained result and pressure fluctuations within the Gibbs and Einstein approaches are discussed. Special attention is paid to features of calculating the pressure in strongly coupled systems.

  13. Nonlinear rotor dynamics of 2D molecular array: topology reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular layers with rotational degrees of freedom and quadrupolar interaction between linear molecules are investigated theoretically. We found earlier that alternative orientation of the molecules along and perpendicular to an axis of the rectangular lattice is preferable. Here we find the integral of motion and give the topology analysis of the possible dynamical phases and special points in the long-wave limit. We find the strong anisotropy in the angle space: directions of easy excitation ('valleys') exist. We show the potential relief reconstruction in dependence on the adsorbed lattice anisotropy.

  14. Investigation of deformation mechanisms of staggered nanocomposites using molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiazhagan, S.; Anup, S.

    2016-08-01

    Biological materials with nanostructure of regularly or stair-wise staggered arrangements of hard platelets reinforced in a soft protein matrix have superior mechanical properties. Applications of these nanostructures to ceramic matrix composites could enhance their toughness. Using molecular dynamics simulations, mechanical behaviour of the bio-inspired nanocomposites is studied. Regularly staggered model shows better flow behaviour compared to stair-wise staggered model due to the symmetrical crack propagation along the interface. Though higher stiffness and strength are obtained for stair-wise staggered models, rapid crack propagation reduces the toughness. Arresting this crack propagation could lead to superior mechanical properties in stair-wise staggered models.

  15. A Direct Two-Dimensional Pressure Formulation in Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    YD, Sumith

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) pressure field estimation in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been done using three-dimensional (3D) pressure field calculations followed by averaging, which is computationally expensive due to 3D convolutions. In this work, we develop a direct 2D pressure field estimation method which is much faster than 3D methods without losing accuracy. The method is validated with MD simulations on two systems: a liquid film and a cylindrical drop of argon suspended in surrounding vapor.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of peeling a DNA molecule on substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghua Shi; Yong Kong; Yapu Zhao; Huajian Gao

    2005-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study adhesion and peeling of a short fragment of single strand DNA (ssDNA) molecule from a graphite surface. The critical peel-off force is found to depend on both the peeling angle and the elasticity of ssDNA. For the short ssDNA strand under investigation, we show that the simulation results can be explained by a continuum model of an adhesive elastic band on substrate. The analysis suggests that it is often the peak value, rather than the mean value, of adhesion energy which determines the peeling of a nanoscale material.

  17. Ratchet dynamics of large polarons in asymmetric diatomic molecular chains.

    OpenAIRE

    Brizhik, L.; Eremko, A.; Piette, B.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    We study the dynamics of large polarons in diatomic molecular chains, at zero temperature, under the influence of an external, periodic in time, electric field of zero mean value. We show that in asymmetric chains, i.e. chains with two different atoms per unit cell, a harmonic unbiased field causes a drift of such polarons. Such a drift current, known as the ratchet phenomenon, depends strongly on the parameters of the chain; in particular, on the extent of the anisotropy of the chain and on ...

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of detonation on the roadrunner supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mniszewski, Susan; Cawkwell, Marc; Germann, Timothy C.

    2012-03-01

    The temporal and spatial scales intrinsic to a real detonating explosive are extremely difficult to capture using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Nevertheless, MD remains very attractive since it allows for the resolution of dynamic phenomena at the atomic scale. Large-scale reactive MD simulations in three dimensions require immense computational resources even when simple reactive force fields are employed. We focus on the REBO force field for 'AB' since it has been shown to support a detonation while being simple, analytic, and short-ranged. The transition from two-to three- dimensional simulations is being facilitated by the port of the REBO force field in the parallel MD code SPaSM to LANL's petaflop supercomputer 'Roadrunner'. We provide a detailed discussion of the challenges associated with computing interatomic forces on a hybrid Opteron/Cell BE computational architecture.

  19. Quantum Trajectory Approach to Molecular Dynamics Simulation with Surface Hopping

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Wei; Li, Xin-Qi; Fang, Weihai

    2012-01-01

    The powerful molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is basically based on a picture that the atoms experience classical-like trajectories under the exertion of classical force field determined by the quantum mechanically solved electronic state. In this work we propose a quantum trajectory approach to the MD simulation with surface hopping, from an insight that an effective "observation" is actually implied in theMDsimulation through tracking the forces experienced, just like checking the meter's result in the quantum measurement process. This treatment can build the nonadiabatic surface hopping on a dynamical foundation, instead of the usual artificial and conceptually inconsistent hopping algorithms. The effects and advantages of the proposed scheme are preliminarily illustrated by a two-surface model system.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of radiation damage cascades in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation damage cascades in diamond are studied by molecular dynamics simulations employing the Environment Dependent Interaction Potential for carbon. Primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies up to 2.5 keV are considered and a uniformly distributed set of 25 initial PKA directions provide robust statistics. The simulations reveal the atomistic origins of radiation-resistance in diamond and provide a comprehensive computational analysis of cascade evolution and dynamics. As for the case of graphite, the atomic trajectories are found to have a fractal-like character, thermal spikes are absent and only isolated point defects are generated. Quantitative analysis shows that the instantaneous maximum kinetic energy decays exponentially with time, and that the timescale of the ballistic phase has a power-law dependence on PKA energy. Defect recombination is efficient and independent of PKA energy, with only 50% of displacements resulting in defects, superior to graphite where the same quantity is nearly 75%

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of cluster fission and fusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia;

    2004-01-01

    groups of atoms from the parent cluster is largely independent of the isomer form of the parent cluster. The importance of rearrangement of the cluster structure during the fission process is elucidated. This rearrangement may include transition to another isomer state of the parent cluster before actual......Results of molecular dynamics simulations of fission reactions Na_10^2+ --> Na_7^+ +Na_3^+ and Na_18^2+ --> 2Na_9^+ are presented. The dependence of the fission barriers on the isomer structure of the parent cluster is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the energy necessary for removing homothetic...... separation of the daughter fragments begins and/or forming a "neck" between the separating fragments. A novel algorithm for modeling the cluster growth process is described. This approach is based on dynamic search for the most stable cluster isomers and allows one to find the optimized cluster geometries...

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of radiation damage cascades in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchan, J. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Robinson, M. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Christie, H. J.; Roach, D. L.; Ross, D. K. [Physics and Materials Research Centre, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Marks, N. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)

    2015-06-28

    Radiation damage cascades in diamond are studied by molecular dynamics simulations employing the Environment Dependent Interaction Potential for carbon. Primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies up to 2.5 keV are considered and a uniformly distributed set of 25 initial PKA directions provide robust statistics. The simulations reveal the atomistic origins of radiation-resistance in diamond and provide a comprehensive computational analysis of cascade evolution and dynamics. As for the case of graphite, the atomic trajectories are found to have a fractal-like character, thermal spikes are absent and only isolated point defects are generated. Quantitative analysis shows that the instantaneous maximum kinetic energy decays exponentially with time, and that the timescale of the ballistic phase has a power-law dependence on PKA energy. Defect recombination is efficient and independent of PKA energy, with only 50% of displacements resulting in defects, superior to graphite where the same quantity is nearly 75%.

  3. ProtoMD: A prototyping toolkit for multiscale molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Mansour, Andrew Abi; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2016-05-01

    ProtoMD is a toolkit that facilitates the development of algorithms for multiscale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It is designed for multiscale methods which capture the dynamic transfer of information across multiple spatial scales, such as the atomic to the mesoscopic scale, via coevolving microscopic and coarse-grained (CG) variables. ProtoMD can be also be used to calibrate parameters needed in traditional CG-MD methods. The toolkit integrates 'GROMACS wrapper' to initiate MD simulations, and 'MDAnalysis' to analyze and manipulate trajectory files. It facilitates experimentation with a spectrum of coarse-grained variables, prototyping rare events (such as chemical reactions), or simulating nanocharacterization experiments such as terahertz spectroscopy, AFM, nanopore, and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. ProtoMD is written in python and is freely available under the GNU General Public License from github.com/CTCNano/proto_md.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of a lithium/sodium carbonate mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottochian, Alistar; Ricca, Chiara; Labat, Frederic; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    The diffusion and ionic conductivity of Li x Na1-x CO3 salt mixtures were studied by means of Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, using the Janssen and Tissen model (Janssen and Tissen, Mol Simul 5:83-98; 1990). These salts have received particular attention due to their central role in fuel cells technology, and reliable numerical methods that could perform as important interpretative tool of experimental data are thus required but still lacking. The chosen computational model nicely reproduces the main structural behaviour of the pure Li2CO3, Na2CO3 and K2CO3 carbonates, but also of their Li/K and Li/Na mixtures. However, it fails to accurately describe dynamic properties such as activation energies of diffusion and conduction processes, outlining the need to develop more accurate models for the simulation of molten salt carbonates. PMID:26897519

  5. RPMDrate: Bimolecular chemical reaction rates from ring polymer molecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Suleimanov, Yu.V.

    2013-03-01

    We present RPMDrate, a computer program for the calculation of gas phase bimolecular reaction rate coefficients using the ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) method. The RPMD rate coefficient is calculated using the Bennett-Chandler method as a product of a static (centroid density quantum transition state theory (QTST) rate) and a dynamic (ring polymer transmission coefficient) factor. The computational procedure is general and can be used to treat bimolecular polyatomic reactions of any complexity in their full dimensionality. The program has been tested for the H+H2, H+CH 4, OH+CH4 and H+C2H6 reactions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Switching Dynamics in Reaction Networks Induced by Molecular Discreteness

    CERN Document Server

    Togashi, Y; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Togashi, Yuichi

    2006-01-01

    To study the fluctuations and dynamics in chemical reaction processes, stochastic differential equations based on the rate equation involving chemical concentrations are often adopted. When the number of molecules is very small, however, the discreteness in the number of molecules cannot be neglected since the number of molecules must be an integer. This discreteness can be important in biochemical reactions, where the total number of molecules is not significantly larger than the number of chemical species. To elucidate the effects of such discreteness, we study autocatalytic reaction systems comprising several chemical species through stochastic particle simulations. The generation of novel states is observed; it is caused by the extinction of some molecular species due to the discreteness in their number. We demonstrate that the reaction dynamics are switched by a single molecule, which leads to the reconstruction of the acting network structure. We also show the strong dependence of the chemical concentra...

