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Sample records for accelerated hyperfractionated irradiation

  1. Accelerated hyperfractionated irradiation for head and neck cancer

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    Hatano, Kazuo; Sekiya, Yuichi; Araki, Hitoshi; Sakai, Mitsuhiro; Togawa, Takashi [Chiba Cancer Center (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    From May 1994 to May 1997, 52 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer were treated with accelerated hyperfractionated irradiation (1.6 Gy, twice daily, 10 times a week, with minimum interval of 6 hours between fractions and the total dose to 67.2-70.4 Gy) and concomitant use of daily low-dose Carboplatin. The median follow-up period was 19.8 months with a range of 2-44 months. Complete response rate was 73% (38/52). Cumulative survival rate at 3 years was 46.7% and the relapse rate was 21.1% (8/38). The relapse sites were as follows, primary site; 2 cases, lymphnodes; 4 cases and distant metastases; 2 cases. The major acute toxicity was stomatitis. Grade 3-4 late sequelae was observed in 7 cases. Grade 3 xerostomia was observed in 2 cases, esophageal stenosis was observed in 2 cases and arytenoid necrosis was observed in 2 cases. There were no fatal sequelae. Acute sequelae are very variable and it will be necessary to individualize the treatment time according to the state of their stomatitis. (author)

  2. Clinical evaluation of accelerated hyperfractionated irradiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer with concomitant use of daily low-dose Carboplatin (CBDCA)

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    Hatano, Kazuo; Sekiya, Yuichi; Araki, Hitoshi [Chiba Cancer Center (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    From May 1994 to May 1996, 39 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer were treated with accelerated hyperfractionated irradiation (1.6 Gy, twice daily, 10 times a week, with minimum interval of 6 hours between fractions and the total tumor dose to 70.4 Gy) and concomitant use of daily low-dose Carboplatin (30 mg/body). The average age was 64.2 years (38-85). The median follow-up period was 16.4 months with a range of 2-36 months. Complete response rate was 66.7%. The organ preservation rates were almost acceptable in advanced cases. The major acute toxicity was stomatitis, but no therapeutic interruption was observed. Grade 4 laryngeal late sequelae was observed in 2 cases. We think this method is effective for locally advanced head and neck cancer but total dose should be reduced to 67.2 Gy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. (author)

  3. Myelopathy following hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C S; Van Dyk, J; Simpson, W J

    1991-01-01

    From 1975 to 1982, 32 patients with a diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid were entered into a protocol of hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy. The tumor dose was 30-45 Gy at 1 Gy per fraction given 4 times a day at 3-h intervals. The results were disappointing with a median survival of less than 6 months. Two patients developed radiation myelopathy at 8 and 13 months, total spinal cord dose being 39.9 and 48.3 Gy, respectively. The risk of spinal cord damage was much higher than expected. The possible radiobiological causes and clinical implications are discussed.

  4. Hyperfractionated or accelerated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourhis, J.; Overgaard, Jens; Audry, H.

    2006-01-01

    -specified categories: hyperfractionated, accelerated, and accelerated with total dose reduction. FINDINGS: 15 trials with 6515 patients were included. The median follow-up was 6 years. Tumours sites were mostly oropharynx and larynx; 5221 (74%) patients had stage III-IV disease (International Union Against Cancer...

  5. Continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with/without mitomycin C in head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrowsky, W; Naude, J; Widder, J; Dobrowsky, E; Millesi, W; Pavelka, R; Grasl, C; Reichel, M

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of mitomycin C to an accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy. The aim was to test a very short schedule with/without mitomycin C (MMC) with conventional fractionation in histologically verified squamous cell carinoma of the head and neck region. Methods and Ma

  6. Hyperfractionated accelerated radiochemotherapy (HFA-RCT) with mitomycin C for advanced head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, J; Dobrowsky, W; Schmid, R; Pokrajac, B; Selzer, E; Potter, R

    2004-01-01

    To investigate efficacy and feasibility of hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy combined with mitomycin C, patients with locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region were administered 64-66 Gy in four weeks and mitomycin C (20 mg/m(2)) on day five. Twenty-

  7. Prospective randomized comparison of single-dose versus hyperfractionated total-body irradiation in patients with hematologic malignancies

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    Girinsky, T.; Benhamou, E.; Bourhis, J.H.; Dhermain, F.; Guillot-Valls, D.; Ganansia, V.; Luboinski, M.; Perez, A.; Cosset, J.M.; Socie, G.; Baume, D.; Bouaouina, N.; Briot, E.; Baudre, A.; Bridier, A.; Pico, J.L

    2001-02-01

    The efficiency of the two irradiation modes are similar, but the hyperfractionated irradiation seems superior in term of global and specific survival. The incidence rates of pneumopathies are not different between the two groups but the incidence rate of the liver vein-occlusive illness is superior in the group treated by non fractionated whole body irradiation. The cost of the hyperfractionated whole body irradiation is superior to this one of the non fractionated whole body irradiation around a thousand dollars. (N.C.)

  8. Short treatment time and excellent treatment outcome in accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for T1 glottic cancer.

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    Tamaki, Yukihisa; Hieda, Yoko; Yoshida, Rika; Yoshizako, Takeshi; Fuchiwaki, Takafumi; Aoi, Noriaki; Sekihara, Kazumasa; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Sasaki, Ryohei; Inomata, Taisuke

    2015-11-01

    Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy was performed as treatment for patients with T1 glottic cancer, and its utility was evaluated based on treatment outcomes and adverse effects. Fifty-eight men who had undergone radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor classification was Tis in 4 patients, T1a in 38, and T1b in 16. Histological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 55 patients. Travel time from home to hospital was 0-1 hour for 24 patients, 1-2 hours for 9, and >2 hours for 25. Laser vaporization was performed prior to radiotherapy in 38 patients, and 19 patients received concurrent chemotherapy with an agent such as S-1. Patients were irradiated twice daily using an irradiation container. Most patients received a dose of 1.5 Gy/fraction up to a total of 60 Gy. The median overall treatment time was 30 days, with a median observation period of 59.6 months. A complete response was observed in all patients. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 97.2%, 93.2%, and 97.8%, respectively. Although grade 3 pharyngeal mucositis was observed in 2 patients, there were no other grade 3 or higher acute adverse events. As late toxicity, grade 2 laryngeal edema and grade 1 laryngeal hemorrhage were observed in 1 patient each, but no serious events such as laryngeal necrosis or laryngeal stenosis were observed. In conclusion, this treatment method brings excellent outcome and will substantially reduce the treatment duration among patients who need to stay at nearby hotels while undergoing treatment at hospitals in rural areas.

  9. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total body irradiation

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    Latini, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Checcaglini, Franco; Maranzano, Ernesto; Panizza, B.M.; Perrucci, Elisabetta (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Oncology Service); Aversa, Franco; Martelli, M.F. (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Department of Haematology); Raymondi, Carlo (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Physics Service)

    1991-10-01

    From July 1985 to December 1989, 72 evaluable patients aged 6-51 (median age 27) suffering from hematological malignancies received allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) depleted of T-lymphocytes to reduce risks of graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD); 57 were matched and 15 mis-matched. Three different conditioning regiments were used in an effort to enhance cytoreduction without increase extramedullary toxicity. Mis-matched patients were treated with more immunosuppressive regimens. Total body irradiation (TBI) was given in 3 doses/day, 5 h apart over 4 days for a total of 12 fractions. The dose to the lungs was 14.4, 15.6 and 9 Gy according to the conditioning regimen. The incidence of inter-stitial pneumonia (IP) was 12.3 percent in matched and 46.7 in mis-matched patients. The results seem to indicate that lung toxicity is correlated with the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the stage of disease and, in mismatched patients, with the degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) disparity and the poor post-BMT reconstitution, rather than the radiotherapy dose delivered to the lungs. On the contrary, the hyperfractionated scheme adopted, the absence of GvHD and, perhaps, the post-TBI administration of cyclophosphamide all seem to have contributed to the low incidence of IP in the matched patients. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab.

  10. Accelerated hyperfractionated radiation, concurrent paclitaxel/cisplatin chemotherapy and surgery for stage III non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, David J; Rice, Thomas W; Rybicki, Lisa A; Greskovich, John F; Ciezki, Jay P; Carroll, Marjorie A; DeCamp, Malcolm M

    2002-05-01

    The low surgical cure rate in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer has prompted an exploration of multimodality treatment strategies. Mature results are presented from a phase II trial of accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy, concurrent paclitaxel/cisplatin chemotherapy and surgery for these patients. Between 1994 and 1997, 45 patients with surgically demonstrated stage III non-small cell lung cancer underwent induction treatment with a 96 h continuous cisplatin infusion (20 mg/m(2) per day) and a 24 h infusion of paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2)) given concurrently with accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy (1.5 Gy twice daily) to a total dose of 30 Gy. Induction was completed in ten treatment (12 total) days. Surgical resection was scheduled 4 weeks later with a second identical course of chemoradiotherapy given 4-6 weeks post-operatively, to a total radiation dose of 60-63 Gy. Thirty-five patients had stage III(A) disease and ten had stage III(B) disease (eight with N(3) tumors). Induction toxicity included nausea in 89%, dysphagia in 89%, and neutropenia tolerable despite significant myelosuppression. Locoregional control is excellent and survival is better than historical expectations. Patients downstaged to mediastinal node negativity have a prognosis similar to those with de novo stage I(B) and II disease. Distant metastases are the major cause of treatment failure.

  11. Hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant integrated boost of 70-75 Gy in 5 weeks for advanced head and neck cancer. A phase I dose escalation study

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    Cvek, J.; Skacelikova, E.; Otahal, B.; Halamka, M.; Feltl, D. [University Hospital Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Oncology; Kubes, J. [University Hospital Bulovka, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kominek, P. [University Hospital Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2012-08-15

    Background and purpose: The present study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of a new, 5-week regimen of 70-75 Gy hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant integrated boost (HARTCIB) for locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer. Methods and materials: A total of 39 patients with very advanced, stage IV nonmetastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (median gross tumor volume 72 ml) were included in this phase I dose escalation study. A total of 50 fractions intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were administered twice daily over 5 weeks. Prescribed total dose/dose per fraction for planning target volume (PTV{sub tumor}) were 70 Gy in 1.4 Gy fractions, 72.5 Gy in 1.45 Gy fractions, and 75 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions for 10, 13, and 16 patients, respectively. Uninvolved lymphatic nodes (PTV{sub uninvolved}) were irradiated with 55 Gy in 1.1 Gy fractions using the concomitant integrated boost. Results: Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the RTOG/EORTC scale; the incidence of grade 3 mucositis was 51% in the oral cavity/pharynx and 0% in skin and the recovery time was {<=} 9 weeks for all patients. Late toxicity was evaluated in patients in complete remission according to the RTOG/EORTC scale. No grade 3/4 late toxicity was observed. The 1-year locoregional progression-free survival was 50% and overall survival was 55%. Conclusion: HARTCIB (75 Gy in 5 weeks) is feasible for patients deemed unsuitable for chemoradiation. Acute toxicity was lower than predicted from radiobiological models; duration of dysphagia and confluent mucositis were particularly short. Better conformity of radiotherapy allows the use of more intensive altered fractionation schedules compared with older studies. These results suggest that further dose escalation might be possible when highly conformal techniques (e.g., stereotactic radiotherapy) are used.

  12. Aggressive simultaneous radiochemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel in combination with accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck tumors. Results of a phase I-II trial

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    Kuhnt, T.; Pigorsch, S.; Pelz, T.; Haensgen, G.; Dunst, J. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Becker, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Municipial Hospital, Dessau (Germany); Bloching, M.; Passmann, M. [Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Lotterer, E. [Dept. of Internal Medicine I, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    We have tested a very aggressive combination protocol with cisplatin and escalated paclitaxel in combination with accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy to assess the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), overall toxicity, and response rate. Patients and Methods: The trial recruited 24 patients (21 males, three females, mean age 57 years) treated at our department from 1998 through 2001. Irradiation was administered in daily doses of 2 Gy up to 30 Gy followed by 1.4 Gy twice daily up to 70.6 Gy to the primary tumor and involved nodes and 51 Gy to the clinically negative regional nodes. The chemotherapy schedule included cisplatin in a fixed dose of 20 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1-5 and 29-33 and paclitaxel at increasing dose levels of 20, 25, 30 mg/m{sup 2} twice weekly over the whole treatment time. Patients were recruited in cohorts of three to six, and the MTD was reached if two out of six patients in one cohort developed DLT. DLT was defined as any grade 4 toxicity or any grade 3 toxicity requiring treatment interruption or unplanned hospitalization or any grade 3 neurotoxicity. We recruited mainly patients with large tumors for this protocol; all patients were stage IV, and the mean tumor volume (primary + metastases) amounted to 72 {+-} 61 cm{sup 3}. The mean follow-up was 30 months (range 4-39 months). Results: One early death (peritonitis and sepsis a t day 10) occurred, and 23 patients were evaluable for acute toxicity and response. The MTD of paclitaxel was reached at the third dose level (30 mg/m{sup 2} paclitaxel twice weekly). The DLT was severe mucositis grade 3 (n = 1) and skin erythema grade 4 (n = 2). After determining the MTD, another 14 patients were treated at the recommended dose level of paclitaxel with 25 mg/m{sup 2} twice weekly. In summary, 13/23 patients (57%) developed grade 3 and 10/23 (43%) grade 2 mucositis. Two patients (9%) had grade 4, five (22%) grade 3, and 16 (69%) grade 2 dermatitis. One patient died at day 30

  13. Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy combined with induction and concomitant chemotherapy for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer. Impact of total treatment time

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    Nyman, J.; Mercke, C. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Bergman, B. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Respiratory Medicine

    1998-12-31

    Tumour cell proliferation during conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (RT) can negatively influence the treatment outcome in patients with unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Accelerated and hyperfractionated RT may therefore have an advantage over conventional RT. Moreover, earlier studies have suggested improved survival with addition of cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CT). We present here the results of combined treatment with induction and concomitant CT and accelerated hyperfractionated RT in a retrospective series of patients with advanced NSCLS. Between August 1990 and August 1995, 90 consecutive patients, aged 42-77 years (median 63 years), with locally advanced unresectable or medically inoperable NSCLC and good performance status were referred for treatment: stage: I 23%, IIIa 37%, IIIb 40%. Patient histologies included: squamous cell carcinoma 52%, adenocarcinoma 34% and large cell carcinoma 13%. The treatment consisted of two courses of CT (cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} day 1 and etoposide 100 mg/m{sup 2} day 1-3 i.v.), the second course given concomitantly with RT. The total RT dose was 61.2-64.6 Gy, with two daily fractions of 1.7 Gy. A one-week interval was introduced after 40.8 Gy to reduce acute toxicity, making the total treatment time 4.5 weeks. Concerning toxicity, 33 patients had febrile neutropenia, 10 patients suffered from grade III oesophagitis and 7 patients had grade III pneumonitis. There were two possible treatment-related deaths, one due to myocardial infarction and the other due to a pneumocystis carinii infection. The 1-, 2- and 3-year overall survival rates were 72%, 46% and 34%, respectively; median survival was 21.3 months. Fifty-nine patients had progressive disease: 21 failed locoregionally, 29 had distant metastases and 9 patients had a combination of these. Pretreatment weight loss was the only prognostic factor found, except for stage. However, the results for stage IIIb were no different from those for stage IIIa

  14. Concurrent hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with 5-FU and once weekly cisplatin in locally advanced head and neck cancer. The 10-year results of a prospective phase II trial

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    Budach, V.; Boehmer, D.; Badakhshi, H.; Jahn, U.; Stromberger, C. [Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department for Radiooncology, Clinic for Radiooncology, Berlin (Germany); Becker, E.T. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Berlin (Germany); Wernecke, K.D. [Sostana Statistics GmbH, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    In this study, the acute toxicity and long-term outcome of a hyperfractionated accelerated chemoradiation regimen with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck were evaluated. From 2000-2002, 38 patients with stage III (5.3 %) and stage IV (94.7 %) head and neck cancer were enrolled in a phase II study. Patients received hyperfractionated-accelerated radiotherapy with 72 Gy in 15 fractions of 2 Gy followed by 1.4 Gy twice daily with concurrent, continuous infusion 5-FU of 600 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1-5 and 6 cycles of weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m{sup 2}). Acute toxicities (CTCAEv2.0), locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free (MFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed and exploratively compared with the ARO 95-06 trial. Median follow-up was 11.4 years (95 % CI 8.6-14.2) and mean dose 71.6 Gy. Of the patients, 82 % had 6 (n = 15) or 5 (n = 16) cycles of cisplatin, 5 and 2 patients received 4 and 3 cycles, respectively. Grade 3 anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were observed in 15.8, 15.8, and 2.6 %, respectively. Grade 3 mucositis in 50 %, grade 3 and 4 dysphagia in 55 and 13 %. The 2-, 5-, and 10-year LRC was 65, 53.6, and 48.2 %, the MFS was 77.5, 66.7, and 57.2 % and the OS 59.6, 29.2, and 15 %, respectively. Chemoradiation with 5-FU and cisplatin seems feasible and superior in terms of LRC and OS to the ARO 95-06C-HART arm at 2 years. However, this did not persist at the 5- and 10-year follow-ups. (orig.) [German] Untersuchung der Akuttoxizitaet und des Langzeitueberlebens einer hyperfraktioniert-akzelerierten simultanen Radiochemotherapie mit Cisplatin/5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) bei Patienten mit lokal fortgeschrittenen Kopf-Hals-Tumoren. Von 2000 bis 2002 wurden 38 Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region im Stadium III (5,3 %) und IV (94,7 %) eingeschlossen. Es erfolgte eine simultane hyperfraktionierte akzelerierte Radiochemotherapie mit 72 Gy in 15 Fraktionen a 2 Gy

  15. Split Course Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radio-Chemotherapy (SCHARC for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: Influence of protocol deviations and hemoglobin on overall survival, a retrospective analysis

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    Sprague Lisa D

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advantage of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancer has been reported. Furthermore, randomized trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the survival benefit of additional chemotherapy to radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the efficiency and toxicity of the Regensburg standard therapy protocol "SCHARC" and the overall survival of our patients. Methods From 1997 to 2004, 64 patients suffering from advanced head and neck cancer (88 % stage IV, 12 % stage III were assigned to receive the SCHARC protocol. Around half of the patients were diagnosed with oro-hypopharynx carcinoma (52 %, one third with tongue and floor of mouth tumors (29 % and one fifth (19 % suffered from H & N cancer at other sites. The schedule consisted of one therapy block with 30 Gy in 20 fractions over a two week period with concomitant chemotherapy (d 1–5: 20 mg/m2/d DDP + 750–1000 mg/m2/d 5FU (cont. infusion. This therapy block was repeated after a fortnight break up to a cumulative dose of 60 Gy and followed by a boost up to 70 Gy (69–70.5 Gy. All patients assigned to this scheme were included in the survival evaluation. Results Forty patients (63 % received both radiation and chemotherapy according to the protocol. The mean follow up was 2.3 years (829 d and the median follow up was 1.9 years (678 d, respectively. The analysis of survival revealed an estimated 3 year overall survival rate of 57 %. No patient died of complications, 52 patients (80 % had acute grade 2–3 mucositis, and 33 patients (58 % suffered from acute grade 3 skin toxicity. Leucopenia was no major problem (mean nadir 3.4 g/nl, no patient 10.5 g/dl and for patients who completed the protocol. Conclusion The SCHARC protocol was effective in patients diagnosed with advanced head and neck cancer. It led to long-term disease control and survival in about 50 % of the patients with significant but acceptable toxicity. Most patients

  16. Target irradiation experiments. [Hydra accelerator

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    1976-01-01

    Target irradiation experiments have been carried out on the Hydra accelerator, operating at powers between 0.15 and 0.3 TW. As listed in Table I, four types of spherical shell targets have been studied: 3 mm diameter, 200 ..mu..m and 50 ..mu..m wall thickness Au targets; 3 mm diameter, 300 ..mu..m wall thickness plastic targets; and 0.85 mm diameter, 10 ..mu..m wall thickness Ni targets. When compared to a practical range for 700 keV electrons, the ratio of shell thickness to electron range varied between 0.03 for the Ni targets to 1.5 for the thick walled Au targets. Multiple exposure optical holography was utilized to determine ablator velocity, and a one-dimensional hydrodynamical materials code CHARTD was utilized to model target response and infer beam deposition. Energy deposition varied from 1 TW/gm for thick Au targets up to 8 TW/gm for thin Ni targets, and pusher velocities ranged between 0.5 and 3.5 cm/..mu..sec. Neutron production from D/sub 2/ and DT filled Ni exploding pusher targets was measured using Ag and Li activation counters and gated scintillator photomultiplier time of flight detectors.

  17. 肺癌超分割同步放化疗致急性放射性食管炎的研究%Research on Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy-induced Acute Radiation Esophagitis in Lung Cancer

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    蓝柳; 杨春旭; 莫玉珍; 苏毅; 宁四海

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察超分割同步放化疗治疗局部晚期非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)患者放射性食管炎的发生情况,评价其安全性,探讨超分割放疗导致放射性食管炎损伤的有效预测指标.方法 初治NSCLC 48例,采用超分割同步放化疗24例,放疗剂量:56.0~64.4 Gy/40~46次,1.4 Gy/次,2次/d;常规分割同步放化疗24例,放疗剂量:60.0~66 Gy/30~33次,2.0 Gy/次,1次/d.两组均接受依托泊苷+顺铂(EP)方案同步化疗.采用RTOG标准评价急性放射性食管炎发生情况,分析急性放射性食管炎的相关临床及物理因素.结果 48例患者均完成治疗计划.超分割组≥2级和≥3急性放射性食管炎发生率高于对照组(P<0.05).急性放射性食管炎最早在第10天发生,累计剂量为22.4 Gy,在疗程的第17天后其发生率明显上升.超分割组中食管LETT30、LETT35、V35与≥2级急性放射性食管炎显著相关(P<0.01).结论 超分割同步放化疗治疗NSCLC急性放射性食管炎的发生率及严重程度较常规分割同步放化疗明显增加,并且发生时间早;食管LETT30、LETT35、V35和周累计剂量是预测超分割同步放化疗致急性放射性食管炎的可靠指标.%Objective To observed the incidence of acute radiation esophagitis and analyze the factors as predictors of acute radiotherapy-induced acute radiation esophagitis for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer( LA-NSCLC )patients treated with 3DCRT were reviewed. To analyze the efficacy and safety of hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy for the treatment of lung cancer and assess effective indexes in those patient. Methods Forty eight patients with LA-NSCLC were allocated to treatment group( 24 cases ), treated with hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy.Radiotherapy was delivered at 1. 4 Gy/fraction ,56. 0 - 64. 4 Gy/40 - 45 fractions , twice a day. The control group( 24 cases )treated with conventional fractionation , with delivered at 2 Gy fraction , 60. 0

  18. Rapidly alternating combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in split course for Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer: results of a Phase I-II study by the GOTHA group

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    Alberto, P.; Mermillod, B. [Hopital Cantonal Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, R.O.; Leyvraz, S.; Nagy-Mignotte, H.; Bolla, M.; Wellmann, D.; Moro, D.; Brambilla, E. [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-08-01

    The prognosis of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). In this study, the GOTHA group evaluated the feasibility, tolerance, tumour response, pattern of failure and effect on survival of a combination alternating accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) RT and CT in patients with tumour stage III NSCLC. Toxic effects were leucopenia, nausea and vomiting, mucositis, diarrhoea, alopecia and peripheral neuropathy. Alternating CT and AHRT, as used in this study, were well tolerated and allowed full dose delivery within less than 12 weeks. Initial response was not predictive of survival. The survival curve is encouraging and the 5 year survival is superior to the 5% generally observed with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. (author).

  19. Comparison of hyperfractionated conformal photon with conformal mixed neutron/photon irradiation in locally advanced prostate cancer; Comparaison d`une irradiation hyperfractionnee conformationnelle par photons seuls et d`une irradiation conformationelle combinant photons et neutrons pour le traitement des tumeurs de la prostate localement avancees

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    Forman, J.D.; Shamsa, F.; Maughan, R.L.; Duclos, M.; Orton, C. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In an attempt to improve the probability of complication-free local control for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, a series of dose-finding studies have been conducted at wayne STATE University using conformal neutron and hyperfractionated photon irradiation. In total, 96 patents with locally advanced prostate cancer (T3/T4 N0/N1 M0, and/or Gleason score {>=} 8) were treated in two prospective studies. Forty-seven patients received conformal neutron/photon (15 NGy + 18 PhGy) and 49 patients were treated in a dose-escalation study using conformal photons (25 patients/78 Gy and 24 patients/83 Gy minimum dose). The median follow-up for both studies was 20 months (range 6-36 months). There was no significant difference in the rate of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) or gastro-urinary (GU) morbidity between the two groups. However, the neutron treated patients has a significantly higher rate of moderate (14 %) and severe (12 %) hip stiffness. The rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline and 12-month negative biopsy were comparable. In conclusion, the therapeutic gain of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy in combination with photon hyperfractionation to 83 Gy appears identical to that seen with the mixed neutron-photon dose of 15 NGy + 18 PhGy. Further efforts at improving the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer should be undertaken. (author). 20 refs.

  20. Control System for Multi-energy Electron Irradiation Accelerator

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    ZHANG; Li-feng; LIU; Bao-jie

    2012-01-01

    <正>Multi-energy electron irradiation accelerator has a wide range of applications in areas such as industrial irradiation. Accelerator is operated under control system with accelerator subsystems, in which new technologies are involved, such as fiber-based network communication technology and PLC technology. The control system integrates pulse modulator systems,

  1. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer

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    Watanabe, Atsushi; Shimokata, Kaoru; Nomura, Fumio; Saka, Hideo (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Horio, Yoshitsugu; Minami, Hironobu; Iwahara, Tsuyoshi; Shibagaki, Tomohisa; Sakai, Shuzo

    1991-02-01

    Eleven cases of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer were treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy consisted of 1.6 Gy per fraction, 2 fractions a day with 6 hours between fractions, 5 days a week for a total of 60.8 Gy. After 38.4 Gy of irradiation to the primary tumor, hilar, and mediastinal lymph nodes, an additional 22.4 Gy was given to primary lesion. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin, 80 mg/m{sup 2} day 1, mitomycin C, 10 mg/m{sup 2} day 1, and vinblastine, 5 mg/m{sup 2}, days 1 and 15. At least 2 courses were administered. The combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy was sequential. Of 6 patients in whom hyperfractionated radiotherapy was performed first, 5 achieved partial response (PR). Of 5 patients in whom chemotherapy was performed first, 2 achieved PR. Median survival time was 300 days. Nine of the eleven patients experienced esophagitis, but in all patients this was controlled easily by oral antacids and/or H{sub 2} blockers. In regard to radiation pneumonitis, fibrosis occurred in seven of nine cases, but they did not require corticosteroids. Levels of hematological toxicity were similar to previous reports, but were somewhat severe in cases receiving chemotherapy after irradiation. We conclude that hyperfractionated radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy including cisplatin is safe, but further evaluation to determine optimal dose and combination methods is necessary. (author).

  2. Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiation Therapy (HART) of 70.6 Gy With Concurrent 5-FU/Mitomycin C Is Superior to HART of 77.6 Gy Alone in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer: Long-term Results of the ARO 95-06 Randomized Phase III Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budach, Volker, E-mail: volker.budach@charite.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Stromberger, Carmen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Poettgen, Christoph [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Essen (Germany); Baumann, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Dresden (Germany); Budach, Wilfried [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf (Germany); Grabenbauer, Gerhard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals of Erlangen (Germany); Marnitz, Simone [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Olze, Heidi [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter [Sostana GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Ghadjar, Pirus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term results of the ARO 95-06 randomized trial comparing hyperfractionated accelerated chemoradiation with mitomycin C/5-fluorouracil (C-HART) with hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy (HART) alone in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Patients and Methods: The primary endpoint was locoregional control (LRC). Three hundred eighty-four patients with stage III (6%) and IV (94%) oropharyngeal (59.4%), hypopharyngeal (32.3%), and oral cavity (8.3%) cancer were randomly assigned to 30 Gy/2 Gy daily followed by twice-daily 1.4 Gy to a total of 70.6 Gy concurrently with mitomycin C/5-FU (C-HART) or 16 Gy/2 Gy daily followed by twice-daily 1.4 Gy to a total dose of 77.6 Gy alone (HART). Statistical analyses were done with the log-rank test and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results: The median follow-up time was 8.7 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-9.7 years). At 10 years, the LRC rates were 38.0% (C-HART) versus 26.0% (HART, P=.002). The cancer-specific survival and overall survival rates were 39% and 10% (C-HART) versus 30.0% and 9% (HART, P=.042 and P=.049), respectively. According to multivariate Cox regression analysis, the combined treatment was associated with improved LRC (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.6 [95% CI: 0.5-0.8; P=.002]). The association between combined treatment arm and increased LRC appeared to be limited to oropharyngeal cancer (P=.003) as compared with hypopharyngeal or oral cavity cancer (P=.264). Conclusions: C-HART remains superior to HART in terms of LRC. However, this effect may be limited to oropharyngeal cancer patients.

  3. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: an advanced form of hypofractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrukkar, Ashwini

    2008-01-01

    Altered fractionation schedules are being increasingly investigated in the treatment of breast cancer. Two such schedules that are frequently compared are hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HERT) and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Though these two modalities are considered separately, APBI is an actually an advanced form of hypofractionation, where acceleration of the treatment is possible due to the smaller volume being irradiated. HERT as well as APBI are investigational at present and are being tested in randomized trials. This article looks at the advantages of APBI as a hypofractionation schedule.

  4. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: An advanced form of hypofractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budrukkar Ashwini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered fractionation schedules are being increasingly investigated in the treatment of breast cancer. Two such schedules that are frequently compared are hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HERT and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI. Though these two modalities are considered separately, APBI is an actually an advanced form of hypofractionation, where acceleration of the treatment is possible due to the smaller volume being irradiated. HERT as well as APBI are investigational at present and are being tested in randomized trials. This article looks at the advantages of APBI as a hypofractionation schedule.

  5. Rapid hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Clinical results in 178 advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Demange, L.; Froissart, D.; Panis, X.; Loirette, M.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present a series of 178 patients with Stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck treated by rapid irradiation using multiple and small fractions per day. An initial group of 91 patients (G1) received a total dose of 72 Gy in 80 sessions and 10 days, according to the following split course schedule: J1 to J5, 36 Gy in 40 sessions, eight daily fractions of .9 Gy separated by 2 hours; J6 to J20, rest period; J21 to J25, same as in J1 except that the spinal cord was shielded. This protocol was altered for the following 87 patients (G2) by lessening the total dose to 60 to 66 Gy and the number of fractions to 60. The rest period was lengthened to 4 weeks. All patients but five completed the whole program and the minimal follow-up period was 24 months. At the end of irradiation, 121 patients achieved a total remission, but local recurrences occurred in 56%. Moreover, acute intolerance was considered as severe in 34% of G1 patients, and included extensive mucosal necrosis and bleeding. Although this rate was significantly reduced in G2 patients, late complications were observed in 20 of the 25 survivors, and included trismus, cervical sclerosis, and recurrent laryngeal edema. The crude survival rate is 13% at 2 years. Although this study was not randomized, this particular type of accelerated and hyperfractionated combination of irradiation did not really improve the clinical results in advanced carcinoma of the head and neck. Other schedules and probably other tumors, less extended, should be tested.

  6. Irradiation damage studies of high power accelerator materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: simos@bnl.gov; Kirk, H.G.; Thieberger, P.; Ludewig, H.; Conor, J.O.; Mausner, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Trung, P.-T. [SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); McDonald, K.T. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Yoshimura, K. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Bennett, J.R.J. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, CCLRC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-30

    High-performance production targets and other critical accelerator components intercepting intense, energetic proton beams are essential as the accelerator community envisions the next generation, multi-MW accelerators. Materials that have served the nuclear sector well may not be suitable to play such a role which demands that the material comprising the beam-intercepting element must, in addition to the long exposure which leads to accumulated irradiation damage, also endure short exposure that manifests itself as thermo-mechanical shock. The ability of materials to resist irradiation-induced degradation of its properties that control shock and fatigue is of primary interest. The need for such materials that extend beyond resistance to the neutron-driven irradiation damage of reactor components has led to an extensive search and experimentation with new alloys and composites. These new high-performance materials, which appear to possess the right combination of mechanical and physical properties, are explored through a multi-phased experimental study at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This study, which brings together the interest in accelerator targets of different facilities around the world, seeks to simulate conditions of both short and long exposure to proton beams to assess the survivability potential of these new alloys and composite materials. While thermo-mechanical shock effects have been studied in the early stages of this comprehensive effort, it is irradiation damage that is currently the focus of the study and results to-date are presented in this paper along with the status and objectives of on-going studies. Of special interest are results depicting damage reversal through post-irradiation annealing in some of the materials. High fluences of 200 and/or 117 MeV protons provided by the BNL Linac beam that serves the Isotope Production Facility were used to assess irradiation damage in these new composites and alloys.

  7. Irradiation-Accelerated Corrosion of Reactor Core Materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhujie [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Was, Gary [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bartels, David [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2015-04-02

    This project aims to understand how radiation accelerates corrosion of reactor core materials. The combination of high temperature, chemically aggressive coolants, a high radiation flux and mechanical stress poses a major challenge for the life extension of current light water reactors, as well as the success of most all GenIV concepts. Of these four drivers, the combination of radiation and corrosion places the most severe demands on materials, for which an understanding of the fundamental science is simply absent. Only a few experiments have been conducted to understand how corrosion occurs under irradiation, yet the limited data indicates that the effect is large; irradiation causes order of magnitude increases in corrosion rates. Without a firm understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation and corrosion interact in film formation, growth, breakdown and repair, the extension of the current LWR fleet beyond 60 years and the success of advanced nuclear energy systems are questionable. The proposed work will address the process of irradiation-accelerated corrosion that is important to all current and advanced reactor designs, but remains very poorly understood. An improved understanding of the role of irradiation in the corrosion process will provide the community with the tools to develop predictive models for in-reactor corrosion, and to address specific, important forms of corrosion such as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  8. Accelerated Irradiations for High Dose Microstructures in Fast Reactor Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhijie [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The objective of this project is to determine the extent to which high dose rate, self-ion irradiation can be used as an accelerated irradiation tool to understand microstructure evolution at high doses and temperatures relevant to advanced fast reactors. We will accomplish the goal by evaluating phase stability and swelling of F-M alloys relevant to SFR systems at very high dose by combining experiment and modeling in an effort to obtain a quantitative description of the processes at high and low damage rates.

  9. Second Study of Hyper-Fractionated Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jacob

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Method. Hyper-fractionated radiotherapy for treatment of soft tissue sarcomas is designed to deliver a higher total dose of radiation without an increase in late normal tissue damage. In a previous study at the Royal Marsden Hospital, a total dose of 75 Gy using twice daily 1.25 Gy fractions resulted in a higher incidence of late damage than conventional radiotherapy using 2 Gy daily fractions treating to a total of 60 Gy. The current trial therefore used a lower dose per fraction of 1.2 Gy and lower total dose of 72 Gy, with 60 fractions given over a period of 6 weeks.

  10. Accelerated oxygen precipitation in fast neutron irradiated Czochralski silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Qiao-Yun; Li Yang-Xian; Chen Gui-Feng; Yang Shuai; Liu Li-Li; Niu Ping-Juan; Chen Dong-Feng; Li Hong-Tao

    2005-01-01

    Annealing effect of the oxygen precipitation and the induced defects have been investigated on the fast neutron irradiated Czochralski silicon (CZ-Si) by infrared absorption spectrum and the optical microscopy. It is found that the fast neutron irradiation greatly accelerates the oxygen precipitation that leads to a sharp decrease of the interstitial oxygen with the annealing time. At room temperature (RT), the 1107cm-1 infrared absorption band of interstitial oxygen becomes weak and broadens to low energy side. At low temperature, the infrared absorption peaks appear at 1078cm-1, 1096cm-1, and 1182cm-1, related to different shapes of the oxygen precipitates. The bulk microdefects,including stacking faults, dislocations and dislocation loops, were observed by the optical microscopy. New or large stacking faults grow up when the silicon self-interstitial atoms are created and aggregate with oxygen precipitation.

  11. Rotational total skin electron irradiation with a linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Eric P; Evans, Michael D C; Devic, Slobodan; Parker, William; Freeman, Carolyn R; Roberge, David; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2008-11-03

    The rotational total skin electron irradiation (RTSEI) technique at our institution has undergone several developments over the past few years. Replacement of the formerly used linear accelerator has prompted many modifications to the previous technique. With the current technique, the patient is treated with a single large field while standing on a rotating platform, at a source-to-surface distance of 380 cm. The electron field is produced by a Varian 21EX linear accelerator using the commercially available 6 MeV high dose rate total skin electron mode, along with a custom-built flattening filter. Ionization chambers, radiochromic film, and MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) detectors have been used to determine the dosimetric properties of this technique. Measurements investigating the stationary beam properties, the effects of full rotation, and the dose distributions to a humanoid phantom are reported. The current treatment technique and dose regimen are also described.

  12. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Alexandre R., E-mail: alexandre.lima@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F., E-mail: samuelfisica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabriel.alo@aceletron.com.br [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Aceletrica Comercio e Representacoes Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Francisco C.A. Da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  13. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI: A review of available techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Mark W

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast conservation therapy (BCT is the procedure of choice for the management of the early stage breast cancer. However, its utilization has not been maximized because of logistics issues associated with the protracted treatment involved with the radiation treatment. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin, rather than the whole breast. Hence because of the small volume of irradiation a higher dose can be delivered in a shorter period of time. There has been growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT. Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include Mammosite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy and Contura, Hybrid brachytherapy devices include SAVI and ClearPath. This paper reviews the different techniques, identifying the weaknesses and strength of each approach and proposes a direction for future research and development. It is evident that APBI will play a role in the management of a selected group of early breast cancer. However, the relative role of the different techniques is yet to be clearly identified.

  14. Hyperfractionated stereotactic reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvek, Jakub; Knybel, Lukas; Skacelikova, Eva; Otahal, Bretislav; Molenda, Lukas; Feltl, David [University Hospital Ostrava, Department of Oncology, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Stransky, Jiri; Res, Oldrich [University Hospital Ostrava, Department of Maxilofacial Surgery, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Matousek, Petr; Zelenik, Karol [University Hospital Ostrava, Department of Otolaryngology, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of hyperfractionated stereotactic reirradiation (re-RT) as a treatment for inoperable, recurrent, or second primary head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) that is not suitable for systemic treatment. Forty patients with recurrent or second primary HNSCC were included in this study. The patients had a median gross tumor volume of 76 ml (range 14-193 ml) and a previous radiotherapy dose greater than 60 Gy. Treatment was designed to cover 95 % of the planning target volume (PTV, defined as gross tumor volume [GTV] + 3 mm to account for microscopic spreading, with no additional set-up margin) with the prescribed dose (48 Gy in 16 fractions b.i.d.). Treatment was administered twice daily with a minimum 6 h gap. Uninvolved lymph nodes were not irradiated. Treatment was completed as planned for all patients (with median duration of 11 days, range 9-14 days). Acute toxicity was evaluated using the RTOG/EORTC scale. A 37 % incidence of grade 3 mucositis was observed, with recovery time of ≤ 4 weeks for all of these patients. Acute skin toxicity was never observed to be higher than grade 2. Late toxicity was also evaluated according to the RTOG/EORTC scale. Mandible radionecrosis was seen in 4 cases (10 %); however, neither carotid blowout syndrome nor other grade 4 late toxicity occurred. One-year overall survival (OS) and local progression-free survival (L-PFS) were found to be 33 and 44 %, respectively. Performance status and GTV proved to be significant prognostic factors regarding local control and survival. Hyperfractionated stereotactic re-RT is a reasonable treatment option for patients with recurrent/second primary HNSCC who were previously exposed to high-dose irradiation and who are not candidates for systemic treatment or hypofractionation. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war es, die Effektivitaet und Toxizitaet der hyperfraktionierten akzelerierten stereotaktischen Wiederbestrahlung (re

  15. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI): are breath-hold and volumetric radiation therapy techniques useful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.; Osman, S.O.; Hol, S.; Donkers, T.; Poortmans, P.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a selective group of patients accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) might be applied after conservative breast surgery to reduce the amount of irradiated healthy tissue. The role of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and voluntary moderately deep inspiration breath-hold (

  16. An Economic Analysis of Electron Accelerators and Cobalt-60 for Irradiating Food

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Rosanna Mentzer

    1989-01-01

    Average costs per pound of irradiating food are similar for the electron accelerator and cobalt-60 irradiators analyzed in this study, but initial investment costs can vary by $1 million. Irradiation costs range from 0.5 to 7 cents per pound and decrease as annual volumes treated increase. Cobalt-60 is less expensive than electron beams for annual volumes below 50 million pounds. For radiation source requirements above the equivalent of 1 million curies of cobalt-60, electron beams are more e...

  17. Design of Cavity for 10 MeV Electron Irradiation Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the 10 MeV high-power electron irradiation accelerator. This accelerator can output varied energy electron beam which the highest energy is 10 MeV or shooting target produce X-rays for industrial radiation processing.

  18. [State of the art and perspectives of accelerated partial breast irradiation in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand-Fouché, M-È; Hannoun-Lévi, J-M

    2014-11-01

    In the frame of treatment de-escalation and personalization, accelerated partial breast irradiation is taking its place in the breast cancer therapeutic options. This study analyzed the results of phase III randomized trials having compared accelerated partial breast irradiation versus whole breast irradiation. Currently, among those trails, six proposed some results regarding efficacy and/or toxicity. Globally, the non-randomized studies confirmed the expected results showing a low rate of local recurrence and toxicity. The first results of the phase III randomized trials showed encouraging data in terms of local control while the toxicity varied mainly according to the accelerated partial breast irradiation technique used. However, the follow-up of the majority of these studies remains insufficient. The strict respect of accelerated partial breast irradiation indications likely represents one of the key factors of the therapeutic success. The next results could allow proposing a better definition of the accelerated partial breast irradiation selection criteria. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A facility for studying irradiation accelerated corrosion in high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiman, Stephen S.; Flick, Alexander; Toader, Ovidiu; Wang, Peng; Samad, Nassim A.; Jiao, Zhijie; Was, Gary S.

    2014-08-01

    A facility for the study of irradiation accelerated corrosion in high temperature water using in situ proton irradiation has been developed and validated. A specially designed beamline and flowing-water corrosion cell added to the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator at the Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory provide the capability to study the simultaneous effects of displacement damage and radiolysis on corrosion. A thin sample serves as both a “window” into the corrosion cell through which the proton beam passes completely, and the sample for assessing irradiation accelerated corrosion. The facility was tested by irradiating stainless steel samples at beam current densities between 0.5 and 10 μA/cm2 in 130 °C and 320 °C deaerated water, and 320 °C water with 3 wppm H2. Increases in the conductivity and dissolved oxygen content of the water varied with the proton beam current, suggesting that proton irradiation was accelerating the corrosion of the sample. Conductivity increases were greatest at 320 °C, while DO increases were highest at 130 °C. The addition of 3 wppm H2 suppressed DO below detectable levels. The facility will enable future studies into the effect of irradiation on corrosion in high temperature water with in situ proton irradiation.

  20. Development of Grid Control Electron Gun for Multi-energy Irradiation Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Guang-wen; ZHU; Zhi-bin; WANG; Shu-xian

    2012-01-01

    <正>In the project of multi-energy electron irradiation accelerator, It is necessary to adjust the electron beam pulse inject to the accelerating tube. Under the same conditions of the injection energy, the grid controlled electron gun was used in the accelerator. Using cathode-grid assembly, after the simulation of electron optics program design, we manufactured focus electrode, the anode, and built an experiment

  1. Evaluation of some commercial grade polymers as possible dosimeters for technological irradiations in electron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Bryl-Sandelewska, T

    2002-01-01

    Dosimetric properties of two kinds of clear polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)and one kind of polystyrene (PS) sheets in technological accelerator irradiations, are presented. Absorbance of the sheets and its dependence on the dose have been measured at a suitable wavelength using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Both kind PMMA can be used for technological dose measurements but each of them in the different range of the doses (approx 3 to approx 30 kGy and approx 30 to above 200 kGy). Heating the samples after irradiation accelerates the stabilization of the absorbance, which change slowly during the storage of the samples if not heated.Absorbance of clear PS sheets decreases very much during the storage after irradiation, and heating of the samples does not accelerate the stabilization of the value. It can be said that the Ps investigated is not suitable for technological dose measurements in accelerator i radiations.

  2. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  3. Radiation stability of iron nanoparticles irradiated with accelerated iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uglov, V.V., E-mail: uglov@bsu.by [Belarusian State University, Nezavisimosty ave., 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina ave., 2a, Tomsk 634028 (Russian Federation); Remnev, G.E., E-mail: remnev06@mail.ru [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina ave., 2a, Tomsk 634028 (Russian Federation); Kvasov, N.T.; Safronov, I.V.; Shymanski, V.I. [Belarusian State University, Nezavisimosty ave., 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic processes in nanoparticles after ion irradiation were studied. • The mechanism of the enhanced radiation stability of nanoparticles was showed. • The criteria of the enhanced radiation stability of nanoparticles was proposed. - Abstract: In the present work the dynamic processes occurring in a nanoscale iron particle exposed to irradiation with iron ions of different energies are studied in detailed. It is shown that the elastic and thermoelastic crystal lattice responses to irradiation form force factors affecting the evolution of defect-impurity system, which, in turn, leads to a decrease in the number of structural defects. Quantitative estimations of the spatial distribution of defects resulting in their migration to the surface were obtained. Such self-organization of nanoparticles exposed to ionizing radiation can be used as a basis for the production of radiation-resistant nanostructured materials capable of sustaining a long-term radiation influence.

  4. Materials irradiation facilities at the high-power Swiss proton accelerator complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Werner; Dai, Yong; Glasbrenner, Heike; Aebersold, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-04-01

    Within the Swiss proton accelerator complex at the Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), several irradiation facilities are operated for investigation of materials behavior under high-dose irradiation conditions as well as for neutron activation analysis and isotope production. In LiSoR (liquid solid reaction), a liquid metal loop connected to the 72 MeV proton accelerator Injector 1, steel samples are irradiated while being in contact with flowing lead-bismuth-eutectic (LBE) at elevated temperatures and under tensile stress. In the spallation neutron source SINQ, the STIP program (SINQ Target Irradiation Program) allows materials irradiation under realistic spallation conditions, i.e. in a mixed spectrum of 570 MeV protons and spallation neutrons. Hundreds of samples, mainly austenitic and ferritic-martensitic steels such as 316L, T91 or F82H, were irradiated to doses up to 20 dpa as part of STIP. These also included steel samples in contact with liquid Hg and liquid LBE. MEGAPIE (MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment), a liquid metal target employing LBE, operated in SINQ during the second half of 2006, can be taken as a materials irradiation facility on its own. Adjacent to the target position, SINQ houses a neutron irradiation rabbit system serving activation analysis and isotope production.

  5. Lithium target for accelerator based BNCT neutron source: Influence by the proton irradiation on lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, R.; Imahori, Y.; Nakakmura, M.; Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Hamano, T.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Itami, J.; Abe, Y.; Fuse, M.

    2012-12-01

    The neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is in the transition stage from nuclear reactor to accelerator based neutron source. Generation of low energy neutron can be achieved by 7Li (p, n) 7Be reaction using accelerator based neutron source. Development of small-scale and safe neutron source is within reach. The melting point of lithium that is used for the target is low, and durability is questioned for an extended use at a high current proton beam. In order to test its durability, we have irradiated lithium with proton beam at the same level as the actual current density, and found no deterioration after 3 hours of continuous irradiation. As a result, it is suggested that lithium target can withstand proton irradiation at high current, confirming suitability as accelerator based neutron source for BNCT.

  6. Induction of the Tn10 Precise Excision in E. coli Cells after Accelerated Heavy Ions Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuravel, D V

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the irradiation of different kinds on the indication of the structural mutations in the bacteria Escherichia coli is considered. The regularities of the Tn10 precise excision after accelerated ^{4}He and ^{12}C ions irradiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) were investigated. Dose dependences of the survival and relative frequency of the Tn10 precise excision were obtained. It was shown, that the relative frequency of the Tn10 precise excision is the exponential function from the irradiation dose. Relative biological efficiency (RBE), and relative genetic efficiency (RGE) were calculated, and were treated as the function of the LET.

  7. POLYMERS CONTAINING Cu NANOPARTICLES IRRADIATED BY LASER TO ENHANCE THE ION ACCELERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariapompea Cutroneo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Target Normal Sheath Acceleration method was employed at PALS to accelerate ions from laser-generated plasma at intensities above 1015 W/cm2. Laser parameters, irradiation conditions and target geometry and composition control the plasma properties and the electric field driving the ion acceleration. Cu nanoparticles deposited on the polymer promote resonant absorption effects increasing the plasma electron density and enhancing the proton acceleration. Protons can be accelerated in forward direction at kinetic energies up to about 3.5 MeV. The optimal target thickness, the maximum acceleration energy and the angular distribution of emitted particles have been measured using ion collectors, X-ray CCD streak camera, SiC detectors and Thomson Parabola Spectrometer.

  8. SATIF-2 shielding aspects of accelerators, targets and irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Particle accelerators have evolved over the last 50 years from simple devices to powerful machines, and will continue to have an important impact on research, technology and lifestyle. Today they cover a wide range of applications, from television and computer displays in households to the investigation of the origin and structure of matter. It has become common practice to use them for material science and medical applications. In recent years, requirements from new technological and research applications have emerged, such as increased particle beams intensities, higher flexibility, etc., giving rise to new radiation shielding aspects and problems. These proceedings review recent progress in radiation shielding of accelerator facilities, and evaluate advancements with respect to international co-operation in this field.

  9. SU-E-T-124: Anthropomorphic Phantoms for Confirmation of Linear Accelerator Based Small Animal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perks, J; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lucero, S [UC Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To document the support of radiobiological small animal research by a modern radiation oncology facility. This study confirms that a standard, human use linear accelerator can cover the range of experiments called for by researchers performing animal irradiation. A number of representative, anthropomorphic murine phantoms were made. The phantoms confirmed the small field photon and electron beams dosimetry validated the use of the linear accelerator for rodents. Methods: Laser scanning a model, CAD design and 3D printing produced the phantoms. The phantoms were weighed and CT scanned to judge their compatibility to real animals. Phantoms were produced to specifically mimic lung, gut, brain, and othotopic lesion irradiations. Each phantom was irradiated with the same protocol as prescribed to the live animals. Delivered dose was measured with small field ion chambers, MOS/FETs or TLDs. Results: The density of the phantom material compared to density range across the real mice showed that the printed material would yield sufficiently accurate measurements when irradiated. The whole body, lung and gut irradiations were measured within 2% of prescribed doses with A1SL ion chamber. MOSFET measurements of electron irradiations for the orthotopic lesions allowed refinement of the measured small field output factor to better than 2% and validated the immunology experiment of irradiating one lesion and sparing another. Conclusion: Linacs are still useful tools in small animal bio-radiation research. This work demonstrated a strong role for the clinical accelerator in small animal research, facilitating standard whole body dosing as well as conformal treatments down to 1cm field. The accuracy of measured dose, was always within 5%. The electron irradiations of the phantom brain and flank tumors needed adjustment; the anthropomorphic phantoms allowed refinement of the initial output factor measurements for these fields which were made in a large block of solid water.

