Blackmer, Allison B; Thompson, Angela M; Jeffres, Meghan N; Glode, Ashley E; Thompson, Megan; Mahyari, Nila
The six authors of this commentary series, who have recently transitioned into or within an academic career, discuss challenging aspects of an academic career change. This is a three-part commentary series that explores select challenges: 1) feedback, evaluation, and advancement; 2) understanding and balancing of distribution of effort; 3) learning how and when to say yes. Faculty, or those interested in pursuing a career in pharmacy academia, can refer to this commentary series as a reference. Schools of pharmacy may utilize this as a tool for new faculty members during orientation in order to ensure smooth integration into the academic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sierra, Caroline M.
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Walmart Scholars Program on mentees’ attitudes towards and decision to pursue a career in academia. Upon completion of the AACP Walmart* Scholars Program, wherein mentor-mentee pairs attend the AACP Annual Meeting to learn about academic pharmacy careers, mentees wrote essays evaluating the program. Their views on academic pharmacy careers were analyzed for themes in the evaluations. Of the mentees who addressed the impact of the program on their perspectives on a career in academic pharmacy, over half stated the program positively influenced pursuit of such a career. This reinforces the importance of mentorship for those interested in or new to academic pharmacy. PMID:28289293
Sierra, Caroline M; Adams, Jennifer
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Walmart Scholars Program on mentees' attitudes towards and decision to pursue a career in academia. Upon completion of the AACP Walmart Scholars Program, wherein mentor-mentee pairs attend the AACP Annual Meeting to learn about academic pharmacy careers, mentees wrote essays evaluating the program. Their views on academic pharmacy careers were analyzed for themes in the evaluations. Of the mentees who addressed the impact of the program on their perspectives on a career in academic pharmacy, over half stated the program positively influenced pursuit of such a career. This reinforces the importance of mentorship for those interested in or new to academic pharmacy.
Blackmer, Allison B; Thompson, Angela M; Jeffres, Meghan N; Glode, Ashley E; Mahyari, Nila; Thompson, Megan
The six authors of this commentary series, who have recently transitioned into or within an academic career, discuss challenging aspects of an academic career change. This is a three-part commentary series that explores select challenges: 1) feedback, evaluation and advancement; 2) understanding and balancing of distribution of effort; 3) learning how and when to say yes. Faculty, or those interested in pursuing a career in pharmacy academia, can refer to this commentary series as a reference. Schools of pharmacy may utilize this as a tool for new faculty members during orientation in order to ensure smooth integration into the academic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jeffres, Meghan N; Blackmer, Allison B; Thompson, Angela M; Glode, Ashley E; Mahyari, Nila; Thompson, Megan
The six authors of this commentary series, who have recently transitioned into or within an academic career, discuss challenging aspects of an academic career change. This is Part 3 of a three-part commentary series that focuses on when and how to say yes to the multitude of opportunities available to pharmacy practice faculty. Part 1 discusses feedback, evaluation, and advancement. Part 2 explains distribution of effort (DOE) and how to marry the different components of teaching, research, and service. While the entire series is intended to be read in continuity, faculty, or those interested in pursuing a career in pharmacy academia, can refer to Part 3 as a reference on how to screen opportunities within academia to maximize professional and personal growth and minimize career burnout. Schools of pharmacy may utilize this as a tool for new faculty members during orientation to help ensure faculty success. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Thompson, Angela; Blackmer, Allison; Jeffres, Meghan; Glode, Ashley; Mahyari, Nila; Thompson, Megan
The six authors of this commentary series, who have recently transitioned into or within an academic career, discuss challenging aspects of an academic career change. The authors represent faculty members teaching within a large, state-funded, research-intensive School of Pharmacy located within a large academic health center. The authors have various backgrounds and represent individuals making transitions at various points in their careers (from residency into academia, from a non-academic environment into academia, and from one academic environment to another). This is Part 2 of a three-part commentary series that focuses on understanding and balancing the distribution of effort. Parts 1 and 3 of this commentary series explore feedback, evaluation and advancement; and learning when and how to say yes, respectively. While the entire series is intended to be read in continuity, faculty, or those interested in pursuing a career in pharmacy academia, can refer to Part 2 as a reference to aid in understanding and balancing the different components and the distribution of effort associated with a position in academic pharmacy, specifically. Schools of Pharmacy may utilize this as a tool for new faculty members during orientation in order to help ensure faculty success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kwai Chong, David Weng; Ahmadi, Keivan; Se, Wong Pei; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Hata, Ernieda Mohammed; Hadi, Muhammed Abdul; Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Yean, Low Bee; Efendie, Benny
Objectives To identify and evaluate factors affecting the career preferences of fourth-year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students in Malaysia in the presence of a 4-year period of mandatory government service. Methods A validated self-administered questionnaire was used in this cross-sectional study to collect data from final-year BPharm students enrolled at 3 government-funded universities and 1 private university in Malaysia. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results Three hundred fourteen students responded (213 from public universities and 101 from the private university). Approximately 32% of public university students and 37% of private university students ranked their own interest in pharmacy as the reason for undertaking pharmacy degree studies; 40.4% of public and 19.8% of private university respondents stated that they would enter a nonpharmacy-related career upon graduation if given the choice. Public university students ranked hospital pharmacy as their choice of first career setting (4.39, p = 0.001), while private students ranked community pharmacy first (4.1, p = 0.002). On a scale of 1 to 5, salary received the highest mean score (3.9 and 4.0, p = 0.854) as the extrinsic factor most influencing their career choice. Conclusions Final-year students at Malaysian public universities were most interested in hospital pharmacy practice as their first career step upon graduation, while private university students were most interested in community pharmacy. The top 3 extrinsic factors rated as significant in selecting a career destination were salary, benefits, and geographical location. PMID:21301600
Bosso, John A; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O; Ross, Leigh Ann
Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation.
Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.
Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.
Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.
Shepherd, Marvin D.; And Others
A survey of students in 57 schools of pharmacy investigated career aspirations, reasons for or against choosing an academic career, and the extent to which PharmD enrollments have affected other pharmacy graduate program enrollments. Results suggest pharmacology and pharmacy administration were most likely affected by the advent of PharmD…
Peter Bai James
Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of skilled pharmaceutical workforce in the African region, and this is partly due to a limited number of prospective students entering the profession. An understanding of the factors that influence the choice of pharmacy as a career is needed to attract highly motivated and skilled individuals into the profession. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess pharmacy students’ motivation to study pharmacy, their attitude and future career intentions in Sierra Leone. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate pharmacy students enrolled at the College of Medicine, and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone (COMAHS – USL was carried out between May and June 2015. Descriptive statistics, as well as chi-square and Fisher exact two-tailed tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Close to a quarter (24.3% of pharmacy students surveyed chose pharmacy as their preferred major. The choice of pharmacy as a preferred major was common among first-year students, (p=0.001, those who were married (p<0.001 and have had pharmacy practice experience (p<0.001. Motivation for choosing pharmacy was assessed based on three domains (education, personal and career-related factors.Students cited a subject teacher at school ̸ College (66.7% as the most education-related influence, while friends and family members (61.1% was the major personal-related factor. Also, students considered the desire for self-employment in a healthcare related job (27.8%, and excellent career opportunities (27.8% as the major career-related factors that influenced their choice of pharmacy as a preferred major. Medicine was the first choice of study among the majority (95% of students that chose pharmacy as a second choice when seeking admission into the university. Pharmacy students demonstrated a positive attitude toward the profession, and considered drug manufacturing (47.3% and hospital pharmacy (43
Pharmacy as a health profession has major responsibilities and contributions in maintaining health of the society. Thus, pharmacists have to maintain professional behaviour and attitude that is worthy of the respect the public has for the profession. Studies on pharmacy students' attitude and career choice are important to ...
Cain, Jeff; Romanelli, Frank; Smith, Kelly M
The constructs of academic entitlement and student consumerism refer to students' attitudes toward education as a commodity and the underlying belief that as consumers, they should be catered to and given the opportunity to participate in the education process according to their preferences. Most discussions regarding these attitudes are anecdotal, but the pervasiveness of these accounts and the troubling effects that ensue warrant attention. Grade inflation, student incivility, altered classroom practices, and decreased faculty morale are all potential aftereffects of teaching students who hold academic entitlement beliefs. Numerous factors are posited as attributing to academic entitlement including personal issues, societal pressures, and broad academic practices. This paper discusses these factors and offers faculty members and administrators recommendations regarding practices that may curb or alleviate issues associated with academically entitled students.
Willis, Sarah Caroline; Shann, Phillip; Hassell, Karen
The purpose of this article is to explore factors influencing career deciding amongst pharmacy students and graduates in the U.K. Group interviews were used to devise a topic guide for five subsequent focus groups with pharmacy students and graduates. Focus groups were tape-recorded, recordings transcribed, and transcripts analysed. Key themes and interlinking factors relating to pharmacy career deciding were identified in the transcripts, following a constructivist approach. Participants' described making a "good fit" between themselves, their experiences, social networks etc. and pharmacy. Central to a coherent career deciding narrative were: having a job on graduation; and the instrumental advantage of studying a vocational course. Focusing on career deciding of UK pharmacy students and graduates may limit the study's generalisability to other countries. However, our findings are relevant to those interested in understanding students' motivations for healthcare careers, since our results suggest that making a "good fit" describes a general process of matching between a healthcare career and personal experience. As we have found that pharmacy career deciding was not, usually, a planned activity, career advisors and those involved in higher education recruitment should take into account the roles played by personal preferences and values in choosing a degree course. A qualitative study like this can illustrate how career deciding occurs and provide insight into the process from a student's perspective. This can help inform guidance processes, selection to healthcare professions courses within the higher education sector, and stimulate debate amongst those involved with recruitment of healthcare workers about desirable motivators for healthcare careers.
Haines, Seena L; Summa, Maria A; Peeters, Michael J; Dy-Boarman, Eliza A; Boyle, Jaclyn A; Clifford, Kalin M; Willson, Megan N
The objective of this article is to provide an academic toolkit for use by colleges/schools of pharmacy to prepare student pharmacists/residents for academic careers. Through the American Association of Colleges of Pharmac (AACP) Section of Pharmacy Practice, the Student Resident Engagement Task Force (SRETF) collated teaching materials used by colleges/schools of pharmacy from a previously reported national survey. The SRETF developed a toolkit for student pharmacists/residents interested in academic pharmacy. Eighteen institutions provided materials; five provided materials describing didactic coursework; over fifteen provided materials for an academia-focused Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPE), while one provided materials for an APPE teaching-research elective. SRETF members created a syllabus template and sample lesson plan by integrating submitted resources. Submissions still needed to complete the toolkit include examples of curricular tracks and certificate programs. Pharmacy faculty vacancies still exist in pharmacy education. Engaging student pharmacists/residents about academia pillars of teaching, scholarship and service is critical for the future success of the academy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sholy, Lydia; Zeenny, Rony
To develop, implement, and assess student-learning outcomes from an assignment designed to expose first-year pharmacy students (P1) to a wide range of pharmacy career pathways. Students enrolled in a required Pharmacy Practice and Ethics course at the Lebanese American University chose 1 pharmacist career to investigate from a suggested list of 28 career pathways. Students completed a literature review on the selected career, interviewed a pharmacist practicing that career path in Lebanon, wrote a paper, and prepared and delivered a summary presentation to their classmates about the career pathway. Students peer evaluated their classmates after each presentation. More than 85% of the students scored ≥70% on the assignment based on their achievement of student learning outcomes. Responses on an anonymous questionnaire showed that more than 94.6% of students were satisfied with the extent to which the course allowed them to meet the established learning outcomes. A career exploration assignment provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to widen their knowledge and understanding of the different career pathways that are available for them.
Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca
To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.
Mar, Ellena; Barnett, Mitchell J; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R; Knapp, Katherine
To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses.
Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine
Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735
Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.
Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs. PMID:27168614
Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V
Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.
Payakachat, Nalin; Ounpraseuth, Songthip; Ragland, Denise; Murawski, Matthew M
To examine the perceived benefit of job and career satisfaction among pharmacist preceptors and to explore other factors that might influence satisfaction. A cross-sectional self-administered survey instrument was mailed to pharmacists in the South Central region of the United States who had active 2010 licenses to investigate whether being a pharmacist preceptor increases job and career satisfaction. Twenty-three percent of the 363 respondents were active preceptors and 62% of these reported that they had been preceptors at some point in the past. Being an active preceptor was significantly related to increased job satisfaction (p = 0.01) but not to career satisfaction. Having a perceived benefit of continuing education and being professionally challenged at work also were associated with increased job and career satisfaction (p job satisfaction.
King, C M; Oliver, E J; Jeffrey, L P
Personal and professional characteristics of men and women hospital pharmacy residents were studied to identify differences that could affect future hospital pharmacy practice. Residents in 111 ASHP-accredited pharmacy residency programs received a survey containing questions on demographic information, reasons for selecting a residency, areas of professional interest, postresidency career goals, responsibilities to home and family, and advantages and disadvantages associated with gender. Of 286 residents receiving questionnaires, 226 responded; the percentages of men and women responding corresponded to the ratio of men and women in hospital pharmacy residencies. While men and women expressed educational goals that were not significantly different, more men than women had earned or were in the process of earning advanced degrees. No significant differences were evident between men's and women's plans for marriage and children, but 73% of the women indicated that they would take time out from their practice to raise children, compared with only 9% of the men. The majority of residents did not think their gender affected them in their residency programs, but in professional interactions more men saw gender as an advantage and more women as a disadvantage. Significantly more than women aspired to be hospital pharmacy directors. The results suggest that men are obtaining advanced training closer to the time they graduate from pharmacy school and that in the future women competing for promotions may be older than men competing for comparable positions. Those planning pharmacy staffing should consider the needs of women, and men, who expect to take time out from their careers for family responsibilities and possibly seek part-time positions when they return to the work force.
Linn, Brooke A; Burton, Samantha J; Shepler, Brian M
To use parts of the APhA Career Pathway Evaluation Program for Pharmacy Professionals in a career development laboratory designed to provide students with relevant information that will help them prepare for successful careers across the profession of pharmacy. Students enrolled in the second professional year of pharmacy school participated in an interactive three-hour career development laboratory. Students completed the APhA Career Pathway Evaluation Program for Pharmacy Professionals Online Assessment Tool prior to the laboratory. In class, the students were randomized into eight groups. Two career profiles were assigned to each group for discussion during a thirty-minute brainstorming session. The groups reported their knowledge for each career profile to the entire class, and the instructors supplemented the discussion with details and more specific information about each profile. Two years of data were collected (n=300 students). One hundred and twenty four (41.3%) students responded to the voluntary post-laboratory survey questions. Overall, students rated the career pathway activities favorably with an average score of 8.13 out of 10. After participation in the discussion, 74 (59.7%) respondents indicated their career interests had been impacted. This career development laboratory is one example of how the APhA Career Pathway Evaluation Program for Pharmacy Professionals can be effectively incorporated into the PharmD curriculum in order to help students explore the various career options they might not have otherwise discovered on their own. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Background: In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce Objective: The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students’ career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. Methods: A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. Results: ‘Interest in health and medicine’ was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238. The majority of students were ‘somewhat satisfied’ with the choice of pharmacy (35.7% as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as ‘felt pharmacy is a good profession’ (p=0.003 while negative associations included ‘joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry’ (p=0.001. Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was ‘changing’ while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as ‘competitive’ and ‘research’ respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital
Shen, Grace; Fois, Romano; Nissen, Lisa; Saini, Bandana
In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students' perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students' current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce. The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students' career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. 'Interest in health and medicine' was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238). The majority of students were 'somewhat satisfied' with the choice of pharmacy (35.7%) as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as 'felt pharmacy is a good profession' (p=0.003) while negative associations included 'joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry' (p=0.001). Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was 'changing' while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as 'competitive' and 'research' respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital pharmacy. Complex factors including university experiences are involved in shaping
Lindsey, Merry L; de Castro Brás, Lisandra E
We adopted well-known physics equations to illustrate concepts for developing a successful academic career plan. Formulas for distance, force, momentum, and power are used to explain how to define goals and set a pace that maximizes success potential. Formulas for synergy, balance, and stress are used to highlight common obstacles encountered by both junior (untenured and early career) and established faculty and provide ways to circumvent or limit damage from setbacks. Combined, these formulas provide tips for thriving in an academic environment.
McElhaney, Ashley; Weber, Robert J
Pharmacy students typically become more focused on career planning and assessment in the final year of their PharmD training. Weighing career options in the advanced pharmacy practice experience year can be both exciting and stressful. The goal of this article is to provide a primer on how pharmacy students can assess how a residency can fit into career planning. This article will describe the various career paths available to graduating students, highlight ways in which a residency can complement career choices, review the current state of the job market for pharmacists, discuss the current and future plans for residency programs, and present thoughts from some current and former residents on why they chose to complete a residency. Most career paths require some additional training, and a residency provides appropriate experience very quickly compared to on-the-job training. Alternative plans to residency training must also be considered, as there are not enough residency positions for candidates. Directors of pharmacy must consider several factors when giving career advice on pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students; they should provide the students with an honest assessment of their work skills and their abilities to successfully complete a residency. This assessment will help the students to set a plan for improvement and give them a better chance at being matched to a pharmacy residency.
Rim, Matthew H; Thomas, Karen C; Chandramouli, Jane; Barrus, Stephanie A; Nickman, Nancy A
The implementation and quality assessment of a pharmacy services call center (PSCC) for outpatient pharmacies and specialty pharmacy services within an academic health system are described. Prolonged wait times in outpatient pharmacies or hold times on the phone affect the ability of pharmacies to capture and retain prescriptions. To support outpatient pharmacy operations and improve quality, a PSCC was developed to centralize handling of all outpatient and specialty pharmacy calls. The purpose of the PSCC was to improve the quality of pharmacy telephone services by (1) decreasing the call abandonment rate, (2) improving the speed of answer, (3) increasing first-call resolution, (4) centralizing all specialty pharmacy and prior authorization calls, (5) increasing labor efficiency and pharmacy capacities, (6) implementing a quality evaluation program, and (7) improving workplace satisfaction and retention of outpatient pharmacy staff. The PSCC centralized pharmacy calls from 9 pharmacy locations, 2 outpatient clinics, and a specialty pharmacy. Since implementation, the PSCC has achieved and maintained program goals, including improved abandonment rate, speed of answer, and first-call resolution. A centralized 24-7 support line for specialty pharmacy patients was also successfully established. A quality calibration program was implemented to ensure service quality and excellent patient experience. Additional ongoing evaluations measure the impact of the PSCC on improving workplace satisfaction and retention of outpatient pharmacy staff. The design and implementation of the PSCC have significantly improved the health system's patient experiences, efficiency, and quality. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chris W. Callaghan
Contribution/Value add: This study provides new insights into certain ‘crisis milestones’, or role conflicts or issues, that may need to be resolved or balanced before the career progression of academics can typically occur.
Lindfelt, Tristan A; Ip, Eric J; Barnett, Mitchell J
U.S. pharmacy school faculty were surveyed to assess their career satisfaction, lifestyle, and stress levels. A 48-item survey, administered through Qualtrics (Provo, UT), was sent to current members of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy and included questions regarding respondents' academic institution and appointment status; lifestyle traits; career satisfaction; work-life balance; neurologic and psychiatric diagnoses; use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco; and stress levels. of the 4787 faculty invited to participate in the survey, 811 usable surveys were collected (16.9% response rate). Nearly all respondents (95.0%) reported working 40 or more hours per week. The majority had an average daily one-way commute of less than 30 minutes (64.2%), slept 5.5-7.5 hours per night (74.8%), and exercised for no more than 120 minutes per week (61.8%). A majority of respondents (63.7%) reported being very or extremely satisfied with their current position in academia. Only 36.9% reported being very or extremely satisfied with their work-life balance. Mean perceived stress scores were near those found in the general adult population. Although most respondents reported seeing a primary care provider and dentist annually, other findings regarding preventive health measures were not as encouraging. A survey of pharmacy faculty in the United States revealed high levels of job satisfaction among respondents, but lower levels of satisfaction with work-life balance and comparable levels of stress to the general population were found. Administrators and stakeholders should explore options to improve lifestyle factors to decrease potential burnout among faculty. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the relationship between academic success and labor market outcomes among graduating pharmacy students. Unlike previous studies, this paper characterizes labor market outcome not only as an individual's starting salary, but also whether or not the student had a position secured at the time of graduation, whether or not a signing bonus was received, and the setting in which (she will practice. Methods: A standard exit survey was administered to graduating Doctor of Pharmacy students at a Midwestern, public university within two weeks of graduation. The relationship between academic success and initial labor market outcome was assessed using cross-tabulations, chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: There were no significant relationships between grade point averages and signing bonuses, starting salaries or employment offers. Students with higher grade point averages were less likely to work in chain community pharmacies, and more likely to work in a hospital or other health-system setting. Conclusions: The relationships between academic and direct measures of labor market outcomes (salary and bonuses were not necessarily positive, as standard economic theory predicts. Rather, the relationship is indirect, as it appears that students with greater academic success obtained employment in more clinical settings, which carry a different mix of pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits. Type: Original Research
Draugalis, JoLaine R; Plaza, Cecilia M; Taylor, Danielle A; Meyer, Susan M
To describe the status of women in pharmacy education with particular focus on a 10-year update of a previous study. Information was obtained from national databases, published reports, scholarly articles, and association websites. Comparisons were made between men and women regarding degree completion, rank, tenure status, leadership positions, research awards, salaries, and career advancement. There have been modest gains in the number of women serving as department chairs and deans. Salary disparities were found between men and women at several ranks within pharmacy practice. Men were more apt to be tenured or in tenure-track positions and received 89.4% of the national achievement awards tracked since 1981. The problem cannot be simply attributed to the pipeline of those entering academia. Barriers to advancement differ between men and women. We recommend that individuals, institutions, and associations implement strategies to decrease barriers and reduce bias against women.
Straus, Sharon E; Straus, Christine; Tzanetos, Katina
To review systematically the evidence about what factors influence the decision to choose or not choose a career in academic medicine. A systematic review of relevant literature from 1990 to May 2005. Searches of The Cochrane Library, Medline (using Ovid and PubMed) from 1990 to May 2005, and EMBASE from 1990 to May 2005 were completed to identify relevant studies that explored the influential factors. Additional articles were identified from searching the bibliographies of retrieved articles. We attempted to identify studies that included residents, fellows, or staff physicians. No restrictions were placed on the study methodologies identified and all articles presenting empirical evidence were retrieved. For cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies, minimum inclusion criteria were the presence of defined groups, and the ability to extract relevant data. For surveys that involved case series, minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the population, and the availability of extractable data. Minimum inclusion criteria for qualitative studies were descriptions of the sampling strategy and methods. The search identified 251 abstracts; 25 articles were included in this review. Completion of an MD with a graduate degree or fellowship program is associated with a career in academic medicine. Of the articles identified in this review, this finding is supported by the highest quality of evidence. Similarly, the completion of research and publication of this research in medical school and residency are associated with a career in academic medicine. The desire to teach, conduct research, and the intellectual stimulation and challenge provided in academia may also persuade people to choose this career path. The influence of a role model or a mentor was reported by physicians to impact their decision making. Trainees' interest in academic medicine wanes as they progress through their residency. In order to revitalize academic medicine, we must engage trainees
This study explores Korean academics' changes in research productivity by career stage. Career stage in this study is defined as a specific cohort based on one's length of job experience, with those in the same stage sharing similar interests, values, needs, and tasks; it is categorized into fledglings, maturing academics, established academics,…
Borges, Nicole J.; Navarro, Anita M.; Grover, Amelia C.
Purpose Despite recent efforts to understand the complex process of physician career development, the medical education community has a poor understanding of why, how, and when women physicians embark on a career in academic medicine. Method In 2010, the authors phone-interviewed women physicians in academic medicine regarding why, how, and when they chose an academic medicine career. Project investigators first individually and then collectively analyzed transcripts to identify themes in the data. Results Through analyzing the transcripts of the 53 interviews, the investigators identified five themes related to why women choose careers in academic medicine: fit, aspects of the academic health center environment, people, exposure, and clincial medicine. They identified five themes related to how women make the decision to enter academic medicine: change in specialty, dissatisfaction with former career, emotionality, parental influence, and decision-making styles. The authors also identified four themes regarding when women decide to enter academic medicine: as a practicing phyisican, fellow, resident, or medical student. Conclusions Choosing a career in academic medicine is greatly influenced by the environment in which one trains and by people—be they faculty, mentors, role models, or family. An interest in teaching is a primary reason women choose a career in academic medicine. Many women physicians entering acadmic medicine chose this after or during fellowship, which is when they became more aware of academic medicine as a possible career. For many women, choosing academic medicine was not necessarily an active, planned decision; rather it was serendipitous or circumstantial. PMID:22104052
Kandiko Howson, Camille Blackwell; Coate, Kelly Lynn; de St Croix, Tania
Drawing on 30 semi-structured interviews with women academics based in London higher education institutions in the UK, this paper investigates the gendered nature of the prestige economy in academia. We explore how mid-career academic women strategise their career development and the opportunities and barriers they perceive, particularly in relation to the accrual of academic esteem. Concept maps were used to facilitate dialogue about career plans and provided an artefact from the interviewee...
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Klaghofer, Richard
Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. Results The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. Conclusion The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia. PMID:18518972
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Klaghofer, Richard
Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis. Results The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues. Conclusion The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia.
Richards, Robin; McLeod, Robin; Latter, David; Keshavjee, Shaf; Rotstein, Ori; Fehlings, Michael G; Ahmed, Najma; Nathens, Avery; Rutka, James
In the absence of a defined retirement age, academic surgeons need to develop plans for transition as they approach the end of their academic surgical careers. The development of a plan for late career transition represents an opportunity for departments of surgery across Canada to initiate a constructive process in cooperation with the key stakeholders in the hospital or institution. The goal of the process is to develop an individual plan for each faculty member that is agreeable to the academic surgeon; informs the surgical leadership; and allows the late career surgeon, the hospital, the division and the department to make plans for the future. In this commentary, the literature on the science of aging is reviewed as it pertains to surgeons, and guidelines for late career transition planning are shared. It is hoped that these guidelines will be of some value to academic programs and surgeons across the country as late career transition models are developed and adopted.
Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen; Pohl, Shaunte; Mazan, Jennifer; Winkler, Susan
Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, ...
Barton, Christopher; Reeve, Joanne; Adams, Ann; McIntyre, Ellen
This study was undertaken to provide a snapshot of the academic primary health-care workforce in Australia and to provide some insight into research capacity in academic primary health care following changes to funding for this sector. A convenience sample of individuals self-identifying as working within academic primary health care (n=405) completed an anonymous online survey. Respondents were identified from several academic primary health-care mailing lists. The survey explored workforce demographics, clarity of career pathways, career trajectories and enablers/barriers to 'getting in' and 'getting on'. A mix of early career (41%), mid-career (25%) and senior academics (35%) responded. Early career academics tended to be female and younger than mid-career and senior academics, who tended to be male and working in 'balanced' (teaching and research) roles and listing medicine as their disciplinary background. Almost three-quarters (74%) indicated career pathways were either 'completely' or 'somewhat unclear', irrespective of gender and disciplinary backgrounds. Just over half (51%) had a permanent position. Males were more likely to have permanent positions, as were those with a medical background. Less than half (43%) reported having a mentor, and of the 57% without a mentor, more than two-thirds (69%) would like one. These results suggest a lack of clarity in career paths, uncertainty in employment and a large number of temporary (contract) or casual positions represent barriers to sustainable careers in academic primary health care, especially for women who are from non-medicine backgrounds. Professional development or a mentoring program for primary health-care academics was desired and may address some of the issues identified by survey respondents.
Chetta, Matthew D; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Diaz-Garcia, Rafael J; Kasten, Steven J
Plastic surgery residency program directors have an interest in recruiting applicants who show an interest in an academic practice. Medical school achievements (ie, United States Medical Licensing Examination® scores, publications, and Alpha Omega Alpha status) are metrics assessed to grade applicants but may not correlate with ultimately choosing an academic career. This study was designed to investigate factors influencing residents' choices for or against academic careers. A 25-item online questionnaire was designed to measure baseline interest in academic plastic surgery and factors that influence decisions to continue on or abandon that career path. This questionnaire was disseminated to the integrated/combined plastic surgery residents during the 2013 to 2014 academic year. One hundred twenty-five respondents indicated that they were currently interested in pursuing academic practice (n = 78) or had lost interest in academic practice (n = 47). Among all respondents, 92.8% (n = 116) stated they were interested in academic careers at the time of residency application, but one-third (n = 41) subsequently lost interest. Those residents who retained interest in academic careers indicated resident/medical student educational opportunities (57%) and complexity of patients (52%) as reasons. Those who lost interest cited a lack of autonomy (43%), publishing requirements (32%), and income discrepancy (26%) as reasons. Many residents report losing interest in academics during residency. Traditional metrics valued in the recruitment process may not serve as positive predictors of an academic career path. Reasons why residents lose interest are not easily correctable, but mentorship, adequate career counseling, and research opportunities during training remain factors that can be addressed across all residency programs.
Kalz, M. (2012, 8 March). Peer review - Why does it matter for your academic career? Presentation provided in the context of the Young Researchers Special Issue 2012 of the International Journal of Technology-Enhanced Learning (IJTEL).
Soethout, M.B.M.; Heijmans, M.W.; ten Cate, O.T.J.
Background: We know that medical students' biographical characteristics and academic achievement influence career preference. Less is known about the differential association of these characteristics with preference for distinct specialties at different stages of medical training. Aim: To
Jan 31, 2013 ... Keywords Absorbing Markov Chain; Academic Staff; Career Pattern; Grade; Faculty. INTRODUCTION ... faculty is created from the then Faculty of Science ..... who already have PhD with cognate teaching and research ...
... performance of undergraduate Pharmacy students of the University of Jos, Nigeria ... was conducted using self-completed questionnaires among Pharmacy students of ... Pharmacy students; Test Competence, Time Management; Test Anxiety ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.
Daly, Christopher J; Tierney, Sarah-Elizabeth L; O'Brien, Erin; Fiebelkorn, Karl D; Jacobs, David M
Objectives. To characterize pharmacy/MBA professionals during their entry-level and current positions and to describe their attitudes and perceptions toward their combined degree. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of University at Buffalo (UB) alumni who obtained both pharmacy and MBA degrees was used. An electronic survey was developed through collaboration with the UB School of Management and administered in winter 2015. Results. A total of 68/115 (59% response rate) pharmacy/MBA professionals responded to the survey. Post-graduate training was completed by 24% of respondents, and most commonly it was a residency program. After adjusting for inflation to 2014 dollars, the median entry-level salary for pharmacy/MBA professionals was $140,123 (mean = $144,327) and this increased to $179,947 (mean = $205,623) for those in their current position. Practice settings for entry-level professionals included pharmaceutical industry (25%) and chain pharmacies (18%). Most respondents believed that a combined degree helped in career advancement (85%) and made them more competitive in the job market (90%). Conclusion. Pharmacy/MBA professionals are well-compensated, work in a wide-range of professional settings, and have a high-level of satisfaction with their combined degree.
One of the primary topics discussed at the conference concerned career development, since most graduate students will not have the academic careers of their advisors. Goals included reviewing the primary functions of physicists in industry, evaluating how students are currently prepared for these careers, and identifying how to fill gaps in preparation. A number of non-academic physicists provided insight into meeting these goals. Most physics graduate programs in general do not purposely prepare students for a non-academic career. Strategies for overcoming this shortcoming include advising students about these careers and providing training on broadly valued professional skills such as written and verbal communication, time and project management, leadership, working in teams, innovation, product development, and proposal writing. Alumni and others from industry could provide guidance on careers and skills and should be invited to talk to students. Academic training could also better prepare students for non-academic careers by including engineering and cross disciplinary problem solving as well as incorporating software and toolsets common in industry.
Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen; Pohl, Shaunte; Mazan, Jennifer; Winkler, Susan
Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, service, and scholarship responsibilities, as well as outcomes before and after changes in appointment, are described. Advantages and disadvantages, including advice for other colleges of pharmacy, are presented. Alternate appointments may be a key factor in retaining highly qualified faculty members who continue to bring their expertise to teaching, precepting, and scholarship within a college or school of pharmacy.
Yoo, Sujin; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung
Objective. To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions of preceptorship.
Cumbler, Ethan; Yirdaw, Essey; Kneeland, Patrick; Pierce, Read; Rendon, Patrick; Herzke, Carrie; Jones, Christine D
Understanding the concept of career success is critical for hospital medicine groups seeking to create sustainably rewarding faculty positions. Conceptual models of career success describe both extrinsic (compensation and advancement) and intrinsic (career satisfaction and job satisfaction) domains. How hospitalists define career success for themselves is not well understood. In this study, we qualitatively explore perspectives on how early-career clinician-educators define career success. We developed a semistructured interview tool of open-ended questions validated by using cognitive interviewing. Transcribed interviews were conducted with 17 early-career academic hospitalists from 3 medical centers to thematic saturation. A mixed deductiveinductive, qualitative, analytic approach was used to code and map themes to the theoretical framework. The single most dominant theme participants described was "excitement about daily work," which mapped to the job satisfaction organizing theme. Participants frequently expressed the importance of "being respected and recognized" and "dissemination of work," which were within the career satisfaction organizing theme. The extrinsic organizing themes of advancement and compensation were described as less important contributors to an individual's sense of career success. Ambivalence toward the "academic value of clinical work," "scholarship," and especially "promotion" represented unexpected themes. The future of academic hospital medicine is predicated upon faculty finding career success. Clinician-educator hospitalists view some traditional markers of career advancement as relevant to success. However, early-career faculty question the importance of some traditional external markers to their personal definitions of success. This work suggests that the selfconcept of career success is complex and may not be captured by traditional academic metrics and milestones. © 2018 Society of Hospital Medicine
Allen, George P; Moore, W Mark; Moser, Lynette R; Neill, Kathryn K; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Bell, Hershey S
A variety of changes are facing leaders in academic pharmacy. Servant and transformational leadership have attributes that provide guidance and inspiration through these changes. Servant leadership focuses on supporting and developing the individuals within an institution, while transformational leadership focuses on inspiring followers to work towards a common goal. This article discusses these leadership styles and how they may both be ideal for leaders in academic pharmacy.
Allen, George P.; Moore, W. Mark; Moser, Lynette R.; Neill, Kathryn K.; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Bell, Hershey S.
A variety of changes are facing leaders in academic pharmacy. Servant and transformational leadership have attributes that provide guidance and inspiration through these changes. Servant leadership focuses on supporting and developing the individuals within an institution, while transformational leadership focuses on inspiring followers to work towards a common goal. This article discusses these leadership styles and how they may both be ideal for leaders in academic pharmacy.
Allen, George P.; Moore, W. Mark; Neill, Kathryn K.; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Bell, Hershey S.
A variety of changes are facing leaders in academic pharmacy. Servant and transformational leadership have attributes that provide guidance and inspiration through these changes. Servant leadership focuses on supporting and developing the individuals within an institution, while transformational leadership focuses on inspiring followers to work towards a common goal. This article discusses these leadership styles and how they may both be ideal for leaders in academic pharmacy. PMID:27756921
Roč. 16, 2-3 (2017), s. 166-182 ISSN 1474-9041 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LE12003 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Academic careers * academic couples * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology
Larkin, Jacqui; Neumann, Ruth
The academic workforce is among the oldest (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005) and arguably has the most highly qualified professionals within Australia. Yet career management for this group is seldom discussed. This paper considers Australia's ageing academic work-force and the human resource management challenges and implications this poses for…
Vale, Ronald D
Many years of training are required to obtain a job as an academic scientist. Is this investment of time and effort worthwhile? My answer is a resounding "yes." Academic scientists enjoy tremendous freedom in choosing their research and career path, experience unusual camaraderie in their lab, school, and international community, and can contribute to and enjoy being part of this historical era of biological discovery. In this essay, I further elaborate by listing my top ten reasons why an academic job is a desirable career for young people who are interested in the life sciences.
Bajis, Dalia; Chaar, Betty; Basheti, Iman A; Moles, Rebekah
In an ever-changing environment, pharmacy education is in the race to catch up and excel to produce competent pharmacists. Examining academic institutions, including schools of pharmacy, their internal systems and framework, it seems appropriate to view these institutions using multiple lenses. Bolman and Deal conceptualized a method to examine organizations using four constructs (structural, human resource, political, and symbolic). The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), with deep-rooted pharmacy education and practice was the setting for this research. To explore factors affecting academic reform in undergraduate pharmacy education in the EMR from stakeholders' and students' perspectives; and to apply Bolman and Deal's four-frame organizational change model to explore how these issues might be viewed. A multiple-method approach was employed and involved collecting, analyzing and integrating qualitative semi-structured interview data with open-ended questions in a survey. Cross-sector stakeholder sample from various EMR countries was recruited and interviewed. Final year pharmacy students from one school of pharmacy in Jordan were surveyed. Emergent themes were indicative that academic reform was addressed by all frames of the Bolman and Deal model. Structural and political frames received substantial weighing pointing to the importance of curricular reform, collaboration and leadership. A need for skillful and role-model teaching academic staff was highlighted, and in harmony with the human resource frame. Issues within the symbolic frame were readily apparent in the data and spanned the other three frames in relation to heritage, customs and cultural barriers. Issues pertinent to academic reform in pharmacy were presented. Viewing change in pharmacy schools from multiple perspectives highlighted the need for structural changes to pharmacy programs, human resource management, political will, leadership, and collaboration. The importance of understanding cultural
Full Text Available Background: This study sought to investigate the evaluation of academic achievement, academic motivation and hope for the future and life satisfaction of Pharmacy Students of the Medical Sciences University of Ahvaz and their relationship with the school years passed.Methods: The samples in this study were all pharmacy students studying in the College of Pharmacy, the Medical University of Ahvaz in the year 93-94. Moreover, standard questionnaires were used by this study for collecting data. In order to collect data with regard to hope, life satisfaction, motivation and academic satisfaction, the questionnaire of Snyder hope Scale (1991, Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire (SWLS, lepper motivation scale (2005 and Bahrani and Jokar questionnaire (1378 were used respectively.Moreover, data on Academic performance were acquired using the score of the students and the number of students dropping out in each entry and the data were analysed by using SPSS 20.Results: The results did not indicate any significant different in an investigation of five class of students and from four variables of hope, Academic motivation, academic achievement, life satisfaction. But contrast test for combined group showed that academic motivation and academic performance in freshmen students are significantly higher than the other four inputs.Third-year students possess less Academic motivation than other students.Senior students' Academic performance was also significantly lower than of students from other school years.Conclusion: freshmen students face challenges of the new environment, and this affects their academic performance. Besides in the third year of pharmacy school curriculum, pharmacy students pass the basic exam and the main pharmaceutical courses start for them, this might be the reason that their intrinsic motivation increase.
Desselle, Shane; Rosenthal, Meagen; Holmes, Erin R; Andrews, Brienna; Lui, Julia; Raja, Leela
Objective. To develop a measure of organizational culture in academic pharmacy and identify characteristics of an academic pharmacy program that would be impactful for internal (eg, students, employees) and external (eg, preceptors, practitioners) clients of the program. Methods. A three-round Delphi procedure of 24 panelists from pharmacy schools in the U.S. and Canada generated items based on the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP), which were then evaluated and refined for inclusion in subsequent rounds. Items were assessed for appropriateness and impact. Results. The panel produced 35 items across six domains that measured organizational culture in academic pharmacy: competitiveness, performance orientation, social responsibility, innovation, emphasis on collegial support, and stability. Conclusion. The items generated require testing for validation and reliability in a large sample to finalize this measure of organizational culture.
Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...
Atkinson, Jeffrey; de Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie
This paper looks at the opinions of 241 European academics (who provide pharmacy education), and of 258 European community pharmacists (who apply it), on competences for pharmacy practice. A proposal for competences was generated by a panel of experts using Delphi methodology. Once finalized, the proposal was then submitted to a large, European-wide community of academics and practicing pharmacists in an additional Delphi round. Academics and community pharmacy practitioners recognized the importance of the notion of patient care competences, underlining the nature of the pharmacist as a specialist of medicines. The survey revealed certain discrepancies. Academics placed substantial emphasis on research, pharmaceutical technology, regulatory aspects of quality, etc., but these were ranked much lower by community pharmacists who concentrated more on patient care competences. In a sub-analysis of the data, we evaluated how perceptions may have changed since the 1980s and the introduction of the notions of competence and pharmaceutical care. This was done by splitting both groups into respondents 40 years old. Results for the subgroups were essentially statistically the same but with some different qualitative tendencies. The results are discussed in the light of the different conceptions of the professional identity of the pharmacist. PMID:28970385
Full Text Available This paper looks at the opinions of 241 European academics (who provide pharmacy education, and of 258 European community pharmacists (who apply it, on competences for pharmacy practice. A proposal for competences was generated by a panel of experts using Delphi methodology. Once finalized, the proposal was then submitted to a large, European-wide community of academics and practicing pharmacists in an additional Delphi round. Academics and community pharmacy practitioners recognized the importance of the notion of patient care competences, underlining the nature of the pharmacist as a specialist of medicines. The survey revealed certain discrepancies. Academics placed substantial emphasis on research, pharmaceutical technology, regulatory aspects of quality, etc., but these were ranked much lower by community pharmacists who concentrated more on patient care competences. In a sub-analysis of the data, we evaluated how perceptions may have changed since the 1980s and the introduction of the notions of competence and pharmaceutical care. This was done by splitting both groups into respondents < 40 and > 40 years old. Results for the subgroups were essentially statistically the same but with some different qualitative tendencies. The results are discussed in the light of the different conceptions of the professional identity of the pharmacist.
Cochran, Amalia; Hauschild, Tricia; Elder, William B; Neumayer, Leigh A; Brasel, Karen J; Crandall, Marie L
Women represent roughly 50% of US medical students and one third of US surgery residents. Within academic surgery departments, however, women are disproportionately underrepresented, particularly at senior levels. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that female surgeons perceive different barriers to academic careers relative to their male colleagues. A modified version of the Career Barriers Inventory-Revised was administered to senior surgical residents and early-career surgical faculty members at 8 academic medical centers using an online survey tool. Likert-type scales were used to measure respondents' agreement with each survey item. Fisher's exact test was used to identify significant differences on the basis of gender. Respondents included 70 women (44 residents, 26 faculty members) and 84 men (41 residents, 43 faculty members). Women anticipated or perceived active discrimination in the form of being treated differently and experiencing negative comments about their sex, findings that differed notably from those for male counterparts. Sex-based negative attitudes inhibited the career aspirations of female surgeons. The presence of overt and implicit bias resulted in a sense that sex is a barrier to female surgeons' career development in academic surgery. No differences were observed between male and female respondents with regard to career preparation or structural barriers. Female academic surgeons experience challenges that are perceived to differ from their male counterparts. Women who participated in this study reported feeling excluded from the dominant culture in departments of surgery. This study may help guide transformative initiatives within academic surgery departments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Higher education institutions need to identify, and fami- .... ment to the organisation, declining psychological and physical health, problematic inter- ... More research focusing on the quality of worklife of academics within the South African .... panel concerned to determine whether they understood the question, before being ...
Draugalis, JoLaine Reierson; Plaza, Cecilia M
To provide a longitudinal description of the variety of career paths and preparation strategies of pharmacy deans. A descriptive cross-sectional study design using survey research methodology was used. Chief executive officer (CEO) deans at every full and associate member institution of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) in the United States as of May 1, 2009, were potential subjects. The database housed 90.3% (N = 93) of all current (excluding interim/acting) CEO deans. Of the 4 cohorts across time (1991, 1996, 2002, and 2009 snapshots), the 2009 cohort had the highest percentage of deans following either the hierarchical or nontraditional career paths. Deans named since 2002 have spent less time collectively in the professoriate than cohorts before them. One reason for this is the increase in the number of deans that followed nontraditional career paths and who spent little or no time in the professoriate prior to their first deanship. This also could be due to the increased demand for individuals to serve as dean due to retirements and the creation of new institutions.
Tong, Carl W; Madhur, Meena S; Rzeszut, Anne K; Abdalla, Marwah; Abudayyeh, Islam; Alexanderson, Erick; Buber, Jonathan; Feldman, Dmitriy N; Gopinathannair, Rakesh; Hira, Ravi S; Kates, Andrew M; Kessler, Thorsten; Leung, Steve; Raj, Satish R; Spatz, Erica S; Turner, Melanie B; Valente, Anne Marie; West, Kristin; Sivaram, Chittur A; Hill, Joseph A; Mann, Douglas L; Freeman, Andrew M
Early-career academic cardiologists, who many believe are an important component of the future of cardiovascular care, face myriad challenges. The Early Career Section Academic Working Group of the American College of Cardiology, with senior leadership support, assessed the progress of this cohort from 2013 to 2016 with a global perspective. Data consisted of accessing National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute public information, data from the American Heart Association and international organizations, and a membership-wide survey. Although the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute increased funding of career development grants, only a small number of early-career American College of Cardiology members have benefited as funding of the entire cohort has decreased. Personal motivation, institutional support, and collaborators continued to be positive influential factors. Surprisingly, mentoring ceased to correlate positively with obtaining external grants. The totality of findings suggests that the status of early-career academic cardiologists remains challenging; therefore, the authors recommend a set of attainable solutions. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arokiasamy, Lawrence; Ismail, Maimunah; Ahmad, Aminah; Othman, Jamilah
Purpose: This paper aims to examine the influence of individual and organizational variables on the career advancement of academics in Malaysian private universities. Design/methodology/approach: A correlation study was conducted in six private universities. Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The dependent…
The study examined career choice and its influence on academic performance of library and information science students in the University of Benin. Questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents. The entire population was used as sample because of the size of the population and the simple ...
Lin, Steven; Nguyen, Cathina; Walters, Emily; Gordon, Paul
Worsening faculty shortages in medical schools and residency programs are threatening the US medical education infrastructure. Little is known about the factors that influence the decision of family medicine residents to choose or not choose academic careers. Our study objective was to answer the following question among family medicine residents: "What is your greatest concern or fear about pursuing a career in academic family medicine?" Participants were family medicine residents who attended the Faculty for Tomorrow Workshop at the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine Annual Spring Conference in 2016 and 2017. Free responses to the aforementioned prompt were analyzed using a constant comparative method and grounded theory approach. A total of 156 participants registered for the workshops and 95 (61%) answered the free response question. Eight distinct themes emerged from the analysis. The most frequently recurring theme was "lack of readiness or mentorship," which accounted for nearly one-third (31%) of the codes. Other themes included work-life balance and burnout (17%), job availability and logistics (15%), lack of autonomy or flexibility (11%), competing pressures/roles (10%), lower financial rewards (4%), politics and bureaucracy (4%), and research (3%). To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify barriers and disincentives to pursuing a career in academic medicine from the perspective of family medicine residents. There may be at least eight major obstacles, for which we summarize and consider potential interventions. More research is needed to understand why residents choose, or don't choose, academic careers.
Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco
This paper investigates the determinants of professors’ career advancement in Italian universities. From the analyses, it emerges that the fundamental determinant of an academic candidate’s success is not scientific merit, but rather the number of years that the candidate has belonged to the same...
Kodama, Corinne M.; Huynh, Jill
Academic and career development for Asian American students is complicated by cultural influences, interdependence with family, and racial stereotyping. This chapter highlights research, theory, and practice to help educators rethink traditional advising approaches to more appropriately work with Asian American students as they navigate their…
Heijstra, Thamar Melanie; Steinthorsdóttir, Finnborg Salome; Einarsdóttir, Thorgerdur
Internationalisation, competition and performance orientation are nowadays essential in the managing and financing of universities. This pattern has intensified with the austerity measures and fiscal consolidation that followed the financial crisis in 2008. This article examines the academic labour process and career making of academics from a…
Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Chahla, Rose
Career planning courses are one of the most effective ways to improve career development, and the benefits to career decision-making are well documented. The research base regarding whether career courses contribute to academic outcomes is less well-developed. Although recent findings suggest that career courses may improve retention in the first-…
Adams, Susan M.; Zanzi, Alberto
Explores the extent to which academic offerings are serving the consulting industry and identifies ways that academia can help. The numbers of management consulting courses, field experiences in consulting and consulting concentrations by graduate business schools were tracked over a three-year period to assess the current state of offerings. A…
Bennett, David; Wellman, Greg; Mahmood, Maysaa; Freye, Ryan; Remund, Daniel; Samples, Phil L
To explore variables relevant to transition to civilian pharmacy career path for retiring military pharmacists. A cross-sectional survey was designed to collect information from retired military pharmacists including demographics, military service information, postretirement employment and perceptions of transition, satisfaction, level of responsibility, work environment, rewards (level of financial compensation, opportunities for professional development and career advancement, health benefits), and level of supervisory support. The questionnaire also included additional items asking about their perception of their military experience, transition to civilian work and the impact the military career had on their personal and family life. Respondents included 140 retired pharmacists from the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, or Coast Guard. Factors found to be significant predictors of transition to civilian career included: bureaucracy in current job, time elapsed since retirement, extent to which an individual misses military structure and chain of command, access to military facilities and Veterans Administration benefits, and reporting little or no stress in committed long-term personal relationship while in the military. Findings suggest that the majority of retired military pharmacists perceived the transition to civilian professional sector was about what they expected or easier than expected. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Timothy R. Ulbrich
Full Text Available Objective: To determine any differences in career paths and career attributes of pharmacists who have completed a PGY1 community pharmacy residency program (CPRP as compared to those that have not completed a PGY1 CPRP. Methods: A web-based survey evaluating various aspects of community pharmacists' careers was distributed to 274 CPRP graduates in addition to a random sample of 7,376 community pharmacists. The survey contained 32 questions evaluating various career attributes. Questions that assessed level of agreement were on a 6-point Likert-type Scale (1=strongly disagree; 6=strongly agree. Results: A total of 353 participants completed the survey, with 224 indicating that they had not completed a CPRP. Pharmacists who completed a CPRP responded that they spend significantly more time on patient care services, teaching, and research, and spend less time dispensing medications compared to those that have not completed a CPRP. Compared to those that did not complete a CPRP, CPRP graduates were less likely to agree that current level of workload negatively impacts job performance, motivation to work, job satisfaction, mental/emotional health, and physical health. Conclusion: Pharmacists completing a CPRP noted significant differences in their current employment and job responsibilities. Additional expansion and education regarding the importance of CPRPs should be considered. Type: Original Research
Jarvis, Phillip S.
There has been a renaissance in the thinking about career development. It is becoming accepted that information is not enough; in addition to academic and technical skills, youth and adults need to learn life/work designing and building skills to become healthy, productive, and self-reliant citizens. Despite the fact that Canadian students have…
Petersen, Alexander; Riccaboni, Massimo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Pammolli, Fabio
Recent shifts in the business structure of universities and a bottleneck in the supply of tenure track positions are two issues that threaten to change the longstanding patronage system in academia and affect the overall potential of science. We analyze the longitudinal publication rate ni(t) on the 1-year scale for 300 physicists i=1...300. For most careers analyzed, we observe cumulative production acceleration Ni(t) Ait^αi with αi>1, reflecting the benefits of learning and collaboration spillovers which constitute a cumulative advantage. We find that the variance in production scales with collaboration radius size Si as 2̂i˜Si^ψ with 0.4 competitive professions and hinder the upward mobility of young scientists.
Yoo, Sujin; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung
To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists' perceptions of preceptorship. We surveyed a convenience sample of 200 community pharmacists who graduated from a 4-year program who were participating in a continuing education program for clinical pharmacy as organized by the Daejeon branch of the Korea Pharmaceutical Association in 2011. Twenty-one questions were asked about the academic gap, needs for an education program, preceptorship, and medication therapy management services. International precedents were examined through a literature review to glean ideas of how to bridge the academic gap between the 4- and 6-year programs. In total, 132 pharmacists answered the survey (return rate=66.0%). The survey findings included problems caused by the academic gap, high need for an adequate education program, low acceptability of preceptorship, and the possibility of medication therapy management services. US-based, non-traditional PharmD programs and new curriculum-support training in Japan provided examples of how the academic gap has been successfully bridged. Nationwide efforts and government support are urgently required to close the academic gap, and experiential education should be included in transitional programs for 4-year pharmacy program pharmacists.
Goldsmith, Carroll-Ann; Tran, Thao T; Tran, Linh
To develop and implement an active, hands-on program for underrepresented minority (URM) seventh grade students and to determine if participation in the program increased interest in health care careers and understanding of pharmacy and physician assistant (PA) professions. A hands-on educational program was developed in conjunction with local middle school administrators and staff for URM 7th grade students. The program was designed to be hands-on and focus on pharmacy and PA laboratory skills. A discussion component was included, allowing participants to interact personally with pharmacy and PA students and faculty members. Students' responses to survey questions about interest in health care careers and knowledge about health professions were compared before and after 2 separate offerings of the program. After the program, significant increases were seen in participants' understanding of the pharmacy and PA professions. An increased percentage of participants reported interest in health care careers after the program than before the program. Introducing middle school-aged URM students to the pharmacy and PA professions through a hands-on educational program increased interest in, and knowledge of, these professions.
Goldsmith, Carroll-Ann; Tran, Thao T.; Tran, Linh
Objective. To develop and implement an active, hands-on program for underrepresented minority (URM) seventh grade students and to determine if participation in the program increased interest in health care careers and understanding of pharmacy and physician assistant (PA) professions.
McLaughlin, Milena M; Masic, Dalila; Gettig, Jacob P
Letters of recommendation (LORs) are a critical component for differentiating among similarly qualified pharmacy residency candidates. These letters contain information that is difficult to ascertain from curricula vitae and pharmacy school transcripts. LOR writers may use any words or phrases appropriate for each candidate as there is no set framework for LORs. The objective of this study was to characterize descriptive themes in postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) pharmacy residency candidates' LORs and to examine which themes of PGY-1 pharmacy residency candidates' LORs are predictive of an interview invitation at an academically affiliated residency program. LORs for candidates from the Pharmacy Online Residency Centralized Application System (PhORCAS) from 2013 and 2014 for the Midwestern University PGY-1 Pharmacy Residency were analyzed. LOR characteristics and descriptive themes were collected. All scores for candidate characteristics and overall PhORCAS recommendation were also recorded. A total of 351 LORs for 111 candidates from 2013 (n = 47 candidates) and 2014 (n = 64 candidates) were analyzed; 36 (32.4%) total candidates were offered an interview. Themes that were identified as predictors of an interview included a higher median (interquartile range) number of standout words (3 words [1.3-4] vs 3.8 words [2.5-5.5], P < .01) and teaching references (3.7 words [2.7-6] vs 5.7 words [3.7-7.8], P = .01). For this residency program, standout words and teaching references were important when offering interviews.
McLaughlin, Milena M; Skoglund, Erik; Bergman, Scott; Scheetz, Marc H
A program to promote research by pharmacy students created through the collaboration of an academic medical center and a college of pharmacy is described. In 2009, Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy and Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) expanded their existing partnership by establishing a program to increase opportunities for pharmacy students to conduct clinical-translational research. All professional year 1, 2, or 3 students at the college, as well as professional year 4 students on rotation at NMH, can participate in the program. Central to the program's infrastructure is the mentorship of student leads by faculty- and hospital-based pharmacists. The mentors oversee the student research projects and guide development of poster presentations; student leads mentor junior students and assist with orientation and training activities. Publication of research findings in the peer-reviewed literature is a key program goal. In the first four years after program implementation, participation in a summer research program grew nearly 10-fold (mainly among incoming professional year 2 or 3 students, and student poster presentations at national pharmacy meetings increased nearly 20-fold; the number of published research articles involving student authors increased from zero in 2009 to three in 2012 and two in 2013. A collaborative program between an academic medical center and a college of pharmacy has enabled pharmacy students to conduct research at the medical center and has been associated with increases in the numbers of poster presentations and publications involving students. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent academics in the early career phase at a South African higher education institution are committed to the institution in question and the impact which this commitment has on labour turnover. More than 21% of the original respondents left the institution while this research was still underway. Insufficient financial remuneration was the most important reason why the respondents considered leaving the institution.
Hohmeier, Kenneth C; Borja-Hart, Nancy; Cooper, Maureen; Kirby, James; Fisher, Cindy
To determine pharmacist career paths and resident perceptions after completion of a PGY1 community pharmacy residency with a national supermarket pharmacy chain. Cross-sectional nationwide survey. Overall, 65% (n = 24) of residents who responded accepted a position with Kroger immediately after graduation. When asked about the degree of value the residency had on obtaining the resident's ideal position, 29 (76%) reported that it was "very valuable" and the remaining 9 (24%) reported that it was "somewhat valuable." Positions that these pharmacists held immediately after residency completion were: clinical pharmacist (clinical coordinators, patient care specialists, or patient care managers; 54%), staff pharmacist (21%), split/mixed (mixed clinical and staffing components; 21%), and pharmacy manager (4%). Residency trained pharmacists were retained by the pharmacy chain where they practiced, and the majority of those pharmacists held split or full-time clinical pharmacist roles within the chain supermarket pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yanofsky, Samuel D; Voytko, Mary Lou; Tobin, Joseph R; Nyquist, Julie G
Career development is essential and has the potential to assist in building a sustained faculty within academic departments of Anesthesiology. Career development is essential for growth in academic medicine. Close attention to the details involved in career management, goal setting as part of career planning, and professional networking are key elements. This article examines the specific educational strategies involved in a 120 minute workshop divided into four 25 minute segments with 20 minutes at the end for discussion for training junior faculty in career development. The teaching methods include 1) brief didactic presentations, 2) pre-workshop completion of two professional development tools, 3) facilitated small group discussion using trained facilitators and 4) use of a commitment to change format. Three major learning tools were utilized in conjunction with the above methods: a professional network survey, a career planning and development form and a commitment to change form. Forty one participants from 2009 reported 80 projected changes in their practice behaviors in relation to career management: Build or enhance professional network and professional mentoring (36.3%); Set career goals, make a plan, follow though, collaborate, publish (35.1%); Increase visibility locally or nationally (10.0%); Building core skills, such as clinical, teaching, leading (36.3%); Identify the criteria for promotion in own institution (5.0%); Improved methods of documentation (2.5%). Over the past two years, the workshop has been very well received by junior faculty, with over 95% marking each of the following items as excellent or good (presentation, content, audiovisuals and objectives met). The challenge for continuing development and promotion of academic anesthesiologists lies in the explicit training of faculty for career advancement. Designing workshops using educational tools to promote a reflective process of the faculty member is the one method to meet this
Curtin, Nicola; Malley, Janet; Stewart, Abigail J.
We know little about the role of faculty mentoring in the development of interest in pursuing an academic career among doctoral students. Drawing on Social Cognitive Career Theory, this study examined the relationships between different kinds of mentoring (instrumental, psychosocial, and sponsorship) and academic career self-efficacy, interests,…
Williams, Jannine; Mavin, Sharon
Within the academic career literature, disabled academics are under-researched, despite calls for career theory development through the exploration of marginalized groups' career experiences and the boundaries which shape these experiences. Here, boundaries refer to the symbolic resources which become reified to construct social boundaries…
Murray, D. P.; Veeger, A. I.; Grossman-Garber, D.
To a greater extent than most science programs, geology is underrepresented in K-12 curricula and the media. Thus potential majors have scant knowledge of academic requirements and career trajectories, and their idea of what geologists do--if they have one at all--is outdated. We have addressed these concerns by developing a dynamic, web-based academic roadmap for current and prospective students, their families, and others who are contemplating careers in the geosciences. The goals of this visually attractive "educational pathway" are to not only improve student recruitment and retention, but to empower student learning by creating better communication and advising tools that can render our undergraduate program transparent for learners and their families. Although we have developed academic roadmaps for four environmental and life science programs at the University of Rhode Island, we focus here on the roadmap for the geosciences, which illustrates educational pathways along the academic and early-career continuum for current and potential (i.e., high school) students who are considering the earth sciences. In essence, the Geosciences Academic Roadmap is a "one-stop'" portal to the discipline. It includes user- friendly information about our curriculum, outcomes (which at URI are tightly linked to performance in courses and the major), extracurricular activities (e.g., field camp, internships), careers, graduate programs, and training. In the presentation of this material extensive use is made of streaming video, interviews with students and earth scientists, and links to other relevant sites. Moreover, through the use of "Hot Topics", particular attention is made to insure that examples of geoscience activities are not only of relevance to today's students, but show geologists using the modern methods of the discipline in exciting ways. Although this is a "work-in-progress", evaluation of the sites, by high school through graduate students, has been strongly
Assemi, Mitra; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Sowinski, Kevin M; Corelli, Robin L
Objective. To characterize the educational background and academic rank of faculty members in US schools of pharmacy, estimate the extent to which they are employed by institutions where they received previous training, and determine whether differences in degree origin and rank exist between faculty members in established (≤1995) vs newer programs. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty database and demographic information from the public domain. Results. Among 5516 faculty members, 50.3% held two or more types of degrees. Established schools had a higher median number of faculty members and a higher mean faculty rank than did newer schools. Conclusion. The difference in mean faculty rank highlights the shortage of experienced faculty members in newer schools. Future research efforts should investigate educational attainment in correlation to other faculty and school characteristics and prospectively track and report trends related to pharmacy faculty members composition.
Knoer, Scott J; Pastor, John D; Phelps, Pamela K
The development and implementation of a new pharmacy practice model at an academic medical center are described. Before the model change, decentralized pharmacists responsible for order entry and verification and clinical specialists were both present on the care units. Staff pharmacists were responsible for medication distribution and sterile product preparation. The decentralized pharmacists handling orders were not able to use their clinical training, the practice model was inefficient, and few clinical services were available during evenings and weekends. A task force representing all pharmacy department roles developed a process and guiding principles for the model change, collected data, and decided on a model. Teams consisting of decentralized pharmacists, decentralized pharmacy technicians, and team leaders now work together to meet patients' pharmacy needs and further departmental safety, quality, and cost-saving goals. Decentralized service hours have been expanded through operational efficiencies, including use of automation (e.g., computerized provider order entry, wireless computers on wheels used during rounds with physician teams). Nine clinical specialist positions were replaced by five team leader positions and four pharmacists functioning in decentralized roles. Additional staff pharmacist positions were shifted into decentralized roles, and the hospital was divided into areas served by teams including five to eight pharmacists. Technicians are directly responsible for medication distribution. No individual's job was eliminated. The new practice model allowed better alignment of staff with departmental goals, expanded pharmacy hours and services, more efficient medication distribution, improved employee engagement, and a staff succession plan.
Deiorio, Nicole M; Carney, Patricia A; Kahl, Leslie E; Bonura, Erin M; Juve, Amy Miller
Individualized education is emerging as an innovative model for physician training. This requires faculty coaching to guide learners' achievements in academic performance, competency development, and career progression. In addition, coaching can foster self-reflection and self-monitoring using a data-guided approach to support lifelong learning. Coaching differs from mentoring or advising, and its application in medical education is novel. Because of this, definitions of the concept and the constructs of coaching as applied to medical education are needed to accurately assess the coaching relationship and coaching processes. These can then be linked to learner outcomes to inform how coaching serves as a modifier of academic and competency achievement and career satisfaction. We developed definitions and constructs for academic coaching in medical education based on review of existing education and non-education coaching literature. These constructs focus on 1) establishing relationship principles, 2) conducting learner assessments, 3) developing and implementing an action plan, and 4) assessing results and revising plans accordingly. Coaching is emerging as an important construct in the context of medical education. This article lays the vital groundwork needed for evaluation of coaching programs aimed at producing outstanding physicians.
Nicole M. Deiorio
Full Text Available Background: Individualized education is emerging as an innovative model for physician training. This requires faculty coaching to guide learners’ achievements in academic performance, competency development, and career progression. In addition, coaching can foster self-reflection and self-monitoring using a data-guided approach to support lifelong learning. Context: Coaching differs from mentoring or advising, and its application in medical education is novel. Because of this, definitions of the concept and the constructs of coaching as applied to medical education are needed to accurately assess the coaching relationship and coaching processes. These can then be linked to learner outcomes to inform how coaching serves as a modifier of academic and competency achievement and career satisfaction. Innovation: We developed definitions and constructs for academic coaching in medical education based on review of existing education and non-education coaching literature. These constructs focus on 1 establishing relationship principles, 2 conducting learner assessments, 3 developing and implementing an action plan, and 4 assessing results and revising plans accordingly. Implication: Coaching is emerging as an important construct in the context of medical education. This article lays the vital groundwork needed for evaluation of coaching programs aimed at producing outstanding physicians.
Deiorio, Nicole M.; Carney, Patricia A.; Kahl, Leslie E.; Bonura, Erin M.; Juve, Amy Miller
Background Individualized education is emerging as an innovative model for physician training. This requires faculty coaching to guide learners’ achievements in academic performance, competency development, and career progression. In addition, coaching can foster self-reflection and self-monitoring using a data-guided approach to support lifelong learning. Context Coaching differs from mentoring or advising, and its application in medical education is novel. Because of this, definitions of the concept and the constructs of coaching as applied to medical education are needed to accurately assess the coaching relationship and coaching processes. These can then be linked to learner outcomes to inform how coaching serves as a modifier of academic and competency achievement and career satisfaction. Innovation We developed definitions and constructs for academic coaching in medical education based on review of existing education and non-education coaching literature. These constructs focus on 1) establishing relationship principles, 2) conducting learner assessments, 3) developing and implementing an action plan, and 4) assessing results and revising plans accordingly. Implication Coaching is emerging as an important construct in the context of medical education. This article lays the vital groundwork needed for evaluation of coaching programs aimed at producing outstanding physicians. PMID:27914193
Bonanno, Helen; Krass, Ines; Scouller, Karen; Smith, Lorraine
Objectives To assess undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty. Methods A questionnaire was administered to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students to determine their levels of awareness of university policy concerning academic honesty; attitudes to plagiarism by rating the acceptability of a range of plagiarizing and cheating practices; and choice of appropriate penalties for a first and second occurrence. The choice of behaviors in response to a scenario about the preparation of a reading-based written assignment and the strategies that students would be prepared to use in order to submit the assignment on time were also assessed. Results Findings indicated widespread deficiencies in student knowledge of, and attitudes towards, plagiarism. Students did not perceive plagiarism as a serious issue and the use of inappropriate strategies for sourcing and acknowledging material was common. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of achieving a balance among the 3 dimensions of plagiarism management: prevention, detection and penalty. PMID:19885074
Ryan, Greg; Bonanno, Helen; Krass, Ines; Scouller, Karen; Smith, Lorraine
To assess undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty. A questionnaire was administered to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students to determine their levels of awareness of university policy concerning academic honesty; attitudes to plagiarism by rating the acceptability of a range of plagiarizing and cheating practices; and choice of appropriate penalties for a first and second occurrence. The choice of behaviors in response to a scenario about the preparation of a reading-based written assignment and the strategies that students would be prepared to use in order to submit the assignment on time were also assessed. Findings indicated widespread deficiencies in student knowledge of, and attitudes towards, plagiarism. Students did not perceive plagiarism as a serious issue and the use of inappropriate strategies for sourcing and acknowledging material was common. The study highlights the importance of achieving a balance among the 3 dimensions of plagiarism management: prevention, detection and penalty.
Hadrian G. Djajadikerta
Full Text Available The issue of glass ceiling, invisible barriers that limit the access of women to higher level occupations and positions, continues to be of concern. Prior studies in this topic have been mostly conducted based on two perspectives: systemic and personal. However, neither of these two perspectives have managed to completely explain the glass ceiling phenomena in organizations. This paper focuses on higher education institutions in Australia. Incorporating both of these perspectives, this paper investigates the factors that influence career progression of women academics in Australian universities.
Brüggmann, Dörthe; Groneberg, David A
Imbalances in female career promotion are a key factor of gender disparities at the workplace. They may lead to stress and stress-related diseases including burnout, depression or cardiovascular diseases. Since this problem cannot be generalized and varies between different fields, new approaches are needed to assess and describe the magnitude of the problem in single fields of work. To construct a new index, operating figures of female and male medical students were collected for Germany in a period over 15 years and their progression throughout their studies towards specialization and academic chair positions. By the use of different female to male ratios (f:m), we constructed an index that describes the extend by which women can ascent in their academic career by using the field of academic medicine as an example. A medical student f:m ratio of 1.54 (52,366 female vs. 34,010 male) was found for Germany in 2013. In 1998, this f:m ratio was 0.999. In the same year (2013), the OB/GYN hospital specialists' f:m ratio was 1.566 (3347 female vs. 2137 male physicians) and 0.577 (516 female vs 894 male physicians) for ENT hospital specialists, respectively. The f:m ratios concerning chairs of OB/GYN and ENT were 0.105 and 0.1, respectively. Then an index was generated that incorporated these operating figures with the student f:m ratio as denominator and the chair f:m ratio as numerator while the hospital specialist f:m ratio served as a corrector in the numerator in order to adjust to the attraction of a given field to female physicians. As a result, the index was 0.044 for OB/GYN and 0.113 for ENT instead of ideally ~1 in a completely gender harmonized situation. In summary, a new index to describe female career advancement was established for academic medicine. By the use of this index, different academic and medical fields can now be compared to each other and future benchmarks could be proposed. Also, country differences may be examined using the proposed index and
Sorg, H; Betzler, C; Grieswald, C; Schwab, C G G; Tilkorn, D J; Hauser, J
The postdoctoral lecturer thesis in medicine represents an essential success factor for the career of a physician; however, there is controversial discussion on whether this reflects academic competence or is more a career booster. In this context we conducted a survey among postdoctoral medical lecturers with the aim to evaluate the significance of this qualification. The online survey was performed using a questionnaire requesting biographical parameters and subjective ratings of topics concerning the postdoctoral lecturer thesis. Overall 628 questionnaires were included in the study. The significance of the postdoctoral qualification was rated high in 68.6 % and was seen to be necessary for professional advancement in 71.0 %. The chances of obtaining a full professorship after achieving a postdoctoral qualification were rated moderate to low (68.1 %); nevertheless, 92.3 % would do it again and 86.5 % would recommend it to colleagues. Accordingly, 78.8 % were against its abolishment. Wishes for reforms included standardized federal regulations, reduced dependency on professors and more transparency. The postdoctoral lecturer qualification in medicine is highly valued and the majority of responders did not want it to be abolished. Although the chances for a full professorship were only rated low, successful graduation seems to be beneficial for the career; however, there is a need for substantial structural and international changes.
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.
Designed for Ohio educators responsible for planning programs to prepare high school students for careers in transportation, this document presents an overview of Ohio's Integrated Technical and Academic Competencies (ITAC) system of career-focused education and specific information about the transportation subcluster of the industrial and…
Ranieri, V.; Barratt, H.; Fulop, N.; Rees, G.
Background: The future of academic medicine is uncertain. Concerns regarding the future availability of qualified and willing trainee clinical academics have been raised worldwide. Of significant concern is our failure to retain postdoctoral trainee clinical academics, who are likely to be our next generation of leaders in scientific discovery. / Objectives: To review the literature about factors that may influence postdoctoral career progression in early career clinical academics. / Design: ...
Ranieri, Veronica; Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi; Rees, Geraint
Background The future of academic medicine is uncertain. Concerns regarding the future availability of qualified and willing trainee clinical academics have been raised worldwide. Of significant concern is our failure to retain postdoctoral trainee clinical academics, who are likely to be our next generation of leaders in scientific discovery. Objectives To review the literature about factors that may influence postdoctoral career progression in early career clinical academics. Design This st...
Gubbins, Paul O; Micek, Scott T; Badowski, Melissa; Cheng, Judy; Gallagher, Jason; Johnson, Samuel G; Karnes, Jason H; Lyons, Kayley; Moore, Katherine G; Strnad, Kyle
Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. However, innovations in clinical pharmacy practice have now waned. In our view, the growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists. Although collaboration facilitates innovation,academic institutions and health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this opportunity. The academic–practice partnership can be optimized by making both partners accountable for the desired outcomes of their collaboration, fostering symbiotic relationships that promote value-added clinical pharmacy services and emphasizing continuous quality improvement in the delivery of these services. Optimizing academic–practice collaboration on a broader scale requires both partners to adopt a culture that provides for dedicated time to pursue innovation, establishes mechanisms to incubate ideas, recognizes where motivation and vision align, and supports the purpose of the partnership. With appropriate leadership and support, a shift in current professional education and training practices, and a commitment to cultivate future innovators, the academic–practice partnership can develop new and innovative practice advancements that will improve patient outcomes.
Calitri, Raff; Adams, Ann; Atherton, Helen; Reeve, Joanne; Hill, Nathan R
The UK National Health Service (NHS) is undergoing institutional reorganisation due to the Health and Social Care Act-2012 with a continued restriction on funding within the NHS and clinically focused academic institutions. The UK Society for Academic Primary Care (SAPC) is examining the sustainability of academic primary care careers within this climate and preliminary qualitative work has highlighted individual and organisational barriers. This study seeks to quantify the current situation for academics within primary care. A survey of academic primary care staff was undertaken. Fifty-three academic primary care departments were selected. Members were invited to complete a survey which contained questions about an individual's career, clarity of career pathways, organisational culture, and general experience of working within the area. Data were analysed descriptively with cross-tabulations between survey responses and career position (early, mid-level, senior), disciplinary background (medical, scientist), and gender. Pearson chi-square test was used to determine likelihood that any observed difference between the sets arose by chance. Responses were received from 217 people. Career pathways were unclear for the majority of people (64%) and 43% of the workforce felt that the next step in their career was unclear. This was higher in women (52% vs. men 25%; χ(2)(3) = 14.76; p = 0.002) and higher in those in early career (50% vs. senior career, 25%) and mid-career(45%; vs. senior career; χ(2)(6) = 29.19, p cultural experiences. Sustainability of a academic primary care career is undermined by unclear pathways and a lack of promotion. If the discipline is to thrive, there is a need to support early and mid-career individuals via greater transparency of career pathways. Despite these findings staff remained positive about their careers.
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus
Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates a sample of young physicians aspiring to an academic career were surveyed on their career support and barriers experienced up to their sixth year of postgraduate training. Thirty-one junior academics took part in semi-structured telephone interviews in 2007. The interview guideline focused on career paths to date, career support and barriers experienced, and recommendations for junior and senior academics. The qualitatively assessed data were evaluated according to Mayring's content analysis. Furthermore, quantitatively gained data from the total cohort sample on person- and career-related characteristics were analyzed in regard to differences between the junior academics and cohort doctors who aspire to another career in medicine. Junior academics differ in terms of instrumentality as a person-related factor, and in terms of intrinsic career motivation and mentoring as career-related factors from cohort doctors who follow other career paths in medicine; they also show higher scores in the Career-Success Scale. Four types of career path could be identified in junior academics: (1) focus on basic sciences, (2) strong focus on research (PhD programs) followed by clinical training, (3) one to two years in research followed by clinical training, (4) clinical training and research in parallel. The interview material revealed the following categories of career-supporting experience: making oneself out as a proactive junior physician, research resources provided by superior staff, and social network; statements concerning career barriers encompassed interference between clinical training and research activities, insufficient research coaching, and personality related barriers. Recommendations for junior academics focused on mentoring and professional networking, for senior academics on interest in human resource development and being role models. The conditions for an academic career in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates a sample of young physicians aspiring to an academic career were surveyed on their career support and barriers experienced up to their sixth year of postgraduate training. Methods Thirty-one junior academics took part in semi-structured telephone interviews in 2007. The interview guideline focused on career paths to date, career support and barriers experienced, and recommendations for junior and senior academics. The qualitatively assessed data were evaluated according to Mayring's content analysis. Furthermore, quantitatively gained data from the total cohort sample on person- and career-related characteristics were analyzed in regard to differences between the junior academics and cohort doctors who aspire to another career in medicine. Results Junior academics differ in terms of instrumentality as a person-related factor, and in terms of intrinsic career motivation and mentoring as career-related factors from cohort doctors who follow other career paths in medicine; they also show higher scores in the Career-Success Scale. Four types of career path could be identified in junior academics: (1 focus on basic sciences, (2 strong focus on research (PhD programs followed by clinical training, (3 one to two years in research followed by clinical training, (4 clinical training and research in parallel. The interview material revealed the following categories of career-supporting experience: making oneself out as a proactive junior physician, research resources provided by superior staff, and social network; statements concerning career barriers encompassed interference between clinical training and research activities, insufficient research coaching, and personality related barriers. Recommendations for junior academics focused on mentoring and professional networking, for senior academics on interest in human resource development and being role
Entry into a successful academic career is often an arduous process. From career preparation through to doctoral studies and beyond, the journey can be fraught with trials. Why do many academics find difficulty in completing their studies in the minimum time and publishing afterwards? As the University of the Witwatersrand has a strategic goal of…
Ray, Anjali; Halder, Santoshi; Goswami, Nibedita
The authors explored the mental health of students with their academic career-related stressors collecting data from 400 students of different schools of Eastern part of India by using; namely General Information Schedule (GIS), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the Academic Career Development Stress Scale. The data was subjected to t…
Strike, Tony; Taylor, John
This paper sets out findings from research that considered the interplay between English national policy developments in human resources management in higher education and the personal stories of academic staff as career participants. Academic careers are pursued in an institutional and national policy context but it was not clear that the formal…
Bird, Matthew L; Dunn, Rebecca L; Hagemann, Tracy M; Burton, Michael E; Britton, Mark L; St Cyr, Mark B
The genesis and growth of a successful 14-year partnership between the University of Oklahoma (OU) college of pharmacy and the OU Medical Center (OUMC) department of pharmacy are described. Pursuant to a 1998 joint operating agreement, the medical center and pharmacy school have achieved a high degree of collaboration on a wide range of educational and clinical initiatives. The close relationship has conferred a number of benefits on both institutions, including (1) expanded experiential education opportunities for pharmacy students, (2) joint faculty and staff funding arrangements that have facilitated the development and accreditation of OU pharmacy residency programs, and (3) patient care initiatives that have increased awareness of pharmacists' important contributions in areas such as venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, antibiotic stewardship, and core measures compliance. In addition to the formal integration of the college of pharmacy into the OUMC organizational structure, ongoing teamwork by clinicians and administrators at the two institutions has strengthened the 14-year partnership while helping to identify creative solutions to evolving communications, technology, and reimbursement challenges. Potential growth opportunities include the expansion of pharmacy services into additional service areas and greater involvement by OU pharmacy school faculty in the training of medical, nursing, and allied health professionals. A large for-profit academic medical center and a college of pharmacy developed a successful collaboration that is mutually beneficial and provides increased clinical, educational, and scholarly opportunities, advancing the mission of both institutions.
Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J
To report on doctors' reasons, as expressed to our research group, for choosing academic careers and on factors that would make a career in clinical academic medicine more attractive to them. Postal, email and web questionnaires. UK. A total of 6936 UK-trained doctors who graduated in 1996, 1999 and 2000. Open-ended comments about a career in clinical academic medicine. Of doctors who provided reasons for pursuing a long-term career in clinical academic medicine, the main reasons were enjoyment of academic work and personal satisfaction, whether expressed directly in those terms, or in terms of intellectual stimulation, enjoyment of research, teaching and the advancement of medicine, and the job being more varied than and preferable to clinical work alone. Doctors' suggestions for making clinical academic medicine more attractive included improved pay and job security, better funding of research, greater availability of academic posts, more dedicated time for research (and less service work) and more support and mentoring. Women were more likely than men to prioritise flexible working hours and part-time posts. Medical schools could provide more information, as part of student teaching, about the opportunities for and realities of a career in clinical academic medicine. Women, in particular, commented that they lacked the role models and information which would encourage them to consider seriously an academic career. Employers could increase academic opportunities by allowing more time for teaching, research and study and should assess whether job plans make adequate allowance for academic work.
Irwin, Nigel; Burnett, Kathryn M; McCarron, Paul A
As the higher education (HE) classroom begins to adopt newer internet-based technologies, the relationship between attendance and performance needs to be re-evaluated, particularly for professional degree courses such as pharmacy. In the present study, we aimed to establish if an association exists between attendance at all timetabled classes and academic performance, in a Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (CPT) module, as part of the Master of Pharmacy (MPharm) degree course at Ulster University. Data on attendance, final examination and coursework performance were collected over two academic years (2013-14 and 2014-15) of the CPT module at Ulster. In total 67 students were analysed. The MPharm degree at Ulster University implements an attendance policy, both as a pastoral support tool and to reinforce the need for professional conduct as a pharmacist. Student (2013-14 and 2014-15, n = 35 and 32, respectively) attendance on the module across both year groups was approximately 80%. We observed positive, and statistically significant relationships between attendance and performance on the examination, and especially in the coursework elements of the module. Student failure (below 40%) in the final examination was linked to attendance below an 80% threshold in nine of 12 cases. Reasons for not attending class varied, but illness was unquestionably the most commonly cited extenuation. Taken together, these data confirm a convincing association between student attendance and academic achievement. Our studies promote the use of attendance monitoring policies for professional degree courses such as pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Buddeberg-Fischer, B; Stamm, M; Buddeberg, C; Klaghofer, R
Abstract Background Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates, a Career-Success Scale (CSS) was constructed in a sample of young physicians choosing different career paths in medicine. Furthermore the influence of personality factors, the participants' personal situation, and career related factors on their career success was investigated. Methods 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success...
Haviland, Mark G; Yamagata, Hisashi; Werner, Leonard S; Zhang, Kehua; Dial, Thomas H; Sonne, Janet L
Student mistreatment in medical school is a persistent problem with both known and unexplored consequences [corrected]. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a perception of having been mistreated in medical school had an association with planning a full-time career in academic medicine. Using Association of American Medical Colleges' 2000-2004 Medical School Graduation Questionnaire data, we evaluated the relationship between students' mistreatment experience and their career choice, academic versus nonacademic setting. Meta-analysis and regression were used to evaluate this relationship. At medical schools where relatively high percentages of graduating seniors were planning academic careers, students reporting mistreatment experiences were less likely at graduation to be planning careers in academic medicine. A perception of having been mistreated in medical school is related to students' career choices, a finding that may be useful to medical school administrators/faculty and students as mistreatment is addressed in program planning, counseling, and faculty recruitment.
Huisman, Jeroen; de Weert, Egbert; Bartelse, J.A.
Internationally, the fault lines of an uncertain academic career are becoming increasingly apparent. Despite extensive preparation, young academics confront restricted opportunities to become regular members of the academic community. Many of them are on a temporary contract, often with poor working
Balboni, Tracy A.; Chen, M.-H.; Harris, Jay R.; Recht, Abram; Stevenson, Mary Ann; D'Amico, Anthony V.
Purpose: The United States healthcare system has witnessed declining reimbursement and increasing documentation requirements for longer than 10 years. These have decreased the time available to academic faculty for teaching and mentorship. The impact of these changes on the career choices of residents is unknown. The purpose of this report was to determine whether changes have occurred during the past decade in the proportion of radiation oncology trainees from a single institution entering and staying in academic medicine. Methods and Materials: We performed a review of the resident employment experience of Harvard Joint Center for Radiation Therapy residents graduating during 13 recent consecutive years (n = 48 residents). The outcomes analyzed were the initial selection of an academic vs. nonacademic career and career changes during the first 3 years after graduation. Results: Of the 48 residents, 65% pursued an academic career immediately after graduation, and 44% remained in academics at the last follow-up, after a median of 6 years. A later graduation year was associated with a decrease in the proportion of graduates immediately entering academic medicine (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.94). However, the retention rate at 3 years of those who did immediately enter academics increased with a later graduation year (p = 0.03). Conclusion: During a period marked by notable changes in the academic healthcare environment, the proportion of graduating Harvard Joint Center for Radiation Therapy residents pursuing academic careers has been declining; however, despite this decline, the retention rates in academia have increased
Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine
Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement. Methods. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to first-year and third-year students during class time. Students’ grades were obtained from course coordinators. Results. More first-year students adopted performance-approach and mastery-approach goals than did third-year students. Performance-approach goals were positively correlated with academic achievement in the first year. Chinese Australian students scored the highest in adopting performance-approach goals. Vietnamese Australian students adopted mastery-avoidance goals more than other ethnicities. First-year students were more strongly performance approach goal-oriented than third-year students. Conclusion. Adopting performance-approach goals was positively correlated with academic achievement, while adopting avoidance goals was not. Ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of achievement goals and academic achievement. PMID:25258438
Parmar, Jayesh R.; Purnell, Miriam; Lang, Lynn A.
Objective. To determine the ability of University of Maryland Eastern Shore School of Pharmacy’s admissions criteria to predict students’ academic performance in a 3-year pharmacy program and to analyze transferability to African-American students. Methods. Statistical analyses were conducted on retrospective data for 174 students. Didactic and experiential scores were used as measures of academic performance. Results. Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT), grade point average (GPA), interview, and observational scores combined with previous pharmacy experience and biochemistry coursework predicted the students' academic performance except second-year (P2) experiential performance. For African-American students, didactic performance positively correlated with PCAT writing subtests, while the experiential performance positively correlated with previous pharmacy experience and observational score. For nonAfrican-American students, didactic performance positively correlated with PCAT multiple-choice subtests, and experiential performance with interview score. The prerequisite GPA positively correlated with both of the student subgroups’ didactic performance. Conclusion. Both PCAT and GPA were predictors of didactic performance, especially in nonAfrican-Americans. Pharmacy experience and observational scores were predictors of experiential performance, especially in African-Americans. PMID:26941432
Dorcas L. Lesenyeho
Full Text Available Orientation: South African higher education institutions (HEIs are facing significant challenges in attracting talents to academic positions. Research purpose: The main objective of this research was to determine factors that will attract early career academics to South African HEIs. Motivation for the study: Currently there exists limited research on factors that attract early career academics to HEIs as preferred employers. Research approach, design and method: A qualitative approach was adopted for this study; semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain data. The study participants comprised of 23 academic staff members from various merged South African HEIs. Main findings: The findings show that nine themes are related to the attraction of early career academics to HEIs: career development and advancement, opportunities to make a contribution, employer branding and prestige, job security, flexible working hours (work–life balance, intellectual stimulation, innovation, opportunity to apply skills and autonomy. Practical/managerial implications: The results also challenge HEIs to develop a superior employer brand with a strong employee value proposition (EVP that would attract, develop and reward early career academics for their work efforts. Contribution/value-add: The study provides important practical guidelines that could assist HEIs to attract talented early career academics and become an employer of choice.
Academic careers are social processes which involve many members of large populations over long periods of time. This paper outlines a discursive perspective which looks into how academics are categorized in academic systems. From a discursive view, academic careers are organized by categories which can define who academics are (subjectivation)…
Mustafa Tekke; Faiz Bin Adam Ghani
The Asian individuals are dependent and collectivist compared with the western individuals that are independent and individualistic. Foreign Asian students choosing similar courses with their country friends do not reveal their career maturity and also lead to negative effect on their choices.Â This study aims at examining the level of career maturity of foreign Asian students in Malaysia based on academic level by using the Career Maturity Inventory. Two hundred and twenty nine ( Male=106, ...
Lee, Sang Eun
This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement…
Hay, Iain; Bartlett-Trafford, Julie; Chang, T. C.; Kneale, Pauline; Szili, Gerti
Although graduate programs typically prepare university students well for research activity, many have been less successful in educating for other aspects of academic careers. This article discusses Iain Hay's "Letter to a New University Teacher," which has been used internationally to help new lecturers beginning their career.…
Angervall, Petra; Beach, Dennis; Gustafsson, Jan
Academic work in Sweden's higher education system is changing character. Distinctly different career pathways are emerging, as facilities for developing research careers and capital have become both more restricted and more dependent on external funding. These developments are in focus in the present article. Based on ethnographic research and a…
Cochran, Amalia; Elder, William B; Crandall, Marie; Brasel, Karen; Hauschild, Tricia; Neumayer, Leigh
A significant faculty attrition rate exists in academic surgery. The authors hypothesized that senior residents and early-career faculty members have different perceptions of advancement barriers in academic surgery. A modified version of the Career Barriers Inventory-Revised was administered electronically to surgical residents and early-career surgical faculty members at 8 academic medical centers. Residents identified a lack of mentorship as a career barrier about half as often as faculty members. Residents were twice as likely as faculty members to view childbearing as a career barrier. Many early-career faculty members cite a lack of mentors as a limitation to their career development in academic surgery. Childbearing remains a complex perceived influence for female faculty members in particular. Female faculty members commonly perceive differential treatment and barriers on the basis of their sex. Faculty development programs should address both systemic and sex-specific obstacles if academic surgery is to remain a vibrant field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goudreau, Bernadette J; Hassinger, Taryn E; Hedrick, Traci L; Slingluff, Craig L; Schroen, Anneke T; Dengel, Lynn T
Identifying factors that impact progression of surgery trainees into academic versus non-academic practices may permit tailoring residency experiences to promote academic careers in institutions charged with the training of future surgeon scientists. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with progression of surgery trainees into academic versus non-academic practice. A survey was distributed to 135 surgeons graduating from the University of Virginia residency program from 1964-2016, a single academic institution. Questions addressed practice type, research productivity, work/life balance, mentorship, and overall sentiment toward research and academic surgery. A 5-point Likert scale measured career satisfaction and influence of factors in practice setting choice. Of the 135 surveys that were electronically distributed, 69 participants responded (response rate: 51%). Of the 54 with known current practice types, 34 (63%) were academic and 20 (37%) non-academic. Academic surgeons reported more publications by the conclusion of surgery training (56% vs 25% with >10 publications, P = .02). More academic surgeons reported >$100,000 in student debt at graduation (44% vs 25%, P productive research experiences, current surgical trainees may be more enthusiastic about a career in academic practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J
Summary Objectives To report on doctors’ reasons, as expressed to our research group, for choosing academic careers and on factors that would make a career in clinical academic medicine more attractive to them. Design Postal, email and web questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants A total of 6936 UK-trained doctors who graduated in 1996, 1999 and 2000. Main outcome measures Open-ended comments about a career in clinical academic medicine. Results Of doctors who provided reasons for pursuing a long-term career in clinical academic medicine, the main reasons were enjoyment of academic work and personal satisfaction, whether expressed directly in those terms, or in terms of intellectual stimulation, enjoyment of research, teaching and the advancement of medicine, and the job being more varied than and preferable to clinical work alone. Doctors’ suggestions for making clinical academic medicine more attractive included improved pay and job security, better funding of research, greater availability of academic posts, more dedicated time for research (and less service work) and more support and mentoring. Women were more likely than men to prioritise flexible working hours and part-time posts. Conclusions Medical schools could provide more information, as part of student teaching, about the opportunities for and realities of a career in clinical academic medicine. Women, in particular, commented that they lacked the role models and information which would encourage them to consider seriously an academic career. Employers could increase academic opportunities by allowing more time for teaching, research and study and should assess whether job plans make adequate allowance for academic work. PMID:26380103
Clavier, Cheri Whitehead
With the increase of students applying to pharmacy programs, it is imperative that admissions committees choose appropriate measures to analyze student readiness. The purpose of this research was to identify significant factors that predict the academic performance, defined as grade point average (GPA) at the end of the first professional year, of…
Lee, Sang Eun
This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement outcomes at early career stages. Female academic scientists have disadvantages in the career progress in the academic STEM. They tend to fall behind throughout their career paths and to leave the field compared to their male colleagues. Researchers have found that gender differences in the career advancement are shaped by gender-biased evaluations derived from gender stereotypes. Other studies demonstrate the positive impacts of mentoring and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads. To add greater insights to the current findings of female academic scientists' career disadvantages, this dissertation investigates comprehensive effects of gender, mentoring, and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on female scientists' career advancement outcomes in academic science. Based on the Status Characteristics Theory, the concept of mentoring, Social Capital Theory, and Ingroup Bias Theory, causal path models are developed to test direct and indirect effects of gender, mentoring resources, and gender homophily on STEM faculty's career advancement. The research models were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) with data collected from a national survey, funded by the National Science Foundation, completed in 2011 by tenured and tenure-track academic STEM faculty from higher education institutions in the United States. Findings suggest that there is no gender difference in career advancement controlling for mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads and other factors including research productivity and domestic caregiving responsibilities. Findings also show that the positive relationship between
Kim, Kyong-Jee; Hwang, Jee Y; Kwon, Bum S
To investigate medical students' career choice motivation and its relationship with their academic interest and performance. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a sample (n=207) of medical students at a private medical school in Korea, stratified by year of medical course. Data about participant demographics, career choice motivation and academic interest were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The item on career choice motivation enquired about the respondents' main reason for applying for medical school among 8 possible response options, which comprised two components of career choice motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. The participants' levels of academic interest were measured in a Likert-type question. Participants' academic interest and Grade Point Averages (GPAs) were compared across the groups of different career motivations along with analyses of their admission scores for baseline comparisons. A total of 195 students completed the questionnaire (94%response rate). Seventy-four percent, (n=145; the intrinsic group) of the participants chose reasons related to intrinsic motivation, 22% (n=42; the extrinsic group) chose reasons pertaining to extrinsic motivation, and 4% (n = 8) chose other reasons for applying to medical school. The intrinsic group outperformed the extrinsic group in their GPAs, although their prior academic achievements did not differ significantly. The intrinsic group showed significantly higher levels of academic interest and also performed better in the admission interviews. Our study illustrates differences in medical students' academic interest and performance across career choice motivations. Further research is warranted to establish the predictive power of medical students' career choice motivation and academic interest on their academic performance.
Halcomb, Elizabeth; Jackson, Debra; Daly, John; Gray, Joanne; Salamonson, Yenna; Andrew, Sharon; Peters, Kath
To explore the perceptions of early career nursing academics on leadership in academia. There is growing emphasis on leadership capacity building across all domains of nursing. However, there is limited evidence on leadership capacity in early career academics. This study tested an intervention to develop leadership capacity amongst early career nursing academics in two Australian universities. A sequential mixed methods design, using online surveys and semi-structured interviews, was used to collect data. Twenty-three early career nursing academics participated. Most had experience of formal leadership roles and were aware of its importance to them as they developed their academic careers. Participants were able to discuss their own views of themselves as leaders; their perceptions of their own needs for leadership development, and ways in which they could seek to develop further as leaders. There is a need to provide initial and ongoing opportunities for leadership development amongst nurse academics. These opportunities should be contextualised and recognise factors such as gender, and the effects of structural oppression. Nurse academics are involved in the preparation of the next generation of clinical leaders and it is imperative that they are able to articulate a clear view of leadership. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ranieri, Veronica F; Barratt, Helen; Rees, Geraint; Fulop, Naomi J
To describe the influences on clinical academic physicians' postdoctoral career decision-making. Thirty-five doctoral trainee physicians from University College London took part in semi-structured interviews in 2015 and 2016. Participants were asked open-ended questions about their career to-date, their experiences undertaking a PhD, and their career plans post-PhD. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to generate, review, and define themes from the transcripts. Emerging differences and similarities in participants' reasons for pursuing a PhD were then grouped to produce typologies to explore how their experiences influenced their career decision-making. Participants described four key reasons for undertaking a PhD, which formed the basis of the four typologies identified. These reasons included: to pursue a clinical academic career; to complete an extensive period of research to understand whether a clinical academic career was the desired path forward; to improve clinical career prospects; and to take a break from clinical training. These findings highlight the need to target efforts at retaining clinical academic physicians according to their reasons for pursuing a PhD and their subsequent experiences with the process. Those responsible for overseeing clinical training must be well-informed of the long-term benefits of training academically-qualified physicians. In light of current political uncertainty, universities, hospitals, and external agencies alike must increase their efforts to inspire and assuage early-career clinical academic physicians' fears regarding their academic future.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Diogo L Pinheiro
Full Text Available Placement in prestigious research institutions for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics PhD recipients is generally considered to be optimal. Yet some doctoral recipients are not interested in intensive research careers and instead seek alternative careers, outside but also within academe (for example teaching positions in Liberal Arts Schools. Recent attention to non-academic pathways has expanded our understanding of alternative PhD careers. However, career preferences and placements are also nuanced along the academic pathway. Existing research on academic careers (mostly research-centric has found that certain factors have a significant impact on the prestige of both the institutional placement and the salary of PhD recipients. We understand less, however, about the functioning of career preferences and related placements outside of the top academic research institutions. Our work builds on prior studies of academic career placement to explore the impact that prestige of PhD-granting institution, advisor involvement, and cultural capital have on the extent to which STEM PhDs are placed in their preferred academic institution types. What determines whether an individual with a preference for research oriented institutions works at a Research Extensive university? Or whether an individual with a preference for teaching works at a Liberal Arts college? Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of faculty in biology, biochemistry, civil engineering and mathematics at four different Carnegie Classified institution types (Research Extensive, Research Intensive, Master's I & II, and Liberal Arts Colleges, we examine the relative weight of different individual and institutional characteristics on institutional type placement. We find that doctoral institutional prestige plays a significant role in matching individuals with their preferred institutional type, but that advisor involvement only has an impact on those
Pinheiro, Diogo L; Melkers, Julia; Newton, Sunni
Placement in prestigious research institutions for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) PhD recipients is generally considered to be optimal. Yet some doctoral recipients are not interested in intensive research careers and instead seek alternative careers, outside but also within academe (for example teaching positions in Liberal Arts Schools). Recent attention to non-academic pathways has expanded our understanding of alternative PhD careers. However, career preferences and placements are also nuanced along the academic pathway. Existing research on academic careers (mostly research-centric) has found that certain factors have a significant impact on the prestige of both the institutional placement and the salary of PhD recipients. We understand less, however, about the functioning of career preferences and related placements outside of the top academic research institutions. Our work builds on prior studies of academic career placement to explore the impact that prestige of PhD-granting institution, advisor involvement, and cultural capital have on the extent to which STEM PhDs are placed in their preferred academic institution types. What determines whether an individual with a preference for research oriented institutions works at a Research Extensive university? Or whether an individual with a preference for teaching works at a Liberal Arts college? Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of faculty in biology, biochemistry, civil engineering and mathematics at four different Carnegie Classified institution types (Research Extensive, Research Intensive, Master's I & II, and Liberal Arts Colleges), we examine the relative weight of different individual and institutional characteristics on institutional type placement. We find that doctoral institutional prestige plays a significant role in matching individuals with their preferred institutional type, but that advisor involvement only has an impact on those with a
Charpiat, B; Derfoufi, S; Larger, M; Janoly-Dumenil, A; Mouchoux, C; Allenet, B; Tod, M; Grassin, J; Boulieu, R; Catala, O; Bedouch, P; Goudable, J; Vinciguerra, C
In France, community pharmacy students performed a hospital pharmacy practice experience during the 5th year of the university curriculum. The purpose of a part of the content of the academic teaching program delivered before this practice experience is to prepare the students for their future hospital activities. It should enable them for the practical use of knowledge in order to improve pharmacotherapy, laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of patients' care. The aim of this study was to show if there are gaps in this program. Fourteen students performing their clerkship in a teaching hospital were invited to highlight these gaps when they were gradually immersed in the pharmaceutical care. They did so under the careful observation of hospital pharmacist preceptors. These practitioners referred to professional guidelines, documentary tools used in daily clinical practice and publications supporting their pharmaceutical care practices. Shortcomings and gaps identified were: how to communicate with other healthcare professionals and the content of verbal exchanges, how to conduct a patient-centered consultation, documentation tools required for relevant pharmacist' interventions, codification of pharmacist's interventions, risks related to drug packaging and benefit risk assessment of health information technologies. These gaps represent a handicap by delaying the process that led to move from student to healthcare professional. Hospital pharmacist preceptors have to fill in these gaps before engaging students in pharmaceutical care. These results invite to revise partly the content of the academic teaching program delivered before the 5th year hospital pharmacy practice experience. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Academic and non-academic career options for marine scientists. - Support measures for early career scientists offered at MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Germany
Hebbeln, Dierk; Klose, Christina
Early career scientists at MARUM cover a wide range of research topics and disciplines including geosciences, biology, chemistry, social sciences and law. Just as colourful as the disciplinary background of the people, are their ideas for their personal careers. With our services and programmes, we aim to address some important career planning needs of PhD students and early career Postdocs, both, for careers in science and for careers outside academia. For PhD students aiming to stay in science, MARUM provides funding opportunities for a research stay abroad for a duration of up to 6 months. A range of courses is offered to prepare for the first Postdoc position. These include trainings in applying for research funding, proposal writing and interview skills. Following MARUM lectures which are held once a month, early career scientists are offered the opportunity to talk to senior scientists from all over the world in an informal Meet&Greet. Mentoring and coaching programmes for women in science are offered in cooperation with the office for equal opportunities at the University of Bremen. These programmes offer an additional opportunity to train interpersonal skills and to develop personal career strategies including a focus on special challenges that especially women might (have to) face in the scientific community. Early career scientists aiming for a non-academic career find support on different levels. MARUM provides funding opportunities for placements in industry, administration, consulting or similar. We offer trainings in e.g. job hunting strategies or interview skills. For a deeper insight into jobs outside the academic world, we regularly invite professionals for informal fireside chats and career days. These events are organised in cooperation with other graduate programmes in the region to broaden the focus of both, the lecturers and the participants. A fundamental component of our career programmes is the active involvement of alumni of MARUM and our
Smith, Elecia Cole
Understanding the prerequisites for career advancement helps to keep employees motivated and engaged. However, in the higher education (H.E.) workplace, where formalized career ladders are sparse and ambiguous for staff personnel--especially those in professional academic advising--employees who are interested in career advancement into mid-level…
Guarino, Heidi; Yoder, Shaun
"Seizing the Future: How Ohio's Career and Technical Education Programs Fuse Academic Rigor and Real-World Experiences to Prepare Students for College and Work," demonstrates Ohio's progress in developing strong policies for career and technical education (CTE) programs to promote rigor, including college- and career-ready graduation…
Jones, Patricia Anders
Using a causal-comparative design, this quantitative study investigated whether or not the curriculum integration of academic subjects with career and technical education classes affected secondary students' academic performance as assessed by scores on standardized tests. The purposive sample was drawn from students in Trade and Industry classes…
Simmons, Andrew N.
With concern over parental involvement in students' academic lives on the rise, research is needed to provide guidance for advisors and parents. In this article, student-parent interactions about academic and career decisions are examined. Data come from the Brown University Office of Institutional Research and semi-structured interviews with…
Bennett, Dawn; Roberts, Lynne; Ananthram, Subramaniam; Broughton, Michelle
Despite the rise of teaching academic (teaching only) roles in Australia, the UK, the USA, and Canada, the experiences of teaching academics are not well documented in the literature. This article reports from a university-wide study that responded to the introduction of teaching academic roles during a major restructure of academic staff.…
Foran-Tuller, Kelly; Robiner, William N; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Otey-Scott, Stacie; Wryobeck, John; King, Cheryl; Sanders, Kathryn
The purpose of this article is to describe a pilot mentoring program for Early Career Psychologists (ECPs) working in Academic Health Centers (AHCs) and synthesize the lessons learned to contribute to future ECP and AHC career development training programs. The authors describe an early career development model, named the Early Career Boot Camp. This intensive experience was conducted as a workshop meant to build a supportive network and to provide mentorship and survival tools for working in AHCs. Four major components were addressed: professional effectiveness, clinical supervision, strategic career planning, and academic research. Nineteen attendees who were currently less than 5 years post completion of doctoral graduate programs in psychology participated in the program. The majority of boot camp components were rated as good to excellent, with no component receiving below average ratings. Of the components offered within the boot camp, mentoring and research activities were rated the strongest, followed by educational activities, challenges in AHCS, and promotion and tenure. The article describes the purpose, development, implementation, and assessment of the program in detail in an effort to provide an established outline for future organizations to utilize when mentoring ECPs.
Consedine, Nathan S.; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Windsor, John A.
Given global demand on health workforces, understanding student enrollment motivations are critical. Prior studies have concentrated on variation in career and lifestyle values; the current work evaluated the importance of disgust sensitivity in the prediction of health career interests. We argue that emotional proclivities may be important and…
Dunbar, R. W.; MacDonald, R.
The professional development program, "On the Cutting Edge", offers annual multi-day workshops for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing academic careers. Goals are to prepare participants to become more effective teachers, stronger candidates for academic positions, and more aware of the realities of academic jobs. Insights that participants especially hope to gain from these workshops include feedback on the application process, especially an understanding of how search committees work; the different realities of balancing teaching, research, and personal life in a range of academic institutions; and expectations for tenure. The ten-person leadership team represents, by design, a wide range of academic career paths and institutions, and provides approximately 1:6 leader: participant ratio. Specific sessions include research on learning, an introduction to course and lab design, effective teaching and assessment strategies, developing a teaching statement, time management and early career faculty success, and moving research forward into new settings. Optional workshop sessions and discussions include the following topics: dual-career couples; families and careers; teaching portfolios; effective negotiation strategies; tenure and promotion; effective field trips; getting started in undergraduate research; opportunities in K-12 education; career options beyond faculty positions. Highlights of the workshop are faculty panel discussions about career paths and the academic job search. By workshop end, participants complete a goal setting and action planning activity. Two years of evaluation data suggest our goals are being met. Participants particularly appreciate the practical ideas and the opportunity to interact with, and learn from, a diverse leadership team and other participants.
Bain, Olga; Cummings, William
A survey of 10 national systems of higher education found that less than 10 percent of professors were women, and the proportion of female professors was negatively related to institutional prestige. This academic "glass ceiling" was related to women's shorter careers, tenure issues during hard times, and women's lower level of academic…
Thomas, J. Denard; Lunsford, Laura Gail; Rodrigues, Helena A.
Which academics benefit from participation in formal mentoring programmes? This study examined the needs and mentoring networks of new academics with evaluative data from a pilot mentoring programme. Themes from these data point towards re-envisioning initiatives for academic staff development. First, an examination of the expansion of mentoring…
Full Text Available The Asian individuals are dependent and collectivist compared with the western individuals that are independent and individualistic. Foreign Asian students choosing similar courses with their country friends do not reveal their career maturity and also lead to negative effect on their choices.Â This study aims at examining the level of career maturity of foreign Asian students in Malaysia based on academic level by using the Career Maturity Inventory. Two hundred and twenty nine ( Male=106, Female= 123 international students studying in various semesters completed the Career Maturity Inventory and it was reported that there were no significant differences between respondents of different academic semesters with regard to level of career maturity, this might reflect an educational level bias in the construction of the career decision-making. The findings of the current study are not consistent with theoretical expectations and prior research that international undergraduate senior students would be having higher career maturity than international undergraduate fresh students. Research emphasizes the reason behind might result from dependent and collectivist Asian culture that leading to fresh international students are higher career maturity compared to senior international students.
Parsa, Bita; Parsa, Parisa; Parsa, Nakisa
Despite the importance of social organizational factors in career advancement and promotion among academic employees, still some academic employees suffer from low career advancement and consequently low academic performance. Aim of this study was to examine the mediation effect of self-efficacy on relationship between mentoring and career advancement among academic employees in the two public universities in Iran. This survey research was done among 307 randomly selected academic employees to determine predictors of their career advancement. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) methodology was applied to determine the best fitted model to predict career advancement. Analysis of data was performed using the Pearson's correlation analysis and SEM. The results show that self-efficacy was related to mentoring and career advancement (pcareer advancement was significant (pcareer advancement (pcareer advancement.
Jerine M Pegg
Full Text Available Starting on an academic journey can be a stressful and isolating experience. Although some universities have formal mentoring structures to facilitate this transition for new faculty, these structures do not always provide the variety of supports that may be needed to navigate the complexities of transitioning to the world of academia. As we (the authors of this paper began our academic journeys, we found ourselves searching for support that was not available within our institutions. By drawing on previous connections and building new connections to peers at other universities, we created an informal peer mentoring structure that has continued to support us through the early years of our careers in academia. In this paper we share our stories of the challenges we faced as early career academics, discuss the ways this informal peer mentoring community provided support for us at the beginnings of our academic journeys, and offer advice for other early career academics seeking non-traditional forms of support along the academic career path.
Carr, Phyllis L; Szalacha, Laura; Barnett, Rosalind; Caswell, Cheryl; Inui, Thomas
To evaluate the experience of gender discrimination among a limited sample of women in academic medicine, specifically, the role of discrimination in hindering careers, coping mechanisms, and perceptions of what institutions and leaders of academic medicine can do to improve the professional workplace climate for women. In-depth, semistructured telephonic individual interviews of 18 women faculty who experienced or may have experienced discrimination in the course of their professional academic medical careers from 13 of the 24 institutions of the National Faculty Survey. A consensus taxonomy for classifying content evolved from comparisons of coding. Themes expressed by multiple faculty were studied for patterns of connection and grouped into broader categories. Forty percent of respondents ranked gender discrimination first out of 11 possible choices for hindering their career in academic medicine. Thirty-five percent ranked gender discrimination second to either "limited time for professional work" or "lack of mentoring." Respondents rated themselves as poorly prepared to deal with gender discrimination and noted effects on professional self-confidence, self-esteem, collegiality, isolation, and career satisfaction. The hierarchical structure in academe is perceived to work against women, as there are few women at the top. Women faculty who have experienced gender discrimination perceive that little can be done to directly address this issue. Institutions need to be proactive and recurrently evaluate the gender climate, as well as provide transparent information and fair scrutiny of promotion and salary decisions. According to this subset of women who perceive that they have been discriminated against based on gender, sexual bias and discrimination are subtly pervasive and powerful. Such environments may have consequences for both women faculty and academic medicine, affecting morale and dissuading younger trainees from entering academic careers. Medical schools
Polly Parker; Belinda Hewitt; Jennifer Witheriff; Amy Cooper
The underrepresentation of women in senior positions continues to be a major challenge in higher education and most other industries. In Australia, the career trajectory for academic women stalls at a lower level than that of their male counterparts. Concern about this situation in one Australian university led to the design and delivery of a career progression program to support women’s advancement from senior lecturer to associate professor. This study details the main features of the progr...
Fassinger, Ruth E.; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Richmond, Geraldine
This article presents quantitative results of a study of 139 academic women in the chemical sciences who participated in a professional development program sponsored by the Committee on the Advancement of Women Chemists. The study investigated variables frequently examined in the vocational psychology of women: approaches to achievement, coping strategies, career advancement, the home-work interface, workplace climate, and mentoring. The article presents and discusses results in the context of unique issues faced by women in scientific careers.
MacDonald, R.; Ormand, C.; Manduca, C. A.; Wright-Dunbar, R.; Allen-King, R.
The professional development program,'On the Cutting Edge', offers on-line resources and annual multi-day workshops for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing academic careers. Pre- workshop surveys reveal that early career faculty, post-docs, and graduate students have many questions about teaching (e.g., what are effective teaching strategies, how to design a course, how to prepare a syllabus, how to teach large courses), research (e.g., initiate and fund future research, set up and manage a lab, obtain equipment), and career management (e.g., understand tenure requirements, balance all it all). The graduate students and post-docs also have questions about jobs and the job search process. Their questions show a lack of familiarity with the nature of academic positions at different kinds of educational institutions (two-year colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, and research universities). In particular, they are uncertain about what educational setting will best fit their values and career goals and how teaching loads and research expectations vary by institution. Common questions related to the job search process include where to find job listings (the most common question in recent years), when to start the job search process, how to stand out as an applicant, and how to prepare for interviews. Both groups have questions about how to develop new skills: how to develop, plan and prepare a new course (without it taking all of their time), how to expand beyond their PhD (or postdoc) research projects, how to develop a research plan, and where to apply for funding. These are important topics for advisors to discuss with all of their students and postdocs who are planning on careers in academia. On the Cutting Edge offers workshops and web resources to help current and future faculty navigate these critical stages of their careers. The four-day workshop for Early Career Geoscience Faculty: Teaching, Research, and Managing Your
Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in senior positions continues to be a major challenge in higher education and most other industries. In Australia, the career trajectory for academic women stalls at a lower level than that of their male counterparts. Concern about this situation in one Australian university led to the design and delivery of a career progression program to support women’s advancement from senior lecturer to associate professor. This study details the main features of the program, designed to facilitate women’s transition from being leading academics to academic leaders through a focus on leadership and career progression. We report the participants’ perceptions of its value based on survey data. We conclude that leadership development is difficult work and requires a supportive environment where risk-taking is encouraged, where frank and fearless feedback is provided, and where the individual is required to examine assumptions and biases and to assume a leadership identity.
Hubbard, Katharine E; Dunbar, Sonja D
Reading primary research literature is an essential skill for all scientists and students on science degree programmes, however little is known about how researchers at different career stages interact with and interpret scientific papers. To explore this, we conducted a survey of 260 undergraduate students and researchers in Biological Sciences at a research intensive UK university. Responses to Likert scale questions demonstrated increases in confidence and skill with reading the literature between individuals at each career stage, including between postdoctoral researchers and faculty academics. The survey indicated that individuals at different career stages valued different sections of scientific papers, and skill in reading the results section develops slowly over the course of an academic career. Inexperienced readers found the methods and results sections of research papers the most difficult to read, and undervalued the importance of the results section and critical interpretation of data. These data highlight a need for structured support with reading scientific literature at multiple career stages, and for senior academics to be aware that junior colleagues may prioritise their reading differently. We propose a model for the development of literature processing skills, and consider the need for training strategies to help inexperienced readers engage with primary literature, and therefore develop important skills that underpin scientific careers. We also encourage researchers to be mindful of language used when writing papers, and to be more inclusive of diverse audiences when disseminating their work.
Chumney, Elinor C G; Ragucci, Kelly R; Jones, Kathy J
To evaluate the academic experience and satisfaction of students who completed a dual PharmD/MBA degree program and the program's long-term impact on the students' career choice and earning potential. GPAs, job placement, and starting job salaries were compared between graduates who completed the dual PharmD/MBA program and those who completed only the PharmD program. A satisfaction survey instrument was administered to 17 students who completed the dual PharmD/MBA degree program in May 2007. Data from a standardized job placement and starting salary survey instrument completed by all PharmD graduates were also obtained, as well as all students' final grade point averages (GPAs). GPAs, job placement, and starting job salaries were compared between graduates who had completed the dual PharmD/MBA program and those who had completed only the PharmD program. The graduating GPAs of dual-degree students were higher than those of both pharmacy (3.52 vs 3.41, p > 0.10) and business (3.82 vs. 3.68, p = 0.018) students not enrolled in the dual-degree program. Dual-degree students were slightly less likely to enter a residency (17% vs. 27%, p = 0.44) than other pharmacy graduates. Among those who elected not to pursue a residency, both mean starting salaries ($111,090 vs. $101,965) and mean total first-year compensation ($127,290 vs. $110,388) were significantly higher for dual-degree graduates compared to the PharmD graduates. Students enrolled in the dual-degree program did slightly better academically than students who completed only the MBA or PharmD programs and indicated a high level of satisfaction with the program. Dual-degree graduates reported increased career opportunities and were slated to earn significantly more during their first year in the workforce. These results affirm continuation of our program and make the case for support of similar programs across the nation.
Swain, JaBaris D; Matousek, Alexi C; Scott, John W; Cooper, Zara; Smink, Douglas S; Bolman, Ralph Morton; Finlayson, Samuel R G; Zinner, Michael J; Riviello, Robert
Academic global surgery is a nascent field focused on improving surgical care in resource-poor settings through a broad-based scholarship agenda. Although there is increasing momentum to expand training opportunities in low-resource settings among academic surgical programs, most focus solely on establishing short-term elective rotations rather than fostering research or career development. Given the complex nature of surgical care delivery and programmatic capacity building in the resource-poor settings, many challenges remain before global surgery is accepted as an academic discipline and an established career path. Brigham and Women's Hospital has established a specialized global surgery track within the general surgery residency program to develop academic leaders in this growing area of need and opportunity. Here we describe our experience with the design and development of the program followed by practical applications and lessons learned from our early experiences. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ZAHRA ZAHED ZAHEDANI; RITA REZAEE; ZAHRA YAZDANI; SINA BAGHERI; PARISA NABEIEI
Introduction Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and parenting style is one significant factor. The current study has been done with the purpose of investigating the relationship between parenting styles, academic achievement and career path of students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.???? Methods This is a correlation study carried out at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Among 1600 students, 310 students were selected randomly as the sample. Bau...
Wu, Ling Ting; Wang, Wenru; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lopez, Violeta; Liaw, Sok Ying
Globally more registered nurses need to be recruited to meet the needs of aging populations and increased co-morbidity. Nursing recruitment remains challenging when compared to other healthcare programs. Despite healthcare students having similar motivation in joining the healthcare industry, many did not consider nursing as a career choice. This study aims to identify the deterrents to choosing nursing among healthcare undergraduates by examining the differences in the factors influencing healthcare career choices and nursing as a career choice. A cross sectional study was conducted using a 35-parallel items instrument known as Healthcare Career Choice and Nursing Career Choice scale. Six hundred and four (n = 604) first year medical, pharmacy, dentistry and social science students from a university in Singapore completed the survey. Nursing as a career was perceived by healthcare students to be more likely influenced by prior healthcare exposure, the nature of the work, job prospects, and social influences. Lack of autonomous decision making, perceived lower ability to make diagnosis, having to attend to patients' hygiene needs, engendered stigma, and lack of parental support were identified as deterring factors to choosing nursing as a career. An understanding of the deterrents to choosing nursing as career allows policy makers and educational leaders to focus on recruitment strategies. These include providing more exposure to nurses' roles in early school years, helping young people to overcome the fear of providing personal hygiene care, promoting nurses' autonomous nursing practice, addressing gender stigma, and overcoming parental objection.
Tullos, Kimberly C.