  7. ProtoMD: A prototyping toolkit for multiscale molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Mansour, Andrew Abi; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2016-05-01

    ProtoMD is a toolkit that facilitates the development of algorithms for multiscale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It is designed for multiscale methods which capture the dynamic transfer of information across multiple spatial scales, such as the atomic to the mesoscopic scale, via coevolving microscopic and coarse-grained (CG) variables. ProtoMD can be also be used to calibrate parameters needed in traditional CG-MD methods. The toolkit integrates 'GROMACS wrapper' to initiate MD simulations, and 'MDAnalysis' to analyze and manipulate trajectory files. It facilitates experimentation with a spectrum of coarse-grained variables, prototyping rare events (such as chemical reactions), or simulating nanocharacterization experiments such as terahertz spectroscopy, AFM, nanopore, and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. ProtoMD is written in python and is freely available under the GNU General Public License from

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of glycerol glass-forming liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blieck, J. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, CNRS UMR 8024, BAT P5-Cite Scientifique, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Affouard, F. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, CNRS UMR 8024, BAT P5-Cite Scientifique, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: frederic.affouard@univ-lille1.fr; Bordat, P. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, CNRS UMR 8024, BAT P5-Cite Scientifique, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Lerbret, A. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, CNRS UMR 8024, BAT P5-Cite Scientifique, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Descamps, M. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, CNRS UMR 8024, BAT P5-Cite Scientifique, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2005-10-31

    Structural and dynamical properties of liquid glycerol have been investigated by Molecular Dynamics simulations. An improved model based on a slight reparametrisation of the all-atoms AMBER force field used in [R. Chelli, P. Procacci, G. Cardini, R.G.D. Valle, S. Califano, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1 (1999) 871] is presented. The structure remains satisfactory, qualitatively similar to that obtained from the original model. This new model is also found to reproduce significantly better the diffusion coefficient and the correlations times as they can be deduced from neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments. Structural heterogeneities revealed as a pre-peak of the static structure factor S(Q) close to Q {approx} 0.6 A{sup -1} are observed. Our results are also found compatible with predictions of the Mode Coupling Theory.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoscale metal tips under electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parviainen, S., E-mail: stefan.parviainen@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Djurabekova, F.; Pohjonen, A.; Nordlund, K. [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-15

    Vacuum arcing is a plasma discharge over a metal surface under high electric fields. Plasma formation requires the supply of neutral atoms, which under high vacuum condition can only come from the surface itself. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which the atoms are supplied are not known. In the present work, we propose a model for the onset of surface roughness and field-enhanced atom evaporation. Specifically, we describe a dislocation mechanism of tip growth from near-surface voids. We also simulate surface charging and resistive heating using a hybrid electrodynamics and molecular dynamics (ED and MD) code for dynamic simulations of electronic effects. We study the morphological evolution of the nanoscale protrusion under the electronic effects, such as the stretching of the tip by the stress induced by the electric field.

  10. First Principles Modelling of Shape Memory Alloys Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Materials sciences relate the macroscopic properties of materials to their microscopic structure and postulate the need for holistic multiscale research. The investigation of shape memory alloys is a prime example in this regard. This particular class of materials exhibits strong coupling of temperature, strain and stress, determined by solid state phase transformations of their metallic lattices. The present book presents a collection of simulation studies of this behaviour. Employing conceptually simple but comprehensive models, the fundamental material properties of shape memory alloys are qualitatively explained from first principles. Using contemporary methods of molecular dynamics simulation experiments, it is shown how microscale dynamics may produce characteristic macroscopic material properties. The work is rooted in the materials sciences of shape memory alloys and  covers  thermodynamical, micro-mechanical  and crystallographical aspects. It addresses scientists in these research fields and thei...

  11. Understanding water: Molecular dynamics simulations of solubilized and crystallized myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Gu; Garcia, A.E.; Schoenborn, B.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on CO myoglobin to evaluate the stability of the bound water molecules as determined in a neutron diffraction analysis. The myoglobin structure derived from the neutron analysis provided the starting coordinate set used in the simulations. The simulations show that only a few water molecules are tightly bound to protein atoms, while most solvent molecules are labile, breaking and reforming hydrogen bonds. Comparison between myoglobin in solution and in a single crystal highlighted some of the packing effects on the solvent structure and shows that water solvent plays an indispensable role in protein dynamics and structural stability. The described observations explain some of the differences in the experimental results of protein hydration as observed in NMR, neutron and X-ray diffraction studies.

  12. High temperature phonon dispersion in graphene using classical molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anees, P., E-mail: anees@igcar.gov.in; Panigrahi, B. K. [Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Valsakumar, M. C., E-mail: anees@igcar.gov.in [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Phonon dispersion and phonon density of states of graphene are calculated using classical molecular dynamics simulations. In this method, the dynamical matrix is constructed based on linear response theory by computing the displacement of atoms during the simulations. The computed phonon dispersions show excellent agreement with experiments. The simulations are done in both NVT and NPT ensembles at 300 K and found that the LO/TO modes are getting hardened at the Γ point. The NPT ensemble simulations capture the anharmonicity of the crystal accurately and the hardening of LO/TO modes is more pronounced. We also found that at 300 K the C-C bond length reduces below the equilibrium value and the ZA bending mode frequency becomes imaginary close to Γ along K-Γ direction, which indicates instability of the flat 2D graphene sheets.

  13. Pulmonary ventilation: dynamic MRI with inhalation of molecular oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently demonstrated a non-invasive technique to visualize pulmonary ventilation in humans with inhalation of molecular oxygen as a paramagnetic contrast agent. In the current study, T1 shortening of lung tissue by inhalation of oxygen was observed (P2) in a pig, resulting in excellent correlation (r2=0.997). Dynamic wash-in and wash-out MR ventilation images as well as dynamic wash-in wash-out signal intensity versus time curves were obtained. The mean wash-in decay constants were 26.8±10.5 s in the right lung, and 26.3±9.5 s in the left lung. The mean wash-out decay constants were 23.3±11.3 s in the right lung, and 20.8±10.5 s in the left lung. Dynamic assessment of pulmonary ventilation is feasible using oxygen-enhanced MR imaging, which could provide dynamic MR ventilation-perfusion imaging in combination with recently developed MR perfusion imaging technique, and thus a robust tool for the study of pulmonary physiology and pathophysiology

  14. Pulmonary ventilation: dynamic MRI with inhalation of molecular oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatabu, Hiroto E-mail: hatabu@oasis.rad.upenn.edu; Tadamura, Eiji; Chen Qun; Stock, Klaus W.; Li, Wei; Prasad, Pottumarthi V.; Edelman, Robert R

    2001-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated a non-invasive technique to visualize pulmonary ventilation in humans with inhalation of molecular oxygen as a paramagnetic contrast agent. In the current study, T1 shortening of lung tissue by inhalation of oxygen was observed (P<0.001). The T1 values of lung tissue were also correlated with arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO{sub 2}) in a pig, resulting in excellent correlation (r{sup 2}=0.997). Dynamic wash-in and wash-out MR ventilation images as well as dynamic wash-in wash-out signal intensity versus time curves were obtained. The mean wash-in decay constants were 26.8{+-}10.5 s in the right lung, and 26.3{+-}9.5 s in the left lung. The mean wash-out decay constants were 23.3{+-}11.3 s in the right lung, and 20.8{+-}10.5 s in the left lung. Dynamic assessment of pulmonary ventilation is feasible using oxygen-enhanced MR imaging, which could provide dynamic MR ventilation-perfusion imaging in combination with recently developed MR perfusion imaging technique, and thus a robust tool for the study of pulmonary physiology and pathophysiology.

  15. Accelerated large volume irradiation with dynamic Jaw/Dynamic Couch Helical Tomotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Sonja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helical Tomotherapy (HT has unique capacities for the radiotherapy of large and complicated target volumes. Next generation Dynamic Jaw/Dynamic Couch HT delivery promises faster treatments and reduced exposure of organs at risk due to a reduced dose penumbra. Methods Three challenging clinical situations were chosen for comparison between Regular HT delivery with a field width of 2.5 cm (Reg 2.5 and 5.0 cm (Reg 5.0 and DJDC delivery with a maximum field width of 5.0 cm (DJDC 5.0: Hemithoracic Irradiation, Whole Abdominal Irradiation (WAI and Total Marrow Irradiation (TMI. For each setting, five CT data sets were chosen, and target coverage, conformity, integral dose, dose exposure of organs at risk (OAR and treatment time were calculated. Results Both Reg 5.0 and DJDC 5.0 achieved a substantial reduction in treatment time while maintaining similar dose coverage. Treatment time could be reduced from 10:57 min to 3:42 min / 5:10 min (Reg 5.0 / DJDC 5.0 for Hemithoracic Irradiation, from 18:03 min to 8:02 min / 8:03 min for WAI and to 18:25 min / 18:03 min for TMI. In Hemithoracic Irradiation, OAR exposure was identical in all modalities. For WAI, Reg 2.5 resulted in lower exposure of liver and bone. DJDC plans showed a small but significant increase of ∼ 1 Gy to the kidneys, the parotid glans and the thyroid gland. While Reg 5.0 and DJDC were identical in terms of OAR exposure, integral dose was substantially lower with DJDC, caused by a smaller dose penumbra. Conclusions Although not clinically available yet, next generation DJDC HT technique is efficient in improving the treatment time while maintaining comparable plan quality.

  16. Huge-scale Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Multibubble Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2012-01-01

    We have developed molecular dynamics codes for a short-range interaction potential that adopt both the flat-MPI and MPI/OpenMP hybrid parallelizations on the basis of a full domain decomposition strategy. Benchmark simulations involving up to 38.4 billion Lennard-Jones particles were performed on PRIMEHPC FX10, consisting of 4800 SPARC64 IXfx 1.848 GHz processors, at the Information Technology Center of the University of Tokyo, and a performance of 193 teraflops was achieved, which corresponds to a 17.0% execution efficiency. Cavitation processes were also simulated on PRIMEHPC FX10 and SGI Altix ICE 8400EX at the Institute of Solid State Physics of the University of Tokyo, which involved 1.45 billion and 22.9 million particles, respectively. Ostwald-like ripening was observed after the multibubble nuclei. Our results demonstrate that direct simulations of multiscale phenomena involving phase transitions from the atomic scale are possible and that the molecular dynamics method is a promising method that can b...