  10. Study on radiation damage to high energy accelerator components by irradiation in a nuclear reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Schönbacher, Helmut; Casta, J; Van de Voorde, M H

    1975-01-01

    The structural and other components used in high energy accelerators are continuously exposed to a wide spectrum of high energy particles and electromagnetic radiation. The resulting radiation damage may severely influence the functional capability of accelerator facilities. In order to arrive at an estimate of the service life of various materials in the radiation field, simulating experiments have to be carried out in a nuclear reactor. A large number of organic and inorganic materials, electronic components, metals, etc., intended specifically for use in 400 GeV proton synchrotron of CERN near Geneva, were irradiated in the ASTRA reactor in Seibersdorf near Vienna. The paper reports on the irradiation facilities available in this reactor for this purpose, on the dosimetry methods used, on the most important materials irradiated and on the results obtained in these experiments. (14 refs).

  11. A pilot study of accelerated irradiation for brain metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Michinao; Tokuuye, Koichi; Akine, Yasuyuki; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Ogino, Takashi; Tsukiyama, Iwao; Ono, Ryosuke; Egawa, Sunao (National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1992-12-01

    Twenty-eight patients with brain metastases received brain radiotherapy with a total dose of 48 Gy, at 2 Gy per fraction, twice a day with a minimum interfractional period of 4 hours, and 5 days per week. This was intended to shorten the treatment period without increasing the morbidity, since most of these patients had a limited survival expectancy. Twenty-six of the 28 patients completed the radiotherapy. Three of the 26 patients experienced nausea and/or vomiting during the treatment. Radiotherapy was interrupted in two patients: one developed hemiplegia, and the other somnolence, both of which resulted from the progressive intracerebral disease. This radiotherapy regimen appears to be comparable to the conventional scheme in alleviation of symptoms. No patient needed interruption of the planned course of treatment because of acute irradiation toxicity. Based on these results, a multi-institutional randomized trial has been initiated to compare the twice-a-day and once-a-day radiotherapy schemes on patients with brain metastases. (author).

  12. Status and prospect on accelerator use for food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik

    1996-12-31

    Radiation processing by machine sources is industry standard, worldwide. In 1996, the total number of installations reached 1000 with a total power of about 50 MW (compared to a total power of about 3 MW for 180 gamma-facilities). Of these most facilities are in the lower energy range and utilized for product improvement like cable insulation, cross-linking enhancement or for medical product sterilization. Radiation processing of food requires higher penetration, ie the 10 MeV provided by Codex Alimentarius Standard. Of the about 30 facilities in the energy range from 5 to 15 MeV only a very limited number is dedicated to food processing. A facility in Brittany, France is solely exploited for elimination of pathogen microorganisms from mechanically deboned poultry meat in deep-frozen blocks. There is an increasing demand for radiation processing of food worldwide and the often presupposed lack of consumer acceptance is not validated when the irradiated product appears on the marked or is fading away once consumers make up their minds testing the real product. Such an increasing demand creates commercial chances for more radiation processing facilities, both gamma and electrons, including bremsstrahlung. The potential and the technical constraints of such machine sources contrasted to gamma facilities will be discussed. Especial consideration is given to changing the Codex Alimentarius Standard limit for bremsstrahlung nominal energy from now 5 MeV to at least 7.5 MeV. (author)

  13. Physics of Double Pulse Irradiation of Targets For Proton Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, S.; Mo, M.; Masud, R.; Manzoor, L.; Tiedje, H.; Tsui, Y.; Fedosejevs, R.; Link, A.; Patel, P.; McLean, H.; Hazi, A.; Chen, H.; Ceurvorst, L.; Norreys, P.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments have been carried out on double-pulse irradiation of um-scale foil targets with varying preplasma conditions. Our experiment at the Titan Laser facility utilized two 700 fs, 1054 nm pulses, separated by 1 to 5 ps with a total energy of 100 J, and with 5-20% of the total energy contained within the first pulse. The proton spectra were measured with radiochromic film stacks and magnetic spectrometers. The prepulse energy was on the order of 10 mJ, which appears to have a moderating effect on the double pulse enhancement of proton beam. We have performed LSP PIC simulations to understand the double pulse enhancement mechanism, as well as the role of preplasma in modifying the interaction. A 1D parameter study was done to isolate various aspects of the interaction, while 2D simulations provide more detailed physical insight and a better comparison with experimental data. Work by the Univ. of Alberta was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Work by LLNL was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Establishment of technical prerequisites for cell irradiation experiments with laser-accelerated electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyreuther, E; Enghardt, W; Kaluza, M; Karsch, L; Laschinsky, L; Lessmann, E; Nicolai, M; Pawelke, J; Richter, C; Sauerbrey, R; Schlenvoigt, H P; Baumann, M

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, laser-based acceleration of charged particles has rapidly progressed and medical applications, e.g., in radiotherapy, might become feasible in the coming decade. Requirements are monoenergetic particle beams with long-term stable and reproducible properties as well as sufficient particle intensities and a controlled delivery of prescribed doses at the treatment site. Although conventional and laser-based particle accelerators will administer the same dose to the patient, their different time structures could result in different radiobiological properties. Therefore, the biological response to the ultrashort pulse durations and the resulting high peak dose rates of these particle beams have to be investigated. The technical prerequisites, i.e., a suitable cell irradiation setup and the precise dosimetric characterization of a laser-based particle accelerator, have to be realized in order to prepare systematic cell irradiation experiments. The Jena titanium:sapphire laser system (JETI) was customized in preparation for cell irradiation experiments with laser-accelerated electrons. The delivered electron beam was optimized with regard to its spectrum, diameter, dose rate, and dose homogeneity. A custom-designed beam and dose monitoring system, consisting of a Roos ionization chamber, a Faraday cup, and EBT-1 dosimetry films, enables real-time monitoring of irradiation experiments and precise determination of the dose delivered to the cells. Finally, as proof-of-principle experiment cell samples were irradiated using this setup. Laser-accelerated electron beams, appropriate for in vitro radiobiological experiments, were generated with a laser shot frequency of 2.5 Hz and a pulse length of 80 fs. After laser acceleration in the helium gas jet, the electrons were filtered by a magnet, released from the vacuum target chamber, and propagated in air for a distance of 220 mm. Within this distance a lead collimator (aperture of 35 mm) was introduced, leading

  15. Radiograaff, a proton irradiation facility for radiobiological studies at a 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constanzo, J. [Université de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Fallavier, M., E-mail: m.fallavier@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Université de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Alphonse, G. [Université de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Faculté de Médecine Lyon-Sud, LRCM, F-69921 Oullins (France); Hospices-Civils-de-Lyon, CHLS, F-69495 Pierre-Bénite (France); Bernard, C. [Université de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Battiston-Montagne, P. [Université de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Faculté de Médecine Lyon-Sud, LRCM, F-69921 Oullins (France); Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C. [Université de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Faculté de Médecine Lyon-Sud, LRCM, F-69921 Oullins (France); Hospices-Civils-de-Lyon, CHLS, F-69495 Pierre-Bénite (France); and others

    2014-09-01

    A horizontal beam facility for radiobiological experiments with low-energy protons has been set up at the 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of the Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon. A homogeneous irradiation field with a suitable proton flux is obtained by means of two collimators and two Au-scattering foils. A monitoring chamber contains a movable Faraday cup, a movable quartz beam viewer for controlling the intensity and the position of the initial incident beam and four scintillating fibers for beam monitoring during the irradiation of the cell samples. The beam line is ended by a thin aluminized Mylar window (12 μm thick) for the beam extraction in air. The set-up was simulated by the GATE v6.1 Monte-Carlo platform. The measurement of the proton energy distribution, the evaluation of the fluence-homogeneity over the sample and the calibration of the monitoring system were performed using a silicon PIPS detector, placed in air in the same position as the biological samples to be irradiated. The irradiation proton fluence was found to be homogeneous to within ±2% over a circular field of 20 mm diameter. As preliminary biological experiment, two Human Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma Cell lines (with different radiosensitivities) were irradiated with 2.9 MeV protons. The measured survival curves are compared to those obtained after X-ray irradiation, giving a Relative Biological Efficiency between 1.3 and 1.4.

  16. Charged-particle acceleration through laser irradiation of thin foils at Prague Asterix Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo; Cutroneo, Maria; Cavallaro, Salvatore; Musumeci, Paolo; Calcagno, Lucia; Wolowski, Jerzy; Rosinski, Marcin; Zaras-Szydlowska, Agnieszka; Ullschmied, Jiri; Krousky, Eduard; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skala, Jiri; Velyhan, Andreiy

    2014-05-01

    Thin foils, 0.5-50 μm in thickness, have been irradiated in vacuum at Prague Asterix Laser System in Prague using 1015-16 W cm-2 laser intensity, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and different focal positions. Produced plasmas from metals and polymers films have been monitored in the forward and backward directions. Ion and electron accelerations have been investigated by using Thomson parabola spectrometer, x-ray streak camera, ion collectors and SiC semiconductor detectors, the latter employed in time-of-flight configuration. Ion acceleration up to about 3 MeV per charge state was measured in the forward direction. Ion and electron emissions were detected at different angles as a function of the irradiation conditions.

  17. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using 3D conformal radiotherapy: initial clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatti, M.; Madeddu, A.; Malinverni, G.; Delmastro, E.; Bona, C.; Gabriele, P. [IRCC-Radiotherapy, Candiolo, TO (Italy); Baiotto, B.; Stasi, M. [IRCC-Medical Physics, Candiolo, TO (Italy); Ponzone, R.; Siatis, D. [IRCC-Surgery, Candiolo, TO (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation using 3D-C.R.T. is technically sophisticate but feasible and acute toxicity to date has been minimal. A C.T.V.-to-P.T.V. margin of 10 mm seems to provide coverage for analyzed patients. However, more patients and additional studies will be needed to validate the accuracy of this margin, and longer follow-up will be needed to assess acute and chronic toxicity, tumor control, and cosmetic results. (author)

  18. Extra lethal damage due to residual incompletely repaired sublethal damage in hyperfractionated and continuous radiation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; van de Geijn, J.; Goffman, T. (ROB, DCT, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (US))

    1991-05-01

    In the conventional linear--quadratic model of single-dose response, the {alpha} and {beta} terms reflect lethal damage created {ital during} the delivery of a dose, from two different presumed molecular processes, one linear with dose, the other quadratic. With the conventional one-fraction-per-day (or less) regimens, the sublethal damage (SLD), presumably repairing exponentially over time, is essentially completely fixed by the time of the next dose of radiation. If this assumption is true, the effects of subsequent fractions of radiation should be independent, that is, there should be little, if any, reversible damage left from previous fractions, at the time of the next dose. For multiple daily fractions, or for the limiting case, continuous radiation, this simplification may overlook damaged cells that have had insufficient time for repair. A generalized method is presented for accounting for extra lethal damage (ELD) arising from such residual SLD for hyperfractionation and continuous irradiation schemes. It may help to predict differences in toxicity and tumor control, if any, obtained with unconventional'' treatment regimens. A key element in the present model is the finite size and the dynamic character of the pool of sublethal damage. Besides creating the usual linear and quadratic components of lethal damage, each new fraction converts a certain fraction of the existing SLD into ELD, and creates some new SLD.

  19. Defocusing beam line design for an irradiation facility at the TAEA SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Gencer, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Yiğitoğlu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic components must be tested to ensure reliable performance in high radiation environments such as Hi-Limu LHC and space. We propose a defocusing beam line to perform proton irradiation tests in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility was inaugurated in May 2012 for radioisotope production. The facility has also an R&D room for research purposes. The accelerator produces protons with 30 MeV kinetic energy and the beam current is variable between View the MathML source10μA and View the MathML source1.2mA. The beam kinetic energy is suitable for irradiation tests, however the beam current is high and therefore the flux must be lowered. We plan to build a defocusing beam line (DBL) in order to enlarge the beam size, reduce the flux to match the required specifications for the irradiation tests. Current design includes the beam transport and the final focusing magnets to blow up the beam. Scattering foils and a collimator is placed for the reduction of the beam ...

  20. Accelerated 54{degree}C irradiated test of Shippingport neutron shield tank and HFIR vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States); Rosinski, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Charpy V-notch specimens (ASTM Type A) and 5.74-mm diameter tension test specimens of the Shippingport Reactor Neutron Shield Tank (NST) (outer wall material) were irradiated together with Charpy V-notch specimens of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNI), High,, Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) vessel (shell material), to 5.07 {times} 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation was performed in the Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), a test reactor, at a controlled temperature of 54{degrees}C (130{degrees}F) selected to approximate the prior service temperatures of the cited reactor structures. Radiation-induced elevations in the Charpy 41-J transition temperature and the ambient temperature yield strength were small and independent of specimen test orientation (ASTM LT vs. TL). The observations are consistent with prior findings for the two materials (A 212-B plate) and other like materials irradiated at low temperature (< 200{degrees}C) to low fluence. The high radiation embrittlement sensitivity observed in HFIR vessel surveillance program tests was not found in the present accelerated irradiation test. Response to 288{degrees}C-168 h postirradiation annealing was explored for the NST material. Notch ductility recovery was found independent of specimen test orientation but dependent on the temperature within the transition region at which the specimens were tested.

  1. Accelerated 54[degree]C irradiated test of Shippingport neutron shield tank and HFIR vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, J.R. (Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)); Rosinski, S.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Charpy V-notch specimens (ASTM Type A) and 5.74-mm diameter tension test specimens of the Shippingport Reactor Neutron Shield Tank (NST) (outer wall material) were irradiated together with Charpy V-notch specimens of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNI), High,, Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) vessel (shell material), to 5.07 [times] 10[sup 17] n/cm[sup 2], E > 1 MeV. The irradiation was performed in the Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), a test reactor, at a controlled temperature of 54[degrees]C (130[degrees]F) selected to approximate the prior service temperatures of the cited reactor structures. Radiation-induced elevations in the Charpy 41-J transition temperature and the ambient temperature yield strength were small and independent of specimen test orientation (ASTM LT vs. TL). The observations are consistent with prior findings for the two materials (A 212-B plate) and other like materials irradiated at low temperature (< 200[degrees]C) to low fluence. The high radiation embrittlement sensitivity observed in HFIR vessel surveillance program tests was not found in the present accelerated irradiation test. Response to 288[degrees]C-168 h postirradiation annealing was explored for the NST material. Notch ductility recovery was found independent of specimen test orientation but dependent on the temperature within the transition region at which the specimens were tested.

  2. Radiation recall secondary to adjuvant docetaxel after balloon-catheter based accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Nathan W. [Summer Intern, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Wong, William W., E-mail: wong.william@mayo.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 13400 E. Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States); Karlin, Nina J. [Division of Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gray, Richard J. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2010-08-15

    For early stage breast cancer, wide local excision and post-operative whole breast irradiation is a standard treatment. If adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended, radiation is usually given after completion of chemotherapy. In recent years, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon-cathetered based brachytherapy has become an option for selected patients. For these patients, adjuvant chemotherapy would have to be administered after radiation. The sequence of treatment with radiation followed by chemotherapy results in increased risk of radiation recall reaction (RRD) in these patients. Docetaxel is becoming a more commonly used drug as adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Here we report a case of docetaxel induced RRD after APBI with balloon-cathetered based brachytherapy. Such reaction would have an adverse impact on the cosmetic outcome and quality of life of the patient. For patients who develop an intense skin reaction after the administration of docetaxel following APBI, RRD should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  3. Accelerated corrosion and oxide dissolution in 316L stainless steel irradiated in situ in high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiman, Stephen S.; Was, Gary S.

    2017-09-01

    316L stainless steel samples were irradiated with a proton beam while simultaneously exposed to high temperature water with added hydrogen (320 °C, 3 wppm H2, neutral pH) to study the effect of radiation on stainless steel corrosion. Irradiated samples had thinner and more porous inner oxides with a lower chromium content when compared to unirradiated samples. Observations suggest that depletion of chromium from the inner oxide can be attributed to the dissolution of chromium-rich spinel oxides in irradiated water, leading to an accelerated rate of inner oxide dissolution. Sample areas which were not irradiated, but were exposed to the flow of irradiated water were also found to be porous and deficient in chromium, indicating that these phenomena can be attributed primarily to water radiolysis. A new empirical equation for oxide growth and dissolution is used to describe the observed changes in oxide thickness under irradiation. An experiment in which a stainless steel sample was exposed to high temperature water (320 °C, 3 wppm H2, neutral pH) without irradiation, and then exposed for a second time with irradiation was conducted to observe the effect of irradiation on a pre-formed protective film. After the irradiated exposure, the sample exhibited chromium loss in regions which were directly irradiated, but not on regions exposed only to irradiated water, suggesting that a pre-formed protective oxide may be effective in preventing chromium loss due to irradiated water. Additionally, this observation suggests that enhanced kinetics under irradiation may have accelerated dissolution of chromium from the inner oxide.

  4. Irradiation imposed degradation of the mechanical and electrical properties of electrical insulation for future accelerator magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polinski, J.; Chorowski, M.; Bogdan, P.; Strychalski, M. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Rijk, G. de [European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-01-27

    Future accelerators will make extensive use of superconductors made of Nb{sub 3}Sn, which allows higher magnetic fields than NbTi. However, the wind-and-react technology of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnet production makes polyimide Kapton® non applicable for the coils' electrical insulation. A Nb{sub 3}Sn technology compatible insulation material should be characterized by high radiation resistivity, good thermal conductivity, and excellent mechanical properties. Candidate materials for the electrical insulation of future accelerator's magnet coils have to be radiation certified with respect to potential degradation of their electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. This contribution presents procedures and results of tests of the electrical and mechanical properties of DGEBA epoxy + D400 hardener, which is one of the candidates for the electrical insulation of future magnets. Two test sample types have been used to determine the material degradation due to irradiation: a untreated one (unirradiated) and irradiated at 77 K with 11 kGy/min intense, 4MeV energy electrons beam to a total dose of 50 MGy.

  5. Irradiation imposed degradation of the mechanical and electrical properties of electrical insulation for future accelerator magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, J.; Chorowski, M.; Bogdan, P.; Strychalski, M.; de Rijk, G.

    2014-01-01

    Future accelerators will make extensive use of superconductors made of Nb3Sn, which allows higher magnetic fields than NbTi. However, the wind-and-react technology of Nb3Sn superconducting magnet production makes polyimide Kapton® non applicable for the coils' electrical insulation. A Nb3Sn technology compatible insulation material should be characterized by high radiation resistivity, good thermal conductivity, and excellent mechanical properties. Candidate materials for the electrical insulation of future accelerator's magnet coils have to be radiation certified with respect to potential degradation of their electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. This contribution presents procedures and results of tests of the electrical and mechanical properties of DGEBA epoxy + D400 hardener, which is one of the candidates for the electrical insulation of future magnets. Two test sample types have been used to determine the material degradation due to irradiation: a untreated one (unirradiated) and irradiated at 77 K with 11 kGy/min intense, 4MeV energy electrons beam to a total dose of 50 MGy.

  6. Cellular and molecular effects for mutation induction in normal human cells irradiated with accelerated neon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masao; Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kato, Takeshi; Yatagai, Fumio; Watanabe, Masami

    2006-02-22

    We investigated the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of mutation induction on the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus in normal human fibroblast-like cells irradiated with accelerated neon-ion beams. The cells were irradiated with neon-ion beams at various LETs ranging from 63 to 335 keV/microm. Neon-ion beams were accelerated by the Riken Ring Cyclotron at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Japan. Mutation induction at the HPRT locus was detected to measure 6-thioguanine-resistant clones. The mutation spectrum of the deletion pattern of exons of mutants was analyzed using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The dose-response curves increased steeply up to 0.5 Gy and leveled off or decreased between 0.5 and 1.0 Gy, compared to the response to (137)Cs gamma-rays. The mutation frequency increased up to 105 keV/microm and then there was a downward trend with increasing LET values. The deletion pattern of exons was non-specific. About 75-100% of the mutants produced using LETs ranging from 63 to 335 keV/mum showed all or partial deletions of exons, while among gamma-ray-induced mutants 30% showed no deletions, 30% partial deletions and 40% complete deletions. These results suggested that the dose-response curves of neon-ion-induced mutations were dependent upon LET values, but the deletion pattern of DNA was not.

  7. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  8. Evolution of structure and properties of VVER-1000 RPV steels under accelerated irradiation up to beyond design fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovich, B.; Kuleshova, E.; Shtrombakh, Ya.; Fedotova, S.; Maltsev, D.; Frolov, A.; Zabusov, O.; Erak, D.; Zhurko, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper comprehensive studies of structure and properties of VVER-1000 RPV steels after the accelerated irradiation to fluences corresponding to extended lifetime up to 60 years or more as well as comparative studies of materials irradiated with different fluxes were carried out. The significant flux effect is confirmed for the weld metal (nickel concentration ⩾1.35%) which is mainly due to development of reversible temper brittleness. The rate of radiation embrittlement of VVER-1000 RPV steels under operation up to 60 years and more (based on the results of accelerated irradiation considering flux effect for weld metal) is expected not to differ significantly from the observed rate under irradiation within surveillance specimens.

  9. Induction chemotherapy followed by simultaneous hyperfractionated radiochemotherapy in advanced head and neck cancer. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jereczek-Fossa, B. [European Inst. of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Div. of Radiotherapy]|[Medical Univ. Gdansk (Poland). Dept. of Oncology and Radiotherapy; De Braud, F.; Gasparetto, M.; De Pas, T. [European Inst. of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Div. of Medical Oncology; Tradati, N. [European Inst. of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Div. of Head and Neck Surgery; Leonardi, M.C.; Marsiglia, H.R. [European Inst. of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Div. of Radiotherapy; Orecchia, R. [European Inst. of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Div. of Radiotherapy]|[Milan Univ. (Italy). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of induction chemotherapy followed by concomitant chemotherapy and hyperfractionated irradiation in locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer. Methods: A pilot study was undertaken comprising 3 cycles of cisplatinum (100 mg/m{sup 2}, day 1) and 5-fluorouracil (1000 mg/m{sup 2} in continuous intravenous infusion over the first 120 h) followed by bifractionated radiotherapy applied to tumor/involved lymph nodes up to the dose of 74.4 Gy given in 2 fractions of 1.2 Gy daily for 5 days a week combined with concomitant weekly cisplatinum infusion (50 mg/m{sup 2}). Results: Six patients were enrolled in the study. All of them completed the protocol therapy. Severe mucositis and myelotoxicity were the most common acute side effects observed in all and in 5 of the patients, respectively. Acute toxicity required interruption of concomitant chemotherapy in 5 cases and in 2 interruption of radiotherapy was necessary. Opioid analgesic parenteral therapy was administered in 4 patients. Three of them had to be hospitalized. One patient experienced cerebral stroke 1 day after the completion of therapy and died 7 days later. Due to high acute toxicity, patient accrual was terminated after 6 patients. At the mean follow-up of 17 months, 4 patients are alive, 3 of them are free of disease and in 1 local progression has been diagnosed. Conclusions: High acute toxicity of induction cisplatinum and 5-fluorouracil followed by concomitant cisplatinum and hyperfractionated irradiation calls for less toxic treatment schedules in locally advanced inoperable head and neck cancer. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Bewertung der Durchfuehrbarkeit der Induktionschemotherapie gefolgt von begleitender hyperfraktionierter Radiotherapie und Chemotherapie, bei inoperablen, lokal fortgeschrittenen Hals-Kopf-Karzinomen. Methoden: Es wurde eine Pilotstudie mit sechs Patienten durchgefuehrt: Sie umfasste drei Zyklen mit cis-Platin (100 mg/m{sup 2}, Tag 1) und 5

  10. Toxicity and cosmetic outcome of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatti, M.; Bresciani, S.; Ponzone, R.; Panaia, R.; Salatino, A.; Stasi, M.; Gabriele, P. [IRCC, Candiolo (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.- To analyse the incidence and severity of acute and late normal tissue toxicity and cosmetic outcome using three - dimensional conformal radiotherapy to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation. Patients and Methods.- 70 patients with stage I disease were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for accelerated partial breast irradiation, in an approved protocol. The prescribed dose was 34 Gy in all patients delivered in 10 fractions over 5 consecutive days. On all CT scans gross tumor volume (GTV ) was defined around surgical clips. A 1.5 cm margin was added in order to account for clinical target volume (CTV) . A margin of 1 cm was added to CTI to define the planning target volume (PTV). The dose-volume constraints were followed in accordance with the specifications as dictated in the NSABP/RTOG protocol. After treatment, patients underwent a clinical and cosmetic evaluation every 3 months. Late toxicity was evaluated according to the RTOG grading schema. The cosmetic assessment was performed by the physicians using the controlateral untreated breast as the reference (Harvard scale). Results.- Median patient age was 66 years (range 51-80). Median follow-up was 15 months (range 6-46). Tumor size was < 10 mm in 33 patients (53%) and > 2 cm in 4(6%). The mean value of the ratio between the PTV and the whole ipsilateral breast volume was 38 % and the median percentage whole breast volume that received 95 % of prescribed dose was 34% (range 16%-55%). The rate of G1 and G2 acute skin toxicity was 28% and 2% respectively and the late toxicity was 17% (G1). G2 or greater toxicities were not observed. The most pronounced G1 late toxicity was subcutaneous fibrosis, developed in 3 patients. The cosmetic outcome was excellent in 83% and good in 17%. Conclusion.- Accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy is technically feasible with very low acute and late toxicity. Long

  11. Resonant absorption effects induced by polarized laser light irradiating thin foils in the TNSA regime of ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M.; Zaras-Szydlowska, A.; Pfeifer, M.; Torrisi, A.

    2016-04-01

    Thin foils were irradiated by short pulsed lasers at intensities of 1016-19W/cm2 in order to produce non-equilibrium plasmas and ion acceleration from the target-normal-sheath-acceleration (TNSA) regime. Ion acceleration in forward direction was measured by SiC detectors and ion collectors used in the time-of-flight configuration. Laser irradiations were employed using p-polarized light at different incidence angles with respect to the target surface and at different focal distances from the target surface. Measurements demonstrate that resonant absorption effects, due to the plasma wave excitations, enhance the plasma temperature and the ion acceleration with respect to those performed without to use of p-polarized light. Dependences of the ion flux characteristics on the laser energy, wavelength, focal distance and incidence angle will be reported and discussed.

  12. MO-E-BRD-02: Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Brachytherapy: Is Shorter Better?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todor, D. [Virginia Commonwealth University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  13. [Accelerated partial breast irradiation with multicatheters during breast conserving surgery for cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Spiteri Sagredo, Natalia; Martínez Regueira, Fernando; Olartecoechea Linaje, Begoña; Arredondo Chaves, Jorge; Cambeiro Vázquez, Mauricio; Pina Insausti, Luis Javier; Elizalde Pérez, Arlette; y García-Lallana, Amaya; Sola Gallego, Jose Javier

    2013-10-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with multicatheters after lumpectomy for breast cancer (BC) may be an alternative to whole breast irradiation in selected patients. The aim is to show our 5 year experience. Between June 2007 and June 2012, 87 BC patients have been evaluated for APBI. Inclusion criteria were: age over 40 years, unifocal tumour, infiltrating ductal or intraductal carcinoma, tumour size smaller than 3 cm and no lymph node involvement. Complications, cosmetic results and local and distant recurrences were evaluated. Treatment was completed in 48 patients and contraindicated in 39. The average age of treated patients was 59 years. Operating time was 123 min with 9 implanted catheters in each patient. No complications were observed during surgery or radiotherapy. Patients were discharged from hospital after 4 days. Tumour size was 11 mm. Of these, 35 were infiltrating ductal and 13 intraductal carcinomas. A total of 44 patients received adjuvant treatment. Mean follow-up was 22 months with no evidence of local or distant recurrence. The cosmetic outcome was good or excellent in 66% of cases. APBI with multicatheter placed after lumpectomy for BC is feasible and safe but requires a strict selection of patients. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with brachytherapy: patient selection and technique considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifiletti DM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel M Trifiletti,1 Kara D Romano,1 Shayna L Showalter,2 Kelli A Reardon,1 Bruce Libby,1 Timothy N Showalter11Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USAAbstract: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI through breast brachytherapy is a relatively recent development in breast radiotherapy that has gained international favor because of its reduction in treatment duration and normal tissue irradiation while maintaining favorable cancer-specific and cosmetic outcomes. Despite the fact that several large national trials have not reported final results yet, many providers are currently offering APBI to select patients and APBI is listed as a treatment option for selecting patients in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Multiple consensus guidelines exist in selecting patients for APBI, some with conflicting recommendations. In this review, the existing patient selection guidelines are reported, compared, and critiqued, grouping them in helpful subcategories. Unique patient and technical selection factors for APBI with brachytherapy are explored.Keywords: breast cancer, APBI, breast brachytherapy

  15. Time-dose relationship of erythema in high energy photon irradiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hidetoshi (Gifu Prefectural Tajimi Hospital (Japan)); Sakuma, Sadayuki

    1992-01-01

    Skin doses of 100 patients who were treated with high energy ionizing irradiation during conventional irradiation therapy were measured by thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD). In 87 of the 100 patients, acute hyperemic change of the skin (erythema) of the irradiated region was observed. In the other 13 patients, alopetia of the scalp was observed. The following conclusions were reached. The time-dose relationship was linear when erythema tolerance was used as an index, but not when alopecia was used. The tolerance dose for erythema was lower than previously reported. The slope of the isoeffect curve on the log-log plot of total absorbed skin dose against total number of days after the first irradiation was 0.68 when erythema was used as an index. This number is larger than previously reported results. We considered that erythema is significantly influenced by fraction size and that hyperfractionation is a promising method of irradiation, especially in Japan. Combined use of chemotherapeutic agents, such as 5-FU, accelerated erythema. The slope of combined treatment was 0.86. Observing acute hyperemic change of skin is considered to be a useful method of investigating the combined effects of chemotherapeutic agents on irradiation. (author).

  16. Characterization of solvents containing CyMe4-BTPhen in selected cyclohexanone-based diluents after irradiation by accelerated electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Distler Petr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation stability of CyMe4-BTPhen was examined in systems with three selected cyclohexanone-based diluents. Accelerated electrons were used as a source of ionizing radiation. The CyMe4-BTPhen radiation degradation identification and characterization of the degradation products were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Residual concentrations of tested ligand were determined. Moreover, extraction properties of the solvents irradiated at two different doses were compared with the extraction properties of non-irradiated solvents to estimate the influence of the presence of degradation products in the organic phase.

  17. Using corrected Cone-Beam CT image for accelerated partial breast irradiation treatment dose verification: the preliminary experience

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jiazhou; Hu, Weigang; Cai, Gang; Peng, Jiayuan; Pan, Ziqiang; Guo, Xiaomao; Chen, Jiayi

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate target localization is mandatory in the accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) delivery. Dosimetric verification for positional error will further guarantee the accuracy of treatment delivery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a cone beam computer tomographic (CBCT) image correction method in APBI. Methods A CBCT image correction method was developed. First, rigid image registration was proceeded for CTs and CBCTs; second, these im...

  18. Investigation of carbohydrate and protein metabolism in the digestive organs of the rabbit under the combined influence of vibration, acceleration and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuy, R. I.

    1975-01-01

    During spaceflight, the organism is subjected to the influence of various extremal factors such as acceleration, vibration, irradiation, etc. The study of the influence of these factors on metabolism, especially carbohydrate and protein metabolism, in young rabbits is of great significance in simulation experiments. Dynamic factors and irradiation, depending on dose and duration, lead to reduced RNA and protein metabolism.

  19. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation with interstitial implants. Analysis of factors affecting cosmetic outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Oliver J.; Lotter, Michael; Fietkau, Rainer; Strnad, Vratislav [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors for their impact on cosmetic outcome (CO) after interstitial multicatheter accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). Patients and Methods: Between April 2001 and January 2005, 171 patients with early breast cancer were recruited in Erlangen for this subanalysis of the German-Austrian APBI phase II-trial. 58% (99/171) of the patients received pulsed-dose-rate (PDR), and 42% (72/171) high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Prescribed reference dose for HDR brachytherapy was 32 Gy in eight fractions of 4 Gy, twice daily. Prescribed reference dose in PDR brachytherapy was 49.8 Gy in 83 consecutive fractions of 0.6 Gy each hour. Total treatment time was 3-4 days. Endpoint of this evaluation was the CO, graded as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Patients were divided in two groups with an excellent (n = 102) or nonexcellent (n = 69) cosmetic result. Various factors were analyzed for their impact on excellent CO. Results: The median follow-up time was 52 months (range: 21-91 months). Cosmetic results were rated as excellent in 59.6% (102/171), good in 29.8% (51/171), fair in 9.9% (17/171), and poor in 0.6% (1/171). The initial cosmetic status was significantly worse for the nonexcellent CO group (p = 0.000). The percentage of patients who received PDR brachytherapy APBI was higher in the nonexcellent CO group (68.1% vs. 51%; p = 0.026). Acute toxicity was higher in the nonexcellent CO group (24.6% vs. 12.7%; p = 0.045). Furthermore, the presence of any late toxicity was found to be associated with a worse cosmetic result (65.2% vs. 18.6%; p = 0.000). In detail, the appearance of skin hyperpigmentation (p = 0.034), breast tissue fibrosis (p = 0.000), and telangiectasia (p = 0.000) had a negative impact on CO. Conclusion: The initial, surgery-associated cosmetic status, brachytherapy modality, and the presence of acute and late toxicities were found to have an impact on overall CO. Our data have proven

  20. PRONE ACCELERATED PARTIAL BREAST IRRADIATION AFTER BREAST-CONSERVING SURGERY: FIVE YEAR RESULTS OF 100 PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Silvia C.; Hsu, Howard; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Roses, Daniel; Guth, Amber; Jozsef, Gabor; Goldberg, Judith D.; DeWyngaert, J. Keith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the 5-year results of a prospective trial of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position (P-APBI). Methods Post-menopausal patients with Stage I breast cancer with non palpable <2 cm tumors, negative margins, and negative nodes, positive hormonal receptors, and no extensive intraductal component (EIC) were eligible. The trial was offered only once eligible patients had refused to undergo standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Patients were simulated and treated on a dedicated table for prone set-up. The 3D-CRT delivered was 30 Gy in five 6 Gy/daily fractions over 10 days with port film verification at each treatment. Ipsilateral breast, ipsilateral nodal, contralateral breast, and distant failure (IBF, INF, CBF, DF) were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival (DFS, OS, CSS) were recorded. Results One hundred patients accrued to this IRB- approved prospective trial, one with bilateral breast cancer. One patient withdrew consent after simulation and another elected to interrupt radiotherapy after receiving two treatments. Ninety-eight patients are evaluable for toxicity and, in one case, both breasts were treated with PBI. Median patient age was 68 years (range 53–88 years); in 55% the tumor size was <1 cm. All patients had hormonal receptor positive cancers: 87% underwent adjuvant anti-hormonal therapy. At a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 2–125 months), there was one local recurrence (1% IBF) and one contralateral breast cancer (1% CBF). There were no deaths due to breast cancer by 5 years. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 2 patients (1 breast edema, 1 transient breast pain). Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients with at least 36 months follow-up. Conclusions Five-year efficacy and toxicity of 3D-CRT to deliver prone-PBI are comparable to other experiences with similar

  1. Cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with accelerated 56Fe ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M.; Piao, C.; Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We examined cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with high-energy 56Fe ions. Cells were irradiated with graded doses of 56Fe ions (1 GeV/nucleon) accelerated with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The survival curves for cells plated 1 h after irradiation (immediate plating) showed little or no shoulder. However, the survival curves for cells plated 24 h after irradiation (delayed plating) had a small initial shoulder. The RBE for 56Fe ions compared to 137Cs gamma rays was 1.99 for immediate plating and 2.73 for delayed plating at the D10. The repair ratio (delayed plating/immediate plating) was 1.67 for 137Cs gamma rays and 1.22 for 56Fe ions. The dose-response curves for initially measured and residual chromatid fragments detected by the Calyculin A-mediated premature chromosome condensation technique showed a linear response. The results indicated that the induction frequency for initially measured fragments was the same for 137Cs gamma rays and 56Fe ions. On the other hand, approximately 85% of the fragments induced by 137Cs gamma rays had rejoined after 24 h of postirradiation incubation; the corresponding amount for 56Fe ions was 37%. Furthermore, the frequency of chromatid exchanges induced by gamma rays measured 24 h after irradiation was higher than that induced by 56Fe ions. No difference in the amount of chromatid damage induced by the two types of radiations was detected when assayed 1 h after irradiation. The results suggest that high-energy 56Fe ions induce a higher frequency of complex, unrepairable damage at both the cellular and chromosomal levels than 137Cs gamma rays in the target cells for radiation-induced lung cancers.

  2. Studies on chemical radioprotectors against X-irradiation used by soft X-ray accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, Masato [Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1995-01-01

    This review describes the modes of mice radiation injuries induced by soft X-irradiation under various conditions and the protective effects of several kinds of substances on these injuries. The models of radiation injuries in this study were bone marrow death after lethal irradiation, skin damage induced by irradiation with long length soft X-ray and leukocytopenia in the peripheral blood after sublethal irradiation. Two bioassay methods were established for the survival effect on the lethal irradiation and protective potency on the skin damage induced by soft X-irradiation. The protective potencies of various sulfur compounds, related compounds of ferulic acid, nucleic acid constitutional compounds, crude drugs and chinese traditional medicines were determined and then many effective drugs were recognized. Effective components in the methanol extracts of Cnidii Rhizoma and Aloe arborescens recognized as radioprotectable were fractionated. As a result of these studies, it was observed that the active principles in Cnidii Rhizoma were identified as ferulic acid and adenosine. The scavenge action of active oxygens, a protective effect on the damages of deoxyribonucleic acid and superoxide dismutase by in vitro soft X-irradiation were evaluated as radiation protective mechanisms. (author).

  3. Protein oxidation and aggregation in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells as signs of accelerated cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshard, Franziska; Riedel, Kathrin; Schneider, Thomas; Geiser, Carina; Bucheli, Margarete; Egli, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) is a simple drinking water treatment method that improves microbiological water quality where other means are unavailable. It makes use of the deleterious effect of solar irradiation on pathogenic microbes and viruses. A positive impact on health has been documented in several epidemiological studies. However, the molecular mechanisms damaging cells during this simple treatment are not yet fully understood. Here we show that protein damage is crucial in the process of inactivation by sunlight. Protein damages in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells have been evaluated by an immunoblot method for carbonylated proteins and an aggregation assay based on semi-quantitative proteomics. A wide spectrum of structural and enzymatic proteins within the cell is affected by carbonylation and aggregation. Vital cellular functions like the transcription and translation apparatus, transport systems, amino acid synthesis and degradation, respiration, ATP synthesis, glycolysis, the TCA cycle, chaperone functions and catalase are targeted by UVA irradiation. The protein damage pattern caused by SODIS strongly resembles the pattern caused by reactive oxygen stress. Hence, sunlight probably accelerates cellular senescence and leads to the inactivation and finally death of UVA-irradiated cells.

  4. Study of irradiation induced restructuring of high burnup fuel - Use of computer and accelerator for fuel science and engineering -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sataka, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Chimn, Y.; Nakamura, J.; Amaya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Gun (Japan); Iwasawa, M.; Ohnuma, T.; Sonoda, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Kinoshita, M.; Geng, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Kaneta, Y. [The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yasunaga, K.; Matsumura, S.; Yasuda, K. [Kyushu Univ., Motooka (Japan); Iwase [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ichinomiya, T.; Nishiuran, Y. [Hokkaido Univ., Kitaku (Japan); Matzke, HJ. [Academy of Ceramics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    In order to develop advanced fuel for future LWR reactors, trials were made to simulate the high burnup restructuring of the ceramics fuel, using accelerator irradiation out of pile and with computer simulation. The target is to reproduce the principal complex process as a whole. The reproduction of the grain subdivision (sub grain formation) was successful at experiments with sequential combined irradiation. It was made by recovery process of the accumulated dislocations, making cells and sub-boundaries at grain boundaries and pore surfaces. Details of the grain sub division mechanism is now in front of us outside of the reactor. Extensive computer science studies, first principle and molecular dynamics gave behavior of fission gas atoms and interstitial oxygen, assisting the high burnup restructuring.

  5. Irradiation accelerated corrosion of 316L stainless steel in simulated primary water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiman, Stephen S.

    The objective of this work is to understand the effects of irradiation on the corrosion of 316L stainless steel in simulated primary water. 316L stainless steel samples were irradiated with a proton beam while simultaneously exposed to simulated PWR primary water to study the effects of radiation on corrosion. A 3.2 MeV proton beam was transmitted through a 37 microm thick sample that served as a "window" into a corrosion cell containing flowing 320° C water with 3 wppm H2. This design permitted radiolysis and displacement damage to occur on the sample surface in contact with the simulated primary water environment. Samples were irradiated for 4, 12, 24, and 72 hrs at dose rates between 400 and 4000 kGy/s, corresponding to damage rates of 7x10-7 to 7x10-6 dpa/s respectively. The structure and composition of the oxide films were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, STEM, and SEM. Sample areas exposed to direct proton irradiation had inner oxide films that were thinner, more porous, and were deficient in chromium when compared to unirradiated oxides. Outer oxides on irradiated samples exhibited a smaller particle size, and had a significant amount of hematite, which was not found on unirradiated samples. The presence of hematite on irradiated samples indicates an increase in electrochemical potential due to irradiation. Dissolution of chromium-rich spinels due to the elevated potential is identified as a likely mechanism behind the loss of inner oxide chromium. It is suggested that the loss of inner-oxide chromium leads to a less protective inner oxide, and a higher rate of oxide dissolution. Sample areas that were not irradiated, but were exposed to the flow of radiolyzed water, exhibited most of the same phenomena found on irradiated areas including loss of Cr and thinner more porous oxides, indicating that water radiolysis is the primary mechanism. When a sample with a pre-formed oxide was irradiated in the same conditions, the region exposed to radiolyzed

  6. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with external beam radiotherapy. First results of the German phase 2 trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Oliver J.; Strnad, Vratislav; Stillkrieg, Wilhelm; Fietkau, Rainer [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Uter, Wolfgang [University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Dept. of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Erlangen (Germany); Beckmann, Matthias W. [University Hospital Erlangen, Dept. of Gynecology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of external beam three-dimensional (3D) conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for selected patients with early breast cancer. Between 2011 and 2016, 72 patients were recruited for this prospective phase 2 trial. Patients were eligible for APBI if they had histologically confirmed breast cancer or pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a tumor diameter ≤3 cm, clear resection margins ≥2 mm, no axillary lymph node involvement, no distant metastases, tumor bed clips, and were aged ≥50 years. Patients were excluded if mammography showed a multicentric invasive growth pattern, or if they had residual diffuse microcalcifications postoperatively, an extensive intraductal component, or vessel invasion. Patients received 3D conformal external beam APBI with a total dose of 38 Gy in 10 fractions in 1-2 weeks. The trial had been registered at the German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS-ID: DRKS00004417. Median follow-up was 25.5 months (range 1-61 months). Local control was maintained in 71 of 72 patients. The 3-year local recurrence rate was 2.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0-6.1%). Early toxicity (grade 1 radiodermatitis) was seen in 34.7% (25/72). Late side effects ≥ grade 3 did not occur. Cosmetic results were rated as excellent/good in 96.7% (59/61). APBI with external beam radiotherapy techniques is feasible with low toxicity and, according to the results of the present and other studies, on the way to becoming a standard treatment option for a selected subgroup of patients. (orig.) [German] Untersuchung der Vertraeglichkeit und Sicherheit der externen, 3-D-konformalen akzelerierten Teilbrustbestrahlung (APBI) fuer ausgewaehlte Patientinnen mit einem fruehen Mammakarzinom. Von 2011 bis 2016 wurden 72 Patientinnen in diese prospektive Phase-2-Studie eingebracht. Einschlusskriterien waren ein histologisch gesichertes Mammakarzinom oder DCIS, ein Tumordurchmesser ≤ 3 cm, tumorfreie Resektionsraender ≥ 2

  7. Acceleration of astrocytic differentiation in neural stem cells surviving X-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Ayumi; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Hiroki; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-03-28

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are highly susceptible to DNA double-strand breaks; however, little is known about the effects of radiation in cells surviving radiation. Although the nestin-positive NSCs predominantly became glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive in differentiation-permissive medium, little or no cells were GFAP positive in proliferation-permissive medium. We found that more than half of the cells surviving X-rays became GFAP positive in proliferation-permissive medium. Moreover, localized irradiation stimulated differentiation of cells outside the irradiated area. These results indicate for the first time that ionizing radiation is able to stimulate astrocyte-specific differentiation of surviving NSCs, whose process is mediated both by the direct activation of nuclear factor-κB and by the indirect bystander effect induced by X-irradiation.

  8. Acceleration test of TIT-IHQ linac for heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashi, Ito; Noriyosu, Hayashizaki; Shinjiro, Matsui; Kimikazu, Sasa; Schubert, H.; Osvath, E.; Toshiyuki, Hattori

    2000-03-01

    We have developed an interdigital-H quadrupole (IHQ) linac for industrial applications. This linac was designed to accelerate particles with charge to mass ratio greater than 1/16 from 21.8 up to 145 keV/u. The particles are focused by an electric quadrupole field exited by fingertips on the drift tubes. This IHQ linac was installed at Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1997 and some tests such as low power tuning and vacuum tests were done. Then, proton acceleration tests ware performed in 1998, and the proton beam was successfully accelerated up to the designed energy. As a result of this experiment, the effective shunt impedance was determined to be 210 MΩ/m, the required RF power consumption was 93 W and the beam transmission rate was about 9%. In this paper, the results of the high power acceleration test with H + ion are described.

  9. Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Compliance to the Dosimetry Requirements of RTOG-0413

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Bixiu [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Hsu, Howard; Formenti-Ujlaki, George F.; Lymberis, Stella; Magnolfi, Chiara; Zhao Xuan; Chang Jenghwa; DeWyngaert, J. Keith; Jozsef, Gabor [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric results from our institution's trials of prone accelerated partial breast irradiation are compared with the dosimetric requirements of RTOG-0413. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 and Trial 2 are 2 consecutive trials of prone-accelerated partial breast irradiation. Eligible for both trials were stage I breast cancer patients with negative margins after breast-conserving surgery. The planning target tumor volume (PTV) was created by extending the surgical cavity 2.0 cm for Trial 1 and 1.5 cm for Trial 2, respectively. Contralateral breast, heart, lungs, and thyroid were contoured. Thirty Gray was delivered in five daily fractions of 6 Gy by a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy technique in Trial 1 and were by image-guided radiation therapy/intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Trial 2. Dosimetric results from the trials are reported and compared with RTOG 0413 requirements. Results: One hundred forty-six consecutive plans were analyzed: 67 left and 79 right breast cancers. The plans from the trials complied with the required >90% of prescribed dose covering 90% of PTV{sub E}VAL (=generated from the PTV by cropping 0.5 cm from the skin edge and excluding the chest wall): V90% was 98.1 {+-} 3.0% (with V100% and V95%, 89.4 {+-} 12.8%, 96.4 {+-} 5.1%, respectively). No significant difference between laterality was found (Student's t test). The dose constraints criteria of the RTOG-0413 protocol for ipsilateral and contralateral lung (V30 <15% and Dmax <3%), heart (V5 <40%), and thyroid (Dmax <3%) were satisfied because the plans showed an average V5% of 0.6% (range, 0-13.4) for heart, an average V30% of 0.6% (range, 0-9.1%) for ipsilateral lung, and <2% maximum dose to the thyroid. However, our partial breast irradiation plans demonstrated a higher dose to contralateral breast than that defined by RTOG constraints, with a median value of maximum doses of 4.1% (1.2 Gy), possibly as a result of contouring differences

  10. Structure Design and Analysis of Bremsstrahlung Converter for High-power Irradiation Electron Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Chun-guang; LIU; Bao-jie; LI; Jin-hai

    2015-01-01

    X-ay has strong penetrating power.It has been widely used in food preservation,medical sterilization,materials modification and so on,and it can supplement the shortcomings of electron beam irradiation.Recently,there is more and more research and application about bremsstrahlung

  11. Curcumin Mitigates Accelerated Aging after Irradiation in Drosophila by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Moon Seong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, belonging to a class of natural phenol compounds, has been extensively studied due to its antioxidative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative effects. Recently, it has been shown to exert dual activities after irradiation, radioprotection, and radiosensitization. Here, we investigated the protective effect of curcumin against radiation damage using D. melanogaster. Pretreatment with curcumin (100 μM recovered the shortened lifespan caused by irradiation and increased eclosion rate. Flies subjected to high-dose irradiation showed a mutant phenotype of outstretched wings, whereas curcumin pretreatment reduced incidence of the mutant phenotype. Protein carbonylation and formation of γH2Ax foci both increased following high-dose irradiation most likely due to generation of reactive oxygen species. Curcumin pretreatment reduced the amount of protein carbonylation as well as formation of γH2Ax foci. Therefore, we suggest that curcumin acts as an oxidative stress reducer as well as an effective protective agent against radiation damage.

  12. Proton driven acceleration by intense laser pulses irradiating thin hydrogenated targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Cavallaro, S.; Giuffrida, L.; Andò, L.; Cirrone, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Puglisi, D.; Calcagno, L.; Verona, C.; Picciotto, A.; Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Krousky, E.; Pfeiffer, M.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M.; Ryc, L.; Szydlowski, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Asterix iodine laser of the PALS laboratory in Prague, operating at 1315 nm fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, 600 J maximum pulse energy and 1016 W/cm2 intensity, is employed to irradiate thin hydrogenated targets placed in high vacuum. Different metallic and polymeric targets allow to generate multi-energetic and multi-specie ion beams showing peculiar properties. The plasma obtained by the laser irradiation is monitored, in terms of properties of the emitted charge particles, by using time-of-flight techniques and Thomson parabola spectrometer (TPS). A particular attention is given to the proton beam production in terms of the maximum energy, emission yield and angular distribution as a function of the laser energy, focal position (FP), target thickness and composition.

  13. The Influence of Irradiation and Accelerated Aging on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of the Graphene Oxide/Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide/ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (GO/UHMWPE nanocomposite is a potential and promising candidate for artificial joint applications. However, after irradiation and accelerated aging, the mechanical and tribological behaviors of the nanocomposites are still unclear and require further investigation. GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites were successfully fabricated using ultrasonication dispersion, ball-milling, and hot-pressing process. Then, the nanocomposites were irradiated by gamma ray at doses of 100 kGy. Finally, GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites underwent accelerated aging at 80°C for 21 days in air. The mechanical and tribological properties of GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites have been evaluated after irradiation and accelerated aging. The results indicated that the incorporation of GO could enhance the mechanical, wear, and antiscratch properties of UHMWPE. After irradiation, these properties could be further enhanced, compared to unirradiated ones. After accelerated aging, however, these properties have been significantly reduced when compared to unirradiated ones. Moreover, GO and irradiation can synergistically enhance these properties.

  14. Novel Ways of Heat Removal from Highly Irradiated Superconducting Windings in Accelerator Magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielert, Erwin R.; Verweij, Arjan P.; Kate, ten Herman H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Novel ideas of heat removal from superconducting windings in accelerator type magnets are investigated with the help of a recently developed and validated thermal model of a magnet cold mass implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics. Here the focus is on how to improve heat removal from the midplane of a s

  15. Experimental destruction of Ascarid ova in sewage sludge by accelerated electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, Petr (Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Parasitology)

    1994-04-01

    Aerobically-treated sewage sludge containing eggs of the nematode Ascaris suum was processed using accelerated electrons. After 8 weeks of incubation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was determined. Inhibition of development and the destruction of nematode embryos within eggs were observed at doses over 1.1 kGy. (author).