The purpose of this life story narrative study was to explore how women scientists develop views of self that enable them to negotiate careers within academic science. I framed the study using feminist standpoint theory as my theoretical foundation, and used possible selves theory as my conceptual framework. Eight women scientists working in academe described their journey regarding their views of self and career-related experiences. The study produced two key findings. First, seven themes emerged from my data analysis; these themes suggest that these women shared significant experiences in their quest to become scientists. Second, my feminist analysis of the participants' narratives indicates that distinct, but submerged gender-related tensions shaped their views of themselves as scientists and their science career decisions. These tensions include career choice and advancement constrained by family obligations, work environments that do not recognize or undervalue their skills and contributions to the profession, and perceived pressure to de-feminize their behavior to blend in to their work environment. Not unlike other women negotiating careers in academic science, they generally accepted their status as women to be an inherent part of their career pursuits and viewed workplace challenges as an opportunity to prove their competency. Seven of the eight women did not attribute their challenges to gender differences. However, the combined narratives revealed underlying conflicts between their views of self as women and as scientists resulting from their experiences in, and perceptions of, academic science environments. The study's principal theoretical contribution, from the feminist standpoint perspective, highlights the pervasive and unseen influence of gender dynamics. In this study, the participants developed views of themselves, not as scientists, but as "educators who work in science." This critical distinction enabled these participants, perhaps unknowingly
Davey, Andrew K; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra
To assess the academic performance and experiences of local, international, and collaborative exchange students enrolled in a 4-year Australian bachelor of pharmacy degree program. Survey instruments exploring the demographics, background, and academic and cultural experiences of students during the program were administered in 2005 to students in all 4 years. Additionally, grades from each semester of the program for students (406 local, 70 international, 155 exchange) who graduated between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. The main differences found in the survey responses among the 3 groups were in students' motivations for choosing the degree program and school, with international and collaborative exchange students having put more thought into these decisions than local students. The average grades over the duration of the program were similar in all 3 demographic groups. However, local students slightly outperformed international students, particularly at the start of the year, whereas collaborative exchange students' grades mirrored those of local students during the 2 years prior to leaving their home country of Malaysia but more closely mirrored those of international students in the final 2 years after arriving on campus in Australia. Despite differences in academic backgrounds and culture, international and exchange students can perform well compared to local students in a bachelor of pharmacy program and were actually more satisfied than local students with the overall experience. Studying in a foreign country can negatively influence academic grades to a small extent and this is probably related to adjusting to the new environment.
Sembiring, Maximus Gorky
Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual) dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was…
Ooms, Ward; Werker, C.; Hopp, Christian
We look into the question whether heterogeneity stemming from research orientation, gender, or disciplinary and cultural differences with their PhD supervisors helps or hampers academics’ careers. Based on a sample of 248 academics at two leading European universities of technology, we combine
This article focuses on the life history of a university academic, and the ways in which he learned in different communities of practice during his career. This account raises questions about the applicability of situated learning theory to a knowledge-based organisation, and argues that both the external context and the individuals within the…
Long, J. Scott; And Others
Presents evidence on sex differences in rank advancement in academic careers, and considers the relative importance of quality and quantity of publications. Results for 556 male and 450 female biochemists show the importance of time in rank and number of publications and that rates of promotion are lower for women. (SLD)
Woodman, Richard J.; Parappilly, Maria B.
The success of peer review of teaching (PRT) in shaping teaching practice during an academic's formative years may depend on the peers' teaching experience and the frequency of evaluation. Two Australian early-career University lecturers with no previous experience of peer review performed a single PRT on one another following a one week academic…
Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina
In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional identity by…
Hardy, Anne; McDonald, Jan; Guijt, Rosanne; Leane, Elizabeth; Martin, Angela; James, Allison; Jones, Menna; Corban, Monica; Green, Bridget
The research underpinning this article explores the impacts that parenting and primary caring responsibilities have upon academic careers. It takes an innovative approach by exploring three under-researched aspects of this issue: the longitudinal impacts that extend past the years immediately following the birth or adoption of a child; the…
Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J
Our aim was to report on doctors' descriptions of their current post at about 12 years after qualification, in respect of academic content, and to compare this with their long-term intentions. By academic content, we mean posts that are designated as clinical academic posts or clinical service posts that include research and/or teaching commitments. Questionnaire survey. All UK medical graduates of 1996 contacted in 2007, graduates of 1999 in 2012, and graduates of 2000 in 2012. UK. Responses about current posts and future intentions. Postal and email questionnaires. The response rate was 61.9% (6713/10844). Twenty eight per cent were working in posts with academic content (3.3% as clinical academics, 25% in clinical posts with some academic content). Seventeen per cent of women were working in clinical posts with some teaching and research, compared with 29% of men. A higher percentage of men than women intended to be clinical academics as their eventual career choice (3.9% overall, 5.4% of men, 2.7% of women). More doctors wished to move to a job with an academic component than away from one (N = 824 compared with 236). This was true for both men (433 compared with 118) and women (391 compared with 118). Women are under-represented both in holding posts with academic content and in aspirations to do so. It is noteworthy that many more doctors hoped to move into an academic role than to move out of one. Policy should facilitate this wish in order to address current shortfalls in clinical academic medicine.
Filiberto Felipe Martínez Arellano
Full Text Available Diverse variables dealing with credential factors, bureaucratiuc factors, organizational and disciplinary achievements, academic culture factors, social ascribed factors, and institutional factors were stated as explanatory elements of promotion, tenure status, and earnings. A survey was the research instrument for collecting data to test diverse variables dealing with academic librarians rewards and earnings. Since the study attempted to analyze variables in a multivariate context, variable interactions were tested using multiple regression analysis. Findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of those factors influencing career advancement of academic librarians. Likewise, research methodology of this study could be used in Library and Information Science(LIS research.
Ranieri, Veronica; Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi; Rees, Geraint
Background The future of academic medicine is uncertain. Concerns regarding the future availability of qualified and willing trainee clinical academics have been raised worldwide. Of significant concern is our failure to retain postdoctoral trainee clinical academics, who are likely to be our next generation of leaders in scientific discovery. Objectives To review the literature about factors that may influence postdoctoral career progression in early career clinical academics. Design This study employed a scoping review method. Three reviewers separately assessed whether the articles found fit the inclusion criteria. Data sources PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar (1991–2015). Article selection The review encompassed a broad search of English language studies published anytime up to November 2015. All articles were eligible for inclusion, including research papers employing either quantitative or qualitative methods, as well as editorials and other summary articles. Data extraction Data extracted from included publications were charted according to author(s), sample population, study design, key findings, country of origin and year of publication. Results Our review identified 6 key influences: intrinsic motivation, work–life balance, inclusiveness, work environment, mentorship and availability of funding. It also detected significant gaps within the literature about these influences. Conclusions Three key steps are proposed to help support postdoctoral trainee clinical academics. These focus on ensuring that researchers feel encouraged in their workplace, involved in collaborative dialogue with key stakeholders and able to access reliable information regarding their chosen career pathway. Finally, we highlight recommendations for future research. PMID:27798036
Hermanowicz, Joseph C
What can we learn when we follow people over the years and across the course of their professional lives? Joseph C. Hermanowicz asks this question specifically about scientists and answers it here by tracking fifty-five physicists through different stages of their careers at a variety of universities across the country. He explores these scientists' shifting perceptions of their jobs to uncover the meanings they invest in their work, when and where they find satisfaction, how they succeed and fail, and how the rhythms of their work change as they age. His candid interviews with hi
Eddy, Pamela L.; Ward, Kelly
Casual observers of academic environments might conclude that women's problems in higher education have been resolved. Colleges enroll more women than men on an overall basis. There is gender parity in entry-level faculty hires, and the number of women in senior administrative positions continues to rise. A closer look however at the work, lives,…
Medina, Melissa S.
Competency-based Education (CBE) is an educational model that allows students to learn and demonstrate their abilities at their own pace. CBE is growing in popularity in undergraduate educational programs and its role in pharmacy education in the United States (US) is under review. In comparison, medical education is utilizing competency-based approaches (such as competencies and Entrustable Professional Activities) to ensure that students possess the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes prior to graduation or program completion. The concept of competency-based approaches is growing in use in pharmacy education in the US, but the future related to aspects of this concept (e.g., mandatory Entrustable Professional Activities) is not certain. A review of pharmacy education’s evolution in the US and a comparison of competency-related terms offers insight into the future use of competency-based approaches and CBE in pharmacy education in the US through the lens of benefits and challenges. PMID:28970425
Melissa S. Medina
Full Text Available Competency-based Education (CBE is an educational model that allows students to learn and demonstrate their abilities at their own pace. CBE is growing in popularity in undergraduate educational programs and its role in pharmacy education in the United States (US is under review. In comparison, medical education is utilizing competency-based approaches (such as competencies and Entrustable Professional Activities to ensure that students possess the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes prior to graduation or program completion. The concept of competency-based approaches is growing in use in pharmacy education in the US, but the future related to aspects of this concept (e.g., mandatory Entrustable Professional Activities is not certain. A review of pharmacy education’s evolution in the US and a comparison of competency-related terms offers insight into the future use of competency-based approaches and CBE in pharmacy education in the US through the lens of benefits and challenges.
Zahed Zahedani, Zahra; Rezaee, Rita; Yazdani, Zahra; Bagheri, Sina; Nabeiei, Parisa
Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and parenting style is one significant factor. The current study has been done with the purpose of investigating the relationship between parenting styles, academic achievement and career path of students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This is a correlation study carried out at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Among 1600 students, 310 students were selected randomly as the sample. Baumrind's Parenting Style and Moqimi's Career Path questionnaires were used and the obtained scores were correlated with the students' transcripts. To study the relation between variables Pearson correlation coefficient was used. There was a significant relationship between authoritarian parenting style and educational success (p=0.03). Also findings showed a significant relationship between firm parenting style and Career Path of the students, authoritarian parenting style and Career Path of the students, educational success and Career Path of the students (p=0.001). Parents have an important role in identifying children's talent and guiding them. Mutual understanding and close relationship between parents and children are recommended. Therefore, it is recommended that the methods of correct interaction of parents and children be more valued and parents familiarize their children with roles of businesses in society and the need for employment in legitimate businesses and this important affair should be more emphasized through mass media and family training classes.
ZAHED ZAHEDANI, ZAHRA; REZAEE, RITA; YAZDANI, ZAHRA; BAGHERI, SINA; NABEIEI, PARISA
Introduction Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and parenting style is one significant factor. The current study has been done with the purpose of investigating the relationship between parenting styles, academic achievement and career path of students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods This is a correlation study carried out at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Among 1600 students, 310 students were selected randomly as the sample. Baumrind’s Parenting Style and Moqimi’s Career Path questionnaires were used and the obtained scores were correlated with the students' transcripts. To study the relation between variables Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results There was a significant relationship between authoritarian parenting style and educational success (p=0.03). Also findings showed a significant relationship between firm parenting style and Career Path of the students, authoritarian parenting style and Career Path of the students, educational success and Career Path of the students (p=0.001). Conclusion Parents have an important role in identifying children’s talent and guiding them. Mutual understanding and close relationship between parents and children are recommended. Therefore, it is recommended that the methods of correct interaction of parents and children be more valued and parents familiarize their children with roles of businesses in society and the need for employment in legitimate businesses and this important affair should be more emphasized through mass media and family training classes. PMID:27382580
ZAHRA ZAHED ZAHEDANI
Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors affect the academic performance of college students and parenting style is one significant factor. The current study has been done with the purpose of investigating the relationship between parenting styles, academic achievement and career path of students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a correlation study carried out at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Among 1600 students, 310 students were selected randomly as the sample. Baumrind’s Parenting Style and Moqimi’s Career Path questionnaires were used and the obtained scores were correlated with the students’ transcripts. To study the relation between variables Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results: There was a significant relationship between authoritarian parenting style and educational success (p=0.03. Also findings showed a significant relationship between firm parenting style and Career Path of the students, authoritarian parenting style and Career Path of the students, educational success and Career Path of the students (p=0.001. Conclusion: Parents have an important role in identifying children’s talent and guiding them. Mutual understanding and close relationship between parents and children are recommended. Therefore, it is recommended that the methods of correct interaction of parents and children be more valued and parents familiarize their children with roles of businesses in society and the need for employment in legitimate businesses and this important affair should be more emphasized through mass media and family training classes.
Scientific and engineering research is increasingly global, and international collaboration can be essential to academic success. Yet even as administrators and policymakers extol the benefits of global science, few recognize the diversity of international research collaborations and their participants, or take gendered inequalities into account. Women in Global Science is the first book to consider systematically the challenges and opportunities that the globalization of scientific work brings to U.S. academics, especially for women faculty. Kathrin Zippel looks to the STEM fields as a case study, where gendered cultures and structures in academia have contributed to an underrepresentation of women. While some have approached underrepresentation as a national concern with a national solution, Zippel highlights how gender relations are reconfigured in global academia. For U.S. women in particular, international collaboration offers opportunities to step outside of exclusionary networks at home. International ...
Onyura, Betty; Bohnen, John; Wasylenki, Don; Jarvis, Anna; Giblon, Barney; Hyland, Robert; Silver, Ivan; Leslie, Karen
There is scant empirical work exploring academic physicians' psychosocial adjustment during late-career transitions or on the factors that influence their retirement decisions. The authors examine these issues through the lens of sociopsychological identity theory, specifically examining how identity threat influences academic physicians' decisions about retirement. Participants were academic physicians at a Canadian medical school and were recruited via e-mail requests for clinical faculty interested in discussing late-career and retirement planning issues. Participants included 15 males and 6 females (N = 21; mean age = 63, standard deviation = 7.54), representing eight specialties (clinical and surgical). Data were collected in October and November 2012 via facilitated focus groups, which were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and anonymized, then analyzed using thematic analysis. Four primary themes were identified: centrality of occupational identity, experiences of identity threat, experiences of aging in an indifferent system, and coping with late-career transitions. Identity threats were manifested in apprehensions about self-esteem after retirement, practice continuity, and clinical competence, as well as in a loss of meaning and belonging. These identity challenges influenced decisions on whether to retire. Organizational and system support was perceived as wanting. Coping strategies included reimagining and revaluing various aspects of the self through assimilating new activities and reprioritizing others. Identity-related struggles are a significant feature of academic physicians' considerations about late-career transitions. Understanding these challenges, their antecedents, and their consequences can prepare faculty, and their institutions, to better manage late-career transitions. Individual- and institution-level implications are discussed.
Eddy, Linda L; Hoeksel, Renee; Fitzgerald, Cindy; Doutrich, Dawn
We describe an innovative practice in advancing careers of academic nurse educators: demonstrating scholarly productivity from program grants. Scholarly productivity is often narrowly defined, especially in research-intensive institutions. The expectation may be a career trajectory based on the traditional scholarship of discovery. However, nurse educators, especially at the associate and full professor ranks, are often involved in leadership activities that include writing and managing program grants. We encourage the academy to value and support the development of program grants that include significant scholarly components, and we offer exemplars of associate and full professor scholarship derived from these projects.
Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E
Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.
Edmunds, Laurel D; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Shepperd, Sasha; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Frith, Peggy; Roberts, Nia W; Pololi, Linda H; Buchan, Alastair M
Women are under-represented in academic medicine. We reviewed the empirical evidence focusing on the reasons for women's choice or rejection of careers in academic medicine. Using a systematic search, we identified 52 studies published between 1985, and 2015. More than half had methodological limitations and most were from North America. Eight main themes were explored in these studies. There was consistent evidence for four of these themes: women are interested in teaching more than in research; participation in research can encourage women into academic medicine; women lack adequate mentors and role models; and women experience gender discrimination and bias. The evidence was conflicting on four themes: women are less interested in research than men; women lose commitment to research as their education and training progress; women are deterred from academic careers by financial considerations; and women are deterred by concerns about work-life balance. Inconsistency of findings across studies suggests significant opportunities to overcome barriers by providing a more enabling environment. We identified substantial gaps in the scientific literature that could form the focus of future research, including shifting the focus from individuals' career choices to the societal and organisational contexts and cultures within which those choices are made; extending the evidence base to include a wider range of countries and settings; and testing the efficacy of interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daniels, Marcus; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Maxwell, Russell; Tamargo, Rafael J; Huang, Judy; Witham, Tim; Bettegowda, Chetan; Chaichana, Kaisorn L
It is unclear if preresidency and/or residency research work impacts academic neurosurgery placement post residency. The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact that preresidency and residency research publication has on attaining academic faculty positions. Alumni information was collected from 65 of the 108 (60%) neurosurgery residency websites. Graduates from these programs between 2005 and 2015 (n = 949) were analyzed to determine factors associated with an academic career. Information on publications, citations, and H-index were obtained from Web of Science. Current position was designated as academic if the physician had a teaching position at a university hospital and private if the physician was not affiliated with a university hospital. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with academic faculty positions post residency. Of the 949 physicians included in the analysis, 339 (36%) were in academic positions, 518 (55%) in private practice, and 92 (10%) were still in training. More than a fifth (212, or 22%) of physicians performed a research fellowship (8.2%) or attained a Ph.D. (14.1%) during medical school. Among those who had completed training, an academic career was associated with having 2 or more publications during residency (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval, CI]: 3.87 [1.59-9.45]; P < 0.003), H-index ≥ 2 during residency (OR [95% CI]: 2.32 [1.40-1.69]; P < 0.0001) and having devoted research time before residency (OR [95% CI]: 1.56 [1.10-2.22]; P < 0.012). Notably, publications before residency were not an independent indicator of academic placement. These findings may help guide residency programs to identify and/or cultivate neurosurgeons to become academic neurosurgeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahmad, Rima; Mullen, John T
There remains a debate as to whether nondesignated preliminary (NDP) positions in surgery ultimately translate into successful surgical careers for those who pursue them. We sought to identify the success with which our NDP residents were able to transition to their desired career and what, if any, factors contributed to their success. The records of all NDP residents accepted into the Massachusetts General Hospital General Surgery Residency Program from 1995 to 2010 were examined and long-term follow-up was completed. Thirty-four NDP residents were identified, including 26.5% US graduates and 73.5% international medical graduates. At the end of the initial preliminary year, 30 (88%) got placed in a postgraduate residency program, whereas 4 (12%) pursued other career paths. Of those who got placed, 25 (83%) attained surgical residency positions, including 17 (57%) who continued as preliminary residents at our institution and 8 (27%) who got placed in categorical surgical positions at other programs. After multiple preliminary years, 15 of 17 achieved a categorical position, of which, 93% were in surgical fields. Overall, 64.7% of all entering NDP residents eventually went on to have careers in general surgery (50%) or surgical subspecialties (14.7%), and 24 of 34 (71%) fulfilled their desired career goals. No factor predicted success. From 1995 to 2012 there have been 15 midlevel (11 postgraduate year 4) vacancies in our program, 4 of which were filled by preliminary residents, 2 from our program and 2 from elsewhere. All have gone on to board certifications and careers in surgery. More than 70% of NDP residents in our program successfully transitioned to their desired career paths, many achieving categorical surgical positions and academic surgical careers, thus demonstrating the benefit of this track to both residency programs and trainees. © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Putnam, Charles W; DiMarco, Judy; Cairns, Charles B
Today it is not uncommon to discover that a candidate for a faculty position has a partner or spouse who is also an academician, adding complexity to the recruitment process. Here, the authors address two practical obstacles to the recruitment of faculty who have an academic partner: dual recruitment and conflict-of-interest. The authors have found that tandem recruitment works best when suitable positions for both spouses are first identified so that recruitment can proceed synchronously. This approach decreases misperceptions of favoritism toward either's candidacy. Managing conflict-of-interest, generated by the appointment of one spouse in a supervisory position over the other, requires a proactive, transparent, well-designed plan. After canvassing human resource policies and conducting interviews with national academic leaders, the authors have developed an administrative structure that places "key" decisions (hiring and retention; promotion and tenure; salary, bonuses, and benefits; performance evaluations; and disciplinary matters) regarding the supervised spouse in the jurisdiction of an alternate administrator or committee. The authors also offer suggestions both for mitigating misperceptions of bias in day-to-day decisions and for the support and mentoring of the supervised partner or spouse.
Crowley, R Webster; Asthagiri, Ashok R; Starke, Robert M; Zusman, Edie E; Chiocca, E Antonio; Lonser, Russell R
Factors during neurosurgical residency that are predictive of an academic career path and promotion have not been defined. To determine factors associated with selecting and sustaining an academic career in neurosurgery by analyzing in-training factors for all graduates of American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited programs between 1985 and 1990. Neurological surgery residency graduates (between 1985 and 1990) from ACGME-approved training programs were analyzed to determine factors associated with choosing an academic career path and having academic success. Information was available for 717 of the 720 (99%) neurological surgery resident training graduates (678 male, 39 female). One hundred thirty-eight graduates (19.3%) held full-time academic positions. One hundred seven (14.9%) were professors and 35 (4.9%) were department chairs/chiefs. An academic career path/success was associated with more total (5.1 vs 1.9; P female trainees (2.6 vs 0.9 publications; P career but not predictive of becoming professor or chair/chief (P > .05). Defined in-training factors including number of total publications, number of first-author publications, and program size are predictive of residents choosing and succeeding in an academic career path.
The Nuclear Pharmacy Certificate Program (NPCP) was developed to meet the need for licensed pharmacists wishing to change career paths and enter the practice of nuclear pharmacy. Additionally, the NPCP benefits employers that wish to employ a nuclear pharmacist in lieu of waiting for graduates that are available only at one time yearly from a college of pharmacy. The NPCP is not intended to replace traditional nuclear pharmacy education in academic institutions, but to offer an another option to pharmacists and potential employers. The NPCP is divided into two components. One component involves over 130 hours of instruction through videotapes and accompanying workbooks. This component is completed while working in a nuclear pharmacy and with the assistance of a nuclear pharmacist serving as a supervisor. The nuclear pharmacist is available to answer questions and to administer examinations over the videotape material. Examinations are prepared by Purdue faculty and returned for grading. Scores on exams must reflect learning to the same degree as in an academic environment. In the second component of the NPCP, the trainee attends a two-week session in the School of Pharmacy at Purdue University. the trainee must complete a significant portion of the videotape material before the on-campus session. In the on-campus component, videotape material is reinforced and expanded by laboratory exercises and lectures in dedicated, fully-equipped laboratories employed in the School of Pharmacy undergraduate program in nuclear pharmacy. Nuclear pharmacy faculty and consultants provide individualized instruction to each trainee. Assimilation of lecture and laboratory material is determined through several examinations. A comprehensive examination is administered which includes content from the videotape-workbook component of the NPCP. Certification is awarded to trainees who have completed the program and demonstrated their knowledge and competence by examination. Almost 200
Rosati, Carlo Maria; Valsangkar, Nakul P; Gaudino, Mario; Blitzer, David; Vardas, Panos N; Girardi, Leonard N; Turrentine, Mark W; Brown, John W; Koniaris, Leonidas G
We aimed to investigate the impact of taking dedicated time for research (DTR) during training and/or getting a PhD on subsequent career achievements of US academic cardiothoracic surgeons. Online resources (institutional Web sites, CTSNet, Scopus, NIH RePORTER) were queried to collect training information (timing of medical school/residency/fellowship graduation, DTR, PhD) and academic metrics (publications, citations, research funding) for 694 academic cardiothoracic surgeons practicing at 56 premiere US institutions. Excluding missing data, 464 (75 %) surgeons took DTR and 156 (25 %) did not; 629 (91 %) were MD only and 65 (9 %) also had a PhD. DTR was associated with higher number of ongoing publications (~5.6/year vs. ~3.8/year), with no difference for accrued number of total citations. History of DTR was more prevalent among surgeons with versus without NIH funding (87 vs. 71 %; p advancement, NIH funding, or leadership roles was found for those with a PhD. Among cardiothoracic surgeons, devoting time during the training years exclusively to research might be associated with higher career-long academic productivity in terms of annual number new publications and ability to get NIH funding, but without significant impact in terms of academic rank or institutional role advancement. No significant difference was found between those with versus without a PhD in terms of career-long number of publications/citations, academic rank, NIH funding, or leadership role, even though sample size might have been insufficient to identify any such potential difference.
Lieff, Susan J
Retention of faculty in academic medicine is a growing challenge. It has been suggested that inattention to the humanistic values of the faculty is contributing to this problem. Professional development should consider faculty members' search for meaning, purpose, and professional fulfillment and should support the development of an ability to reflect on these issues. Ensuring the alignment of academic physicians' inner direction with their outer context is critical to professional fulfillment and effectiveness. Personal reflection on the synergy of one's strengths, passions, and values can help faculty members define meaningful work so as to enable clearer career decision making. The premise of this article is that an awareness of and the pursuit of meaningful work and its alignment with the academic context are important considerations in the professional fulfillment and retention of academic faculty. A conceptual framework for understanding meaningful work and alignment and ways in which that framework can be applied and taught in development programs are presented and discussed.
Martin, Ian B K; Levine, Adam C; Kayden, Stephanie; Hauswald, Mark
As the specialty of emergency medicine (EM) continues to spread around the world, a growing number of academic emergency physicians have become involved in global EM development, research, and teaching. While academic departments have always found this work laudable, they have only recently begun to accept global EM as a rigorous academic pursuit in its own right. This article describes how emergency physicians can translate their global health work into "academic currency" within both the clinician-educator and clinician-researcher tracks. The authors discuss the impact of various types of additional training, including global EM fellowships, for launching a career in global EM. Clearly delineated clinician-researcher and clinician-educator tracks are important for documenting achievement in global EM. Reflecting a growing interest in global health, more of today's EM faculty members are ascending the academic ranks as global EM specialists. Whether attempting to climb the academic ladder as a clinician-educator or clinician-researcher, advanced planning and the firm support of one's academic chair is crucial to the success of the promotion process. Given the relative youth of the subspecialty of global EM, however, it will take time for the pathways to academic promotion to become well delineated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaderli, Reto; Muff, Brigitte; Stefenelli, Ulrich; Businger, Adrian
An increasing proportion of women are working in medicine, although only very few choose surgical specialties and the interest in an academic pursuit is generally smaller among women compared to their male colleagues. The aim of the present study was to analyse factors critical for a successful academic career for female surgeons in Switzerland and to assess the value of mentor-mentee relationships in this context. An anonymous national survey among board-certified female surgeons and female residents was conducted in Switzerland during spring 2008. The support in career advancement was investigated with five scales: networking, career planning, coaching, role model and emotional support scale. Career development was assessed based on the following criteria: number of talks at scientific conferences, number of peer-reviewed publications, participation in research projects, months of research as a fulltime activity, amount of awarded scholarships, amount of obtained third-party funds and number of research awards obtained. In total, 189/318 (59.4%) questionnaires were returned. Mentor-mentee relationships were reported by 109/189 (58%) respondents. The bivariate analysis showed a positive influence on the sum score regarding the respondents who were in a mentor-mentee relationship or who had support in doing household work (p = 0.09). A supporting network, especially in terms of a mentor, is crucial so that female physicians interested in an academic career get the opportunity to accomplish their purpose. There is considerable potential for improvement as almost half of the respondents did not have a mentor in this survey.
Maximus Gorky Sembiring
Full Text Available Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was collected proportionally and purposively followed by congregating them through unified interviews. Population was 1,814 Universitas Terbuka students domiciled overseas; 350 questionnaires were dispersed, 169 completed. Satisfaction was assessed by examining Servqual dimensions. Importance-performance analysis (IPA and customer-satisfaction index (CSI were applied to measure satisfaction and the level of its importance. Structural equation model (SEM was then employed to examine influencing variables. Nine hypotheses developed were all validated by the analysis. Responsiveness, assurance, tangible, reliability, and empathy were in harmony to satisfaction. Career advancement, retention, academic performance, and persistence were influenced by satisfaction. Qualitative inquiry implemented afterwards was basically coherent with the quantitative findings.
Miller, Herman P.; Garfinkle, Stuart
This study of career goals, academic objectives and the relation of these to success in the job market involved a series of annual interviews with samples of people representing four different population groups: young men who were 14 to 24 years old in 1966; men who were 45 to 59 years old in 1966; young women who were 14 to 24 years old in 1968;…
Posporelis, Sotirios; Sawa, Akira; Smith, Gwenn S.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Chisolm, Margaret S.
Objective With the shift of interest in psychiatry towards patient-oriented research with clinically relevant outcomes, there is a critical need for well-trained psychiatrist-scientists. The authors report on two developmentally-tailored, longitudinal research training curricula designed to use peer mentoring to bridge the gap between physicians and scientists, and to promote careers in academic research. Methods The authors instituted two independent research training curricula, one for first-year and one for second-to-fourth year psychiatry residents, spanning two campuses of one institutional residency training program. Each curriculum’s participants included psychiatry residents and peer scientific investigators, and both were attended by senior scientists and departmental leaders. The authors developed and administered an anonymous survey at the end of the first cycle of the first-year resident curriculum to assess participant attitudes. Results The first-year and second-to-fourth-year resident curricula have been implemented for 3and 2 years respectively. The authors observed overall participant satisfaction with the first-year curricula, independent of trainee status. Furthermore, first-year psychiatry residents reported increased interest in academic research careers after exposure to the curricula. Conclusions Results suggest it is possible to encourage academic research careers using peer mentoring, an innovative approach that requires minimal funding, little disruption to the residents’ schedule, and engages the gamut of individuals involved in psychiatry care and research: psychiatrists-in-training and young non-clinician scientists-in-training. PMID:24497181
Tudor, Thomas R.
Higher education institutions in the United States are under increasing pressure to retain and graduate more students. Traditionally, the academic advisor helps students to meet degree graduation requirements and may also do some minor career advising. A new approach is proposed, in which career coaching with industry help becomes just as…
C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report Air Force Officer Accession Planning Addressing Key Gaps in Meeting Career Field Academic Degree Requirements...potential performance, and how to include these quality measures in the classification process. The research sponsor asked us to focus on academic ...Andrew P., and James K. Lowe, “Decision Support for the Career Field Selection Process at the US Air Force Academy,” European Journal of Operational
Full Text Available Introduction: Young people who continue their education at universities do not have to give up their physical activity. The existence of Academic Sports Unions allows you to continue and develop your sporting career. A significant number of students regularly participating in AZS classes have a chance to develop their sporting career. The possibility of obtaining a sports scholarship is an additional motivation for students to pursue their own scientific and sporting goals. Sport through the process of self-improvement introduces a specific discipline to everyday life, teaches regularity, diligence and good organization of time.The aim of the study: 1 Did you start your education at a university by limiting or giving up sports?, 2 Do universities and AZS help develop a sports career? 3 Did the students of AZS influence the development of their sports career? Material and methods: 204 students participated in the study, an original questionnaire consisting of 26 questions was used. The questions concerned, among others: forms of physical activity and training experience, the impact of undertaking education at a university on the development of a sports career. Results and conclusions: Over 80% of respondents did not give up their sport before starting their studies. Over 50% of respondents believe that AZS and universities support the development of young athletes, giving the opportunity to get better and better results.
Ranieri, Veronica; Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi; Rees, Geraint
The future of academic medicine is uncertain. Concerns regarding the future availability of qualified and willing trainee clinical academics have been raised worldwide. Of significant concern is our failure to retain postdoctoral trainee clinical academics, who are likely to be our next generation of leaders in scientific discovery. To review the literature about factors that may influence postdoctoral career progression in early career clinical academics. This study employed a scoping review method. Three reviewers separately assessed whether the articles found fit the inclusion criteria. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar (1991-2015). The review encompassed a broad search of English language studies published anytime up to November 2015. All articles were eligible for inclusion, including research papers employing either quantitative or qualitative methods, as well as editorials and other summary articles. Data extracted from included publications were charted according to author(s), sample population, study design, key findings, country of origin and year of publication. Our review identified 6 key influences: intrinsic motivation, work-life balance, inclusiveness, work environment, mentorship and availability of funding. It also detected significant gaps within the literature about these influences. Three key steps are proposed to help support postdoctoral trainee clinical academics. These focus on ensuring that researchers feel encouraged in their workplace, involved in collaborative dialogue with key stakeholders and able to access reliable information regarding their chosen career pathway. Finally, we highlight recommendations for future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Lowenstein, Steven R; Fernandez, Genaro; Crane, Lori A
Medical school faculty are less enthusiastic about their academic careers than ever before. In this study, we measured the prevalence and determinants of intent to leave academic medicine. A 75-question survey was administered to faculty at a School of Medicine. Questions addressed quality of life, faculty responsibilities, support for teaching, clinical work and scholarship, mentoring and participation in governance. Of 1,408 eligible faculty members, 532 (38%) participated. Among respondents, 224 (40%; CI95: 0.35, 0.44) reported that their careers were not progressing satisfactorily; 236 (42%; CI95: 0.38, 0.46) were "seriously considering leaving academic medicine in the next five years." Members of clinical departments (OR = 1.71; CI95: 1.01, 2.91) were more likely to consider leaving; members of inter-disciplinary centers were less likely (OR = 0.68; CI95: 0.47, 0.98). The predictors of "serious intent to leave" included: Difficulties balancing work and family (OR = 3.52; CI95: 2.34, 5.30); inability to comment on performance of institutional leaders (OR = 3.08; CI95: 2.07, 4.72); absence of faculty development programs (OR = 3.03; CI95: 2.00, 4.60); lack of recognition of clinical work (OR = 2.73; CI95: 1.60, 4.68) and teaching (OR = 2.47; CI95: 1.59, 3.83) in promotion evaluations; absence of "academic community" (OR = 2.67; CI95: 1.86, 3.83); and failure of chairs to evaluate academic progress regularly (OR = 2.60; CI95: 1.80, 3.74). Faculty are a medical school's key resource, but 42 percent are seriously considering leaving. Medical schools should refocus faculty retention efforts on professional development programs, regular performance feedback, balancing career and family, tangible recognition of teaching and clinical service and meaningful faculty participation in institutional governance.
Wyllie, Aileen; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Jackson, Debra; Davidson, Patricia; Phillips, Jane
To optimise the career development in early career academic nurses by providing an overview of the attributes necessary for success. Evidence of early prospective career planning is necessary to optimise success in the tertiary sector. This is particularly important for nurse academics given the profession's later entry into academia, the ageing nursing workforce and the continuing global shortage of nurses. A qualitative systematic review. Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, ERIC, Professional Development Collection and Google Scholar databases were searched; resulting in the inclusion of nine qualitative nurse-only focussed studies published between 2004 and 2014. The studies were critically appraised and the data thematically analysed. Three abilities were identified as important to the early career academic nurse: a willingness to adapt to change, an intention to pursue support and embodying resilience. These abilities give rise to attributes that are recommended as key to successful academic career development for those employed on a continuing academic basis. The capacity to rely on one's own capabilities is becoming seen as increasingly important. It is proposed that recognition of these attributes, their skilful application and monitoring outlined in the review are recommended for a successful career in academia. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In modern academic career systems there are a large number of entry positions, much smaller numbers of intermediate positions, and still fewer full professorships. We examine how this system has developed in Germany, the country where the modern academic system was introduced, tracing the historical
Levine, Rachel B; Lin, Fenny; Kern, David E; Wright, Scott M; Carrese, Joseph
The number of women in academic medicine has steadily increased, although gender parity still does not exist and women leave academics at somewhat higher rates than men. The authors investigated the reasons why women leave careers in academic medicine. Semistructured, one-on-one interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 with 20 women physicians who had left a single academic institution to explore their reasons for opting out of academic careers. Data analysis was iterative, and an editing analysis style was used to derive themes. A lack of role models for combining career and family responsibilities, frustrations with research (funding difficulties, poor mentorship, competition), work-life balance, and the institutional environment (described as noncollaborative and biased in favor of male faculty) emerged as key factors associated with a decision to leave academic medicine for respondents. Faced with these challenges, respondents reevaluated their priorities and concluded that a discrepancy existed between their own and institutional priorities. Many respondents expressed divergent views with the institutional norms on how to measure success and, as a consequence, felt that they were undervalued at work. Participants report a disconnection between their own priorities and those of the dominant culture in academic medicine. Efforts to retain women faculty in academic medicine may include exploring the aspects of an academic career that they value most and providing support and recognition accordingly.
Richardson, R. M.; Ormand, C. J.; MacDonald, H.; Dunbar, R. W.; Allen-King, R. M.; Manduca, C. A.
Launching an academic career presents a number of challenges. A recent article in the Chronicle of Higher Education depicts academia as an “ivory sweatshop,” citing rising standards for tenure. Most graduate programs provide minimal training for life beyond graduate school. The professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” fills this gap by providing workshops and web resources on academic careers for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and early career faculty. These workshops and web resources address a wide range of topics related to teaching, research, and managing one’s career, tailored for each group. The Preparing for an Academic Career in the Geosciences workshop to help graduate students and postdoctoral fellows make the transition into an academic career has been offered annually since 2003. It provides a panel on academic careers in different institutional settings, sessions on research on learning, various teaching strategies, design of effective teaching activities, moving research forward to new settings, effective teaching and research statements, the job search process, negotiation, and presenting oneself to others. Complementary online resources (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/careerprep/index.html) focus on these topics. The workshops and web resources offer guidance for each step of the job search process, for developing and teaching one’s own courses, and for making the transition from being a research student to being in charge of a research program. Online resources also include case studies of successful dual career couples, documenting their job search strategies. A four-day workshop for Early Career Geoscience Faculty: Teaching, Research, and Managing Your Career, offered annually since 1999, provides sessions on teaching strategies, course design, developing a strategic plan for research, supervising student researchers, navigating departmental and institutional politics, preparing for tenure, time and
Shams, Tarek; El-Masry, Ragaa
Objectives: There is compelling evidence that anaesthesiology is a stressful occupation and, when this stressful occupation is associated with an academic career, the burnout level is high. This study aimed to assess the predictors and prevalence of stress and burnout, associated sociodemographic characteristics, and job-related features. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was carried out at Mansoura University Hospital in Egypt among 98 anaesthesiologists who had academic careers. The English version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) scale and the Workplace Stress Scale of the American Institute of Stress were used to measure job stress and burnout. Data were analysed according to the guidelines for data processing and an analysis of the scales used. Results: The participation rate of this study was 73.1%, where 69.4% were encountering job stress, while 62.2% experienced emotional exhaustion, 56.1% depersonalisation, and 58.2% reduced personal capacity. There was a significant positive correlation between job stress and MBI-HSS subscales. Residents and assistant lecturers were the most affected group. The strongest significant single predictor of all burnout dimensions was a lack of job support. Conclusion: Stress and burnout among academic anaesthesiologists were caused by the lack of job support; this was especially true among residents and assistant lecturers. We can conclude that a well-organised institutional strategy to mitigate the heavy professional demands of academic anaesthesiologists’ will relieve their stress and burnout. PMID:23862036
Shams, Tarek; El-Masry, Ragaa
There is compelling evidence that anaesthesiology is a stressful occupation and, when this stressful occupation is associated with an academic career, the burnout level is high. This study aimed to assess the predictors and prevalence of stress and burnout, associated sociodemographic characteristics, and job-related features. A cross-sectional survey study was carried out at Mansoura University Hospital in Egypt among 98 anaesthesiologists who had academic careers. The English version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) scale and the Workplace Stress Scale of the American Institute of Stress were used to measure job stress and burnout. Data were analysed according to the guidelines for data processing and an analysis of the scales used. The participation rate of this study was 73.1%, where 69.4% were encountering job stress, while 62.2% experienced emotional exhaustion, 56.1% depersonalisation, and 58.2% reduced personal capacity. There was a significant positive correlation between job stress and MBI-HSS subscales. Residents and assistant lecturers were the most affected group. The strongest significant single predictor of all burnout dimensions was a lack of job support. Stress and burnout among academic anaesthesiologists were caused by the lack of job support; this was especially true among residents and assistant lecturers. We can conclude that a well-organised institutional strategy to mitigate the heavy professional demands of academic anaesthesiologists' will relieve their stress and burnout.