  17. Molecular dynamics study of Cu-Pd ordered alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Özdemir Kart

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of the paper is to study the molecular dynamics of Cu-Pd ordered alloys.Design/methodology/approach: The thermal and mechanical properties of Cu, Pd pure metals and their ordered intermetallic alloys of Cu3Pd(L12 and CuPd3(L12 are studied by using the molecular dynamics simulation. The melting behavior of the metals considered in this work is studied by utilizing quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC many-body potential. The effects of temperature and concentration on the physical properties of Cu-Pd system are analyzed.Findings: A wide range of properties of Cu, Pd pure metals and their Cu3Pd and CuPd3 ordered intermetallics is presented. It was found that this potential is suitable to give the general characteristics of the melting process in these systems. Practical implications: The simulation results such as cohesive energy, density, elastic constants, bulk modulus, heat capacity, thermal expansion and melting points are in good agreement with the available experimental data and other theoretical calculations.Originality/value: To the best our knowledge this work presents, for the first time, a wide range of physical properties of alloys focusing on Cu-Pd ordered compounds.

  18. Quantum Thermal Bath for Path Integral Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieuc, Fabien; Dammak, Hichem; Hayoun, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The quantum thermal bath (QTB) method has been recently developed to account for the quantum nature of the nuclei by using standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. QTB-MD is an efficient but approximate method when dealing with strongly anharmonic systems, while path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) gives exact results but in a huge amount of computation time. The QTB and PIMD methods have been combined in order to improve the PIMD convergence or correct the failures of the QTB-MD technique. Therefore, a new power spectral density of the random force within the QTB has been developed. A modified centroid-virial estimator of the kinetic energy, especially adapted to QTB-PIMD, has also been proposed. The method is applied to selected systems: a one-dimensional double-well system, a ferroelectric phase transition, and the position distribution of an hydrogen atom in a fuel cell material. The advantage of the QTB-PIMD method is its ability to give exact results with a more reasonable computation time for strongly anharmonic systems. PMID:26799437

  19. Sex speeds adaptation by altering the dynamics of molecular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael J; Rice, Daniel P; Desai, Michael M

    2016-03-10

    Sex and recombination are pervasive throughout nature despite their substantial costs. Understanding the evolutionary forces that maintain these phenomena is a central challenge in biology. One longstanding hypothesis argues that sex is beneficial because recombination speeds adaptation. Theory has proposed several distinct population genetic mechanisms that could underlie this advantage. For example, sex can promote the fixation of beneficial mutations either by alleviating interference competition (the Fisher-Muller effect) or by separating them from deleterious load (the ruby in the rubbish effect). Previous experiments confirm that sex can increase the rate of adaptation, but these studies did not observe the evolutionary dynamics that drive this effect at the genomic level. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, comparison between the sequence-level dynamics of adaptation in experimental sexual and asexual Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations, which allows us to identify the specific mechanisms by which sex speeds adaptation. We find that sex alters the molecular signatures of evolution by changing the spectrum of mutations that fix, and confirm theoretical predictions that it does so by alleviating clonal interference. We also show that substantially deleterious mutations hitchhike to fixation in adapting asexual populations. In contrast, recombination prevents such mutations from fixing. Our results demonstrate that sex both speeds adaptation and alters its molecular signature by allowing natural selection to more efficiently sort beneficial from deleterious mutations.

  20. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Adhesion at Epoxy Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Clancy, Thomas C.; Hinkley, J. A.; Gates. T. S.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of moisture on adhesives used in aerospace applications can be modeled with chemically specific techniques such as molecular dynamics simulation. In the present study, the surface energy and work of adhesion are calculated for epoxy surfaces and interfaces, respectively, by using molecular dynamics simulation. Modifications are made to current theory to calculate the work of adhesion at the epoxy-epoxy interface with and without water. Quantitative agreement with experimental values is obtained for the surface energy and work of adhesion at the interface without water. The work of adhesion agrees qualitatively with the experimental values for the interface with water: the magnitude is reduced 15% with respect to the value for the interface without water. A variation of 26% in the magnitude is observed depending on the water configuration at a concentration of 1.6 wt%. The methods and modifications to the method that are employed to obtain these values are expected to be applicable for other epoxy adhesives to determine the effects of moisture uptake on their work of adhesion.

  1. Huge-scale molecular dynamics simulation of multibubble nuclei

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    We have developed molecular dynamics codes for a short-range interaction potential that adopt both the flat-MPI and MPI/OpenMP hybrid parallelizations on the basis of a full domain decomposition strategy. Benchmark simulations involving up to 38.4 billion Lennard-Jones particles were performed on Fujitsu PRIMEHPC FX10, consisting of 4800 SPARC64 IXfx 1.848 GHz processors, at the Information Technology Center of the University of Tokyo, and a performance of 193 teraflops was achieved, which corresponds to a 17.0% execution efficiency. Cavitation processes were also simulated on PRIMEHPC FX10 and SGI Altix ICE 8400EX at the Institute of Solid State Physics of the University of Tokyo, which involved 1.45 billion and 22.9 million particles, respectively. Ostwald-like ripening was observed after the multibubble nuclei. Our results demonstrate that direct simulations of multiscale phenomena involving phase transitions from the atomic scale are possible and that the molecular dynamics method is a promising method that can be applied to petascale computers. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of complex plasmas: interaction of nonlinear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durniak, Celine; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2008-11-01

    Complex plasmas consist of micron sized microspheres immersed into ordinary ion-electron plasmas. They exist in solid, liquid, gaseous states and exhibit a range of dynamic phenomena such as waves, solitons, phase transitions, heat transfer. These phenomena can be modelled in complex plasmas at the microscopic or ``molecular'' scale, which is almost impossible in ordinary solids and liquids. We simulate a monolayer complex plasma consisting of 3000 negatively-charged particles (or grains) with the help of molecular dynamics computer simulations. The equations of grain motion are solved using a 5^th order Runge Kutta method taking into account interaction of every grain with each other via a Yukawa potential. The grains are confined more strongly in the vertical direction than in the horizontal. After seeding the grains randomly the code is run until the equilibrium is reached as the grain kinetics energy reduces due to damping force equal to the neutral friction in the experiments and a monolayer crystal lattice is formed. Then we investigate interactions between nonlinear waves in a monolayer strongly coupled complex plasma moving in three dimensions. Different excitations are applied during a short time symmetrically on both sides of the lattice. Structural properties and nonlinear waves characteristics are examined as the pulses propagate across the complex plasma in opposite directions.

  3. Rigid-body molecular dynamics of DNA inside a nucleosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathizadeh, Arman; Berdy Besya, Azim; Reza Ejtehadi, Mohammad; Schiessel, Helmut

    2013-03-01

    The majority of eukaryotic DNA, about three quarter, is wrapped around histone proteins forming so-called nucleosomes. To study nucleosomal DNA we introduce a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model based on sequence-dependent harmonic rigid base pair step parameters of DNA and nucleosomal binding sites. Mixed parametrization based on all-atom molecular dynamics and crystallographic data of protein-DNA structures is used for the base pair step parameters. The binding site parameters are adjusted by experimental B-factor values of the nucleosome crystal structure. The model is then used to determine the energy cost for placing a twist defect into the nucleosomal DNA which allows us to use Kramers theory to calculate nucleosome sliding caused by such defects. It is shown that the twist defect scenario together with the sequence-dependent elasticity of DNA can explain the slow time scales observed for nucleosome mobility along DNA. With this method we also show how the twist defect mechanism leads to a higher mobility of DNA in the presence of sin mutations near the dyad axis. Finally, by performing simulations on 5s rDNA, 601, and telomeric base pair sequences, it is demonstrated that the current model is a powerful tool to predict nucleosome positioning. PMID:23475204

  4. Kinetic distance and kinetic maps from molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Frank; Clementi, Cecilia

    2015-10-13

    Characterizing macromolecular kinetics from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations requires a distance metric that can distinguish slowly interconverting states. Here, we build upon diffusion map theory and define a kinetic distance metric for irreducible Markov processes that quantifies how slowly molecular conformations interconvert. The kinetic distance can be computed given a model that approximates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors (reaction coordinates) of the MD Markov operator. Here, we employ the time-lagged independent component analysis (TICA). The TICA components can be scaled to provide a kinetic map in which the Euclidean distance corresponds to the kinetic distance. As a result, the question of how many TICA dimensions should be kept in a dimensionality reduction approach becomes obsolete, and one parameter less needs to be specified in the kinetic model construction. We demonstrate the approach using TICA and Markov state model (MSM) analyses for illustrative models, protein conformation dynamics in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and protein-inhibitor association in trypsin and benzamidine. We find that the total kinetic variance (TKV) is an excellent indicator of model quality and can be used to rank different input feature sets. PMID:26574285

  5. An undergraduate laboratory activity on molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Benjamin; Pritchett, Paige R; Messina, Troy C; Goadrich, Mark; Rodriguez, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Vision and Change [AAAS, 2011] outlines a blueprint for modernizing biology education by addressing conceptual understanding of key concepts, such as the relationship between structure and function. The document also highlights skills necessary for student success in 21st century Biology, such as the use of modeling and simulation. Here we describe a laboratory activity that allows students to investigate the dynamic nature of protein structure and function through the use of a modeling technique known as molecular dynamics (MD). The activity takes place over two lab periods that are 3 hr each. The first lab period unpacks the basic approach behind MD simulations, beginning with the kinematic equations that all bioscience students learn in an introductory physics course. During this period students are taught rudimentary programming skills in Python while guided through simple modeling exercises that lead up to the simulation of the motion of a single atom. In the second lab period students extend concepts learned in the first period to develop skills in the use of expert MD software. Here students simulate and analyze changes in protein conformation resulting from temperature change, solvation, and phosphorylation. The article will describe how these activities can be carried out using free software packages, including Abalone and VMD/NAMD. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:130-139, 2016. PMID:26751047

  6. Molecular Dynamics Study of Polyethylene under Extreme Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritikos, G.; Sgouros, A.; Vogiatzis, G. G.; Theodorou, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    We present results concerning the dynamics and the structure of adsorbed layers of molten polyethylene (PE) between two graphite surfaces. The molecular weight of the monodisperse PE chains reaches the entanglement regime. We study three cases of interwall distances, equal to two, three and four times the unperturbed radius of gyration (Rg ) of PE chains. The confined system is equilibrated by use of efficient Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms. Conducting molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we reveal the distribution of relaxation times as a function of distance from the graphite walls at the temperature of 450 K. From the atomic-level stresses we calculate a realistic estimate of the adhesion tension, which is not affected significantly by the width of the pore. Although the distance between the two walls is comparable to the width of the adsorbed layer, we do not record the formation of ‘glassy bridges’ under the studied conditions. The diffusion of polymer chains in the middle layer is not inhibited by the existence of the two adsorbed layers. Extreme confinement conditions imposed by the long range wall potentials bring about an increase in both the adsorption and desorption rates of chains. The presented results seem to cohere with a reduction in the calorimetric (heat capacity step) glass transition temperature (Tg ).