  16. Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiation Therapy In Head And Neck Cancers- A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thejaswini B

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion:CHART achieves good locoregional response in stages III and IV of head and neck cancer. The acute mucosal reactions were within acceptable limits. The compliance to the treatment was good. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(3.000: 218-221

  17. Efficient and stable proton acceleration by irradiating a two-layer target with a linearly polarized laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. Y.; Yan, X. Q.; Chen, J. E.; He, X. T. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ma, W. J.; Bin, J. H.; Schreiber, J.; Tajima, T.; Habs, D. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany) and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    We report an efficient and stable scheme to generate {approx}200 MeV proton bunch by irradiating a two-layer targets (near-critical density layer+solid density layer with heavy ions and protons) with a linearly polarized Gaussian pulse at intensity of 6.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. Due to self-focusing of laser and directly accelerated electrons in the near-critical density layer, the proton energy is enhanced by a factor of 3 compared to single-layer solid targets. The energy spread of proton is also remarkably reduced. Such scheme is attractive for applications relevant to tumor therapy.

  18. Irradiated shocks in the W28 A2 massive star-forming region: a site for cosmic rays acceleration?

    CERN Document Server

    Gusdorf, A; Gerin, M; Guesten, R

    2015-01-01

    The formation of massive stars play a crucial role in galaxies from numerous points of view. The protostar generates a strong ultraviolet radiation field that ionizes its surroundings, and it drives powerful shock waves in the neighbouring medium in the form of jets and bipolar outflows, whose structure can be partially organized by local, strong magnetic field. Such an ejection activity locally modifies the interstellar chemistry, contributing to the cycle of matter. It also significantly participates to the energetic balance of galaxies. In the latter stages of massive star formation, the protostar is surrounded by an ultra-compact HII region, and irradiates its bipolar outflows, where an intrinsically strong magnetic field structure is associated to the generally high densities. In the HII region, or in the bipolar outflows, the question of in situ cosmic rays acceleration can then be raised by the simultaneous presence of strong magnetic fields, significant ionization of the matter, and mechanical energy ...

  19. Relative biological effectiveness in canine osteosarcoma cells irradiated with accelerated charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Junko; Cartwright, Ian M.; Haskins, Jeremy S.; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kitamura, Hisashi; Fujimori, Akira; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy ions, characterized by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, have advantages compared with low LET protons and photons in their biological effects. The application of heavy ions within veterinary clinics requires additional background information to determine heavy ion efficacy. In the present study, comparison of the cell-killing effects of photons, protons and heavy ions was investigated in canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cells in vitro. A total of four canine OSA cell lines with various radiosensitivities were irradiated with 137Cs gamma-rays, monoenergetic proton beams, 50 keV/µm carbon ion spread out Bragg peak beams and 200 keV/µm iron ion monoenergetic beams. Clonogenic survival was examined using colony-forming as says, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values were calculated relative to gamma-rays using the D10 value, which is determined as the dose (Gy) resulting in 10% survival. For proton irradiation, the RBE values for all four cell lines were 1.0–1.1. For all four cell lines, exposure to carbon ions yielded a decreased cell survival compared with gamma-rays, with the RBE values ranging from 1.56–2.10. Iron ions yielded the lowest cell survival among tested radiation types, with RBE values ranging from 3.51–3.69 observed in the three radioresistant cell lines. The radiosensitive cell line investigated demonstrated similar cell survival for carbon and iron ion irradiation. The results of the present study suggest that heavy ions are more effective for killing radioresistant canine OSA cells when compared with gamma-rays and protons. This markedly increased efficiency of cell killing is an attractive reason for utilizing heavy ions for radioresistant canine OSA. PMID:27446477

  20. Acid-catalysed deuterium exchange of aromatic protons. Pt. 3; Accelerated exchange by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeves, G.J. (Centre of Forensic Sciences, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1994-03-01

    Conventional acid-catalysed [sup 2]H/[sup 1]H exchange in aromatic rings requires long reaction times, high temperatures and pressure. This paper reports that accelerated deuterium exchange can be achieved in a microwave oven. Experiments were carried out on benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and phenothiazines. The reaction time was decreased from days to minutes, the preparatory work was simpler than with conventional heating and the labelled products were cleaner. (author).

  1. Factors Associated With Chest Wall Toxicity After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sheree, E-mail: shereedst32@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, WellStar Kennestone Hospital, Marietta, Georgia (United States); Vicini, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Vanapalli, Jyotsna R.; Whitaker, Thomas J.; Pope, D. Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, WellStar Kennestone Hospital, Marietta, Georgia (United States); Lyden, Maureen [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, Florida (United States); Bruggeman, Lisa; Haile, Kenneth L.; McLaughlin, Mark P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, WellStar Kennestone Hospital, Marietta, Georgia (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate dose-volume relationships associated with a higher probability for developing chest wall toxicity (pain) after accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by using both single-lumen and multilumen brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Rib dose data were available for 89 patients treated with APBI and were correlated with the development of chest wall/rib pain at any point after treatment. Ribs were contoured on computed tomography planning scans, and rib dose-volume histograms (DVH) along with histograms for other structures were constructed. Rib DVH data for all patients were sampled at all volumes {>=}0.008 cubic centimeter (cc) (for maximum dose related to pain) and at volumes of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 cc for analysis. Rib pain was evaluated at each follow-up visit. Patient responses were marked as yes or no. No attempt was made to grade responses. Eighty-nine responses were available for this analysis. Results: Nineteen patients (21.3%) complained of transient chest wall/rib pain at any point in follow-up. Analysis showed a direct correlation between total dose received and volume of rib irradiated with the probability of developing rib/chest wall pain at any point after follow-up. The median maximum dose at volumes {>=}0.008 cc of rib in patients who experienced chest wall pain was 132% of the prescribed dose versus 95% of the prescribed dose in those patients who did not experience pain (p = 0.0035). Conclusions: Although the incidence of chest wall/rib pain is quite low with APBI brachytherapy, attempts should be made to keep the volume of rib irradiated at a minimum and the maximum dose received by the chest wall as low as reasonably achievable.

  2. Accelerated repopulation of mouse tongue epithelium during fractionated irradiations or following single doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, W.; Kummermehr, J. (GSF, Neuherberg (Federal Republic of Germany). Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie)

    1990-03-01

    Mouse tongue mucosa was established as an animal model to study repopulation after large single doses or during continuous irradiation. A top-up irradiation technique was used employing priming doses or fractionated treatment to the whole snout (300 kV X-rays) followed by local test doses (25 kV X-rays) to elicit denudation in a confined field of the inferior tongue surface. Clearcut quantal dose-response curves of ulcer incidence were obtained to all protocols; animal morbidity, i.e. body weight loss was minimal. Repopulation following priming doses of 10 and 13 Gy started with a delay of at least 3 days and then progressed rapidly to nearly restore original tissue tolerance by day 11. During continuous fractionation over 1 to 3 weeks with 5 fractions/week and doses per fraction of 2.5, 3 and 3.5 Gy, repopulation was small in week one but subsequently increased to fully compensate the weekly dose at all dose levels. Additional measurements of cell density during a 4 weeks course of 5 x 3 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy per week showed only moderate depletion to 67% of the control figures. The fact that rapid repopulation is achieved at relatively moderate damage levels should be taken into account when the timing of a treatment split is considered. (author). 18 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab.

  3. Identifying Patients Who May Be Candidates for a Clinical Trial of Salvage Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation after Previous Whole Breast Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI has been proposed as an alternative to salvage mastectomy for patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR after prior breast conservation. We studied factors that are associated with a more favorable local recurrence profile that could make certain patients eligible for APBI. Methods. Between 1980 and 2005, 157 Stage 0–II breast cancer patients had an IBTR treated by mastectomy. Clinical and pathological features were analyzed to identify factors associated with favorable IBTR defined as unifocal DCIS or T1 ≤ 2 cm, without skin involvement, and >2 year interval from initial treatment. Results. Median followup was 140 months and time to recurrence was 73 months. Clinical stage distribution at recurrence was DCIS in 32 pts (20%, T1 in 90 pts (57%, T2 in 14 pts (9%, T3 in 4 pts (3%, and T4 in 9 pts (6%. IBTR was classified as favorable in 71%. Clinical stage of IBTR predicted for pathologic stage –95% of patients with clinical T1 IBTR had pathologic T1 disease at salvage mastectomy . Conclusions. Clinical stage at presentation strongly correlated with pathologic stage at mastectomy. More than 70% of recurrences were favorable and may be appropriate candidates for salvage APBI trials.

  4. Ion acceleration with a narrow energy spectrum by nanosecond laser-irradiation of solid target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altana, C., E-mail: altana@lns.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore,” Via delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna (Italy); Mascali, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Tudisco, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In laser-driven plasma, ion acceleration of aluminum with the production of a quasi-monoenergetic beam has occurred. A useful device to analyze the ions is the Thomson parabolas spectrometer, a well-known diagnostic that is able to obtain information on charge-to-mass ratio and energy distribution of the charged particles. At the LENS (Laser Energy for Nuclear Science) laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania, experimental measures were carried out; the features of LENS are: Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with 2 J laser energy, 1064 nm fundamental wavelengths, and 6 ns pulse duration.

  5. Ion acceleration in shell cylinders irradiated by a short intense laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A. [Max-Born Institute, Berlin (Germany); ELI-ALPS, Szeged (Hungary); Platonov, K. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sharma, A. [ELI-ALPS, Szeged (Hungary); Murakami, M. [ILE, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    The interaction of a short high intensity laser pulse with homo and heterogeneous shell cylinders has been analyzed using particle-in-cell simulations and analytical modeling. We show that the shell cylinder is proficient of accelerating and focusing ions in a narrow region. In the case of shell cylinder, the ion energy exceeds the ion energy for a flat target of the same thickness. The constructed model enables the evaluation of the ion energy and the number of ions in the focusing region.

  6. FAFNIR: Strategy and risk reduction in accelerator driven neutron sources for fusion materials irradiation data

    CERN Document Server

    Surrey, E; Caballero, A; Davenne, T; Findlay, D; Letchford, A; Thomason, J; Marrow, J; Roberts, S; Seryi, A; Connolly, B; Mummery, P; Owen, H

    2014-01-01

    The need to populate the fusion materials engineering data base has long been recognized, the IFMIF facility being the present proposed neutron source for this purpose. Re-evaluation of the regulatory approach for the EU proposed DEMO device shows that the specification of the neutron source can be reduced with respect to IFMIF, allowing lower risk technology solutions to be considered. The justification for this approach is presented and a description of a proposed facility, FAFNIR, is presented with more detailed discussion of the accelerator and target designs.

  7. A theoretical model of accelerated irradiation creep at low temperatures by transient interstitial absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, R.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Mansur, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical model has been developed using the reaction rate theory of radiation effects to explain experimental results that showed higher than expected values of irradiation creep at low temperatures in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The customary assumption that the point defect concentrations are at steady state was not made; rather, the time dependence of the vacancy and interstitial concentrations and the creep rate were explicitly calculated. For temperatures below about 100 to 200{degree}C, the time required for the vacancy concentration to reach steady state exceeds the duration of the experiment. For example, if materials parameters typical of austenitic stainless steel are used, the calculated vacancy transient dose at 100{degree}C is about 100 dpa. At 550{degree}C this transient is over by 10{sup {minus}8} dpa. During the time that the vacancy population remains lower than its steady state value, dislocation climb is increased since defects of primarily one type are being absorbed. Using the time-dependent point defect concentrations, the dislocation climb velocity has been calculated as a function of time and a climb-enabled glide creep model had been invoked. The extended transient time for the vacancies leads to high creep rates at low temperatures. In agreement with the experimental observations, a minimum in the temperature dependence of creep is predicted at a temperature between 50 and 350{degree}C. The temperature at which the minimum occurs decreases as the irradiation dose increases. Predicted values of creep at 8 dpa are in good agreement with the results of the ORR-MFE-6J/7J experiment.

  8. Implementation of the technique of partial irradiation accelerated the breast with high doses (HDR) brachytherapy; Puesta en marcha de la tecnica de irradiacion parcial acelerada de la mama con braquterapia de alta tasa de dosis (HDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Pardo Perez, E.; Castro Novais, J.; Martinez Ortega, J.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Cerro Penalver, E. del

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is presents procedure carried out in our Centre for the implementation of the accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI, accelerated partial-breast irradiation) with high-rate brachytherapy (HDR), using plastic tubes as applicators. Carried out measures, the evaluation of the dosimetric parameters analyzing and presenting the results. (Author)

  9. Hyperfractionated versus conventional radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy in standard-risk medulloblastoma: Results from the randomized multicenter HIT-SIOP PNET 4 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Lannering (Birgitta); P. Rutkowski (Piotr); F.F. Doz (François); B. Pizer (Barry); G. Gustafsson (Göran); A. Navajas (Aurora); M. Massimino (Maura); R.E. Reddingius (Roel); M. Benesch (Martin); C. Carrie (Christian); R. Taylor; L. Gandola (Lorenza); T. Bjor̈k-Eriksson (Thomas); S. Giralt; F. Oldenburger (Foppe); T. Pietsch (Torsten); D. Figarella-Branger (Dominique); K. Robson (Kathryn); G. Forni (Gianluca); S.C. Clifford (Steven); M. Warmuth-Metz (Monica); D.D. Von Hoff; A. Faldum (Andreas); V. Mosseri (Véronique); B. Kortmann

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To compare event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), pattern of relapse, and hearing loss in children with standard-risk medulloblastoma treated by postoperative hyperfractionated or conventionally fractionated radiotherapy followed by maintenance chemotherapy. Patients

  10. Instability of an ablatively-accelerated slab in the case of non-normal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D D [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Kane, J O [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Pound, M W [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Remington, B A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2003-05-01

    When a surface of a radiation-absorbing material is illuminated by a sufficiently intense radiation, the gas ablated from the surface produces reactive a force causing an acceleration of the initial matter and setting a stage for instabilities of the Rayleigh-Taylor type. New effects associated with the non-normal incidence of the radiation are analysed. It has been shown that, at large enough tilt, the instability becomes significantly faster than in the 'normal' case and unstable modes acquire finite phase velocity along the surface. The most unstable perturbations are rolls whose orientation depends on the angular distribution of radiation. These results are of interest for laboratory studies of ablation fronts and for the theory of photoevaporation fronts in astrophysics.

  11. Strategy Selection of Film Irradiation by Accelerated ^{40}Ar^{8+} Ions for Manufacturing of Track Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, Yu N; Kalinichenko, V V; Karamysheva, G A; Fedorenko, S B

    2004-01-01

    The industrial cyclotron CYTRACK is dedicated to the production of the track membranes. It is the basic instrument for the industry of membrane products to be consumed in medicine, biotechnology, pharmacology, microelectronics and many other industries. The cyclotron CYTRACK started working in the August of 2002. Argon ions were accelerated to a project energy of 2.4 MeV/nucleon, the extracted beam intensity was about 200 nA, the extraction efficiency totaled \\sim 50 %. In starting up operation the film was exposed in various controlled ways to charged particles with a view to achieving the values of parameters required for production of "Rosa" membranous plasmafilters. The pore uniformity in transverse direction was provided by beam scanning with a scanning magnet voltage of 73 V, the one in the longitudinal direction was provided by constancy of the film motion rate and stability of beam intensity during all the time of exposition.

  12. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus whole breast irradiation: 5-year survival analysis of a phase 3 randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Lorenzo; Meattini, Icro; Marrazzo, Livia; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Pallotta, Stefania; Saieva, Calogero; Paiar, Fabiola; Scotti, Vieri; De Luca Cardillo, Carla; Bastiani, Paolo; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Casella, Donato; Sanchez, Luis; Nori, Jacopo; Fambrini, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Simonetta

    2015-03-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been introduced as an alternative treatment method for selected patients with early stage breast cancer (BC). Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has the theoretical advantage of a further increase in dose conformity compared with three-dimensional techniques, with more normal tissue sparing. The aim of this randomised trial is to compare the local recurrence and survival of APBI using the IMRT technique after breast-conserving surgery to conventional whole-breast irradiation (WBI) in early stage BC. This study was performed at the University of Florence (Florence, Italy). Women aged more than 40years affected by early BC, with a maximum pathological tumour size of 25mm, were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either WBI or APBI using IMRT. Patients in the APBI arm received a total dose of 30 Gy to the tumour bed in five daily fractions. The WBI arm received 50Gy in 25 fractions, followed by a boost on the tumour bed of 10Gy in five fractions. The primary end-point was occurrence of ipsilateral breast tumour recurrences (IBTRs); the main analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02104895. A total of 520 patients were randomised (260 to external WBI and 260 to APBI with IMRT) between March 2005 and June 2013. At a median follow-up of 5.0 years (Interquartile Range (IQR) 3.4-7.0), the IBTR rate was 1.5% (three cases) in the APBI group (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-3.0) and in the WBI group (three cases; 95% CI 0.0-2.8). No significant difference emerged between the two groups (log rank test p=0.86). We identified seven deaths in the WBI group and only one in the APBI group (p=0.057). The 5-year overall survival was 96.6% for the WBI group and 99.4% for the APBI group. The APBI group presented significantly better results considering acute (p=0.0001), late (p=0.004), and cosmetic outcome (p=0.045). To our knowledge, this is the first randomised

  13. Analysis of late complications after rapid hyperfractionated radiotherapy in advanced head and neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Panis, X.; Froissart, D.; Legros, M.; Coninx, P.; Loirette, M.

    1988-01-01

    Late effects were analyzed in a series of 39 patients with a 2-year minimal follow-up who were treated by rapid hyperfractionated radiotherapy. The total dose was 66-72 Gy delivered in two series of 33-36 Gy separated by a 2-4 week rest interval. The number of daily fractions ranged from 8 to 6 and the interval between each fraction was 2 hr. Late complications consisted of cervical fibrosis, mucosal necrosis, bone necrosis, trismus, and laryngeal edema. Seventy percent of patients experienced late complications, and in 54% of cases, these reactions were considered severe, causing death in 13% of patients. No relationship was found between field sizes, dosimetric data and type and frequency of late effects. It is therefore suggested that the interval between two daily sessions in any multifractionated protocol may be of critical importance.

  14. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiation therapy for the urinary bladder carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Ryochi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Kawada, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Toshitake; Andou, Yutaka; Kubo, Atsushi; Tachibana, Masaaki [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Ito, Hisao

    1997-06-01

    The standard treatment for an invasive bladder cancer is radical surgery; however, the quality of life of the patients who undergo total cystectomy is unfavorable even when the ileal conduits were constructed. We carried out a bladder-conserving treatment for 8 bladder cancer patients by using a hyperfractionated radiotherapy together with low dose of cis-platinum or carboplatinum daily as a radiosensitizer following trans-urethral tumor resection and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cystoscopic findings and biopsies at one month after completing radiation showed complete remission (CR) and partial response (PR) for 5 and 3 patients, respectively. All of the PR cases had T4 tumors and the patients with tumors smaller than T3 and without lymph node metastasis achieved CR. All patients completed radiotherapy without acute severe complications. Six patients have remained alive for more than 10 months and radiation induced late complications such as bladder or intestinal insufficiency have not been observed thus far. (author)

  15. Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Five-year Results of 100 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Hsu, Howard; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Roses, Daniel; Guth, Amber [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Jozsef, Gabor [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Division of Biostastistics, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); DeWyngaert, J. Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a prospective trial of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position. Methods and Materials: Postmenopausal patients with Stage I breast cancer with nonpalpable tumors <2 cm, negative margins and negative nodes, positive hormone receptors, and no extensive intraductal component were eligible. The trial was offered only after eligible patients had refused to undergo standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Patients were simulated and treated on a dedicated table for prone setup. 3D-CRT was delivered at a dose of 30 Gy in five 6-Gy/day fractions over 10 days with port film verification at each treatment. Rates of ipsilateral breast failure, ipsilateral nodal failure, contralateral breast failure, and distant failure were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Rates of disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were enrolled in this institutional review board-approved prospective trial, one with bilateral breast cancer. One patient withdrew consent after simulation, and another patient elected to interrupt radiotherapy after receiving two treatments. Ninety-eight patients were evaluable for toxicity, and, in 1 case, both breasts were treated with partial breast irradiation. Median patient age was 68 years (range, 53-88 years); in 55% of patients the tumor size was <1 cm. All patients had hormone receptor-positive cancers: 87% of patients underwent adjuvant antihormone therapy. At a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 2-125 months), there was one local recurrence (1% ipsilateral breast failure) and one contralateral breast cancer (1% contralateral breast failure). There were no deaths due to breast cancer by 5 years. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 2 patients (one breast edema, one transient breast pain). Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients with at least 36

  16. Co-targeting Deoxyribonucleic Acid–Dependent Protein Kinase and Poly(Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Promotes Accelerated Senescence of Irradiated Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Arun, E-mail: arun.azad@bccancer.bc.ca [Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Pathology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Bukczynska, Patricia; Jackson, Susan [Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Haput, Ygal; Cullinane, Carleen [Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); McArthur, Grant A.; Solomon, Benjamin [Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Medicine, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medicine, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of combined blockade of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) on accelerated senescence in irradiated H460 and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of KU5788 and AG014699 (inhibitors of DNA-PK and PARP-1, respectively) on clonogenic survival, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe, and accelerated senescence in irradiated cells were examined in vitro. For in vivo experiments, H460 xenografts established in athymic nude mice were treated with BEZ235 (a DNA-PK, ATM, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor) and AG014699 to determine effects on proliferation, DNA DSBs, and accelerated senescence after radiation. Results: Compared with either inhibitor alone, combination treatment with KU57788 and AG014699 reduced postradiation clonogenic survival and significantly increased persistence of Gamma-H2AX (γH2AX) foci in irradiated H460 and A549 cells. Notably, these effects coincided with the induction of accelerated senescence in irradiated cells as reflected by positive β-galactosidase staining, G2-M cell-cycle arrest, enlarged and flattened cellular morphology, increased p21 expression, and senescence-associated cytokine secretion. In irradiated H460 xenografts, concurrent therapy with BEZ235 and AG014699 resulted in sustained Gamma-H2AX (γH2AX) staining and prominent β-galactosidase activity. Conclusion: Combined DNA-PK and PARP-1 blockade increased tumor cell radiosensitivity and enhanced the prosenescent properties of ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. These data provide a rationale for further preclinical and clinical testing of this therapeutic combination.

  17. In vivo dosimetry of high-dose fractionated irradiation in an experimental set-up with rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortan, L.; Van Hecke, H.; Van Duyse, B.; De Neve, W.; De Meerleer, B. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde; Pattyn, P.; Van Renthergem, K. [Ghent University (Belgium). Dept. of Surgery

    1995-12-01

    The feasibility to irradiate a limited section of a rat abdomen with well-defined edges was assessed. Because of the relative small volume involved, in vivo dosimetry with TLDs was necessary in providing us information about the accuracy of the irradiation method. Three to five days prior to the start of the radiotherapy treatment, two plastic strips - each containing a TLD-dosimeter (Harshaw TLD10 LiF rods, 1 mm dia x 6 mm) sealed in polyethylene tubing, and a lead bean - were implanted in the rat abdomen. The plastic strips made a closed loop around the bowel, through the mesenterium, and were fixed with a single stitch on the inner abdominal wall. One loop was made in the hepatic area; another was made in the lower abdomen, around the rectosigmoid. Conscious animals were irradiated using a purpose-build plexi-holder, with rear legs immobilised to avoid longitudinal movements. The implanted lead beans enabled us to simulate the rat prior to each radiation session. This way, the radiation field could be set up individually for each rat, in such way that the rectosigmoid area received full dose and the hepatic area received no irradiation dose at all. Irradiation was carried out, using 5 MV photons of a linear accelerator. Fifteen animals per group were irradiated according a conventional (2.0 Gy / fraction; 5 fractions / week) or a hyperfractionated (1.6 Gy / fraction; 2 daily fractions; 5 days / week) schedule, with different total doses. Prior to implantation, TLDs were individually calibrated and checked for stability. After removal from the abdomen . TLDs were tested again for accuracy. TLDs with an unacceptable read-out curve were rejected (about 2 to 4 TLDs per group of 15). The obtained accumulated doses - as determined by TLD read-outs-were comparable to the theoretical doses, indicating that fractionated radiation of small fields, with well defined mark off, in rats is feasible.

  18. Let dependence of cell death, mutation induction and chromatin damage in human cells irradiated with accelerated carbon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M.; Watanabe, M.; Kanai, T.; Kase, Y.; Yatagai, F.; Kato, T.; Matsubara, S.

    We investigated the LET dependence of cell death, mutation induction and chromatin break induction in human embryo (HE) cells irradiated by accelerated carbon-ion beams. The results showed that cell death, mutation induction and induction of non-rejoining chromatin breaks detected by the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique had the same LET dependence. Carbon ions of 110 to 124keV/mum were the most effective at all endpoints. However, the number of initially induced chromatin breaks was independent of LET. About 10 to 15 chromatin breaks per Gy per cell were induced in the LET range of 22 to 230 keV/mum. The deletion pattern of exons in the HPRT locus, analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was LET-specific. Almost all the mutants induced by 124 keV/mum carbon-ion beams showed deletion of the entire gene, while all mutants induced by 230keV/mum carbon-ion beams showed no deletion. These results suggest that the difference in the density distribution of carbon-ion track and secondary electron with various LET is responsible for the LET dependency of biological effects.

  19. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J F; Blue, T E

    1996-11-01

    Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions "How much?" and "What kind?" of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with and without borated polyethylene. A calculational model was developed of a treatment room , patient "scatterer," and the epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used to compute the total effective dose equivalent rates at specific points of interest outside of the treatment room. A conservative occupational effective dose rate limit of 0.01 mSv h-1 was the guideline for this study. Conservative Monte Carlo calculations show that constructing the treatment room walls with 1.5 m of ordinary concrete, 1.2 m of barytes concrete, 1.0 m of ordinary concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene, or 0.8 m of barytes concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene will adequately protect facility personnel.

  20. 微波加速Ullmann反应的研究%Advances in Investigation of Ullmann Reaction Accelerated by Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖尚友; 朱俊; 穆小静; 李正华

    2013-01-01

    Ullmann反应被广泛用于有机中间体的合成,包括C-C,C-O,C-S,C-N键的形成.近年的研究表明,微波能加速Ullmann反应,并能明显提高其反应产率.因此,微波在Ullmann反应中的应用日益受到人们的重视.围绕C-C,C-O,C-S,C-N键的形成,对微波在反应中的应用进展进行了综述.%The Ullmann reaction has been extensively applied in the synthesis of organic intermediates,especially in the formation of carbon-carbon bond,carbon-oxygen bond,carbon-sulfur bond and carbon-nitrogen bond.It has been demonstrated that microwave irradiation can obviously accelerate the Ullmann reaction and improve the yields,so the application of microwave in the Ullmann reaction has caught increasing attention in recent years.The application of microwave in the Ullmarm reaction and the progresses in the formation of carbon-carbon bond,carbon-oxygen bond,carbon-sulfur bond and carbon-nitrogen bond are reviewed in this paper.

  1. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using once-daily fractionation: analysis of 312 cases with four years median follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Arif Y

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI using external beam techniques. Moreover, there are recent reports of increased fibrosis and unacceptable cosmesis with APBI using external beam with BID fractionation. We adopted a once daily regimen of APBI with fractionation similar to that shown to be effective in a Canadian randomized trial of whole breast irradiation. It is unclear whether patients with DCIS or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC are suitable for APBI. Methods The retrospective cohort included 310 patients with 312 tumors of T1-T2N0-N1micM0 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, ILC, or Tis (DCIS treated with APBI via external beam. Most patients were treated using IMRT with 16 daily fractions of 270 cGy to a dose of 4320 cGy. The target volume included the lumpectomy cavity plus 1.0 cm to account for microscopic disease and an additional 0.5 to 1.0 cm for setup uncertainty and breathing motion. Ipsilateral breast failure (IBF was pathologically confirmed as a local failure (LF or an elsewhere failure (EF. Results Median follow-up was 49 months. Among the 312 cases, 213 were IDC, 31 ILC, and 68 DCIS. Median tumor size was 1.0 cm. There were 9 IBFs (2.9% including 5 LFs and 4 EFs. The IBF rates among patients with IDC, ILC, and DCIS were 2.4%, 3.2%, and 4.4%, respectively, with no significant difference between histologies. When patients were analyzed by the ASTRO APBI consensus statement risk groups, 32% of treated cases were considered suitable, 50% cautionary, and 18% unsuitable. The IBF rates among suitable, cautionary, and unsuitable patients were 4.0%, 2.6%, and 1.8%, respectively, with no significant difference between risk groups. Acute skin reactions were rare and long-term cosmetic outcome was very good to excellent. Conclusions External beam APBI with once daily fractionation has a low rate of IBF consistent with other published APBI studies. The ASTRO risk stratification did not

  2. Technique in linear accelerator total body irradiation%直线加速器全身照射技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张九堂; 伍志红; 鲁旭蔚; 何金莲

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the physical, technical, and dosimetric aspects of total body irradiation (TBI) that was carried out by using 6MV X-Ray from Varian 2300 C/D Linear Accelerator at a distance of 450 cm from target to the treatment table and at a gantry angle of 270°.The dose to lung tissue was limit by setting the individual lead compensators customized before, and using DPD-510 to monitor the absorbed dose of the reference point the absorbed dose in depth of half of body will be (Din+Dout)/2 after taking treatment in both AP position and PA position.%本文介绍了在直线加速器上实行全身照射的方法,包括治疗床的设计、测量装置的制作、实验参数的测定和照射方法。SSD=450 cm,机架角为270度,患者取侧卧位,前后野和后前野对穿照射,采用分段肺屏蔽办法控制肺的吸收剂量。用多通道半导体剂量仪进行剂量全程监测作为质量控制手段进行质量控制和实现质量保证,用入射表面剂量Din与出射表面剂量Dout之和的一半即(Din+Dout)/2作为对应入射方向上体中层面的吸收剂量。

  3. Validating Fiducial Markers for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Catherine K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Pritz, Jakub [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Zhang, Geoffrey G.; Forster, Kenneth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Harris, Eleanor E.R., E-mail: Eleanor.Harris@Moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) may be beneficial for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). The goal was to validate the use of intraparenchymal textured gold fiducials in patients receiving APBI. Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients were enrolled on this prospective study that had three or four textured gold intraparenchymal fiducials placed at the periphery of the lumpectomy cavity and were treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal APBI. Free-breathing four-dimensional computed tomography image sets were obtained pre- and posttreatment, as were daily online megavoltage (MV) orthogonal images. Intrafraction motion, variations in respiratory motion, and fiducial marker migration were calculated using the 3D coordinates of individual fiducials and a calculated center of mass (COM) of the fiducials. We also compared the relative position of the fiducial COM with the geometric center of the seroma. Results: There was less than 1 mm of intrafraction respiratory motion, variation in respiratory motion, or fiducial marker migration. The change in seroma position relative to the fiducial COM was 1 mm {+-} 1 mm. The average position of the geometric seroma relative to the fiducial COM pretreatment compared with posttreatment was 1 mm {+-} 1 mm. The largest daily variation in displacement when using bony landmark was in the anteroposterior direction and two standard deviations (SD) of this variation was 10 mm. The average variation in daily separation between the fiducial pairs from daily MV images was 3 mm {+-} 3 mm therefore 2 SD is 6 mm. Conclusion: Fiducial markers are stable throughout the course of APBI. Planning target volume margins when using bony landmarks should be 10 mm and can be reduced to 6 mm if using fiducials.

  4. Impact of the Number of Cautionary and/or Unsuitable Risk Factors on Outcomes After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobb, Jessica; Wilkinson, J. Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Mitchell, Christina; Wallace, Michelle; Ye, Hong; Stromberg, Jannifer; Grills, Inga [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Chen, Peter Y., E-mail: PChen@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To examine clinical outcomes of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) stratified by the number of American Society for Radiation Oncology consensus statement cautionary/unsuitable risk factors (RFs) present. Methods and Materials: A total of 692 patients were treated with APBI at a single institution between April 1993 and January 2012 using interstitial (n=195), balloon (n=292), and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (n=205) techniques. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by risk group and number of RFs. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 0-18.3 years). Most patients were classified as suitable (n=240, 34%) or cautionary (n=343, 50%) risk, whereas 16% (n=109) were unsuitable. In patients with increasing total RFs (1 RF, 2 RF, 3+ RF), higher rates of grade 3 histology (10% vs 18% vs 32%, P<.001), estrogen receptor negativity (0 vs 12% vs 29%, P<.001), close/positive margins (0 vs 6% vs 17%, P<.001), and use of adjuvant chemotherapy (3% vs 12% vs 33%, P<.001) were noted. When pooling cautionary and unsuitable patients, increased ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence/regional recurrence was most notable for patients with 3 or more combined RFs versus 2 or fewer combined RFs (P<.001). Conclusions: Patients with 3 or more cautionary or unsuitable RFs may be at risk for higher local, regional, and distant recurrence after breast-conserving therapy using APBI. Patients with 2 or fewer total RFs have 98% locoregional control at 5 years. Inclusion of total number of RFs in future risk stratification schemes for APBI may be warranted.

  5. Three-Year Outcomes of a Canadian Multicenter Study of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Conformal Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrang, Tanya S., E-mail: tberrang@bccancer.bc.ca [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Kim, Do-Hoon [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Nichol, Alan [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Cho, B.C. John [Princess Margaret Hospital, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mohamed, Islam G. [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Southern Interior, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Parhar, Tarnjit [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Wright, J.R. [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Truong, Pauline [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Sussman, Jonathan [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Wai, Elaine [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Whelan, Tim [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To report 3-year toxicity, cosmesis, and efficacy of a multicenter study of external beam, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between March 2005 and August 2006, 127 women aged {>=}40 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer {<=}3 cm in diameter, treated with breast-conserving surgery achieving negative margins, were accrued to a prospective study involving five Canadian cancer centers. Women meeting predefined dose constraints were treated with APBI using 3 to 5 photon beams, delivering 35 to 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions, twice a day, over 1 week. Patients were assessed for treatment-related toxicities, cosmesis, and efficacy before APBI and at specified time points for as long as 3 years after APBI. Results: 104 women had planning computed tomography scans showing visible seromas, met dosimetric constraints, and were treated with APBI to doses of 35 Gy (n = 9), 36 Gy (n = 33), or 38.5 Gy (n = 62). Eighty-seven patients were evaluated with minimum 3-year follow-up after APBI. Radiation dermatitis, breast edema, breast induration, and fatigue decreased from baseline levels or stabilized by the 3-year follow-up. Hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, breast pain, and telangiectasia slightly increased from baseline levels. Most toxicities at 3 years were Grade 1. Only 1 patient had a Grade 3 toxicity with telangiectasia in a skin fold inside the 95% isodose. Cosmesis was good to excellent in 86% (89/104) of women at baseline and 82% (70/85) at 3 years. The 3-year disease-free survival was 97%, with only one local recurrence that occurred in a different quadrant away from the treated site and two distant recurrences. Conclusions: At 3 years, toxicity and cosmesis were acceptable, and local control and disease-free survival were excellent, supporting continued accrual to randomized APBI trials.

  6. Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Locoregional Recurrence in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobb, Jessica L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Chen, Peter Y., E-mail: PChen@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio (United States); Moran, Meena S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Shaitelman, Simona F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Vicini, Frank A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington, Michigan (United States); Mbah, Alfred K.; Lyden, Maureen [Biostat International Inc, Tampa, Florida (United States); Beitsch, Peter [Department of Surgery, Dallas Breast Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: To develop a nomogram taking into account clinicopathologic features to predict locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients treated with accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 2000 breasts (1990 women) were treated with APBI at William Beaumont Hospital (n=551) or on the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite Registry Trial (n=1449). Techniques included multiplanar interstitial catheters (n=98), balloon-based brachytherapy (n=1689), and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (n=213). Clinicopathologic variables were gathered prospectively. A nomogram was formulated utilizing the Cox proportional hazards regression model to predict for LRR. This was validated by generating a bias-corrected index and cross-validated with a concordance index. Results: Median follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 0.9-18.3 years). Of the 2000 cases, 435 were excluded because of missing data. Univariate analysis found that age <50 years, pre-/perimenopausal status, close/positive margins, estrogen receptor negativity, and high grade were associated with a higher frequency of LRR. These 5 independent covariates were used to create adjusted estimates, weighting each on a scale of 0-100. The total score is identified on a points scale to obtain the probability of an LRR over the study period. The model demonstrated good concordance for predicting LRR, with a concordance index of 0.641. Conclusions: The formulation of a practical, easy-to-use nomogram for calculating the risk of LRR in patients undergoing APBI will help guide the appropriate selection of patients for off-protocol utilization of APBI.

  7. Accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Whole breast radiotherapy afier tumor lumpectomy is based on the premise that that the breast cancer recurrence rate is reduced through the elimination of residual cancer foci in the remaining tissue immediately adjacent to the lumpectomy site and occult multicentric areas of in situ or infiltrating cancer in remote areas of the breast. The relevance of remote foci to ipsilateral breast failure rates after breast conserving treatment is debatable, because 65%~100% of recurrences develop in the same quadrant as the initial tumor. This has led several investigators to question whether radiotherapy must be administered to the entire breast.

  8. The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, Dustin Theodore [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 1016 protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 1012 protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH3 coatings on 5 μm gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH1.7. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 ± 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 1019W/cm2. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 1010. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 1020 W/cm2. In this experiment 1012 protons were seen from both erbium hydride and

  9. Accelerated partial breast irradiation in an Asian population: dosimetric findings and preliminary results of a multicatheter interstitial program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh YV

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yaling Vicky Koh,1 Poh Wee Tan,1 Shaik Ahmad Buhari,2 Philip Iau,2 Ching Wan Chan,2 Liang Shen,3 Sing Huang Tan,4 Johann I-Hsiung Tang1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute Singapore, 2Department of Surgery, National University Hospital, 3Department of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, National University of Singapore, 4Department of Medical Oncology, National University Cancer Institute Singapore, Singapore Introduction: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI using the multicatheter method has excellent cosmesis and low rates of long-term toxicity. However, there are few studies looking at the feasibility of this procedure and the outcomes in an Asian population. This study aims to look at outcomes at our hospital.Methods: We identified 121 patients treated with APBI at our center between 2008 and 2014. The median follow-up for our patient group was 30 months (range 3.7–66.5. The prescribed dose per fraction was 3.4 Gy in 10 fractions. In this study population, 71% of the patients were Chinese while 15% (n=19 were of other Asian ethnicity.Results: In this study, the median breast volume was 850 cc (range 216–2,108 with 59.5% (n=72 patients with a breast volume of <1,000 cc. The average planning target volume was 134 cc (range 28–324. The number of catheters used ranged from 8 to 25 with an average of 18 catheters used per patient. We achieved an average dose homogeneity index of 0.76 in our patients. The average D90(% was 105% and the average D90(Gy was 3.6 Gy per fraction. The median volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100 was 161.7 cc (range 33.9–330.1, 150% of the prescribed dose (V150 and 200% of the prescribed dose (V200 was 39.4 cc (range 14.6–69.6 and 14.72 cc (range 6.48–22.25, respectively. Our dosimetric outcomes were excellent even in patients with breast volume under 1,000 cc. There were no cases of grade 3 skin toxicity or acute pneumonitis. Two patients had a

  10. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  11. Polyurethanes irradiation by accelerated electrons: molecular and supramolecular evolution, incidence on the extractable and biomedical implications; Irradiation de polyurethannes par electrons acceleres: evolution moleculaire et supramoleculaire, incidence sur les extractibles et implications biomedicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, C

    2002-11-15

    Face to the development of radiosterilization and polymers medical devices it was wished to study the behavior of polyurethanes under accelerated electrons in oxidizing atmosphere. This study has been made to reveal the physico chemical and organisational modifications of polyurethanes for a medical use. (N.C.)

  12. Randomized clinical trial on seven-day-per-week continuous accelerated irradiation for patients with esophageal carcinoma:Preliminary report on tumor response and acute toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Ping Sun; Ya-Zhou Liu; Tao Ye; Wen Zhang; Wen-Bin Shen; Jing-Lei Shi; Hai-Ting Xu; Wei-Dong Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Tumor response and normal tissue toxicity of seven-day-per-week continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for patients with esophageal carcinoma were evaluated and compared to conventional irradiation (CR).METHODS: Sixty patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus were randomized into two groups:the CAIR group (30 patients) and the CR group (30 pa(RT) with 2 Gy/fraction per day at 7 d/wk with a total dose of 50-70 Gy (average dose 64.2 Gy). The overall time of irradiation was 3.6-5.0 wk (average 4.6 wk). RT in the CR group was 2 Gy/fraction per day at 5 d/wk with a total dose of 40-70 Gy (average dose 61.7 Gy).The overall time of irradiation was 4.0-7.0 wk (average 6.4wk).RESULTS: The data showed that the immediate tumor response to RT was better in the CAIR group than in the CR group. Efficiency rates (CR plus PR) were 82.8%(24/29) and 58.6% (17/29), respectively (P = 0.047). In both groups the incidences of esophagitis and tracheitis were insignificant (P = 0.376, 0.959), and no patient received toxicity that could not be tolerated.CONCLUSION: CAIR shortens overall treatment time and is well tolerated by patients. It may be superior to CR in enhancing the local response of tumor, but its remote effect for esophageal carcinoma awaits further follow-up.

  13. Ionization and acceleration of heavy ions in high-Z solid target irradiated by high intensity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, D.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In the interaction between high intensity laser and solid film, an ionization dynamics inside the solid is dominated by fast time scale convective propagation of the internal sheath field and the slow one by impact ionization due to heated high energy electrons coupled with nonlocal heat transport. Furthermore, ionization and acceleration due to the localized external sheath field which co- propagates with Al ions constituting the high energy front in the vacuum region. Through this process, the maximum charge state and then q/A increase in the rear side, so that ions near the front are further accelerated to high energy.

  14. The Pattern of Failure after Re-Irradiation of Recurrent Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer: Implications for Defining the Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovtzer, Aron; Gluck, Iris; Chepeha, Douglas B; Teknos, Theodoros N; Moyer, Jeffrey S; Prince, Mark E; Bradford, Carol R; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Re-irradiation (re-RT) of recurrent head and neck cancer (HNC) may achieve long term disease control in some patients, at the expense of high rates of late sequelae. Limiting the re-RT targets to the recurrent gross tumor volume (rGTV) would reduce the volumes of re-irradiated tissues, however, its effect on tumor recurrence pattern is unknown. Methods Retrospective review of 66 patients who underwent curative-intent re-RT for non-resectable recurrent or second primary mucosal squamous cell HNC. Treatment was delivered with 3-dimensional conformal (3D) RT or intensity modulated RT (IMRT). The targets in all patients consisted of the rGTVs with tight (0.5 cm) margins, with no intent to treat prophylactically lymph nodes or sub-clinical disease in the vicinity of the rGTVs. The sites of local-regional failures (LRFs) were determined using imaging at the time of failure, and were compared to the rGTVs. Results Median re-RT dose was 68 Gy. 47 patients (71%) received concomitant chemotherapy and 31 (47%) received hyperfractionated, accelerated RT. At a median follow up 42 month, 16 (23%) are alive and free of disease. Fifty patients (77%) had a third recurrence or persistent disease, including 47 LRFs. All LRFs occurred within the rGTVs except for two (4%) (95% C.I. 0; 11 %). Nineteen patients (29%) had grade ≥3 late complications, mostly dysphagia (12 patients). Conclusion Almost all LRFs occurred within the re-irradiated rGTVs despite avoiding prophylactic RT of tissue at risk of subclinical disease. These results support confining the re-RT targets to the rGTVs to reduce re-irradiated tissue volumes. PMID:19135312

  15. Evaluation of a dispersion medium for the irradiation of blood products in a electron linear accelerator; Evaluacion de un medio dispersor para la irradiacion de hemoderivados en un acelerador lineal de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordiales, J. M.; Falero, B.; Vazquez, M.; Alvarez, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    The use of bags of rice as dispersion medium in irradiation of blood products for medical use is less effective than the immersion from the point of view dosimetric water. However, given the wide range of dose values for a valid result and once subjected to quality control procedure, the method provides the necessary work for the irradiation of blood products in a linear electron accelerator. (Author)

  16. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation With Low-Dose-Rate Interstitial Implant Brachytherapy After Wide Local Excision: 12-Year Outcomes From a Prospective Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattangadi, Jona A. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M.; Mauceri, Thomas; Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Freer, Phoebe [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lawenda, Brian [21st Century Oncology, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Alm El-Din, Mohamed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Clinical Oncology, Tanta University Hospital, Tanta (Egypt); Gadd, Michele A.; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term toxicity, cosmesis, and local control of accelerated partial breast irradiation with implant brachytherapy after wide local excision for Stage T1N0 breast cancer (BCa). Materials and Methods: Between 1997 and 2001, 50 patients with Stage T1N0M0 BCa were treated in a Phase I-II protocol using low-dose-rate accelerated partial breast irradiation with implant brachytherapy after wide local excision and lymph node surgery. The total dose was escalated in three groups: 50 Gy (n = 20), 55 Gy (n = 17), and 60 Gy (n = 13). Patient- and physician-assessed breast cosmesis, patient satisfaction, toxicity, mammographic abnormalities, repeat biopsies, and disease status were prospectively evaluated at each visit. Kendall's tau ({tau}{sub {beta}}) and logistic regression analyses were used to correlate outcomes with dose, implant volume, patient age, and systemic therapy. Results: The median follow-up period was 11.2 years (range, 4-14). The patient satisfaction rate was 67%, 67% reported good-excellent cosmesis, and 54% had moderate-severe fibrosis. Higher dose was correlated with worse cosmetic outcome ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.6, p < .0001), lower patient satisfaction ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.5, p < .001), and worse fibrosis ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.4, p = .0024). Of the 50 patients, 35% had fat necrosis and 34% developed telangiectasias {>=}1 cm{sup 2}. Grade 3-4 late skin and subcutaneous toxicities were seen in 4 patients (9%) and 6 patients (13%), respectively, and both correlated with higher dose ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.3-0.5, p {<=} .01). One patient had Grade 4 skin ulceration and fat necrosis requiring surgery. Mammographic abnormalities were seen in 32% of the patients, and 30% underwent repeat biopsy, of which 73% were benign. Six patients had ipsilateral breast recurrence: five elsewhere in the breast, and one at the implant site. One patient died of metastatic BCa after recurrence. The 12-year actuarial local control, recurrence

  17. Decursin was Accelerated Human Lung Cancer Cell Death Caused by Proton Beam Irradiation via Blocking the p42/44 MAPK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Myung Hwan; Ra, Se Jin; Kim, Kye Ryung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Decursin, which is one of the extract of Angelica gigas Nakai root, has been traditionally used in Korean folk medicine as a tonic and for treatment of anemia and other common diseases. There are some reports about the pharmacological properties of decursin showing anti-bacterial and anti-amnestic effect, depression of cardiac contraction, antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity. Cell death induced by proton beam is identified as apoptosis. The study investigated that genes involved in apoptosis are checked by RT-PCR and used LET instead of SPBP of proton beam. Apoptosis is the tight regulated by multi-protein action in physiological cell death program. Proton therapy is an attractive approach for the treatment of deep-seated tumor. Recently, many researchers tried to new therapeutic strategy, combination of proton therapy and chemotherapy, in order to increase therapeutic effect. In this study, we investigate whether decursin can accelerate effect of human lung cell apoptosis in proton irradiated cancer cells

  18. Clinical outcomes, toxicity, and cosmesis in breast cancer patients with close skin spacing treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using multi-lumen/catheter applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari, Mani; Abboud, Mirna; Szeja, Sean; Pino, Ramiro; Lewis, Gary D; Bass, Barbara L; Miltenburg, Darlene M; Butler, E Brian; Teh, Bin S

    2016-12-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using a single-lumen device is associated with better cosmetic outcomes if the spacing between the applicator and skin is > 7 mm. However, there are no reports addressing the late toxicity and clinical outcomes in patients treated with single-entry multi-lumen/catheter applicators who had close skin spacing (7 mm or less). We undertook this study to report clinical outcome, acute and late toxicity as well as cosmesis of early stage breast cancer patients with close skin spacing treated with APBI using multi-lumen or multi-catheter devices. This is a retrospective study of all breast cancer patients who had undergone APBI using single-entry multi-lumen/catheter devices in a single institution between 2008 to 2012. The study was limited to those with ≤ 7 mm spacing between the device and skin. We identified 37 patients and 38 lesions with skin spacing of ≤ 7 mm. Seven lesions (18%) had spacing of ≤ 3 mm. Median follow-up was 47.5 months. There was one case of ipsilateral breast recurrence and one ipsilateral axillary recurrence. Based on RTOG criteria, 22 treated lesions experienced grade 1 and 9 lesions experienced grade 2 toxicity. Twenty-one lesions experienced late grade 1 toxicity. One patient had to undergo mastectomy due to mastitis. Twenty-four treated breasts showed excellent and 11 had good cosmetic outcome. Overall cosmesis trended towards a significant correlation with skin spacing. However, all patients with ≤ 3 mm skin spacing experienced acute and late toxicities. Accelerated partial breast irradiation can be safely performed in patients with skin spacing of ≤ 7 mm using single-entry multi-lumen/catheter applicators with excellent cosmetic outcomes and an acceptable toxicity profile. However, skin spacing of ≤ 3 mm is associated with acute and late toxicity and should be avoided if possible.

  19. Ionization and acceleration of heavy ions in high-Z solid target irradiated by high intensity laser

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahito, D.; Kishimoto, Y

    2016-01-01

    In the interaction between high intensity laser and solid film, an ionization dynamics inside the solid is dominated by fast time scale convective propagation of the internal sheath field and the slow one by impact ionization due to heated high energy electrons coupled with nonlocal heat transport. Furthermore, ionization and acceleration due to the localized external sheath field which co- propagates with Al ions constituting the high energy front in the vacuum region. Through this process, ...

  20. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Spinal cord; Tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: moelle epiniere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habrand, J.L. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Centre de protontherapie, institut Curie, 91 - Orsay (France); Drouet, F. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2010-07-15

    Radiation myelopathy is one of the most dreadful complications of radiation therapy. Despite multiple animal experiments and human autopsic series, its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. In most instances, the classical aspect of myelomalacia combines glial and vascular injuries in various sequences. Recent studies point out the role of oligo-dendrocytes and their precursors, as well as of intercellular mediators (cytokines and stress molecules). The clinical presentation comprises a spectrum of non specific neurological symptoms whose evolution is sometimes regressive but more commonly progressive and life-threatening. Usually, it occurs following a latent period of six months to two years after irradiation of the cervical, thoracic or upper lumbar spine to a dose in excess of 50 Gy, conventionally fractionated. Nonetheless, these typical features can be altered by extrinsic factors, such as hypo fractionation/acceleration of the dose, multiple surgical procedures, chemotherapy especially mega therapy, or neurotoxic drugs. Conversely, hyperfractionated regimens that take into account protracted half-time repair of sublethal damages to the CNS, as well as sophisticated estimates of the dose to the cord and QA programs during the treatment course minimize such risks. (authors)

  1. Design Study and Optimization of Irradiation Facilities for Detector and Accelerator Equipment Testing in the SPS North Area at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Biskup, Bartolomej; Stekl, Ivan

    Due to increasing performance of LHC during the last years, the strong need of new detector and electronic equipment test areas at CERN appeared from user communities. This thesis reports on two test facilities: GIF++ and H4IRRAD. GIF++, an upgrade of GIF facility, is a combined high-intensity gamma and particle beam irradiation facility for testing detectors for LHC. It combines a high-rate 137Cs source, providing photons with energy of 662 keV, together with the high-energy secondary particle beam from SPS. H4IRRAD is a new mixed-field irradiation area, designed for testing LHC electronic equipment for radiation damage effects. In particular, large volume assemblies such as full electronic racks of high current power converters can be tested. The area uses alternatively an attenuated primary 400 GeV/c proton beam from SPS, or a secondary, mainly proton, beam of 280 GeV/c directed towards a copper target. Different shielding layers are used to reproduce a radiation field similar to the LHC “tunnel” and �...