Combining clinical practice and academic work in nursing: A qualitative study about perceived importance, facilitators and barriers regarding clinical academic careers for nurses in university hospitals.
van Oostveen, Catharina J; Goedhart, Nicole S; Francke, Anneke L; Vermeulen, Hester
To obtain in-depth insight into the perceptions of nurse academics and other stakeholders regarding the importance, facilitators and barriers for nurses combining clinical and academic work in university hospitals. Combining clinical practice and academic work facilitates the use of research findings for high-quality patient care. However, nurse academics move away from the bedside because clinical academic careers for nurses have not yet been established in the Netherlands. This qualitative study was conducted in two Dutch university hospitals and their affiliated medical faculties and universities of applied sciences. Data were collected between May 2015 and August 2016. We used purposive sampling for 24 interviews. We asked 14 participants in two focus groups for their perceptions of importance, facilitators and barriers in nurses' combined clinical and academic work in education and research. We audiotaped, transcribed and thematically analysed the interviews and focus groups. Three themes related to perceived importance, facilitators and barriers: culture, leadership and infrastructure. These themes represent deficiencies in facilitating clinical academic careers for nurses. The current nursing culture emphasises direct patient care, which is perceived as an academic misfit. Leadership is lacking at all levels, resulting in the underuse of nurse academics and the absence of supporting structures for nurses who combine clinical and academic work. The present nursing culture appears to be the root cause of the dearth of academic positions and established clinical academic posts. A culture change would require a show of leadership that would promote and enable combined research, teaching and clinical practice and that would introduce clinical academic career pathways for nurses. Meanwhile, nurse academics should collaborate with established medical academics for whom combined roles are mainstream, and they should take advantage of their established infrastructure
McLean, Marsha R; Morahan, Page S; Dannels, Sharon A; McDade, Sharon A
To explore whether geographic mobility is associated with career advancement of women in U.S. medical schools who are entering mid- to executive-level positions. Using an existing dataset of 351 participants in academic medicine who attended the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Program for Women (1996-2005) (adjusted to 345 participants in some analyses because data on initial faculty rank were missing), the authors conducted a quantitative study in 2009 to determine whether geographic mobility was associated with administrative promotion for those who relocated geographically (from employer while attending ELAM to employer at last job of record). Twenty-four percent of women (83/345) relocated geographically (movers) after attending ELAM. Moving had a positive association with career advancement (P = .001); odds for promotion were 168% higher for movers than for stayers [odds ratio Exp(β) = 2.684]. Movers attained higher administrative positions (P = .003), and more movers (60%) were promoted at the most recent job compared with stayers (40%) (P = .0001). Few movers changed city size; 70% already resided in large or urban cities where most medical schools are located. Age was not a barrier to mobility. Career advancement was not related to research reputation (National Institutes of Health grant award ranking) of participants' schools (either at time of attending ELAM or post-ELAM). Similar to findings outside academic medicine, 24% of women classified as geographic "movers" among midcareer faculty in medical schools attained career advantages. Psychosocial and socioeconomic factors underlying women's relocation decisions require additional study.
Aschhoff, Birgit; Grimpe, Christoph
This study explores the role of contemporaneous peer effects in driving an academic's involvement with industry. Specifically, we examine the influence of workplace peers and personal collaborators and how these effects are moderated by the career age of the scientist. Moreover, we look...... that a scientist's involvement increases with the industry orientation of the scientist's co-authors (“personal peer effect”), irrespective of the scientist's age. In case both types of social influence are incongruent, younger scientists will revert to localized norms while more experienced scientists will orient...... at situations in which both types of social influence are incongruent and the academic is faced with “dissonance”. Based on survey data of 355 German academics in the field of biotechnology and publication data from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we find that the scientist's involvement...
Smith, Derek R; Watson, Roger
A discussion of bibliometrics, altmetrics and social media for the contemporary nursing scholar and academic researcher. Today's nursing academic faces myriad challenges in balancing their daily life and, in recent years, academic survival has been increasingly challenged by the various research assessment exercises that evaluate the performance of knowledge institutions. As such, it is essential that today's nursing academic keep up to date with the core competencies needed for survival in a modern research career, particularly the intersecting triad of bibliometrics, altmetrics and social media. Discussion paper. Published literature and relevant websites. The rise of social media and altmetrics has important implications for contemporary nursing scholars who publish their research. Some fundamental questions when choosing a journal might be 'does it have a Twitter and/or Facebook site, or a blog (or all three)'; and 'does it have any other presence on social media, such as LinkedIn, Wikipedia, YouTube, ResearchGate and so on?' Another consequence of embracing social media is that individual academics should also develop their own strategies for promoting and disseminating their work as widely as possible. The rising importance of social media and altmetrics can no longer be ignored, and today's nursing academic now has another facet to consider in their scholarly activities. Despite the changing nature of research dissemination, however, it is still important to recognize the undoubted value of established knowledge dissemination routes (that being the peer-reviewed publication). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Helitzer, Deborah; Morahan, Page; Chang, Shine; Gleason, Katharine; Cardinali, Gina; Wu, Chih-Chieh
Abstract Background Surprisingly little research is available to explain the well-documented organizational and societal influences on persistent inequities in advancement of women faculty. Methods The Systems of Career Influences Model is a framework for exploring factors influencing women's progression to advanced academic rank, executive positions, and informal leadership roles in academic medicine. The model situates faculty as agents within a complex adaptive system consisting of a trajectory of career advancement with opportunities for formal professional development programming; a dynamic system of influences of organizational policies, practices, and culture; and a dynamic system of individual choices and decisions. These systems of influence may promote or inhibit career advancement. Within this system, women weigh competing influences to make career advancement decisions, and leaders of academic health centers prioritize limited resources to support the school's mission. Results and Conclusions The Systems of Career Influences Model proved useful to identify key research questions. We used the model to probe how research in academic career development might be applied to content and methods of formal professional development programs. We generated a series of questions and hypotheses about how professional development programs might influence professional development of health science faculty members. Using the model as a guide, we developed a study using a quantitative and qualitative design. These analyses should provide insight into what works in recruiting and supporting productive men and women faculty in academic medical centers. PMID:23101486
Magrane, Diane; Helitzer, Deborah; Morahan, Page; Chang, Shine; Gleason, Katharine; Cardinali, Gina; Wu, Chih-Chieh
Surprisingly little research is available to explain the well-documented organizational and societal influences on persistent inequities in advancement of women faculty. The Systems of Career Influences Model is a framework for exploring factors influencing women's progression to advanced academic rank, executive positions, and informal leadership roles in academic medicine. The model situates faculty as agents within a complex adaptive system consisting of a trajectory of career advancement with opportunities for formal professional development programming; a dynamic system of influences of organizational policies, practices, and culture; and a dynamic system of individual choices and decisions. These systems of influence may promote or inhibit career advancement. Within this system, women weigh competing influences to make career advancement decisions, and leaders of academic health centers prioritize limited resources to support the school's mission. The Systems of Career Influences Model proved useful to identify key research questions. We used the model to probe how research in academic career development might be applied to content and methods of formal professional development programs. We generated a series of questions and hypotheses about how professional development programs might influence professional development of health science faculty members. Using the model as a guide, we developed a study using a quantitative and qualitative design. These analyses should provide insight into what works in recruiting and supporting productive men and women faculty in academic medical centers.
Gilbert, L. A.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; LeMay, L.; Reed, D. E.; Desai, A. R.; Macdonald, H.
The NAGT/On the Cutting Edge program has offered annual workshops on Preparing for an Academic Career in the Geosciences since 2003, providing professional development for more than 800 graduate students and post-docs. In July 2016, the multi-day workshop was modified to be integrated into a larger conference, the Earth Educators' Rendezvous. This new format brought both challenges and opportunities. Like prior workshops, participants engaged with peers and workshop leaders from a range of educational settings to improve their application and interview skills for academic jobs, become more effective at goal-setting and time management, and broaden their network of colleagues and resources to jump-start teaching and research as a faculty member. They learned about academic careers in different educational settings (two-year colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, and research-focused universities), and developed plans and goals for their next career stage. The biggest challenge of the new workshop format was paring down material from 2.5 full days. Thus, in addition to the 3 morning sessions allocated for the workshop, leaders added a 3-hour teaching statement review dinner, an optional evening session to discuss finances and work-life balance, and optional small group lunch discussions on all 3 days, which were all well attended. Participants were then able to take advantage of afternoon sessions at the Rendezvous, including demonstrations of exemplary teaching, plenary talks, poster sessions, and mini-workshops on topics from curriculum design to proposal writing. Participant reviews were positive and nearly all aspects were ranked as most valuable, with an overall satisfaction mean of 9.1 on a scale from 1-10, with 10 being "Very satisfied." Participants particularly valued the sessions related to careers and the job search process. Some wished the workshop had been longer to cover more material. Participants enjoyed the opportunity to gain more skills at
Yusuff, Kazeem B
The patient-centered focus of clinical pharmacy practice which demands nuanced application of specialized knowledge and skills targeted to meeting patient-specific therapeutic needs warrant that the training strategy used for PharmD graduates must empower with the ability to use the higher level cognitive processes and critical thinking effectively in service delivery. However, the historical disposition to learning in the Middle East and among Saudi students appeared heavily focused on rote memorization and recall of memorized facts. To assess the impact of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer assessment on pharmacy students' academic performance and metacognitive skills, and evaluate students' feedback on the impact of these active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. An exploratory prospective cohort study was conducted among 4th year students at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia to assess the impact of self-reflection and peer-assessment in a semester-wide assessment tasks in two compulsory first semester 4th year courses (Therapeutics-3 and Pharmacoeconomics). An end-of-course evaluation survey with a pre-tested 5-item open-ended questionnaire was also conducted to evaluate students' feedback on the impact of active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Male students (study group) constituted 40.7% of the cohort while 59.3% were females (control group) with mean ± SD age of 23.2 ± 5.6 and 22.1 ± 4.9 years respectively. The mean ± SD scores for quizzes, mid-term and final exams, and the overall percentage pass were significantly higher in the study group for both courses (P self-reflection and peer-assessment appeared to significantly improve examination performance, facilitate deep and constructive engagement with learning and fostered students' confidence in the use of critical thinking and clinical decision-making.
Ssempebwa, Jude; Teferra, Damtew; Bakkabulindi, Fred Edward K.
Conducted as part of a multi-country study of the teaching-related experiences and expectations of early career academics (ECAs) in Africa, this study investigated the major influences on the teaching practice of ECAs at Makerere University; the mechanisms by which these academics learn to teach; the teaching-related challenges they experience;…
This contribution to the discussion focuses on which conditions at universities need to be established so that academic teaching skills become relevant to the career of university teachers. To find an answer, current findings on academic teaching are summarized from the literature.
Martina Angela Caretta
Full Text Available The rise of neoliberalism is creating inequalities for women as they balance their private lives and career trajectories. Geography as a middle sized discipline bridging the social and physical sciences offers insights into the ways neoliberal policies are felt by early career women (ECW. Using a life course model, this study presents the results of a workshop which sought to explore the ways in which women geographers, in Sweden, perceive and experience obstacles in their career advancement and which coping strategies they put in place to overcome those. The results show the blurring of the ECW ´s work and private lives. We find the experiences of ECW in Swedish geography departments are consistent with those of women in other countries. We conclude that ECW carry extra burdens in their career trajectories as academics due to unsupportive working environments, lack of mentorship, and an increasing pressure to produce measurable outputs and precarious employment. We argue that initiatives and programs aimed at retaining women in academia need to take on a broader perspective acknowledging the entanglement of women´s private and public spheres.
Pilcher, Nick; Forster, Alan; Tennant, Stuart; Murray, Mike; Craig, Nigel
'Career Academics' are principally research-led, entering academia with limited or no industrial or practical experience. UK Higher Education Institutions welcome them for their potential to attain research grant funding and publish world-leading journal papers, ultimately enhancing institutional reputation. This polemical paper problematises the Career Academic around three areas: their institutional appeal; their impact on the student experience, team dynamics and broader academic functions; and current strategic policy to employ them. We also argue that recent UK Government teaching-focused initiatives will not address needs to employ practical academics, or 'Pracademics' in predominantly vocational Construction and Engineering Education. We generate questions for policy-makers, institutions and those implementing strategy. We argue that research is key, but partial rebalancing will achieve a diverse academic skill base to achieve contextualised construction and engineering education. In wider European contexts, the paper resonates with issues of academic 'drift' and provides reflection for others on the UK context.
Richards, Gayle Patrice
The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from 1993 to 2001 to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children. Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented.
Helitzer, Deborah L; Newbill, Sharon L; Cardinali, Gina; Morahan, Page S; Chang, Shine; Magrane, Diane
Academic medicine has initiated changes in policy, practice, and programs over the past several decades to address persistent gender disparity and other issues pertinent to its sociocultural context. Three career development programs were implemented to prepare women faculty to succeed in academic medicine: two sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges, which began a professional development program for early career women faculty in 1988. By 1995, it had evolved into two programs one for early career women and another for mid-career women. By 2012, more than 4000 women faculty from medical schools across the U.S and Canada had participated in these intensive 3-day programs. The third national program, the Hedwig van Ameringen Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine(®) (ELAM) program for women, was developed in 1995 at the Drexel University College of Medicine. Narratives from telephone interviews representing reflections on 78 career development seminars between 1988 and 2010 describe the dynamic relationships between individual, institutional, and sociocultural influences on participants' career advancement. The narratives illuminate the pathway from participating in a career development program to self-defined success in academic medicine in revealing a host of influences that promoted and/or hindered program attendance and participants' ability to benefit after the program in both individual and institutional systems. The context for understanding the importance of these career development programs to women's advancement is nestled in the sociocultural environment, which includes both the gender-related influences and the current status of institutional practices that support women faculty. The findings contribute to the growing evidence that career development programs, concurrent with strategic, intentional support of institutional leaders, are necessary to achieve gender equity and diversity inclusion.
Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai
To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.
McClelland, Shearwood; Thomas, Charles R; Wilson, Lynn D; Holliday, Emma B; Jaboin, Jerry J
The decision of radiation oncology residents to pursue academic versus private practice careers plays a central role in shaping the present and future of the field, but factors that are potentially predictive of this decision are lacking. This study was performed to examine the role of several factors publicly available before residency on postresidency career choice, including preresidency peer-reviewed publications (PRPs), which have been associated with resident career choice in comparably competitive subspecialties such as neurosurgery. Using a combination of Internet searches, telephone interviews, and the 2015 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology directory, a list of 2016 radiation oncology resident graduates was compiled, along with their postresidency career choice. PRP was defined as the number of PubMed publications encompassing the end of the calendar year (2010) in which residency applications were due; this number was then correlated with career choice. A total of 163 residents from 76 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-certified programs were examined: 78% were male, 22% were MDs/PhDs, and 79 graduates (48%) chose academic careers. Fifty-two percent of graduates had at least 1 PRP at the time of application to radiation oncology residency; 35% had more than 1 PRP. Regarding career choice, the difference between 0 and 1+ PRP was statistically significant (odds ratio, 3.3; P 1 PRP. Sex, PhD, or non-PhD dual degree status were not associated with career choice. Radiation oncology residency graduates with 1 or more PRPs at the time of residency application were roughly 2 times more likely to choose an academic career as their initial career choice than graduates with no preresidency PRPs. This information may prove useful to medical students, medical school advisors, and residency program directors and deserves further prospective investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier
Asya A. Bekhoeva
Full Text Available The paper describes an empirical study of the levels and types of educational career orientation of students of teacher-training major from the first to the fifth year of training, as well as the relationship of these parameters with academic performance. The paper analyzes the main approaches to educational career orientation, prevailing in Russian teacher-training and psychology. Educational career training of future experts is regarded as a measure and a way of creative self-actualization in various types of educational activities and teacher-training dialogue aimed at developing and creating educational technology and disclosing individual faculties. Experimental studies were the basis of Chechen State Pedagogical Institute and the North Ossetian State Pedagogical Institute. The results of empirical research show that there are significant differences in the level of Educational career orientation of students: the lowest levels are had by the students of first and second years, and the peak falls on the third or fourth year. Indicators characterizing the prevailing types of Educational career orientation are similar: maximum expression of their career orientation is also characterized by the students of the third and fourth years, which allows to characterize this period as the key one in developing significant professional qualities. It is proved that there is a correlation level of career orientation and the academic performance of students: the high level of career orientation correlates with high performance. This relationship is typical for students at all grade levels, but is most pronounced in the third and fifth years.
Several recent articles in this journal, including the article by Linzer and colleagues in this issue, discuss and promote the concept of part-time careers in academic medicine as a solution to the need to achieve a work-life balance and to address the changing demographics of academic medicine. The article by Linzer and colleagues presents the consensus of a task force that attempted to address practical considerations for part-time work in academic internal medicine. Missing from these discussions, however, are a consensus on the definition of part-time work, consideration of how such strategies would be available to single parents, how time or resources will be allocated to part-time faculty to participate in professional associations, develop professional networks, and maintain currency in their field, and how part-time work can allow for the development of expertise in research and scholarly activity. Most important, the discussions about the part-time solution do not address the root cause of dissatisfaction and attrition: the ever-increasing and unsustainable workload of full-time faculty. The realization that an academic full-time career requires a commitment of 80 hours per week begs the question of whether part-time faculty would agree to work 40 hours a week for part-time pay. The historical underpinnings of the current situation, the implications of part-time solutions for the academy, and the consequences of choosing part-time work as the primary solution are discussed. Alternative strategies for addressing some of the problems facing full-time faculty are proposed.
Sánchez, Nelson F; Rankin, Susan; Callahan, Edward; Ng, Henry; Holaday, Louisa; McIntosh, Kadian; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Sánchez, John Paul
Diversity efforts in the academic medicine workforce have often neglected the identification and inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health professionals. Many of these professionals have served as educators, researchers, administrators, and leaders at their academic institutions, but their perspectives on the barriers to and facilitators of pursuing academic careers, as well as the perspectives of trainees, have not been explored. We applied a purposeful convenience sampling strategy to collect quantitative and qualitative data among LGBT health care professionals (HCP) and trainees. The authors identified trends in data using bivariate analyses and consensual qualitative research methods. We analyzed data from 252 surveys completed by HCPs and trainees and a subset of 41 individuals participated in 8 focus groups. Among survey participants, 100% identified as lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) or queer; 4.5% identified along the trans-spectrum; 31.2% identified as a racial or ethnic minority; 34.1% identified as faculty; and 27.4% as trainees. Eighty-one percent of trainees were interested in academia and 47% of HCPs held faculty appointments. Overall, 79.4% were involved in LGBT-related educational, research, service, or clinical activities. Facilitators of academic careers included engagement in scholarly activities, mentorship, LGBT-specific networking opportunities, personal desire to be visible, campus opportunities for involvement in LGBT activities, and campus climate inclusive of LGBT people. Barriers included poor recognition of LGBT scholarship, a paucity of concordant mentors or LGBT networking opportunities, and hostile or non-inclusive institutional climates. LGBT trainees and HCPs contribute significantly to services, programs, and scholarship focused on LGBT communities. LGBT individuals report a desire for a workplace environment that encourages and supports diversity across sexual orientation and gender identities
Waylen, A; Barnes, O; Kenyon, P; Neville, P
There are various motivators that prompt people to study dentistry but there is evidence that the salience of each varies according to gender and black and minority ethnic (BME) group. Given the current focus on inequality within the science, technology, engineering, medicine and mathematics (STEMM) academic disciplines where dentistry sits, it is important to understand the relevance of different motivators to different social groups if inequality is to be overcome. We carried out a survey of dental students from 11 out of the 18 dental schools in the UK to find out what prompted them to study dentistry. Our findings showed that most people make a personal choice to study dentistry and follow a patient-focused career while the prospect of an academic career was important for less than half of our sample. Differences according to gender and BME group were apparent but did not follow these trends. In order to continue to improve the diversity within dental academia dental schools should consider the different preferences of the workforce and work to broaden its potential.
Jennifer A. Rama
Full Text Available Background: The experience of transitioning to an academic faculty position can be improved with standardized educational interventions. Although a number of such interventions have been described, few utilize an evaluation framework, describe a robust evaluation process, and address why their interventions were successful. In this article, the authors apply a logic model to describe their efforts to develop, implement, evaluate, and revise a comprehensive academic career development curriculum among pediatric subspecialty fellows. They describe inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes using quantitative data from fellow evaluations and qualitative data from faculty interviews. Methods: Methods are described under the input and activities sections. The curriculum started with collaboration among educational leadership and conducting a needs assessment. Using the needs assessment results and targeted learning objectives, we piloted the curriculum and then implemented the full curriculum 1 year later. Results: Results are described under the outputs and outcomes sections. We present immediate, short-term, and 6-month evaluation data. Cumulative data over 3 years reveal that fellows consistently acquired knowledge relevant to transitioning and that they applied acquired knowledge to prepare for finding jobs and career advancement. The curriculum also benefits faculty instructors who gain a sense of reward by filling a critical knowledge gap and fostering fellows’ professional growth. Conclusion: The authors relate the success and effectiveness of the curriculum to principles of adult learning, and share lessons learned, including the importance of buy-in from junior and senior fellows and faculty, collaboration, and designating the time to teach and learn.
McKillop, Ann; Doughty, Lesley; Atherfold, Cheryl; Shaw, Kathy
The dynamic nature of healthcare ensures that early career nurses enter an uncertain and complex world of practice and consequently require support to develop their practice, build confidence and reach their potential. The New Zealand Nurse Entry to Practice programme for registered nurses in their first year of practice has been operating since 2005 to enable safe and confident practice, improve the quality of care, and positively impact on recruitment and retention. This academic and clinical programme was offered as a partnership between a university and a clinical provider with postgraduate academic credits gained. The aim of this study was to explore the perceived impact of postgraduate university education for early career nurses in one regional health area of New Zealand. Participants were registered nurses who had completed the early career nurse programme and their clinical preceptors. The research was conducted via an online survey of 248 nurses and three focus groups to explore how the programme was experienced and its impact on knowledge and practice. Early career nurses and their preceptors found that the programme enables improved knowledge and skills of patient assessment, application of critical thinking to clinical practice, perceived improvement in patient care delivery and outcomes, enhanced interprofessional communication and knowledge sharing, and had a positive impact on professional awareness and career planning. This clinical-academic partnership positively impacted on the clinical practice and transition experience of early career nurses and was closely aligned to an organization's strategic plan for nursing workforce development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yusuff, Kazeem B.
Background: The patient-centered focus of clinical pharmacy practice which demands nuanced application of specialized knowledge and skills targeted to meeting patient-specific therapeutic needs warrant that the training strategy used for PharmD graduates must empower with the ability to use the higher level cognitive processes and critical thinking effectively in service delivery. However, the historical disposition to learning in the Middle East and among Saudi students appeared heavily focused on rote memorization and recall of memorized facts. Objectives: To assess the impact of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer assessment on pharmacy students’ academic performance and metacognitive skills, and evaluate students’ feedback on the impact of these active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Method: An exploratory prospective cohort study was conducted among 4th year students at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia to assess the impact of self-reflection and peer-assessment in a semester-wide assessment tasks in two compulsory first semester 4th year courses (Therapeutics-3 and Pharmacoeconomics). An end-of-course evaluation survey with a pre-tested 5-item open-ended questionnaire was also conducted to evaluate students’ feedback on the impact of active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Result: Male students (study group) constituted 40.7% of the cohort while 59.3% were females (control group) with mean ± SD age of 23.2 ± 5.6 and 22.1 ± 4.9 years respectively. The mean ± SD scores for quizzes, mid-term and final exams, and the overall percentage pass were significantly higher in the study group for both courses (P self-reflection and peer-assessment appeared to significantly improve examination performance, facilitate deep and constructive engagement with learning and fostered students’ confidence in the use of critical thinking and
Leisyte, Liudvika; Hosch-Dayican, Bengü
The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of the change in academic roles for female academics and the implications of this change for their career opportunities. In this article, we therefore aim to answer the following research questions: (1) How have the changes introduced by the new
Kim, Keuntae; Kim, Jong-Kil
Substantial research documents the determinants of entry into the academic career, yet little is known about how these determinants have evolved over time. Using data from a large sample of Korean scholars who received their doctoral degrees between 1980 and 2010, we estimate discrete-time event history models of transitioning to an academic position in any academic field. Results indicate that universalistic characteristics, such as publication record, strongly affect subsequent career success, but so do particularistic factors, including doctoral institution prestige. Since the 1980s, the influence of doctoral degree prestige increased substantially more than the influence of one's publication record on higher education employment, implying that the rising importance of particularistic factors has outpaced growing consideration of universalistic characteristics in Korean academia. However, the importance of gender on academic employment has declined since the early 2000s, suggesting that the implementation of employment quotas for female professors may have stymied gender discrimination.
Full Text Available Substantial research documents the determinants of entry into the academic career, yet little is known about how these determinants have evolved over time. Using data from a large sample of Korean scholars who received their doctoral degrees between 1980 and 2010, we estimate discrete-time event history models of transitioning to an academic position in any academic field. Results indicate that universalistic characteristics, such as publication record, strongly affect subsequent career success, but so do particularistic factors, including doctoral institution prestige. Since the 1980s, the influence of doctoral degree prestige increased substantially more than the influence of one's publication record on higher education employment, implying that the rising importance of particularistic factors has outpaced growing consideration of universalistic characteristics in Korean academia. However, the importance of gender on academic employment has declined since the early 2000s, suggesting that the implementation of employment quotas for female professors may have stymied gender discrimination.
The aim of this paper is to present an autobiographical account on the prospects and process of academic career in Nordic countries, and specifically in Sweden. The method used is biographical, or self-ethnographic, dealing with life transitions including struggles and experiences when making the career. The point of departure is the final step in the academic career, i.e. Professorship, and reconstruction of the life events backwards, both as diachronic, a moment in time, as well as synchron...
Thomas, Patricia A; Diener-West, Marie; Canto, Marcia I; Martin, Don R; Post, Wendy S; Streiff, Michael B
Clinician-educator faculty are increasing in numbers in academic medical centers, but their academic advancement is slower than that of research faculty. The authors sought to quantify the magnitude of this difference in career advancement and to explore the characteristics of faculty that might explain the difference. In 1999, a questionnaire was administered to all MD faculty at the rank of instructor and above (259) in the Department of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. A total of 180 (69%) faculty returned questionnaires. Of these, 178 identified with one of four career paths: basic researcher (46), clinical researcher (69), academic clinician (38), or teacher-clinician (25). Career path did not differ by age, gender, rank, years on faculty, hours worked per week, family responsibility, or global work satisfaction. After adjusting for age, gender, time at rank, and work satisfaction, the odds of being at a higher rank were 85% less for academic clinicians (odds ratio,.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.40) and 69% less for teacher-clinicians (odds ratio,.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.88) than for basic researchers. Clinical researchers did not differ from basic researchers in the likelihood of being at higher rank. Similarly, compared with basic research faculty, the adjusted odds of being more satisfied with progress towards academic promotion were 92% lower for academic clinicians and 87% lower for teacher-clinicians. Clinician-educator faculty were less likely to be at higher rank at this institution than were faculty in research paths. Differences in rank may be explained by lower rank at hire for faculty in these career paths, time available for scholarly activities, or other resources available to support scholarship. Retaining clinician-educators will require further exploration of barriers to promotion inherent to these career paths and methods of modifying these barriers.
Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît
Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717
This study examined the relationship of family background on students' academic self-efficacy and the impact of students' self-efficacy on their career and life success expectations. The study used the national dataset of the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Based on a path…
Bozzon, Rossella; Murgia, Annalisa; Poggio, Barbara; Rapetti, Elisa
This paper addresses the topic of work-life interferences in academic contexts. More specifically, it focuses on early career researchers in the Italian university system. The total availability required from those who work in the research sector is leading to significant transformations of the temporalities of work, especially among the new…
Lynch, Bob Ellsworth
Games contribute to the whole-person, academic, and career development of college-aged individuals (Alderman, 2015). However, many higher-education institutions do not sponsor gaming as a collegiate extracurricular activity, thereby possibly eliminating the opportunity of an all-inclusive environment (Alderman, 2015). To elucidate the problem,…
Cossa, Eugénia Flora Rosa; Buque, Domingos Carlos; Fringe, Jorge Jaime dos Santos
This mixed-methods study explored how early-career academics (ECA) at the Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) acquire pedagogical knowledge, develop their teaching experience as well as examine their expectations regarding the teaching profession. A questionnaire, composed mostly of closed questions and one open-ended question, was applied to 71…
Pilcher, Nick; Forster, Alan; Tennant, Stuart; Murray, Mike; Craig, Nigel
"Career Academics" are principally research-led, entering academia with limited or no industrial or practical experience. UK Higher Education Institutions welcome them for their potential to attain research grant funding and publish world-leading journal papers, ultimately enhancing institutional reputation. This polemical paper…
Amini, Richard; Laughlin, Brady S; Smith, Kathy W; Siwik, Violet P; Adamas-Rappaport, William J; Fantry, George T
Career advising for medical students can be challenging for both the student and the adviser. Our objective was to design, implement, and evaluate a "flipped classroom" style advising session. We performed a single-center cross-sectional study at an academic medical center, where a novel flipped classroom style student advising model was implemented and evaluated. In this model, students were provided a document to review and fill out prior to their one-on-one advising session. Ninety-four percent (95% CI, 88%-100%) of the medical students surveyed felt that the advising session was more effective as a result of the outline provided and completed before the session and that the pre-advising document helped them gain a better understanding of the content to be discussed at the session. Utilization of the flipped classroom style advising document was an engaging advising technique that was well received by students at our institution.
Smith, Steven J.; Pedersen-Gallegos, Liane; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine
We present an in-depth portrait of the training, careers, and work of recent Ph.D. physical scientists. Use of specialized training varies widely, with about half often using knowledge of their Ph.D. specialty area in their jobs. The use of specialized training does not, however, correlate with job satisfaction. In this and other important measures, there are relatively few differences between "academics" and "nonacademics." Important job skills for all employment sectors include writing, oral presentation, management, data analysis, designing projects, critical thinking, and working in an interdisciplinary context. Rankings given by respondents of graduate training in some of these skill areas were significantly lower than the importance of these skills in the workplace. We also found that the rated quality of graduate training varies relatively little by department or advisor. Finally, although nonacademic aspirations among graduate students are fairly common, these do not appear to be well supported while in graduate school.
Speck, Rebecca M.; Dupuis Sammel, Mary; Scott, Patricia; Conant, Emily F.; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Abbuhl, Stephanie B.; Grisso, Jeane Ann
Purpose Women in academic medicine are not achieving the same career advancement as men, and face unique challenges in managing work and family alongside intense work demands. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a supportive department/division culture buffered women from the impact of work demands on work-to-family conflict. Method As part of a larger intervention trial, the authors collected baseline survey data from 133 women assistant professors at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine in 2010. Validated measures of work demands, work-to-family conflict, and a department/division culture were employed. Pearson correlations and general linear mixed modeling were used to analyze the data. Authors investigated whether work culture moderated the association between work demands and work-to-family conflict. Results Heavy work demands were associated with increased levels of work-to-family conflict. There were significant interactions between work demands, work-to-family conflict, and department/division culture. A culture conducive to women’s academic success significantly moderated the effect of work hours on time-based work-to-family conflict and significantly moderated the effect of work overload on strain-based work-to-family conflict. At equivalent levels of work demands, women in more supportive cultures experienced lower levels of work-to-family conflict. Conclusions The culture of the department/division plays a crucial role in women’s work-to-family conflict and can exacerbate or alleviate the impact of extremely high work demands. This finding leads to important insights about strategies for more effectively supporting the careers of women assistant professors. PMID:24556773
DuCoin, Christopher; Petersen, Rebecca P; Urbach, David; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Madan, Atul K; Pryor, Aurora D
Small seed grants strongly impact academic careers, result in future funding, and lead to increased involvement in surgical societies. We hypothesize that, in accordance with the SAGES Research and Career Development committee mission, there has been a shift in grant support from senior faculty to residents and junior faculty. We hypothesize that these junior physician-researchers are subsequently remaining involved with SAGES and advancing within their academic institutions. All current and previous SAGES grant recipients were surveyed through Survey Monkey™. Questions included current academic status and status at time of grant, ensuing funding, publication and presentation of grant, and impact on career. Results were verified through a Medline query. SAGES database was examined for involvement within the society. Respondent data were compared to 2009 data. One hundred and ninety four grants were awarded to 167 recipients. Of those, 75 investigators responded for a response rate 44.9%. 32% were trainees, 43% assistant professors, 16% associate professors, 3% full professors, 3% professors with tenure, and 3% in private practice. This is a shift from 2009 data with a considerable increase in funding of trainees by 19% and assistant professors by 10% and a decrease in funding of associate professors by 5% and professors by 10%. 41% of responders who were awarded the grant as assistant or associate professors had advanced to full professor and 99% were currently in academic medicine. Eighty-two percent indicated that they had completed their project and 93% believed that the award helped their career. All responders remained active in SAGES. SAGES has chosen to reallocate an increased percentage of grant money to more junior faculty members and residents. It appears that these grants may play a role in keeping recipients interested in the academic surgical realm and involved in the society while simultaneously helping them advance in faculty rank.
Amini, Richard; Laughlin, Brady S; Smith, Kathy W; Siwik, Violet P; Adamas-Rappaport, William J; Fantry, George T
Introduction Career advising for medical students can be challenging for both the student and the adviser. Our objective was to design, implement, and evaluate a “flipped classroom” style advising session. Methods We performed a single-center cross-sectional study at an academic medical center, where a novel flipped classroom style student advising model was implemented and evaluated. In this model, students were provided a document to review and fill out prior to their one-on-one advising session. Results Ninety-four percent (95% CI, 88%–100%) of the medical students surveyed felt that the advising session was more effective as a result of the outline provided and completed before the session and that the pre-advising document helped them gain a better understanding of the content to be discussed at the session. Conclusion Utilization of the flipped classroom style advising document was an engaging advising technique that was well received by students at our institution. PMID:29785150
Sweeney, Jennifer K.; Villarejo, Merna
This qualitative, retrospective study explored how educational experiences provided as part of an undergraduate intervention program helped to shape career decisions for minority biology students. A key goal for the program is to increase minority entry into science research and teaching careers, yet actual career choice has not been studied.…
Katz, Eva; Coleman, Marianne
Interviewed and surveyed Israeli teacher educators regarding links between research and career development. Young and ambitious respondents used research for extrinsic rewards and career advancement. Teacher educators toward the end of their careers looked for intrinsic rewards and viewed research as contributing to professional growth.…
Wood, Christine V.; Campbell, Patricia B.; McGee, Richard
This paper analyzes perspectives on academic careers among 60 beginning PhD students in the biomedical sciences. It presents seven perspectives on academic careers articulated by the students in the sample and explains the way that race/ethnicity, gender, and students’ family education backgrounds are tied to those perspectives. The findings show that traditionally underrepresented students find the academic career path less navigable than students from well-represented groups. Among underrepresented students, even those from higher family education backgrounds, experiences related to race/ethnicity and gender often inform perceptions of the academic career even before they start their graduate research training. As the composition of the graduate population changes to include more women and underrepresented racial and ethnic minority men, it is important to note that not all graduate students enter with the same perspectives and views of the academic career and that there are meaningful differences in perspectives across demographic lines. Graduate programs can play a critical role in providing information and support for graduate students as they navigate their career choices, particularly at the earliest stages of training. By becoming sensitive to students’ perspectives on career options, and understanding how differences in perspectives arise, mentors and others can align advising strategies with the experiences and views of students. PMID:28239250
Full Text Available This paper represents an attempt to make a theoretical contribution to its knowledge base through an analysis of the group factors which contribute to the success of women academics engaged in research within the area of social sciences. The data were obtained through a series of in-depth interviews carried out at public universities in Catalonia, with women academics –all of whom were the heads of research groups recognized by the Generalitat [Regional Government] of Catalonia. The findings indicate that research groups provide a supportive and effective environment for female researchers enabling them to develop their academic careers, as measured by such key performance indicators as the number of publications and successful applications for research funding.
Debacker, N.; Vandevelde, K.
Worldwide mobility of researchers is generally correlated with an enhancement of the continuous interchange of ideas and is therefore highly stimulated. Flemish universities have occasionally been criticized for providing limited career opportunities for foreign researchers. However, presently no reliable data is available on researchers’ mobility in Flanders. For the five Flemish universities a full dataset is available at the ECOOM Centre for R&D Monitoring, containing all academic appointments and PhD’s awarded since 1990-1991. This dataset allows for prospective analyses within the Flemish university system as well as retrospective analyses and provides information on international and interuniversity recruitment and academic inbreeding. The present results confirm that the academic system in Flanders is indeed recognized by a tradition of internal recruitment. However specific differences between the universities and the scientific disciplines are observed calling for a more complex study of researchers’ mobility and of the relationship between mobility and research excellence. (Author)
Martina Angela Caretta; Natasha Alexandra Webster
The rise of neoliberalism is creating inequalities for women as they balance their private lives and career trajectories. Geography as a middle sized discipline bridging the social and physical sciences offers insights into the ways neoliberal policies are felt by early career women (ECW). Using a life course model, this study presents the results of a workshop which sought to explore the ways in which women geographers, in Sweden, perceive and experience obstacles in their career advancement...
Linzer, Mark; Warde, Carole; Alexander, R Wayne; Demarco, Deborah M; Haupt, Allison; Hicks, Leroi; Kutner, Jean; Mangione, Carol M; Mechaber, Hilit; Rentz, Meridith; Riley, Joanne; Schuster, Barbara; Solomon, Glen D; Volberding, Paul; Ibrahim, Tod
To establish guidelines for more effectively incorporating part-time faculty into departments of internal medicine, a task force was convened in early 2007 by the Association of Specialty Professors. The task force used informal surveys, current literature, and consensus building among members of the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine to produce a consensus statement and a series of recommendations. The task force agreed that part-time faculty could enrich a department of medicine, enhance workforce flexibility, and provide high-quality research, patient care, and education in a cost-effective manner. The task force provided a series of detailed steps for operationalizing part-time practice; to do so, key issues were addressed, such as fixed costs, malpractice insurance, space, cross-coverage, mentoring, career development, productivity targets, and flexible scheduling. Recommendations included (1) increasing respect for work-family balance, (2) allowing flexible time as well as part-time employment, (3) directly addressing negative perceptions about part-time faculty, (4) developing policies to allow flexibility in academic advancement, (5) considering part-time faculty as candidates for leadership positions, (6) encouraging granting agencies, including the National Institutes of Health and Veterans Administration, to consider part-time faculty as eligible for research career development awards, and (7) supporting future research in "best practices" for incorporating part-time faculty into academic departments of medicine.
Bennett-Garraway, Jocelyn M.
Do parents play a significant role in the academic achievement and career decision making process of African American children? Studies have confirmed the importance of the role of parents and have even identified preferred parenting styles as having the best academic achievement (Dornbusch, Ritter, Leiderman, Roberts, & Fraleigh, 1987;…
Smith, D.; Spronken-Smith, R.; Stringer, R.; Wilson, C. A.
This article examines academics' access to and perceptions of sabbaticals at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Statistical and inductive analysis of survey data from 915 academics (47% of all academics employed) revealed inequalities in access to and experience of sabbaticals, and highlighted academic, personal and gender issues. Men…
Hill, John D; Anderegg, Sammuel V; Couldry, Rick J
Background: Influenza and pneumococcal disease contribute substantially to the burden of preventable disease in the United States. Despite quality measures tied to immunization rates, health systems have struggled to achieve these targets in the inpatient setting. Pharmacy departments have had success through implementation of pharmacist standing order programs (SOP); however, these initiatives are labor-intensive and have not resulted in 100% immunization rates. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate a pilot utilizing pharmacy technician interventions, in combination with a nursing SOP, to improve vaccination rates of hospitalized patients for influenza and pneumococcal disease. Methods: A process was developed for pharmacy technicians to identify patients who were not previously screened or immunized during the weekend days on the Cardiovascular Progressive Care unit at the University of Kansas Health-System. Targeted pharmacy technician interventions consisted of phone call reminders and face-to-face discussions with nursing staff. The primary study outcome was the change in immunization compliance rates between the control and intervention groups. Results: Influenza vaccine rates showed a statistically significant increase from 72.2% (52 of 72) of patients during the control group to 92.9% (65 of 70, P = .001) of patients during the intervention group. A pneumococcal vaccination rate of 81.3% (61 of 75) was observed in the control group, compared with 84.3% (59 of 70) of patients in the intervention group ( P = .638). Conclusion: An improvement in inpatient influenza immunization rates can be achieved through targeted follow-up performed by pharmacy technicians, in combination with a nursing-driven SOP.