  7. Electron beam dynamics in the long-pulse, high-current DARHT-II linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DARHT-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) now accelerates 2-kA electron beams to more than 17 MeV. This LIA is unique in that the accelerated current pulse width is greater than 2 microseconds. This pulse has a flat-top region where the final electron kinetic energy varies by less than 1% for more than 1.5 microseconds. The long risetime of the 6-cell injector current pulse is 0.5 (micro)s, which can be scraped off in a beam-head cleanup zone before entering the 68-cell main accelerator. We discuss our experience with tuning this novel accelerator; and present data for the resulting beam transport and dynamics. We also present beam stability data, and relate these to previous stability experiments at lower current and energy.

  8. Electron beam dynamics in the long-pulse, high-current DARHT-II linear induction accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abeyta, Epifanio O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aragon, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Rita [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cook, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dalmas, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esquibel, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gallegos, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garnett, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harrison, James F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Jeffrey B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jacquez, Edward B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mccuistian, Brian T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montoya, Nicholas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nath, Subrato [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nielsen, Kurt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prichard, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowton, Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Manolito [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scarpetti, Raymond [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schauer, Martin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seitz, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schulze, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bender, Howard A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Broste, William B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Carl A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Frayer, Daniel K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Douglas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tom, C Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hughes, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anaya, Richard [LLNL; Caporaso, George [LLNL; Chambers, Frank [LLNL; Chen, Yu - Jiuan [LLNL; Falabella, Steve [LLNL; Guethlein, Gary [LLNL; Raymond, Brett [LLNL; Richardson, Roger [LLNL; Trainham, C [NSTEC/STL; Watson, Jim [LLNL; Weir, John [LLNL; Genoni, Thomas [VOSS; Toma, Carsten [VOSS

    2009-01-01

    The DARHT-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) now accelerates 2-kA electron beams to more than 17 MeV. This LIA is unique in that the accelerated current pulse width is greater than 2 microseconds. This pulse has a flat-top region where the final electron kinetic energy varies by less than 1% for more than 1.5 microseconds. The long risetime of the 6-cell injector current pulse is 0.5 {micro}s, which can be scraped off in a beam-head cleanup zone before entering the 68-cell main accelerator. We discuss our experience with tuning this novel accelerator; and present data for the resulting beam transport and dynamics. We also present beam stability data, and relate these to previous stability experiments at lower current and energy.

  9. Modeling Structural Dynamics of Biomolecular Complexes by Coarse-Grained Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shoji; Kanada, Ryo; Tan, Cheng; Terakawa, Tsuyoshi; Li, Wenfei; Kenzaki, Hiroo

    2015-12-15

    Due to hierarchic nature of biomolecular systems, their computational modeling calls for multiscale approaches, in which coarse-grained (CG) simulations are used to address long-time dynamics of large systems. Here, we review recent developments and applications of CG modeling methods, focusing on our methods primarily for proteins, DNA, and their complexes. These methods have been implemented in the CG biomolecular simulator, CafeMol. Our CG model has resolution such that ∼10 non-hydrogen atoms are grouped into one CG particle on average. For proteins, each amino acid is represented by one CG particle. For DNA, one nucleotide is simplified by three CG particles, representing sugar, phosphate, and base. The protein modeling is based on the idea that proteins have a globally funnel-like energy landscape, which is encoded in the structure-based potential energy function. We first describe two representative minimal models of proteins, called the elastic network model and the classic Go̅ model. We then present a more elaborate protein model, which extends the minimal model to incorporate sequence and context dependent local flexibility and nonlocal contacts. For DNA, we describe a model developed by de Pablo's group that was tuned to well reproduce sequence-dependent structural and thermodynamic experimental data for single- and double-stranded DNAs. Protein-DNA interactions are modeled either by the structure-based term for specific cases or by electrostatic and excluded volume terms for nonspecific cases. We also discuss the time scale mapping in CG molecular dynamics simulations. While the apparent single time step of our CGMD is about 10 times larger than that in the fully atomistic molecular dynamics for small-scale dynamics, large-scale motions can be further accelerated by two-orders of magnitude with the use of CG model and a low friction constant in Langevin dynamics. Next, we present four examples of applications. First, the classic Go̅ model was used to

  10. Vision-Augmented Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Nanoindentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajab Al-Sayegh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a user-friendly vision-augmented technique to carry out atomic simulation using hand gestures. The system is novel in its concept as it enables the user to directly manipulate the atomic structures on the screen, in 3D space using hand gestures, allowing the exploration and visualisation of molecular interactions at different relative conformations. The hand gestures are used to pick and place atoms on the screen allowing thereby the ease of carrying out molecular dynamics simulation in a more efficient way. The end result is that users with limited expertise in developing molecular structures can now do so easily and intuitively by the use of body gestures to interact with the simulator to study the system in question. The proposed system was tested by simulating the crystal anisotropy of crystalline silicon during nanoindentation. A long-range (Screened bond order Tersoff potential energy function was used during the simulation which revealed the value of hardness and elastic modulus being similar to what has been found previously from the experiments. We anticipate that our proposed system will open up new horizons to the current methods on how an MD simulation is designed and executed.

  11. Influence of annealing on chain entanglement and molecular dynamics in weak dynamic asymmetry polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Tan, Yeqiang; Qiu, Biwei; Shangguan, Yonggang; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Zheng, Qiang

    2013-01-17

    The influence of annealing above the glass transition temperature (T(g)) on chain entanglement and molecular dynamics of solution-cast poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PMMA/SMA) blends was investigated via a combination of dynamic rheological measurement and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. Chain entanglement density increases when the annealing temperature and/or time increases, resulting from the increased efficiency of chain packing and entanglement recovery. The results of the annealing treatment without cooling revealed that the increase of the entanglement density occurred during the annealing process instead of the subsequent cooling procedure. Annealing above T(g) exerts a profound effect on segmental motion, including the transition temperature and dynamics. Namely, T(g) shifts to higher temperatures and the relaxation time (τ(max)) increases due to the increased entanglement density and decreased molecular mobility. Either T(g) or τ(max) approaches an equilibrium value gradually, corresponding to the equilibrium entanglement density that might be obtained through the theoretical predictions. However, no obvious distribution broadening is observed due to the unchanged heterogeneous dynamics. Furthermore, side group rotational motion could be freely achieved without overcoming the chain entanglement resistance. Hence, neither the dynamics nor the distribution width of the subglass relaxation (β- and γ-relaxation) processes is affected by chain entanglement resulting from annealing, indicating that the local environment of the segments is unchanged.

  12. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by two genistein derivatives: kinetic analysis, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiansong; Wu, Ping; Yang, Ranyao; Gao, Li; Li, Chao; Wang, Dongmei; Wu, Song; Liu, Ai-Lin; Du, Guan-Hua

    2014-12-01

    In this study two genistein derivatives (G1 and G2) are reported as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and differences in the inhibition of AChE are described. Although they differ in structure by a single methyl group, the inhibitory effect of G1 (IC50=264 nmol/L) on AChE was 80 times stronger than that of G2 (IC50=21,210 nmol/L). Enzyme-kinetic analysis, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted to better understand the molecular basis for this difference. The results obtained by kinetic analysis demonstrated that G1 can interact with both the catalytic active site and peripheral anionic site of AChE. The predicted binding free energies of two complexes calculated by the molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MM/GBSA) method were consistent with the experimental data. The analysis of the individual energy terms suggested that a difference between the net electrostatic contributions (ΔE ele+ΔG GB) was responsible for the binding affinities of these two inhibitors. Additionally, analysis of the molecular mechanics and MM/GBSA free energy decomposition revealed that the difference between G1 and G2 originated from interactions with Tyr124, Glu292, Val294 and Phe338 of AChE. In conclusion, the results reveal significant differences at the molecular level in the mechanism of inhibition of AChE by these structurally related compounds. PMID:26579414

  13. Stochastic quantum molecular dynamics for finite and extended systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The figure illustrates the time-evolution as generated by the quantum jump algorithm. The lower track represents the piecewise deterministic propagation of the physical state which is intercepted at instances in time where the bath operator S-circumflex acts on the state. The points in time where this takes place are determined by sampling a waiting-time distribution. The sampling is performed by propagating an auxiliary state (represented in the upper track) with a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. Uniformly distributed random numbers are drawn and once the norm of the auxiliary state drops below the current random number the propagation of the physical and the auxiliary state is suspended. At this point in time the action of the bath operator on the physical state results in a new state which is then also used to initialize the auxiliary state for the evolution. The simulation of both states is then resumed again. Highlights: ►In this study we present a detailed account of the technical aspects of stochastic quantum molecular dynamics. ► We consider both finite systems with and without ionic motion, as well as describe its applicability to extended systems. ► We give prospects of applying the method to decoherence and energy relaxation in the presence of time-dependent fields. - Abstract: We present a detailed account of the technical aspects of stochastic quantum molecular dynamics, an approach introduced recently by the authors [H. Appel, M. Di Ventra, Phys. Rev. B 80 (2009) 212303] to describe coupled electron–ion dynamics in open quantum systems. As example applications of the method we consider both finite systems with and without ionic motion, as well as describe its applicability to extended systems in the limit of classical ions. The latter formulation allows the study of important phenomena such as decoherence and energy relaxation in bulk systems and surfaces in the presence of time-dependent fields.

  14. Combining optimal control theory and molecular dynamics for protein folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaman Arkun

    Full Text Available A new method to develop low-energy folding routes for proteins is presented. The novel aspect of the proposed approach is the synergistic use of optimal control theory with Molecular Dynamics (MD. In the first step of the method, optimal control theory is employed to compute the force field and the optimal folding trajectory for the Cα atoms of a Coarse-Grained (CG protein model. The solution of this CG optimization provides an harmonic approximation of the true potential energy surface around the native state. In the next step CG optimization guides the MD simulation by specifying the optimal target positions for the Cα atoms. In turn, MD simulation provides an all-atom conformation whose Cα positions match closely the reference target positions determined by CG optimization. This is accomplished by Targeted Molecular Dynamics (TMD which uses a bias potential or harmonic restraint in addition to the usual MD potential. Folding is a dynamical process and as such residues make different contacts during the course of folding. Therefore CG optimization has to be reinitialized and repeated over time to accomodate these important changes. At each sampled folding time, the active contacts among the residues are recalculated based on the all-atom conformation obtained from MD. Using the new set of contacts, the CG potential is updated and the CG optimal trajectory for the Cα atoms is recomputed. This is followed by MD. Implementation of this repetitive CG optimization-MD simulation cycle generates the folding trajectory. Simulations on a model protein Villin demonstrate the utility of the method. Since the method is founded on the general tools of optimal control theory and MD without any restrictions, it is widely applicable to other systems. It can be easily implemented with available MD software packages.