  2. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β facilitates cell apoptosis induced by high fluence low-power laser irradiation through acceleration of Bax translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Shengnan; Xing, Da

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a critical activator of cell apoptosis induced by a diverse array of insults. However, the effects of GSK-3β on the human lung adenocarcinoma cell (ASTC-a-1) apoptosis induced by high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) are not clear. Here, we showed that GSK-3β was constantly translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus and activated during HF-LPLI-induced cell apoptosis. In addition, we found that co-overexpression of YFP-GSK-3β and CFP-Bax in ASTC-a-1 cells accelerated both Bax translocations to mitochondria and cell apoptosis, compared to the cells expressed CFP-Bax only under HF-LPLI treatment, indicating that GSK-3β facilitated ASTC-a-1 cells apoptosis through acceleration mitochondrial translocation of Bax. Our results demonstrate that GSK-3β exerts some of its pro-apoptotic effects in ASTC-a-1 cells by regulating the mitochondrial localization of Bax, a key component of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade.

  3. Accelerating and guiding of C6 + by an intense laser irradiating on a foil target with a tapered channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chong; Wan, Feng; Hou, Ya-Juan; Hong, Xue-Ren; Jia, Mo-Ran; Sang, Hai-Bo; Xie, Bai-Song

    2017-08-01

    A novel scheme with a tapered channel attached to an ultra-thin carbon foil is proposed to accelerate and guide carbon ions via breakout afterburner mechanism. Also, the problems involved are investigated by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is demonstrated that the tapered channel can efficiently accelerate and guide carbon ions and result in a much better quality beam with an order of magnitude higher in density and 22% larger in cut-off energy than that without the tapered channel. The enhanced reasons are analyzed in detail, which are mainly attributed to the guidance of the longitudinal electric field and the focus of the transverse electric field, as well as the convergence effect of the tapered channel. All of them are certified to guide greatly carbon ions to move along the longitudinal direction. Besides, during the simulation time, the ion beam with a tapered channel can remain eight times smaller in divergence angle than that without the tapered channel. Such a target may be beneficial to many applications such as ion fast ignition in inertial fusion, high-energy physics, and proton therapy.

  4. Quality of Survival and Growth in Children and Young Adults in the PNET4 European Controlled Trial of Hyperfractionated Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy for Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Colin, E-mail: crk1@soton.ac.uk [University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Bull, Kim [University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Chevignard, Mathilde [Hôpitaux de Saint Maurice, Saint Maurice (France); Neurophysiology, University of Pierre et Marie-Curie Paris 6, Paris (France); Culliford, David [University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Dörr, Helmuth G. [Kinder- und Jugendklinik der Universität Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Doz, François [Institut Curie and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Lannering, Birgitta [Department of Pediatrics, The Sahlgren Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Massimino, Maura [Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Navajas Gutiérrez, Aurora [Hospital Universitario Cruces, Baracaldo-Vizcaya (Spain); Rutkowski, Stefan [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Spoudeas, Helen A. [Center for Pediatric Endocrinology, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Calaminus, Gabriele [Pediatric Oncology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To compare quality of survival in “standard-risk” medulloblastoma after hyperfractionated radiation therapy of the central nervous system with that after standard radiation therapy, combined with a chemotherapy regimen common to both treatment arms, in the PNET4 randomised controlled trial. Methods and Materials: Participants in the PNET4 trial and their parents/caregivers in 7 participating anonymized countries completed standardized questionnaires in their own language on executive function, health status, behavior, health-related quality of life, and medical, educational, employment, and social information. Pre- and postoperative neurologic status and serial heights and weights were also recorded. Results: Data were provided by 151 of 244 eligible survivors (62%) at a median age at assessment of 15.2 years and median interval from diagnosis of 5.8 years. Compared with standard radiation therapy, hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with lower (ie, better) z-scores for executive function in all participants (mean intergroup difference 0.48 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.81, P=.004), but health status, behavioral difficulties, and health-related quality of life z-scores were similar in the 2 treatment arms. Data on hearing impairment were equivocal. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was also associated with greater decrement in height z-scores (mean intergroup difference 0.43 SDs, 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.76, P=.011). Conclusions: Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was associated with better executive function and worse growth but without accompanying change in health status, behavior, or quality of life.

  5. Belgian class II nuclear facilities such as irradiators and accelerators. Regulatory Body attention points and operating experience feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minne, Etienne; Peters, Christelle; Mommaert, Chantal; Kennes, Christian; Cortenbosch, Geert; Schmitz, Frederic; Haesendonck, Michel van [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium); Carlier, Pascal; Schrayen, Virginie; Wertelaers, An [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to present the Regulatory Body attention points and the operating experience feedback from Belgian ''class IIA'' facilities such as industrial and research irradiators, bulk radionuclides producers and conditioners. Reinforcement of the nuclear safety and radiation protection has been promoted by the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) since 2009. This paper is clearly a continuation of the former paper [1] presenting the evolution in the regulatory framework relative to the creation of Bel V, the subsidiary of the FANC, and to the new ''class IIA'' covering heavy installations such as those mentioned above. Some lessons learnt are extracted from the operating experience feedback based on the events declared to the authorities. Even though a real willingness to meet the new safety requirements is observed among the ''class IIA'' licensees, promoting the safety culture, the nuclear safety and radiation protection remains an endless challenge for the Regulatory Body.

  6. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%, longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm, and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm. The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm were significantly decreased (P<0.05 compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  7. Accelerating total body irradiation with large field modulated arc therapy in standard treatment rooms without additional equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polednik, Martin; Lohr, Frank; Ehmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a generic and ultra-efficient modulated arc technique for treatment with total body irradiation (TBI) without additional equipment in standard treatment rooms. A continuous gantry arc between 300 and 70 composed of 26 subarcs (5 per subarc) using a field size of 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} was used to perform the initial beam data measurements. The profile was measured parallel to the direction of gantry rotation at a constant depth of 9 cm (phantom thickness 18 cm). Beam data were measured for single 5 subarcs, dissecting the individual contribution of each subarc to a certain measurement point. The phantom was moved to 20 measurement positions along the profile. Then profile optimization was performed manually by varying the weighting factors of all segments until calculated doses at all points were within ± 1 %. Finally, the dose distribution of the modulated arc was verified in phantom thicknesses of 18 and 28 cm. The measured profile showed a relative mean dose of 99.7 % [standard deviation (SD) 0.7 %] over the length of 200 cm at a depth of 9 cm. The measured mean effective surface dose (at a depth of 2 cm) was 102.7 % (SD 2.1 %). The measurements in the 28 cm slab phantom revealed a mean dose of 95.9 % (SD 2.9 %) at a depth of 14 cm. The mean dose at a depth of 2 cm was 111.9 % (SD 4.1 %). Net beam-on-time for a 2 Gy fraction is approximately 8 min. This highly efficient modulated arc technique for TBI can replace conventional treatment techniques, providing a homogeneous dose distribution, dosimetric robustness, extremely fast delivery, and applicability in small treatment rooms, with no need for additional equipment. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieses Projekts war die Entwicklung einer generischen, hocheffizienten und modulierten Rotationsbestrahlungstechnik fuer Ganzkoerperbestrahlung (TBI, ''total body irradiation''), die ohne zusaetzliches Equipment in Standartbehandlungsraeumen angewendet werden kann. Ein

  8. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with iridium-192 multicatheter PDR/HDR brachytherapy. Preliminary results of the German-Austrian multicenter trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, O.J.; Lotter, M.; Sauer, R.; Strnad, V. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Poetter, R.; Resch, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Univ. Hospital AKH Wien, Vienna (Austria); Hammer, J. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital Linz, Linz (Austria); Hildebrandt, G. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Poehls, U.; Beckmann, M.W. [Dept. of Gynecology, Univ. Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    : this analysis indicates that accelerated partial breast irradiation with iridium-192 interstitial multicatheter PDR/HDR implants is feasible with low perioperative morbidity, low acute and mild late toxicity, and does not significantly affect cosmetic results at a median follow-up of 24 months. (orig.)

  9. TH-C-12A-09: Planning and Delivery of the Fully Dynamic Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy: Application to Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, J; Atwood, T; Fahimian, B; Chin, E; Hristov, D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, CA (United States); Otto, K [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, BC (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A novel trajectory modulated arc therapy (TMAT) system was developed that uses source motion trajectory involving synchronized gantry rotation with translational and rotational couch movement. MLC motion and dose rate were fully optimized for dynamic beam delivery. This work presents a platform for planning deliverable TMAT on a collision free coronal trajectory and evaluates its benefit for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in a prone position. Methods: The TMAT algorithm was built on VMAT with modifications (physical properties on couch movement were defined) and enhancements (pencil beam dose calculation engine to support extended SSDs) to make it feasible for TMAT delivery. A Matlab software environment for TMAT optimization and dose calculation was created to allow any user specified motion axis. TMAT delivery was implemented on Varian TrueBeamTM STx via XML scripts. 10 prone breast irradiation cases were evaluated in VMAT and compared with a 6- field non-coplanar IMRT plan. Patient selection/exclusion criteria and structure contouring followed the guidelines of NSABP B-39/RTOG 0413 protocol. Results: TMAT delivery time was ∼4.5 minutes. 251.5°±7.88° of non-isocentric couch arc was achieved by the optimized trajectory with 180– 210 control points at 1°–2° couch increments. The improved dose distribution by TMAT was most clearly observed by the marked reduction in the volume of irradiated normal breast tissue in the high dose region. The ratios of the normal breast tissue volume receiving more than 50%, 80% and 100% of the prescription dose for TMAT versus IMRT were: V50%(TMAT/IMRT) = 78.38%±13.03%, V80%(TMAT/IMRT) = 44.19%±9.04% and V100% (TMAT/IMRT) = 9.96%±7.55%, all p≤0.01. Conclusion: The study is the first demonstration of planning and delivery implementation of a fully dynamic APBI TMAT system with continuous couch motion. TMAT achieved significantly improved dosimetry over noncoplanar IMRT on dose volume parameters

  10. Optimal moderator materials at various proton energies considering photon dose rate after irradiation for an accelerator-driven ⁹Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y; Hiraga, F; Kiyanagi, Y

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the accelerator beam power and the neutron-induced radioactivity of (9)Be(p, n) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) neutron sources having a MgF2, CaF2, or AlF3 moderator and driven by protons with energy from 8 MeV to 30 MeV. The optimal moderator materials were found to be MgF2 for proton energies less than 10 MeV because of lower required accelerator beam power and CaF2 for higher proton energies because of lower photon dose rate at the treatment position after neutron irradiation.

  11. [Food irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  12. Preliminary simulation of implants breast through the accelerated partial irradiation technique: coverage rates and homogeneity; Simulacion previa de implates de mama mediante la tecnica de irradiacion parcial acelerada: indices de cubrimiento y homegeneidad

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    Moral Sanchez, S. C.; Paula Carranza, B. de; Erzibengoa, M.; Bragado Alvarez, L.; Guisasola Berasetegui, A.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we present and evaluate the process of pre-simulation we have drawn up when it comes to treatments of accelerated partial irradiation of breast. Previous simulation that we will allow you to have greater control over the location of catheters with respect to the area to radiate. The goodness of this procedure is evaluated through representative quality indexes of the implant. (Author)

  13. SU-E-T-217: Comprehensive Dosimetric Evaluation On 3D-CRT, IMRT and Non-Coplanar Arc Treatment for Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI)

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    Chiu, T; Yan, Y; Ramirez, E; Lee, P; Jiang, S; Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an effective treatment for early stage breast-cancer. Irradiation in a prone position can mitigate breast motion and spare heart and lung. In this study, a comprehensive study is performed to evaluate various treatment techniques for prone APBI treatment including: 3D-CRT, IMRT, co-planar and non-coplanar partial arcs treatment. Methods: In this treatment planning study, a left breast patient treated in prone position in our clinic was imported into Varian Eclipse TPS. Six beams tangential to chest wall were used in both 3D-CRT and IMRT plans. These six beams were coplanar in a transactional plane achieved by both gantry and couch rotation. A 60-beam IMRT plan was also created to explore the maximum benefit of co-planar IMRT. Within deliverable couch rotation range (±30°), partial arc treatment plans with one and up to ten couch positions were generated for comparison. For each plan, 30Gy in 6 fractions was prescribed to 95% PTV volume. Critical dosimetric parameters, such as conformity index, mean, maximum, and volume dose of organ at risk, are evaluated. Results: The conformity indexes (CI) are 3.53, 3.17, 2.21 and 1.08 respectively to 3D-CRT, 6-beam IMRT, 60-beam IMRT, and two-partial-arcs coplanar plans. However, arc plans increase heart dose. CI for non-coplanar arc plans decreases from 1.19 to 1.10 when increases couch positions. Maximum dose in ipsilateral lung (1.98 to 1.13 Gy), and heart (0.62 to 0.43 Gy) are steadily decreased with the increased number of non-coplanar arcs. Conclusions: The dosimetric evaluation results show that partial arc plans have improved CIs compared to conventional 3D-CRT and IMRT plans. Increasing number of partial arcs decreases lung and heart dose. The dosimetric benefit obtained from non-coplanar arcs should be considered with treatment delivery time.

  14. MO-DE-210-06: Development of a Supercompounded 3D Volumetric Ultrasound Image Guidance System for Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI)

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    Chiu, T; Hrycushko, B; Zhao, B; Jiang, S; Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For early-stage breast cancer, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is a cost-effective breast-conserving treatment. Irradiation in a prone position can mitigate respiratory induced breast movement and achieve maximal sparing of heart and lung tissues. However, accurate dose delivery is challenging due to breast deformation and lumpectomy cavity shrinkage. We propose a 3D volumetric ultrasound (US) image guidance system for accurate prone APBI Methods: The designed system, set beneath the prone breast board, consists of a water container, an US scanner, and a two-layer breast immobilization cup. The outer layer of the breast cup forms the inner wall of water container while the inner layer is attached to patient breast directly to immobilization. The US transducer scans is attached to the outer-layer of breast cup at the dent of water container. Rotational US scans in a transverse plane are achieved by simultaneously rotating water container and transducer, and multiple transverse scanning forms a 3D scan. A supercompounding-technique-based volumetric US reconstruction algorithm is developed for 3D image reconstruction. The performance of the designed system is evaluated with two custom-made gelatin phantoms containing several cylindrical inserts filled in with water (11% reflection coefficient between materials). One phantom is designed for positioning evaluation while the other is for scaling assessment. Results: In the positioning evaluation phantom, the central distances between the inserts are 15, 20, 30 and 40 mm. The distances on reconstructed images differ by −0.19, −0.65, −0.11 and −1.67 mm, respectively. In the scaling evaluation phantom, inserts are 12.7, 19.05, 25.40 and 31.75 mm in diameter. Measured inserts’ sizes on images differed by 0.23, 0.19, −0.1 and 0.22 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The phantom evaluation results show that the developed 3D volumetric US system can accurately localize target position and determine

  15. Five-Year Outcomes, Cosmesis, and Toxicity With 3-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiation Therapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

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    Rodríguez, Núria, E-mail: nrodriguez@parcdesalutmar.cat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Sanz, Xavier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Dengra, Josefa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Foro, Palmira [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Membrive, Ismael; Reig, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Quera, Jaume [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Fernández-Velilla, Enric; Pera, Óscar; Lio, Jackson; Lozano, Joan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Algara, Manuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Esperanza, Parc de Salut MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report the interim results from a study comparing the efficacy, toxicity, and cosmesis of breast-conserving treatment with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) or whole breast irradiation (WBI) using 3-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: 102 patients with early-stage breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery were randomized to receive either WBI (n=51) or APBI (n=51). In the WBI arm, 48 Gy was delivered to the whole breast in daily fractions of 2 Gy, with or without additional 10 Gy to the tumor bed. In the APBI arm, patients received 37.5 Gy in 3.75 Gy per fraction delivered twice daily. Toxicity results were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Common Toxicity Criteria. Skin elasticity was measured using a dedicated device (Multi-Skin-Test-Center MC-750-B2, CKelectronic-GmbH). Cosmetic results were assessed by the physician and the patients as good/excellent, regular, or poor. Results: The median follow-up time was 5 years. No local recurrences were observed. No significant differences in survival rates were found. APBI reduced acute side effects and radiation doses to healthy tissues compared with WBI (P<.01). Late skin toxicity was no worse than grade 2 in either group, without significant differences between the 2 groups. In the ipsilateral breast, the areas that received the highest doses (ie, the boost or quadrant) showed the greatest loss of elasticity. WBI resulted in a greater loss of elasticity in the high-dose area compared with APBI (P<.05). Physician assessment showed that >75% of patients in the APBI arm had excellent or good cosmesis, and these outcomes appear to be stable over time. The percentage of patients with excellent/good cosmetic results was similar in both groups. Conclusions: APBI delivered by 3D-CRT to the tumor bed for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with

  16. Long-term Cosmetic Outcomes and Toxicities of Proton Beam Therapy Compared With Photon-Based 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation: A Phase 1 Trial

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    Galland-Girodet, Sigolène; Pashtan, Itai; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E.; Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michele; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To present long-term outcomes of a prospective feasibility trial using either protons or 3-dimensional conformal photon-based (accelerated partial-breast irradiation [APBI]) techniques. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 to April 2006, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were treated with APBI (32 Gy in 8 fractions given twice daily) on a prospective clinical trial: 19 with proton beam therapy (PBT) and 79 with photons or mixed photons/electrons. Median follow-up was 82.5 months (range, 2-104 months). Toxicity and patient satisfaction evaluations were performed at each visit. Results: At 7 years, the physician rating of overall cosmesis was good or excellent for 62% of PBT patients, compared with 94% for photon patients (P=.03). Skin toxicities were more common for the PBT group: telangiectasia, 69% and 16% (P=.0013); pigmentation changes, 54% and 22% (P=.02); and other late skin toxicities, 62% and 18% (P=.029) for PBT and photons, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidences of breast pain, edema, fibrosis, fat necrosis, skin desquamation, and rib pain or fracture. Patient-reported cosmetic outcomes at 7 years were good or excellent for 92% and 96% of PBT and photon patients, respectively (P=.95). Overall patient satisfaction was 93% for the entire cohort. The 7-year local failure rate for all patients was 6%, with 3 local recurrences in the PBT group (7-year rate, 11%) and 2 in photon-treated patients (4%) (P=.22). Conclusions: Local failure rates of 3-dimensional APBI and PBT were similar in this study. However, PBT, as delivered in this study, led to higher rates of long-term telangiectasia, skin color changes, and skin toxicities. We recommend the use of multiple fields and treatment of all fields per treatment session or the use of scanning techniques to minimize skin toxicity.

  17. Early Side Effects of Three-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation to a Total Dose of 40 Gy in One Week (A Phase II Trial)

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    Bourgier, Celine, E-mail: bourgier@igr.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Pichenot, Charlotte; Verstraet, Rodolfe [Department of Physics, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); El Nemr, Mohamed; Heymann, Steve [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Biron, Bruno [Department of Physics, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Delaloge, Suzette [Department of Breast Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Mathieu, Marie-Christine [Department of Pathology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Garbay, Jean-Remy [Department of Breast Surgery, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Bourhis, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Marsiglia, Hugo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Several accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) techniques are described in the literature, and apparently, the three-dimensional (3D)-conformal technique is being used increasingly. Nonetheless, the optimal radiation dose is not yet known. Here, we report feasibility and early toxicities of APBI delivering 40 Gy over 5 days, in a phase II trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2007 to September 2008, 25 patients with pT1N0 cancer received 3D-conformal APBI. The prescribed radiation dose was 40 Gy in 4-Gy fractions given twice daily. This technique used two minitangents and an 'en face' electron field. Toxicities were systematically assessed at 1, 2, and 6 months and then once every 6 months. Results: The planning tumor volume for evaluation (PTV{sub E}VAL) coverage was adequate: the mean dose to the PTV{sub E}VAL was 41.8 Gy (range, 41-42.4 Gy). Mean doses to the ipsilateral lung and heart were 1.6 Gy (range, 1.0-2.3 Gy) and 1.2 Gy (range, 1.0-1.6 Gy), respectively. One and two months after completion of APBI, most patients had no or mild erythema (n = 16 patients at 1 month; n = 25 patients at 2 months); none of these patients developed moist desquamation. After a median follow-up of 12 months, only 1 patient had a significant moderate field contracture (grade 2). Other reported late toxicities were grade 1. Conclusions: 3D-conformal APBI (with two minitangents and an 'en face' electron field) using a total dose of 40 Gy in 10 fractions twice daily over 5 days achieved appropriate PTV{sub E}VAL coverage and offered significant sparing of normal tissue. Early tolerance was excellent.

  18. Improvement of registration accuracy in accelerated partial breast irradiation using the point-based rigid-body registration algorithm for patients with implanted fiducial markers

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    Inoue, Minoru; Yoshimura, Michio, E-mail: myossy@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sato, Sayaka; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Masahiro; Hirata, Kimiko; Ogura, Masakazu; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Fujimoto, Takahiro [Division of Clinical Radiology Service, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate image-registration errors when using fiducial markers with a manual method and the point-based rigid-body registration (PRBR) algorithm in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) patients, with accompanying fiducial deviations. Methods: Twenty-two consecutive patients were enrolled in a prospective trial examining 10-fraction APBI. Titanium clips were implanted intraoperatively around the seroma in all patients. For image-registration, the positions of the clips in daily kV x-ray images were matched to those in the planning digitally reconstructed radiographs. Fiducial and gravity registration errors (FREs and GREs, respectively), representing resulting misalignments of the edge and center of the target, respectively, were compared between the manual and algorithm-based methods. Results: In total, 218 fractions were evaluated. Although the mean FRE/GRE values for the manual and algorithm-based methods were within 3 mm (2.3/1.7 and 1.3/0.4 mm, respectively), the percentages of fractions where FRE/GRE exceeded 3 mm using the manual and algorithm-based methods were 18.8%/7.3% and 0%/0%, respectively. Manual registration resulted in 18.6% of patients with fractions of FRE/GRE exceeding 5 mm. The patients with larger clip deviation had significantly more fractions showing large FRE/GRE using manual registration. Conclusions: For image-registration using fiducial markers in APBI, the manual registration results in more fractions with considerable registration error due to loss of fiducial objectivity resulting from their deviation. The authors recommend the PRBR algorithm as a safe and effective strategy for accurate, image-guided registration and PTV margin reduction.

  19. Dosimetric Improvements in Balloon Based Brachytherapy Using the Contura® Multi-Lumen Balloon (MLB Catheter to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Julian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Preliminary dosimetric findings in patients managed with the Contura® Multi-Lumen Balloon (MLB breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI on a multi-institutional phase IV registry trial were reviewed. Material and methods: CT-based 3D planning with dose optimization was performed for all patients. For the study, new ideal dosimetric goals were developed: 1 ≥ 95% of the prescribed dose (PD covering ≥ 90% of the target volume (TV, 2 a maximum skin dose ≤ 125% of the PD, 3 maximum rib dose ≤ 145% of the PD, and 4 the V150 ≤ 50 cc and V200 ≤ 10 cc. The frequency of concurrently achieving these dosimetric goals using the Contura® MLB was investigated.Results: 194 cases were evaluable. Employing the MLB, all ideal dosimetric criteria were achieved in 76% of cases.Evaluating dosimetric criteria separately, 90% and 89% of cases met the new ideal skin and rib dose criteria, respectively. In 96%, ideal TV coverage goals were achieved and in 96%, dose homogeneity criteria (V150 and V200 were met. For skin spacing ≥ 5-7 mm, the median skin dose was 121% of the PD and when < 5 mm, the median skin dose was 124.4%. For rib distancees < 5 mm, the median rib dose was reduced to 136.4% of the PD. For skin spacing < 7 mm and distance to rib < 5 mm, the median skin and rib doses were concurrently limited to 121% and 142.8% of thePD, respectively. Conclusions: The Contura® MLB catheter provides potential improvements in dosimetric capabilities (i.e., reduced skin and rib doses and improved TV coverage in many clinical scenarios.

  20. Factors Associated With Optimal Long-Term Cosmetic Results in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Balloon-Based Brachytherapy

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    Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Keisch, Martin [Miami Brachytherapy Center, Cancer Healthcare Associates, Miami, FL (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Goyal, Sharad; Khan, Atif J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Beitsch, Peter D. [Dallas Breast Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Lyden, Maureen [BioStat International Inc, Tampa, FL (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate factors associated with optimal cosmetic results at 72 months for early-stage breast cancer patients treated with Mammosite balloon-based accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,440 patients (1,449 cases) with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving therapy were treated with balloon-based brachytherapy to deliver APBI (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions). Cosmetic outcome was evaluated at each follow-up visit and dichotomized as excellent/good (E/G) or fair/poor (F/P). Follow-up was evaluated at 36 and 72 months to establish long-term cosmesis, stability of cosmesis, and factors associated with optimal results. Results: The percentage of evaluable patients with excellent/good (E/G) cosmetic results at 36 months and more than 72 months were 93.3% (n = 708/759) and 90.4% (n = 235/260). Factors associated with optimal cosmetic results at 72 months included: larger skin spacing (p = 0.04) and T1 tumors (p = 0.02). Using multiple regression analysis, the only factors predictive of worse cosmetic outcome at 72 months were smaller skin spacing (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; confidence interval [CI], 0.80-0.99) and tumors greater than 2 cm (OR, 4.96, CI, 1.53-16.07). In all, 227 patients had both a 36-month and a 72-month cosmetic evaluation. The number of patients with E/G cosmetic results decreased only slightly from 93.4% at 3 years to 90.8% (p = 0.13) at 6 years, respectively. Conclusions: APBI delivered with balloon-based brachytherapy produced E/G cosmetic results in 90.4% of cases at 6 years. Larger tumors (T2) and smaller skin spacing were found to be the two most important independent predictors of cosmesis.

  1. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation vs conventional whole-breast radiotherapy in early breast cancer: A case-control study of disease control, cosmesis, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadasadawala Tabassum

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI using various approaches is being increasingly employed for selected women with early breast cancer (EBC. Aims: To conduct a case-control study comparing disease control, cosmesis, and complications in patients with EBC undergoing APBI using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy vs those receiving conventional whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT. Settings and Design: Women with EBC fulfilling the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS criteria were selected as ′cases′ if treated with APBI or as ′controls′ if offered WBRT during the period from May 2000 to December 2004. Materials and Methods: APBI patients were treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR to a dose of 34 Gy/10#/6-8 days. WBRT was delivered to the whole breast to a dose of 45 Gy/25# followed by tumor bed boost, either with electrons (15 Gy/6# or interstitial brachytherapy (HDR 10 Gy/1#. Results: At the median follow-up of 43.05 months in APBI and 51.08 months in WBRT there was no difference in overall survival (OS, disease-free survival (DFS, late arm edema, and symptomatic fat necrosis between the two groups. However, APBI resulted in increase in mild breast fibrosis at the tumor bed. Telangiectasias were observed in three patients of the APBI group. The cosmetic outcome was significantly better in the APBI group as compared to the WBRT group (P = 0.003. Conclusions: This study revealed equivalent locoregional and distant disease control in the two groups. APBI offered better overall cosmetic outcome, though at the cost of a slight increase in mild breast fibrosis and telangiectasias.

  2. External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-Daily Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study

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    Pashtan, Itai M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brachtel, Elena [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abi-Raad, Rita F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); D' Alessandro, Helen A. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Goldberg, Saveli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-daily fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.

  3. 北京大学4.5 MV静电加速器核材料辐照系统%Nuclear Material Irradiation System of 4.5 MV Electrostatic Accelerator at Peking University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高原; 王建勇; 杨向军; 龚建华; 路祥臣

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nuclear materials response in extreme environments, such as intense irradiation and high temperature in fusion reactors and advanced fission reactors, is significant in designing advanced nuclear energy systems. Recently, a nuclear material irradiation system has been installed and in service on the beam line of 4.5 MV electrostatic accelerator. The energy range of proton or helium ion accelerated will be from 0.7∼3.5 MeV, and the ion current will be up to 10 µA. The system will consist of a vacuum chamber combined with heating controlling, which can achieve the irradiation under 1 000 ℃. In addition, by coupling 2 × 6 MV tandem accelerator and 4.5 MV single end electrostatic accelerator, a double beam irradiation system has been assembledand tested to study the synergistic effects of displacement damage, helium or hydrogen irradiation effects on microstructural changes of materials, as the experimental simulation of irradiation damage in reactors.%随着我国核电事业的发展,新一代核能系统对材料性能的更高要求已经成为材料科学领域新的挑战,为适应这一需求,为高性能抗辐照核材料的研究和测试提供平台,北京大学4.5 MV静电加速器组在核物理与核技术国家重点实验室的支持下,在原有束线基础上新增设质子/氦温控辐照系统并投入使用。该系统可进行能量范围在0.7∼3.5 MeV内的质子或氦离子辐照,离子流强最高10µA,并可进行最高1000℃的加热辐照,特别适合开展核能材料的初级快速筛选。此外,4.5 MV加速器与2×6 MV串列加速器联合建设的双束共靶辐照系统也已经整体调试完成,可为材料辐照效应的进一步研究提供良好的实验平台。

  4. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Tejpal, E-mail: tejpalgupta@rediffmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jalali, Rakesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Goswami, Savita [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Nair, Vimoj [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Moiyadi, Aliasgar [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Epari, Sridhar [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  5. Results of the six-and-a-half day electron-accelerator irradiation of enriched Mo-100 targets for the production of Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemerisov, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jonah, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, V. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tkac, P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Virgo, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A six-and-a-half day irradiation of enriched Mo-100 target disks was performed by Argonne’s electron linac. This report describes the irradiation conditions and the means used to process the targets for shipment to NorthStar Medical Isotopes, LLC, for feed to their RadioGenixTM technetium generator.

  6. Local Control, Toxicity, and Cosmesis in Women >70 Years Enrolled in the American Society of Breast Surgeons Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Registry Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif J., E-mail: atif_khan@rwjuh.edu [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Vicini, Frank A.; Beitsch, Peter [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States); Goyal, Sharad [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kuerer, Henry M.; Keisch, Martin; Quiet, Coral; Zannis, Victor; Keleher, Angela; Snyder, Howard; Gittleman, Mark; Whitworth, Pat; Fine, Richard [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States); Lyden, Maureen [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, FL (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The American Society of Breast Surgeons enrolled women in a registry trial to prospectively study patients treated with the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System breast brachytherapy device. The present report examined the outcomes in women aged >70 years enrolled in the trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,449 primary early stage breast cancers were treated in 1,440 women. Of these, 537 occurred in women >70 years old. Fisher's exact test was performed to correlate age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) with toxicity and with cosmesis. The association of age with local recurrence (LR) failure times was investigated by fitting a parametric model. Results: Older women were less likely to develop telangiectasias than younger women (7.9% vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0083). The incidence of other toxicities was similar. Cosmesis was good or excellent in 92% of the women >70 years old. No significant difference was found in LR as a function of age. The 5-year actuarial LR rate with invasive disease for the older vs. younger population was 2.79% and 2.92%, respectively (p = 0.5780). In women >70 years with hormone-sensitive tumors {<=}2 cm who received hormonal therapy (n = 195), the 5-year actuarial rate of LR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival was 2.06%, 89.3%, 87%, and 97.5%, respectively. These outcomes were similar in women who did not receive hormonal therapy. Women with small, estrogen receptor-negative disease had worse LR, overall survival, and disease-free survival compared with receptor-positive patients. Conclusions: Accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system resulted in low toxicity and produced similar cosmesis and local control at 5 years in women >70 years compared with younger women. This treatment should be considered as an alternative to omitting adjuvant radiotherapy for older women with small-volume, early-stage breast cancer.

  7. [Long-term results and cause of failure analysis in larynx cancer patients irradiated conventionally and with accelerated fractionation schedules in 1995-1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szutkowski, Zbigniew; Kawecki, Andrzej; Jarząbski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The clinical material consists of 217 patients with squamous cell carcinoma in supraglottic and glottic larynx in clinical stage T1-3N0M0 irradiated radically in Warsaw Oncology Centre in 1995-1998. All patients were treated with Co-60, according to two schedules of fractionation, with maintenance of the consistent therapeutic protocol. The same team of doctors worked on the treatment of patients and on the follow-up as well. The clinical material is a part of a three-phased clinical trial KBN 0295. In the course of observation, the progression of cancer was not observed in 157 patients, among whom, 66% were treated conventionally and 79% with accelerated fractionation method. 60 cases of loco-regional recurrences were noted, among which 55 were regional. The majority of failure cases was observed until the 30(th) of the month after the radiotherapy ended. In conventional fractionation treatment, recurrences in T1 were 8/31 (26%), in T2 22/59 (37%) and in T3 8/20 (40%). In patients treated with AF, recurrences were T1 5/39 (13%), T2 15/55 (27%) and T3 2/13 (15%) respectively. The percentage of primary site tumour recurrences for each localization and kind of treatment was analysed. In CF 28/78 (37%) of glottic tumour recurrences and 10/34 (29%) of supraglottic tumour, recurrences were observed. In AF, 12/71 (17%) and 10/36 (28%) were observed respectively. In 48 cases salvage surgery was used, and 12 patients were not qualified because of tumour massive progression or because they refused to have a surgery. Among 34 cases (16%) of the second primary tumour or distant methastases, 25 were observed with glottic cancer, among which 23 were observed in early stages, and 9 cases with supraglottic cancer, among which, 6 showed early stage of tumour. In only 3 cases out of all the patients, distant methastases were confirmed in histopatology examination. The main cause of failure in larynx cancer patients in stage T1 is that 3N0M0 are local recurrences. Second primary or

  8. The Effect of Dose-Volume Parameters and Interfraction Interval on Cosmetic Outcome and Toxicity After 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Kara Lynne, E-mail: karalynne.kerr@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hepel, Jaroslaw T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Hiatt, Jessica R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Dipetrillo, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Price, Lori Lyn [Department of Biostatistics Research Center, Institute of Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dose-volume parameters and the interfraction interval (IFI) as they relate to cosmetic outcome and normal tissue effects of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: Eighty patients were treated by the use of 3D-CRT to deliver APBI at our institutions from 2003-2010 in strict accordance with the specified dose-volume constraints outlined in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413 (NSABP-B39/RTOG 0413) protocol. The prescribed dose was 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions delivered twice daily. Patients underwent follow-up with assessment for recurrence, late toxicity, and overall cosmetic outcome. Tests for association between toxicity endpoints and dosimetric parameters were performed with the chi-square test. Univariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of interfraction interval (IFI) with these outcomes. Results: At a median follow-up time of 32 months, grade 2-4 and grade 3-4 subcutaneous fibrosis occurred in 31% and 7.5% of patients, respectively. Subcutaneous fibrosis improved in 5 patients (6%) with extended follow-up. Fat necrosis developed in 11% of women, and cosmetic outcome was fair/poor in 19%. The relative volume of breast tissue receiving 5%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100% (V5-V100) of the prescribed dose was associated with risk of subcutaneous fibrosis, and the volume receiving 50%, 80%, and 100% (V50-V100) was associated with fair/poor cosmesis. The mean IFI was 6.9 hours, and the minimum IFI was 6.2 hours. The mean and minimum IFI values were not significantly associated with late toxicity. Conclusions: The incidence of moderate to severe late toxicity, particularly subcutaneous fibrosis and fat necrosis and resulting fair/poor cosmesis, remains high with continued follow-up. These toxicity endpoints are associated with several dose-volume parameters. Minimum and mean IFI values were

  9. Decline of Cosmetic Outcomes Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Results of a Single-Institution Prospective Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, Adam L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ben-David, Merav A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Jagsi, Reshma; Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Moran, Jean M.; Marsh, Robin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pierce, Lori J., E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To report the final cosmetic results from a single-arm prospective clinical trial evaluating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with active-breathing control (ABC). Methods and Materials: Women older than 40 with breast cancer stages 0-I who received breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study evaluating APBI using IMRT administered with deep inspiration breath-hold. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85-Gy fractions given twice daily over 5 consecutive days. The planning target volume was defined as the lumpectomy cavity with a 1.5-cm margin. Cosmesis was scored on a 4-category scale by the treating physician. Toxicity was scored according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3.0). We report the cosmetic and toxicity results at a median follow-up of 5 years. Results: A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Two patients were excluded because of fair baseline cosmesis. The trial was terminated early because fair/poor cosmesis developed in 7 of 32 women at a median follow-up of 2.5 years. At a median follow-up of 5 years, further decline in the cosmetic outcome was observed in 5 women. Cosmesis at the time of last assessment was 43.3% excellent, 30% good, 20% fair, and 6.7% poor. Fibrosis according to CTCAE at last assessment was 3.3% grade 2 toxicity and 0% grade 3 toxicity. There was no correlation of CTCAE grade 2 or greater fibrosis with cosmesis. The 5-year rate of local control was 97% for all 34 patients initially enrolled. Conclusions: In this prospective trial with 5-year median follow-up, we observed an excellent rate of tumor control using IMRT-planned APBI. Cosmetic outcomes, however, continued to decline, with 26.7% of women having a fair to poor cosmetic result. These results underscore the need for continued cosmetic assessment for patients treated with APBI by technique.

  10. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Is Safe and Effective Using Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Selected Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, Alan A., E-mail: alanl@baptisthealth.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Derhagopian, Robert [Department of Surgery, Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Saigal, Kunal; Panoff, Joseph E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Abitbol, Andre; Wieczorek, D. Jay; Mishra, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Reis, Isildinha; Ferrell, Annapoorna [Division of Biostatistics, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Moreno, Lourdes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Takita, Cristiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility, toxicity, cosmesis, and efficacy of using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with respiratory gating to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in selected Stage I/II breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients with node-negative Stage I/II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled in an institutional review board approved protocol to receive APBI using IMRT after breast-conserving surgery. The target volume was treated at 3.8 Gy/fraction twice daily for 5 days, to a total dose of 38 Gy. Results: Thirty-six patients were enrolled for a median follow-up time of 44.8 months. The median tumor size was 0.98 cm (range, 0.08-3 cm). The median clinical target volume (CTV) treated was 71.4 cc (range, 19-231 cc), with the mean dose to the CTV being 38.96 Gy. Acute toxicities included Grade 1 erythema in 44% of patients and Grade 2 in 6%, Grade 1 hyperpigmentation in 31% of patients and Grade 2 in 3%, and Grade 1 breast/chest wall tenderness in 14% of patients. No Grade 3/4 acute toxicities were observed. Grade 1 and 2 late toxicities as edema, fibrosis, and residual hyperpigmentation occurred in 14% and 11% of patients, respectively; Grade 3 telangiectasis was observed in 3% of patients. The overall cosmetic outcome was considered 'excellent' or 'good' by 94% of patients and 97% when rated by the physician, respectively. The local control rate was 97%; 1 patient died of a non-cancer-related cause. Conclusions: APBI can be safely and effectively administered using IMRT. In retrospective analysis, IMRT enabled the achievement of normal tissue dose constraints as outlined by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 04-13/NSABP B-13 while providing excellent conformality for the CTV. Local control and cosmesis have remained excellent at current follow-up, with acceptable rates of acute/late toxicities. Our data suggest that cosmesis is dependent on target volume

  11. SU-E-T-401: Evaluation of TG-43 Dose Calculation Accuracy for SAVI-Based Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) Via Monte Carlo Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Tian, Z; Jiang, S; Jia, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Scanderbeg, D; Yashar, C [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States); Zhang, M [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The current standard TG-43 dose calculation method for SAVI-based Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) assumes an ideal geometry of infinite homogeneous water. However, in SAVI treatments, the air cavity inside the device and the short source-to-skin distance raise concerns about the dose accuracy of the TG-43 method. This study is to evaluate TG-43 dose calculation accuracy in SAVI treatments using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: We recalculated the dose distributions of 15 APBI patients treated with SAVI devices, including five cases with a size of 6–1, five with 8−1 and five with 10−1, using our in-house developed fast MC dose package for HDR brachytherapy (gBMC). A phase-space file was used to model the Ir-192 HDR source. For each case, the patient CT was converted into a voxelized phantom and the dwell positions and times were extracted from treatment plans for MC dose calculations. Clinically relevant dosimetric parameters of the recalculated dose were compared to those computed via the TG-43 approach. Results: A systematic overestimation of doses was found for the 15 cases in TG-43 results, with D90, V150, and V200 for PTV-eval 2.8±1.8%, 2.0±2.2%, and 1.8±3.5% higher than MC results. TG-43 also overestimated the dose to skin with the maximum dose 4.4±8.4% higher on average. The relatively large standard deviation seen in the difference of maximum skin dose is partially ascribed to the statistical uncertainty of MC simulations when computing the maximum dose. It took gBMC ∼1 minute to compute dose for a SAVI plan. Conclusion: The high efficiency of our gBMC package facilitated the studies with a relatively large number of cases. An overestimation of TG-43 doses was found when using this MC package to recompute doses in SAVI cases. Clinical utilization of TG-43 dose calculation method in this scenario should be aware of this fact.

  12. Extended (5-year) Outcomes of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using MammoSite Balloon Brachytherapy: Patterns of Failure, Patient Selection, and Dosimetric Correlates for Late Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, John A.; Verma, Vivek; Kim, Hayeon; Kalash, Ronny; Heron, Dwight E.; Johnson, Ronald; Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and catheter-based brachytherapy has gained increasing popularity in recent years and is the subject of ongoing phase III trials. Initial data suggest promising local control and cosmetic results in appropriately selected patients. Long-term data continue to evolve but are limited outside of the context of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 157 patients completing APBI after breast-conserving surgery and axillary staging via high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy from June 2002 to December 2007 was made. APBI was delivered with a single-lumen MammoSite balloon-based applicator to a median dose of 34 Gy in 10 fractions over a 5-day period. Tumor coverage and critical organ dosimetry were retrospectively collected on the basis of computed tomography completed for conformance and symmetry. Results: At a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 0-10.0 years), the 5-year and 7-year actuarial incidences of ipsilateral breast control were 98%/98%, of nodal control 99%/98%, and of distant control 99%/99%, respectively. The crude rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 2.5% (n=4); of nodal failure, 1.9% (n=3); and of distant failure, 0.6% (n=1). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 89%/86%, with breast cancer–specific survival of 100%/99%, respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were achieved in 93.4% of patients. Telangiectasia developed in 27% of patients, with 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial incidence of 7%/24%/33%; skin dose >100% significantly predicted for the development of telangiectasia (50% vs 14%, P<.0001). Conclusions: Long-term single-institution outcomes suggest excellent tumor control, breast cosmesis, and minimal late toxicity. Skin toxicity is a function of skin dose, which may be ameliorated with dosimetric optimization afforded by newer multicatheter brachytherapy

  13. Applications of tissue heterogeneity corrections and biologically effective dose volume histograms in assessing the doses for accelerated partial breast irradiation using an electronic brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Chengyu; Guo Bingqi; Eng, Tony; Papanikolaou, Nikos [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Cheng, Chih-Yao, E-mail: shic@uthscsa.ed [Radiation Oncology Department, Oklahoma University Health Science Center, Oklahoma, OK 73104 (United States)

    2010-09-21

    A low-energy electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the model S700 Axxent(TM) x-ray device developed by Xoft Inc., has been used in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) as an alternative to an Ir-192 source. The prescription dose and delivery schema of the electronic brachytherapy APBI plan are the same as the Ir-192 plan. However, due to its lower mean energy than the Ir-192 source, an EBS plan has dosimetric and biological features different from an Ir-192 source plan. Current brachytherapy treatment planning methods may have large errors in treatment outcome prediction for an EBS plan. Two main factors contribute to the errors: the dosimetric influence of tissue heterogeneities and the enhancement of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of electronic brachytherapy. This study quantified the effects of these two factors and revisited the plan quality of electronic brachytherapy APBI. The influence of tissue heterogeneities is studied by a Monte Carlo method and heterogeneous 'virtual patient' phantoms created from CT images and structure contours; the effect of RBE enhancement in the treatment outcome was estimated by biologically effective dose (BED) distribution. Ten electronic brachytherapy APBI cases were studied. The results showed that, for electronic brachytherapy cases, tissue heterogeneities and patient boundary effect decreased dose to the target and skin but increased dose to the bones. On average, the target dose coverage PTV V{sub 100} reduced from 95.0% in water phantoms (planned) to only 66.7% in virtual patient phantoms (actual). The actual maximum dose to the ribs is 3.3 times higher than the planned dose; the actual mean dose to the ipsilateral breast and maximum dose to the skin were reduced by 22% and 17%, respectively. Combining the effect of tissue heterogeneities and RBE enhancement, BED coverage of the target was 89.9% in virtual patient phantoms with RBE enhancement (actual BED) as

  14. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: Using the CyberKnife as the radiation delivery platform in the treatment of early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eVermeulen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the CyberKnife (Accuray, Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA for non-invasive delivery of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI in early breast cancer patients. Between 6/2009 and 5/2011, 9 patients were treated with CyberKnife APBI. Normal tissue constraints were imposed as outlined in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413 (NSABP/RTOG Protocol (Vicini and White, 2007. Patients received a total dose of 30 Gy in 5 fractions (group 1, n=2 or 34 Gy in 10 fractions (group 2, n=7 delivered to the planning treatment volume (PTV defined as the clinical target volume (CTV + 2 mm. The CTV was defined as either the lumpectomy cavity plus 10 mm (n=2 or 15 mm (n=7. The cavity was defined by a T2-weighted non-contrast breast MRI fused to a planning non-contrast thoracic CT. The CyberKnife Synchrony system tracked gold fiducials sutured into the cavity wall during lumpectomy. Treatments started 4-5 weeks after lumpectomy. The mean PTV was 100 cm3 (range, 92-108 cm3 and 105 cm3 (range, 49-241 cm3 and the mean PTV isodose prescription line was 70% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The mean percent of whole breast reference volume receiving 100% and 50% of the dose (V100 and V50 for group 1 was 11% (range, 8-13% and 23% (range, 16-30% and for group 2 was 11% (range, 7-14% and 26% (range, 21- 35.0% , respectively. At a median 7 months follow-up (range, 4-26 months, no acute toxicities were seen. Acute cosmetic outcomes were excellent or good in all patients; for those patients with more than 12 months follow-up the late cosmesis outcomes were excellent or good. In conclusion, the lack of observable acute side effects and current excellent/good cosmetic outcomes is promising. We believe this suggests the CyberKnife is a suitable non-invasive radiation platform for delivering APBI with achievable normal tissue constraints.

  15. Radiation-Free Weekend Rescued! Continuous Accelerated Irradiation of 7-Days per Week Is Equal to Accelerated Fractionation With Concomitant Boost of 7 Fractions in 5-Days per Week: Report on Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladowski, Krzysztof, E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Branch in Gliwice (Poland); Hutnik, Marcin; Wygoda, Andrzej; Golen, Maria; Pilecki, Boleslaw; Przeorek, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Lukaszczyk-Widel, Beata; Heyda, Alicja; Suwinski, Rafal; Tarnawski, Rafal; Maciejewski, Boguslaw [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Branch in Gliwice (Poland)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term results of randomized trial comparing 2 accelerated fractionations of definitive radiation therapy assessing the need to irradiate during weekend in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 345 patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, and oro- or hypo-pharynx, stage T2-4N0-1M0, were randomized to receive continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR: once per day, 7 days per week) or concomitant accelerated boost (CB: once per day, 3 days per week, and twice per day, 2 days per week). Total dose ranged from 66.6-72 Gy, dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy, number of fractions ranged from 37-40 fractions, and overall treatment time ranged from 37-40 days. Results: No differences for all trial end-points were noted. At 5 and 10 years, the actuarial rates of local-regional control were 63% and 60% for CAIR vs 65% and 60% for CB, and the corresponding overall survival were 40% and 25% vs 44% and 25%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with an incidence of 89% in CAIR and 86% in CB patients. The 5-year rate of grade 3-4 late radiation morbidity was 6% for both regimens. Conclusions: Results of this trial indicate that the effects of accelerated fractionation can be achieve by delivering twice-per-day irradiation on weekday(s). This trial has also confirmed that an accelerated, 6-weeks schedule is a reasonable option for patients with intermediate-stage head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma because of the associated high cure rate and minimal severe late toxicity.

  16. Results of four one-day electron-accelerator irradiations of enriched Mo-100 targets for the production of Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemerisov, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jonah, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, V. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tkac, P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Virgo, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A series of four one-day irradiations was conducted with 100Mo-enriched disk targets. After irradiation, the enriched disks were removed from the target and dissolved. The resulting solution was processed using a NorthStar RadioGenix™ 99mTc generator either at Argonne National Laboratory or at the NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes facility. Runs on the RadioGenix system produced inconsistent analytical results for 99mTc in the Tc/Mo solution. These inconsistencies were attributed to the impurities in the solution or improper column packing. During the irradiations, the performance of the optic transitional radiation (OTR) and infrared cameras was tested in high radiation field. The OTR cameras survived all irradiations, while the IR cameras failed every time. The addition of X-ray and neutron shielding improved camera survivability and decreased the number of upsets.

  17. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with external beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Five-year results of a prospective phase II clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozsa, Emoeke [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Landesklinikum Wiener Neustadt, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Meszaros, Norbert; Major, Tibor; Froehlich, Georgina; Stelczer, Gabor; Fodor, Janos; Polgar, Csaba [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Sulyok, Zoltan [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Surgery, Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this study was to report the 5-year results of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using external beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between 2006 and 2011, 44 patients with low-risk, stage I-II breast cancer underwent breast-conserving surgery. Postoperative APBI was given by means of 3D-CRT using three to five non-coplanar fields. The total dose of APBI was 36.9 Gy (nine fractions of 4.1 Gy b.i.d.). The mean follow-up time was 58.2 months for surviving patients. Survival results, side effects, and cosmetic results were assessed. One (2.3 %) local recurrence was observed, for a 5-year actuarial rate of 3.7 %. Neither regional nor distant failure was observed. Two patients died of internal disease. The 5-year disease-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival rates were 96.3, 100, and 95.1 %, respectively. Acute side effects included grade 1 (G1) erythema in 75 %, G1 parenchymal induration in 46 %, and G1 pain in 46 % of patients. No G2 or higher acute side effect occurred. Late side effects included G1, G2, and G3 fibrosis in 44, 7, and 2 % of patients, respectively, G1 skin pigmentation in 12 %, and G1 pain in 2 %. Asymptomatic fat necrosis occurred in 14 %. Cosmetic results were rated excellent or good in 86 % of cases by the patients themselves and 84 % by the physicians. The 5-year local tumor control, toxicity profile, and cosmetic results of APBI delivered with external beam 3D-CRT are encouraging and comparable to other APBI series. (orig.) [German] Evaluation der 5-Jahres-Ergebnisse bezueglich Ueberleben, Tumorkontrolle, Nebenwirkungen und Kosmetik nach Teilbrustbestrahlung (APBI) mittels 3-D-konformaler, akzelerierter Radiotherapie (3D-CRT). Zwischen 2006 und 2011 wurden 44 Patienten mit Brustkrebs im Stadium I-II und niedrigem Risikoprofil brusterhaltend operiert. Die adjuvante, 3-D-konformale APBI wurde mittels 3-5 nonkoplanarer Feldern durchgefuehrt. Die Gesamtdosis betrug 36,9 Gy bei 9 -mal 4,1 Gy b.i.d.. Nach

  18. Post irradiation eardrum: a rare complication of the radiotherapy of naso-pharynx carcinomas; Necrose tympanique postradique: une complication rare de la radiotherapie des carcinomes nasopharynges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siala, W.; Mnejja, W.; Daoud, J. [CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Service de Radiotherapie Oncologique, Sfax (Tunisia); Khabir, A. [CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Sfax (Tunisia); Ghorbel, A. [CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Service d' ORL, Sfax (Tunisia); Frikha, M. [CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Service d' Oncologie Medicale, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2009-10-15

    The eardrum necrosis is a serious and dreadful complication but rarely described after irradiation of cavum cancers. We report in this work five cases of eardrum necrosis after radiotherapy of nasopharynx carcinomas. Patients and methods: between february 1993 and december 2004 239 patients suffering of anon metastatic nasopharynx cancer have been treated by classical irradiation associated or not to a chemotherapy. The radiotherapy was delivered at the dose of 70 to 75 Gy in the cavum and the ganglions initially reached according a classical modality of hyperfractionated one. We analysed retrospectively the delayed complications occurred six months or more after the radiotherapy beginning. Results: Five cases of eardrum necrosis were reported sixty five months after the end of radiotherapy. these patients suffered of hypoacusia and buzzing. The clinical examination allowed to bring out the eardrum perforation that did not exist before radiotherapy. The total dose of irradiation was 75 Gy for a patient and 71.5 Gy according a hyperfractionated modality for four patients. Three patients had an hearing prosthesis in order to improve their quality of life. Conclusion: the eardrum necrosis after radiotherapy for nasopharynx cancer is a rare and unusual complication, very few reported in the literature. The total dose of irradiation is considered as the principal factor of occurrence risk in such complication. (N.C.)