Anderson, Cheryl B.; Lee, Hwa Young; Byars-Winston, Angela; Baldwin, Constance D.; Cameron, Carrie; Chang, Shine
Competency in forms of scientific communication, both written and spoken, is essential for success in academic science. This study examined the psychometric properties of three new measures, based on social cognitive career theory, that are relevant to assessment of skill and perseverance in scientific communication. Pre- and postdoctoral trainees in biomedical science (N = 411) completed online questionnaires assessing self-efficacy in scientific communication, career outcome expectations, and interest in performing tasks in scientific writing, oral presentation, and impromptu scientific discourse. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate factor structures and model relations. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 22-item, 3-factor measure of self-efficacy, an 11-item, 2-factor measure of outcome expectations, and a 12-item, 3-factor measure of interest in scientific communication activities. Construct validity was further demonstrated by theory-consistent inter-factor relations and relations with typical communications performance behaviors (e.g., writing manuscripts, abstracts, presenting at national meetings). PMID:26924920
Dr. Maria Luisa A. Valdez
Full Text Available This research aims to assess the reports generated from the Dermatoglyphics Multiple Intelligence Test (DMIT administered by selected DMIT resource companies and consultancy firms in India with the end view of identifying its implication to career guidance program enhancement of academic institutions. This paper employed the descriptive research method which involved the use of documentary analysis, questionnaires and interviews with purposively selected respondents supported by the researchers’ analysis and insights with reference to the content of the data. Findings of this research revealed that the dermatoglyphics, as a scientific discipline, began with the publication of Purkinje’s thesis (1823 and Galton’s classic book, Fingerprints (1892; DMIT is a remarkable offshoot of Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences which has the following salient features: Overview of the Dermatoglyphics and the Dermatoglyphics Multiple Intelligence Test/Analysis; Personality Assessment; Profile based on Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences and Dunn’s Brain Lateralization Theories; Learning Styles; Competency and Compatibility Profiles; Working Style; Leadership Style; Management Style; Report Interpretation; and Customized Academic and Relationship Advises; the respondents of this study gave their perceptions with reference to the beneficial results of the DMIT; and the foregoing findings have some implications that may be used by academic institutions to enhance their career guidance program.
Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.
Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME new requirements raise multiple challenges for academic medical centers. We sought to evaluate career satisfaction, emotional states, positive and negative experiences, work hours and sleep among residents and faculty simultaneously in one academic medical center after implementation of the ACGME duty hour requirements. Methods Residents and faculty (1330 in the academic health center were asked to participate in a confidential survey; 72% of the residents and 66% of the faculty completed the survey. Results Compared to residents, faculty had higher levels of satisfaction with career choice, competence, importance and usefulness; lower levels of anxiousness and depression. The most positive experiences for both groups corresponded to strong interpersonal relationships and educational value; most negative experiences to poor interpersonal relationships and issues perceived outside of the physician's control. Approximately 13% of the residents and 14% of the faculty were out of compliance with duty hour requirements. Nearly 5% of faculty reported working more than 100 hours per week. For faculty who worked 24 hour shifts, nearly 60% were out of compliance with the duty-hour requirements. Conclusion Reasons for increased satisfaction with career choice, positive emotional states and experiences for faculty compared to residents are unexplained. Earlier studies from this institution identified similar positive findings among advanced residents compared to more junior residents. Faculty are more frequently at risk for duty-hour violations. If patient safety is of prime importance, faculty, in particular, should be compliant with the duty hour requirements. Perhaps the ACGME should contain faculty work hours as part of its regulatory function.
The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study
Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.
Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…
Changing conditions of academic and scientific labour markets challenge the current conceptual thinking about the mechanisms of academic promotion, selection and recruitment. This paper explores the models of academic promotion and recruitment of professors in a comparative perspective using the examples of Poland and Germany, and addresses the…
Cappell, M S
This study aims to describe a comprehensive strategy for success in academic gastroenterology by reporting common sense, but mostly previously unpublished, recommendations. The recommendation are based on expert opinion from personal experience mentoring 125 gastroenterology fellows and residents as a program director for nine years and from mentoring research while publishing more than 160 articles in peer-reviewed journals and editing 11 books during a 23-year academic career. Primary criteria for fellowship applicant selection include board scores, clinical performance, interview performance, clinical training, and research productivity. For optimal chances, select the subspecialty of gastroenterology early during residency, consult a mentor, and develop a well-planned strategy. Faculty advancement depends upon publications, grants, national recognition, interpersonal skills, and recommendations. Article categories from highest-to-lowest in prestige are original investigations, review articles, book chapters, case reports, and letters/abstracts. Articles are judged by the prestige of the journal of publication. Resubmit rejected articles to successively less prestigious journals until accepted for publication. Articles in journals without peer-review have negligible career impact. Grant support creates protected time. Institutional reputation is important in academics. Do not accept a job without a written contract. Have a lawyer review your contract. An outside offer strengthens a negotiating position. Be sociable and nonconfrontational at work. Network with colleagues. Seek a mentor. Meet your supervisor regularly for feedback. Never express anger at your boss or patients. Avoid litigation with employers. Sub-subspecialize to develop expertise in one area. Focus on this area in your research and clinical practice. In conclusion, a well-planned strategy can help you achieve a senior academic position early and efficiently.
Horch, R E; Vogt, P M; Schaller, H E; Stark, G B; Lehnhardt, M; Kneser, U; Giunta, R E
Recruitment problems in surgical disciplines have become an increasingly debated topic. On the one hand current career prospects appear to be less attractive than those were seen for the previous generation. On the other hand the demands for a so-called "work-life balance" have changed and the proportion of female students and colleagues in medicine has risen and will continue to increase. Although Plastic Surgery currently seems to be less affected by these problems than other surgical disciplines, securing a qualified supply of young academics in Plastic Surgery is a prerequisite for the further development of this discipline. The traditional model of mentoring is discussed and the role of coaching in a sense of helping the mentorees examine what they are doing in the light of their intentions and goals is reflected. The present article tries to analyze the current status of academic Plastic Surgery from the viewpoint of German university senior surgeons in academic plastic surgery, and aims to highlight the specific prospects for young academics against the backdrop of an often one-sided and superficial perception of this profession. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Thisgaard, Malene; Makransky, Guido
The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increas...
The goal of NSF's ADVANCE Program is to help increase the participation of women in the scientific and engineering workforce through the increased representation and advancement of women in academic science and engineering careers. The Program tries to address this under representation by focusing on support for men and women with three approaches: institutional (Institutional Transformation), grass-root (Leadership), and individual (Fellows) support. The ADVANCE Program alternates with a round of Institutional and Leadership awards in one year and a Fellows competition the next. Since its inception in 2001, NSF has had two competitive rounds for each of the three award types and will have spent approximately 75 M\\ by the end of the next fiscal year (2004). The first and second ADVANCE Institutional Transformation competitions (FY 2001 and 2003) received over 70 proposals each. These awards are for multi-year support in the amount of 3-4M\\ each. Details and access to the websites for the ADVANCE programs of each institution can be found in NSF's ADVANCE webpage at http://nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/advance/itwebsites.htm. The number of proposals submitted for the Leadership awards competition dropped from 35 in 2001 to 26 in 2003, despite an increase in the allowed award size for the second round. In terms of projected goals, this part of ADVANCE is perhaps the most eclectic. Some Leadership awards were made to professional societies to work specifically with their respective scientific communities in identifying needs that might be peculiar to a field of science. In the first round of the Leadership awards, PI Mary-Anne Holmes of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and collaborators received a grant to work with the Association of Women Geoscientists to determine the current status of women geoscientists in the US. These grantees hope to disseminate the information gathered under this award broadly in order to educate women students and faculty on strategies to
Brown, Corrie C; Harvey, Stephen B; Stiles, Dori
Over a period of 10 years, first-year students from 11 consecutive veterinary classes conducted a self-assessment using a natural abilities survey. The present study analyzes the data compiled from students' self-assessment results. As a group, veterinary students are exceptional problem solvers, either through inductive or deductive reasoning, and have strong spatial relations capacities. Veterinary students have a range of learning styles with design memory being the primary vehicle for information delivery and tonal memory being the least frequently used style overall. Information gained on each student's natural abilities can be used to guide effective career decision making and enhance prospects for long-term career satisfaction.
Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies
McLean, Marsha Renee
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…
Gopaul, Bryan; Pifer, Meghan J.
Academic mobility is an increasingly crucial topic to the current and future dynamics of doctoral study and the professoriate. Much of the research has focused on US, UK and European contexts. This research explores academic mobility and the manifold issues that arise between the jurisdictions of Canada and the US, in ways that parallel and…
Kool, A.; Mainhard, M. T.; Brekelmans, M.; van Beukelen, P.; Jaarsma, Alexandra
This study compared Dutch alumni who previously participated in an honors program (n=72) to non-honors alumni who entered university as high-achieving high school students (n=72) with regard to (1) final university grade point average (GPA) and (2) early career outcomes. Final grades were drawn from
Kool, A.; Mainhard, M. T.; Jaarsma, A. D C; Brekelmans, M.; van Beukelen, P.
This study compared Dutch alumni who previously participated in an honors program (n = 72) to non-honors alumni who entered university as high-achieving high school students (n = 72) with regard to (1) final university grade point average (GPA) and (2) early career outcomes. Final grades were drawn
Wasson, Jillian Woodford
There is a well-documented gender disparity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, which has been the focus of research for several decades (i.e., Betz & Hackett, 1981; Ceci & Williams, 2009, 2010; Wang, Eccles, & Kenny, 2013). Questions as to why this is the case are not new; however, with the growing body of research, there seem to be more questions than answers. This study drew primarily from the vocational psychology literature, particularly Social Cognitive Career Theory, building on previous literature in this area by examining differences in career choices made over time by qualified women across different stages in the education-to-career pathway. The results of the present study indicate that among qualified women many of the SCCT personal and contextual variables are relevant to STEM career development. Moreover, findings from the present study support the hypothesis (Lent et al., 1994) that personal, environmental, and behavioral variables affect one another. An important aspect of the SCCT model is the acknowledgment that at any given point in time, certain variables will carry different weight (Lent et al., 1994). The current study provides further support for this and underscores the necessity of understanding and framing career development as a process, unfolding across several developmental stages. These findings, their generalizability, and implications for practice should be carefully considered in the context of several limitations that this sample was influenced by: limitations in reliability and selection of variables, lack of diversity within the sample, as well as the extraneous variables related to overall economic and political backdrop.
Vizuete Carrizosa, Manuel
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the degree of influence of some school habits and scholar trayectory on academic achievement in physical education (PE students in secondary education (ESO in the city of Badajoz. A total sample of 1197 students in compulsory secondary education 49.9% men, and 50.1% women, participated in the study. They spent a questionnaire filled out by the river questions about major school habits, of which eight variables were analyzed also included the final course in the subject of EF as a variable for analysis of academic performance. Through statistical analysis with ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal Wallis H, there are significant differences in PE scores in all variables analyzed (p d».001, among which being repetitive, being truant, the time to read and study daily. In the variable environment perceived in class, there is a degree of significance (p d».05. Pupils who were repeaters, missing more classes or were delayed more times than read and studied less and earned a worse environment in their classes, are those who obtained poorer performance on EF.
McDaris, J. R.; Kirk, K. B.; Layou, K.; Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.; Hodder, J.
Two-year colleges play an important role in developing a competent and creative geoscience workforce, teaching science to pre-service K-12 teachers, producing earth-science literate citizens, and providing a foundation for broadening participation in the geosciences. The Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education in Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) project has developed web resources for geoscience faculty on the preparation and support of students in two-year colleges (2YCs). Online resources developed from two topical workshops and several national, regional, and local workshops around the country focus on two main categories: Career Preparation and Workforce Development, and Supporting Student Success in Geoscience at Two-year Colleges. The Career Preparation and Workforce Development resources were developed to help faculty make the case that careers in the geosciences provide a range of possibilities for students and to support preparation for the geoscience workforce and for transfer to four-year programs as geoscience majors. Many two-year college students are unaware of geoscience career opportunities and these materials help illuminate possible futures for them. Resources include an overview of what geoscientists do; profiles of possible careers along with the preparation necessary to qualify for them; geoscience employer perspectives about jobs and the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes they are looking for in their employees; employment trends in sectors of the economy that employ geoscience professionals; examples of geotechnician workforce programs (e.g. Advanced Technological Education Centers, environmental technology programs, marine technician programs); and career resources available from professional societies. The website also provides information to support student recruitment into the geosciences and facilitate student transfer to geoscience programs at four- year colleges and universities, including sections on advising support before
Serdar Öge; Alpay Karasoy; Özlem Kara
Although women have merit in their jobs, they still are located very few in the top management in many sectors. There are many causes of such situation. Such a situation creates obstacles; especially invisible ones are called “glass ceiling syndrome”. Also, studies which handle this subject in academic community are very few. The aim of this research is to reach the results about glass ceiling obstacles in terms of female teaching staff (academics) working in higher educa...
Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.
A team consisting of Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) staff, local educators, and other representatives developed an action plan to assist in advancing the blending of academic, career, and technology education. The team prepared a vision statement, set strategic directions, analyzed barriers, and developed recommendations and actions…
Kilburn, Daniel; Earley, Jonathan
This article presents an adaptation of established qualitative research methods for online focus groups by using the "Disqus" website-based commenting platform as a medium for discussion among doctoral and early-career academic learners. Facilities allowing Internet users to comment on the content of web pages are increasingly popular on…
This report presents an evaluation of the Bilingual Academic and Career Education Services for Hispanic High School Students (Project BACES), an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its third year of operation at DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx and George Washington High School in Manhattan. The project served…
Hall, Eric E.; Walkington, Helen; Shanahan, Jenny Olin; Ackley, Elizabeth; Stewart, Kearsley A.
This study examines how Undergraduate Research (UR) mentoring fits into the career profile of award-winning UR mentors and the factors that motivate engagement as UR mentors. Twenty-four award-winning UR mentors in four countries were interviewed about their mentoring practices. Six themes emerged: (1) Academic Identity and Motivations; (2)…
Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna
This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…
Okoshi, Kae; Nomura, Kyoko; Fukami, Kayo; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kinoshita, Koichi; Sakai, Yoshiharu
During the past three decades, the participation of women in medicine has increased from 10.6% (1986) to 19.7% (2012) in Japan. However, women continue to be underrepresented in the top tiers of academic medicine. We highlight gender inequality and discuss the difficulties faced by female surgeons in Japanese academic surgery. Using anonymous and aggregate employment data of medical doctors at Kyoto University Hospital from 2009 and 2013, and a commercially-published faculty roster in 2012-2013, we compared gender balance stratified by a professional and an academic rank. The numbers of total and female doctors who worked at Kyoto University Hospital were 656 and 132 (20.1%) in 2009 and 655 and 132 (20.2%) in 2013, respectively. Approximately half the men (n = 281) were in temporary track and the rest (n = 242) were in tenure track, but only one fifth of women (n = 24) were in tenure track compared to 108 women in temporary track (p < 0.0001) in 2013. There were three female associate professors in basic medicine (8.1%), two female professors in clinical non-surgical medicine (3.9%) and one female lecturer in clinical surgical medicine (2.3%) in 2012. Fewer female doctors were at senior positions and at tenure positions than male doctors at Kyoto University Hospital. There were no female associate and full professors in surgery. The status of faculty members indicates the gender differences in leadership opportunities in Japanese academic surgery.
Shawer, Saad F.
This quantitative investigation examined the influence of low and high self-efficacy on candidate teacher academic performance in a foreign language teaching methodology course through testing the speculation that high self-efficacy levels would improve pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). Positivism guided the research design at the levels of…
Murniati, Cecilia Titiek
Increasing numbers of women have gained access to college and the college teaching profession worldwide. However, women continue to be underrepresented in academic, research, and leadership positions. Women who have aspirations for top leadership positions still encounter numerous internal and external challenges. Existent literature on women…
Bates, Carol; Gordon, Lynn; Travis, Elizabeth; Chatterjee, Archana; Chaudron, Linda; Fivush, Barbara; Gulati, Martha; Jagsi, Reshma; Sharma, Poonam; Gillis, Marin; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Grover, Amelia; Lautenberger, Diana; Moses, Ashleigh
Women represent approximately half of students entering medical schools and more than half of those entering PhD programs. When advancing through the academic and professional fields, however, women continually face barriers that men do not. In this Commentary, the authors offer ideas for coordinating the efforts of organizations, academic institutions, and leaders throughout the scientific and medical professions to reduce barriers that result in inequities and, instead, strive for gender parity. Specific areas of focus outlined by the authors include facilitating women's access to formal and informal professional networks, acknowledging and addressing the gender pay gap as well as the lack of research funding awarded to women in the field, and updating workplace policies that have not evolved to accommodate women's lifestyles. As academic institutions seek access to top talent and the means to develop those individuals capable of generating the change medicine and science needs, the authors urge leaders and change agents within academic medicine to address the systemic barriers to gender equity that impede us from achieving the mission to improve the health of all.
Campion, MaryAnn W.; Bhasin, Robina M.; Beaudette, Donald J.; Shann, Mary H.; Benjamin, Emelia J.
Purpose: Faculty vitality is integral to the advancement of higher education. Strengthening vitality is particularly important for midcareer faculty, who represent the largest and most dissatisfied segment. The demands of academic medicine appear to be another factor that may put faculty at risk of attrition. To address these issues, we initiated…
Full Text Available This research focuses on the advancement of women in academia from an interdisciplinary perspective. It examines the leisure activities of faculty from various departments from a gender-based point of view, with regard to the association between time devoted to research and teaching and time devoted to family and social life. In addition, other possible correlations between academic output (number of articles per year, number of conferences attended, research grants submitted, teaching feedback scores and personal background data (marital status, size of family, age, country of birth, and ethnicity were also explored. Many studies have dealt with the "glass ceiling" encountered by women in academia. The following case study is the first to explore performance measures of personnel at an academic institution in Israel from a gender perspective, in light of their leisure choices. The point of departure guiding the researchers was that the representation of women in academic personnel, including their research and teaching output, has a significance and influence on the system of higher education and, both in Israel and internationally. The research findings might help identify and develop interventions for utilization of time, with the goal of increasing academic output.
Chang, Daniel T.; Shaffer, Jenny L.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wilson, Lynn D.
Purpose: To determine what factors US radiation oncology residents consider when choosing academic or nonacademic careers. Methods and Materials: A 20-question online survey was developed and sent to all US radiation oncology residents to assess factors that influence their career interest. Residents were asked to rate their interest in academics (A) versus private practice (PP) on a 0 (strong interest in A) to 100 (strong interest in PP) scale. Responses were classified as A (0-30), undecided (40-60), and PP (70-100). Residents were also asked to rank 10 factors that most strongly influenced their career interest. Results: Three hundred thirty-one responses were collected, of which 264 were complete and form the basis for this analysis. Factors that correlated with interest in A included having a PhD (P=.018), postgraduate year level (P=.0006), research elective time (P=.0003), obtaining grant funding during residency (P=.012), and number of publications before residency (P=.0001), but not number of abstracts accepted in the past year (P=.65) or publications during residency (P=.67). The 3 most influential factors for residents interested in A were: (1) baseline interest before residency; (2) academic role models; and (3) research opportunities during residency. The 3 most influential factors for residents interested in PP were: (1) baseline interest before residency; (2) academic role models; and (3) academic pressure and obligations. Conclusions: Interest in A correlated with postgraduate year level, degree, and research time during residency. Publications before but not during residency correlated with academic interest, and baseline interest was the most influential factor. These data can be used by residency program directors to better understand what influences residents' career interest
Sanberg, Paul R; Gharib, Morteza; Harker, Patrick T; Kaler, Eric W; Marchase, Richard B; Sands, Timothy D; Arshadi, Nasser; Sarkar, Sudeep
There is national and international recognition of the importance of innovation, technology transfer, and entrepreneurship for sustained economic revival. With the decline of industrial research laboratories in the United States, research universities are being asked to play a central role in our knowledge-centered economy by the technology transfer of their discoveries, innovations, and inventions. In response to this challenge, innovation ecologies at and around universities are starting to change. However, the change has been slow and limited. The authors believe this can be attributed partially to a lack of change in incentives for the central stakeholder, the faculty member. The authors have taken the position that universities should expand their criteria to treat patents, licensing, and commercialization activity by faculty as an important consideration for merit, tenure, and career advancement, along with publishing, teaching, and service. This position is placed in a historical context with a look at the history of tenure in the United States, patents, and licensing at universities, the current status of university tenure and career advancement processes, and models for the future.
Mohamed Osama, O; Gallagher, J E
The importance of role models, and their differing influence in early, mid- and late careers, has been identified in the process of professional development of medical doctors. There is a paucity of evidence within dentistry on role models and their attributes. To explore the views of early career dentists on positive and negative role models across key phases of professional development, together with role models' attributes and perceived influence. This is a phenomenological study collecting qualitative data through semi-structured interviews based on a topic guide. Dentists in junior (core training) hospital posts in one academic health science centre were all invited to participate. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Twelve early career stage dentists, 10 of whom were female, reported having role models, mainly positive, in their undergraduate and early career phases. Participants defined role models' attributes in relation to three distinct domains: clinical attributes, personal qualities and teaching skills. Positive role models were described as "prioritising the patient's best interests", "delivering learner-centred teaching and training" and "exhibiting a positive personality", whilst negative role models demonstrated the converse. Early career dentists reported having largely positive dentist role models during- and post-dental school and report their impact on professional values and aspirations, learning outcomes and career choice. The findings suggest that these early career dentists in junior hospital posts have largely experienced and benefitted from positive role models, notably dentists, perceived as playing an important and creative influence promoting professionalism and shaping the career choices of early career stage dentists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nitza Davidovitch; Eran Druckman
This research focuses on the advancement of women in academia from an interdisciplinary perspective. It examines the leisure activities of faculty from various departments from a gender-based point of view, with regard to the association between time devoted to research and teaching and time devoted to family and social life. In addition, other possible correlations between academic output (number of articles per year, number of conferences attended, research grants submitted, teaching feedba...
Vydareny, K H; Waldrop, S M; Jackson, V P; Manaster, B J; Nazarian, G K; Reich, C A; Ruzal-Shapiro, C B
The authors' purposes were to determine if there are gender differences in the speed of promotion and/or academic productivity in academic radiology and if this situation had changed since a previous study was performed in 1987. Surveys were distributed to faculty members of academic radiology departments in May 1997. A total of 707 surveys were analyzed according to gender for time at rank for assistant and associate professor levels, in relation to publication rate, grant funding rate, and distribution of professional time. There was no difference between genders in the time at assistant professor rank. Among all current professors, women had been associate professors longer than men, but there was no difference between genders for those who had been in academic radiology for less than 15 years. There was no gender difference at any rank in the rate of publishing original articles. There was no difference in funding rates, although men had more total grant support. Male associate professors reported spending more time in administration and slightly more time in total hours at work than did their female colleagues, and male professors spent slightly more time teaching residents. Otherwise, there is no difference in how men and women at any rank spend their professional time. There are, however, lower percentages of women in tenured positions and in the uppermost levels of departmental administration. The time at rank for men and women and their rate of publication appear to have equalized. Women still are underrepresented at the uppermost levels of departmental administration, however, and are less likely than men to hold tenured positions.
Raper, Steven E; Hoffman, Rebecca L; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Kelz, Rachel R
The experiences of life are what shape us. This article relays stories of adversity and resiliency as experienced and told by members of our own surgical community at the Academic Surgical Congress in Las Vegas, NV in February 2017. We aim to express in words the lessons of each experience so that others can learn about life and leadership. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bostwick, Jolene R; Leung, Gillian P; Smith, Tawny L; Ahmed, Uzma; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn L; Peyronnet, Jean-Xavier
Introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) are 1 requirement schools and colleges of pharmacy must fulfill to meet accreditation standards. The purpose of this manuscript is to report existing IPPEs in psychiatry and neurology across the United States. Two separate electronic surveys were administered to individual College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists members with board certification in psychiatric pharmacy with an academic affiliation and academic institutions in the 2014-15 academic year to assess the neuropsychiatric curriculum in pharmacy programs. Results focusing on IPPEs were summarized using descriptive statistics. Academic institutional data reveal only 37.3% offered IPPEs in psychiatry, and 6.7% offered neurology. The number of available IPPEs is low even if a program offered an available rotation. The majority of College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists member respondents (69.9%) did not offer IPPEs in psychiatry in the 2014-15 academic year, and none offered an IPPE in neurology. More than half of individual respondents feel their institution should increase IPPEs in psychiatry and neurology in order to enhance their curriculum. To expand IPPE availability, pharmacy programs should increase early exposure of pharmacy students to patients with psychiatric and neurologic conditions. Longitudinal experiences may allow students to engage in hands-on experiences, which may impact future career aspirations and reduce stigma. Current example IPPEs at the authors' institutions are included to stimulate discussion and action among readers on how IPPEs in these practice areas may be developed. Implementation of IPPEs in psychiatry and neurology is needed for students to gain experience working with these patients.
Yoon, Sungwon; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Marcus E H; Thumboo, Julian
Objectives To explore the factors that influence career progress for early stage clinician-scientists and to identify ways to mitigate these factors in the context of emerging Asian academic medical centres (AMCs). Design Qualitative interviews and thematic data analysis based on grounded theory. Setting and participants Five focus group interviews comprising 29 early career clinician-scientists who have received their first national-level career development award in Singapore. Results Clinical priorities represented an overarching concern with many reporting the difficulty in delineating responsibilities between clinical care and research. Additionally, there was a prevailing perception of the lack of support for research at the institutional level. Participants tended to identify mentors through their own efforts in a relatively haphazard manner, often owing to the dearth of role models and perceived inadequacy of reward systems for mentoring. Support from mentors was thought to be limited in terms of targeted scientific guidance and long-term commitments to the relationship. Most of the participants expressed concerns about how they could secure the next level of funding with diminishing confidence. Notably, the work-life balance was neither conceptualised as a ‘barrier’ to successful pursuit of research career nor was it translated into the reason for leaving the dual clinical-research career pathway. Conclusions Results revealed specific limitations presented by the research environment in newly emerging Asian AMCs. To retain a vibrant clinician-scientist workforce, additional measures are needed, aiming to improve institutional culture of research, build mentoring networks, adopt effective tools for tracking career progress and provide a clear and viable career progression path for clinician-scientist. Further research might explore the cross-cultural differences in managing work-life balance in academic medicine. PMID:29502093
Yoon, Sungwon; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Marcus E H; Thumboo, Julian
To explore the factors that influence career progress for early stage clinician-scientists and to identify ways to mitigate these factors in the context of emerging Asian academic medical centres (AMCs). Qualitative interviews and thematic data analysis based on grounded theory. Five focus group interviews comprising 29 early career clinician-scientists who have received their first national-level career development award in Singapore. Clinical priorities represented an overarching concern with many reporting the difficulty in delineating responsibilities between clinical care and research. Additionally, there was a prevailing perception of the lack of support for research at the institutional level. Participants tended to identify mentors through their own efforts in a relatively haphazard manner, often owing to the dearth of role models and perceived inadequacy of reward systems for mentoring. Support from mentors was thought to be limited in terms of targeted scientific guidance and long-term commitments to the relationship. Most of the participants expressed concerns about how they could secure the next level of funding with diminishing confidence. Notably, the work-life balance was neither conceptualised as a 'barrier' to successful pursuit of research career nor was it translated into the reason for leaving the dual clinical-research career pathway. Results revealed specific limitations presented by the research environment in newly emerging Asian AMCs. To retain a vibrant clinician-scientist workforce, additional measures are needed, aiming to improve institutional culture of research, build mentoring networks, adopt effective tools for tracking career progress and provide a clear and viable career progression path for clinician-scientist. Further research might explore the cross-cultural differences in managing work-life balance in academic medicine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All
This case study of a typical U.S. particle physics experiment explores the issues of gender bias and how it affects the academic career advancement prospects of women in the field of physics beyond the postdoctoral level; we use public databases to study the career paths of the full cohort of 57 former postdoctoral researchers on the Run II Dzero experiment to examine if males and females were treated in a gender-blind fashion on the experiment. The study finds that the female researchers wer...
Full Text Available The honesty and integrity of scientists is widely believed to be threatened by pressures to publish, unsupportive research environments, and other structural, sociological and psychological factors. Belief in the importance of these factors has inspired major policy initiatives, but evidence to support them is either non-existent or derived from self-reports and other sources that have known limitations. We used a retrospective study design to verify whether risk factors for scientific misconduct could predict the occurrence of retractions, which are usually the consequence of research misconduct, or corrections, which are honest rectifications of minor mistakes. Bibliographic and personal information were collected on all co-authors of papers that have been retracted or corrected in 2010-2011 (N=611 and N=2226 papers, respectively and authors of control papers matched by journal and issue (N=1181 and N=4285 papers, respectively, and were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Results, which avoided several limitations of past studies and are robust to different sampling strategies, support the notion that scientific misconduct is more likely in countries that lack research integrity policies, in countries where individual publication performance is rewarded with cash, in cultures and situations were mutual criticism is hampered, and in the earliest phases of a researcher's career. The hypothesis that males might be prone to scientific misconduct was not supported, and the widespread belief that pressures to publish are a major driver of misconduct was largely contradicted: high-impact and productive researchers, and those working in countries in which pressures to publish are believed to be higher, are less-likely to produce retracted papers, and more likely to correct them. Efforts to reduce and prevent misconduct, therefore, might be most effective if focused on promoting research integrity policies, improving mentoring and training
Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry
The authors contend that increasing diversity in academic medicine, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics requires the adoption of a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students as they navigate the scientific pipeline. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support to continue toward careers in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status). The authors define "asset bundles" as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach.
Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry
The authors contend that increasing diversity in the scientific pipeline (e.g., academic medicine, science, technology, engineering and mathematics) requires a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support in order to continue toward a career in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, or socioeconomic status). The authors define “asset bundles” as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach. PMID:23018329
Lehna, Carlee; Hermanns, Melinda; Monsivais, Diane B; Engebretson, Joan
The dissertation provides an excellent source of scholarly productivity for new doctoral faculty, yet is often neglected because of the demands inherent in the faculty role. The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of a scholar mentor group composed of three graduates of a PhD nursing program and their shared dissertation chair, who acted as a senior scholar mentor to the group. By working together, we have been able to enhance our scholarly productivity by disseminating our dissertations through presentations and publications. The paper will present the evolving process of this working group, summarize outcomes, analyze the challenges, and provide suggestions for future doctoral students and faculty who are working with them. Our experience and scholar mentor model captures the best of both worlds-the benefits of interaction with academic peers and the benefits of having a senior scholar mentor. This was accomplished while all members were at different schools in different cities and states. Although other literatures that document successful collaborations using a peer-mentorship model are available, we were unable to locate any that documents a post-doctoral group with a senior scholar mentor who continued working together after graduation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...
Brown, D.; Vargas, W.; Padilla, E.; Strickland, J.; Echols, E.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Ricciardi, L.; Johnson, A.; Braxton, L.
Historically, there has been a lack of ethnic and gender diversity in the geo-sciences. The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program provides a bridge to young scientists of diverse backgrounds who in turn will impact many. In a process of 3 phases, the program introduces the students to the scientific community through participation in professional and society meetings and networking with scientists and personnel within federal agencies, academic institutions and STEM-based industries. The program builds confidence, offers role models for professional development and provides students support during their education. Upon completion, students achieve a high level of self-actualization and self-esteem combined with individual growth. They become part of a community that continuously provides support and security to each other. This support is tangible through the mentor/mentee relationships which will help with individual growth throughout the mentoring cycle. Having role models and familiar faces to whom mentees can relate to will encourage our students to succeed in the STEM's field. To date, 159 students have participated in the program: 26 have successfully completed their PhD and 56 are currently enrolled in the PhD programs nationwide. The MS PHD'S Program creates a forum of diverse peoples by diverse peoples with diverse interest and strength, where the ongoing goal is to continually raise the bar for each individual. MS PHD'S establishes a nurturing goal-oriented environment for the geo scientist of the future who in turn will make profound contributions on a local, national and global scale. To conclude, MSPHD'S not only bridges the gap of unrepresented minorities in STEM careers, but also generates educational approaches to make the earth system sciences available to more, impacting all.
CODRUȚA ADINA BĂLTESCU
Full Text Available The sustainable development of the society is based on a solid and efficient educational system. At the same time, the sustainable development of the tourism sector can be achieved only with competent and responsible employees. Such goals represent the foundation in designing academic programs in all universities. But it cannot be ignored the fact that many university graduates do not follow a professional career in the same profile for which they have been prepared. In this context, it was conducted a quantitative marketing research among students in their final years from the Bachelor’s and Master’s academic programmes in the tourism profile at the Transilvania University of Brasov. The research aimed to reveal the level of students’ satisfaction regarding their knowledge and skills acquired during the academic studies. The results which have been obtained highlighted the fact that the majority intends to have a career in the tourism field but, at the same time, the students consider necessary to continue their studies in universities from Romania and other countries. This is a prerequisite in order to improve their knowledge and to increase their chances to be employed in a suitable job. The results are also relevant for improving the education curriculum, to optimize the didactic process, and especially for reshaping the training practice content
Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc
Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3-6; range, 1-10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33-4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09-4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01-3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46-11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the specialty (OR, 3.33; 95
Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc
Abstract Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3–6; range, 1–10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33–4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09–4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01–3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46–11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the
Lemberger, A P
Recent studies of higher education in America have raised concern over the lack of integrity and coherence, the absence of vigorous intellectual exchange, and the dominance of careerism in the undergraduate curriculum. Observations and recommendations emanating from studies of pharmaceutical education acknowledge the importance of problem-solving abilities but emphasize the inculcation of knowledge relevant to professional functions and the development of skill in contemporary practice. The current emphasis placed on training students for pharmacy practice found in the pharmacy curriculum causes the objective of achieving intellectual growth to be overshadowed. Balance must be restored. The pharmaceutical sciences, taught for their value as academic disciplines and for their integrity with other branches of science, could serve as the stimulus for intellectual growth of students. An academic baccalaureate program with a major in pharmaceutical sciences as the required base for professional education is proposed as a remedy.
Combining clinical practice and academic work in nursing: a qualitative study about perceived importance, facilitators and barriers regarding clinical academic careers for nurses in university hospitals.
Oostveen, C.J. van; Goedhart, N.S.; Francke, A.L.; Vermeulen, H.
Aims and objectives: To obtain in-depth insight into the perceptions of nurse aca- demics and other stakeholders regarding the importance, facilitators and barriers for nurses combining clinical and academic work in university hospitals. Background: Combining clinical practice and academic work
Heijstra, Thamar M.; Einarsdóttir, Þorgerður; Pétursdóttir, Gyða M.; Steinþórsdóttir, Finnborg S.
In the labour market women's jobs have frequently been conceptually and literally tied to housework and hence thought of as unskilled and therefore undervalued. Although academic institutions have undergone changes, the fact that women still carry the main responsibility for domestic and caring tasks continues to follow them into the academic work…
Full Text Available The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increased knowledge of evolution significantly, compared to the traditional lesson. No significant differences between the simulation and lesson were found in their ability to increase the non-cognitive measures. Both interventions increased self-efficacy significantly, and none of them had a significant effect on motivation. In addition, the results showed that the simulation increased interest in biology related tasks, but not outcome expectations. The findings suggest that virtual learning simulations are at least as efficient in enhancing learning and self-efficacy as traditional lessons, and high schools can thus use them as supplementary educational methods. In addition, the findings indicate that virtual learning simulations may be a useful tool in enhancing student’s interest in and goals toward STEM related careers.
Thisgaard, Malene; Makransky, Guido
The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increased knowledge of evolution significantly, compared to the traditional lesson. No significant differences between the simulation and lesson were found in their ability to increase the non-cognitive measures. Both interventions increased self-efficacy significantly, and none of them had a significant effect on motivation. In addition, the results showed that the simulation increased interest in biology related tasks, but not outcome expectations. The findings suggest that virtual learning simulations are at least as efficient in enhancing learning and self-efficacy as traditional lessons, and high schools can thus use them as supplementary educational methods. In addition, the findings indicate that virtual learning simulations may be a useful tool in enhancing student's interest in and goals toward STEM related careers.
McClelland, Shearwood; Mitin, Timur; Jagsi, Reshma; Thomas, Charles R; Jaboin, Jerry J
The Hirsch index (h-index) has been shown to correlate with radiation oncology residents' having a first job in academics versus private practice, but it is limited by its inability to distinguish between the differing significance of coauthor roles in articles. A list of 2016 radiation oncology resident graduates and their postresidency career choices was compiled. The Scopus bibliometric citation database was then searched to collect h-index data for articles limited to first author only (h f ) and first or second-author only (h s ) for each resident. Mean h f was 2.06 for all resident graduates, and mean h s was 2.77. Residents with PhDs had significantly higher h f (3.11 versus 1.76, P gender. Only 10% of graduates without any first- and/or second-author articles cited at least once secured academic jobs. These findings indicate that stratifying publications by first or second authorship when developing benchmarks for evaluating resident productivity and postresidency career type may be useful. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walkiewicz, Maciej; Tartas, Malgorzata; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Budzinski, Waldemar
Our study investigated the styles of success in the medical career in young physicians, in comparison with the same subjects examined 4-10 years earlier. The participants were first studied when they applied to the medical university (1999). Questionnaires were sent to all students each year (2000-2005). Fifty-four medical doctors participated in the first phase of the study completed a questionnaire four years after graduation. The current questionnaire included measures of burnout, satisfaction with medicine as a career, quality of life (QOL) and postgraduate examination results. Previous questionnaires had included measures of academic achievement, depression and anxiety. We can describe three different styles of success, which can be predicted during medical education. Physicians with the best professional competence have the lowest income. However, physicians with the lowest professional competence gain the highest income. Those with the highest QOL (general well-being and life satisfaction) have the lowest professional stress and vulnerability to burnout. Anxiety and academic achievement (during the second and fourth year of study) are the significant predictors of specific style belonging. Our results may be useful to medical school admissions and resident selection committees to identify candidates at risk for less satisfaction or less competence.
In 2010, the Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE) released a "What Is Career Ready?" definition. As the career-readiness definition explains, there is much overlap between "college readiness" and "career readiness," but academic preparedness for college alone is not enough to be truly career-ready.…
Howell, Lydia Pleotis; Elsbach, Kimberly D; Villablanca, Amparo C
Work-life balance is important to recruitment and retention of the younger generation of medical faculty, but medical school flexibility policies have not been fully effective. We have reported that our school's policies are underutilized due to faculty concerns about looking uncommitted to career or team. Since policies include leaves and accommodations that reduce physical presence, faculty may fear "face-time bias," which negatively affects evaluation of those not "seen" at work. Face-time bias is reported to negatively affect salary and career progress. We explored face-time bias on a leadership level and described development of compensation criteria intended to mitigate face-time bias, raise visibility, and reward commitment and contribution to team/group goals. Leaders from 6 partner departments participated in standardized interviews and group meetings. Ten compensation plans were analyzed, and published literature was reviewed. Leaders did not perceive face-time issues but saw team pressure and perception of availability as performance motivators. Compensation plans were multifactor productivity based with many quantifiable criteria; few addressed team contributions. Using these findings, novel compensation criteria were developed based on a published model to mitigate face-time bias associated with team perceptions. Criteria for organizational citizenship to raise visibility and reward group outcomes were included. We conclude that team pressure and perception of availability have the potential to lead to bias and may contribute to underuse of flexibility policies. Recognizing organizational citizenship and cooperative effort via specific criteria in a compensation plan may enhance a culture of flexibility. These novel criteria have been effective in one pilot department.