  15. The PyZgoubi framework and the simulation of dynamic aperture in fixed-field alternating-gradient accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tygier, S., E-mail: sam.tygier@hep.manchester.ac.uk [Cockcroft Accelerator Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Appleby, R.B., E-mail: robert.appleby@manchester.ac.uk [Cockcroft Accelerator Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Garland, J.M. [Cockcroft Accelerator Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Hock, K. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Owen, H. [Cockcroft Accelerator Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kelliher, D.J.; Sheehy, S.L. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    We present PyZgoubi, a framework that has been developed based on the tracking engine Zgoubi to model, optimise and visualise the dynamics in particle accelerators, especially fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerators. We show that PyZgoubi abstracts Zgoubi by wrapping it in an easy-to-use Python framework in order to allow simple construction, parameterisation, visualisation and optimisation of FFAG accelerator lattices. Its object oriented design gives it the flexibility and extensibility required for current novel FFAG design. We apply PyZgoubi to two example FFAGs; this includes determining the dynamic aperture of the PAMELA medical FFAG in the presence of magnet misalignments, and illustrating how PyZgoubi may be used to optimise FFAGs. We also discuss a robust definition of dynamic aperture in an FFAG and show its implementation in PyZgoubi.

  16. Static and dynamic properties of curved vapour-liquid interfaces by massively parallel molecular dynamics simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Horsch, Martin T; Vrabec, Jadran; Glass, Colin W; Niethammer, Christoph; Bernreuther, Martin F; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George

    2011-01-01

    Curved fluid interfaces are investigated on the nanometre length scale by molecular dynamics simulation. Thereby, droplets surrounded by a metastable vapour phase are stabilized in the canonical ensemble. Analogous simulations are conducted for cylindrical menisci separating vapour and liquid phases under confinement in planar nanopores. Regarding the emergence of nanodroplets during nucleation, a non-equilibrium phenomenon, both the non-steady dynamics of condensation processes and stationary quantities related to supersaturated vapours are considered. Results for the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones fluid and for mixtures of quadrupolar fluids confirm the applicability of the capillarity approximation and the classical nucleation theory.

  17. Dewetting dynamics of nickel thin film on alpha-quartz substrate: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Yuki; Shibuta, Yasushi

    2016-08-01

    Dewetting dynamics of the nickel thin film on the alpha-quartz substrate is closely investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Morphology after the spontaneous dewetting of thin films changes from multi-droplets, single-droplet and cylindrical structure as the film thickness increases. In the thin cylindrical structure, a neck is induced to break into the droplet due to the Plateau-Rayleigh instability whereas the thick cylindrical structure does not break. Nucleation and subsequent solidification happen only in the large droplet after the dewetting due to the size effect, which is dominated by the kinetic factor of nucleation in the small system.

  18. Evaluating Molecular Interactions in Polycaprolactone-Biomineralized Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites using Steered Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Payne, Scott; Katti, Kalpana S.; Katti, Dinesh R.

    2015-04-01

    An experimental and modeling study of a complex nanoclay-based polymeric scaffold system is presented here. A representative molecular model of polymeric nanocomposite scaffold system for bone tissue engineering applications was developed. Polymeric scaffolds were synthesized using organically modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) with biomineralized hydroxyapatite and polycaprolactone (OMMT-HAP-PCL). The OMMT-HAP-PCL representative model was constructed and validated using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and material density results. We observed strong molecular interactions between OMMT, hydroxyapatite (HAP) and polycaprolactone (PCL) in the OMMT-HAP-PCL system. Attractive and repulsive interactions between PCL and different constituents of OMMT and HAP indicate influence of OMMT-HAP on PCL. Polymeric scaffolds were found to have improved nanomechanical properties as compared to pristine PCL due to the introduction of OMMT-HAP. Stress-strain response for the representative OMMT-HAP-PCL model was evaluated using constant force steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. Two distinct stress-strain responses observed in the system indicate a two-phase nanomechanical behavior of OMMT-HAP-PCL obtained at low and high applied stresses. The results obtained from the MD and SMD simulations provide quantitative understanding of molecular interactions between different constituents of OMMT, HAP and PCL and mechanical response in the OMMT-HAP-PCL system.

  19. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Cantilever Wide Dynamic Range Acceleration/Vibration /Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Auciello, Orlando

    2003-09-02

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) element formed in a cantilever configuration is used in a highly sensitive, ultra-small sensor for measuring acceleration, shock, vibration and static pressure over a wide dynamic range. The cantilever UNCD element may be used in combination with a single anode, with measurements made either optically or by capacitance. In another embodiment, the cantilever UNCD element is disposed between two anodes, with DC voltages applied to the two anodes. With a small AC modulated voltage applied to the UNCD cantilever element and because of the symmetry of the applied voltage and the anode-cathode gap distance in the Fowler-Nordheim equation, any change in the anode voltage ratio V1/V2 required to maintain a specified current ratio precisely matches any displacement of the UNCD cantilever element from equilibrium. By measuring changes in the anode voltage ratio required to maintain a specified current ratio, the deflection of the UNCD cantilever can be precisely determined. By appropriately modulating the voltages applied between the UNCD cantilever and the two anodes, or limit electrodes, precise independent measurements of pressure, uniaxial acceleration, vibration and shock can be made. This invention also contemplates a method for fabricating the cantilever UNCD structure for the sensor.

  20. Accelerated dynamics of blast wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in high energy density plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, N.; Kuranz, C.; Drake, R. P.; Abarzhi, S. I.

    2014-10-01

    We report the systematic analysis of experimental data describing the late time evolution of the high Mach number and high Reynolds number Rayleigh-Taylor instability which is driven by a blast wave. The parameter regime is relevant to high energy density plasmas and astrophysics. The experiments have been conducted at the Omega laser facility. By processing the experimental x-ray images, we quantified the delicate features of RT dynamics, including the measurements of the curvature of the transmitted shock and the interface envelopes, the positions of RT bubbles and spikes, and the quantification of statistics of RT mixing. The measurements were performed at four time steps and for three different initial perturbations of the target (single mode and two two-mode). We found that within the noise level the curvatures of the shock and interface envelope evolve steadily and are an imprint of laser imperfections. At late times, the bubble merge does not occur, and the flow keeps significant degree of order. Yet, the blast-wave-driven RT spikes do accelerate with the power-law exponent smaller than that in case of sustained acceleration. We compared the experimental results with the momentum model of RT mixing and stochastic model achieving good agreement. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.

  1. Coarse Molecular Dynamics of a Peptide Fragment Free Energy, Kinetics, and Long-Time Dynamics Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Hummer, G; Hummer, Gerhard; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.

    2002-01-01

    We present a ``coarse molecular dynamics'' approach and apply it to studying the kinetics and thermodynamics of a peptide fragment dissolved in water. Short bursts of appropriately initialized simulations are used to infer the deterministic and stochastic components of the peptide motion parametrized by an appropriate set of coarse variables. Techniques from traditional numerical analysis (Newton-Raphson, coarse projective integration) are thus enabled; these techniques help analyze important features of the free-energy landscape (coarse transition states, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, transition rates, etc.). Reverse integration of (irreversible) expected coarse variables backward in time can assist escape from free energy minima and trace low-dimensional free energy surfaces. To illustrate the ``coarse molecular dynamics'' approach, we combine multiple short (0.5-ps) replica simulations to map the free energy surface of the ``alanine dipeptide'' in water, and to determine the ~ 1/(1000 ps) rate of interconv...

  2. Chemoinformatics in the New Era: From Molecular Dynamics to Systems Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyu Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemoinformatics, due to its power in gathering information at the molecular level, has a wide array of important applications to biology, including fundamental biochemical studies and drug discovery and optimization. As modern “omics” based profiling and network based modeling and simulation techniques grow in sophistication, chemoinformatics now faces a great opportunity to include systems-level control mechanisms as one of its pillar components to extend and refine its various applications. This viewpoint article, through the example of computer aided targeting of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, outlines major steps of integrating systems dynamics simulations into molecular dynamics simulations to facilitate a higher level of chemoinformatics that would revolutionize drug lead optimization, personalized therapy, and possibly other applications.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of naturally existing cavity couplings in proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Barbany

    Full Text Available Couplings between protein sub-structures are a common property of protein dynamics. Some of these couplings are especially interesting since they relate to function and its regulation. In this article we have studied the case of cavity couplings because cavities can host functional sites, allosteric sites, and are the locus of interactions with the cell milieu. We have divided this problem into two parts. In the first part, we have explored the presence of cavity couplings in the natural dynamics of 75 proteins, using 20 ns molecular dynamics simulations. For each of these proteins, we have obtained two trajectories around their native state. After applying a stringent filtering procedure, we found significant cavity correlations in 60% of the proteins. We analyze and discuss the structure origins of these correlations, including neighbourhood, cavity distance, etc. In the second part of our study, we have used longer simulations (≥100 ns from the MoDEL project, to obtain a broader view of cavity couplings, particularly about their dependence on time. Using moving window computations we explored the fluctuations of cavity couplings along time, finding that these couplings could fluctuate substantially during the trajectory, reaching in several cases correlations above 0.25/0.5. In summary, we describe the structural origin and the variations with time of cavity couplings. We complete our work with a brief discussion of the biological implications of these results.