  19. Tuning and Matching of Constant Impedance Travelling Wave Accelerating Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Jing-he; ZHU; Zhi-bin; WU; Qing-feng; ZENG; Zi-qiang; WANG; Xiu-long; ZHOU; Wen-zhen

    2015-01-01

    As the penetration depth of electron accelerated by 10MeV electron irradiating accelerator is deep,and the accelerator has broad application prospects.The performance of the accelerator is influenced,to a great extent,by the traveling wave accelerating tube,which is the core component of the accelerator.To develop the accelerator

  20. Implementation of image-guided intensity-modulated accelerated partial breast irradiation. Three-year results of a phase II clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, Norbert; Major, Tibor; Stelczer, Gabor; Zaka, Zoltan; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Fodor, Janos; Polgar, Csaba [National Institute of Oncology, Center of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Mozsa, Emoke [National Institute of Oncology, Center of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Landesklinikum, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pukancsik, David [National Institute of Oncology, Department of Breast and Sarcoma Surgery, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-01-15

    To report 3-year results of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) following breast conserving surgery (BCS) for low-risk early invasive breast cancer. Between July 2011 and March 2014, 60 patients with low-risk early invasive breast cancer underwent BCS and were enrolled in this phase II prospective study. The total dose was 36.9 Gy (9 fractions of 4.1 Gy, two fractions/day). Patient setup errors were detected in LAT, LONG and VERT directions. Local tumour control, survival results, early and late side effects and cosmetic outcome were assessed. At a median follow-up of 39 months, all patients were alive and neither locoregional nor distant failure occurred. One contralateral breast cancer and two new primary malignancies outside the breast were observed. No grade (G) 3-4 acute toxicity was detected. G1 and G2 erythema occurred in 21 (35%) and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively; while G1 oedema was observed in 23 (38.8%) cases. G1 and G2 pain was reported by 6 (10%) and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively. Among the late radiation side effects, G1 pigmentation or telangiectasia, G1 fibrosis and G1 asymptomatic fat necrosis occurred in 10 (16.7%), 7 (11.7%) and 3 (5%) patients, respectively. No ≥ G2 late toxicity was detected. Cosmetic outcome was excellent in 43 (71.7%) and good in 17 (28.3%) patients. IG-IMRT is a reproducible and feasible technique for delivery of external beam APBI following BCS for treatment of low-risk, early-stage invasive breast carcinoma. In order to avoid toxicity, image guidance performed before each radiation fraction is necessary to minimize the PTV. Three-year results are promising, early and late radiation side-effects are minimal, and cosmetic results are excellent to good. (orig.) [German] Evaluierung der 3-Jahres-Ergebnisse der Teilbrustbestrahlung (APBI) mittels bildgefuehrter intensitaetsmodulierter Strahlentherapie (IG-IMRT) nach brusterhaltender Operation (BCS

  1. Multiple-barrier disinfection by chlorination and UV irradiation for desalinated drinking waters: chlorine photolysis and accelerated lamp-sleeve fouling effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wait, Isaac W

    2008-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify interaction effects between UV irradiation and chlorination for desalinated drinking water. The rate of chlorine photolysis in desalinated water was characterized using a low-pressure UV lamp and chlorine doses typical of drinking water treatment and was found to be lower than reported photolysis rates for treated surface water. Results indicate that, for most desalinated water applications, reduction in free chlorine is likely to be limited, but, depending on the UV dose used, not necessarily negligible. Investigation of the potential for reactor lamp-sleeve fouling included mineral speciation and solubility modeling and showed that chlorination of desalinated water before UV disinfection may increase lamp-sleeve fouling, particularly for point-of-use reactors. UV irradiation before chlorination may minimize fouling. Overall results point to the variable nature of UV lamp-sleeve fouling and chlorine photolysis and an intrinsic dependence on local water chemistry conditions.

  2. 基于4 MV静电加速器的高温辐照装置研制及离子辐照初步实验%A High Temperature Irradiation Facility at SINAP’s 4 MV Electrostatic Accelerator and First Tests of the Ion Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷前涛; 叶伯年; 朱德彰; 毛羽; 闫隆; 周兴泰; 包良满; 李健健; 刘哲; 高杰; 曹建清; 邓琦; 王永其; 李晓林

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the ion beam irradiation facility built up at the 4 MV electrostatic accelerator of Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP), CAS for simulating neutron damage to thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR) material studies. The system mainly consists of a beam line containing the magnetic scanning device and the beam monitoring device, and the high temperature high vacuum chamber. H+, He+, Ar+ions(<4 MeV, 2 µA) from the accelerator are used for ion beam irradiation. The range of irradiation temperature is from the liquid nitrogen temperature to 950 ℃. The maximum irradiation field is equal to 30 mm×30 mm. Beam energy degrade with rotating aluminum foils is installed in the chamber, so that the uniformity damage can be obtained within a certain range of the target materials. The preliminary ion irradiation experiments showed that this facility is suitable for exploring radiation effects on the refractory metals as well as other potential TMSR materials.%为了模拟钍基熔盐堆(TMSR)材料的中子辐照损伤,基于中国科学院上海应用物理研究所(SINAP)的4 MV静电加速器,研制了一台专用的离子束辐照装置。装置主要由束流传输线和高温、高真空靶室组成。束流传输线装有用于束流磁场扫描和束流监测的设备。装置可提供H+,He+,Ar+等束流用于离子束辐照,束流最高能量4 MeV,最大流强2µA。辐照温度范围为液氮温度至950℃。辐照面积最大为30 mm×30 mm。装在靶室的由旋转铝片构成的变能器对束流能量进行调制,可以在样品中得到均匀的辐照损伤。初步的实验结果表明,装置适用于高温合金及其他熔盐堆材料的辐照损伤研究。

  3. Shield of an Electron Irradiation Accelerator With Energy of 2.5 MeV%一台2.5 MeV电子辐照加速器系统的屏蔽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文杰; 陈思富

    2001-01-01

    介绍了一台能量2.5MeV、流强40mA、功率100kW的电子辐照加速器系统的屏蔽设计。实际测量结果表明:屏蔽外的辐射水平低于国家标准规定的限值,设计是合理的。%The principles and calculation methods of shielding layerthickness for an electron irradiation accelerator with maximum energy of 2.5 MeV and maximum beam intensity of 40 mA are presented.Practical measurment data show that the radiation level outside the shielding is lower than the national standard,and so the design is reasonable.

  4. Treatment of Children With Central Nervous System Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors/Pinealoblastomas in the Prospective Multicentric Trial HIT 2000 Using Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Maintenance Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Nicolas U., E-mail: nicolas.gerber@kispi.uzh.ch [Department of Pediatric Oncology, University Children' s Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Hoff, Katja von; Resch, Anika [Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Ottensmeier, Holger [Department of Pediatric Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kwiecien, Robert; Faldum, Andreas [Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, University of Muenster (Germany); Matuschek, Christiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hornung, Dagmar [Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Bremer, Michael [Institute for Radiation Therapy and Special Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Benesch, Martin [Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Pietsch, Torsten [Department of Neuropathology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Warmuth-Metz, Monika [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kuehl, Joachim [Department of Pediatric Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Rutkowski, Stefan [Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The prognosis for children with central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS-PNET) or pinealoblastoma is still unsatisfactory. Here we report the results of patients between 4 and 21 years of age with nonmetastatic CNS-PNET or pinealoblastoma diagnosed from January 2001 to December 2005 and treated in the prospective GPOH-trial P-HIT 2000-AB4. Methods and Materials: After surgery, children received hyperfractionated radiation therapy (36 Gy to the craniospinal axis, 68 Gy to the tumor region, and 72 Gy to any residual tumor, fractionated at 2 × 1 Gy per day 5 days per week) accompanied by weekly intravenous administration of vincristine and followed by 8 cycles of maintenance chemotherapy (lomustine, cisplatin, and vincristine). Results: Twenty-six patients (15 with CNS-PNET; 11 with pinealoblastoma) were included. Median age at diagnosis was 11.5 years old (range, 4.0-20.7 years). Gross total tumor resection was achieved in 6 and partial resection in 16 patients (indistinct, 4 patients). Median follow-up of the 15 surviving patients was 7.0 years (range, 5.2-10.0 years). The combined response rate to postoperative therapy was 17 of 20 (85%). Eleven of 26 patients (42%; 7 of 15 with CNS-PNET; 4 of 11 with pinealoblastoma) showed tumor progression or relapse at a median time of 1.3 years (range, 0.5-1.9 years). Five-year progression-free and overall survival rates (±standard error [SE]) were each 58% (±10%) for the entire cohort: CNS-PNET was 53% (±13); pinealoblastoma was 64% (±15%; P=.524 and P=.627, respectively). Conclusions: Postoperative hyperfractionated radiation therapy with local dose escalation followed by maintenance chemotherapy was feasible without major acute toxicity. Survival rates are comparable to those of a few other recent studies but superior to those of most other series, including the previous trial, HIT 1991.

  5. Particle acceleration by plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, A

    2002-01-01

    Plasma acceleration is carried out by using potential of plasma wave. It is classified by generation method of plasma wave such as the laser wake-field acceleration and the beat wave acceleration. Other method using electron beam is named the plasma wake-field acceleration (or beam wake-field acceleration). In this paper, electron acceleration by laser wake-field in gas plasma, ion source by laser radiation of solid target and nanoion beam generation by one component of plasma in trap are explained. It is an applicable method that ions, which run out from the solid target irradiated by laser, are used as ion source of accelerator. The experimental system using 800 nm laser, 50 mJ pulse energy and 50 fs pulse width was studied. The laser intensity is 4x10 sup 1 sup 6 Wcm sup - sup 2 at the focus. The target film of metal and organic substance film was used. When laser irradiated Al target, two particles generated, in front and backward. It is new fact that the neutral particle was obtained in front, because it...

  6. Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy: A Fully Dynamic Delivery With Synchronized Couch and Gantry Motion Significantly Improves Dosimetric Indices Correlated With Poor Cosmesis in Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jieming; Atwood, Todd; Eyben, Rie von; Fahimian, Benjamin; Chin, Erika; Horst, Kathleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, California (United States); Otto, Karl [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada); Hristov, Dimitre, E-mail: dimitre.hristov@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To develop planning and delivery capabilities for linear accelerator–based nonisocentric trajectory modulated arc therapy (TMAT) and to evaluate the benefit of TMAT for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with the patient in prone position. Methods and Materials: An optimization algorithm for volumetrically modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was generalized to allow for user-defined nonisocentric TMAT trajectories combining couch rotations and translations. After optimization, XML scripts were automatically generated to program and subsequently deliver the TMAT plans. For 10 breast patients in the prone position, TMAT and 6-field noncoplanar intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were generated under equivalent objectives and constraints. These plans were compared with regard to whole breast tissue volume receiving more than 100%, 80%, 50%, and 20% of the prescription dose. Results: For TMAT APBI, nonisocentric collision-free horizontal arcs with large angular span (251.5 ± 7.9°) were optimized and delivered with delivery time of ∼4.5 minutes. Percentage changes of whole breast tissue volume receiving more than 100%, 80%, 50%, and 20% of the prescription dose for TMAT relative to IMRT were −10.81% ± 6.91%, −27.81% ± 7.39%, −14.82% ± 9.67%, and 39.40% ± 10.53% (P≤.01). Conclusions: This is a first demonstration of end-to-end planning and delivery implementation of a fully dynamic APBI TMAT. Compared with IMRT, TMAT resulted in marked reduction of the breast tissue volume irradiated at high doses.

  7. Food irradiation; Napromieniowanie zywnosci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W. [Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej, Doswiadczalna Stacja Radiacyjnego Utrwalania Plodow Rolnych, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author) 14 refs, 3 tabs

  8. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for childhood ependymoma: final results of the first prospective AIEOP (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia-Oncologia Pediatrica) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimino, Maura; Gandola, Lorenza; Giangaspero, Felice; Sandri, Alessandro; Valagussa, Pinuccia; Perilongo, Giorgio; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Ricardi, Umberto; Forni, Marco; Genitori, Lorenzo; Scarzello, Giovanni; Spreafico, Filippo; Barra, Salvina; Mascarin, Maurizio; Pollo, Bianca; Gardiman, Martina; Cama, Armando; Navarria, Pierina; Brisigotti, Maurizio; Collini, Paola; Balter, Rita; Fidani, Paola; Stefanelli, Maurizio; Burnelli, Roberta; Potepan, Paolo; Podda, Marta; Sotti, Guido; Madon, Enrico

    2004-04-01

    A postsurgical "stage-based" protocol for ependymoma was designed. Children were given: (1) focal hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) if with no evidence of disease (NED), or (2) 4 courses with VEC followed by HFRT for residual disease (ED). HFRT dose was 70.4 Gy (1.1 Gy/fraction b.i.d.); VEC consisted of VCR 1.5 mg/m2 1/w, VP16 100 mg/m2/day x 3, CTX 3 g/m2 d 1. When feasible, second-look surgery was recommended. Sixty-three consecutive children were enrolled: 46 NED, 17 ED; the tumor was infratentorial in 47 and supratentorial in 16, with spinal metastasis in 1. Of NED patients, 35 of 46 have been treated with HFRT; 8 received conventionally fractionated radiotherapy, and 3 received no treatment. Of the 17 ED patients, 9 received VEC + HFRT; violations due to postsurgical morbidity were as follows: HFRT only (2), conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (3) + VEC (2), and no therapy (1). Objective responses to VEC were seen in 54%; objective responses to RT were seen in 75%. Overall survival and progression-free survival at 5 years for all 63 children were 75% and 56%, respectively; for the NED subgroup, 82% and 65%; and for the ED subgroup, 61% and 35%, respectively. All histologies were centrally reviewed. At multivariate analysis, grading, age, and site proved significant for prognosis. HFRT, despite the high total dose adopted, did not change the prognosis of childhood ependymoma as compared to historical series: New radiotherapeutic approaches are needed to improve local control. Future ependymoma strategies should consider grading when stratifying treatment indications.

  9. Usefulness of two independent histopathological classifications of tumor regression in patients with rectal cancer submitted to hyperfractionated pre-operative radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (L)ukasz Liszka; Ewa Zieli(n)ska-Paj(a)k; Jacek Paj(a)k; Dariusz Go(l)ka; Jacek Starzewski; Zbigniew Lorenc

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the usefulness of two independent histopathological classifications of rectal cancer regression following neo-adjuvant therapy.METHODS: Forty patients at the initial stage cT3NxMO submitted to preoperative radiotherapy (42 Gy during 18 d) and then to radical surgical treatment. The relationship between "T-downstaging" versus regressive changes expressed by tumor regression grade (TRG 1-5)and Nasierowska-Guttmejer classification (NG 1-3) was studied as well as the relationship between TRG and NG versus local tumor stage ypT and lymph nodes status,ypN.RESULTS: Complete regression (ypTO, TRG 1) was found in one patient. "T-downstaging" was observed in 11 (27.5%) patients. There was a weak statistical significance of the relationship between "T-downstaging"and TRG staging and NG stage. Patients with ypT1 were diagnosed as TRG 2-3 while those with ypT3 as TRG5.No lymph node metastases were found in patients with TRG 1-2. None of the patients without lymph node metastases were diagnosed as TRG 5. Patients in the ypT1 stage were NG 1-2. No lymph node metastases were found in NG 1. There was a significant correlation between TRG and NG.CONCLUSION: Histopathological classifications may be useful in the monitoring of the effects of hyperfractionated preoperative radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer at the stage of cT3NxMO. There is no unequivocal relationship between "T-downstaging"and TRG and NG. There is some concordance in the assessment of lymph node status with ypT, TRG and NG.TRG and NG are of limited value for the risk assessment of the lymph node involvement.

  10. Risk–Benefit Analysis of Pediatric-Inspired Versus Hyperfractionated Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Doxorubicin, and Dexamethasone Protocols for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzauskas, Gregory F.; Villa, Kathleen F.; Vanhove, Geertrui F.; Fisher, Vicki L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the risk–benefit trade-off of a pediatric-inspired regimen versus hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) for first-line treatment of adolescents/young adult (AYA; ages 16–39 years) patients with Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Patient outcomes were simulated using a 6-state Markov model, including complete response (CR), no CR, first relapse, second CR, second relapse, and death. A Weibull distribution was fit to the progression-free survival curve of hyper-CVAD–treated AYA patients from a single-center study, and comparable patient data from a retrospective study of pediatric regimen–treated AYA patients were utilized to estimate a relative progression difference (hazard ratio = 0.51) and model survival differences. Health-state utilities were estimated based on treatment stage, with an assumption that the pediatric protocol had 0.10 disutility compared with hyper-CVAD before the maintenance phase of treatment. Total life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were compared between treatment protocols at 1, 5, and 10 years, with additional probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results: Treatment with the pediatric-inspired protocol was associated with a 0.04 increase in life-years, but a 0.01 decrease in QALYs at 1 year. By years 5 and 10, the pediatric-inspired protocol resulted in 0.18 and 0.24 increase in life-years and 0.25 and 0.32 increase in QALYs, respectively, relative to hyper-CVAD. The lower quality of life associated with the induction and intensification phases of pediatric treatment was offset by more favorable progression-free survival and overall survival relative to hyper-CVAD. Conclusions: Our exploratory analysis suggests that, compared with hyper-CVAD, pediatric-inspired protocols may increase life-years throughout treatment stages and QALYs in the long term. PMID:27779442

  11. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  12. Late Toxicity and Patient Self-Assessment of Breast Appearance/Satisfaction on RTOG 0319: A Phase 2 Trial of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy-Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Following Lumpectomy for Stages I and II Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafe, Susan, E-mail: susan.chafe@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute-University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Moughan, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); McCormick, Beryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Pass, Helen [Womens' Breast Center, Stamford Hospital, Stamford, Connecticut (United States); Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Arthur, Douglas W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Petersen, Ivy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); White, Julia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Vicini, Frank A. [Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Late toxicities and cosmetic analyses of patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) on RTOG 0319 are presented. Methods and Materials: Patients with stages I to II breast cancer ≤3 cm, negative margins, and ≤3 positive nodes were eligible. Patients received three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT; 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions twice daily over 5 days). Toxicity and cosmesis were assessed by the patient (P), the radiation oncologist (RO), and the surgical oncologist (SO) at 3, 6, and 12 months from the completion of treatment and then annually. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, was used to grade toxicity. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluable. Median follow-up was 5.3 years (range, 1.7-6.4 years). Eighty-two percent of patients rated their cosmesis as good/excellent at 1 year, with rates of 64% at 3 years. At 3 years, 31 patients were satisfied with the treatment, 5 were not satisfied but would choose 3D-CRT again, and none would choose standard radiation therapy. The worst adverse event (AE) per patient reported as definitely, probably, or possibly related to radiation therapy was 36.5% grade 1, 50% grade 2, and 5.8% grade 3 events. Grade 3 AEs were all skin or musculoskeletal-related. Treatment-related factors were evaluated to potentially establish an association with observed toxicity. Surgical bed volume, target volume, the number of beams used, and the use of bolus were not associated with late cosmesis. Conclusions: Most patients enrolled in RTOG 0319 were satisfied with their treatment, and all would choose to have the 3D-CRT APBI again.

  13. Feasibility and acute toxicity of 3-dimensional conformal external-beam accelerated partial-breast irradiation for early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery in Chinese female patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-yan; HE Zhen-yu; XUE Ming; CHEN Li-xin; WU San-gang; GUAN Xun-xing

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies worldwide have advocated the replacement of whole-breast irradiation with accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiation (APBI-3DCRr) for early-stage breast cancer. But APBI can be only used in selected population of patients with early-staged breast cancer. It is not replacing the whole breast radiotherapy. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and acute normal tissue toxicity of the APBI-3DCRT technique in Chinese female patients who generally have smaller breasts compared to their Western counterparts.Methods From May 2006 to December 2009, a total of 48 Chinese female patients (with early-stage breast cancer who met the inclusion criteria) received APBI-3DCRT after breast-conserving surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The total dosage from APBI-3DCRT was 34 Gy, delivered in 3.4 Gy per fractions, twice per day at intervals of at least six hours. The radiation dose, volume of the target area and volume of irradiated normal tissues were calculated.Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) 3.0.Results Among the 48 patients, the planning target volume for evaluation (PTVE) was (90.42±9.26) cm3, the ipsilateral breast volume (IBV) was (421.74±28.53) cm3, and the ratio between the two was (20.74±5.86)%. Evaluation of the dosimetric characteristics of the PTVE revealed excellent dosimetric results in 14 patients and acceptable results in 34 patients. The dose delivered to the PTVE ranged from 93% to 110% of the prescribed dose. The average ratio of the volume of PTVE receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V95) was (99.26±0.37)%. The habituation index (HI) and the conformity index (CI) were 1.08±0.01 and 0.72±0.02, respectively, suggesting good homogeneity and conformity of the dose delivered to the target field. The radiation dose to normal tissues and organs was within the dose limitation.Subjects experienced mild acute

  14. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  15. Neuropsychological Outcome of Children Treated for Standard Risk Medulloblastoma in the PNET4 European Randomized Controlled Trial of Hyperfractionated Versus Standard Radiation Therapy and Maintenance Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Câmara-Costa, Hugo, E-mail: hugocamaracosta@gmail.com [National Institute of Health and Medical Research, INSERM U1178, Paris (France); Resch, Anika [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kieffer, Virginie [Saint Maurice Hospitals, Saint Maurice (France); Lalande, Clémence [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Poggi, Geraldina [Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Bosisio Parini, Lecco (Italy); Kennedy, Colin; Bull, Kim [University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, Southampton (United Kingdom); Calaminus, Gabriele [Paediatric Oncology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Grill, Jacques [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Doz, François [Institut Curie and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); Rutkowski, Stefan [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Massimino, Maura [Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Lannering, Birgitta [Paediatric Oncology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Dellatolas, Georges [National Institute of Health and Medical Research, INSERM U1178, Paris (France); Chevignard, Mathilde [Rehabilitation Department for Children With Acquired Neurological Injury, Saint Maurice Hospitals, Saint Maurice, and Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Universités Paris, INSERM CNRS, Paris (France)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: In the European HIT-SIOP PNET4 randomized controlled trial, children with standard risk medulloblastoma were allocated to hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT arm, including a partially focused boost) or standard radiation therapy (STRT arm), followed, in both arms, by maintenance chemotherapy. Event-free survival was similar in both arms. Previous work showed that the HFRT arm was associated with worse growth and better questionnaire-based executive function, especially in children <8 years of age at diagnosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare performance-based cognitive outcomes between treatment arms. Methods and Materials: Neuropsychological data were collected prospectively in 137 patients. Using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, and Raven's Progressive Matrices, we estimated full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and, when available, verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), working memory index (WMI), and processing speed index (PSI). Results: Among the 137 participants (HFRT arm n=71, STRT arm n=66, 63.5% males), mean (±SD) ages at diagnosis and assessment respectively were 9.3 (±3.2) years of age (40.8% < 8 years of age at diagnosis) and 14.6 (±4.3) years of age. Mean (±SD) FSIQ was 88 (±19), and mean intergroup difference was 3.88 (95% confidence interval: −2.66 to 10.42, P=.24). No significant differences were found in children >8 years of age at diagnosis. In children <8 years of age at diagnosis, a marginally significant trend toward higher VIQ was found in those treated in the HFRT arm; a similar trend was found for PSI but not for PIQ, WMI, or FSIQ (mean intergroup differences were: 12.02 for VIQ [95% CI: 2.37-21.67; P=.02]; 3.77 for PIQ [95% CI: −5.19 to 12.74; P>.10]; 5.20 for WMI [95% CI: −2.07 to 12.47; P>.10]; 10.90 for PSI [95% CI: −1.54 to 23.36; P=.08]; and 5.28 for FSIQ [95% CI: −4.23 to 14.79; P>.10]). Conclusions: HFRT was associated with

  16. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  17. Phase 2 Trial of Accelerated, Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation of 39 Gy in 13 Fractions Followed by a Tumor Bed Boost Sequentially Delivering 9 Gy in 3 Fractions in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Seeyoun; Kang, Han-Sung; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, In Hae; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil [Center for Breast Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Nam Kwon [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Medical Center, Collage of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan, E-mail: radiat@ncc.re.kr [Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Medical Center, Collage of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report a phase 2 trial of accelerated, hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation (AH-WBI) delivered as a daily dose of 3 Gy to the whole breast followed by a tumor bed boost. Methods and Materials: Two hundred seventy-six patients diagnosed with breast cancer (pT1-2 and pN0-1a) who had undergone breast-conserving surgery in which the operative margins were negative were treated with AH-WBI delivered as 39 Gy in 13 fractions of 3 Gy to the whole breast once daily over 5 consecutive working days, and 9 Gy in 3 sequential fractions of 3 Gy to a lumpectomy cavity, all within 3.2 weeks. Results: After a median follow-up period of 57 months (range: 27-75 months), the rate of 5-year locoregional recurrence was 1.4% (n=4), whereas that of disease-free survival was 97.4%. No grade 3 skin toxicity was reported during the follow-up period. Qualitative physician cosmetic assessments of good or excellent were noted in 82% of the patients at 2 months after the completion of AH-WBI. The global cosmetic outcome did not worsen over time, and a good or excellent cosmetic outcome was reported in 82% of the patients at 3 years. The mean pretreatment percentage breast retraction assessment was 12.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.14-12.86). The mean value of percentage breast retraction assessment increased to 13.99 (95% CI: 12.17-15.96) after 1 year and decreased to 13.54 (95% CI: 11.84-15.46) after 3 years but was not significant (P>.05). Conclusions: AH-WBI consisting of 39 Gy in 13 fractions followed by a tumor bed boost sequentially delivering 9 Gy in 3 fractions can be delivered with excellent disease control and tolerable skin toxicity in patients with early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery.

  18. Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, J. Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Beitsch, Peter D. [Dallas Surgical Group, Dallas, Texas (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Arthur, Doug [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Rhode Island Hospital/Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Keisch, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Healthcare Associates, Miami, Florida (United States); Shaitelman, Simona F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lyden, Maureen [Biostat International, Inc, Tampa, Florida (United States); Chen, Peter Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort.

  19. Transforming Growth Factor β-1 (TGF-β1) Is a Serum Biomarker of Radiation Induced Fibrosis in Patients Treated With Intracavitary Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boothe, Dustin L. [Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Coplowitz, Shana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Greenwood, Eleni [Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Barney, Christian L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Christos, Paul J. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K. S. Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Wernicke, A. Gabriella, E-mail: gaw9008@med.cornell.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To examine a relationship between serum transforming growth factor β -1 (TGF-β1) values and radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective analysis of the development of RIF in 39 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0-I breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and accelerated partial breast irradiation via intracavitary brachytherapy (IBAPBI). An enzyme-linked immunoassay (Quantikine, R and D, Minneapolis, MN) was used to measure serum TGF-β1 before surgery, before IBAPBI, and during IBAPBI. Blood samples for TGF-β1 were also collected from 15 healthy, nontreated women (controls). The previously validated tissue compliance meter (TCM) was used to objectively assess RIF. Results: The median time to follow-up for 39 patients was 44 months (range, 5-59 months). RIF was graded by the TCM scale as 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 5 of 20 patients (25%), 6 of 20 patients (30%), 5 of 20 patients (25%), and 4 of 20 patients (20%), respectively. The mean serum TGF-β1 values were significantly higher in patients before surgery than in disease-free controls, as follows: all cancer patients (30,201 ± 5889 pg/mL, P=.02); patients with any type of RIF (32,273 ± 5016 pg/mL, P<.0001); and women with moderate to severe RIF (34,462 ± 4713 pg/mL, P<0.0001). Patients with moderate to severe RIF had significantly elevated TGF-β1 levels when compared with those with none to mild RIF before surgery (P=.0014) during IBAPBI (P≤0001), and the elevation persisted at 6 months (P≤.001), 12 months (P≤.001), 18 months (P≤.001), and 24 months (P=.12). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of TGF-β1 values predicting moderate to severe RIF was generated with an area under the curve (AUC){sub ROC} of 0.867 (95% confidence interval 0.700-1.000). The TGF-β1 threshold cutoff was determined to be 31,000 pg/mL, with associated sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusions: TGF-β1 levels correlate with

  20. Electron accelerators for radiosterilization; Akceleratory elektronow dla potrzeb sterylizacji radiacyjnej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The applications of electron accelerators in commercial plants for radiosterilization have been shown. Advantages of such irradiation source have been presented. The types and parameters of accelerators being installed in worldwide irradiation plants for radiosterilization have been listed as well. 2 tabs.

  1. Results of total lung irradiation and chemotherapy in comparison with partial lung irradiation in metastatic undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, N.; Fuerst, G.; Pape, H.; Bannach, B.; Schmitt, G.; Molls, M.

    1988-07-01

    The poor prognosis of patients with unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcoma is well known. In order to evaluate the beneficial effect of radiotherapy, we have treated 44 patients with pulmonary metastases of grade 3 soft tissue sarcoma from 1980 to 1986. In 36 patients the treatment volume was restricted to the single metastases up to a dose of 50 to 60 (9 to 10 Gy/week). The survival rate at one year was 18% and at two years 6%. Eight patients were treated with a combined regimen, consisting of cisplatin and ifosfamide with simultaneous whole lung irradiation. Irradiation was performed with 8 or 16 MV photons at a hyperfractionation of 2x0,8 Gy/day (8 Gy/week). After a dose of 12 Gy, the single metastases were boosted up to 50 to 60 Gy, with a second course of chemotherapy. In six of eight patients complete remissions were achieved, one patient showed a partial remission. The survival rate at 27 months was 50%. The patients with partial remission died from pulmonary progression at 23 months. One patient died after twelve months from a loco-regional recurrence in the tonsillar fossa without evidence of pulmonary disease. Side effects included alopecia and moderate bone marrow suppression approximately twelve days after each chemotherapy cycle. Pulmonary fibrosis was observed only at the high dose volume without impairment of respiratory function. From these observations the conclusion is drawn that whole lung irradiation simultaneously with cisplatin and ifosfamide chemotherapy provides good palliative results without relevant morbidity in patients with high grade unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcomas.

  2. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  3. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored accelera......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...... an approach to facilitate implementation and realization of business ideas and is a lucrative approach to transform research into ventures and to revitalize regions and industries in transition. Investors have noticed that the accelerator approach is a way to increase the possibility of success by funnelling...

  4. Cyclinacs: Fast-Cycling Accelerators for Hadrontherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Amaldi, U.; Braccini, S.; Citterio, A; Crandall, K.; Crescenti, M.; Dominietto, M.; Giuliacci, A.; Magrin, G.; Mellace, C.; Pearce, P; Pitta', G.; Rosso, E.; Weiss, M.; Zennaro, R.

    2009-01-01

    We propose an innovative fast-cycling accelerator complex conceived and designed to exploit at best the properties of accelerated ion beams for hadrontherapy. A cyclinac is composed by a cyclotron, which can be used also for other valuable medical and research purposes, followed by a high gradient linear accelerator capable to produce ion beams optimized for the irradiation of solid tumours with the most modern techniques. The properties of cyclinacs together with design studies for protons a...

  5. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, T.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed use of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 and cesium 137 for food irradiation in the United Kingdom is discussed, with particular reference to the possible dangers and disadvantages to the safety and wholesomeness of the food.

  6. Acceleration of microparticle

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, H

    2002-01-01

    A microparticle (dust) ion source has been installed at the high voltage terminal of the 3.75 MV single ended Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator and a beam line for microparticle experiments has been build at High Fluence Irradiation Facility (HIT) of Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo. Microparticle acceleration has been successful in obtaining expected velocities of 1-20 km/s or more for micron or submicron sized particles. Development of in situ dust detectors and analyzers on board satellites and spacecraft in the expected mass and velocity range of micrometeoroids and investigation of hypervelocity impact phenomena by using time of flight mass spectrometry, impact flash or luminescence measurement and scanning electron or laser microscope observation for metals, ceramics, polymers and semiconductors bombarded by micron-sized particles were started three years ago. (author)

  7. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.; GARREN,A.A.; JOHNSTONE,C.

    2000-04-07

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous.

  8. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  9. Conventional vs accelerated fractionation in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, W; Dobrowsky, E; Naudé, J; Millesi, W; Pavelka, R; Kautzky, M; Grasl, M; Köhler, W; Wilson, G D; Reichel, M

    1996-07-01

    From October 1990 to March 1994, 90 patients entered a prospectively randomised trial in head and neck cancer. All patients had verified squamous cell carcinoma and were referred for primary radiation therapy. Tumours originated in the oral cavity in 25, oropharynx in 37, larynx in 15 and hypopharynx in 13 cases. Patients' stages were predominantely T3 and T4 (71/90) and had lymph node metastases (60/90). Seventy-nine male patients and 11 female patients, with a median age of 57 years (range 37-76 years) were treated. Patients were randomised to one of three treatment options: conventional fractionation (CF) consisting of 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 7 weeks or continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy (Vienna-CHART) or Vienna-CHART with administration of a single dose of mitomycin C on day 5 of treatment (V-CHART + MMC). By the accelerated regimen a total dose of 55.3 Gy was given in 33 fractions within 17 consecutive days. Acute mucositis was the main toxicity recorded in those patients treated by accelerated fractionation, although the overall duration of mucosal reaction did not differ in the three treatment groups. There was no influence on local toxicity if MMC was added to radiation therapy or not. Those patients treated with additional MMC experienced a grade III/IV haematological toxicity in 4/28 cases. Complete remission (CR) was recorded in 48% following CF, 79% after Vienna-CHART (P < 0.05) and 71% after Vienna-CHART + MMC. The overall local failure rates were 73%, 59% and 42% (P = NS) for patients treated by CF, Vienna-CHART and Vienna-CHART + MMC respectively.

  10. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  11. The operational procedure of an electron beam accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Cheol; Choi, Hwa Lim; Yang, Ki Ho; Han, Young Hwan; Kim, Sung Chan

    2008-12-15

    The KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy of Research Institute) high-power electron beam irradiation facility, operating at the energies between 0.3 MeV and 10 MeV, has provided irradiation services to users in industries, universities, and institute in various fields. This manual is for the operation of an electron beam which is established in KAERI, and describes elementary operation procedures of electron beam between 0.3 Mev and 10 MeV. KAERI Electron Accelerator facility(Daejeon, Korea) consists of two irradiators: one is a low-energy electron beam irradiator operated by normal conducting RF accelerator, the other is medium-energy irradiator operated by superconducting RF accelerator. We explain the check points of prior to operation, operation procedure of this facility and the essential parts of electron beam accelerator.

  12. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  13. Future accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hübner, K

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the various schemes for electron-positron linear colliders is given and the status of the development of key components and the various test facilities is given. The present studies of muon-muon colliders and very large hadron colliders are summarized including the plans for component development and tests. Accelerator research and development to achieve highest gradients in linear accelerators is outlined. (44 refs).

  14. Embrittlement of irradiated F82H in the absence of irradiation hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)], E-mail: kluehrl@ornl.gov; Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki-Mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Sokolov, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    2009-04-30

    Neutron irradiation of 7-12% Cr ferritic/martensitic steels below 425-450 deg. C produces microstructural defects and precipitation that cause an increase in yield stress. This irradiation hardening causes embrittlement, which is observed in a Charpy impact or fracture toughness test as an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature. Based on observations that show little change in strength in steels irradiated above 425-450 deg. C, the general conclusion has been that no embrittlement occurs above these temperatures. In a recent study of F82H steel, significant embrittlement was observed after irradiation at 500 deg. C, but no hardening occurred. This embrittlement is apparently due to irradiation-accelerated Laves-phase precipitation. Observations of the embrittlement of F82H in the absence of irradiation hardening have been examined and analyzed with thermal-aging studies and computational thermodynamics calculations to illuminate and understand the embrittlement during irradiation.

  15. Dosimetric comparison of three techniques in treatment of accelerated partial breast irradiation%乳腺癌保乳术后部分乳腺三种放疗计划的剂量学比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晖; 邱健健; 王芸; 徐志勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To dosimetrically compare three delivery techniques of VMAT,IMRT and 3D-CRT in the treatment of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI).Methods Twenty patients with T1/2N0M0breast cancer were treated with VMAT.These cases were subsequently re-planned using static gantry IMRT and 3D-CRT technology to evaluate dosimetric differences.Dosimetric parameters including dose conformity index (CI),dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis of normal tissue coverage,dose parameters of PTV and normal tissues were evaluated,the delivery parameters including MU and delivery time were also analyzed.Results The IMRT and VMAT plans provided lower maximum dose,better mean dose and more conformal target dose distributions than the 3D-CRT plans (F =14.86,8.57,18.23,P <0.05).The volume of ipsilateral breast receiving 5 Gy for VMAT technique was significantly less than that of3D-CRTor IMRT(F=5.83,P<0.05).The ipsilateral lung volume receiving 20 Gy (V20),5 Gy(V5) and the 5% volume dose (D5) of IMRT were superior to those of 3D-CRT and VMAT(F =16.39,3.62,4.81,P < 0.05).The low volume dose distributions of D5 in contralateral lung for IMRT was better than that of VMAT and 3D-CRT(F =3.99,3.43,P < 0.05).The total mean MUs for VMAT,3D-CRT and IMRT were 621.0 ± 111.9,707.3 ± 130.9 and 1161.4 ± 315.6,respectively (F =31.30,P < 0.05).The average machine delivery time was(1.5 ± 0.2)min for the VMAT plans,(7.0 ± 1.6)min for the 3D-CRT plans and (11.5 ± 1.9)min for the IMRT plans.Conclusions VMAT and IMRT techniques offer improved dose conformity as compared with 3D-CRT techniques without increasing dose to the ipsilateral lung.In terms of MU and delivery time,VMAT is more efficient for APBI than conventional 3D-CRT and static beam IMRT.%目的 比较容积弧形调强(VMAT)、固定野动态调强(IMRT)及三维适形放疗(3D-CRT)技术对乳腺癌保乳术后采用部分乳腺放疗的剂量学差异.方法 选取20例临床分期为T1-2N0M0的早期乳腺癌保乳

  16. Van de Graaff Irradiation of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Through irradiations using our 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator, Argonne is testing the radiation stability of components of equipment that are being used to dispense molybdenum solutions for use as feeds to 99mTc generators and in the 99mTc generators themselves. Components have been irradiated by both a direct electron beam and photons generated from a tungsten convertor.

  17. Accelerated Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew; Georgi, Howard

    2001-01-01

    We construct four dimensional gauge theories in which the successful supersymmetric unification of gauge couplings is preserved but accelerated by N-fold replication of the MSSM gauge and Higgs structure. This results in a low unification scale of $10^{13/N}$ TeV.

  18. Spectroscopic and thermal studies of 8 MeV electron beam irradiated HPMC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangappa [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India)], E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in; Asha, S. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India); Demappa, T. [Department of Studies in Polymer Science, University of Mysore, Sir M.V.P.G. Center, Mandya 571 402 (India); Sanjeev, Ganesh [Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India); Parameswara, P.; Somashekar, R. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2009-07-01

    Radiation-induced changes in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films under electron irradiation were investigated and correlated with dose. Polymer samples were irradiated in air at room temperature by an electron beam accelerator in the range of 0-100 kGy. Various properties of the irradiated films were studied using a Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Electron irradiation was found to induce changes in the physical, chemical and thermal properties, depending on the irradiation dose.

  19. Particle Accelerators in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  20. Spinal cord response to altered fractionation and re-irradiation: Radiobiological considerations and role of bioeffect models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supe Sanjay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of radiation oncologist is to implement an uncomplicated loco regional control of cancer by radiation therapy. The bioeffect of a physical dose depends on the nature of the tissue, fractionation scheme, dose rate and treatment time. The transformation of absorbed dose into a bioeffect dose is controlled by treatment variables and the radiobiological characteristics of the relevant tissue. Various bioeffect models have been proposed to predict the biological effect of radiotherapy treatments. Dale has proposed extrapolated response dose (ERD equations for external beam therapy, intracavitary brachytherapy and interstitial brachytherapy. Within the context of the LQ model, the parameter which quantifies the overall biological effect on a given tissue is the biologically effective dose (BED which is obtained by applying repopulation correction to ERD (Orton,. Thames proposed the total effect (TE concept based on the incomplete repair LQ model which accounts for the biological effect of a fractionated course of radiotherapy. Spinal cord myelitis limits the dose to tumours in the head and neck, thoracic and upper abdominal regions resulting in reduction of tumour control probability. Radiation myelopathy is one of the most devastating complications of clinical radiotherapy. Treatment techniques that are designed to minimize the risk of spinal cord injury are likely to underdose the tumour consequent failure to control the disease. Since radiation myelopathy results in severe and irreversible morbidity, it is important to establish the tolerance dose of the spinal cord. A number of patients have recently been reported to have developed radiation myelopathy following hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy. As the survival rates of patients increase, radiation oncologists are more frequently faced with the problem of treatment of late recurrence or second tumours situated within or close to previously treated site. A rationale for taking a

  1. MUON ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  2. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  3. Highly efficient accelerator of dense matter using laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S.; Pisarczyk, T.; Raczka, P.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Borodziuk, S. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Krousky, E. [Institute of Physics, AS CR, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Liska, R.; Kucharik, M. [Czech Technical University, FNSPE, 160 41 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Ullschmied, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, 182 20 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2012-05-15

    Acceleration of dense matter to high velocities is of high importance for high energy density physics, inertial confinement fusion, or space research. The acceleration schemes employed so far are capable of accelerating dense microprojectiles to velocities approaching 1000 km/s; however, the energetic efficiency of acceleration is low. Here, we propose and demonstrate a highly efficient scheme of acceleration of dense matter in which a projectile placed in a cavity is irradiated by a laser beam introduced into the cavity through a hole and then accelerated in a guiding channel by the pressure of a hot plasma produced in the cavity by the laser beam or by the photon pressure of the ultra-intense laser radiation trapped in the cavity. We show that the acceleration efficiency in this scheme can be much higher than that achieved so far and that sub-relativisitic projectile velocities are feasible in the radiation pressure regime.

  4. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  5. How to improve the irradiation conditions for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Daum, E

    2000-01-01

    The accelerator-based intense D-Li neutron source International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) provides very suitable irradiation conditions for fusion materials development with the attractive option of accelerated irradiations. Investigations show that a neutron moderator made of tungsten and placed in the IFMIF test cell can further improve the irradiation conditions. The moderator softens the IFMIF neutron spectrum by enhancing the fraction of low energy neutrons. For displacement damage, the ratio of point defects to cascades is more DEMO relevant and for tritium production in Li-based breeding ceramic materials it leads to a preferred production via the sup 6 Li(n,t) sup 4 He channel as it occurs in a DEMO breeding blanket.

  6. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  7. Impact accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Brinkley, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The degree to which impact acceleration is an important factor in space flight environments depends primarily upon the technology of capsule landing deceleration and the weight permissible for the associated hardware: parachutes or deceleration rockets, inflatable air bags, or other impact attenuation systems. The problem most specific to space medicine is the potential change of impact tolerance due to reduced bone mass and muscle strength caused by prolonged weightlessness and physical inactivity. Impact hazards, tolerance limits, and human impact tolerance related to space missions are described.

  8. Nuclear data for designing the IFMIF accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The objective of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) and the design concept of the IFMIF accelerator system are described. The status of the nuclear data, especially for the deuteron-induced reactions, to qualify the system design is reviewed. The requests for the nuclear data compilation and/or evaluation are summarized. (author)

  9. 10MeV/20kW Electron Linac for Irradiation Microwave System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qing-feng; ZHU; Zhi-bin; WANG; Xiu-long; LIU; Bao-jie; HU; Tao

    2015-01-01

    Microwave system is one of main subsystems of 10 MeV/20kW electron irradiating linac.It provides accelerating tube with microwave power,and accelerates electron beam to design energy,high-energy electron beam is ultimately used for irradiation processing.In order to meet the requirements of the

  10. Mechanical response of proton beam irradiated nitinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzal, Naveed [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan); Ghauri, I.M., E-mail: ijaz.phys@gmail.co [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan); Mubarik, F.E.; Amin, F. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the study of mechanical behavior of proton beam irradiated nitinol at room temperature. The specimens in austenitic phase were irradiated over periods of 15, 30, 45 and 60 min at room temperature using 2 MeV proton beam obtained from Pelletron accelerator. The stress-strain curves of both unirradiated and irradiated specimens were obtained using a universal testing machine at room temperature. The results of the experiment show that an intermediate rhombohedral (R) phase has been introduced between austenite and martensite phase, which resulted in the suppression of direct transformation from austenite to martensite (A-M). Stresses required to start R-phase ({sigma}{sub RS}) and martensitic phase ({sigma}{sub MS}) were observed to decrease with increase in exposure time. The hardness tests of samples before and after irradiation were also carried out using Vickers hardness tester. The comparison reveals that the hardness is higher in irradiated specimens than that of the unirradiated one. The increase in hardness is quite sharp in specimens irradiated for 15 min, which then increases linearly as the exposure time is increased up to 60 min. The generation of R-phase, variations in the transformation stresses {sigma}{sub RS} and {sigma}{sub MS} and increase in hardness of irradiated nitinol may be attributed to lattice disorder and associated changes in crystal structure induced by proton beam irradiation.

  11. Alterations of total non stimulated salivary flow in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx submitted to hyperfractionated radiation therapy; Alteracoes do fluxo salivar total nao estimulado em pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe submetidos a radioterapia por hiperfracionamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guebur, Maria Isabela [Faculdades Integradas Espirita, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: isabelaguebur@aol.com; Rapoport, Abrao [Hospital Heliopolis (HOSPHEL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude; Sassi, Laurindo Moacir [Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Cirurgia e Traumatologia Buco-Maxico-Facial; Oliveira, Benedito Valdecir de; Ramos, Gyl Henrique Albrecht [Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Cirurgia de Cabeca e Pescoco; Pereira, Jose Carlos Gasparin [Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2004-07-01

    Prevention and early diagnosis are actually the most effective measures that we dispose to improve the prognostic of the malignant tumors. The mouth and oropharynx tumors are treated with success, when early diagnosed. The radiotherapy is almost always one of the selected treatments for these tumors. When cancer is diagnosed in advanced stages, many a time the treatment needs to be carried out swiftly to be efficient, and consequently the radio therapist use the hyperfractionated therapy, with the patient receiving two lower doses of radiation in two sessions daily, amounting to a higher daily dosage, of about 160 cGy/2x/day. When the major salivary glands are present in the radiated field, the xerostomia appears by the second week of treatment (1500 to 2000 cGy), changing the patient's health, and causing difficulties for him to eat, speak and sleep. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative alterations of the total non stimulated salivate flow of patients who underwent hyperfractionated therapy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of mouth and oropharynx. Samples of twelve male patients saliva from Erasto Gaertner Hospital in Curitiba, PR, Brazil, were examined. Two samples of saliva were collected from each patient, the first one before the beginning of the radiotherapy, and the second at the end of the treatment. As a result, we obtained salivary loss in 91.7% of the patients, with a percentage of total salivary flow loss of 62.9%, registered in the second collection. We concluded that the hyperfractionated therapy causes a marked xerostomia when the major salivary glands are in the radiated field. (author)

  12. Embrittlement of irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels in the absence of irradiation hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge Noational Laboratory, TN (United States); Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Sokolov, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., TN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Neutron irradiation of 9-12% Cr ferritic/martensitic steels below 425-450 deg. C produces microstructural defects that cause an increase in yield stress and ultimate tensile strength. This irradiation hardening causes embrittlement, which is observed in Charpy impact and toughness tests as an increase in ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Based on observations that show little change in strength in these steels irradiated above 425-450 deg. C, the general conclusion has been that no embrittlement occurs above this irradiation-hardening temperature regime. In a recent study of F82H steel irradiated at 300, 380, and 500 deg. C, irradiation hardening-an increase in yield stress-was observed in tensile specimens irradiated at the two lower temperatures, but no change was observed for the specimens irradiated at 500 deg. C. As expected, an increase in DBTT occurred for the Charpy specimens irradiated at 300 and 380 deg. C. However, there was an unexpected increase in the DBTT of the specimens irradiated at 500 deg. C. The observed embrittlement was attributed to the irradiation-accelerated precipitation of Laves phase. This conclusion was based on results from a detailed thermal aging study of F82H, in which tensile and Charpy specimens were aged at 500, 550, 600, and 650 deg. C to 30,000 h. These studies indicated that there was a decrease in yield stress at the two highest temperatures and essentially no change at the two lowest temperatures. Despite the strength decrease or no change, the DBTT increased for Charpy specimens irradiated at all four temperatures. Precipitates were extracted from thermally aged specimens, and the amount of precipitate was correlated with the increase in transition temperature. Laves phase was identified in the extracted precipitates by X-ray diffraction. Earlier studies on conventional elevated-temperature steels also showed embrittlement effects above the irradiation-hardening temperature

  13. Radiotherapy using a laser proton accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Murakami, Masao; Miyajima, Satoshi; Okazaki, Yoshiko; Sutherland, Kenneth L; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Bulanov, Sergei V; Daido, Hiroyuki; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Koga, James; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Tajima, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    Laser acceleration promises innovation in particle beam therapy of cancer where an ultra-compact accelerator system for cancer beam therapy can become affordable to a broad range of patients. This is not feasible without the introduction of a technology that is radically different from the conventional accelerator-based approach. The laser acceleration method provides many enhanced capabilities for the radiation oncologist. It reduces the overall system size and weight by more than one order of magnitude. The characteristics of the particle beams (protons) make them suitable for a class of therapy that might not be possible with the conventional accelerator, such as the ease for changing pulse intensity, the focus spread, the pinpointedness, and the dose delivery in general. A compact, uncluttered system allows a PET device to be located in the vicinity of the patient in concert with the compact gantry. The radiation oncologist may be able to irradiate a localized tumor by scanning with a pencil-like particle...