Scott, Mollie Ashe; Kiser, Stephanie; Park, Irene; Grandy, Rebecca; Joyner, Pamela U
An innovative certificate program aimed at expanding the rural pharmacy workforce, increasing the number of pharmacists with expertise in rural practice, and improving healthcare outcomes in rural North Carolina is described. Predicted shortages of primary care physicians and closures of critical access hospitals are expected to worsen existing health disparities. Experiential education in schools and colleges of pharmacy primarily takes place in academic medical centers and, unlike experiential education in medical schools, rarely emphasizes the provision of patient care in rural U.S. communities, where chronic diseases are prevalent and many residents struggle with poverty and poor access to healthcare. To help address these issues, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy developed the 3-year Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program. The program curriculum includes 4 seminar courses, interprofessional education and interaction with medical students, embedding of each pharmacy student into a specific rural community for the duration of training, longitudinal ambulatory care practice experiences, community engagement initiatives, leadership training, development and implementation of a population health project, and 5 pharmacy practice experiences in rural settings. The Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program at UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy seeks to transform rural pharmacy practice by creating a pipeline of rural pharmacy leaders and teaching a unique skillset that will be beneficial to healthcare systems, communities, and patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
While many indicators for academic medical physics are distressing – jobs are tight, demands on clinical time are high (and getting worse) and national funding has been flat for several years (meaning less money in reality) the present is perhaps one of the most exciting times in cancer research history, and medical physicists have an opportunity to make a difference. Many of us predict the impact of medical physics on cancer research over the next decade to be more significant than ever. Why is that? First, medical imaging is used for every cancer patient in developed countries. Every improvement in the acquisition, processing or analysis of radiological images has the potential to impact patients. The use of radiation therapy is at an all-time high – and virtually cannot be performed without medical physics. Many of the advances in both biomedical imaging and radiation oncology are the result of the hard work of academic medical physicists who are thinking of the next generation of technologies that will be used against cancer or an even broader spectrum of diseases. A career in academic medical physics is demanding, particularly for those with clinical responsibilities. As the demands for justification of their clinical effort become increasingly metricized, the ability to do “unfunded research” will become even more difficult. This means that many will have to generate external salary support to justify their efforts in research and development. This comes at a time when funding for research is compressed and harder to obtain. Generally speaking, if you are not contributing 50% or more of your effort to research, you are competing at a disadvantage and it is very unlikely you will get an NIH/NCI/NIBIB grant. Furthermore, in the ongoing effort to improve patient care and safety, we have developed credentialing pathways that now require at least two-years of residency training. This full-time clinical training creates a gap in the research trajectory of
Hazle, J. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)
While many indicators for academic medical physics are distressing – jobs are tight, demands on clinical time are high (and getting worse) and national funding has been flat for several years (meaning less money in reality) the present is perhaps one of the most exciting times in cancer research history, and medical physicists have an opportunity to make a difference. Many of us predict the impact of medical physics on cancer research over the next decade to be more significant than ever. Why is that? First, medical imaging is used for every cancer patient in developed countries. Every improvement in the acquisition, processing or analysis of radiological images has the potential to impact patients. The use of radiation therapy is at an all-time high – and virtually cannot be performed without medical physics. Many of the advances in both biomedical imaging and radiation oncology are the result of the hard work of academic medical physicists who are thinking of the next generation of technologies that will be used against cancer or an even broader spectrum of diseases. A career in academic medical physics is demanding, particularly for those with clinical responsibilities. As the demands for justification of their clinical effort become increasingly metricized, the ability to do “unfunded research” will become even more difficult. This means that many will have to generate external salary support to justify their efforts in research and development. This comes at a time when funding for research is compressed and harder to obtain. Generally speaking, if you are not contributing 50% or more of your effort to research, you are competing at a disadvantage and it is very unlikely you will get an NIH/NCI/NIBIB grant. Furthermore, in the ongoing effort to improve patient care and safety, we have developed credentialing pathways that now require at least two-years of residency training. This full-time clinical training creates a gap in the research trajectory of
Olin, Bernie R.
The root cause of most chronic diseases in America is self-inflicted through an unhealthy lifestyle including poor diet, insufficient exercise, inability to maintain a healthy weight, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. Americans' ability to adhere to healthy lifestyles appears to be declining.1,2 The pharmacy profession, while positioned to provide an answer to this problem, has done little. In addition, academic pharmacy's primary focus is on drugs and diseases with limited instruction in the area of wellness. It is time for pharmacy education to step up and take a leadership role in enhancing the wellness of Americans. PMID:20585430
Penner, Anne E; Lundblad, Wynne; Azzam, Pierre N; Gopalan, Priya; Jacobson, Sansea L; Travis, Michael J
This study reports the academic outcomes, including scholarly productivity, of the graduates of one residency training track for future clinician educators and academic administrators. Since its implementation in 2008, the Academic Administrator, Clinician Educator (AACE) track at Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic - UPMC has grown in popularity with reports of participants achieving post-graduate academic success; however, there has been no prior assessment of outcomes. In 2015 all graduates of the track were surveyed using an anonymous, web-based survey. Twenty-nine total graduates were surveyed RESULTS: Twenty-four graduates responded to the survey (83% response rate). The graduates are very active in academic psychiatry with 23 (96%) holding an academic appointment with different administrative roles, medical director (50%) and training director (17%) being the most frequent. Participants have also been active in pursuing scholarship with 80% presenting their scholarly projects at local and national conferences and producing post-graduate, peer-reviewed articles (50%). This study underscores the benefits of a clinician educator track and suggests areas for future growth.
Cisneros, Robert M
To determine whether changes occur over 1 academic year in pharmacy students' critical thinking skills and disposition to think critically. First, second, third, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) at the beginning and end of 1 academic year. One hundred thirty-seven students completed the study. No significant changes occurred over the year in total scores on either instrument. However, scores in 3 of 12 subscale scores changed significantly and several significant correlations were found. Pharmacy students' scores on 2 critical thinking instruments showed no major improvements over 1 academic year but most scores were above average. Some areas of possible weakness were identified. Additional studies comparing scores over a longer period of time (eg, admission to graduation) are needed.
Perry, Jeffrey J; Snider, Carolyn E; Artz, Jennifer D; Stiell, Ian G; Shaeri, Sedigheh; McLeod, Shelley; Le Sage, Natalie; Hohl, Corinne; Calder, Lisa A; Vaillancourt, Christian; Holroyd, Brian; Hollander, Judd E; Morrison, Laurie J
We sought to 1) identify best practices for training and mentoring clinician researchers, 2) characterize facilitators and barriers for Canadian emergency medicine researchers, and 3) develop pragmatic recommendations to improve and standardize emergency medicine postgraduate research training programs to build research capacity. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE and Embase using search terms relevant to emergency medicine research fellowship/graduate training. We conducted an email survey of all Canadian emergency physician researchers. The Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) research fellowship program was analysed, and other similar international programs were sought. An expert panel reviewed these data and presented recommendations at the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) 2014 Academic Symposium. We refined our recommendations based on feedback received. Of 1,246 potentially relevant citations, we included 10 articles. We identified five key themes: 1) creating training opportunities; 2) ensuring adequate protected time; 3) salary support; 4) infrastructure; and 5) mentorship. Our survey achieved a 72% (67/93) response rate. From these responses, 42 (63%) consider themselves clinical researchers (i.e., spend a significant proportion of their career conducting research). The single largest constraint to conducting research was funding. Factors felt to be positive contributors to a clinical research career included salary support, research training (including an advanced graduate degree), mentorship, and infrastructure. The SAEM research fellowship was the only emergency medicine research fellowship program identified. This 2-year program requires approval of both the teaching centre and each applying fellow. This program requires training in 15 core competencies, manuscript preparation, and submission of a large grant to a national peer-review funding organization. We recommend that the CAEP Academic Section create a
Hispanics, and women in particular, continue to be underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The purpose of this study was to analyze cognitive and motivational factors that inspired Hispanic female college students to major in STEM programs and aspire to academic success. This mixed methods study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis techniques in a sequential phase. Quantitative data were collected through the use of the 80-item Honey and Mumford Learning Styles Questionnaire, which was focused on the students' learning styles and how they impact Hispanic female students upon engaging in a STEM-related curriculum. Qualitative data were collected during interviews focusing on factors that led students to select, participate in, and make a commitment to some aspect of a STEM-related program. The questions that were asked during the interviews were intended to examine whether the existence of role models and STEM initiatives motivate Hispanic female students to major in STEM-related academic programs and aspire to academic success. The participants in this study were undergraduate Hispanic female students majoring in STEM-related academic programs and at a four-year university. The results indicate that the majority of the participants (88%) identified as reflectors, 4% as activists, 4% as theorists, and 4% as pragmatists. The results from the interviews suggested that the existence of role models (family members, educators, or STEM professionals) was a factor that motivated Hispanic females to major in STEM-related subjects and that exposure to STEM initiatives during K-12 education motivated Hispanic females to pursue a career in STEM.
Mohamed Hassan Elnaem
Full Text Available Pharmacy informatics is demonstrated to have a positive effect on pharmacy practice. The incorporation of pharmacy informatics in academic programs is a common feature in the pharmacy curriculum. This work aims to provide an overview of the current and potential role of mobile applications (apps in pharmacy education and practice. Mobile apps are the most common informatics tools used by medical and pharmacy practitioners as well as students. Both students and practitioners have overall positive perceptions toward using mobile apps in their daily clinical training and practice although the fact that the number of pharmacy apps is still small relatively in comparison with other medical-related apps. There are many potential roles for mobile apps in pharmacy practice and education. The future efforts of educational uses of mobile apps in pharmacy should target playing a role in the provision of customized tools for clinical pharmacy education.
Linzer, M; Warde, C; Alexander, RW; DeMarco, DM; Haupt, A; Hicks, L; Kutner, J; Mangione, CM; Mechaber, H; Rentz, M; Riley, J; Schuster, B; Solomon, GD; Volberding, P; Ibrahim, T
To establish guidelines for more effectively incorporating part-time faculty into departments of internal medicine, a task force was convened in early 2007 by the Association of Specialty Professors. The task force used informal surveys, current literature, and consensus building among members of the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine to produce a consensus statement and a series of recommendations. The task force agreed that part-time faculty could enrich a department of medicine, enhan...
This study was conducted at a small "research-led" institution in South Africa. The data indicate that women produce less research than men and have low levels of professional self-esteem. Factors such as accrual of social capital, family responsibilities and self-esteem are constraints experienced by women academics in pursuing research…
Howard, Meredith L; Steuber, Taylor D; Nisly, Sarah A; Wilhoite, Jessica; Saum, Lindsay
Formalized mentoring programs are often credited for influencing professional development of mentees. Unfortunately, little information exists regarding advancement of mentoring skills. We report the development and evaluation of a program to cultivate mentoring skills in pharmacy residents. Advanced pharmacy practice experience students and pharmacy residents were contacted for program participation. Resident mentors were paired with a student mentee for the program. Mentors were provided resources and support throughout the program. Sessions were held to facilitate mentoring relationships and to discuss professional development topics. Pre- and post-perception surveys were administered to mentors to measure changes in mentoring comfort and ability. Only matched pre- and post-surveys were included for analysis. The program was held and evaluated over two separate academic years FINDINGS: Fifty-three residents mentored 54 students over two cycles of the program. Mentors' matched perception surveys (n = 26) reported increased comfort in mentoring (p effectiveness in provision of written and oral feedback (p = 0.004 and p = 0.013 respectively). Mentors also reported heightened belief that serving as a student mentor will be beneficial to their long-term career goals (p = 0.034). Overall, this formal resident-led student mentoring program improved resident comfort serving in a mentoring role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry
The authors contend that increasing diversity in the scientific pipeline (e.g., academic medicine, science, technology, engineering and mathematics) requires a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity continge...
Hill, John D; Williams, Jonathan P; Barnes, Julie F; Greenlee, Katie M; Cardiology, Bcps-Aq; Leonard, Mandy C
The development of a pharmacy resident rotation to expand decentralized clinical pharmacy services is described. In an effort to align with the initiatives proposed within the ASHP Practice Advancement Initiative, the department of pharmacy at Cleveland Clinic, a 1,400-bed academic, tertiary acute care medical center in Cleveland, Ohio, established a goal to provide decentralized clinical pharmacy services for 100% of patient care units within the hospital. Patient care units that previously had no decentralized pharmacy services were evaluated to identify opportunities for expansion. Metrics analyzed included number of medication orders verified per hour, number of pharmacy dosing consultations, and number of patient discharge counseling sessions. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of this service and potential resident learning opportunities. A learning experience description was drafted, and feedback was solicited regarding the development of educational components utilized throughout the rotation. Pharmacists who were providing services to similar patient populations were identified to serve as preceptors. Staff pharmacists were deployed to previously uncovered patient care units, with pharmacy residents providing decentralized services on previously covered areas. A rotating preceptor schedule was developed based on geographic proximity and clinical expertise. An initial postimplementation assessment of this resident-driven service revealed that pharmacy residents provided a comparable level of pharmacy services to that of staff pharmacists. Feedback collected from nurses, physicians, and pharmacy staff also supported residents' ability to operate sufficiently in this role to optimize patient care. A learning experience developed for pharmacy residents in a large medical center enabled the expansion of decentralized clinical services without requiring additional pharmacist full-time equivalents. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of
Dominick P Trombetta, Pharm.D
Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the main contributor to both health care costs and mortality in the United States, with medication non-adherence and lifestyle modifications being leading causes. To motivate patients with several co-morbidities, the longitudinal care class was used to educate on maintaining adherence to prescribed regimens. Twenty pharmacy students were trained in health coaching and motivational interviewing methods. Specifically, students were to provide patients with education sheets, apply the teach-back method, and motivate the patient to develop and reach SMART goals made with the pharmacy student over a course of one academic school year. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties. Type: Note
Cordina, Maria; Journal of the Malta College of Pharmacy Practice Editorial Board
The Malta College of Pharmacy Practice, will be hosting the 13th International Social Pharmacy Workshop next summer. The concept of social pharmacy is very clearly explained in the article by Professor Ellen West Sørensen and colleagues, who are considered to be pioneers in this field. Malta has successfully hosted a number of pharmacy conferences, however this one is somewhat different and rather special.
Goos, Mieke; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick; Petry, Katja; de Bilde, Jerissa
This study examined the effects of first-grade retention on children's academic growth, psychosocial growth, and future school career by following a cohort of first graders until the start of secondary school. The study took place in the Flemish educational context where primary school students are taught in uniform curricular year groups; the same curricular goals are set for all students, irrespective of ability; and grade retention is used as the main way to cater for students not reaching these goals. Propensity score stratification was used to deal with selection bias. Three-level curvilinear growth curve models, encompassing both grade and age comparisons, were used to model children's growth in math skills, reading fluency skills, and psychosocial skills. Two-level logistic regression models were used to model children's likelihood of repeating any grade between Grades 2 and 6, transitioning to a special education primary school, moving to another primary school, and transitioning to the A (versus B) track in secondary education. Overall, results showed that first-grade retention was less helpful for struggling students than generally thought by parents and educators. Limitations of the study and further research suggestions are provided, and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bounds, Patrice Sheri Robinson
The exploration of African American adolescents' career development has gained increasing attention in light of literature describing various barriers impacting their educational and career development and goals. Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) was used as a theoretical framework to help shed light on the contextual factors that influence…
Max Joseph Herman
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional
Allen, D D; Bond, C A
Good admissions decisions are essential for identifying successful students and good practitioners. Various parameters have been shown to have predictive power for academic success. Previous academic performance, the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT), and specific prepharmacy courses have been suggested as academic performance indicators. However, critical thinking abilities have not been evaluated. We evaluated the connection between academic success and each of the following predictive parameters: the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) score, PCAT score, interview score, overall academic performance prior to admission at a pharmacy school, and performance in specific prepharmacy courses. We confirmed previous reports but demonstrated intriguing results in predicting practice-based skills. Critical thinking skills predict practice-based course success. Also, the CCTST and PCAT scores (Pearson correlation [pc] = 0.448, p critical thinking skills in pharmacy practice courses and clerkships. Further study is needed to confirm this finding and determine which PCAT components predict critical thinking abilities.
Brown, Johanna Michele
Career decision making difficulty, as it relates to undecided college students and career indecision, has been a concern for counselors and academic advisors for decades (Gordon, 2006; Mau, 2004). Individuals struggling with career indecision often seek assistance via career counseling, self-help tools, and/or computer-assisted career guidance…
To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu's description of field, species of capital, and habitus. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs.
Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065
van der Vink, G. E.; van der Vink, G. E.
A new generation of Geoscientists are abandoning the traditional pathways of oil exploration and academic research to pursue careers in public policy, international affairs, business, education and diplomacy. They are using their backgrounds in Geoscience to address challenging, multi-disciplinary problems of societal concern. To prepare for such careers, students are developing a broad understanding of science and a basic literacy in economics, international affairs, and policy-making.
Lopes, Joana; Ranieri, Veronica; Lambert, Trevor; Pugh, Chris; Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi J; Rees, Geraint; Best, Denise
To examine clinical doctoral students' demographic and training characteristics, career intentions, career preparedness and what influences them as they plan their future careers. Online cross-sectional census surveys at two research-intensive medical schools in England in 2015-2016. All medically qualified PhD students (N=523) enrolled at the University of Oxford and University College London were invited to participate. We report on data from 320 participants (54% male and 44% female), who were representative by gender of the invited population. Career intentions. Respondents were mainly in specialty training, including close to training completion (25%, n=80), and 18% (n=57) had completed training. Half (50%, n=159) intended to pursue a clinical academic career (CAC) and 62% (n=198) were at least moderately likely to seek a clinical lectureship (CL). However, 51% (n=163) had little or no knowledge about CL posts. Those wanting a CAC tended to have the most predoctoral medical research experience (χ 2 (2, N=305)=22.19, p=0.0005). Key reasons cited for not pursuing a CAC were the small number of senior academic appointments available, the difficulty of obtaining research grants and work-life balance. Findings suggest that urging predoctoral clinicians to gain varied research experience while ensuring availability of opportunities, and introducing more flexible recruitment criteria for CL appointments, would foster CACs. As CL posts are often only open to those still in training, the many postdoctoral clinicians who have completed training, or nearly done so, do not currently gain the opportunity the post offers to develop as independent researchers. Better opportunities should be accompanied by enhanced career support for clinical doctoral students (eg, to increase knowledge of CLs). Finally, ways to increase the number of senior clinical academic appointments should be explored since their lack seems to significantly influence career decisions. © Article author
Claudia CIULCA-VLADAIA; Călin MUNTEAN
Objective: Describing a model of evaluation seen from a customer’s point of view for the current needed pharmacy computer system. Data Sources: literature research, ATTOFARM, WINFARM P.N.S., NETFARM, Info World - PHARMACY MANAGER and HIPOCRATE FARMACIE. Study Selection: Five Pharmacy Computer Systems were selected due to their high rates of implementing at a national level. We used the new criteria recommended by EUROREC Institute in EHR that modifies the model of data exchanges between the E...
Background. Patient care is significantly affected by doctors and pharmacists, who have specialised knowledge and skills. In establishing an interprofessional undergraduate learning environment, medical and pharmacy students have the opportunity to start working in a collaborative manner early on in their careers.
Thurston, Maria Miller; Chesson, Melissa M; Harris, Elaine C; Ryan, Gina J
Objective. To assess and compare interprofessional education (IPE) naive pharmacy and nursing student stereotypes prior to completion of an IPE activity. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three pharmacy students and 275 nursing students at Mercer University completed the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire. Responses from pharmacy and nursing students were compared, and responses from different level learners within the same profession also were compared. Results. Three hundred and fifty-six (59.5%) students completed the survey. Pharmacy students viewed pharmacists more favorably than nursing students viewed pharmacists for all attributes except the ability to work independently. Additionally, nursing students viewed nurses less favorably than pharmacy students viewed nurses for academic ability and practical skills. There was some variability in stereotypes between professional years. Conclusion. This study confirms the existence of professional stereotypes, although overall student perceptions of their own profession and the other were generally positive.
Thurston, Maria Miller; Harris, Elaine C.; Ryan, Gina J.
Objective. To assess and compare interprofessional education (IPE) naive pharmacy and nursing student stereotypes prior to completion of an IPE activity. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three pharmacy students and 275 nursing students at Mercer University completed the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire. Responses from pharmacy and nursing students were compared, and responses from different level learners within the same profession also were compared. Results. Three hundred and fifty-six (59.5%) students completed the survey. Pharmacy students viewed pharmacists more favorably than nursing students viewed pharmacists for all attributes except the ability to work independently. Additionally, nursing students viewed nurses less favorably than pharmacy students viewed nurses for academic ability and practical skills. There was some variability in stereotypes between professional years. Conclusion. This study confirms the existence of professional stereotypes, although overall student perceptions of their own profession and the other were generally positive. PMID:28720912
Wehle, Sarah; Decker, Michael
Objective. To investigate German pharmacy students' attitudes toward the relevance of organic chemistry training in Julius Maximilian University (JMU) of Würzburg with regard to subsequent courses in the curricula and in later prospective career options. Methods. Surveys were conducted in the second-year organic chemistry course (50 participants) as well as during the third-year and fourth-year lecture cycle on medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry (66 participants) in 2014. Results. Students' attitudes were surprisingly consistent throughout the progress of the degree course. Students considered organic chemistry very relevant to the pharmacy study program (95% junior and 97% senior students), and of importance for their future pharmacy program (88% junior and 94% senior students). With regard to prospective career options, the perceived relevance was considerably lower and attitudes were less homogenous. Conclusions. German pharmacy students at JMU Würzburg consider organic chemistry of high relevance for medicinal chemistry and other courses in JMU's pharmacy program.
Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle
This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Wessels, Susan B.; Sumner, Dana F.
This paper describes a series of integrated career development activities offered in several required courses which are designed to help accounting majors gain a competitive edge in the job market. Supported by a partnership between the School of Business and the Academic and Career Planning Office, the Career Tool Kit program consists of…
Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise
In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.
A suit was filed by an HIV-positive man against a pharmacy that inadvertently disclosed his HIV status to his ex-wife and children. His ex-wife tried to use the information in a custody battle for their two children. The suit against the pharmacy was settled, but the terms of the settlement remain confidential.
Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Clauson, Kevin A; Latif, David A; Al-Rousan, Rabaa M
Although the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination (FPGEE) is not intended to measure educational outcomes or institutional effectiveness, it may be a reliable and valid criterion to assess the quality or success of international pharmacy programs. This comprehensive review describes the evolution and historical milestones of the FPGEE, along with trends in structure, administration, and passing rates, and the impact of country of origin on participant performance. Similarities between the FPGEE and the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) are also explored. This paper aims to provide a global prospective and insight for foreign academic institutions into parameters for evaluating their students' educational capabilities.
Mackowiak, J; Eckel, F M
This article is the first of a three-part series on career management for hospital pharmacists. Work attitudes, life cycles, needs, and career trends are discussed. Three basic work attitudes exist. Some see work as punishment. Others believe work in itself is good, i.e., they have a strong work ethic. Some view work as a means to satisfy, at least partially, a range of needs. Attitudinal transition points are likely to occur at specific times in the adult life cycle. The stages of the life cycle can be labeled as leaving, reaching out, questioning, midlife crisis, settling down, and mellowing. A progression through each of these stages is required for normal adult psychological development. Every individual exhibits a blend of needs that changes throughout life. Jobs can fulfill existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Relatedness needs include the need for love, affiliation, social esteem, and power, and growth needs include the need for self-esteem, competence, achievement, and autonomy. Three important career trends are the changing opportunities for advancement, women in careers, and dual-career couples. The number of women pharmacists is increasing as is the number of two-career couples. Tips for managing two-career relationships are presented. Pharmacists can manage their careers more effectively by understanding their needs, identifying their basic attitude toward work, and being aware of the trends occurring in pharmacy.
Rebekah St Clair
Full Text Available Doctoral recipients in the biomedical sciences and STEM fields are showing increased interest in career opportunities beyond academic positions. While recent research has addressed the interests and preferences of doctoral trainees for non-academic careers, the strategies and resources that trainees use to prepare for a broad job market (non-academic are poorly understood. The recent adaptation of the Social Cognitive Career Theory to explicitly highlight the interplay of contextual support mechanisms, individual career search efficacy, and self-adaptation of job search processes underscores the value of attention to this explicit career phase. Our research addresses the factors that affect the career search confidence and job search strategies of doctoral trainees with non-academic career interests and is based on nearly 900 respondents from an NIH-funded survey of doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows in the biomedical sciences at two U.S. universities. Using structural equation modeling, we find that trainees pursuing non-academic careers, and/or with low perceived program support for career goals, have lower career development and search process efficacy (CDSE, and receive different levels of support from their advisors/supervisors. We also find evidence of trainee adaptation driven by their career search efficacy, and not by career interests.
Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.
van der Kaap, Harm G.; de Weert, Egbert; Galaz-Fontes, Jesus F.; Arimoto, Akira; Teichler, Ulrich; Brennan, John
This chapter describes, based on the Netherlands’ CAP (Changing Academic Profession) survey, the personal backgrounds, attitudes toward careers and career trajectories, the views on scholarship and job satisfaction of academics in Netherlands. The survey considered a representative sample of the
Public Librarians with the Highest Retention Rate are More Likely to Choose their Entire Career Path in Public Libraries. A Review of: Noh, Y. (2010. A study analyzing the career path of librarians. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(4, 329–346.
Full Text Available Objectives – The main objectives of this study were the following:• to analyze the career path and career movement of librarians in Korea• to identify and compare factors influencing the career movement path of chief librarians in public libraries and other librarians• to determine library positions’ turnover rates, average career retention, career reinstatement, proximity between careers, and proximity between different librariesDesign – Survey questionnaire.Setting – One survey conducted in college libraries, public libraries, special libraries, school libraries, and library-related service providers in Korea, and another in public libraries in Korea, targeting chief librarians only.Subjects – Librarians were identified from the 2008 Korean Library Yearbook published by the Korean Library Association. Also, more survey recipients in the ‘other category’ were identified through Internet search, directory search, and library ads. A total of 816 librarians participated in the survey. The breakdowns of participants based on the type of library they were working at are the following:First survey:• 282 Public librarians• 268 University librarians• 24 Special librarians• 25 School librarians• 15 Other librariansSecond survey:• 202 Chief librarians at public librariesMethods – A total of 2179 questionnaires were distributed twice in May 2009 via mail to different libraries. Postage paid envelopes were provided. A phone call reminder was made to increase the response rate. 614 copies were returned. The total response rate for the survey was 28.18%. The highest response rate was from academic libraries with a total of 37.17% (Table 2 in the article. Six hundred and forty three copies of the questionnaire were sent out to chief librarians and the response rate was 31.42%. The SAS statistical package was used for conducting statistical analysis of the data. The content areas covered in the two questionnaires are listed
Scott, Day M.; Bennett, Lunawati L.; Ferrill, Mary J.; Brown, Daniel L.
The Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) is a standardized examination for assessing academic progress of pharmacy students. Although no other national benchmarking tool is available on a national level, the PCOA has not been adopted by all colleges and schools of pharmacy. Palm Beach Atlantic University (PBAU) compared 2008-2010 PCOA results of its P1, P2, and P3 students to their current grade point average (GPA) and to results of a national cohort. The reliability coefficient of ...
Zacher, Hannes; Ambiel, Rodolfo A.M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto
Career adaptability constitutes a resource that can help employees to effectively manage career changes and challenges. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the two higher-order constructs of career adaptability and career entrenchment (i.e., the perceived inability
National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.
Data were collected on the careers of 10,000 holders of research degrees (PhDs, ScDs, and EdDs), via questionnaire, for a second study of PhD holders from the graduating classes of 1935, 1940, 1945, 1950, 1955, and 1960. The careers were systematically selected to represent a cross section of PhDs, and categorized into 4 groups: those always in…
Schaefer, Mary Beth; Rivera, Lourdes M.
The development and implementation of a comprehensive and systemic career development program, The Career Institute, provided the mechanism through which one school community addressed students' career development and college readiness needs while also attending to their academic and personal-social development. The Career Institute consisted of a…
Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.
Full Text Available Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.
Department of Veterans Affairs — The OneVA Pharmacy application design consists of 3 main components: VistA Medication Profile screen, Health Data Record Clinical Data Service (HDR/CDS), and OneVA...
Boughen, Melanie; Sutton, Jane; Fenn, Tess
Background: Traditionally, pharmacy technicians have worked alongside pharmacists in community and hospital pharmacy. Changes within pharmacy provide opportunity for role expansion and with no apparent career pathway, there is a need to define the current pharmacy technician role and role in medicines optimisation. Aim: To capture the current roles of pharmacy technicians and identify how their future role will contribute to medicines optimisation. Methods: Following ethical approval and piloting, an online survey to ascertain pharmacy technicians’ views about their roles was undertaken. Recruitment took place in collaboration with the Association of Pharmacy Technicians UK. Data were exported to SPSS, data screened and descriptive statistics produced. Free text responses were analysed and tasks collated into categories reflecting the type of work involved in each task. Results: Responses received were 393 (28%, n = 1380). Results were organised into five groups: i.e., hospital, community, primary care, General Practitioner (GP) practice and other (which included HM Prison Service). Thirty tasks were reported as commonly undertaken in three or more settings and 206 (84.7%, n = 243) pharmacy technicians reported they would like to expand their role. Conclusions: Tasks core to hospital and community pharmacy should be considered for inclusion to initial education standards to reflect current practice. Post qualification, pharmacy technicians indicate a significant desire to expand clinically and managerially allowing pharmacists more time in patient-facing/clinical roles. PMID:28970452
Boughen, Melanie; Sutton, Jane; Fenn, Tess; Wright, David
Traditionally, pharmacy technicians have worked alongside pharmacists in community and hospital pharmacy. Changes within pharmacy provide opportunity for role expansion and with no apparent career pathway, there is a need to define the current pharmacy technician role and role in medicines optimisation. To capture the current roles of pharmacy technicians and identify how their future role will contribute to medicines optimisation. Following ethical approval and piloting, an online survey to ascertain pharmacy technicians' views about their roles was undertaken. Recruitment took place in collaboration with the Association of Pharmacy Technicians UK. Data were exported to SPSS, data screened and descriptive statistics produced. Free text responses were analysed and tasks collated into categories reflecting the type of work involved in each task. Responses received were 393 (28%, n = 1380). Results were organised into five groups: i.e., hospital, community, primary care, General Practitioner (GP) practice and other (which included HM Prison Service). Thirty tasks were reported as commonly undertaken in three or more settings and 206 (84.7%, n = 243) pharmacy technicians reported they would like to expand their role. Tasks core to hospital and community pharmacy should be considered for inclusion to initial education standards to reflect current practice. Post qualification, pharmacy technicians indicate a significant desire to expand clinically and managerially allowing pharmacists more time in patient-facing/clinical roles.
An investigation on the level of awareness, attitude, and interest among medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students toward their majors on entering university: The case of Islamic Azad University, Tehran medical sciences branch
Farhad Adhami Moghadam
Full Text Available Introduction: Having awareness, interest, and positive attitude toward one's fields of study leads to the development of a compatibility between demands and expectations on the one hand and future career on the other hand. This study was carried out to determine the level of awareness, attitude, and interest of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students of Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch toward their own field of study on entering university. Materials and Methods: This research is a basic descriptive study conducted on 273 students who had just entered university. This study was performed using census. Data collection instrument was a four-part questionnaire which included demographic information, and questions measuring students' awareness, attitude, and interest. Results: With regard to their field of study, there was no statistically significant difference in the average of students' awareness (P = 0.731. The attitude of medicine students was significantly more positive than pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.001, and the attitude of dentistry students was significantly more positive than that of pharmacy students (P = 0.460. Medical students' interest level was significantly higher than that of pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.05, and the interest level of dentistry students was significantly greater than the interest level of pharmacy students (P = 024/0. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between awareness and attitude and between awareness and interest in all of the study subjects (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The study results indicated that having a high level of awareness toward one's major led students studying in medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy to experience a more positive attitude and a higher level of interest. Thus, before entering the university, academic counseling will be beneficial for acquiring a better understanding of most majors, a goal which could be provided
Schulz, Jonathan F; Thöni, Christian
People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in.
Schulz, Jonathan F.; Thöni, Christian
People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in. PMID:26808273
Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody
OBJECTIVES. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. METHODS. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. RESULTS. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (pinternational study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. CONCLUSIONS. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance.
Speedie, Marilyn K.
Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…
Arthur, Michael B.; Khapova, S.N.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
This paper compares contemporary career theory with the theory applied in recent career success research. The research makes inconsistent use of career theory, and in particular neglects the interdependence of the objective and subjective careers, and boundaryless career issues of
This paper examines the theoretical perspectives I utilised in my doctoral research to uncover the role of class and gender in my respondents' stories and experiences of their career success. I argue that adopting an economic model for conceptualising the influence of social class and gender in the respondents' stories and experiences of their…
Taskinen, Päivi H.; Schütte, Kerstin; Prenzel, Manfred
Many researchers consider a lacking interest in science and the students' belief that science is too demanding as major reasons why young people do not strive for science-related careers. In this article, we first delineated a theoretical framework to investigate the importance of interest, self-concept, and school factors regarding students'…
Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª
This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…
Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J
Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time. These positions provide excellent opportunities for leadership development, personal promotion, and advancement of the profession. In deciding to assume a leadership position, interested individuals must consider the impact on their personal and professional commitments and relationships, career planning, employer support, current and future department projects, employee support, and personal readiness. This article reviews these factors and also provides an assessment tool that leaders can use to determine their readiness to assume leadership positions. By using an assessment tool, pharmacy leaders can better understand their ability to assume an important and influential leadership position while achieving job and personal goals.
Nkansah, Nancy T; Youmans, Sharon L; Agness, Chanel F; Assemi, Mitra
Organizational benefits of diversity in the workplace have been well documented. In health professions, however, diversity-related research traditionally has focused on the effect of diversity on health care disparities. Few tools exist describing the benefits of diversity from an organizational standpoint to guide pharmacy administrators and faculty members in nurturing and developing a culture of diversity. Given the scarcity of pharmacy specific data, experience from other academic areas and national/international diversity reports were incorporated into this manuscript to supplement the available pharmacy evidence base. This review summarizes the benefits of diversity from an academic organizational standpoint, discusses the issues administrators and faculty members must consider when developing programs, and provides guidance on best practices in fostering and managing diversity.
Cain, Jeff; Bird, Eleanora R; Jones, Mikael
To identify mobile computing initiatives within pharmacy education, including how devices are obtained, supported, and utilized within the curriculum. An 18-item questionnaire was developed and delivered to academic affairs deans (or closest equivalent) of 98 colleges and schools of pharmacy. Fifty-four colleges and schools completed the questionnaire for a 55% completion rate. Thirteen of those schools have implemented mobile computing requirements for students. Twenty schools reported they were likely to formally consider implementing a mobile computing initiative within 5 years. Numerous models of mobile computing initiatives exist in terms of device obtainment, technical support, infrastructure, and utilization within the curriculum. Responders identified flexibility in teaching and learning as the most positive aspect of the initiatives and computer-aided distraction as the most negative, Numerous factors should be taken into consideration when deciding if and how a mobile computing requirement should be implemented.
Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas
The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal component analysis. Two main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted: pharmacotherapeutic aspects (provision of information about drug therapy, possible side effects, health promotion, the amount of time spent with a patient, and the ascertainment that a patient understood the provided information) and socioeconomic aspects (considering patient's needs and financial capabilities, making a patient confident with the services provided). Pharmacy specialists evaluated the quality of both dimensions positively, but the quality of the first dimension was rated significantly worse than that of the second dimension. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at independent pharmacies were more positive toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects as compared to the specialists working at chain or state pharmacies. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects were rated better by pharmacy specialists, aged ≥ 55 years, than those younger than 45 years. Moreover, the attitudes of 45-54-year-old pharmacy specialists toward the socioeconomic aspects were more positive as compared with those of 35-44-year olds. Pharmacists rated the socioeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical service quality worse as compared with pharmacy technicians. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with 6-9 specialists were more negative toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects than those of the pharmacies with 1-2 specialists. Pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with ≥ 10 specialists reported lower scores of socioeconomic
Atkinson, Jeffrey; Crowley, Pat; De Paepe, Kristien; Gennery, Brian; Koster, Andries|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070975558; Martini, Luigi; Moffat, Vivien; Nicholson, Jane; Pauwels, Gunther; Ronsisvalle, Giuseppe; Sousa, Vitor; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilson, Keith
The PHAR-IN (“Competences for industrial pharmacy practice in biotechnology”) looked at whether there is a difference in how industrial employees and academics rank competences for practice in the biotechnological industry. A small expert panel consisting of the authors of this paper produced a
A presentation delivered at the Health Libraries Inc 2016 Conference in Melbourne, providing an early career librarian's perspective on the bridge between health librarianship and academic (research) librarianship
Pilar Marchante Castellanos
Full Text Available Al finalizar la guerra hispano-cubano-americana, cesó el control de la isla de Cuba por la Corona española y comenzó el de los Estados Unidos de América. El traspaso de poderes se produjo el 1ro. de enero de 1899, es decir, cuando ya había comenzado el curso 1898-1899 el cual, al igual que el anterior, se desarrolló en condiciones totalmente irregulares como consecuencia de la cruenta y del lógico desbalance entre ambos gobiernos. Aunque durante ese curso continuó vigente el plan de estudios de 1880 (y su reforma de 1887 para las facultades de Farmacia y Medicina, disposiciones y órdenes militares emitidas con posterioridad a enero de 1899 introdujeron sucesivas modificaciones durante este. En el curso 1899-1900 se empezó a aplicar un nuevo plan de estudios, el llamado Plan Lanuza, el cual no conllevó cambios significativos en la enseñanza universitaria, pues se limitó a incorporar de nuevo el período preparatorio para todas las facultades, incrementar el número de cátedras y asignaturas y eliminar los estudios propios del doctorado, aunque no el grado. El Plan Lanuza estuvo solo vigente durante el curso 1899-1900. En este trabajo se presentan los principales hechos que caracterizaron la transición de la Universidad de las manos españolas a las estadounidenses y, en particular, los que correspondieron a la Facultad de Farmacia durante los cursos 1898-1899 y 1899-1900.To finish of the Spanish-American-Cuban war, ceased the control over the Cuban island and started that of the United States of America by The Spanish crown. The transfer was in January 1, 1989, that is, when the course 1898-1899 had begun which, just like the previous one, was developed under conditions totally irregular as consequence of the bloody situation and the logical inequality between both governments. Although during this course remained in use the study plan of 1880 (and its reform of 1880 for the Pharmacy and Medicine Faculties, dispositions and
Although academic advising in Kenyan universities exists, no research has been done to find out how it impacts on students' educational and career goals. This research aimed at establishing the effect of academic advising on academic performance and the influence of year of study and gender on students' tendency to ...