  4. The classical and quantum dynamics of molecular spins on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetti, Christian; Rettori, Angelo; Pini, Maria Gloria; Cornia, Andrea; Repollés, Ana; Luis, Fernando; Dressel, Martin; Rauschenbach, Stephan; Kern, Klaus; Burghard, Marko; Bogani, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the dynamics of spins on surfaces is pivotal to the design of spintronic1 and quantum computing2 devices. Proposed schemes involve the interaction of spins with graphene to enable surface-state spintronics3,4, and electrical spin-manipulation4-11. However, the influence of the graphene environment on the spin systems has yet to be unraveled12. Here we explore the spin-graphene interaction by studying the classical and quantum dynamics of molecular magnets13 on graphene. While the static spin response remains unaltered, the quantum spin dynamics and associated selection rules are profoundly modulated. The couplings to graphene phonons, to other spins, and to Dirac fermions are quantified using a newly-developed model. Coupling to Dirac electrons introduces a dominant quantum-relaxation channel that, by driving the spins over Villain’s threshold, gives rise to fully-coherent, resonant spin tunneling. Our findings provide fundamental insight into the interaction between spins and graphene, establishing the basis for electrical spin-manipulation in graphene nanodevices. PMID:26641019

  5. Evaluation of Dynamic Mechanical Loading as an Accelerated Test Method for Ribbon Fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, Nick; Silverman, Timothy J.; Wohlgemuth, John; Kurtz, Sarah; Inoue, Masanao; Sakurai, Keiichiro; Shioda, Tsuyoshi; Zenkoh, Hirofumi; Hirota, Kusato; Miyashita, Masanori; Tadanori, Tanahashi; Suzuki, Soh; Chen, Yifeng; Verlinden, Pierre J.

    2014-12-31

    Dynamic Mechanical Loading (DML) of photovoltaic modules is explored as a route to quickly fatigue copper interconnect ribbons. Results indicate that most of the interconnect ribbons may be strained through module mechanical loading to a level that will result in failure in a few hundred to thousands of cycles. Considering the speed at which DML may be applied, this translates into a few hours of testing. To evaluate the equivalence of DML to thermal cycling, parallel tests were conducted with thermal cycling. Preliminary analysis suggests that one +/-1 kPa DML cycle is roughly equivalent to one standard accelerated thermal cycle and approximately 175 of these cycles are equivalent to a 25-year exposure in Golden Colorado for the mechanism of module ribbon fatigue.

  6. Evaluation of Dynamic Mechanical Loading as an Accelerated Test Method for Ribbon Fatigue: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, N.; Silverman, T. J.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shinoda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Hirota, K.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2015-04-07

    Dynamic Mechanical Loading (DML) of photovoltaic modules is explored as a route to quickly fatigue copper interconnect ribbons. Results indicate that most of the interconnect ribbons may be strained through module mechanical loading to a level that will result in failure in a few hundred to thousands of cycles. Considering the speed at which DML may be applied, this translates into a few hours o testing. To evaluate the equivalence of DML to thermal cycling, parallel tests were conducted with thermal cycling. Preliminary analysis suggests that one +/-1 kPa DML cycle is roughly equivalent to one standard accelerated thermal cycle and approximately 175 of these cycles are equivalent to a 25-year exposure in Golden Colorado for the mechanism of module ribbon fatigue.

  7. Studies of the chromatic properties and dynamic aperture of the BNL colliding beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PATRICIA particle tracking program has been used to study chromatic effects in the Brookhaven CBA (Colliding Beam Accelerator). The short term behavior of particles in the CBA has been followed for particle histories of 300 turns. Contributions from magnet multipoles characteristic of superconducting magnets and closed orbit errors have been included in determining the dynamic aperture of the CBA for on and off momentum particles. The width of the third integer stopband produced by the temperature dependence of magnetization induced sextupoles in the CBA cable dipoles is evaluated for helium distribution systems having periodicity of one and six. The stopband width at a tune of 68/3 is naturally zero for the system having a periodicity of six and is ∫10-4 for the system having a periodicity of one. Results from theory are compared with results obtained with PATRICIA; the results agree within a factor of slightly more than two

  8. Numerical integration of dynamical systems with Lie series: Relativistic acceleration and non-gravitational forces

    CERN Document Server

    Bancelin, D; Thuillot, W

    2016-01-01

    The integration of the equations of motion in gravitational dynamical systems -- either in our Solar System or for extra-solar planetary system -- being non integrable in the global case, is usually performed by means of numerical integration. Among the different numerical techniques available for solving ordinary differential equations, the numerical integration using Lie series has shown some advantages. In its original form (Hanslmeier 1984), it was limited to the N-body problem where only gravitational interactions are taken into account. We present in this paper a generalisation of the method by deriving an expression of the Lie-terms when other major forces are considered. As a matter of fact, previous studies had been made but only for objects moving under gravitational attraction. If other perturbations are added, the Lie integrator has to be re-built. In the present work we consider two cases involving position and position-velocity dependent perturbations: relativistic acceleration in the framework ...

  9. Molecular dynamics studies on the buffalo prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng; Chatterjee, Subhojyoti

    2016-01-01

    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) (same as rabbits, horses, and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (except for rabbits, dogs, horses, and buffalo), manifesting as scrapie in sheep and goats; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad-cow" disease) in cattle; chronic wasting disease in deer and elk; and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, and Kulu in humans etc. In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), predominantly with α-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)), rich in β-sheets. In this article, we studied the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo PrP(C) (BufPrP(C)), in order to understand the reason why buffalo is resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling of a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the NMR structure of bovine and cattle PrP(124-227); immediately we found that for BufPrP(C)(124-227), there are five hydrogen bonds (HBs) at Asn143, but at this position, bovine/cattle do not have such HBs. Same as that of rabbits, dogs, or horses, our molecular dynamics studies also revealed there is a strong salt bridge (SB) ASP178-ARG164 (O-N) keeping the β2-α2 loop linked in buffalo. We also found there is a very strong HB SER170-TYR218 linking this loop with the C-terminal end of α-helix H3. Other information, such as (i) there is a very strong SB HIS187-ARG156 (N-O) linking α-helices H2 and H1 (if mutation H187R is made at position 187, then the hydrophobic core of PrP(C) will be exposed (L.H. Zhong (2010). Exposure of hydrophobic core in human prion protein pathogenic mutant H187R. Journal of

  10. Accelerating the Use of Molecular Modeling in the High School Classroom with VMD Lite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Karl; Herndon, Conner; Harty, Tyson H.; Gumbart, James C.

    2016-01-01

    It is often difficult for students to develop an intuition about molecular processes, which occur in a realm far different from day-to-day life. For example, thermal fluctuations take on hurricane-like proportions at the molecular scale. Students need a way to visualize realistic depictions of molecular processes to appreciate them. To this end,…

  11. Dynamic load balancing algorithm for molecular dynamics based on Voronoi cells domain decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattebert, J.-L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Richards, D.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glosli, J.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present a new algorithm for automatic parallel load balancing in classical molecular dynamics. It assumes a spatial domain decomposition of particles into Voronoi cells. It is a gradient method which attempts to minimize a cost function by displacing Voronoi sites associated with each processor/sub-domain along steepest descent directions. Excellent load balance has been obtained for quasi-2D and 3D practical applications, with up to 440·106 particles on 65,536 MPI tasks.

  12. Instability in the Molecular Dynamics Step of Hybrid Monte Carlo in Dynamical Fermion Lattice QCD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Joó, B; Kennedy, A D; Irving, A C; Sexton, J C; Pickles, S M; Booth, S P; Joo, Balint; Pendleton, Brian; Kennedy, Anthony D.; Irving, Alan C.; Sexton, James C.; Pickles, Stephen M.; Booth, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate instability and reversibility within Hybrid Monte Carlo simulations using a non-perturbatively improved Wilson action. We demonstrate the onset of instability as tolerance parameters and molecular dynamics step sizes are varied. We compare these findings with theoretical expectations and present limits on simulation parameters within which a stable and reversible algorithm is obtained for physically relevant simulations. Results of optimisation experiments with respect to tolerance prarameters are also presented.

  13. Sloshing dynamics modulated fluid angular momentum and moment fluctuations driven by orbital gravity gradient and jitter accelerations in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Pan, H. L.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of spacecraft propellant affected by the asymmetric combined gravity gradient and jitter accelerations, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially-filled rotating fluids applicable to a full-scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft dewar tank has been investigated. Three different cases of orbital accelerations: (1) gravity gradient-dominated, (2) equally weighted between gravity gradient and jitter, and (3) gravity jitter-dominated accelerations are studied. The results of slosh wave excitation along the liquid-vapor interface induced by gravity gradient-dominated accelerations provide a torsional moment with tidal motion of bubble oscillations in the rotating dewar. The results are clearly seen from the twisting shape of the bubble oscillations driven by gravity gradient-dominated acceleration. The results of slosh wave excitation along the liquid-vapor interface induced by gravity jitter-dominated acceleration indicate the results of bubble motion in a manner of down-and-up and leftward-and-rightward movement of oscillation when the bubble is rotating with respect to rotating dewar axis. Fluctuations of angular momentum, fluid moment and bubble mass center caused by slosh wave excitations driven by gravity gradient acceleration or gravity jitter acceleration are also investigated.

  14. Efficient molecular dynamics simulations with many-body potentials on graphics processing units

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Zheyong; Vierimaa, Ville; Harju, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Graphics processing units have been extensively used to accelerate classical molecular dynamics simulations. However, there is much less progress on the acceleration of force evaluations for many-body potentials compared to pairwise ones. In the conventional force evaluation algorithm for many-body potentials, the force, virial stress, and heat current for a given atom are accumulated within different loops, which could result in write conflict between different threads in a CUDA kernel. In this work, we provide a new force evaluation algorithm, which is based on an explicit pairwise force expression for many-body potentials derived recently [Phys. Rev. B 92 (2015) 094301]. In our algorithm, the force, virial stress, and heat current for a given atom can be accumulated within a single thread and is free of write conflicts. We discuss the formulations and algorithms and evaluate their performance. A new open-source code, GPUMD, is developed based on the proposed formulations. For the Tersoff many-body potentia...

  15. Weak temporal signals can synchronize and accelerate the transition dynamics of biopolymers under tension

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Won Kyu; Sung, Wokyung

    2012-01-01

    In addition to thermal noise, which is essential to promote conformational transitions in biopolymers, cellular environment is replete with a spectrum of athermal fluctuations that are produced from a plethora of active processes. To understand the effect of athermal noise on biological processes, we studied how a small oscillatory force affects the thermally induced folding and unfolding transition of an RNA hairpin, whose response to constant tension had been investigated extensively in both theory and experiments. Strikingly, our molecular simulations performed under overdamped condition show that even at a high (low) tension that renders the hairpin (un)folding improbable, a weak external oscillatory force at a certain frequency can synchronously enhance the transition dynamics of RNA hairpin and increase the mean transition rate. Furthermore, the RNA dynamics can still discriminate a signal with resonance frequency even when the signal is mixed among other signals with nonresonant frequencies. In fact, o...