  14. Nanostructured targets for TNSA laser ion acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrisi Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured targets, based on hydrogenated polymers with embedded nanostructures, were prepared as thin micrometric foils for high-intensity laser irradiation in TNSA regime to produce high-ion acceleration. Experiments were performed at the PALS facility, in Prague, by using 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and an intensity of 1016 W/cm2 and at the IPPLM, in Warsaw, by using 800 nm wavelength, 40 fs pulse duration, and an intensity of 1019 W/cm2. Forward plasma diagnostic mainly uses SiC detectors and ion collectors in time of flight (TOF configuration. At these intensities, ions can be accelerated at energies above 1 MeV per nucleon. In presence of Au nanoparticles, and/or under particular irradiation conditions, effects of resonant absorption can induce ion acceleration enhancement up to values of the order of 4 MeV per nucleon.

  15. Microwave-Accelerated Organic Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; TaJung

    2001-01-01

    The use of microwave technology in accelerating organic reactions has received intense attention leading to immense growth recently. Accordingly, we have been interested in improving the efficacy of organic processes by microwave irradiation. Here we report our results on the microwave assisted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrile oxides with allylic alcohols, the cleavage reaction of 1,3-diketones under alkaline conditions, and the formation of carbamates from isocyanates with alcohols. The reactions carried out under microwave irradiation, in general, required considerably less reaction time and afforded the desired products in higher yields than those under classical conditions. In all the cases we have studied, the procedures are simplified, the purity of the products are higher, and the cost of reaction is greatly reduced employing microwave.  ……

  16. Microwave-Accelerated Organic Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU TaJung

    2001-01-01

    @@ The use of microwave technology in accelerating organic reactions has received intense attention leading to immense growth recently. Accordingly, we have been interested in improving the efficacy of organic processes by microwave irradiation. Here we report our results on the microwave assisted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrile oxides with allylic alcohols, the cleavage reaction of 1,3-diketones under alkaline conditions, and the formation of carbamates from isocyanates with alcohols. The reactions carried out under microwave irradiation, in general, required considerably less reaction time and afforded the desired products in higher yields than those under classical conditions. In all the cases we have studied, the procedures are simplified, the purity of the products are higher, and the cost of reaction is greatly reduced employing microwave.

  17. Neutron induced activation in the EVEDA accelerator materials: Implications for the accelerator maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, J. [Department of Power Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Institute of Nuclear Fusion, UPM, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jsanz@ind.uned.es; Garcia, M.; Sauvan, P.; Lopez, D. [Department of Power Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Institute of Nuclear Fusion, UPM, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C.; Ibarra, A.; Sedano, L. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility project should result in an accelerator prototype for which the analysis of the dose rates evolution during the beam-off phase is a necessary task for radioprotection and maintenance feasibility purposes. Important aspects of the computational methodology to address this problem are discussed, and dose rates for workers inside the accelerator vault are assessed and found to be not negligible.

  18. Embrittlernent of irradiated F82H in the absence of irradiation hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, Ronald L [ORNL; Shiba, Kiyoyuki [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Neutron irradiation of 7-12% Cr ferritic/martensitic steels below 425-450 C produces microstructural defects and precipitation that cause an increase in yield stress. This irradiation hardening causes embrittlement, which is observed in a Charpy impact or fracture toughness test as an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature. Based on observations that show little change in strength in steels irradiated above 425-450 C, the general conclusion has been that no embrittlement occurs above these temperatures. In a recent study of F82H steel, significant embrittlement was observed after irradiation at 500 C. This embrittlement is apparently due to irradiation-accelerated Laves-phase precipitation. Observations of the embrittlement in the absence of hardening has been examined and analyzed with thermal-aging studies and computational thermodynamics calculations to illuminate and understand the effect.

  19. Embrittlement of irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels in the absence of irradiation hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, P.O. 2008 MS6138, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6138 (United States)], E-mail: kluehrl@ornl.gov; Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki-Mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Sokolov, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, P.O. 2008 MS6138, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6138 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Irradiation damage caused by neutron irradiation below 425-450 deg. C of 9-12% Cr ferritic/martensitic steels produces microstructural defects that cause an increase in yield stress. This irradiation hardening causes embrittlement observed in a Charpy impact test as an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature. Little or no change in strength is observed in steels irradiated above 425-450 deg. C. Therefore, the general conclusion has been that no embrittlement occurs above these temperatures. In a recent study, significant embrittlement was observed in F82H steel irradiated at 500 deg. C to 5 and 20 dpa without any change in strength. Earlier studies on several conventional steels also showed embrittlement effects above the irradiation-hardening temperature regime. Indications are that this embrittlement is caused by irradiation-accelerated or irradiation-induced precipitation. Observations of embrittlement in the absence of irradiation hardening that were previously reported in the literature have been examined and analyzed with computational thermodynamics calculations to illuminate and understand the effect.

  20. Compact RF ion source for industrial electrostatic ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung, E-mail: hjkwon@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongsangbukdo 38180 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex is developing a single-ended electrostatic ion accelerator to irradiate gaseous ions, such as hydrogen and nitrogen, on materials for industrial applications. ELV type high voltage power supply has been selected. Because of the limited space, electrical power, and robust operation, a 200 MHz RF ion source has been developed. In this paper, the accelerator system, test stand of the ion source, and its test results are described.

  1. Y-Irradiation Degradation of Methamidophos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Renbang; BAO Huaying; XIA Lingyun

    2009-01-01

    The irradiation degradation of methamidophos in aqueous solutions by 60Co-γ rays was investigated.The effects of absorbed doses,saturated gas,and the additive of H2O2 on the degradation were also studied.The results showed that the increased with the increase of the irradiation dosage.At certain irradiation dosage,methamidophos could be degraded completely.The degradation rate of methamidophos in the solution saturated with oxygen was higher than those saturated with other gases,which reached 100% when the absorbed dose was 8 kGy.H2O2 degraded methamidophos slowly when it was used alone,but could accelerate the degradation obviously when it was used with irradiation together.

  2. Effects of electron beam irradiation on bovine pericardium tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polak, Roberta; Pitombo, Ronaldo N.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica], e-mail: robertaplk@gmail.com, e-mail: pitombo@usp.br; Rodas, Andrea C.D.; Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia], e-mail: andrea.ipen@gmail.com, e-mail: ozhiga@ipen.br; Kodama, Yasko; Machado, Luci D.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: ykodama@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    In this work, electron beam irradiation was studied as a way for bovine pericardium (BP) tissue crosslinking. BP samples were irradiated in an electron beam accelerator at different doses (12.5 and 25 kGy), at three different dose ratios (4.67, 9.34 kGy/s), in the presence and absence of oxygen. Irradiated samples were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and swelling degree. DSC analysis showed a decrease in shrinkage temperature. However, for all irradiated samples, the energy required in the process was higher than the non irradiated BP. The TGA analysis showed that the thermal behavior, both the control and the irradiated samples, was characterized by three stages concerned in the loss of mass. The BP structure was characterized by swelling degree and SEM. The structure of the BP tissue suffered alteration, becoming looser, or more compact. By swelling degree, when the BP was irradiated in the presence of oxygen, the swelling degree value was higher than non irradiated BP, in the other hand the swelling degree value of BP irradiated in oxygen absence were lower than the non irradiated BP. Those results indicate that the BP irradiated in absence of oxygen could predominantly crosslinks. The BP degradation when it was irradiated in presence of oxygen was confirmed by SEM. (author)

  3. Transmission electron microscope interfaced with ion accelerators and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Naramoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Hojou, Kiichi; Furuno, Shigemi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuo

    1997-03-01

    We have developed the transmission/analytical electron microscope interfaced with two sets of ion accelerators (TEM-Accelerators Facility) at JAERI-Takasaki. The facility is expected to provide quantitative insights into radiation effects, such as damage evolution, irradiation-induced phase transformation and their stability, through in-situ observation and analysis under ion and/or electron irradiation. The TEM-Accelerators Facility and its application to materials research are reviewed. (author)

  4. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  5. SU-E-T-797: Variations of Cardiac Dose at Different Respiratory Status in CyberKnife M6â„¢ Treatment Plans for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S [Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Shang, C [Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Evans, G [Boca Raton, FL (United States); Leventouri, T [FAU, Boca Raton, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Cyberknife robotic assisted radiation delivery has become a choice for accelerated breast RT, while a slightly increased cardiac dose has been reported. The dose dynamics throughout the respiration cycle has scarcely been explored. This study was designed to investigate the dose changes at each respiratory phase or status during respiration cycle. Methods: Six patients with 4DCT studies and six patients with a pair of free-breathing and deep breath-hold CT sets were used for dosimetry comparisons. 4DCT sets were obtained by Siemens™ CT and its respiratory gating system, comprising of 8 phases. Standard APBI plan at 340 cGy was done per fraction per NSABP B-39/RTOG 0413 and modulated with Cyberknife M6™ on MultiPlan™5.1.2. For the purpose of this study, the tumor volume was outlined in the media-lower quadrant of the left breast. Results: Except for D5cc in plans with 4DCT, cardiac doses are significantly different between respiratory phases in well inhaled breathing phases, and more significantly in plans with BH CT. Mean cardiac doses in 100% inhalation phase were often found to be 5–15% (p< 0.02) less than those in other phases. Conclusion: Although ineligible cardiac doses are noted in APBI plans using 4D free-breathing CT and instantaneous free breathing CT series, a reduction in cardiac dose was seen for the well-inhaled phases. This provides practical guidance for cardiac dose reduction applicable with CK M6 APBR.

  6. Hypopituitarism following pituitary irradiation for acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloia, J.F.; Archambeau, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    Endocrine evaluation is reported in 8 acromegalic patients who received 5500 rad to the pituitary from a linear accelerator. There was a mean decrease in hGH levels of 72%. Plasma testosterone levels were low in 1 of the 6 male patients prior to pituitary irradiation and were below normal in all male patients on the final evaluation (3.1 +- 0.2 SD years postirradiation). Deficiency of TSH secretion developed in 2 patients following irradiation. This rather high incidence of postirradiation partial hypopituitarism was not anticipated and is thought to be related to radiation necrosis of the normal pituitary tissue which surrounds the adenoma.

  7. Effects of electron beam irradiation on cut flowers and mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Kazuo [Yokohama Plant Protection Station (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KOCH were irradiated with electron beams (2.5MeV) to develop an alternative quarantine treatment for imported cut flowers. The tolerance of eggs increased with age (1-5-day-old). Immature stages (larva-teleiochrysalis) irradiated at 0.4-0.8kGy increased tolerance with their development. Mated mature females irradiated at 0.4kGy or higher did not produce viable eggs, although temporary recovery was observed at 0.2kGy. Adult males were sterilized at 0.4kGy because non-irradiated virgin females mated with yielded female progeny malformed and sterilized. Various effects of electron beam irradiation were observed when nine species of cut flowers were irradiated in 5MeV Dynamitron accelerator. Chrysanthemum and rose were most sensitive among cut flowers. (author).

  8. ENHANCING FOOD SAFETY AND STABILITY THROUGH IRRADIATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food irradiation is one of the non thermal food processing methods. It is the process of exposing food materials to the controlled amounts of ionizing radiations such as gamma rays, X-rays and accelerated electrons, to improve microbiological safety and stability. Irradiation disrupts the biological processes that lead to decay of food quality. It is an effective tool to reduce food-borne pathogens, spoilage microorganisms and parasites; to extend shelf-life and for insect disinfection. The safety and consumption of irradiated foods have been extensively studied at national levels and in international cooperations and have concluded that foods irradiated under appropriate technologies are both safe and nutritionally adequate. Specific applications of food irradiation have been approved by national legislations of more than 55 countries worldwide. This review aims to discuss the applications of irradiation in food processing with the emphasis on food safety and stability.

  9. A particle accelerator probes artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Dran, J C; Salomon, J

    2002-01-01

    The AGLAE system is made up of a 2 mega volts electrostatic accelerator and of 3 irradiation lines: one leads to a vacuum enclosure in which targets are irradiated and the 2 others lines are designed to irradiate targets under an air or helium atmosphere. The AGLAE system is located in the premises of the Louvre museum in Paris and is devoted to the study of cultural objects through ion beam analysis (IBA). 4 techniques are used: -) proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) -) proton-induced gamma ray (PIGE) -) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (NRS) and -) nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). A decisive progress has permitted the direct analysis of artifacts without sampling. The object itself is set just a few millimeters away from the exit window of the beam in an air or helium atmosphere. The exit window must be resistant enough to bear the atmospheric pressure and the damages caused by the proton beam but must be thin enough to not deteriorate the quality of the beam. By using a 10 sup - sup 7 m thick exit w...

  10. Linear induction accelerator for heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, D.

    1976-09-01

    There is considerable recent interest in the use of high energy (..gamma.. = 1.1), heavy (A greater than or equal to 100) ions to irradiate deuterium--tritium pellets in a reactor vessel to constitute a power source at the level of 1 GW or more. Various accelerator configurations involving storage rings have been suggested. A discussion is given of how the technology of Linear Induction Accelerators--well known to be matched to high current and short pulse length--may offer significant advantages for this application.

  11. Solid targetry at the TESLA Accelerator Installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comor, J.J. E-mail: jcomor@rt270.vin.bg.ac.yu; Dakovic, M.; Rajcevic, M.; Kosutic, D.; Spasic, M.; Vidovic, A.; Duricic, J.; Nedeljkovic, N

    2002-03-11

    According to the concept of the TESLA Accelerator Installation, the channel for production of radioisotopes has to routinely produce {sup 201}Tl, {sup 111}In, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 123}I and {sup 18}F, and a number of other radionuclides for experimental purposes. The production of {sup 123}I and {sup 18}F will be performed in dedicated, commercial target stations, while a versatile solid target irradiation system is designed for the routine and experimental production of all other radioisotopes. The solid target station is designed to accept targets for both the 7 deg. and 90 deg. irradiation geometry. The targets used for the routine production will be prepared by electroplating on a silver substrate. They can be irradiated with a 1.5 kW beam using the 7 deg. geometry. The cooling of these targets is enhanced by fins on the back of the silver substrate designed so that the highest temperature on the surface of the target does not exceed 110 deg. C. The irradiation procedures will conform to the GMP requirements for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. The irradiated targets will be transported directly into the appropriate hot cell for radiochemical processing. All cells will be equipped with a target dissolution unit for etching the irradiated, electroplated film. After decontamination and sufficient cooling down, these targets will be reused several times.

  12. Preliminary study of the Eca109 cells’toxicity and death pattern under different dose fractionation mode irradiation%不同剂量分割模式照射 Eca109细胞死亡方式与毒性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红伟; 谭榜宪; 李贤富; 周进伟; 蒲宇; 马代远

    2016-01-01

    :the hyperfractionated group (1 ),the conventional fractionation (2),the hypofractionat-ed group (3),the hypofractionated group (7).After irradiation in Eca109 cells in the exponential growth phase,the cell morphology was observed by Hoechst 33258 immunofluorescence staining,draw the cell survival curve by CCK-8 experiment.Results:Morphologi-cal changes of each group’s cell were observed in Hoechst 33258 staining.The hyperfractionated group (1 )54.9% of the irradiated cells were in the state of “apoptoticnecrosis”.The conventional fractionation group(2)50.5% of the irradiated cells were in the state of“oncosticnecrosis”;30.3% of the irradiated cells were in the state of “apoptoticnecrosis”.The hypofractionated group (3)72.1 % of the irradiated cells were in the state of “oncosisnecrosis”,19.2% were in the state of “apoptoticnecrosis”.The hypofractionated group (7)53.6% of the irradiated cells were in the state of “oncosisnecrosis”,7.1 % were in the state of “apoptoticnecrosis”.Absorbance values (OD)of cells in each group were detected with CCK-8,and the survival curve was drawn.By comparing between conventional fractionation group (2),hypofractionated group (3)and hypofractionated group (7)on the 1 th,4th,7th,10th days after the simulation irradiation,the absorbance values of cells were not significantly different (P >0.05 ).On the 1 th,4th,10th day,the hyperfractionated Group (1 )’s absorbance values were significantly lower than the other groups of simulation irradiation (P 0.05).Conclusion:The hyperfractionated ir-radiation induced most of Eca109 cells to perform apoptoticnecrosis,but the hypofractionated irradiation induced most of them to perform oncosticnecrosis.In the treatment of esophageal cancer,the hyperfractionated radiotherapy is a better tumor control rate than the other dose fractionation models,which may be related to the difference in the way of death.

  13. Food irradiation makes progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooij, J. van (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses.

  14. In-situ high temperature irradiation setup for temperature dependent structural studies of materials under swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulriya, P. K.; Kumari, Renu; Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, V.; Shukla, R.; Tyagi, A. K.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    An in-situ high temperature (1000 K) setup is designed and installed in the materials science beam line of superconducting linear accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) for temperature dependent ion irradiation studies on the materials exposed with swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore is irradiated using 120 MeV Au ion at 1000 K using the high temperature irradiation facility and characterized by ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Another set of Gd2Ti2O7 samples are irradiated with the same ion beam parameter at 300 K and simultaneously characterized using in-situ XRD available in same beam line. The XRD studies along with the Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that the structural modification induced by the ion irradiation is strongly dependent on the temperature of the sample. The Gd2Ti2O7 is readily amorphized at an ion fluence 6 × 1012 ions/cm2 on irradiation at 300 K, whereas it is transformed to a radiation-resistant anion-deficient fluorite structure on high temperature irradiation, that amorphized at ion fluence higher than 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. The temperature dependent ion irradiation studies showed that the ion fluence required to cause amorphization at 1000 K irradiation is significantly higher than that required at room temperature irradiation. In addition to testing the efficiency of the in-situ high temperature irradiation facility, the present study establishes that the radiation stability of the pyrochlore is enhanced at higher temperatures.

  15. Food irradiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, L.

    1986-08-01

    The paper concerns food irradiation in The People's Republic of China. Its use is envisaged to prolong storage times and to improve the quality of specific foodstuffs. Commercialisation in China, demonstration plants, seasonal shortages and losses, Shanghai irradiation centre, health and safety approval, prospects for wider applications and worldwide use of food irradiation, are all discussed.

  16. Biodegradation of selected UV-irradiated and non-irradiated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Kirsi-Maarit; Puhakka, Jaakko A; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2003-08-01

    Biodegradation of UV-irradiated anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene was compared to that of the non-irradiated samples, individually and in synthetic mixtures with enrichment cultures. Combined treatment was repeated for individual anthracene and for the PAH mixture with Sphingomonas sp. strain EPA 505 and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae. Enrichment culture studies were performed on the PAH mixtures in the presence of the main photoproduct of anthracene, pure 9,10-anthracenedione. Photochemically pretreated creosote solutions were also subjected to biodegradation and the results were compared to those of the non-irradiated solutions. The primary interest was on 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as priority pollutants by European Union (EU) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Irradiation accelerated the biodegradation onset for anthracene, pyrene, and benz[a]anthracene when they were treated individually. The biodegradation of irradiated pyrene started with no lag phase and was complete by 122 h whereas biodegradation of the non-irradiated sample had a lag of 280 h and resulted in complete degradation by 720 h. Biodegradation of PAHs was accelerated in synthetic mixtures, especially in the presence of pure 9,10-anthracenedione. In general, irradiation had no effect on the biodegradation of PAHs incubated in synthetic mixtures or with pure cultures. Under current experimental conditions, the UV-irradiation invariably reduced the biodegradation of PAHs in creosote. Based on the results of the present and previous photochemical-biological studies of PAHs, the influence of the photochemical pretreatment on the biodegradation is highly dependent on the compounds being treated and other process parameters.

  17. Phase Transformations in Austenitic 0Cr18Ni10Ti Steel Irradiated with High-Energy Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, A; Semina, V K

    2000-01-01

    Radiation-induced segregation and phase transformations in 0Cr18Ni10Ti steel irradiated with high-energy heavy Ar^{+6} ions at 625^o up to 1 dpa (from 0.01 to 1 dpa) have been studied. It was found that ion irradiation accelerates carbide precipitation and EDX-analysis showed irradiation-induced segregation near grain boundaries.

  18. Chitosan application to X-ray irradiated wound in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, H; Ohya, T; Ito, H; Kobayashi, Y; Yamada, K; Sato, M

    2007-01-01

    Radiation-impaired wounds are characterized by fibroblast and endothelial cell injury, resulting in delayed wound healing. Several previous studies have indicated that chitosan accelerates wound healing by up-regulating growth factor synthesis. In this study, the topical application of chitosan onto radiation-impaired wounds was investigated. An X-ray irradiated (25Gy) skin wound was treated with cotton fibre-type chitosan in dogs. Histopathologically, neovascularization was significantly accelerated in irradiated wounds in the chitosan application group (rad-chi group) when compared with irradiated wounds in the control group (rad-cont group). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression in granulation tissue was positive in the rad-chi group, but was negative in the rad-cont group. The present results confirmed advanced granulation and capillary formation in wounds treated with chitosan, even after irradiation.

  19. Piezoelectric particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jongewaard, Erik N.; Haase, Andrew A.; Franzi, Matthew

    2017-08-29

    A particle accelerator is provided that includes a piezoelectric accelerator element, where the piezoelectric accelerator element includes a hollow cylindrical shape, and an input transducer, where the input transducer is disposed to provide an input signal to the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the input signal induces a mechanical excitation of the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the mechanical excitation is capable of generating a piezoelectric electric field proximal to an axis of the cylindrical shape, where the piezoelectric accelerator is configured to accelerate a charged particle longitudinally along the axis of the cylindrical shape according to the piezoelectric electric field.

  20. Heavy ion irradiation of crystalline water ice

    CERN Document Server

    Dartois, E; Boduch, P; Brunetto, R; Chabot, M; Domaracka, A; Ding, J J; Kamalou, O; Lv, X Y; Rothard, H; da Silveira, E F; Thomas, J C

    2015-01-01

    Under cosmic irradiation, the interstellar water ice mantles evolve towards a compact amorphous state. Crystalline ice amorphisation was previously monitored mainly in the keV to hundreds of keV ion energies. We experimentally investigate heavy ion irradiation amorphisation of crystalline ice, at high energies closer to true cosmic rays, and explore the water-ice sputtering yield. We irradiated thin crystalline ice films with MeV to GeV swift ion beams, produced at the GANIL accelerator. The ice infrared spectral evolution as a function of fluence is monitored with in-situ infrared spectroscopy (induced amorphisation of the initial crystalline state into a compact amorphous phase). The crystalline ice amorphisation cross-section is measured in the high electronic stopping-power range for different temperatures. At large fluence, the ice sputtering is measured on the infrared spectra, and the fitted sputtering-yield dependence, combined with previous measurements, is quadratic over three decades of electronic ...

  1. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  2. Acceleration without Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Doria, Alaric

    2015-01-01

    We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} < c$. The motion of the accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

  3. Effects of hadron irradiation on scintillating fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atac, M. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Buchanan, C.; Chrisman, D.; Cline, D.; Kolonko, J.; Kubic, J.; Park, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Baumbaugh, A.; Binkley, M.; Bross, A.D.; Finley, D.; Elias, J.; Foster, G.W.; Kephart, R.; Kephart, R.; Kim, C.; Park, H.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Rivetta, C.; Tkaczyk, S.; Wagner, R. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Chung, M.; Goldberg, H.; Jeskik, R.; Margulies, S.; Mendez, H.; Solomon, J.; Vaca, F. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)); Kelley, C. (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Boston, MA (United States)); Baumbaugh, B.; Bishop, J.; Biswas, N.; Cason, N.; Jacques, J.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M.; Kenney, V.; LoSecco, J.; Ruchti, R.; Shephard, W.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Marchant, J.; Mountain, R.J. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)); Davis, D.; Vandergriff, D. (O

    1993-08-01

    Trackers based on scintillating-fiber technology are being considered by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration at SSC and the D[phi] collaboration at Fermilab. An important issue is the effect of the radiation existing in the detector cores on fiber properties. Most studies of radiation damage in scintillators have irradiated small bulk samples rather than fibers, and have used X-rays, [sup 60]Co gammas, or electron beams, often at accelerated rates. The authors have irradiated some 600 fibers in the Fermilab Tevatron C[phi] area, thereby obtaining a hadronic irradiation at realistic rates. Four-meter-long samples of ten Bicron polystyrene-based fiber types, maintained in air, dry nitrogen, argon, and vacuum atmospheres within stainless-steel tubes, were irradiated for seven weeks at various distances from the accelerator beam pipes. Maximum doses, measured by thermoluminescence detectors, were about 80 Krad. Fiber properties, particularly light yield and attenuation length, have been measured over a one-year period. A description of the work together with the results is presented. At the doses achieved, corresponding to a few years of actual fiber-tracking detector operation, little degradation is observed. In addition, recovery after several days' exposure to air has been noted. Properties of unirradiated samples kept in darkness show no changes after one year.

  4. Effects of Ultrasonic Irradiation on Phenolic Compounds in Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    2000-05-01

    Red wine has been of interest recently because many poly-phenols, that are considered to be good for health, are contained therein. Since ultrasonic irradiation accelerates maturation, its effects on phenolic compounds in wine were investigated in this study. Effects were evaluated using the indices developed by Glories. It was found that weak ultrasonic irradiation promotes an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds in red wine.

  5. Accelerating flight: Edge with arbitrary acceleration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ? temporal scales ? Euler ? convection ? Reynolds ? translational viscous ? Ekman ? rotational viscous ? Translational acceleration ? related to g ? Rotational accleration ? Rossby ? Coriolis ? Centrifugal ? Gravitational ? CSIR 2009...

  6. Effect of tumor hypoxia on efficacy of tirapazamine combined with fractionated irradiation in mouse tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Han [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    Tumor hypoxia can be overcome with hypoxic cytotoxin. In mouse tumor, tirapazamine's efficacy of the potentiating radiation effect was tested by the tumor oxygenation status combined with hyperfactionated radiotherapy. The control and hypoxic mouse tumors were established by inoculation of RIF-1 tumor cells into the normal or previously irradiated back and thigh of C3H mice. When the tumors reached a proper size, both the control and hypoxic tumors were given hyperfractionated treatments (8 fractions/4 days) with saline (0.02 ml/g), tirapazamin (0.08 mM/0.02 ml/kg), irradiation (2.5 Gy), irradiation combined with tirapazamine given 30 minutes prior to each irradiation. The response was evaluated by the growth delay assay by measuring tumor size from day 0 (12 hrs prior to the first fractionation) to the day when the volume had 4-fold increase or cross sectional area had 2-fold increase. Overall growth pattern showed that tirapazamine potentiated radiation effect in back and thigh tumors grew in the normal and preirradiated tumor bed. With growth delay assay using reference point of initial tumor volume or cross sectional area, tirapazamine potentiated radiation effect 1.9 times for the control and 2.4 times for the hypoxic tumors in back, and 1.85 times for the control and 1.6 times for the hypoxic tumors. With reference of 4-fold increase of the initial volume or 2-fold increase of the cross sectional area, tirapazamine potentiated radiation effect 1.48 times for the control and 2.02 times for the hypxic tumors in back, and 1.85 times for the control and 1.6 times for the hypoxic tumors. Present result indicated that radiation response of hypoxic tumors was potentiated by tirapazamine in the back or thigh tumors grew in the control or preirradiated tumor bed, and potentiation of the hypoxic tumors was equal to or greater than that of the control tumors in the back or thigh.

  7. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  8. Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Tetouan pilot station, Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahri, Loubna, E-mail: dloubna78@hotmail.co [Pole d' excellence Regional, Centre des Etudes Environnementales Mediterraneennes, Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquee et Sciences de l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 416, Tangier (Morocco); Station d' Ionization de Boukhalef, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Tangier (Morocco); Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed [Station d' Ionization de Boukhalef, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Tangier (Morocco); Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad [Pole d' excellence Regional, Centre des Etudes Environnementales Mediterraneennes, Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquee et Sciences de l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 416, Tangier (Morocco)

    2010-04-15

    The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co{sup 60} gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

  9. Recent irradiation tests for future nuclear system at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Yang, Seong Woo; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The capsule at HANARO is a device that evaluates the irradiation effects of nuclear materials and fuels, which can reproduce the environment of nuclear power plants and accelerate to reach to the end of life condition. As the integrity assessment and the extension of lifetime of nuclear power plants are recently considered as important issues in Korea, the requirements for irradiation test are gradually being increased. The capacity and capability irradiation tests at HANARO are becoming important because Korea strives to develop SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) and VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) among the future nuclear system and to export the research reactors and to develop the fusion reactor technology.

  10. Accelerated radiation damage test facility using a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wady, P.T., E-mail: paul.wady@manchester.ac.uk [Dalton Cumbrian Facility, University of Manchester, Westlakes Science & Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); Draude, A.; Shubeita, S.M.; Smith, A.D.; Mason, N. [Dalton Cumbrian Facility, University of Manchester, Westlakes Science & Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); Pimblott, S.M. [Dalton Cumbrian Facility, University of Manchester, Westlakes Science & Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jimenez-Melero, E. [Dalton Cumbrian Facility, University of Manchester, Westlakes Science & Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); School of Materials, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-11

    We have developed a new irradiation facility that allows to perform accelerated damage tests of nuclear reactor materials at temperatures up to 400 °C using the intense proton (<100 μA) and heavy ion (≈10 μA) beams produced by a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator. The dedicated beam line for radiation damage studies comprises: (1) beam diagnosis and focusing optical components, (2) a scanning and slit system that allows uniform irradiation of a sample area of 0.5–6 cm{sup 2}, and (3) a sample stage designed to be able to monitor in-situ the sample temperature, current deposited on the sample, and the gamma spectrum of potential radio-active nuclides produced during the sample irradiation. The beam line capabilities have been tested by irradiating a 20Cr–25Ni–Nb stabilised stainless steel with a 3 MeV proton beam to a dose level of 3 dpa. The irradiation temperature was 356 °C, with a maximum range in temperature values of ±6 °C within the first 24 h of continuous irradiation. The sample stage is connected to ground through an electrometer to measure accurately the charge deposited on the sample. The charge can be integrated in hardware during irradiation, and this methodology removes uncertainties due to fluctuations in beam current. The measured gamma spectrum allowed the identification of the main radioactive nuclides produced during the proton bombardment from the lifetimes and gamma emissions. This dedicated radiation damage beam line is hosted by the Dalton Cumbrian Facility of the University of Manchester.

  11. Trends in accelerator technology for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostromin, S. A.; Syresin, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Hadron therapy with protons and carbon ions is one of the most effective branches in radiation oncology. It has advantages over therapy using gamma radiation and electron beams. Fifty thousand patients a year need such treatment in Russia. A review of the main modern trends in the development of accelerators for therapy and treatment techniques concerned with respiratory gated irradiation and scanning with the intensity modulated pencil beams is given. The main stages of formation, time structure, and the main parameters of the beams used in proton therapy, as well as the requirements for medicine accelerators, are considered. The main results of testing with the beam of the C235-V3 cyclotron for the first Russian specialized hospital proton therapy center in Dimitrovgrad are presented. The use of superconducting accelerators and gantry systems for hadron therapy is considered.

  12. Heavy ion acceleration in the Breakout Afterburner regime

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, G M; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K; Beg, F N

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from an ultrathin (20 nm) gold foil irradiated by sub-picosecond lasers is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations we identified two highly efficient ion acceleration schemes. By varying the laser pulse duration we observed a transition from Radiation Pressure Acceleration to the Breakout Afterburner regime akin to light ions. The underlying physics and ion acceleration regimes are similar to that of light ions, however, nuances of the acceleration process make the acceleration of heavy ions more challenging. Two laser systems are studied in detail: the Texas Petawatt Laser and the Trident laser, the former having pulse duration 180 fs, intermediate between very short femtosecond pulses and picosecond pulses. Both laser systems generated directional gold ions beams (~10 degrees half-angle) with fluxes in excess of 1011 ion/sr and normalized energy >10 MeV/nucleon.

  13. Research and application of electron accelerator in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan Wenlong; Liu Zhenghao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2003-02-01

    There are more than 30 product lines of irradiation cross-linking wire and cable and shrinkable tube by EB in Chinese industry. Total of 3,000 KW power of EB, in which 40% coming from home made accelerator. Recently, about 450 KW electron accelerator is being manufactured and used in protection of environment that is removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas. (author)

  14. Development of a new method of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Kazushi (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-08-01

    A new method of whole body irradiation was developed using a linear accelerator linked to microprocessor. By this modified arc technique, a total body photon irradiation and a total skin electron irradiation were practical for narrow room. Approximative calculations were deviced for dose distribution. Dosimetric results were consistent with those previosly calculated. Local doses in lungs, neck and other areas were easily adjustable with arrangements of pre-set dose rate. In total skin electron irradation, six predeterminated postures and 'make up' irradiation were necessary to dose homogeneity over 'shady area' such as axillae. Clinically, a large arteriovenous malformation in an arm decreased with normalization of plethysmogram after treatment, and remarkable reductions of mycosis fungoides tumor were observed. This new method of total skin electron irradiation and total body photon therapy will clinically expand with the progress of bone marrow transplantation. (author).

  15. Surface Modification of Polymer Substrates by Oxygen Ion Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, G. H.; Ryuto, H.; Araki, R.; Yakushiji, T.

    2008-11-01

    Oxygen cluster ions and/or monomer ions were used for the sputtering and the surface modification of polymers such as polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For the case of oxygen cluster ion irradiation, the sputtered depth increased with increase of the acceleration voltage, and the sputtering yield was much larger than that by the monomer ion irradiation. The sputtered particles represented the polymer structure, which indicated that the bond scission by the cluster ion irradiation resulted in an ejection of monomer molecule through the intermolecular collision. On the other hand, for the oxygen monomer ion irradiation, the implanted depth increased with increase of the acceleration voltage, and the bond scission occurred at the deep region through the binary collision with the high energetic ions. Therefore, the sputtering yield for the polymer surfaces decreased, and the sputtering effect became very small. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of oxygen cluster and monomer ions was more effective for oxidation of the PET surfaces rather than the monomer ion irradiation or the cluster ion irradiation. As a result, the contact angle measurement showed that the wettability of the PET surfaces irradiated by the simultaneous use of oxygen cluster and monomer ions was much enhanced.

  16. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, H. B.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R.

    1995-09-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  17. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  18. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  19. Accelerator Technology Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  20. Accelerators, Colliders, and Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Ernest D.

    2003-12-01

    The author traces his involvement in the evolution of particle accelerators over the past 50 years. He participated in building the first billion-volt accelerator, the Brookhaven Cosmotron, which led to the introduction of the "strong-focusing" method that has in turn led to the very large accelerators and colliders of the present day. The problems of acceleration of spin-polarized protons are also addressed, with discussions of depolarizing resonances and "Siberian snakes" as a technique for mitigating these resonances.

  1. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  2. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    CERN Multimedia

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  3. Far field acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail.

  4. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  5. Deuteron and neutron induced activation in the Eveda accelerator materials: implications for the accelerator maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.; Sanz, J.; Garcia, N.; Cabellos, O. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, lnstituto de Fusion Nuclear (Spain); Sauvan, R. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C.; Sedano, L.A. [CIEMAT-Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Association Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) is an accelerator-based DLi neutron source designed to test fusion reactor candidate materials for high fluence neutrons. Before deciding IFMIF construction, an engineering design and associated experimental data acquisition, defined as EVEDA, has been proposed. Along the EVEDA accelerator, deuteron beam losses collide with the accelerator materials, producing activation and consequent radiations responsible of dose. Calculation of the dose rates in the EVEDA accelerator room is necessary in order to analyze the feasibility for manual maintenance. Dose rates due to the activation produced by the deuteron beam losses interaction with the accelerator materials, will be calculated with the ACAB activation code, using EAF2007 library for deuteron activation cross-sections. Also, dose rates from the activation induced by the neutron source produced by the interaction of deuteron beam losses with the accelerator materials and the deuterium implanted in the structural lattice, will be calculated with the SRIM2006, TMAP7, DROSG2000/NEUYIE, MCNPX and ACAB codes. All calculations will be done for the EVEDA accelerator with the room temperature DTL structure, which is based on copper cavities for the DTL. Some calculations will be done for the superconducting DTL structure, based on niobium cavities for the DTL working at cryogenic temperature. Final analysis will show the dominant mechanisms and major radionuclides contributing to the surface dose rates. (authors)

  6. Spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction partial-volume irradiation: a swine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medin, P.M.; Foster, R.D.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Sayre, J.W.; McBride, W.H.; Solberg, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction, partial-volume irradiation in swine. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A 5-cm-long cervical segment was irradiated in 38-47-week-old Yucatan minipigs using a dedicated, image-guided radiosurgery linear accelerator. The radiation was delivered

  7. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  8. Study of Mutagenic Effects of M1 Generation of Maize Seeds Irradiated by Heavy Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOHong-bing; ZHAOKui; GUOJi-yu; SUILi; NIMei-nan; MEIJun-ping; LUXiu-qin; ZHOUPing; KONGFu-quan; ZHANGGen-fa

    2003-01-01

    In order to study M1 biological effects induced by heavy ion irradiation on maize seeds, the embryos of dry maize seeds are irradiated with 7Li and 12C ions. The experiment is performed at the heavy ion scanning tube of the HI-13 tandem accelerator. The beam goes through a thickness of 25μm. Then the maize seeds are irradiated in the air uniformly.

  9. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  10. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Univer...

  11. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Uni...

  12. High Intensity Accelerator and Neutron Source in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xialing; Wei, J.; Loong, Chun

    2011-06-01

    High intensity Accelerator is being studied all over world for numerous applications, which includes the waste transmutation, spallation neutron source and material irradiation facilities. The R/D activities of the technology of High intensity accelerator are also developed in China for some year, and have some good facilities around China. This paper will reports the status of some high intensity accelerators and neutron source in China, which including ADS/RFQ; CARR; CSNS; PKUNIFTY & CPHS. This paper will emphatically report the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) led by the Department of Engineering Physics of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China.

  13. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  14. Acceleration in astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

  15. Absorbed Dose Distributions in Irradiated Plastic Tubing and Wire Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Plastic tubing and wire insulation were simulated by radiochromic dye dosimeter films having electron absorbing properties similar to the materials of interest (polyethylene and PVC). A 400-keV electron accelerator was used to irradiate from 1, 2, 3 and 4 sides simulating possible industrial...

  16. Surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Mohsin; Chae, San; Kim, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated pure zirconium (99.8%). The Zr samples were irradiated by 3.5 MeV protons using MC-50 cyclotron accelerator at different doses ranging from 1 × 1013 to 1 × 1016 protons/cm2. Both un-irradiated and irradiated samples were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The average surface roughness of the specimens was determined by using Nanotech WSxM 5.0 develop 7.0 software. The FESEM results revealed the formation of bubbles, cracks and black spots on the samples' surface at different doses whereas the XRD results indicated the presence of residual stresses in the irradiated specimens. Williamson-Hall analysis of the diffraction peaks was carried out to investigate changes in crystallite size and lattice strain in the irradiated specimens. The tensile properties such as the yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and percentage elongation exhibited a decreasing trend after irradiation in general, however, an inconsistent behavior was observed in their dependence on proton dose. The changes in tensile properties of Zr were associated with the production of radiation-induced defects including bubbles, cracks, precipitates and simultaneous recovery by the thermal energy generated with the increase of irradiation dose.

  17. Heavy ion acceleration using femtosecond laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, G M; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K; Beg, F N

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from ultrathin (<200 nm) gold foils irradiated by a short pulse laser is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the time history of the laser bullet is examined in order to get insight into the laser energy deposition and ion acceleration process. For laser pulses with intensity , duration 32 fs, focal spot size 5 mkm and energy 27 Joules the calculated reflection, transmission and coupling coefficients from a 20 nm foil are 80 %, 5 % and 15 %, respectively. The conversion efficiency into gold ions is 8 %. Two highly collimated counter-propagating ion beams have been identified. The forward accelerated gold ions have average and maximum charge-to-mass ratio of 0.25 and 0.3, respectively, maximum normalized energy 25 MeV/nucleon and flux . Analytical model was used to determine a range of foil thicknesses suitable for acceleration of gold ions in the Radiation Pressure Acceleration regime and the onset of the Target Normal Sheath Acceleratio...

  18. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given.

  19. Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Targeted and Single Particle Subcellular Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-03-12

    The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube.

  20. Acceleration of pubertal development following pituitary radiotherapy for Cushing's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholl, R.M.; Kirk, J.M.W.; Grossman, A.B.; Plowman, P.N.; Besser, G.M.; Savage, M.O. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy with pituitary dependent Cushing's disease was treated with pituitary irradiation following unsuccessful microadenomectomy. This led to normalization of the hypercortisolaemia, but was followed by GH deficiency. Two years after radiotherapy he had the onset of pubertal development with testicular enlargement to 8 ml bilaterally. Pubertal regression was induced using the long-acting GnRH analogue goserelin. Acceleration of skeletal maturation was also arrested, resulting in improvement of final height prediction. Irradiation directly to the hypothalamo-pituitary region, as well as whole brain irradiation, may thus be associated with accelerated pubertal development. (author).

  1. Solid targetry at the TESLA Accelerator Installation

    CERN Document Server

    Comor, J J; Rajcevic, M; Kosutic, D; Spasic, M; Vidovic, A; Duricic, J; Nedeljkovic, N

    2002-01-01

    According to the concept of the TESLA Accelerator Installation, the channel for production of radioisotopes has to routinely produce sup 2 sup 0 sup 1 Tl, sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 In, sup 6 sup 7 Ga, sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I and sup 1 sup 8 F, and a number of other radionuclides for experimental purposes. The production of sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I and sup 1 sup 8 F will be performed in dedicated, commercial target stations, while a versatile solid target irradiation system is designed for the routine and experimental production of all other radioisotopes. The solid target station is designed to accept targets for both the 7 deg. and 90 deg. irradiation geometry. The targets used for the routine production will be prepared by electroplating on a silver substrate. They can be irradiated with a 1.5 kW beam using the 7 deg. geometry. The cooling of these targets is enhanced by fins on the back of the silver substrate designed so that the highest temperature on the surface of the target does not exceed 110 deg. C. The irradiation ...

  2. Leaky Fermi accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Kushal; Rom-Kedar, Vered; Turaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    A Fermi accelerator is a billiard with oscillating walls. A leaky accelerator interacts with an environment of an ideal gas at equilibrium by exchange of particles through a small hole on its boundary. Such interaction may heat the gas: we estimate the net energy flow through the hole under the assumption that the particles inside the billiard do not collide with each other and remain in the accelerator for sufficiently long time. The heat production is found to depend strongly on the type of the Fermi accelerator. An ergodic accelerator, i.e. one which has a single ergodic component, produces a weaker energy flow than a multi-component accelerator. Specifically, in the ergodic case the energy gain is independent of the hole size, whereas in the multi-component case the energy flow may be significantly increased by shrinking the hole size.

  3. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  4. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  5. Irradiation response of straw drift tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Dünnweber, W; Neumayr, J; Platzer, K

    2003-01-01

    Drift tubes filled with Ar/CF//4/CO//2 (74:20:6) were exposed to 26 MeV proton beams from the Munich Tandem accelerator to study the radiation effects and operation characteristics expected for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Stable operation with no significant loss of gain and no significant Malter current was observed up to charge accumulations of 1.1 C/cm. For comparison, with Ar/CH//4 (90:10) the same detectors show a 23% loss of gain and large Malter currents under the same irradiation condition. For Ar/CF//4/CO//2 a thin ( less than 0.1 mum) surface layer is observed by means of SEM on the anode wire in the irradiated detector section. As revealed by an ERDA study, the prominent components of this layer are C, O and Si.

  6. Power Converters for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Visintini, R

    2015-01-01

    Particle accelerators use a great variety of power converters for energizing their sub-systems; while the total number of power converters usually depends on the size of the accelerator or combination of accelerators (including the experimental setup), the characteristics of power converters depend on their loads and on the particle physics requirements: this paper aims to provide an overview of the magnet power converters in use in several facilities worldwide.

  7. Miniaturization Techniques for Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, James E.

    2003-05-27

    The possibility of laser driven accelerators [1] suggests the need for new structures based on micromachining and integrated circuit technology because of the comparable scales. Thus, we are exploring fully integrated structures including sources, optics (for both light and particle) and acceleration in a common format--an accelerator-on-chip (AOC). Tests suggest a number of preferred materials and techniques but no technical or fundamental roadblocks at scales of order 1 {micro}m or larger.

  8. Acceleration of Organic Reactions Using Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Ta-Jung

    2004-01-01

    The use of microwave technology in accelerating organic reactions has received intense attention leading to immense growth recently. Accordingly, we have been interested in improving the efficacy of organic processes by microwave irradiation. Here we report our results on the microwave assisted direct amide formation from carboxylic acid and amine, the hydrolysis of biopolymers, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The reactions carried out under microwave irradiation, in general, required considerably less reaction time and afforded the desired products in higher yields than those under classical conditions. In all the cases we have studied, the procedures are simplified, the purity of the products are higher, and the cost of reaction is greatly reduced employing microwave.

  9. Utilization of electron accelerator in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, Estelita G. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    2003-02-01

    Radiosterilization of medical and surgical supplies, radiation treatment of consumer products such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and the modification of polymers, crosslinking or curing, using gamma irradiation facilities in Philippine industries are overviewed. Philippine Nuclear Research Institute(PNRI) conducts bioburden determination, dose setting and validation of compatibility with radiation of product and packaging with the technical assistance of IAEA. The products with yields treated at the irradiation facility from 1996-2001 are shown in table. An electron accelerator of 10 MeV and 28 kW, established by Terumo Corporation, is used since 2000 for in-house radiation sterilization of syringes. Current regulations and regulatory authority in Philippines are also briefly introduced. Future processes such as radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL), use of carrageenan as hydrogel for dressing wounds and others and fermented bagasse as animal feed are now in progress. (S. Ohno)

  10. UV irradiation induced transformation of TiO2 nanoparticles in water: aggregation and photoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Liang-Hong; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-10-21

    Transformation of nanomaterials in aqueous environment has significant impact on their behavior in engineered application and natural system. In this paper, UV irradiation induced transformation of TiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous solutions was demonstrated, and its effect on the aggregation and photocatalytic reactivity of TiO2 was investigated. UV irradiation of a TiO2 nanoparticle suspension accelerated nanoparticle aggregation that was dependent on the irradiation duration. The aggregation rate increased from UV irradiation which might be responsible for the change of surface charge and aggregation rate. UV irradiation also changed the photocatalytic degradation rate of Rhodamine B by TiO2, which initially increased with irradiation time, then decreased. Based on the photoluminescence decay and photocurrent collection data, the change was attributed to the variation in interparticle charge transfer kinetics. These results highlight the importance of light irradiation on the transformation and reactivity of TiO2 nanomaterials.

  11. Effects of Electron Beam Irradiated Natural Casings on the Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Hackyoun; Hwang, Koeun; Choi, Sunmi; Kim, Cheonjei; Choi, Jihun; Choi, Yunsang [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Juwoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiated hog and sheep casings (1, 3, and 8 KGy) on the physicochemical properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage were evaluated. There were no significantly differences in ph, instrumental color, and sensory evaluation among all the samples tested (p>0.05). The cooking yields for the irradiated treated samples were larger than the yields obtained for the non-irradiated samples for both the hog and sheep casing. However, the results on the purge loss after storage for 5 weeks were contradictory. The hardness of the sausage was lower when the irradiated natural casings were used. The irradiated natural casings accelerated lipid oxidation. The volatile basic nitrogen values were lower in samples treated with electron beam irradiation. The natural casings irradiated up to a dose of 3kGy not only had different total aerobic bacteria counts during the initial storage period but also displayed higher TAB counts at the final storage period.

  12. FFAGS for rapid acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carol J. Johnstone and Shane Koscielniak

    2002-09-30

    When large transverse and longitudinal emittances are to be transported through a circular machine, extremely rapid acceleration holds the advantage that the beam becomes immune to nonlinear resonances because there is insufficient time for amplitudes to build up. Uncooled muon beams exhibit large emittances and require fast acceleration to avoid decay losses and would benefit from this style of acceleration. The approach here employs a fixed-field alternating gradient or FFAG magnet structure and a fixed frequency acceleration system. Acceptance is enhanced by the use only of linear lattice elements, and fixed-frequency rf enables the use of cavities with large shunt resistance and quality factor.

  13. FFAGS FOR MUON ACCELERATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.KAHN,S.PALMER,R.TRBOJEVIC,D.JOHNSTONE,C.KEIL,Y.OGITSU,T.OHMORI,C.SESSLER,A.KOSCIELNIAK,S.

    2003-06-26

    Due to their finite lifetime, muons must be accelerated very rapidly. It is challenging to make the magnets ramp fast enough to accelerate in a synchrotron, and accelerating in a linac is very expensive. One can use a recirculating accelerator (like CEBAF), but one needs a different arc for each turn, and this limits the number of turns one can use to accelerate, and therefore requires significant amounts of RF to achieve the desired energy gain. An alternative method for muon acceleration is using a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator. Such an accelerator has a very large energy acceptance (a factor of two or three), allowing one to use the same arc with a magnetic field that is constant over time. Thus, one can in principle make as many turns as one can tolerate due to muon decay, therefore reducing the RF cost without increasing the arc cost. This paper reviews the current status of research into the design of FFAGs for muon acceleration. Several current designs are described and compared. General design considerations are also discussed.

  14. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  15. The intrinsic gettering in neutron irradiation Czochralski-silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yang Xian; Niu Ping Juan; Liu Cai Chi; Xu Yue Sheng; Yang Deren; Que Duan Lin

    2002-01-01

    The intrinsic gettering in neutron irradiated Czochralski-silicon is studied. The result shows that a denuded zone at the surface of the neutron irradiated Czochralski-silicon wafer may be formed through one-step short-time annealing. The width of the denuded zone is dependent on the annealing temperature and the dose of neutron irradiation, while it is irrelated to the annealing time in case the denuded zone is formed. The authors conclude that the interaction between the defects induced by neutron irradiation and the oxygen in the silicon accelerates the oxygen precipitation in the bulk, and becomes the dominating factor of the quick formation of intrinsic gettering. It makes the effect of thermal history as the secondary factor

  16. Effects of irradiated biodegradable polymer in endothelial cell monolayer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R.; Grosso, Mariela F. del [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Behar, Moni [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); García Bermúdez, Gerardo, E-mail: ggb@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, UNSAM (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study cell adhesion, proliferation and cell morphology of endothelial cell cultured on poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) modified by heavy ion irradiation. Thin films of PLLA samples were irradiated with sulfur (S) at energies of 75 MeV and gold (Au) at 18 MeV ion-beams. Ion beams were provided by the Tandar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and Tandetron (Porto Alegre, Brazil) accelerators, respectively. The growth of a monolayer of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) onto unirradiated and irradiated surfaces has been studied by in vitro techniques in static culture. Cell viability and proliferation increased on modified substrates. But the results on unirradiated samples, indicate cell death (necrosis/apoptosis) with the consequent decrease in proliferation. We analyzed the correlation between irradiation parameters and cell metabolism and morphology.

  17. Verification of cell irradiation dose deposition using a radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomic, N [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gosselin, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wan, Jonathan F [Radiation Oncology Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Saragovi, Uri [Department of Pharmacology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Podgorsak, E B [Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Evans, M [Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Devic, S [Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2007-06-07

    We describe a technique for the MTT assay that irradiates all cells at once by a combination of couch movement and a step-and-shoot irradiation technique on a linear accelerator with 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams. In two experimental setups, we obtained maximum to minimum dose ranges of 10 for the constant MU/bin (monitor units per bin) setup and 20 for the variable MU/bin technique. The irradiation technique described is dose rate independent and it can be used on any teletherapy irradiation machine. We also employed radiochromic film dosimetry to verify dose delivered in each of the wells within the dish. It is shown that for the lowest doses, relative dose variation within wells reaches a value of 6%. We also demonstrated that the radiochromic film positioned below the 96-well plate does not underestimate dose deposited within each compartment by more than 2% due to the vertical dose gradient.