  16. Synthetic molecular machines and polymer/monomer size switches that operate through dynamic and non-dynamic covalent changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Adrian-Mihail; Ramírez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    The present chapter is focused on how synthetic molecular machines (e.g. shuttles, switches and molecular motors) and size switches (conversions between polymers and their units, i.e., conversions between relatively large and small molecules) can function through covalent changes. Amongst the interesting examples of devices herein presented are molecular motors and size switches based on dynamic covalent chemistry which is an area of constitutional dynamic chemistry. PMID:22169959

  17. Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics With A Sinusoidal Time-Dependent Potential Field

    CERN Document Server

    Alznauer, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A sinusoidal external field is applied in Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. We present an implementation and discuss first test applications to electron and ion transfers in complex molecular systems.

  18. Nonadiabatic Excited-State Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Photoinduced Dynamics in Conjugated Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Tammie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Center for Nonlinear Studies (CNLS) and Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Theoretical Division; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian [Univ. Nacional de Quilmes, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chernyak, Vladimir [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Roitberg, Adrian E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Depts. of Physics and Chemistry. Quantum Theory Project; Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Center for Nonlinear Studies (CNLS) and Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Theoretical Division

    2011-01-10

    Nonadiabatic dynamics generally defines the entire evolution of electronic excitations in optically active molecular materials. It is commonly associated with a number of fundamental and complex processes such as intraband relaxation, energy transfer, and light harvesting influenced by the spatial evolution of excitations and transformation of photoexcitation energy into electrical energy via charge separation (e.g., charge injection at interfaces). To treat ultrafast excited-state dynamics and exciton/charge transport we have developed a nonadiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics (NA-ESMD) framework incorporating quantum transitions. Our calculations rely on the use of the Collective Electronic Oscillator (CEO) package accounting for many-body effects and actual potential energy surfaces of the excited states combined with Tully’s fewest switches algorithm for surface hopping for probing nonadiabatic processes. This method is applied to model the photoinduced dynamics of distyrylbenzene (a small oligomer of polyphenylene vinylene, PPV). Our analysis shows intricate details of photoinduced vibronic relaxation and identifies specific slow and fast nuclear motions that are strongly coupled to the electronic degrees of freedom, namely, torsion and bond length alternation, respectively. Nonadiabatic relaxation of the highly excited mA{sub g} state is predicted to occur on a femtosecond time scale at room temperature and on a picosecond time scale at low temperature.

  19. Fast analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories with graphics processing units—Radial distribution function histogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Benjamin G.; Stone, John E.; Kohlmeyer, Axel

    2011-05-01

    The calculation of radial distribution functions (RDFs) from molecular dynamics trajectory data is a common and computationally expensive analysis task. The rate limiting step in the calculation of the RDF is building a histogram of the distance between atom pairs in each trajectory frame. Here we present an implementation of this histogramming scheme for multiple graphics processing units (GPUs). The algorithm features a tiling scheme to maximize the reuse of data at the fastest levels of the GPU's memory hierarchy and dynamic load balancing to allow high performance on heterogeneous configurations of GPUs. Several versions of the RDF algorithm are presented, utilizing the specific hardware features found on different generations of GPUs. We take advantage of larger shared memory and atomic memory operations available on state-of-the-art GPUs to accelerate the code significantly. The use of atomic memory operations allows the fast, limited-capacity on-chip memory to be used much more efficiently, resulting in a fivefold increase in performance compared to the version of the algorithm without atomic operations. The ultimate version of the algorithm running in parallel on four NVIDIA GeForce GTX 480 (Fermi) GPUs was found to be 92 times faster than a multithreaded implementation running on an Intel Xeon 5550 CPU. On this multi-GPU hardware, the RDF between two selections of 1,000,000 atoms each can be calculated in 26.9 s per frame. The multi-GPU RDF algorithms described here are implemented in VMD, a widely used and freely available software package for molecular dynamics visualization and analysis.

  20. Ultrafast Molecular Dynamics Studied with Vacuum Ultraviolet Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Travis William

    Studying the ultrafast dynamics of small molecules can serve as the first step in understanding the dynamics in larger chemically and biologically relevant molecules. To make direct comparisons with existing computational techniques, the photons used in pump-probe spectroscopy must make perturbative transitions between the electronic states of isolated small molecules. In this dissertation experimental investigations of ultrafast dynamics in electronic excitations of neutral ethylene and carbon dioxide are discussed. These experiments are performed using VUV/XUV femtosecond pulses as pump and probe. To make photons with sufficient energy for single photon transitions, VUV and XUV light is generated by high harmonic generation (HHG) using a high pulse energy (≈30--40 mJ) Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser. Sufficient flux must be generated to enable splitting of the HHG light into pump and probe arms. The system produces >1010 photons per shot, corresponding to nearly 10 MW of peak power in the XUV. Using a high flux of high energy photons creates a unique set of challenges when designing a detector capable of performing pump-probe experiments. A velocity map imaging (VMI) detector has been designed to address these challenges, and has become a successful tool facilitating studies into molecular dynamics that were not possible before its implementation. The emphasis on using high energy, single photon transitions allowed theoretical calculations to be directly compared to experimental yields for the first time. This comparison resolved a long standing issue in the excited state lifetime of ethylene, and provided a confirmation of the branching ratio between the two nonadiabatic relaxation pathways that return ethylene back to its ground state from the pi*. The participation of the 3s Rydberg state has also been measured by collecting the time resolved photoelectron spectrum during the dynamics on ethylene's pi* excited state, confirming calculations predicting the

  1. A hybrid algorithm for parallel molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Mangiardi, Chris M

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an algorithm for hybrid parallelization and SIMD vectorization of molecular dynamics simulations with short-ranged forces. The parallelization method combines domain decomposition with a thread-based parallelization approach. The goal of the work is to enable efficient simulations of very large (tens of millions of atoms) and inhomogeneous systems on many-core processors with hundreds or thousands of cores and SIMD units with large vector sizes. In order to test the efficiency of the method, simulations of a variety of configurations with up to 74 million atoms have been performed. Results are shown that were obtained on multi-core systems with AVX and AVX-2 processors as well as Xeon-Phi co-processors.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of annealed ZnO surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Tjun Kit; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    The effect of thermally annealing a slab of wurtzite ZnO, terminated by two surfaces, (0001) (which is oxygen-terminated) and (0001{sup ¯}) (which is Zn-terminated), is investigated via molecular dynamics simulation by using reactive force field (ReaxFF). We found that upon heating beyond a threshold temperature of ∼700 K, surface oxygen atoms begin to sublimate from the (0001) surface. The ratio of oxygen leaving the surface at a given temperature increases as the heating temperature increases. A range of phenomena occurring at the atomic level on the (0001) surface has also been explored, such as formation of oxygen dimers on the surface and evolution of partial charge distribution in the slab during the annealing process. It was found that the partial charge distribution as a function of the depth from the surface undergoes a qualitative change when the annealing temperature is above the threshold temperature.

  3. Lightweight computational steering of very large scale molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a computational steering approach for controlling, analyzing, and visualizing very large scale molecular dynamics simulations involving tens to hundreds of millions of atoms. Our approach relies on extensible scripting languages and an easy to use tool for building extensions and modules. The system is extremely easy to modify, works with existing C code, is memory efficient, and can be used from inexpensive workstations and networks. We demonstrate how we have used this system to manipulate data from production MD simulations involving as many as 104 million atoms running on the CM-5 and Cray T3D. We also show how this approach can be used to build systems that integrate common scripting languages (including Tcl/Tk, Perl, and Python), simulation code, user extensions, and commercial data analysis packages

  4. "Like-charge attraction" between anionic polyelectrolytes: molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Ferenc; Rieger, Jens

    2005-01-18

    "Like-charge attraction" is a phenomenon found in many biological systems containing DNA or proteins, as well as in polyelectrolyte systems of industrial importance. "Like-charge attraction" between polyanions is observed in the presence of mobile multivalent cations. At a certain limiting concentration of cations, the negatively charged macroions cease to repel each other and even an attractive force between the anions is found. With classical molecular dynamics simulations it is possible to elucidate the processes that govern the attractive behavior with atomistic resolution. As an industrially relevant example we study the interaction of negatively charged carboxylate groups of sodium polyacrylate molecules with divalent cationic Ca2+ counterions. Here we show that Ca2+ ions initially associate with single chains of polyacrylates and strongly influence sodium ion distribution; shielded polyanions approach each other and eventually "stick" together (precipitate), contrary to the assumption that precipitation is initially induced by intermolecular Ca2+ bridging. PMID:15641856

  5. Estimating Arrhenius parameters using temperature programmed molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imandi, Venkataramana; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2016-07-01

    Kinetic rates at different temperatures and the associated Arrhenius parameters, whenever Arrhenius law is obeyed, are efficiently estimated by applying maximum likelihood analysis to waiting times collected using the temperature programmed molecular dynamics method. When transitions involving many activated pathways are available in the dataset, their rates may be calculated using the same collection of waiting times. Arrhenius behaviour is ascertained by comparing rates at the sampled temperatures with ones from the Arrhenius expression. Three prototype systems with corrugated energy landscapes, namely, solvated alanine dipeptide, diffusion at the metal-solvent interphase, and lithium diffusion in silicon, are studied to highlight various aspects of the method. The method becomes particularly appealing when the Arrhenius parameters can be used to find rates at low temperatures where transitions are rare. Systematic coarse-graining of states can further extend the time scales accessible to the method. Good estimates for the rate parameters are obtained with 500-1000 waiting times.

  6. Shock responses of nanoporous aluminum by molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Meizhen; Yang, Yantao; Liao, Yi; Wang, Kun; Chen, Yun; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We present systematic investigations on the shock responses of nanoporous aluminum (np-Al) by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The dislocation nucleation sites are found to concentrate in low latitude region near the equator of the spherical void surfaces. We propose a continuum wave reflection theory and a resolved shear stress model to explain the distribution of dislocation nucleation sites. The simulations reveals two mechanisms of void collapse: the plasticity mechanism and the internal jetting mechanism. The plasticity mechanism, which leads to transverse collapse of voids, prevails under relatively weaker shocks; while the internal jetting mechanism, which leads to longitudinal filling of the void vacuum, plays more significant role as the shock intensity increases. In addition, an abnormal thermodynamic phenomenon (i.e., arising of temperature with pressure dropping) in shocked np-Al is discovered. This phenomenon is incompatible with the conventional Rankine-Hugoniot theory, and is expl...

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of field emission from a planar nanodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torfason, Kristinn; Valfells, Agust; Manolescu, Andrei [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2015-03-15

    High resolution molecular dynamics simulations with full Coulomb interactions of electrons are used to investigate field emission in planar nanodiodes. The effects of space-charge and emitter radius are examined and compared to previous results concerning transition from Fowler-Nordheim to Child-Langmuir current [Y. Y. Lau, Y. Liu, and R. K. Parker, Phys. Plasmas 1, 2082 (1994) and Y. Feng and J. P. Verboncoeur, Phys. Plasmas 13, 073105 (2006)]. The Fowler-Nordheim law is used to determine the current density injected into the system and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to find a favourable point of emission on the emitter surface. A simple fluid like model is also developed and its results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Macromolecules Using Graphics Processing Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ji; Ge, Wei; Yu, Xiang; Yang, Xiaozhen; Li, Jinghai

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a powerful computational tool to study the behavior of macromolecular systems. But many simulations of this field are limited in spatial or temporal scale by the available computational resource. In recent years, graphics processing unit (GPU) provides unprecedented computational power for scientific applications. Many MD algorithms suit with the multithread nature of GPU. In this paper, MD algorithms for macromolecular systems that run entirely on GPU are presented. Compared to the MD simulation with free software GROMACS on a single CPU core, our codes achieve about 10 times speed-up on a single GPU. For validation, we have performed MD simulations of polymer crystallization on GPU, and the results observed perfectly agree with computations on CPU. Therefore, our single GPU codes have already provided an inexpensive alternative for macromolecular simulations on traditional CPU clusters and they can also be used as a basis to develop parallel GPU programs to further spee...

  9. Width spreading and tests of wave packet molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. We examine three aspects of wave packet molecular dynamics (WPMD): wave packet spreading, the versatility of the isotropic Gaussian basis, and the interpretation of WPMD data. It is commonly known in the WPMD community that at large temperatures isotropic Gaussian wave packets have divergent widths. We quantify the unphysicality of this behavior by calculating radial distribution functions at many temperatures and densities, and compare to quantum statistical potential and path integral Monte Carlo results. We also make direct comparisons with a numerically exact time-dependent Schroedinger equation solver to determine deficiencies in the basis by studying a single quantum electron traveling through a static classical dense plasma. Another aspect is the validity of standard calculation methods. Central to these quantum computations are the ensemble explored by WPMD and its ergodic properties.

  10. Packaging stiff polymers in small containers: A molecular dynamics study

    CERN Document Server

    Rapaport, D C

    2016-01-01

    The question of how stiff polymers are able to pack into small containers is particularly relevant to the study of DNA packaging in viruses. A reduced version of the problem based on coarse-grained representations of the main components of the system -- the DNA polymer and the spherical viral capsid -- has been studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The results, involving longer polymers than in earlier work, show that as polymers become more rigid there is an increasing tendency to self-organize as spools that wrap from the inside out, rather than the inverse direction seen previously. In the final state, a substantial part of the polymer is packed into one or more coaxial spools, concentrically layered with different orientations, a form of packaging achievable without twisting the polymer.

  11. Molecular dynamics study of helium bubble pressure in titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Bao-Ling; Wang Jun; Hou Qing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the pressure state of the helium bubble in titanium is simulated by a molecular dynamics (MD) method. First, the possible helium/vacancy ratio is determined according to therelation between the bubble pressure and helium/vacancy ratio; then the dependences of the helium bubble pressure on the bubble radius at different temperatures are studied. It is shown that the product of the bubble pressure and the radius is approximately a constant, a result justifying the pressure-radius relation predicted by thermodynamics-based theory for gas bubble. Furthermore, a state equation of the helium bubble is established based on the MD calculations. Comparison between the results obtained by the state equation and corresponding experimental data shows that the state equation can describe reasonably the state of helium bubble and thus could be used for Monte Carlo simulations of the evolution of helium bubble in metals.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Helium Behaviour in Titanium Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Tie-Ying; LONG Xing-Gui; WANG Jun; HOU Qing; WU Zhong-Cheng; PENG Shu-Ming; LUO Shun-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the behaviour of helium atoms in titanium at a temperature of 300 K.The nucleation and growth of helium bubble has been simulated up to 50 helium atoms.The approach to simulate the bubble growth is to add helium atoms one by one to the bubble and let the system evolve.The titanium cohesion is based on the tight binding scheme derived from the embedded atom method,and the helium-titanium interaction is characterized by fitted potential in the form of a Lennard-Jones function.The pressure in small helium bubbles is approximately calculated.The simulation results show that the pressure will decrease with the increasing bubble size,while increase with the increasing helium atoms.An analytic function about the quantitative relationship of the pressure with the bubble size and number of helium atoms is also fitted.

  13. A molecular dynamics study of nanofracture in monolayer boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we use molecular dynamics (MD) modeling to study the fracture properties of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under mixed mode I and II loading. We investigate the impact of crack edge chirality, crack tip configuration and loading phase angle on the crack propagation path and critical stress intensity factors. The MD results predict that under all the loading phase angles cracks prefer to propagate along a zigzag direction and the critical stress intensity factors of zigzag cracks are higher than those of armchair cracks. Under mixed mode loading, the h-BN sheets can undergo out-of-plane deformations due to the buckling induced by compressive stresses. The out-of-plane deformations can be significant when mode II loading is dominant. An excessive amount of out-of-plane deformation can induce buckling cracks. Depending on the loading phase angle and crack configurations, buckling cracks can nucleate before or after the propagation of the original cracks

  14. A molecular dynamics study on surface properties of supercooled water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Yongjun; WEI Bingbo

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the surface properties of water in a temperature range from 228 to 293 K by using the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) and four-site TIP4P potentials. The calculated surface tension increases with the decrease of temperature, and moreover the slopes of the surface tension-temperature curves show a weak rise below 273 K, whereas no obvious anomalies appear near 228 K, which accords with the previous experiments. Compared with the measured values, the SPC/E potential shows a good agreement, and the TIP4P potential scription of the surface structure of supercooled water for the SPC/E. When simulating the orientational distributions of water molecules near the surface, the SPC/E potential produces higher ordering and larger surface potentials than the TIP4P potential.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of oxide memory resistors (memristors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savel' ev, S E; Alexandrov, A S [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bratkovsky, A M; Stanley Williams, R [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2011-06-24

    Reversible bipolar nanoswitches that can be set and read electronically in a solid-state two-terminal device are very promising for applications. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations that mimic systems with oxygen vacancies interacting via realistic potentials and driven by an external bias voltage. The competing short- and long-range interactions among charged mobile vacancies lead to density fluctuations and short-range ordering, while illustrating some aspects of observed experimental behavior, such as memristor polarity inversion. The simulations show that the 'localized conductive filaments' and 'uniform push/pull' models for memristive switching are actually two extremes of the one stochastic mechanism.

  16. Stability mechanisms of a thermophilic laccase probed by molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Johan; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are highly stable, industrially important enzymes capable of oxidizing a large range of substrates. Causes for their stability are, as for other proteins, poorly understood. In this work, multiple-seed molecular dynamics (MD) was applied to a Trametes versicolor laccase in response...... of structural response to environment, whereas solvent-accessibility, radius of gyration, and fluctuations were only locally relevant. Backbone hydrogen bonds decreased systematically with temperature in all simulations (∼9 per 50 K), probing structural changes associated with enthalpy-entropy compensation...... integrity by increasing persistent backbone hydrogen bonds by ∼4 across simulations, mainly via prevention of F(-) intrusion. Hydrogen-bond loss in distinct loop regions and ends of critical β-sheets suggest potential strategies for laboratory optimization of these industrially important enzymes....

  17. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Iron — A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, C. P.; Liu, Wenqing; Xu, Yongbing; Zhou, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) is a technique of atomistic simulation which has facilitated scientific discovery of interactions among particles since its advent in the late 1950s. Its merit lies in incorporating statistical mechanics to allow for examination of varying atomic configurations at finite temperatures. Its contributions to materials science from modeling pure metal properties to designing nanowires is also remarkable. This review paper focuses on the progress of MD in understanding the behavior of iron — in pure metal form, in alloys, and in composite nanomaterials. It also discusses the interatomic potentials and the integration algorithms used for simulating iron in the literature. Furthermore, it reveals the current progress of MD in simulating iron by exhibiting some results in the literature. Finally, the review paper briefly mentions the development of the hardware and software tools for such large-scale computations.

  18. Role of Molecular Dynamics and Related Methods in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivo, Marco; Masetti, Matteo; Bottegoni, Giovanni; Cavalli, Andrea

    2016-05-12

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and related methods are close to becoming routine computational tools for drug discovery. Their main advantage is in explicitly treating structural flexibility and entropic effects. This allows a more accurate estimate of the thermodynamics and kinetics associated with drug-target recognition and binding, as better algorithms and hardware architectures increase their use. Here, we review the theoretical background of MD and enhanced sampling methods, focusing on free-energy perturbation, metadynamics, steered MD, and other methods most consistently used to study drug-target binding. We discuss unbiased MD simulations that nowadays allow the observation of unsupervised ligand-target binding, assessing how these approaches help optimizing target affinity and drug residence time toward improved drug efficacy. Further issues discussed include allosteric modulation and the role of water molecules in ligand binding and optimization. We conclude by calling for more prospective studies to attest to these methods' utility in discovering novel drug candidates. PMID:26807648

  19. Pasta Elasticity: Molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear pasta is expected in the inner crust of neutron stars at densities near the nuclear saturation density. In this work, the elastic properties of pasta are calculated from large scale molecular dynamics simulations by deforming the simulation volume. Our model uses a semi-classical two-nucleon potential that reproduces nuclear saturation. We report the shear modulus and breaking strain of a variety of pasta phases for different temperatures, densities, and proton fractions. The presence of pasta in neutron stars could have significant effects on crustal oscillations and could be inferred from observations of soft-gamma repeaters. Additionally, these elastic parameters will enable us to improve estimates of the maximum size and lifetime of ``mountains'' on the crust, which could efficiently radiate gravitational waves.

  20. Crossed molecular beam studies of unimolecular reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of seven radical-molecule reactions using the crossed molecular beam technique with supersonic nozzle beams is reported. Product angular and velocity distributions were obtained and compared with statistical calculations in order to identify dynamical features of the reactions. In the reaction of chlorine and fluorine atoms with vinyl bromide, the product energy distributions are found to deviate from predictions of the statistical model. A similar effect is observed in the reaction of chlorine atoms with 1, 2 and 3-bromopropene. The reaction of oxygen atoms with ICl and CF3I has been used to obtain an improved value of the IO bond energy, 55.0 +- 2.0 kcal mol-1. In all reactions studied, the product energy and angular distributions are found to be coupled, and this is attributed to a kinematic effect of the conservation of angular momentum