  18. Verification of cell irradiation dose deposition using a radiochromic film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, N.; Gosselin, M.; Wan, Jonathan F.; Saragovi, Uri; Podgorsak, E. B.; Evans, M.; Devic, S.

    2007-06-01

    We describe a technique for the MTT assay that irradiates all cells at once by a combination of couch movement and a step-and-shoot irradiation technique on a linear accelerator with 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams. In two experimental setups, we obtained maximum to minimum dose ranges of 10 for the constant MU/bin (monitor units per bin) setup and 20 for the variable MU/bin technique. The irradiation technique described is dose rate independent and it can be used on any teletherapy irradiation machine. We also employed radiochromic film dosimetry to verify dose delivered in each of the wells within the dish. It is shown that for the lowest doses, relative dose variation within wells reaches a value of 6%. We also demonstrated that the radiochromic film positioned below the 96-well plate does not underestimate dose deposited within each compartment by more than 2% due to the vertical dose gradient.

  19. AGC-2 Irradiation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Windes, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled, very high temperature reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) designs.[ , ] Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphites have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for the new NGNP reactor design. To support the design and licensing of NGNP core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade with a specific emphasis on data related to the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the NGNP candidate graphites. Based on experience with previous graphite core components, the phenomenon of irradiation induced creep within the graphite has been shown to be critical to the total useful lifetime of graphite components. Irradiation induced creep occurs under the simultaneous application of high temperatures, neutron irradiation, and applied stresses within the graphite components. Significant internal stresses within the graphite components can result from a second phenomenon—irradiation induced dimensional change. In this case, the graphite physically changes i.e., first shrinking and then expanding with increasing neutron dose. This disparity in material volume change can induce significant internal stresses within graphite components. Irradiation induced creep relaxes these large internal stresses, thus reducing the risk of crack formation and component failure. Obviously, higher irradiation creep levels tend to relieve more internal stress, thus allowing the

  20. Irradiation Defects in Silicon Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The application of irradiation in silicon crystal is introduced.The defects caused by irradiation are reviewed and some major ways of studying defects in irradiated silicon are summarized.Furthermore the problems in the investigation of irradiated silicon are discussed as well as its properties.

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  2. Femtosecond laser irradiation of the fluorescent molecules-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Taiga; Shibata, Akimichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2017-09-01

    Molecular release from scaffolds is desired for tailoring cell-compatible tissue engineering. Several methods have been proposed to control molecular release, such as annealing, plasma treatment, and laser processing. In this study, we describe the alteration of Rhodamine B (RhB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) after femtosecond laser irradiation, which was evaluated on the basis of the water absorption and mass remaining. Fluorescence measurement of released RhB molecules revealed the acceleration of the molecular release upon 400-nm laser irradiation, whereas 800-nm laser irradiation did not induce a comparable degree of change compared with non-irradiated samples. The result of the water absorption measurement indicates that the large amount of water absorption of 400-nm laser-irradiated PLGA sample may accelerate the diffusion of the loaded molecules through absorbing water, which resulted in the faster molecular release.

  3. Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.J.; Bingham, C.; Goggin, R.; Lewandowski, A.A.; Netter, J.C.

    2000-06-13

    Process and apparatus are disclosed for providing ultra accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing of samples under controlled weathering without introducing unrealistic failure mechanisms in exposed materials and without breaking reciprocity relationships between flux exposure levels and cumulative dose that includes multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity at high levels of natural sunlight comprising: (a) concentrating solar flux uniformly; (b) directing the controlled uniform sunlight onto sample materials in a chamber enclosing multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity to allow the sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a sufficient period of time in days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth of representative weathering of the sample materials.

  4. Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Bingham, Carl (Lakewood, CO); Goggin, Rita (Englewood, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Netter, Judy C. (Westminster, CO)

    2000-06-13

    Process and apparatus for providing ultra accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing of samples under controlled weathering without introducing unrealistic failure mechanisms in exposed materials and without breaking reciprocity relationships between flux exposure levels and cumulative dose that includes multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity at high levels of natural sunlight comprising: a) concentrating solar flux uniformly; b) directing the controlled uniform sunlight onto sample materials in a chamber enclosing multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity to allow the sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a sufficient period of time in days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth of representative weathering of the sample materials.

  5. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  6. COLLECTIVE-FIELD ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1969-07-04

    Diverse methods proposed for the acceleration of particles by means of collective fields are reviewed. A survey is made of the various currently active experimental programs devoted to investigating collective acceleration, and the present status of the research is briefly noted.

  7. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  8. KEK digital accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  9. KEK digital accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iwashita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  10. Irradiation effect of nano-bubble dispersion strengthened (N-BDS) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oono, Naoko, E-mail: n-oono@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Kawano, Ryohei [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Shi, Shi, E-mail: shishiamy@gmail.com [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Ukai, Shigeharu, E-mail: s-ukai@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Hayashi, Shigenari, E-mail: hayashi@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Kondo, Sosuke, E-mail: kondo@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hashitomi, Okinobu, E-mail: o-hashitomi@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko, E-mail: kimura@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Nano-bubble dispersion strengthened (N-BDS) Fe was made from Fe and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) powder and irradiated by 6.4 MeV Fe{sup 3+} ions to investigate the cavity strengthening and the bubble to void evolution. The bubbles accelerated the irradiation-induced cavity growth. The hardness of the N-BDS Fe was 500 MPa higher than that of unalloyed Fe and the hardness increased by irradiation, while that of unalloyed Fe did not increase. Cavity is probably the origin of the irradiation hardening of N-BDS Fe.

  11. Precipitation of the Carbides $M_{23}C_{6}$ under the Irradiation by High Energy Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, A; Semina, V K; Kochanski, T

    2000-01-01

    Carbide M_{23}C_{6} precipitation process in chromium-nickel steels 12H18N9ô and 00H17N14í2 irradiated with high energy heavy Ar^{+6} ions at 625^{o}ó has been studied. It was found that ion irradiation accelerates carbide M_{23}C_{6} precipitation in comparison to thermal annealing. It was shown that composition of carbides formed by irradiation in 00H17N14í2 steel formed under irradiation differs from composition of carbides precipitated during thermal ageing.

  12. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  13. The Accelerated Kepler Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Namouni, Fathi

    2007-01-01

    The accelerated Kepler problem is obtained by adding a constant acceleration to the classical two-body Kepler problem. This setting models the dynamics of a jet-sustaining accretion disk and its content of forming planets as the disk loses linear momentum through the asymmetric jet-counterjet system it powers. The dynamics of the accelerated Kepler problem is analyzed using physical as well as parabolic coordinates. The latter naturally separate the problem's Hamiltonian into two unidimensional Hamiltonians. In particular, we identify the origin of the secular resonance in the accelerated Kepler problem and determine analytically the radius of stability boundary of initially circular orbits that are of particular interest to the problem of radial migration in binary systems as well as to the truncation of accretion disks through stellar jet acceleration.

  14. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  15. Distribution uniformity of laser-accelerated proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Gao; Zhu, Kun; Tao, Li; Xu, Xiao-Han; Lin, Chen; Ma, Wen-Jun; Lu, Hai-Yang; Zhao, Yan-Ying; Lu, Yuan-Rong; Chen, Jia-Er; Yan, Xue-Qing

    2017-09-01

    Compared with conventional accelerators, laser plasma accelerators can generate high energy ions at a greatly reduced scale, due to their TV/m acceleration gradient. A compact laser plasma accelerator (CLAPA) has been built at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics at Peking University. It will be used for applied research like biological irradiation, astrophysics simulations, etc. A beamline system with multiple quadrupoles and an analyzing magnet for laser-accelerated ions is proposed here. Since laser-accelerated ion beams have broad energy spectra and large angular divergence, the parameters (beam waist position in the Y direction, beam line layout, drift distance, magnet angles etc.) of the beamline system are carefully designed and optimised to obtain a radially symmetric proton distribution at the irradiation platform. Requirements of energy selection and differences in focusing or defocusing in application systems greatly influence the evolution of proton distributions. With optimal parameters, radially symmetric proton distributions can be achieved and protons with different energy spread within ±5% have similar transverse areas at the experiment target. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575011, 61631001) and National Grand Instrument Project (2012YQ030142)

  16. Installation of the Ion Accelerator for the Surface Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Chung, Bo-Hyun; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Cho-Rong; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, an introduction to the accelerator, an installation status at KOMAC and the operation plan of the accelerator are discussed. A pelletron, which has been used over 25 years at KIGAM, is moved and installed at KOMAC in order to supply a qualified service to ion beam users. The system will be installed in September and component tests will be carried. The operation of the system starts in 2016 after it gets operation license from Nuclear Safety and Security Commission. Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) is operating several ion beam accelerators to provide various ion beams to users. Those are a 100 MeV proton linear accelerator, a 220 keV ion implanter for gaseous ion beams, a 150 keV metal ion implanter and a 20 keV high-current ion implanter. All of those are the machine for user service and it is important to qualify the results of the irradiation conditions for user service. For this reason, an electrostatic tandem accelerator, which has been operating over 25 years at Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), is moved to KOMAC in order to supply the qualified and quantified data on the irradiation species.

  17. Irradiation-enhanced reactivity of multilayer Al/Ni nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukyan, Khachatur V; Tan, Wanpeng; deBoer, Richard J; Stech, Edward J; Aprahamian, Ani; Wiescher, Michael; Rouvimov, Sergei; Overdeep, Kyle R; Shuck, Christopher E; Weihs, Timothy P; Mukasyan, Alexander S

    2015-06-03

    We have investigated the effect of accelerated ion beam irradiation on the structure and reactivity of multilayer sputter deposited Al/Ni nanomaterials. Carbon and aluminum ion beams with different charge states and intensities were used to irradiate the multilayer materials. The conditions for the irradiation-assisted self-ignition of the reactive materials and corresponding ignition thresholds for the beam intensities were determined. We discovered that relatively short (40 min or less) ion irradiations enhance the reactivity of the Al/Ni nanomaterials, that is, significantly decrease the thermal ignition temperatures (Tig) and ignition delay times (τig). We also show that irradiation leads to atomic mixing at the Al/Ni interfaces with the formation of an amorphous interlayer, in addition to the nucleation of small (2-3 nm) Al3Ni crystals within the amorphous regions. The amorphous interlayer is thought to enhance the reactivity of the multilayer energetic nanomaterial by increasing the heat of the reaction and by speeding the intermixing of the Ni and the Al. The small Al3Ni crystals may also enhance reactivity by facilitating the growth of this Al-Ni intermetallic phase. In contrast, longer irradiations decrease reactivity with higher ignition temperatures and longer ignition delay times. Such changes are also associated with growth of the Al3Ni intermetallic and decreases in the heat of reaction. Drawing on this data set, we suggest that ion irradiation can be used to fine-tune the structure and reactivity of energetic nanomaterials.

  18. ARTICLE : Comparison of Quality of Bologna Sausage Manufactured by Electron Beam or X-Ray Irradiated Ground Pork

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mee Hye Shin; ; Ju Woon Lee; Young Min Yoon; Jong Heon Kim; Byeong Geum Moon; Jae Hun Kim; Beom Suk Song

    2014-01-01

    Ground lean pork was irradiated by an electron beam or X-rays to compare the effects of two types of radiation generated by a linear accelerator on the quality of Bologna sausage as a model meat product...

  19. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Enkerlin H, W.; Toledo A, J.; Reyes F, J.; Casimiro G, A

    1991-06-15

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  20. Irradiation and food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  1. Detection of laser-accelerated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Sabine

    2012-08-08

    Real-time (Online) detection of laser-accelerated protons is a challenge for any electronic detector system due to the peculiar time structure ({<=} ns) and high intensity ({>=}10{sup 7} p/cm{sup 2}) of the generated ion pulses. Besides considerable saturation effects, problems are expected by an electromagnetic interference pulse (EMP), generated during laser-plasma interaction. In the scope of this work, different detection systems were built-up with regard to specific demands of laser-ion-acceleration at the MPQ ATLAS laser, which allow the quantitative analysis of the generated proton beam. A cell irradiation experiment at the ATLAS laser was accomplished to demonstrate the usability of laser-accelerated protons for radiation therapy. Cells were irradiated with a single shot dose of few Gy for a proton energy of 5 MeV. The following cell analysis required the spatially resolved measurement of the dose distribution. Only radiation-sensitive films were applicable because of the small proton range, although they show significant quenching effects for the used proton energy. This was extensively studied in the 3-200 MeV energy range. A film-based dosimetry protocol for low-energy proton irradiations was developed, making the absolute dose determination in the cell experiment possible. The non-electronic detectors (nuclear track detectors, radiation-sensitive films) are still state of the art in laser-accelerated ion diagnostics, although these detectors only allow a delayed in time (offline) detection. A non-electronic system, based on image plates, was thoroughly characterized and calibrated for ongoing experiments at the ATLAS laser, for the first time. Main objective of this work, though, was the set-up of a real-time detection system, which is urgently required, owing to increasing repetition rate of the laser accelerator (>Hz), to advance the parameter optimisation of the laser-acceleration in an efficient way. Systems based on silicon pixel detectors are

  2. The miniature accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  3. Cosmic particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbardo, Gaetano; Perri, Silvia [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Fisica, 87036 Rende (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The most popular mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic rays, which is thought to operate in supernova remnant shocks as well as at heliospheric shocks, is the diffusive shock acceleration, which is a Fermi mechanism based on normal diffusion. On the other hand, in the last few years it has been shown that the transport of plasma particles in the presence of electric and magnetic turbulence can be superdiffusive rather than normal diffusive. The term 'superdiffusive' refers to the mean square displacement of particle positions growing superlinearly with time, as compared to the normal linear growth. In particular, superdiffusion is characterized by a non Gaussian statistical process called Levy random walk. We show how diffusive shock acceleration is modified by superdiffusion, and how this yields new predictions for the cosmic ray spectral index, for the acceleration time, and for the spatial profile of energetic particles. A comparison with observations of particle acceleration at heliospheric shocks and at supernova remnant shocks is done. We discuss how superdiffusive shock acceleration allows to explain the observations of hard ion spectra at the solar wind termination shock detected by Voyager 2, of hard radio spectra due to synchrotron emission of electrons accelerated at supernova remnant shocks, and how it can help to explain the observations of 'thin rims' in the X-ray synchrotron emission.

  4. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  5. Application of Accelerators and Storage Rings: Accelerators in Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, U

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '11.3 Accelerators in Medicine' of the Chapter '11 Application of Accelerators and Storage Rings' with the content: 11.3 Accelerators in Medicine 11.3.1 Accelerators and Radiopharmaceuticals 11.3.2 Accelerators and Cancer Therapy

  6. Irradiated fibroblasts promote epithelial–mesenchymal transition and HDGF expression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ci-Hang; Wang, Xin-Tong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Ma, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Genaral Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Wang, Na-Na; Nesa, Effat un; Wang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Cong; Jia, Yi-Bin; Wang, Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tian, Hui [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Cheng, Yu-Feng, E-mail: qlcyf1965@126.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2015-03-06

    Recent evidence suggested that nonirradiated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promoted aggressive phenotypes of cancer cells through epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a radiosensitive gene of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated fibroblasts on EMT and HDGF expression of ESCC. Our study demonstrated that coculture with nonirradiated fibroblasts significantly increased the invasive ability of ESCC cells and the increased invasiveness was further accelerated when they were cocultured with irradiated fibroblasts. Scattering of ESCC cells was also accelerated by the supernatant from irradiated fibroblasts. Exposure of ESCC cells to supernatant from irradiated fibroblasts resulted in decreased E-cadherin, increased vimentin in vitro and β-catenin was demonstrated to localize to the nucleus in tumor cells with irradiated fibroblasts in vivo models. The expression of HDGF and β-catenin were increased in both fibroblasts and ESCC cells of irradiated group in vitro and in vivo models. Interestingly, the tumor cells adjoining the stromal fibroblasts displayed strong nuclear HDGF immunoreactivity, which suggested the occurrence of a paracrine effect of fibroblasts on HDGF expression. These data suggested that irradiated fibroblasts promoted invasion, growth, EMT and HDGF expression of ESCC. - Highlights: • Irradiated CAFs accelerated invasiveness and scattering of ESCC cell lines. • Irradiated CAFs promoted EMT of ESCC cells. • Irradiated fibroblasts induced nuclear β-catenin relocalization in ESCC cells. • Irradiated fibroblasts increased HDGF expression in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Confronting Twin Paradox Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas W.

    2016-05-01

    The resolution to the classic twin paradox in special relativity rests on the asymmetry of acceleration. Yet most students are not exposed to a satisfactory analysis of what exactly happens during the acceleration phase that results in the nonaccelerated observer's more rapid aging. The simple treatment presented here offers both graphical and quantitative solutions to the problem, leading to the correct result that the acceleration-induced age gap is 2Lβ years when the one-way distance L is expressed in light-years and velocity β ≡v/c .

  8. Present status of corn grain disinfestation by irradiation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adem, E.; Uribe, R.M. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Fisica); Watters, F.L. (Department of Agriculture, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Research Station); Bourges, H. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City)

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the use of ionizing radiation for the disinfestation of grain in Mexico is reviewed. Main topics described in the paper concern determination of optimum dose for disinfestation, comparison of Co-60 gamma rays and accelerated electrons for suppressing infestation, susceptibility of different strains of insects, dose rate effects on survival of different insect species, survival of progeny of irradiated insects, germinative tests, and effect of radiation on the nutrient content of corn. The technical and economical aspects of irradiation disinfestation are mentioned.

  9. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervan, P.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Wilson, J.

    2013-12-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1×1 cm2) silicon sensors.

  10. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; Hodgson, P; Marin-Reyes, H; Wilson, J

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1 x 1 cm^2 ) silicon sensors.

  11. Irradiation of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, J.; Stanbrook, I.; Shersby, M.

    1989-07-12

    The House of Commons was asked to support the Government's intention to allow the use of the irradiation of foodstuffs under conditions that will fully safeguard the interests of the consumer. The Government, it was stated, regards this process as a useful additional way to ensure food safety. The effect of the radiation in killing bacteria will enhance safety standards in poultry meat, in some shell-fish and in herbs and spices. The problem of informing the public when the food has been irradiated, especially as there is no test to detect the irradiation, was raised. The subject was debated for an hour and a half and is reported verbatim. The main point raised was over whether the method gave safer food as not all bacteria were killed in the process. The motion was carried. (U.K.).

  12. Mechanical technologies for PIGMI. [Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansborough, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) is a compact linear proton accelerator designed for a hospital environment. The prototype of the low energy section of PIGMI has been designed and is being fabricated at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. It is an accelerator design which makes use of several advanced or innovative technologies. The PIGMI Prototype consists of a 250 keV injector, a double harmonic buncher, a tape-wound 13 KG solenoid magnet, and four accelerator tanks with a total of 63 drift tubes of which 18 contain strong focusing quadrupoles of permanent magnets. The accelerator tanks are mild steel, copper-plated using a bright acid leveling technique. Drift tubes are stainless steel, fabricated using electron beam welding, shaped in a lathe and then copper plated. Drift tubes loaded with permanent magnets are sealed using laser welding. The samarium cobalt magnets are shaped by cutting and grinding techniques developed at Los Alamos.

  13. Production of nuclear sources and nuclear batteries by proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, S

    2016-01-01

    The decay of instable nuclei is being used in a broad range of applications from detector calibration to power sources. As the public acceptance of classical fission nuclear technology is decaying and its integral costs are enormous, alternative production routes are required. The mathematical formalism and fundamental considerations are presented for the use of ion accelerators for isotope production. A focus is put on the production of nuclear power sources to substitute Pu-238 based batteries. 20 MeV protons are found to produce {\\alpha} emitting polonium isotopes from bismuth with an energy efficiency of up to 0.031%. Some hours are required to produce a 1Wth power source of the 2.9 year half-life {\\alpha} emitter Po-208 with a suitable accelerator. The accelerator approach offers more flexibility for tailoring of nuclear products and less waste. The technical requirements are close to and compatible with the planned International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility accelerator

  14. Investigations of the concept of a multibunch dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishchenko, I.N., E-mail: onish@kipt.kharkov.ua; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Pristupa, V.I.; Sotnikov, G.V.

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the physical principles of multibunch dielectric wakefield accelerator concept based on the wakefield excitation in the dielectric structure by a sequence of relativistic electron bunches are presented. The purpose of the concept is to enhance the wakefield intensity by means of the multibunch coherent excitation and wakefield accumulation in a resonator. The acceleration of bunches is achieved at detuning of bunch repetition frequency relative to the frequency of the excited wakefield. In such a way the sequence of bunches is divided into exciting and accelerated parts due to displacing bunches into accelerating phases of wakefield excited by a previous part of bunches of the same sequence. Besides the change of the permittivity and loss tangent of dielectrics under the irradiation by 100 MeV electron beam is studied.

  15. Vibration control in accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.

  16. Compact particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2017-08-29

    A compact particle accelerator having an input portion configured to receive power to produce particles for acceleration, where the input portion includes a switch, is provided. In a general embodiment, a vacuum tube receives particles produced from the input portion at a first end, and a plurality of wafer stacks are positioned serially along the vacuum tube. Each of the plurality of wafer stacks include a dielectric and metal-oxide pair, wherein each of the plurality of wafer stacks further accelerate the particles in the vacuum tube. A beam shaper coupled to a second end of the vacuum tube shapes the particles accelerated by the plurality of wafer stacks into a beam and an output portion outputs the beam.

  17. Rejuvenating CERN's Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the coming years and especially in 2005, CERN's accelerators are going to receive an extensive renovation programme to ensure they will perform reliably and effectively when the LHC comes into service.

  18. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  19. Dielectric assist accelerating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, D.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2016-01-01

    A higher-order TM02 n mode accelerating structure is proposed based on a novel concept of dielectric loaded rf cavities. This accelerating structure consists of ultralow-loss dielectric cylinders and disks with irises which are periodically arranged in a metallic enclosure. Unlike conventional dielectric loaded accelerating structures, most of the rf power is stored in the vacuum space near the beam axis, leading to a significant reduction of the wall loss, much lower than that of conventional normal-conducting linac structures. This allows us to realize an extremely high quality factor and a very high shunt impedance at room temperature. A simulation of a 5 cell prototype design with an existing alumina ceramic indicates an unloaded quality factor of the accelerating mode over 120 000 and a shunt impedance exceeding 650 M Ω /m at room temperature.

  20. Measurement of mean cardiac dose for various breast irradiation techniques and corresponding risk of major cardiovascular event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R. Merino Lara (Tomas Rodrigo); E. Fleury (Emmanuelle); S. Mashouf (Shahram); J. Helou (Joelle); C. McCann (Claire); M. Ruschin (Mark); A. Kim (Anthony); N. Makhani (Nadiya); A. Ravi (Ananth); J.-P. Pignol (Jean-Philippe)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAfter breast conserving surgery, early stage breast cancer patients are currently treated with a wide range of radiation techniques including whole breast irradiation (WBI), accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, or 3D-conformal radiothera

  1. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  2. LHCb GPU Acceleration Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)744808; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Neufeld, Niko; Vilasis Cardona, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector is due to be upgraded for processing high-luminosity collisions, which will increase the load on its computation infrastructure from 100 GB/s to 4 TB/s, encouraging us to look for new ways of accelerating the Online reconstruction. The Coprocessor Manager is our new framework for integrating LHCb’s existing computation pipelines with massively parallel algorithms running on GPUs and other accelerators. This paper describes the system and analyzes its performance.

  3. Accelerating News Issue 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K; Wildner, E

    2012-01-01

    In this summer issue we look at how developments in collimator materials could have applications in aerospace and beyond, and how Polish researchers are harnessing accelerators for medical and industrial uses. We see how the LHC luminosity upgrade is linking with European industry and US researchers, and how the neutrino oscillation community is progressing. We find out the mid-term status of TIARA-PP and how it is mapping European accelerator education resources.

  4. Accelerating Cosmologies from Compactification

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, P K; Townsend, Paul K.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2003-01-01

    A solution of the (4+n)-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations is found for which spacetime is compactified on a compact hyperbolic manifold of time-varying volume to a flat four-dimensional FLRW cosmology undergoing accelerated expansion in Einstein conformal frame. This shows that the `no-go' theorem forbidding acceleration in `standard' (time-independent) compactifications of string/M-theory does not apply to `cosmological' (time-dependent) hyperbolic compactifications.

  5. Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

  6. Accelerators for America's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mei

    2016-03-01

    Particle accelerator, a powerful tool to energize beams of charged particles to a desired speed and energy, has been the working horse for investigating the fundamental structure of matter and fundermental laws of nature. Most known examples are the 2-mile long Stanford Linear Accelerator at SLAC, the high energy proton and anti-proton collider Tevatron at FermiLab, and Large Hadron Collider that is currently under operation at CERN. During the less than a century development of accelerator science and technology that led to a dazzling list of discoveries, particle accelerators have also found various applications beyond particle and nuclear physics research, and become an indispensible part of the economy. Today, one can find a particle accelerator at almost every corner of our lives, ranging from the x-ray machine at the airport security to radiation diagnostic and therapy in hospitals. This presentation will give a brief introduction of the applications of this powerful tool in fundermental research as well as in industry. Challenges in accelerator science and technology will also be briefly presented

  7. Semiconducting Properties of Swift Au Ion-Irradiated ZnO Thin Films at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sera; Park, Hyun-Woo; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2017-02-01

    The semiconducting properties of Au ion-irradiated ZnO thin films were investigated as a function of ion irradiation dose at room temperature. The Au ion irradiation was conducted with acceleration energy of 130 MeV in the ion dose range from 1 × 1011 to 5 × 1012 ions/cm2. The physical properties showed no change regardless of the Au ion irradiation dose; however, the electrical properties of Au ion-irradiated ZnO thin films changed, depending on the Au ion irradiation dose. The electronic structure drastically changed with the evolution of hybridized molecular orbital structure for the conduction band and band edge states below the conduction band. These remarkable changes in electronic structure correlate with changes in electrical properties, such as carrier concentration and mobility.

  8. TGF-β1 accelerates the DNA damage response in epithelial cells via Smad signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyong; Kim, Mi-Ra; Kim, Hyun-Ji; An, You Sun; Yi, Jae Youn

    2016-08-01

    The evidence suggests that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) regulates the DNA-damage response (DDR) upon irradiation, and we previously reported that TGF-β1 induced DNA ligase IV (Lig4) expression and enhanced the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway in irradiated cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β1 on the irradiation-induced DDRs of A431 and HaCaT cells. Cells were pretreated with or without TGF-β1 and irradiated. At 30 min post-irradiation, DDRs were detected by immunoblotting of phospho-ATM, phospho-Chk2, and the presence of histone foci (γH2AX). The levels of all three factors were similar right after irradiation regardless of TGF-β1 pretreatment. However, they soon thereafter exhibited downregulation in TGF-β1-pretreated cells, indicating the acceleration of the DDR. Treatment with a TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor (SB431542) or transfections with siRNAs against Smad2/3 or DNA ligase IV (Lig4) reversed this acceleration of the DDR. Furthermore, the frequency of irradiation-induced apoptosis was decreased by TGF-β1 pretreatment in vivo, but this effect was abrogated by SB431542. These results collectively suggest that TGF-β1 could enhance cell survival by accelerating the DDR via Smad signaling and Lig4 expression.

  9. Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Reconnection Acceleration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Li, Gang; Webb, G. M.; Khabarova, O.; Cummings, A.; Stone, E.; Decker, R.

    2015-12-01

    Shock waves, as shown by simulations and observations, can generate high levels of downstream vortical turbulence, including magnetic islands. We consider a combination of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and downstream magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes as an energization mechanism for charged particles. Observations of electron and ion distributions downstream of interplanetary shocks and the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) are frequently inconsistent with the predictions of classical DSA. We utilize a recently developed transport theory for charged particles propagating diffusively in a turbulent region filled with contracting and reconnecting plasmoids and small-scale current sheets. Particle energization associated with the anti-reconnection electric field, a consequence of magnetic island merging, and magnetic island contraction, are considered. For the former only, we find that (i) the spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed, and (ii) the downstream solution is constant. For downstream plasmoid contraction only, (i) the accelerated spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed; (ii) the particle intensity for a given energy peaks downstream of the shock, and the distance to the peak location increases with increasing particle energy, and (iii) the particle intensity amplification for a particular particle energy, f(x,c/{c}0)/f(0,c/{c}0), is not 1, as predicted by DSA, but increases with increasing particle energy. The general solution combines both the reconnection-induced electric field and plasmoid contraction. The observed energetic particle intensity profile observed by Voyager 2 downstream of the HTS appears to support a particle acceleration mechanism that combines both DSA and magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes.

  10. OVERVIEW OF EUCARD ACCELERATOR AND MATERIAL RESEARCH AT GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Mustafin, E; Pyka, N; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N A; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2011-01-01

    EuCARD is a joined accelerator R&D initiative funded by the EU. Within this program, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt is performing R&D on materials for accelerators and collimators in workpackage 8 (ColMat). GSI covers prototyping and testing of a cryogenic ion catcher for FAIR’s main synchrotron SIS100, simulations and studies on activation of accelerator components e.g. halo collimatiors as well as irradiation experiments on materials foreseen to be used in FAIR accelerators and the LHC upgrade program. Carbon-carbon composites, silicon carbide and copper-diamond composite samples have been irradiated with heavy ions at various GSI beamlines and their radiation induced property changes were characterized. Numerical simulations on the possible damage by LHC and SPS beams to different targets have been performed. Simulations and modelling of activation and long term radiation induced damage to accelerator components have started. A prototype ion catcher has been built and...

  11. Solar Irradiance Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Sami K

    2012-01-01

    The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

  12. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  13. Cellular Response to Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; YAN Shi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nonlinear activities of the cellular signaling system composed of one transcriptional arm and one protein-interaction arm, we use an irradiation-response module to study the dynamics of stochastic interactions.It is shown that the oscillatory behavior could be described in a unified way when the radiation-derived signal and noise are incorporated.

  14. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raica, Nicholas; McDowell, Marion E.; Darby, William J.

    1963-01-15

    The wholesomeness of irradiated foods was evaluated in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys over a 2-year period, or 4 generations. Data are presented on the effects of a diet containing radiation-processed foods on growth, reproduction, hematology, histopathology, carcinogenicity, and life span. (86 references) (C.H.)

  15. RADIATION HAZARD AND PROTECTION OF LOW ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷清章

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the origin and type of radiation hazards as well as the main aspects of radiation protection for low-energy accelerators are discussed in general,and the problems of radiation protection and the experimental results of the operational monitoring of the five accelecrators in the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology,Sichuan University,namely,one 1.2M cyclofron,two Cockroft-waltons and two Van de Graafts,as well as a powerful electron accelerator for industrial irradiation are described.The discussion and evaluation are made according to the requirments of the national standards GB5172-85.

  16. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  17. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  18. Ion Acceleration by the Radiation Pressure of Slow Electromagnetic Wave

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S V; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Bulanov, S S; Geddes, C G R; Schroeder, C; Esarey, E; Leemans, W

    2012-01-01

    When the ions are accelerated by the radiation pressure of the laser pulse, their velocity can not exceed the laser group velocity, in the case when it is less than the speed of light in vacuum. This is demonstrated in two cases corresponding to the thin foil target irradiated by a high intensity laser light and to the hole boring by the laser pulse in the extended plasma accompanied by the collisionless shock wave formation. It is found that the beams of accelerated at the collisionless shock wave front ions are unstable against the Buneman-lke and the Weibel-like instabilities which result in the ion energy spectrum broadening.

  19. Detection of Irradiation Treatment of Foods Using DNA `Comet Assay'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hasan M.; Delincée, Henry

    1998-06-01

    Microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay) has been investigated to detect irradiation treatment of some food samples. These samples of fresh and frozen rainbow trout, red lentil, gram and sliced almonds were irradiated to 1 or 2 kGy using 10 MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator. Rainbow trout samples yielded good results with samples irradiated to 1 or 2 kGy showing fragmentation of DNA and, therefore, longer comets with no intact cells. Unirradiated samples showed shorter comets with a significant number of intact cells. For rainbow trout stored in a freezer for 11 days the irradiated samples can still be discerned by electrophoresis from unirradiated samples, however, the unirradiated trouts also showed some longer comets besides some intact cells. Radiation treatment of red lentils can also be detected by this method, i.e. no intact cells in 1 or 2 kGy irradiated samples and shorter comets and some intact cells in unirradiated samples. However, the results for gram and sliced almond samples were not satisfactory since some intact DNA cells were observed in irradiated samples as well. Probably, incomplete lysis has led to these deviating results.

  20. Laser Acceleration of Quasi-Monoenergetic Protons via Radiation Pressure Driven Thin Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan S.; Shao, Xi; Eliasson, Bengt; Liu, T. C.; Dudnikova, Galina; Sagdeev, Roald Z.

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical and simulation study of laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons in a thin foil irradiated by high intensity laser light. The underlying physics of radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is discussed, including the importance of optimal thickness and circularly polarized light for efficient acceleration of ions to quasi-monoenergetic beams. Preliminary two-dimensional simulation studies show that certain parameter regimes allow for stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and possibility of acceleration of monoenergetic ions to an excess of 200 MeV, making them suitable for important applications such as medical cancer therapy and fast ignition.

  1. Ion acceleration in a solitary wave by an intense picosecond laser pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, A; Uesaka, M; Sasaki, A; Daido, H

    2002-11-18

    Acceleration of ions in a solitary wave produced by shock-wave decay in a plasma slab irradiated by an intense picosecond laser pulse is studied via particle-in-cell simulation. Instead of exponential distribution as in known mechanisms of ion acceleration from the target surface, these ions accelerated forwardly form a bunch with relatively low energy spread. The bunch is shown to be a solitary wave moving over expanding plasma; its velocity can exceed the maximal velocity of ions accelerated forward from the rear side of the target.

  2. Small type accelerator. Try for accelerator driven system

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Y

    2003-01-01

    FFAG (Fixed-field alternating gradient) accelerator for accelerator driven subcritical reactor, which aims to change from long-lived radioactive waste to short-lived radioactivity, is introduced. It is ring accelerator. The performance needed is proton as accelerator particle, 10MW (total) beam power, about 1GeV beam energy, >30% power efficiency and continuous beam. The feature of FFAG accelerator is constant magnetic field. PoP (Proof-of-principle)-FFAG accelerator, radial type, was run at first in Japan in 2000. The excursion is about some ten cm. In principle, beam can be injected and extracted at any place of ring. The 'multi-fish' acceleration can accelerate beams to 100% duty by repeating acceleration. 150MeV-FFAG accelerator has been started since 2001. It tried to practical use, for example, treatment of cancer. (S.Y.)

  3. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandibula in patients treated with different fractionations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, G.; Glanzmann, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Graetz, K.W. [Dept. of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-04-01

    Purpose: the incidence of osteonecrosis of the mandibula (ON) after irradiation using modern three-dimensional planning as well as hyperfractionation or moderately accelerated irradiation has been evaluated and compared with the incidence of the preceding period. Patients and methods: the records of 268 head and neck cancer patients irradiated between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 1998 with a dose to the mandibula of at least 60 Gy were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had CT-based treatment planning, computerized dose calculation with isodose charts also in several off-axis planes, and regular verification films. Results: the long-term cumulative incidence of ON needing mandibular resection was as follows: after conventional fractionation 6.2% (between 60 and 66.6 Gy target dose) or 20.1% (between > 66.6 and 72 Gy); after hyperfractionated irradiation with a target dose between 72 and 78.8 Gy 6.6%; after concomitant boost irradiation according to the MDA/Houston regime with a dose between 63.9 and 70.5 Gy: no case; after 6 x 2 Gy/week or 7 x 1.8 Gy/week and a total target dose between 66 and 72 Gy approximately 17% or higher (small patient number). Conclusion: comparison of the incidence of ON during the period between 1980 and 1990 with the following period between 1990 and 1998 shows a decrease in risk to a value of approximately 5% using modern three-dimensional techniques as well as hyperfractionation or moderately accelerated fractionation. (orig.)

  4. Dielectric laser accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2014-10-01

    The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

  5. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  6. Post irradiation test report of irradiated DUPIC simulated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Jung, I. H.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2001-12-01

    The post-irradiation examination of irradiated DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) simulated fuel in HANARO was performed at IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) in KAERI during 6 months from October 1999 to March 2000. The objectives of this post-irradiation test are i) the integrity of the capsule to be used for DUPIC fuel, ii) ensuring the irradiation requirements of DUPIC fuel at HANARO, iii) performance verification in-core behavior at HANARO of DUPIC simulated fuel, iv) establishing and improvement the data base for DUPIC fuel performance verification codes, and v) establishing the irradiation procedure in HANARO for DUPIC fuel. The post-irradiation examination performed are {gamma}-scanning, profilometry, density, hardness, observation the microstructure and fission product distribution by optical microscope and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA)

  7. Improvement of the High Fluence Irradiation Facility at the University of Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Kenta, E-mail: murakami@tokai.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Iwai, Takeo, E-mail: iwai@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata, Yamagata-shi 990-9585 (Japan); Abe, Hiroaki, E-mail: abe.hiroaki@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Sekimura, Naoto, E-mail: sekimura@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the modification of the High Fluence Irradiation Facility at the University of Tokyo (HIT). The HIT facility was severely damaged during the 2011 earthquake, which occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku. A damaged 1.0 MV tandem Cockcroft-Walton accelerator was replaced with a 1.7 MV accelerator, which was formerly used in another campus of the university. A decision was made to maintain dual-beam irradiation capability by repairing the 3.75 MV single-ended Van de Graaff accelerator and reconstructing the related beamlines. A new beamline was connected with a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) to perform in-situ TEM observation under ion irradiation.

  8. Early works on the nuclear microprobe for microelectronics irradiation tests at the CEICI (Sevilla, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, F.R., E-mail: rogelio@gte.esi.us.es [Electronic Engineering Dept., School of Engineering, Sevilla University, Avda. de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Morilla, Y. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CNA, Sevilla University, C/Thomas Alva Edison n0 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Mogollon, J.M. [Electronic Engineering Dept., School of Engineering, Sevilla University, Avda. de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Lopez, J.; Labrador, J.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CNA, Sevilla University, C/Thomas Alva Edison n0 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Aguirre, M.A. [Electronic Engineering Dept., School of Engineering, Sevilla University, Avda. de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Particle radiation effects are a fundamental problem in the use of numerous electronic devices for space applications, which is aggravated with the technology shrinking towards smaller and smaller scales. The suitability of low-energy accelerators for irradiation testing is being considered nowadays. Moreover, the possibility to use a nuclear microprobe, with a lateral resolution of a few microns, allows us to evaluate the behavior under ion irradiation of specific elements in an electronic device. The CEICI is the new CEnter for Integrated Circuits Irradiation tests, created into the facilities at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) in Sevilla-Spain. We have verified that our 3 MV Tandem accelerator, typically used for ion beam characterization of materials, is also a valuable tool to perform irradiation experiments in the low LET (Linear Energy Transfer) region.

  9. Uniform Acceleration in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    We extend de la Fuente and Romero's defining equation for uniform acceleration in a general curved spacetime from linear acceleration to the full Lorentz covariant uniform acceleration. In a flat spacetime background, we have explicit solutions. We use generalized Fermi-Walker transport to parallel transport the Frenet basis along the trajectory. In flat spacetime, we obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system to an inertial system. We obtain the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We apply our acceleration transformations to the motion of a charged particle in a constant electromagnetic field and recover the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation.

  10. Cosmic Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P

    2004-04-26

    Recently we proposed a new cosmic acceleration mechanism which was based on the wakefields excited by the Alfven shocks in a relativistically owing plasma. In this paper we include some omitted details, and show that there exists a threshold condition for transparency below which the accelerating particle is collision-free and suffers little energy loss in the plasma medium. The stochastic encounters of the random accelerating-decelerating phases results in a power-law energy spectrum: f({epsilon}) {proportional_to} 1/{epsilon}{sup 2}. As an example, we discuss the possible production of super-GZK ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) in the atmosphere of gamma ray bursts. The estimated event rate in our model agrees with that from UHECR observations.

  11. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  12. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Particle Accelerator Physics is an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. Part I gathers the basic tools, recalling the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part II is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed in Part III by the introduction and description of the main beam parameters. Part IV is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part V discusses the details of charged particle accleration. Part VI and Part VII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and the description of very intense beams. Part VIII is an exhaustive treatment of radiation from accelerated charges and introduces important sources of coherent radiation such as synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. Part IX collects the appendices gathering useful mathematical and physical formulae, parameters and units. Solutions to many end-of-chapter problems are give...

  13. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. Total body irradiation with a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D C; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Olivares, Marina; Léger, Pierre; Larkin, Joe; Freeman, Carolyn R; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-01-01

    While the current trend in radiotherapy is to replace cobalt teletherapy units with more versatile and technologically advanced linear accelerators, there remain some useful applications for older cobalt units. The expansion of our radiotherapy department involved the decommissioning of an isocentric cobalt teletherapy unit and the replacement of a column-mounted 4-MV LINAC that has been used for total body irradiation (TBI). To continue offering TBI treatments, we converted the decommissioned cobalt unit into a dedicated fixed-field total body irradiator and installed it in an existing medium-energy LINAC bunker. This article describes the logistical and dosimetric aspects of bringing a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit into clinical service as a total body irradiator.

  15. Studies of accelerated compact toruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1983-01-04

    In an earlier publication we considered acceleration of plasma rings (Compact Torus). Several possible accelerator configurations were suggested and the possibility of focusing the accelerated rings was discussed. In this paper we consider one scheme, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focusing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force, F/sub a/ = kappaU/sub m//R where (kappa < 1), increases as R/sup -2/, the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case, however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency.

  16. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  17. Radiation processing of liquid with low energy electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation induced emulsion polymerization, radiation vulcanization of NR latex (RVNRL) and radiation degradation of natural polymers were selected and reviewed as the radiation processing of liquid. The characteristic of high dose rate emulsion polymerization is the occurrence of cationic polymerization. Thus, it can be used for the production of new materials that cannot be obtained by radical polymerization. A potential application will be production of polymer emulsion that can be used as water-borne UV/EB curing resins. The technology of RVNRL by {gamma}-ray has been commercialized. RVNRL with low energy electron accelerator is under development for further vulcanization cost reduction. Vessel type irradiator will be favorable for industrial application. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides is an emerging and promising area of radiation processing. However, strict cost comparison between liquid irradiation with low energy EB and state irradiation with {gamma}-ray should be carried out. (author)

  18. Electron Beam Materials Irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2012-06-01

    Radiation processing is a well established method for enhancing the properties of materials and commercial products by treating them with ionizing energy in the form of high-energy electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays. Beneficial effects include polymerizing, cross-linking, grafting and degrading plastics, sterilizing single-use medical devices, disinfecting and disinfesting fresh foods, purifying drinking water, treating wastewater and other toxic waste materials that harm the environment, and many other applications that are still being evaluated. Industrial electron accelerators of several types have been developed and are being used for these applications. More than 1800 electron accelerators are presently installed in facilities worldwide for these purposes.

  19. Accelerating time to benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Geraldi, Joana; Grex, Sara

    Despite the ubiquitous pressure for speed, our approaches to accelerate projects remain constrained to the old-fashioned understanding of the project as a vehicle to deliver products and services, not value. This article explores an attempt to accelerate time to benefit. We describe and deconstruct...... of the time. Although all cases valued speed and speed to benefit, and implemented most practices proposed by the methodology, only three of the five projects were more successful in decreasing time to speed. Based on a multi-case study comparison between these five different projects and their respective...

  20. Accelerating News Issue 4

    CERN Document Server

    Szeberenyi, A; Wildner, E

    2012-01-01

    In this winter issue, we are very pleased to announce the approval of EuCARD-2 by the European Commission. We look at the conclusions of EUROnu in proposing future neutrino facilities at CERN, a new milestone reached by CLIC and progress on the SPARC upgrade using C-band technology. We also report on recent events: second Joint HiLumi LHC-LARP Annual Meeting and workshop on Superconducting technologies for the Next Generation of Accelerators aiming at closer collaboration with industry. The launch of the Accelerators for Society brochure is also highlighted.

  1. Shielding high energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger

    2001-01-01

    After introducing the subject of shielding high energy accelerators, point source, line-of-sight models, and in particular the Moyer model. are discussed. Their use in the shielding of proton and electron accelerators is demonstrated and their limitations noted. especially in relation to shielding in the forward direction provided by large, flat walls. The limitations of reducing problems to those using it cylindrical geometry description are stressed. Finally the use of different estimators for predicting dose is discussed. It is suggested that dose calculated from track-length estimators will generally give the most satisfactory estimate. (9 refs).

  2. TGF-β1 accelerates the DNA damage response in epithelial cells via Smad signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeeyong; Kim, Mi-Ra; Kim, Hyun-Ji; An, You Sun; Yi, Jae Youn, E-mail: yjy_71@kcch.re.kr

    2016-08-05

    The evidence suggests that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) regulates the DNA-damage response (DDR) upon irradiation, and we previously reported that TGF-β1 induced DNA ligase IV (Lig4) expression and enhanced the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway in irradiated cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β1 on the irradiation-induced DDRs of A431 and HaCaT cells. Cells were pretreated with or without TGF-β1 and irradiated. At 30 min post-irradiation, DDRs were detected by immunoblotting of phospho-ATM, phospho-Chk2, and the presence of histone foci (γH2AX). The levels of all three factors were similar right after irradiation regardless of TGF-β1 pretreatment. However, they soon thereafter exhibited downregulation in TGF-β1-pretreated cells, indicating the acceleration of the DDR. Treatment with a TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor (SB431542) or transfections with siRNAs against Smad2/3 or DNA ligase IV (Lig4) reversed this acceleration of the DDR. Furthermore, the frequency of irradiation-induced apoptosis was decreased by TGF-β1 pretreatment in vivo, but this effect was abrogated by SB431542. These results collectively suggest that TGF-β1 could enhance cell survival by accelerating the DDR via Smad signaling and Lig4 expression. -- Highlights: •TGF-β1 pretreatment accelerates γ-radiation-induced DNA damage response. •TGF-β1-accelerated DNA damage response is dependent on Smad signaling and DNA Ligase IV. •TGF-β1 pretreatment protects epithelial cells from γ-radiation in vivo.

  3. Generation of heavy ion beams using femtosecond laser pulses in the target normal sheath acceleration and radiation pressure acceleration regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G. M.; McGuffey, C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from sub-micron gold foils irradiated by a short pulse laser is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the time history of the laser pulse is examined in order to get insight into the laser energy deposition and ion acceleration process. For laser pulses with intensity 3 × 10 21 W / cm 2 , duration 32 fs, focal spot size 5 μm, and energy 27 J, the calculated reflection, transmission, and coupling coefficients from a 20 nm foil are 80%, 5%, and 15%, respectively. The conversion efficiency into gold ions is 8%. Two highly collimated counter-propagating ion beams have been identified. The forward accelerated gold ions have average and maximum charge-to-mass ratio of 0.25 and 0.3, respectively, maximum normalized energy 25 MeV/nucleon, and flux 2 × 10 11 ions / sr . An analytical model was used to determine a range of foil thicknesses suitable for acceleration of gold ions in the radiation pressure acceleration regime and the onset of the target normal sheath acceleration regime. The numerical simulations and analytical model point to at least four technical challenges hindering the heavy ion acceleration: low charge-to-mass ratio, limited number of ions amenable to acceleration, delayed acceleration, and high reflectivity of the plasma. Finally, a regime suitable for heavy ion acceleration has been identified in an alternative approach by analyzing the energy absorption and distribution among participating species and scaling of conversion efficiency, maximum energy, and flux with laser intensity.

  4. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F/sub 0/ animals and growth and development of the F/sub 1/ offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment.

  5. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  6. Investigation of heat release in the targets during irradiation by ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Dalkarov, O D; Rusetskii, A S

    2015-01-01

    The DD-reaction is investigated and the heat emission off the targets during their irradiation with ion beams is studied at the HELIS ion accelerator at LPI. The heat emission is observed to be significantly higher in the case of irradiation of the Ti/TiO2:Dx-targets by a D+ beam, as compared to the H+ and Ne+ beams. Furthermore, it depends on the concentration of deuterium in the target and current density of the deuteron beam.

  7. Comparison of the microstructure, deformation and crack initiation behavior of austenitic stainless steel irradiated in-reactor or with protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, Kale J., E-mail: kalejs@umich.edu; Was, Gary S.

    2015-01-15

    after proton and reactor irradiation, providing additional evidence that proton irradiation is a useful tool for accelerated testing of irradiation effects in austenitic stainless steel.

  8. Combined generating-accelerating buncher for compact linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, E. A.; Matsievskiy, S. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Sokolov, I. D.; Zavadtsev, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Described in the previous article [1] method of the power extraction from the modulated electron beam has been applied to the compact standing wave electron linear accelerator feeding system, which doesnt require any connection waveguides between the power source and the accelerator itself [2]. Generating and accelerating bunches meet in the hybrid accelerating cell operating at TM020 mode, thus the accelerating module is placed on the axis of the generating module, which consists from the pulsed high voltage electron sources and electrons dumps. This combination makes the accelerator very compact in size which is very valuable for the modern applications such as portable inspection sources. Simulations and geometry cold tests are presented.

  9. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  10. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

      Introduction to accelerator physics This course will take place in Istanbul, Turkey, from 18 to 30 September 2016. It is now open for registration, and further information can be found here: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Turkey-2016/Turkey-advert.html

  11. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics This course will take place in Budapest, Hungary, from 2 to 14 October 2016. It is now open for registration and further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Hungary2016/Hungary-advert.html and http://indico.cern.ch/event/532397/.

  12. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  13. Acceleration and Special Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalomi, E M

    2000-01-01

    The integration of acceleration over time before reaching the uniformvelocity turns out to be the source of all the special relativity effects. Itexplains physical phenomena like clocks comparisons. The equations forspace-time, mass and energy are presented. This phenomenon complements theexplanation for the twins paradox. A Universal reference frame is obtained.

  14. Prospects for Accelerator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Alan

    2011-02-01

    Accelerator technology today is a greater than US$5 billion per annum business. Development of higher-performance technology with improved reliability that delivers reduced system size and life cycle cost is expected to significantly increase the total accelerator technology market and open up new application sales. Potential future directions are identified and pitfalls in new market penetration are considered. Both of the present big market segments, medical radiation therapy units and semiconductor ion implanters, are approaching the "maturity" phase of their product cycles, where incremental development rather than paradigm shifts is the norm, but they should continue to dominate commercial sales for some time. It is anticipated that large discovery-science accelerators will continue to provide a specialty market beset by the unpredictable cycles resulting from the scale of the projects themselves, coupled with external political and economic drivers. Although fraught with differing market entry difficulties, the security and environmental markets, together with new, as yet unrealized, industrial material processing applications, are expected to provide the bulk of future commercial accelerator technology growth.

  15. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  16. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    One of the SPS acceleration cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). On the ceiling one sees the coaxial transmission line which feeds the power from the amplifier, located in a surface building above, to the upstream end of the cavity. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138, 8302397.

  17. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma Anais

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  18. Atmospheric and accelerator neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoichiro [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida-City, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    Results from the atmospheric neutrino measurements are presented. Evidence for the {nu}{sub {tau}} appearance in the atmospheric neutrino events was shown by statistical methods. The long baseline oscillation experiment using man-made neutrinos has confirmed the atmospheric neutrino oscillation. The future accelerator experiments are briefly discussed.

  19. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    One of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). The power that is fed into the upstream end of the cavity is extracted at the downstream end and sent into a dump load. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8011289, 8302397.

  20. Angular Accelerating White Light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Shaping XVI, 958104, San Diego, California, United States, 09 August 2015 Angular Accelerating White Light Angela Dudley*a,b, Christian Vetterc , Alexander Szameitc , and Andrew Forbesa,b a CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001...

  1. Calibration of dosimeters at 80-120 keV electron irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Helt-Hansen, J.

    We describe calorimeters for dose measurement at low-energy electron accelerator energies (80–120 keV). Three calorimeters with different characteristics were designed and their dose response and measurement uncertainties were characterized. The heatedair between the electron beam exit window...... to calibrate thin-film dosimeters (Risø B3 and alanine films) by irradiation at the 80–120 keV electron accelerators. This calibration was compared to a 10MeV calibration, and we show that the radiation response of the dosimeter materials (the radiation chemical yield) is constant at these irradiation energies...

  2. Neurodegeneration in accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Moren

    2016-11-01

    The growing proportion of elderly people represents an increasing economic burden, not least because of age-associated diseases that pose a significant cost to the health service. Finding possible interventions to age-associated disorders therefore have wide ranging implications. A number of genetically defined accelerated aging diseases have been characterized that can aid in our understanding of aging. Interestingly, all these diseases are associated with defects in the maintenance of our genome. A subset of these disorders, Cockayne syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum group A and ataxia-telangiectasia, show neurological involvement reminiscent of what is seen in primary human mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells converting energy stored in oxygen, sugar, fat, and protein into ATP, the energetic currency of our body. Emerging evidence has linked this organelle to aging and finding mitochondrial dysfunction in accelerated aging disorders thereby strengthens the mitochondrial theory of aging. This theory states that an accumulation of damage to the mitochondria may underlie the process of aging. Indeed, it appears that some accelerated aging disorders that show neurodegeneration also have mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial alterations may be secondary to defects in nuclear DNA repair. Indeed, nuclear DNA damage may lead to increased energy consumption, alterations in mitochondrial ATP production and defects in mitochondrial recycling, a term called mitophagy. These changes may be caused by activation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme that responds to DNA damage. Upon activation PARP1 utilizes key metabolites that attenuate pathways that are normally protective for the cell. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 or reconstitution of the metabolites rescues the changes caused by PARP1 hyperactivation and in many cases reverse the phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. This implies that modulation

  3. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-15

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  4. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; and others

    2012-04-15

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  5. Regulation of food irradiation and detection of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1998-12-31

    The main international standards for irradiated foods are those produced by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The international regulatory environment is now favourable towards irradiated foods. Most countries still regulate on a food-by-food, case-by-case basis. However in Asia there is movement towards a Harmonised Regulation for Irradiated Foods. The WHO believes that irradiated foods may be safely irradiated at any dose above 10 kGy. This may lead to the Codex maximum dose being raised or abandoned. If this occurs there are opportunities to produce shelf-stable foods in lightweight packaging that last for years at room temperature. Detection methods for irradiated foods are now available and may assist to reassure consumers that labelling regulations can be enforced. (author)

  6. ATF Neutron Irradiation Program Irradiation Vehicle Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cetiner, N. O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Smith, Kurt R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; McDuffee, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group (CNWG) is engaged in a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to explore issues related to nuclear energy, including research on accident-tolerant fuels and materials for use in light water reactors. This work develops a draft technical plan for a neutron irradiation program on the candidate accident-tolerant fuel cladding materials and elements using the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The research program requires the design of a detailed experiment, development of test vehicles, irradiation of test specimens, possible post irradiation examination and characterization of irradiated materials and the shipment of irradiated materials to Japan. This report discusses the conceptual design, the development and irradiation of the test vehicles.

  7. Gemstone dedicated gamma irradiation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omi, Nelson M.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: nminoru@ipen.br; prela@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to its poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator constructed in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations, were performed. With the definitive optimized irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. This work presents some optimization parameters and the expected performance of the irradiator. (author)

  8. Nonlinear dynamics in particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Dilão, Rui

    1996-01-01

    This book is an introductory course to accelerator physics at the level of graduate students. It has been written for a large audience which includes users of accelerator facilities, accelerator physicists and engineers, and undergraduates aiming to learn the basic principles of construction, operation and applications of accelerators.The new concepts of dynamical systems developed in the last twenty years give the theoretical setting to analyse the stability of particle beams in accelerator. In this book a common language to both accelerator physics and dynamical systems is integrated and dev

  9. Feasibility analysis of a sewage sludge treatment by an irradiation plant in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, J; Colin, A; Tavera, L

    2002-01-01

    Technical and economic analyses of an irradiation plant for sewage sludge treatment determined that an appropriate place for the first sludge electron irradiator in Mexico would be the sewage water treatment plant located north of Toluca in the State of Mexico. This treatment plant is mainly used for domestic wastewater and produces an approximate volume of 70 ton d-] liquid sewage sludge. Considering a 50 k W power of a 10 MeV electron linear accelerator, an irradiation dose of S KGy and a treatment capacity of 346 tons per day, it is estimated that the treatment cost would be of $9.00 US dollars per ton. (Author)

  10. Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Tétouan pilot station, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahri, Loubna; Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed; Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad

    2010-04-01

    The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co 60 gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

  11. Dose response of thin-film dosimeters irradiated with 80-120 keV electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt-Hansen, J.; Miller, A.; Sharpe, P.

    2005-01-01

    Thin-film dosimeters (Riso B3 and alanine films) were irradiated at 10 MeV and 80-120 keV electron accelerators, and it has been shown that the radiation response of the dosimeter materials (the radiation chemical yields) are constant at these irradiation energies. However, dose gradients within...... the dosimeters mean that calibration functions at the lower electron energies will be dependent on both irradiation energy and the required effective point of measurement of the dosimeter. These are general effects that apply to any dosimeters that have non-linear response functions and where dose gradients...

  12. Feasibility analysis of a sewage sludge treatment by an irradiation plant in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.; Balcazar, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, C.P. 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Colin, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico); Tavera, L. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    Technical and economic analyses of an irradiation plant for sewage sludge treatment determined that an appropriate place for the first sludge electron irradiator in Mexico would be the sewage water treatment plant located north of Toluca in the State of Mexico. This treatment plant is mainly used for domestic wastewater and produces an approximate volume of 70 ton d-] liquid sewage sludge. Considering a 50 k W power of a 10 MeV electron linear accelerator, an irradiation dose of S KGy and a treatment capacity of 346 tons per day, it is estimated that the treatment cost would be of $9.00 US dollars per ton. (Author)

  13. An overview of an accelerator-based neutron spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessner, E.S.

    1996-06-01

    An overview of the feasibility study of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source is presented. The machine delivers 1 MW of proton beam power to spallation targets where slow neutrons are produced. The slow neutrons can be used for isotope production, materials irradiation, and neutron scattering research. The neutron source facility is based on a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) and consists of a 400-MeV linac, a 30-Hz RCS that accelerates the 400-MeV beam to 2 GeV, and two neutron-generating target stations. The RCS accelerates an average proton beam current of 0.5 mA, corresponding to 1.04 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse. This intensity is about two times higher than that of existing machines. A key feature of this accelerator system design is that beam losses are minimized from injection to extraction, reducing activation to levels consistent with hands-on maintenance.

  14. Current and future industrial application of electron accelerators in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, Chyagrit [Chulalongkorn Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-02-01

    Industrial applications of electron accelerators in Thailand, first introduced in 1997 for radiation sterilized products such as doctor gown, pampas, feminine napkin etc followed by installation of accelerators, one with energies at 20 MV and the other at 5 MV to produce new value added products like gem stones, topaz, tourmaline and zircon. The machines operate in pulse mode and is also used for irradiation services for food and sterilized products treatment. The need for low and medium energy accelerators in radiation technology is stressed. They are to be used for crosslinking of electrical wire and cable, heat shrinkable materials, low protein concentrated rubber latex, rubber wood furniture and parts, and silk protein degradation. The role of governmental organizations like Nuclear Research Institute (OAEP) and universities in stimulating the utilization of radiation processing in Thailand is strengthened. (S. Ohno)

  15. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  16. The LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) experiment at LNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Anania, M.P. [INFN LNF Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Caresana, M. [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [INFN LNS Catania, Catania (Italy); De Martinis, C. [Physics Department, University of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Delle Side, D. [LEAS, University of Salento and INFN, Lecce (Italy); Fazzi, A. [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Gatti, G. [INFN LNF Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Giove, D. [Physics Department, University of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Giulietti, D. [Physics Department, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Gizzi, L.A.; Labate, L. [INO-CNR and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Londrillo, P. [Physics Department, University of Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Maggiore, M. [INFN LNL, Legnaro (Italy); Nassisi, V., E-mail: vincenzo.nassisi@le.infn.it [LEAS, University of Salento and INFN, Lecce (Italy); Sinigardi, S. [Physics Department, University of Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Tramontana, A.; Schillaci, F. [INFN LNS Catania, Catania (Italy); Scuderi, V. [INFN LNS Catania, Catania (Italy); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Turchetti, G. [Physics Department, University of Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy); and others

    2014-07-15

    Laser-matter interaction at relativistic intensities opens up new research fields in the particle acceleration and related secondary sources, with immediate applications in medical diagnostics, biophysics, material science, inertial confinement fusion, up to laboratory astrophysics. In particular laser-driven ion acceleration is very promising for hadron therapy once the ion energy will attain a few hundred MeV. The limited value of the energy up to now obtained for the accelerated ions is the drawback of such innovative technique to the real applications. LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) is an experiment now running at LNF (Frascati) with the goal of producing a real proton beam able to be driven for significant distances (50–75 cm) away from the interaction point and which will act as a source for further accelerating structure. In this paper the description of the experimental setup, the preliminary results of solid target irradiation and start to end simulation for a post-accelerated beam up to 60 MeV are given.

  17. Industrial application of e-beam accelerators in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri; Jeong, Kwang-Young

    2012-07-01

    Electron Accelerators are the most common means of radiation processing, and they are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and the chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants, such as pathogens or toxic by-products of materials. Fifteen thousand [1,500] electron accelerators are commercially used in the world, and this number is eight or nine times greater than the number of Gamma irradiation facilities. Electron accelerators are reliable and durable electrically-sourced equipment that can produce ionizing radiation when it is needed for a particular commercial use. Electron accelerators were introduced in Korea during the 1970s, firstly for research and later for insulated wire and cable production. At present, over sixty electron accelerators are in commercial use, providing several billion USD annually in Korean industries, mainly for purposes such as, productions of wires, cables, thermo-shrinkable materials, foam sheets, and coating, curing of materials, sterilization of medical products, environmental protection, and others. With the increasing needs in the automobile and electronics industries, applicable areas for electron accelerator will be extended greatly in the future.

  18. Hardware availability calculations and results of the IFMIF accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargalló, Enric, E-mail: enric.bargallo-font@upc.edu [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Arroyo, Jose Manuel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Abal, Javier [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Beauvais, Pierre-Yves; Gobin, Raphael; Orsini, Fabienne [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, Saclay (France); Weber, Moisés; Podadera, Ivan [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Grespan, Francesco; Fagotti, Enrico [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); De Blas, Alfredo; Dies, Javier; Tapia, Carlos [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Mollá, Joaquín; Ibarra, Ángel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • IFMIF accelerator facility hardware availability analyses methodology is described. • Results of the individual hardware availability analyses are shown for the reference design. • Accelerator design improvements are proposed for each system. • Availability results are evaluated and compared with the requirements. - Abstract: Hardware availability calculations have been done individually for each system of the deuteron accelerators of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). The principal goal of these analyses is to estimate the availability of the systems, compare it with the challenging IFMIF requirements and find new paths to improve availability performances. Major unavailability contributors are highlighted and possible design changes are proposed in order to achieve the hardware availability requirements established for each system. In this paper, such possible improvements are implemented in fault tree models and the availability results are evaluated. The parallel activity on the design and construction of the linear IFMIF prototype accelerator (LIPAc) provides detailed design information for the RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) analyses and allows finding out the improvements that the final accelerator could have. Because of the R and D behavior of the LIPAc, RAMI improvements could be the major differences between the prototype and the IFMIF accelerator design.

  19. The LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) experiment at LNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Anania, M. P.; Caresana, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; De Martinis, C.; Delle Side, D.; Fazzi, A.; Gatti, G.; Giove, D.; Giulietti, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Labate, L.; Londrillo, P.; Maggiore, M.; Nassisi, V.; Sinigardi, S.; Tramontana, A.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Turchetti, G.; Varoli, V.; Velardi, L.

    2014-07-01

    Laser-matter interaction at relativistic intensities opens up new research fields in the particle acceleration and related secondary sources, with immediate applications in medical diagnostics, biophysics, material science, inertial confinement fusion, up to laboratory astrophysics. In particular laser-driven ion acceleration is very promising for hadron therapy once the ion energy will attain a few hundred MeV. The limited value of the energy up to now obtained for the accelerated ions is the drawback of such innovative technique to the real applications. LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) is an experiment now running at LNF (Frascati) with the goal of producing a real proton beam able to be driven for significant distances (50-75 cm) away from the interaction point and which will act as a source for further accelerating structure. In this paper the description of the experimental setup, the preliminary results of solid target irradiation and start to end simulation for a post-accelerated beam up to 60 MeV are given.

  20. Availability simulation software adaptation to the IFMIF accelerator facility RAMI analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Bargalló Font, Enric; Sureda, Pere Joan; Arroyo Macias, José Manuel; Abal López, Javier; Blas Del Hoyo, Alfredo de; Dies Llovera, Javier; Tapia Fernández, Carlos; Mollá Lorente, Joaquin; Ibarra Sanchez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Several problems were found when using generic reliability tools to perform RAM! (Reliability Availability Maintainability Inspectability) studies for the IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) accelerator. A dedicated simulation tool was necessary to model properly the complexity of the accelerator facility.; AvailSim, the availability simulation software used for the International Linear Collider (ILC) became an excellent option to fulfill RAMI analyses needs. Neverthel...

  1. ARAMIS; An ambidextrous 2 MV accelerator for IBA and MeV implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottereau, E.; Camplan, J.; Chaumont, J.; Meunier, R.; Bernas, H. (CSNSM, 91 - Orsay (France))

    1990-01-01

    We will present the 2 MV accelerator that we built at our laboratory. ARAMIS is a tandem accelerator with a positive-ion source in the high-voltage terminal so that it can be operated both in the tandem and in the single-ended mode. Tuning from one mode to the other is quite easy so that the implantation or irradiation of samples can be followed periodically with RBS. We show some results. (orig.).

  2. ARAMIS: An ambidextrous 2 MV accelerator for IBA and MeV implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottereau, E.; Camplan, J.; Chaumont, J.; Meunier, R.; Bernas, H.

    1990-01-01

    We will present the 2 MV accelerator that we built at our laboratory. ARAMIS is a tandem accelerator with a positive-ion source in the high-voltage terminal so that it can be operated both in the tandem and in the single-ended mode. Tuning from one mode to the other is quite easy so that the implantation or irradiation of samples can be followed periodically with RBS. We show some results.

  3. Amorphization of silicon via electronic processes induced by irradiation with fullerenes; Amorphisation du silicium par processus electroniques induits par irradiation avec des fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canut, B.; Bonardi, N.; Ramos, S.M.M. [Universite Claude Bernard, Dept. de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS, 69 - Lyon (France); Della Negra, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, (IN2P3/CNRS) 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    For the first time it is shown that single crystalline silicon is sensitive to collective electronic excitations. Irradiations with C{sub 60} clusters accelerated in the 10 MeV range induce the formation of amorphous latent tracks in this material. This result has never been observed with high energy heavy ions, it means that what may matter is the very high electronic energy density deposited in the silicon by the incident cluster. TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) analysis of irradiated samples have enable us to measure surface damage cross-sections: 55 nm{sup 2} and 87 nm{sup 2} for irradiations with C{sub 60}{sup 2+} beams and C{sub 60}{sup 3+} beams accelerated respectively to 30 and 40 MeV. (A.C.)

  4. Effect of 120 MeV Ag{sup 9+} ion irradiation of YCOB single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arun Kumar, R., E-mail: rarunpsgtech@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Department of Basic Sciences - Physics Division, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004 (India); Dhanasekaran, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Single crystals of yttrium calcium oxy borate (YCOB) grown from boron-tri-oxide flux were subjected to swift heavy ion irradiation using silver Ag{sup 9+} ions from the 15 UD Pelletron facility at Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi. The crystals were irradiated at 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13}, 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} fluences at room temperature and with 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence at liquid nitrogen temperature. The pristine and the irradiated samples were characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence studies. From the characterization studies performed on the samples, it is inferred that the crystals irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature had fewer defects compared to the crystals irradiated at room temperature and the defects increased when the ion fluence was increased at room temperature.

  5. Clinical Requirements and Accelerator Concepts for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.

    1997-05-01

    Accelerator-driven epithermal neutron sources are an attractive alternative to nuclear reactors for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In BNCT the goal of delivering a sufficient dose to the tumor without exceeding the dose limits of the surrounding normal tissues is achieved by administering a ^10B-containing compound which is selectively taken up in the tumor cells. Subsequent irradiation with epithermal neutrons leads to the release of short ranged (neutron-capture reaction. By carefully shaping the neutron spectrum the background dose, partially due to recoil protons and external gamma radiation, can be minimized and the depth dose distribution optimized. Excellent epithermal neutron beams for BNCT can be produced by bombarding a Li-target with a high current proton beam at energies ranging from the (p,n) reaction threshold to 2.5 MeV and subsequent moderation and filtering of the primary neutrons. In comparison the use of Be-targets and higher proton or deuteron energies, up to 20 MeV, leads to higher neutron yields but also to higher primary neutron energies requiring more moderation and resulting in less desirable neutron spectra. Accelerator options for possible neutron sources include dc-accelerators, RFQs, LINACs and cyclotrons. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator has been chosen to provide a 2.5 MeV proton beam for the BNCT facility currently being designed at LBNL. An ESQ-accelerator is ideally suited to provide the high beam currents which are desired for producing high quality neutron beams for BNCT treatments. A novel power supply based on the air-coupled transformer concept is under development. It will enable the accelerator to deliver proton beam currents up to about 50 mA. A Li-target has been designed which can handle beam power in excess of 50 kW establishing the practicability of this approach. Monte Carlo simulation studies have shown that at a proton beam current of 20 mA high quality treatments for brain tumors can be delivered

  6. Accelerator shielding experts meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen years after its first CERN edition, the Shielding Aspects of Accelerator, Targets and Irradiation Facility (SATIF) conference was held again here from 2-4 June. Now at its 10th edition, SATIF10 brought together experts from all over the world to discuss issues related to the shielding techniques. They set out the scene for an improved collaboration and discussed novel shielding solutions.   This was the most attended meeting of the series with more than 65 participants from 34 institutions and 14 countries. “We welcomed experts from many different laboratories around the world. We come from different contexts but we face similar problems. In this year’s session, among other things, we discussed ways for improving the effectiveness of calculations versus real data, as well as experimental solutions to investigate the damage that radiation produces on various materials and the electronics”, says Marco Silari, Chair of the conference and member of the DGS/RP gro...

  7. Development of neutron calibration field using accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univ., Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    A brief summary is given on the fast neutron calibration fields for 1) 8 keV to 15 MeV range, and 2) 30-80 MeV range. The field for 8 keV to 15 MeV range was developed at the Fast Neutron Laboratory (FNL) at Tohoku University using a 4.5 MV pulsed Dynamitron accelerator and neutron production reactions, {sup 45}Sc(p, n), {sup 7}Li(p, n), {sup 3}H(p, n), D(d, n) and T(d, n). The latter 30-80 MeV fields are setup at TIARA of Takasaki Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and at Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University using a 90 MeV AVF cyclotron and the {sup 7}Li(p, n) reaction. These fields have been applied for various calibration of neutron spectrometers and dosimeters, and for irradiation purposes. (author)

  8. Heavy ion irradiation effects of polymer film on absorption of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Noboru; Seguchi, Tadao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Arakawa, Tetsuhito

    1997-03-01

    Ion irradiation effects on the absorption of light for three types of polymer films; polyethylene-terephthalate (PET), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN), and polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) were investigated by irradiation of heavy ions with Ni{sup 4+}(15MeV), O{sup 6+}(160MeV), and Ar{sup 8+}(175MeV), and compared with electron beams(EB) irradiation. The change of absorption at 400nm by a photometer was almost proportional to total dose for ions and EB. The absorption per absorbed dose was much high in Ni{sup 4+}, but rather small in O{sup 6+} and Ar{sup 8+} irradiation, and the absorption by EB irradiation was accelerated by the temperature of polymer film during irradiation. The beam heating of materials during ion irradiation was assumed, especially for Ni ion irradiation. The heavy ion irradiation effect of polymers was thought to be much affected by the ion beam heating than the linear energy transfer(LET) of radiation source. (author)

  9. Effect of irradiation damage on hydrothermal corrosion of SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Sosuke, E-mail: kondo@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Lee, Moonhee; Hinoki, Tatsuya [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hyodo, Yoshihiro; Kano, Fumihisa [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa 235-8523 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    The hydrothermal corrosion behavior (320 °C, 20 MPa, 168 h) of high-purity chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) SiC pre-irradiated with 5.1-MeV Si ions at 400 and 800 °C and 0.1–2.6 dpa was studied in order to clarify the effects of irradiation damage on SiC corrosion. Regardless of the pre-irradiation conditions, selective corrosion was observed at the grain boundaries and stacking faults even at the unirradiated regions. In contrast to the complete loss of the irradiated regions observed in the specimens irradiated at 400 °C during the autoclave test, a number of large grains survived in the case of the specimens irradiated at 800 °C. The corrosion rates at the irradiated regions increased with increasing irradiation fluence, with a significant dependence in the lower dpa regime similar to that observed in the point-defect swelling. SiO{sub 2} formation was not detected in any case. Cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses of the surfaces of the surviving grains revealed oxygen diffusion to a depth of 3.0 nm from the surface. A significant reduction of the oxygen diffusion barrier at the surface was implicated as one of the key mechanisms of the acceleration of the ion-irradiated SiC corrosion rates.

  10. Treatment of patients with unresectable squamous head and neck cancer with induction chemotherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy; Traitement de patients atteints d'un cancer irresecable de la tete et du cou avec une chimiotherapie d'induction suivie d'une radiotherapie hyperfractionnee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesia, R.; Majem, M.; Barretina Ginesta, M.P.; Montes, A.; Cardenal, F. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of Medical Oncology, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Galiana, R.; Guedea, F. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Manos, M. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of ENT, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Monner, A. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of Dept. of Maxillofacial Surgery, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Perez, J. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Clinical Investigation Unit, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: the contribution of induction chemotherapy (CT) followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy (h.f.R.T.) in unresectable squamous head and neck cancer has been evaluated in a single institution as an assistancial protocol. Patients and methods: from March 1994 to June 2000 all consecutive patients with unresectable disease were treated with four courses of platin plus fluorouracil based CT followed by h.f.R.T.. Tumor resectability and response was assessed by a multidisciplinary committee. Results: ninety-nine patients (pts) were treated. All of them had stage IV-M0 disease: 67 T4, 88 N2-N3. Tumor location: 62 oropharynx, 22 hypopharynx, eight oral cavity and seven larynx. Tumor response at the end of treatment: 61 patients complete response, 17 partial response, two stable disease, 10 progressive disease and nine unevaluated. With a median follow-up of 70 months the 5-year loco-regional control and overall survival was 30.3% (95% CI: 21.9-38.6) and 21.6% (95% CI: 13.4-29.8), respectively. Loco-regional control and overall survival is significantly influenced by prior response to induction CT. Main grade 3-4 toxicity related to CT was stomatitis, but there were five patients with an ischemic event. Grade 3-4 acute toxicity related to h.f.R.T.: 47 stomatitis, 20 epithelitis. Chronic toxicity related to h.f.R.T.: six emergency tracheotomies due to laryngeal edema, five pneumonia and one mucous/soft-tissue necrosis. There were eight toxic related deaths. Conclusion: induction CT followed by h.f.R.T. might increase the overall survival rate in unresectable disease. H.f.R.T. resulted in a high rate of acute toxicity and its use would not be warranted in those patients with no response to induction CT who had a low probability of long-term control. (authors)

  11. Accelerated Parallel Texture Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Da Huang; Xin Tong; Wen-Cheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Texture optimization is a texture synthesis method that can efficiently reproduce various features of exemplar textures. However, its slow synthesis speed limits its usage in many interactive or real time applications. In this paper, we propose a parallel texture optimization algorithm to run on GPUs. In our algorithm, k-coherence search and principle component analysis (PCA) are used for hardware acceleration, and two acceleration techniques are further developed to speed up our GPU-based texture optimization. With a reasonable precomputation cost, the online synthesis speed of our algorithm is 4000+ times faster than that of the original texture optimization algorithm and thus our algorithm is capable of interactive applications. The advantages of the new scheme are demonstrated by applying it to interactive editing of flow-guided synthesis.

  12. accelerating cavity from LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    This is an accelerating cavity from LEP, with a layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  13. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense bea...

  14. SUPERDIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci Cubo 31C, I-87036 Rende (Italy)

    2012-05-10

    The theory of diffusive shock acceleration is extended to the case of superdiffusive transport, i.e., when the mean square deviation grows proportionally to t{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} > 1. Superdiffusion can be described by a statistical process called Levy random walk, in which the propagator is not a Gaussian but it exhibits power-law tails. By using the propagator appropriate for Levy random walk, it is found that the indices of energy spectra of particles are harder than those obtained where a normal diffusion is envisaged, with the spectral index decreasing with the increase of {alpha}. A new scaling for the acceleration time is also found, allowing substantially shorter times than in the case of normal diffusion. Within this framework we can explain a number of observations of flat spectra in various astrophysical and heliospheric contexts, for instance, for the Crab Nebula and the termination shock of the solar wind.

  15. Accelerating time to benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Geraldi, Joana; Grex, Sara

    Despite the ubiquitous pressure for speed, our approaches to accelerate projects remain constrained to the old-fashioned understanding of the project as a vehicle to deliver products and services, not value. This article explores an attempt to accelerate time to benefit. We describe and deconstruct...... the implementation of a large intervention undertaken in five project-based organizations in Denmark – the Project Half Double where the same project methodology has been applied in five projects, each of them in five distinct organizations in Denmark, as a bold attempt to realize double the benefit in half...... of the time. Although all cases valued speed and speed to benefit, and implemented most practices proposed by the methodology, only three of the five projects were more successful in decreasing time to speed. Based on a multi-case study comparison between these five different projects and their respective...

  16. Accelerating QDP++ using GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) are getting increasingly important as target architectures in scientific High Performance Computing (HPC). NVIDIA established CUDA as a parallel computing architecture controlling and making use of the compute power of GPUs. CUDA provides sufficient support for C++ language elements to enable the Expression Template (ET) technique in the device memory domain. QDP++ is a C++ vector class library suited for quantum field theory which provides vector data types and expressions and forms the basis of the lattice QCD software suite Chroma. In this work accelerating QDP++ expression evaluation to a GPU was successfully implemented leveraging the ET technique and using Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation. The Portable Expression Template Engine (PETE) and the C API for CUDA kernel arguments were used to build the bridge between host and device memory domains. This provides the possibility to accelerate Chroma routines to a GPU which are typically not subject to special optimisation. As an ...

  17. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  18. Hardware Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-04-12

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32 bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain validated solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedra that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester. We show that the hardware accelerated solution is faster than the current technique used by scientists.

  19. NEW ACCELERATION METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    But a glance at the Livingston chart, Fig. 1, of accelerator particle energy as a function of time shows that the energy has steadily, exponentially, increased. Equally significant is the fact that this increase is the envelope of diverse technologies. If one is to stay on, or even near, the Livingston curve in future years then new acceleration techniques need to be developed. What are the new acceleration methods? In these two lectures I would like to sketch some of these new ideas. I am well aware that they will probably not result in high energy accelerators within this or the next decade, but conversely, it is likely that these ideas will form the basis for the accelerators of the next century. Anyway, the ideas are stimulating and suffice to show that accelerator physicists are not just 'engineers', but genuine scientists deserving to be welcomed into the company of high energy physicists. I believe that outsiders will find this field surprisingly fertile and, certainly fun. To put it more personally, I very much enjoy working in this field and lecturing on it. There are a number of review articles which should be consulted for references to the original literature. In addition there are three books on the subject. Given this material, I feel free to not completely reference the material in the remainder of this article; consultation of the review articles and books will be adequate as an introduction to the literature for references abound (hundreds are given). At last, by way of introduction, I should like to quote from the end of Ref. 2 for I think the remarks made there are most germane. Remember that the talk was addressed to accelerator physicists: 'Finally, it is often said, I think by physicists who are not well-informed, that accelerator builders have used up their capital and now are bereft of ideas, and as a result, high energy physics will eventually--rather soon, in fact--come to a halt. After all, one can't build too many

  20. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlatescu, Ioana, E-mail: scarlatescuioana@gmail.com; Avram, Calin N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Virag, Vasile [County Hospital “Gavril Curteanu” - Oradea (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  1. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorla, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Vaitová, M. [Czech Technical University, Thakurova 7, 166 29 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Le Pape, Y., E-mail: lepapeym@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Štemberk, P. [Czech Technical University, Thakurova 7, 166 29 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A meso-scale finite element model for irradiated concrete is developed. • Neutron radiation-induced volumetric expansion is a predominant degradation mode. • Confrontation with expansion and damage obtained from experiments is successful. • Effects of paste shrinkage, creep and ductility are discussed. - Abstract: A numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale is detailed in this paper. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al., 1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damage around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al., 2015). The proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.

  2. Future Accelerator Magnet Needs

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, Arnaud; Yamamoto, A

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting magnet technology is continually evolving in order to meet the demanding needs of new accelerators and to provide necessary upgrades for existing machines. A variety of designs are now under development, including high fields and gradients, rapid cycling and novel coil configurations. This paper presents a summary of R&D programs in the EU, Japan and the USA. A performance comparison between NbTi and Nb3Sn along with fabrication and cost issues are also discussed.

  3. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  4. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  5. Study of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in blood volumes irradiated using a teletherapy unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, E.G., E-mail: eggoes@terra.com.b [Regional Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Nicolucci, P.; Nali, I.C. [Physics and Mathematics Department, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Pela, C.A.; Bruco, J.L. [Physics and Mathematics Department, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Center of Instrumentation, Dosimetry and Radioprotection, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Borges, J.C. [Center of Instrumentation, Dosimetry and Radioprotection, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Regional Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Center for Cell-Based Therapy, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    Blood irradiation can be performed using a dedicated blood irradiator or a teletherapy unit. A thermal device providing appropriate storage conditions during blood components irradiation with a teletherapy unit has been recently proposed. However, the most appropriated volume of the thermal device was not indicated. The goal of this study was to indicate the most appropriated blood volume for irradiation using a teletherapy unit in order to minimize both the dose heterogeneity in the volume and the blood irradiation time using these equipments. Theoretical and experimental methods were used to study the dose distribution in the blood volume irradiated using a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 therapy machine. The calculation of absorbed doses in the middle plane of cylindrical acrylic volumes was accomplished by a treatment planning system. Experimentally, we also used cylindrical acrylic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters to confirm the calculated doses. The data obtained were represented by isodose curves. We observed that an irradiation volume should have a height of 28 cm and a diameter of 28 cm and a height of 35 cm and a diameter of 35 cm, when the irradiation is to be performed by a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, respectively. Calculated values of relative doses varied from 93% to 100% in the smaller volume, and from 66% to 100% in the largest one. A difference of 5.0%, approximately, was observed between calculated and experimental data. The size of these volumes permits the irradiation of blood bags in only one bath without compromising the homogeneity of the absorbed dose over the irradiated volume. Thus, these irradiation volumes can be recommend to minimize the irradiation time when a teletherapy unit is used to irradiate blood.

  6. Study of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in blood volumes irradiated using a teletherapy unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, E. G.; Nicolucci, P.; Nali, I. C.; Pelá, C. A.; Bruço, J. L.; Borges, J. C.; Covas, D. T.

    2010-06-01

    Blood irradiation can be performed using a dedicated blood irradiator or a teletherapy unit. A thermal device providing appropriate storage conditions during blood components irradiation with a teletherapy unit has been recently proposed. However, the most appropriated volume of the thermal device was not indicated. The goal of this study was to indicate the most appropriated blood volume for irradiation using a teletherapy unit in order to minimize both the dose heterogeneity in the volume and the blood irradiation time using these equipments. Theoretical and experimental methods were used to study the dose distribution in the blood volume irradiated using a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 therapy machine. The calculation of absorbed doses in the middle plane of cylindrical acrylic volumes was accomplished by a treatment planning system. Experimentally, we also used cylindrical acrylic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters to confirm the calculated doses. The data obtained were represented by isodose curves. We observed that an irradiation volume should have a height of 28 cm and a diameter of 28 cm and a height of 35 cm and a diameter of 35 cm, when the irradiation is to be performed by a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, respectively. Calculated values of relative doses varied from 93% to 100% in the smaller volume, and from 66% to 100% in the largest one. A difference of 5.0%, approximately, was observed between calculated and experimental data. The size of these volumes permits the irradiation of blood bags in only one bath without compromising the homogeneity of the absorbed dose over the irradiated volume. Thus, these irradiation volumes can be recommend to minimize the irradiation time when a teletherapy unit is used to irradiate blood.

  7. Radiation protection in large linear accelerators; Seguranca radiologica de aceleradores lineares de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Jose de Jesus Rivero, E-mail: rivero@con.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Sousa, Fernando Nuno Carneiro de, E-mail: fernandonunosousa@gmail.com [Aceletron Irradiacao lndustrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The electron linear accelerators can be used in industrial applications that require powerful sources of ionizing radiation. They have the important characteristic of not representing a radiation hazard when the accelerators remain electrically disconnected. With the plant in operation, a high reliability defense in depth reduces the risk of radiological accidents to extremely small levels. It is practically impossible that a person could enter into the radiation bunker with the accelerators connected. Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, located in Rio de Janeiro, offers services of irradiation by means of two powerful electron linear accelerators, with 15 kW power and 10 MeV electron energy. Despite the high level of existing radiation safety, a simplified risk study is underway to identify possible sequences of radiological accidents. The study is based on the combined application of the event and fault trees techniques. Preliminary results confirm that there is a very small risk of entering into the irradiation bunker with the accelerators in operation, but the risk of an operator entering into the bunker during a process interruption and remaining there without notice after the accelerators were restarted may be considerably larger. Based on these results the Company is considering alternatives to reduce the likelihood of human error of this type that could lead to a radiological accident. The paper describes the defense in depth of the irradiation process in Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, as well as the models and preliminary results of the ongoing risk analysis, including the additional safety measures which are being evaluated. (author)

  8. French nuclear physics accelerator opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2016-12-01

    A new €140m particle accelerator for nuclear physics located at the French Large Heavy Ion National Accelerator (GANIL) in Caen was inaugurated last month in a ceremony attended by French president François Hollande.

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples.

  10. Accelerated Profile HMM Searches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean R Eddy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs and probabilistic inference methods have made important contributions to the theory of sequence database homology search. However, practical use of profile HMM methods has been hindered by the computational expense of existing software implementations. Here I describe an acceleration heuristic for profile HMMs, the "multiple segment Viterbi" (MSV algorithm. The MSV algorithm computes an optimal sum of multiple ungapped local alignment segments using a striped vector-parallel approach previously described for fast Smith/Waterman alignment. MSV scores follow the same statistical distribution as gapped optimal local alignment scores, allowing rapid evaluation of significance of an MSV score and thus facilitating its use as a heuristic filter. I also describe a 20-fold acceleration of the standard profile HMM Forward/Backward algorithms using a method I call "sparse rescaling". These methods are assembled in a pipeline in which high-scoring MSV hits are passed on for reanalysis with the full HMM Forward/Backward algorithm. This accelerated pipeline is implemented in the freely available HMMER3 software package. Performance benchmarks show that the use of the heuristic MSV filter sacrifices negligible sensitivity compared to unaccelerated profile HMM searches. HMMER3 is substantially more sensitive and 100- to 1000-fold faster than HMMER2. HMMER3 is now about as fast as BLAST for protein searches.

  11. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  12. Optimizing accelerator technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research and training network, oPAC, is bringing together 22 universities, research centres and industry partners to optimize particle accelerator technology. CERN is one of the network’s main partners and will host 5 early-stage researchers in the BE department.   A diamond detector that will be used for novel beam diagnostics applications in the oPAC project based at CIVIDEC. (Image courtesy of CIVIDEC.) As one of the largest Marie Curie Initial Training Networks ever funded by the EU – to the tune of €6 million – oPAC extends well beyond the particle physics community. “Accelerator physics has become integral to research in almost every scientific discipline – be it biology and life science, medicine, geology and material science, or fundamental physics,” explains Carsten P. Welsch, oPAC co-ordinator based at the University of Liverpool. “By optimizing the operation of accelerators, all of these...

  13. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  14. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  15. Irradiated stars with convective envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lucy, L B

    2016-01-01

    The structure of low-mass stars irradiated by a close companion is considered. Irradiation modifies the surface boundary conditions and thereby also the adiabatic constants of their outer convection zones. This then changes the models' radii and luminosities. For short-period M dwarf binaries with components of similar mass, the radius inflation due to their mutual irradiation is found to be < 0.4%. This is an order of magnitude too small to explain the anomalous radii found for such binaries. Although stronger irradiation of an M dwarf results in a monotonically increasing radius, a saturation effect limits the inflation to < 5%.

  16. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  17. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  18. TSC response of irradiated CVD diamond films

    CERN Document Server

    Borchi, E; Bucciolini, M; Guasti, A; Mazzocchi, S; Pirollo, S; Sciortino, S

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond films have been irradiated with electrons, sup 6 sup 0 Co photons and protons in order to study the dose response to exposure to different particles and energies and to investigate linearity with dose. The Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) has been studied as a function of the dose delivered to polymethilmetacrilate (PMMA) in the range from 1 to 12 Gy with 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator. The TSC spectrum has revealed the presence of two components with peak temperatures of about 470 and 520 K, corresponding to levels lying in the diamond band gap with activation energies of the order of 0.7 - 1 eV. After the subtraction of the exponential background the charge emitted during the heating scan has been evaluated and has been found to depend linearly on the dose. The thermally emitted charge of the CVD diamond films has also been studied using different particles. The samples have been irradiated with the same PMMA dose of about 2 Gy with 6 and 20 MeV electrons from a Linac, sup 6 sup 0 ...

  19. Introduction to Microwave Linear [Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittum, David H

    1999-01-04

    The elements of microwave linear accelerators are introduced starting with the principles of acceleration and accelerating structures. Considerations for microwave structure modeling and design are developed from an elementary point of view. Basic elements of microwave electronics are described for application to the accelerator circuit and instrumentation. Concepts of beam physics are explored together with examples of common beamline instruments. Charged particle optics and lattice diagnostics are introduced. Considerations for fixed-target and colliding-beam experimentation are summarized.

  20. Plasma accelerator experiments in Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purić, J.; Astashynski, V. M.; Kuraica, M. M.; Dojčinovié, I. P.

    2002-12-01

    An overview is given of the results obtained in the Plasma Accelerator Experiments in Belgrade, using quasi-stationary high current plasma accelerators constructed within the framework of the Yugoslavia-Belarus Joint Project. So far, the following plasma accelerators have been realized: Magnetoplasma Compressor type (MPC); MPC Yu type; one stage Erosive Plasma Dynamic System (EPDS) and, in final stage of construction two stage Quasi-Stationary High Current Plasma Accelerator (QHPA).

  1. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  2. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlermann, Dieter A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Just with the emergence of the idea to treat food by ionizing radiation, the concerns were voiced whether it would be safe to consume such food. Now, we look back on more than hundred years of research into the 'wholesomeness', a terminology developed during those efforts. This review will cover the many questions which had been raised, explaining the most relevant ones in some detail; it will also give place to the concerns and elucidate their scientific relevance and background. There has never been any other method of food processing studied in such depth and in such detail as food irradiation. The conclusion based on science is: Consumption of any food treated at any high dose is safe, as long as the food remains palatable. This conclusion has been adopted by WHO, also by international and national bodies. Finally, this finding has also been adopted by Codex Alimentarius in 2003, the international standard for food. However, this conclusion has not been adopted and included at its full extent in most national regulations. As the literature about wholesomeness of irradiated food is abundant, this review will use only a few, most relevant references, which will guide the reader to further reading.

  3. Accelerating in de Sitter spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Cotaescu, Ion I

    2014-01-01

    We propose a definition of uniform accelerated frames in de Sitter spacetimes exploiting the Nachtmann group theoretical method of introducing coordinates on these manifolds. Requiring the transformation between the static frame and the accelerated one to depend continuously on acceleration in order to recover the well-known Rindler approach in the flat limit, we obtain a result with a reasonable physical meaning.

  4. Effects of extra irradiation on surface and bulk properties of PMPC-grafted cross-linked polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Shihori; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Watanabe, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Masami; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Sterilization using high-energy irradiation is an important aspect of implementing an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular liner in total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this study, we evaluate the effects of extra irradiations such as gamma-ray or plasma irradiation during sterilization of the poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine [MPC]) (PMPC) surface and cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) substrate of a PMPC-grafted CLPE acetabular liner. The PMPC-grafted surface yielded high wettability and low friction properties regardless of the extra irradiations as compared with untreated CLPE. During a hip simulator test, wear resistance of the PMPC-grafted CLPE liner was maintained after extra irradiation, which is due to the high wettability characteristics of the PMPC surface. In particular, the PMPC-grafted CLPE liner treated with plasma irradiation showed greater wettability and wear resistance than that with gamma-ray irradiation. However, we could not clearly observe the changes in chemical properties and morphology of the PMPC surface after both extra irradiations. The physical and mechanical properties attributed to CLPE substrate performance were also unchanged. In contrast, PMPC-grafted CLPE treated with plasma irradiation showed improved oxidation resistance as compared to that treated with gamma-ray irradiation after accelerated aging. Thus, we conclude that PMPC-grafted CLPE with plasma irradiation has promise as a lifelong solution for bearing in THA.

  5. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  6. Accelerator Production of Isotopes for Medical Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Suzanne

    2014-03-01

    The increase in use of radioisotopes for medical imaging and therapy has led to the development of novel routes of isotope production. For example, the production and purification of longer-lived position emitting radiometals has been explored to allow for nuclear imaging agents based on peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles. These isotopes (64Cu, 89Zr, 86Y) are typically produced via irradiation of solid targets on smaller medical cyclotrons at dedicated facilities. Recently, isotope harvesting from heavy ion accelerator facilities has also been suggested. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will be a new national user facility for nuclear science to be completed in 2020. Radioisotopes could be produced by dedicated runs by primary users or may be collected synergistically from the water in cooling-loops for the primary beam dump that cycle the water at flow rates in excess of hundreds of gallons per minute. A liquid water target system for harvesting radioisotopes at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) was designed and constructed as the initial step in proof-of-principle experiments to harvest useful radioisotopes in this manner. This talk will provide an overview of isotope production using both dedicated machines and harvesting from larger accelerators typically used for nuclear physics. Funding from Department of Energy under DESC0007352 and DESC0006862.

  7. Respiratory monitoring with an acceleration sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Takegawa, Hideki; Ageishi, Tatsuya; Takashina, Masaaki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Matsumoto, Masao; Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 1-7, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Respiratory gating radiotherapy is used to irradiate a local area and to reduce normal tissue toxicity. There are certain methods for the detection of tumor motions, for example, using internal markers or an external respiration signal. However, because some of these respiratory monitoring systems require special or expensive equipment, respiratory monitoring can usually be performed only in limited facilities. In this study, the feasibility of using an acceleration sensor for respiratory monitoring was evaluated. The respiratory motion was represented by means of a platform and measured five times with the iPod touch (registered) at 3, 4 and 5 s periods of five breathing cycles. For these three periods of the reference waveform, the absolute means {+-} standard deviation (SD) of displacement were 0.45 {+-} 0.34 mm, 0.33 {+-} 0.24 mm and 0.31 {+-} 0.23 mm, respectively. On the other hand, the corresponding absolute means {+-} SD for the periods were 0.04 {+-} 0.09 s, 0.04 {+-} 0.02 s and 0.06 {+-} 0.04 s. The accuracy of respiratory monitoring using the acceleration sensor was satisfactory in terms of the absolute means {+-} SD. Using the iPod touch (registered) for respiratory monitoring does not need special equipment and makes respiratory monitoring easier. For these reasons, this system is a viable alternative to other respiratory monitoring systems.

  8. Muon Acceleration - RLA and FFAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Alex

    2011-10-01

    Various acceleration schemes for muons are presented. The overall goal of the acceleration systems: large acceptance acceleration to 25 GeV and 'beam shaping' can be accomplished by various fixed field accelerators at different stages. They involve three superconducting linacs: a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair of multi-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) and finally a non-scaling FFAG ring. The present baseline acceleration scenario has been optimized to take maximum advantage of appropriate acceleration scheme at a given stage. The solenoid based Pre-accelerator offers very large acceptance and facilitates correction of energy gain across the bunch and significant longitudinal compression trough induced synchrotron motion. However, far off-crest acceleration reduces the effective acceleration gradient and adds complexity through the requirement of individual RF phase control for each cavity. The RLAs offer very efficient usage of high gradient superconducting RF and ability to adjust path-length after each linac pass through individual return arcs with uniformly periodic FODO optics suitable for chromatic compensation of emittance dilution with sextupoles. However, they require spreaders/recombiners switchyards at both linac ends and significant total length of the arcs. The non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) ring combines compactness with very large chromatic acceptance (twice the injection energy) and it allows for large number of passes through the RF (at least eight, possibly as high as 15).

  9. VLHC accelerator physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Blaskiewicz et al.

    2001-11-01

    A six-month design study for a future high energy hadron collider was initiated by the Fermilab director in October 2000. The request was to study a staged approach where a large circumference tunnel is built that initially would house a low field ({approx}2 T) collider with center-of-mass energy greater than 30 TeV and a peak (initial) luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The tunnel was to be scoped, however, to support a future upgrade to a center-of-mass energy greater than 150 TeV with a peak luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using high field ({approx} 10 T) superconducting magnet technology. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a report of the Design Study was produced by Fermilab in June 2001. 1 The Design Study focused on a Stage 1, 20 x 20 TeV collider using a 2-in-1 transmission line magnet and leads to a Stage 2, 87.5 x 87.5 TeV collider using 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology. The article that follows is a compilation of accelerator physics designs and computational results which contributed to the Design Study. Many of the parameters found in this report evolved during the study, and thus slight differences between this text and the Design Study report can be found. The present text, however, presents the major accelerator physics issues of the Very Large Hadron Collider as examined by the Design Study collaboration and provides a basis for discussion and further studies of VLHC accelerator parameters and design philosophies.

  10. APT accelerator. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D. [comp.] [ed.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  11. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  12. World trend of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooij, J.G. van

    1984-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years several policies and programmes have been developed in the field of food irradiation at the national level and by international organizations concerned, which aim at the general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of the wholesomeness, the technological and economic feasibility, and the regulatory aspects of this process. This paper reviews international aspects of the standardization of food irradiation, national regulatory aspects of food irradiation, general remarks on the acceptance of Codex General Standards for irradiated foods, and specific remarks on the Codex General Standard for irradiated foods. An overall average dose for all foods, which was formulated in 1980 by a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee, is 10 kGy. This 10 kGy is not a level above which irradiated foods become unsafe, rather, it is a level at or below which safety has been established. Irradiation dose is divided into low-dose (up to about 1 kGy) and medium-dose (about 1-10 kGy). Future outlook and needs are discussed.

  13. Food irradiation and bacterial toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranter, H.S.; Modi, N.K.; Hambleton, P.; Melling, J.; Rose, S.; Stringer, M.F.

    1987-07-04

    The authors' findings indicate that irradiation confers no advantage over heat processing in respect of bacterial toxins (clostridium botulinum, neurotoxin A and staphylococcal enterotoxin A). It follows that irradiation at doses less than the ACINF recommended upper limit of 10 kGy could not be used to improve the ambient temperature shelf life on non-acid foods.

  14. Accelerated Innovation Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities: I. Engage NASA team (examples) a) Research and technology calls . provide suggestions to AES, HRP, OCT. b) Use NASA@Work to solicit other ideas; (possibly before R+D calls). II. Stimulate collaboration (examples) a) NHHPC. b) Wharton Mack Center for Technological Innovation (Feb 2013). c) International ] DLR ] :envihab (July 2013). d) Accelerated research models . NSF, Myelin Repair Foundation. III. Engage public Prizes (open platform: InnoCentive, yet2.com, NTL; Rice Business Plan, etc.) IV. Use same methods to engage STEM.

  15. Accelerating abelian gauge dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen Louis

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest a new acceleration method for Abelian gauge theories based on linear transformations to variables which weight all length scales equally. We measure the autocorrelation time for the Polyakov loop and the plaquette at β=1.0 in the U(1) gauge theory in four dimensions, for the new method and for standard Metropolis updates. We find a dramatic improvement for the new method over the Metropolis method. Computing the critical exponent z for the new method remains an important open issue.

  16. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Power Converters will be held in Baden, Switzerland, from 7 to 14 May 2014. Please note that the deadline for applications is 7 FEBRUARY 2014. A course on Introduction to Accelerator Physics will be held in Prague, Czech Republic, from 31 August to 12 September 2014. Applications are now open for this school; the application deadline is 25 APRIL 2014. Further information on these schools and other CAS events can be found on the CAS website and on the Indico page. For further information please contact Barbara.strasser@cern.ch

  17. Hardware Accelerated Power Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Coburn, Joel; Raghunathan, Anand

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present power emulation, a novel design paradigm that utilizes hardware acceleration for the purpose of fast power estimation. Power emulation is based on the observation that the functions necessary for power estimation (power model evaluation, aggregation, etc.) can be implemented as hardware circuits. Therefore, we can enhance any given design with "power estimation hardware", map it to a prototyping platform, and exercise it with any given test stimuli to obtain power consumption estimates. Our empirical studies with industrial designs reveal that power emulation can achieve significant speedups (10X to 500X) over state-of-the-art commercial register-transfer level (RTL) power estimation tools.

  18. Medical applications of accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Sandro

    1998-01-01

    At Present, about five thousands accelerators are devoted to biomedical applications. They are mainly used in radiotherapy, research and medical radioisotopes production. In this framework oncological hadron-therapy deserves particular attention since it represents a field in rapid evolution thanks to the joint efforts of laboratories with long experiences in particle physics. It is the case of CERN where the design of an optimised synchrotron for medical applications has been pursued. These lectures present these activities with particular attention to the new developments which are scientifically interesting and/or economically promising.

  19. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in order...

  20. Initial performance of the PIGMI prototype. [Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) program at LASL is an accelerator development program aimed at completing the design of an accelerator suitable for use as a pion generator in a hospital-based radiotherapy program. The major thrust of the program has been the design of a 7 MeV prototype accelerator which emphasizes compactness, economy of construction, and operation and reliability. To achieve these goals the design of the prototype has exploited a number of innovations in proton linac technology. An overview of the program discussing the major innovative features of the prototype is presented. The initial operating experience is discussed and initial performance measurements are presented.