Leemann, Regula Julia
Based on a study on academic career paths of PhD graduates in Switzerland, this paper is concerned with the individual and institutional factors that affect transnational academic mobility in the postdoctoral period. It will be argued that the institutionalisation of geographic mobility in academic career paths through research funding…
Gilligan, Adrienne M; Loui, James Aaron; Mezdo, Ashorena; Patel, Nikita; Lee, Jeannie K
To measure perceptions of quality of life (QOL) in an active geriatric population and compare their responses with pharmacy students' perceptions of older adult QOL. Pharmacy students and active older adults completed the modified and standard version of a validated health survey instrument, respectively, and their responses were compared. Eighty-six students and 20 active older adults participated. Student perceptions of geriatric QOL were significantly lower in all domains except health change compared to older adult perceptions (p<0.001 for all domains). Interest in a geriatric pharmacy career (p=0.04) and previously having taken the Perspectives in Geriatrics course and laboratory (p=0.05 and 0.02, respectively) were significantly associated with higher student scores on the physical component portion of the survey. Stronger emphasis on geriatric QOL within pharmacy curricula may improve pharmacy students' perceptions regarding outcomes related to healthy older adults.
Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha
The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced
Rex O. Brown
Full Text Available The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE provides standards for colleges of pharmacy to assist in the provision of pharmacy education to student pharmacists. An integral part of all college educational programs includes the provision of experiential learning. Experiential learning allows students to gain real-world experience in direct patient care during completion of the curriculum. All college of pharmacy programs provide several Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs, which include a balance between the four required experiences and a number of other required or elective APPEs. Required APPEs include advanced community, advanced institutional, ambulatory care, and general medicine. The elective APPEs include a myriad of opportunities to help provide a balanced education in experiential learning for student pharmacists. These unique opportunities help to expose student pharmacists to different career tracks that they may not have been able to experience otherwise. Not all colleges offer enough elective APPEs to enable the student pharmacist to obtain experiences in a defined area. Such an approach is required to produce skilled pharmacy graduates that are capable to enter practice in various settings. Elective APPEs are scheduled logically and are based upon student career interest and site availability. This article describes the offering, scheduling and maintenance of different elective APPEs offered by The University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy.
White, Sara J
Health-system pharmacy directors, managers, practitioners, students, and employers were surveyed to assess the situation of current and future leaders in pharmacy and generate recommendations for preventing shortages. Online surveys were sent to pharmacy directors, pharmacy middle managers, current pharmacy practitioners pharmacy students, and employers recruiting for management positions using ASHP's membership and CareerPharm databases. Directors, managers, and practitioners were asked about their job satisfaction and future plans. The trends in demographics and attitudes toward the balance between family and work were assessed among directors, managers, practitioners, and students. Employers were asked about their perceived ease of filling managerial positions. While most pharmacy directors and middle managers were satisfied with their current positions, 80% of directors and 77% of middle managers anticipated leaving their jobs in the next decade. Men comprised 72% of directors, 50% of middle managers, 62% of practitioners, and 21% of pharmacy students. The majority of pharmacy students and practitioners reported being married to a working spouse and having children and expressed a desire to balance their personal life with their career. The top reasons cited by students and practitioners for not seeking leadership positions were having to give up clinical practice and competing responsibilities. More than half of employers felt it was more difficult to recruit managers now than it was three years ago. A significant gap in pharmacy leadership in the next 5-10 years is expected, as well as a shift in work force composition and attitude. Mentoring and residencies are important methods of fostering new leaders in the profession.
The "new" career, most notably the boundaryless career, is associated with high career mobility, which is in turn associated with employability and career success of individuals. The current study examined how frequency, form (organisational, horizontal or vertical) and impact (objective career success) of career transitions have changed…
Academic mobility has existed since ancient times. Recently, however, academic mobility--the crossing of international borders by academics who then work "overseas"--has increased. Academics and the careers of academics have been affected by governments and institutions that have an interest in coordinating and accelerating knowledge…
Leemann, Regula Julia
Based on a study on academic career paths of PhD graduates in Switzerland, this paper is concerned with the individual and institutional factors that affect transnational academic mobility in the postdoctoral period. It will be argued that the institutionalisation of geographic mobility in academic career paths through research funding institutions and universities have gendering and stratifying effects. Complex formations related to gender, partnership, children, and dual-career constellatio...
Wolf-Wendel, Lisa E.; Twombly, Susan; Rice, Suzanne
Reports results of a survey of 360 chief academic officers at member institutions of the American Association of Colleges and Universities regarding their policies and practices for assisting dual-career couples. Examines the motivations, barriers, consequences, and policy implications of institutional responses to dual-career couples. (DB)
Verification of Employment Life at the Lab Career Stories Dual Careers Inclusion & Diversity Work-Life ) Make yourself at home Life at the Lab Life at the Lab Inclusion & Diversity Inclusion & © & Cover Letter Tips Social Media Tips Learn More Watch Videos Employee Spotlight Student Successes
Schroen, Anneke T; Brownstein, Michelle R; Sheldon, George F
To portray the professional experiences of men and women in academic general surgery with specific attention to factors associated with differing academic productivity and with leaving academia. A 131-question survey was mailed to all female (1,076) and a random 2:1 sample of male (2,152) members of the American College of Surgeons in three mailings between September 1998 and March 1999. Detailed questions regarding academic rank, career aspirations, publication rate, grant funding, workload, harassment, income, marriage and parenthood were asked. A five-point Likert scale measured influences on career satisfaction. Responses from strictly academic and tenure-track surgeons were analyzed and interpreted by gender, age, and rank. Overall, 317 surgeons in academic practice (168 men, 149 women) responded, of which 150 were in tenure-track positions (86 men, 64 women). Men and women differed in academic rank, tenure status, career aspirations, and income. Women surgeons had published a median of ten articles compared with 25 articles for men (p career satisfaction was high, but women reported feeling career advancement opportunities were not equally available to them as to their male colleagues and feeling isolation from surgical peers. Ten percent to 20% of surgeons considered leaving academia, with women assistant professors (29%) contemplating this most commonly. Addressing the differences between men and women academic general surgeons is critical in fostering career development and in recruiting competitive candidates of both sexes to general surgery.
Borges, Nicole J.; Richard, George V.; Duffy, Ryan D.
The authors assessed the career maturity of students in accelerated versus traditional academic programs. Students in traditional programs were hypothesized to be more advanced regarding their career decision making and development when compared with students in accelerated programs. The Medical Career Development Inventory (see M. L. Savickas,…
White, S J; Generali, J A
Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.
Almarsdottir, Anna Birna; Granas, Anne Gerd
This commentary seeks to define the areas of social pharmacy and clinical pharmacy to uncover what they have in common and what still sets them apart. Common threats and challenges of the two areas are reviewed in order to understand the forces in play. Forces that still keep clinical and social pharmacy apart are university structures, research traditions, and the management of pharmacy services. There are key (but shrinking) differences between clinical and social pharmacy which entail the levels of study within pharmaceutical sciences, the location in which the research is carried out, the choice of research designs and methods, and the theoretical foundations. Common strengths and opportunities are important to know in order to join forces. Finding common ground can be developed in two areas: participating together in multi-disciplinary research, and uniting in a dialogue with internal and external key players in putting forth what is needed for the profession of pharmacy. At the end the question is posed, "What's in a name?" and we argue that it is important to emphasize what unifies the families of clinical pharmacy and social pharmacy for the benefit of both fields, pharmacy in general, and society at large.
This article reports on a study of the career orientations of the academic staff complement of a tertiary education institution that underwent an intensive organisational transformation process. Career orientation profiles were obtained from a sample of academic staff at the beginning of the organisational change process and ...
Sinn, Robb; Phipps, Marnie
A simulated academic career was combined with inquiry-based learning in an upper-division undergraduate mathematics course. Concepts such as tenure, professional conferences and journals were simulated. Simulation procedures were combined with student-led, inquiry-based classroom formats. A qualitative analysis (ethnography) describes the culture…
Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E
Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor's degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist's career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor's degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry.
Rybarczyk, Brian; Lerea, Leslie; Lund, P. Kay; Whittington, Dawayne; Dykstra, Linda
Postdoctoral training in the biological sciences continues to be an important credential for academic careers. Traditionally, this training is focused on an independent research experience. In this article, we describe a postdoctoral training program designed to prepare postdoctoral scholars for the responsibilities of an academic career that…
Christensen, Dale B; Farris, Karen B
To describe the state of community pharmacy, including patient care services, in the US. Chain pharmacies, including traditional chains, mass merchandisers, and supermarkets, comprise more than 50% of community pharmacies in the US. Dispensing of drugs remains the primary focus, yet the incidence of patients being counseled on medications appears to be increasing. More than 25% of independent community pharmacy owners report providing some patient clinical care services, such as medication counseling and chronic disease management. Most insurance programs pay pharmacists only for dispensing services, yet there are a growing number of public and private initiatives that reimburse pharmacists for cognitive services. Clinical care opportunities exist in the new Medicare prescription drug benefit plan, as it requires medication therapy management services for specific enrollees. The private market approach to healthcare delivery in the US, including pharmacy services, precludes national and statewide strategies to change the basic business model. To date, most pharmacies remain focused on dispensing prescriptions. With lower dispensing fees and higher operating costs, community pharmacies are focused on increasing productivity and efficiency through technology and technicians. Pharmacists remain challenged to establish the value of their nondispensing-related pharmaceutical care services in the private sector. As the cost of suboptimal drug therapy becomes more evident, medication therapy management may become a required pharmacy benefit in private drug insurance plans. Pharmacy school curricula, as well as national and state pharmacy associations, continually work to train and promote community pharmacists for these roles. Practice research is driven primarily by interested academics and, to a lesser degree, by pharmacy associations. Efficient dispensing of prescriptions is the primary focus of community pharmacies in the US. Some well designed practice-based research
Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as befo...
Jishnu, V; Gilhotra, Rm; Mishra, Dn
In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education in India is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. There is an urgent need to initiate an academic exercise aimed at attaining revamping of curriculum, keeping in pace with current and emerging trends in the field of pharmacy. Unfortunately all these years, enough emphasis was not laid on strengthening the components of Community Pharmacy, Hospital and Clinical pharmacy, while designing curriculum at diploma and degree levels of teaching. The curriculum followed by almost all universities in India are no were up to the world standards and students are still getting the 20-30 yrs older compounding practical exposure in labs during the graduation level. The article emphasises the concept of innovation ecosystems and quality management. Application of TQM to the educational system improves the present situation. The counseling system which serves to be the gateway of the students for entry into the profession should be brought under the scanner. Introducing specializations at the graduation level will result in professional expertise and excellence. Education is a customer focused industry and every student should be capable of evaluating themselves for continuously improving their quality and professionalism. Teacher focused mastery learning should give away to student focused smart learning. An educational institution should provide the student with a stress-free atmosphere for learning and developing his intellectual capabilities. Every college should have a counseling centre to address the problems of students in their academic and personal life. An emphasis on the concept of quality teacher is included. Revival of the pharmacy education in India is the need of the hour which in turn will pave the way for the up gradation of the pharmacy profession in the country.
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Lee, Mary W; Clay, Patrick G; Kennedy, W Klugh; Kennedy, Mary Jayne; Sifontis, Nicole M; Simonson, Dana; Sowinski, Kevin M; Taylor, William J; Teply, Robyn M; Vardeny, Orly; Welty, Timothy E
In 2008, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy appointed the Task Force on Research in the Professional Curriculum to review and make recommendations on the essential research curriculum that should be part of doctor of pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree programs. The essential research curriculum provides all students with critical and analytical thinking and lifelong learning skills, which will apply to current and future practice and stimulate some students to pursue a career in this field. Eight key curricular competencies are as follows: identifying relevant problems and gaps in pharmacotherapeutic knowledge; generating a research hypothesis; designing a study to test the hypothesis; analyzing data results using appropriate statistical tests; interpreting and applying the results of a research study to practice; effectively communicating research and clinical findings to pharmacy, medical, and basic science audiences; interpreting and effectively communicating research and clinical findings to patients and caregivers; and applying regulatory and ethical principles when conducting research or using research results. Faculty are encouraged to use research-related examples across the curriculum in nonresearch courses and to employ interactive teaching methods to promote student engagement. Examples of successful strategies used by Pharm.D. degree programs to integrate research content into the curriculum are provided. Current pharmacy school curricula allow variable amounts of time for instructional content in research, which may or may not include hands-on experiences for students to develop research-related skills. Therefore, an important opportunity exists for schools to incorporate the essential research curriculum. Despite the challenges of implementing these recommendations, the essential research curriculum will position pharmacy school graduates to understand the importance of research and its applications to practice. This perspective is provided as an aid
Full Text Available Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45. Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA=0.03. Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy
The American Society of Health- System Pharmacists (ASHP) believes that specially trained pharmacy technicians can assume important supportive roles in pharmacy informatics. These roles include automation and technology systems management, management of projects, training and education, policy and governance, customer service, charge integrity, and reporting. Such roles require pharmacy technicians to gain expertise in information technology (IT) systems, including knowledge of interfaces, computer management techniques, problem resolution, and database maintenance. This knowledge could be acquired through specialized training or experience in a health science or allied scientific field (e.g., health informatics). With appropriate safeguards and supervision, pharmacy technician informaticists (PTIs) will manage IT processes in health-system pharmacy services, ensuring a safe and efficient medication-use process.
Kata Zsófia Vincze
Full Text Available The volume Vallomások [‘Testimony’], published posthumously in 2010, is the folklorist Olga Nagy’s (1921-2006 last book. In this paper I will analyze Nagy’s academic significance in the light of her own last self reflection presented in Vallomások. This volume provides an exciting overview of the internal dynamics of East-Central European culture and interethnic relations. While I examine Nagy’s life work, especially her academic work on rural women and her new ideas regarding the alive folklore, I will also reflect on the ideology of so called Transylvanianism that constitutes the framework of many Hungarian writings from Romania. Transylvanianism is a complex ideology rooted in the Hungarian national movement of the nineteenth century, one that later turned into a complex manifestation of the Hungarian minorities in Romania through literature, culture, politics and self-definition. Elaborated by writers, historians and journalists, Transylvanianism after 1918—and even more vehemently after 1947—aimed to preserve and reinforce Hungarian national pride and identity in the region through cultural activities, education and political action.
Chase, P A
The concepts of human resources management (HRM) are presented, and the application of HRM concepts to a hospital pharmacy department is described. Low salaries and poor working conditions had precipitated a mass exodus of pharmacists from a 650-bed, tertiary-care medical center. The newly hired director of pharmacy sought to rebuild the department by developing a three-stage HRM model consisting of needs forecasting, performance management, and advanced management systems. In the needs-forecasting stage, the strengths and weaknesses of departmental programs were determined through analysis of existing standards of practice, situational analysis, and financial analyses; the strengths and weaknesses of departmental employees were determined through the use of talent inventories, turnover analysis, analysis of time and leave records, reevaluation of the department's job classifications, performance and productivity evaluations, and productivity evaluations, and development of a philosophy of practice and mission statement. Needs and problems were addressed by examining each existing program and developing new policies and procedures, performance standards, quality assurance mechanisms, and productivity expectations. Personnel needs and problems were addressed by designing a system of differentiated career ladders, contracting with pharmacists for career moves, developing the skills of currently employed pharmacists, and implementing a succession planning model. The model has been in place for approximately three years and is beginning to yield the desired results. Application of HRM concepts to a hospital pharmacy department appears to have been successful in improving employee morale and in helping the department to meet goals of expanded and improved services.
Despeaux, J. Michael; Knotts, H. Gibbs; Schiff, Jennifer S.
Given the growing emphasis on career preparation in higher education, career centers play important roles on today's college campuses. The literature has focused on the reasons students use career services, but it has not addressed the vital linkage between career centers and academic departments. Using a survey of 279 political science…
Bleier, Joshua I S; Kann, Brian
The development of an academic surgical career can be an overwhelming prospect, and one that is not intuitive. Establishing a structured plan and support structure is critical to success. Starting a successful academic surgical career begins with defining one's academic goals within several broad categories: personal goals, academic goals, research goals, educational goals, and financial goals. Learning the art of self-promotion is the means by which many of these goals are achieved. It is important to realize that achieving these goals requires a delicate personal balance between work and home life, and the key ways in which to achieve success require establishment of well thought-out goals, a reliable support structure, realistic and clear expectations, and frequent re-evaluation.
Goyal, Ramesh K.; Bhise, Satish B.; Srinivasan, B. P.; Rao, C. Mallikarjun; Sen, Tuhinadri; Koneri, Raju
The curriculum of pharmacy institutions in India is regulated by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) at degree and diploma levels. However, it has been over two decades that the syllabi have been revised by these regulatory agencies. Considering the dynamic character of pharmacology, it is essential to prepare a syllabus that caters to the contemporary needs of the academic institutions and pharmaceutical industry, the community. Pharm...
L. Yu. Babintseva
Full Text Available It’s considered ontological models for formalization of knowledge in pharmacy. There is emphasized the view that the possibility of rapid exchange of information in the pharmaceutical industry, it is necessary to create a single information space. This means not only the establishment of uniform standards for the presentation of information on pharmaceutical groups pharmacotherapeutic classifications, but also the creation of a unified and standardized system for the transfer and renewal of knowledge. It is the organization of information in the ontology helps quickly in the future to build expert systems and applications to work with data.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the second European Delphi round on the ranking of competences for pharmacy practice and compares these data to those of the first round already published. A comparison of the numbers of respondents, distribution by age group, country of residence, etc., shows that whilst the student population of respondents changed from Round 1 to 2, the populations of the professional groups (community, hospital and industrial pharmacists, pharmacists in other occupations and academics were more stable. Results are given for the consensus of ranking and the scores of ranking of 50 competences for pharmacy practice. This two-stage, large-scale Delphi process harmonized and validated the Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training (PHAR-QA framework and ensured the adoption by the pharmacy profession of a framework proposed by the academic pharmacy community. The process of evaluation and validation of ranking of competences by the pharmacy profession is now complete, and the PHAR-QA consortium will now put forward a definitive PHAR-QA framework of competences for pharmacy practice.
Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Pozo, Antonio Sánchez; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris
This paper presents the results of the second European Delphi round on the ranking of competences for pharmacy practice and compares these data to those of the first round already published. A comparison of the numbers of respondents, distribution by age group, country of residence, etc., shows that whilst the student population of respondents changed from Round 1 to 2, the populations of the professional groups (community, hospital and industrial pharmacists, pharmacists in other occupations and academics) were more stable. Results are given for the consensus of ranking and the scores of ranking of 50 competences for pharmacy practice. This two-stage, large-scale Delphi process harmonized and validated the Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training (PHAR-QA) framework and ensured the adoption by the pharmacy profession of a framework proposed by the academic pharmacy community. The process of evaluation and validation of ranking of competences by the pharmacy profession is now complete, and the PHAR-QA consortium will now put forward a definitive PHAR-QA framework of competences for pharmacy practice. PMID:28970400
Rupp, Michael T
In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.
Desselle, Shane P
Pharmacy technicians are a vital part of the health care workforce. Little is known about perceptions of their own work environment that would engender more effective recruitment, retention, and management strategies by pharmacists and employers. The purpose of this study was to gain a greater understanding of certified pharmacy technician worklife. Specific objectives included the identification of themes of worklife phenomena to assist with the development of appropriate responses by other pharmacy stakeholders and to ascertain the contribution of various factors engendering or discouraging career commitment of pharmacy technicians. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with a convenience sample of pharmacy technicians in one U.S. state, who varied by their work settings and level of experience. The interview guide and corresponding participant responses were framed from around an organizational cultural basis rooted in organizational behavior theory. Notes from the interviews were analyzed thematically using directed content analysis. Four primary themes emerged, including: career impetus, job responsibilities, quality of work life, and equitable partnership. The data revealed pharmacy technicians' need for self-actualization and recognition of the value they bring to the organization. The participants identified primary responsibilities that contribute to their sense of worth and those that if not managed adequately potentially detract from their well-being and effectiveness. Findings in regard to rate of pay corroborate previous work on wages as both an intrinsic and extrinsic motivator. Pharmacy technicians seek equity among each other (their peers) and in a mutually beneficial relationship with their employing organization. This study provides the impetus for interventions and further study that should serve to enhance pharmacy technician effectiveness, quality of work life, and longevity in an emerging profession. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
Asiri, Yousif A
The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of "medical and pharmacy education" is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of "pharmacy education" to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective.
Deciding on a future career path or choosing a career specialty is an important academic decision for medical students. The purpose of this study is to develop a career coaching model for medical students. This research was carried out in three steps. The first step was systematic review of previous studies. The second step was a need assessment of medical students. The third step was a career coaching model using the results acquired from the researched literature and the survey. The career coaching stages were defined as three big phases: The career coaching stages were defined as the "crystallization" period (Pre-medical year 1 and 2), "specification" period (medical year 1 and 2), and "implementation" period (medical year 3 and 4). The career coaching model for medical students can be used in programming career coaching contents and also in identifying the outcomes of career coaching programs at an institutional level.
Feetham, Suzanne; Doering, Jennifer J
The purpose of this article is to propose a conceptualization of career development that emphasizes the interdependence between research, practice, and policy. Career cartography applies three decades of career development experience to lay out a systematic, comprehensive, and iterative approach for planning and communicating the outcomes of science at any career stage. To inform practice and policy, nurse researchers must be clear on the intended destination and trajectory of the science, and be skilled in communicating that science and vision to diverse stakeholders. Career cartography builds on the science of cartography, is developed within the context of public and health policy, and is composed of several components, including a destination statement, career mapping, a supportive career cartography team, and use of communication and dissemination strategies. The successful utilization of career cartography may accelerate advancement of individual careers, scientific impact, and the discipline as a whole by guiding nurse researchers to be deliberative in career planning and to communicate successfully the outcomes of research across a wide variety of stakeholders. Career cartography provides a framework for planning a nurse researcher's program of research and scholarship to advance science, policy, and health of the public. Career cartography guides nurse researchers to realize their full potential to advance the health of the public and inform public and health policy in academic and practice environments. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Adkins, Donna; Gavaza, Paul; Deel, Sharon
All Appalachian College of Pharmacy second-year students undertake the longitudinal geriatric early pharmacy practice experiences (EPPE) 2 course, which involves interacting with geriatric residents in two nursing facilities over two semesters. The study investigated the nursing staff's perceptions about the rotation and the pharmacy students' interaction with nursing facility residents. Cross-sectional study. Academic setting. 63 nursing facility staff. A 10-item attitude survey administered to nursing staff. Nursing staff attitude toward pharmacy students' interaction with geriatric residents during the course. Sixty-three responses were received (84% response rate). Most respondents were female (95.2%), who occasionally interacted with pharmacy students (54.8%) and had worked at the facilities for an average of 6.8 years (standard deviation [SD] = 6.7) years. Staff reported that pharmacy students practiced interacting with geriatric residents and nursing facility staff, learned about different medications taken by residents as well as their life as a nursing facility resident. In addition, the student visits improved the mood of residents and staff's understanding of medicines, among others. Staff suggested that students spend more time with their residents in the facility as well as ask more questions of staff. The nursing facility staff generally had favorable attitudes about pharmacy students' visits in their nursing facility. Nursing facility staff noted that the geriatric rotation was a great learning experience for the pharmacy students.
Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B.; van der Zwaag, Angeli M.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.
Background Although nursing has been an academic discipline for decades, the infrastructure for nursing research in many countries is still fragile and struggling. Postdoctoral nurses have difficulties developing sustaining careers in nursing research due to lack of career opportunities.
Thóra Hafsteinsdóttir; Angeli van der Zwaag; Prof. Dr. Marieke J. Schuurmans
Although nursing has been an academic discipline for decades, the infrastructure for nursing research in many countries is still fragile and struggling. Postdoctoral nurses have difficulties developing sustaining careers in nursing research due to lack of career opportunities. Considerable research
One of the concerns of career research has been on the underrepresentation of .... career advancement opportunity one needs to join a support group to be .... Advancement of Academics in Private Higher education Institutions in Malaysia.
Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R
The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Novice Academic Librarians Provide Insight into Choosing Their Careers, Graduate School Education, and First Years on the Job. A Review of: Sare, L., Bales, S., & Neville, B. (2012. New academic librarians and their perceptions of the profession. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 12(2, 179-203. doi: 10.1353/pla.2012.0017
Carol D. Howe
Full Text Available Objective – To study the ways in which noviceacademic librarians’ perceptions oflibrarianship develop from the time theydecide to attend library school through theirfirst 6 to 24 months of library work.Design – Grounded theory method utilizingtwo qualitative research techniques: one-onone,face-to-face interviews and documentanalysis.Setting – The libraries of three Texasuniversities, three Texas four-year colleges,and one Texas community college.Subjects – 12 professional academic librarianswho graduated from eight different graduateschools. Participants were 6 to 24 months intotheir professional careers and had little or nopre-professional experience.Methods – The researchers sought participantsthrough mailings, emails, electronic mailinglist postings, and referrals from otherparticipants. They conducted a small pilotstudy with two novice librarians to refine theirresearch methodology. The researchersinterviewed additional participants andanalyzed the interview transcripts untilcategories of interest were identified andsaturated. Saturation occurred at 12participants, not including the pilotparticipants. Each interview was 30-45minutes. The researchers recorded theinterviews and systematically coded thetranscripts using activist imagery. Four of the participants gave the researchers their “statement of purpose” essay that they used when applying for graduate school. These documents were also discussed with participants and analyzed.Main Results – From the data they collected, the researchers identified six categories of interest regarding librarians’ perceptions of librarianship: deciding upon a career, experiencing graduate school, continuing education, defining the work, evaluating the work, and (reimagining the future. In considering librarianship as a career, the participants had not been entirely sure what it entailed, but they utilized what they did know about libraries and librarianship to generally deem the
Full Text Available Background: Sleep is an essential element for adolescent mental and physical growth and development, but today′s young adolescents are deprived of this. Earlier studies in Europe and America showed pitiable sleep quality of young college students, which affect their academic growth. However, as per our literature search there is a lack of such studies in Indian context especially, within pharmacy education. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the interrelation between the demographic characteristics, life-style, and academic progress with sleep quality and sleep problems along with daytime and nighttime habits in young female pharmacy students of India. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire on sleep and daytime habits (QS and DH was prepared. Our sample survey consists of 226 female pharmacy students of Banasthali University. QS and DH of multiple choice type, covered demographic characteristic (3 questions sleep and daytime habits (25 questions, life-style and academic progress (3 questions, and one question of course curriculum. Parameters were co-related by point scale method using the SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Data derived and analyze from survey illustrated that quality of sleep was as: Excellent - 20.4%, good - 38.5%, satisfactory - 35.8%, poor - 4%, and very poor - 1.3% of participants. Living condition (ρ=0.168, P =0.011, academic progress (ρ=0.151, P=0.023, leisure activity (ρ=0.133, P<0.05, and daytime naps (ρ=0.160, P=0.016 were significantly correlated with sleep quality. In addition, daytime sleepiness caused a significant problem for students and created a number of sleep disorders. Nevertheless, Sleep quality was not associated with age, body mass index, and coffee in the late evening. Conclusion: Study reported that sleep associated problems were common complaints in female pharmacy students.
When I look back at how my career started, I think to myself, what if I had undertaken the BA in Business Studies which I had been accepted for, instead of the BSc in Nursing for which I was still waiting to hear the results of my interview? Well, probably I would have spent four years studying business, followed by 40 years sitting in an office somewhere; Tesco, Sainsbury's or Marks and Spencer probably. I was lucky though, my father phoned up every couple of weeks (I was only 17 and didn't really have a clue what I wanted to do) and eventually they said 'yes' and I started my nursing career. Perhaps this is the first bit of advice for anybody thinking of a career in health:
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M
Pharmacy practice and social pharmacy are two important research areas within pharmaceutical and health sciences. As the disciplines have undergone and are still undergoing changes, it is useful to reflect on the current state of their research as the basis for discussing further development....... The two areas are currently beset by a lack of consensus and charged all too often with evaluating narrowly focused pharmacy services. With the added challenge of diminished funding for research and the pressures to publish results, these fields have to accommodate a much broader research framework than...
Hickey, Lisa M; Farris, Karen B; Peterson, N Andrew; Aquilino, Mary L
To determine whether the population demographics of the location of pharmacies were associated with tobacco sales in pharmacies, when controlling for pharmacy type. Retrospective analysis. Iowa. All retailers in Iowa that obtained tobacco licenses and all pharmacies registered with the Iowa Board of Pharmacy in 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE AND INTERVENTIONS: Percentage of pharmacies selling tobacco (examined by pharmacy type using chi-square analysis); median income and distribution of race/ethnicity in the county for pharmacies that did or did not sell tobacco (t tests); predictors of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco (logistic regression using the independent variables county-level demographic variables and pharmacy characteristics). County gender composition, race/ethnicity make-up, and income levels were different for tobacco-selling and -nonselling pharmacies. Logistic regression showed that whether a pharmacy sold tobacco was strongly dependent on the type of pharmacy; compared with independent pharmacies (of which only 5% sold tobacco products), chain pharmacies were 34 times more likely to sell tobacco products, mass merchandiser outlets were 47 times more likely to stock these goods, and grocery stores were 378 times more likely to do so. Pharmacies selling tobacco were more likely to be located in counties with significantly higher numbers of multiracial groups. The best predictor of whether an Iowa pharmacy sells tobacco products is type of pharmacy. In multivariable analyses, population demographics of the county in which pharmacies were located were generally not predictive of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco.
... chapter). The pharmacy must ensure that logical access controls in the pharmacy application are set so... pharmacy, the pharmacist must check its records to ensure that the electronic version was not received and... prescription had not dispensed the prescription, that pharmacy must mark the electronic version as void or...
Welfare Pharmacy contains medical formulas documented by the government and official prescriptions used by the official pharmacy in the pharmaceutical process. In the last years of Southern Song Dynasty, anonyms gave a lot of prescription annotations, made textual researches for the name, source, composition and origin of the prescriptions, and supplemented important historical data of medical cases and researched historical facts. The annotations of Welfare Pharmacy gathered the essence of medical theory, and can be used as precious materials to correctly understand the syndrome differentiation, compatibility regularity and clinical application of prescriptions. This article deeply investigated the style and form of the prescription annotations in Welfare Pharmacy, the name of prescriptions and the evolution of terminology, the major functions of the prescriptions, processing methods, instructions for taking medicine and taboos of prescriptions, the medical cases and clinical efficacy of prescriptions, the backgrounds, sources, composition and cultural meanings of prescriptions, proposed that the prescription annotations played an active role in the textual dissemination, patent medicine production and clinical diagnosis and treatment of Welfare Pharmacy. This not only helps understand the changes in the names and terms of traditional Chinese medicines in Welfare Pharmacy, but also provides the basis for understanding the knowledge sources, compatibility regularity, important drug innovations and clinical medications of prescriptions in Welfare Pharmacy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy.
Zimmerman, Andrea McNeely
The number of biomedical PhD scientists being trained and graduated far exceeds the number of academic faculty positions and academic research jobs. If this trend is compelling biomedical PhD scientists to increasingly seek career paths outside of academia, then more should be known about their intentions, desires, training experiences, and career path navigation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand the process through which biomedical PhD scientists are trained and supported for navigating future career paths. In addition, the study sought to determine whether career development support efforts and opportunities should be redesigned to account for the proportion of PhD scientists following non-academic career pathways. Guided by the social cognitive career theory (SCCT) framework this study sought to answer the following central research question: How does a southeastern tier 1 research university train and support its biomedical PhD scientists for navigating their career paths? Key findings are: Many factors influence PhD scientists' career sector preference and job search process, but the most influential were relationships with faculty, particularly the mentor advisor; Planned activities are a significant aspect of the training process and provide skills for career success; and Planned activities provided skills necessary for a career, but influential factors directed the career path navigated. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
吳武典 Wu-Tien Wu
Full Text Available 本研究旨在發現高中學生不同的「生涯發展組型」（career development patterns, CDP），進而對CDP 進行效度考驗，並探析其在升學及生涯輔導上的意義。本研究分三部分：一、組型建構：採取量化取向之調查法，根據20 所高中1,443 名學生在「工作價值觀量表」、「生涯探索量表」與「多元智能量表」上的評量結果，加上學科能力測驗（五科）成績，以總共三十種變項進行因素分析和典型相關分析，綜合研判組合成為八種有意義的CDP，包括實用組型、研究組型、藝術組型、社會組型、企業組型、事務組型、人文組型和數理組型；二、組型驗證：以4 所高中327 名學生為樣本，以「我的特質」及「學生特質」檢核表為效標，考驗兩者與CDP 之相關及高、低分組之差異，結果發現，八種CDP 與效標間大多呈現相對應的顯著正相關，也具有良好的同時效度，惟學生自評的效度高於教師的評定；三、組型應用：首先詮釋各CDP 的內涵，然後透過專家及資深輔導教師的諮詢座談，修正各組型內涵。最後，進行優勢組型（組型分數T≧60）之人數分布分析與個案分析，結果發現，優勢組型的分布存在著很大的個別差異，或屬於單一優勢，或屬於多重優勢，而各校均有優勢學生（合占約四成）。 根據研究發現，研究者提出若干對CDP 的應用及高中生升學與生涯輔導的建議。 The purposes of this study are twofolds: 1 To explore the “career development patterns” (CDPs of senior high school students (SHSs and define the meaning of the CDP; 2 To exmine the validity of the CDP and the application of the CDP to academic and career counseling. There are three parts of this study: 1 The construction of CDPs: 1,443 SHSs from 20 senior high schools took the Work Value Inventory, the Career Exploration Inventory, the
Shaw, S.M.; Cox, P.H.
Education of nuclear pharmacists exists in many countries around the world. The approach and level of education varies between countries depending upon the expectations of the nuclear pharmacist, the work site and the economic environment. In Australia, training is provided through distance learning. In Europe and Canada, nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists receive postgraduate education in order to engage in the small-scale preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals as well as research and development. In the U.S.A., nuclear pharmacy practitioners obtain basic knowledge primarily through undergraduate programs taken when pursuit the first professional degree in pharmacy. Licensed practitioners in pharmacy enter the practice of nuclear pharmacy through distance learning programs or short courses. While different approaches to education exist, there is a basic core of knowledge and a level of competence required of all nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists providing radiopharmaceutical products and services. It was with this realization that efforts were initiated to develop harmonization concepts and documents pertaining to education in nuclear pharmacy. The benefits of international harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education are numerous. Assurance of the availability of quality professionals to provide optimal products and care to the patient is a principle benefit. Spanning national barriers through the demonstration of self governance and unification in education will enhance the goal of increased freedom of employment between countries. Harmonization endeavors will improve existing education programs through sharing of innovative concepts and knowledge between educators. Documents generated will benefit new educational programs especially in developing nations. A committee on harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education was formed consisting of educators and practitioners from the international community. A working document on education was
While a main goal for corporate trainers traditionally has been to train employees to reach organizational goals, many trainers may find their roles expanding. With companies cutting back on staffing and consolidating multiple job roles into single positions, career development has taken on a much larger significance. At forward-thinking…
Heilbronner, Renée; Stünitz, Holger
One option for a dual career that is often considered is job sharing. After 20 years of job sharing during the most competitive years of our careers we would like to share a few thoughts on some of the problems we came across. The typical job sharing situation is one of a young couple about to found a family. However, this need not be the case, many alternative models are thinkable, few are actually liveable. The list of problems we came across includes: 1 - The hiring age for professors keeps dropping. This adds extra stress to the competitive post doc time 2 - Postdoc positions are not designed for dual career. ... and much less for job sharing. 3 - The higher the academic position the less likely it is offered for job sharing. - because it is claimed that leadership and responsibility cannot be shared. - because two half positions do indeed cost more than one whole (what hiring institutions fail to see is that they get two instead of one fully qualified scientists in return) - because they are difficult to plan: what happens if one partner leaves the department? 4 - Age difference of dual career partners Partners of different age have different qualifications and experiences. Usually the career of the more advanced partners is promoted more, the career of the second partner falls behind.
Kinney, Ashley; Bui, Quyen; Hodding, Jane; Le, Jennifer
Background: Innovative approaches, including LEAN systems and dashboards, to enhance pharmacy production continue to evolve in a cost and safety conscious health care environment. Furthermore, implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of these novel methods continues to be challenging for pharmacies. Objective: To describe a comprehensive, real-time pharmacy dashboard that incorporated LEAN methodologies and evaluate its utilization in an inpatient Central Intravenous Additives Services (CIVAS) pharmacy. Methods: Long Beach Memorial Hospital (462 adult beds) and Miller Children's and Women's Hospital of Long Beach (combined 324 beds) are tertiary not-for-profit, community-based hospitals that are served by one CIVAS pharmacy. Metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were developed and implemented on a dashboard in real-time from March 2013 to March 2014. Results: The metrics that were designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were quality and value, financial resilience, and the department's people and culture. Using a dashboard that integrated these metrics, the accuracy of manufacturing defect-free products was ≥99.9%, indicating excellent quality and value of CIVAS. The metric for financial resilience demonstrated a cost savings of $78,000 annually within pharmacy by eliminating the outsourcing of products. People and value metrics on the dashboard focused on standard work, with an overall 94.6% compliance to the workflow. Conclusion: A unique dashboard that incorporated metrics to monitor 3 important areas was successfully implemented to improve the effectiveness of CIVAS pharmacy. These metrics helped pharmacy to monitor progress in real-time, allowing attainment of production goals and fostering continuous quality improvement through LEAN work.
Bui, Quyen; Hodding, Jane; Le, Jennifer
Background: Innovative approaches, including LEAN systems and dashboards, to enhance pharmacy production continue to evolve in a cost and safety conscious health care environment. Furthermore, implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of these novel methods continues to be challenging for pharmacies. Objective: To describe a comprehensive, real-time pharmacy dashboard that incorporated LEAN methodologies and evaluate its utilization in an inpatient Central Intravenous Additives Services (CIVAS) pharmacy. Methods: Long Beach Memorial Hospital (462 adult beds) and Miller Children's and Women's Hospital of Long Beach (combined 324 beds) are tertiary not-for-profit, community-based hospitals that are served by one CIVAS pharmacy. Metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were developed and implemented on a dashboard in real-time from March 2013 to March 2014. Results: The metrics that were designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were quality and value, financial resilience, and the department's people and culture. Using a dashboard that integrated these metrics, the accuracy of manufacturing defect-free products was ≥99.9%, indicating excellent quality and value of CIVAS. The metric for financial resilience demonstrated a cost savings of $78,000 annually within pharmacy by eliminating the outsourcing of products. People and value metrics on the dashboard focused on standard work, with an overall 94.6% compliance to the workflow. Conclusion: A unique dashboard that incorporated metrics to monitor 3 important areas was successfully implemented to improve the effectiveness of CIVAS pharmacy. These metrics helped pharmacy to monitor progress in real-time, allowing attainment of production goals and fostering continuous quality improvement through LEAN work. PMID:28439134
Objective. To investigate German pharmacy students’ attitudes toward the relevance of organic chemistry training in Julius Maximilian University (JMU) of Würzburg with regard to subsequent courses in the curricula and in later prospective career options. Methods. Surveys were conducted in the second-year organic chemistry course (50 participants) as well as during the third-year and fourth-year lecture cycle on medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry (66 participants) in 2014. Results. Students’ attitudes were surprisingly consistent throughout the progress of the degree course. Students considered organic chemistry very relevant to the pharmacy study program (95% junior and 97% senior students), and of importance for their future pharmacy program (88% junior and 94% senior students). With regard to prospective career options, the perceived relevance was considerably lower and attitudes were less homogenous. Conclusions. German pharmacy students at JMU Würzburg consider organic chemistry of high relevance for medicinal chemistry and other courses in JMU’s pharmacy program. PMID:27170811
Peterson, G M; Fitzmaurice, K D; Rasiah, R L; Kruup, H
The shortage of community and hospital pharmacists is particularly acute in rural and remote areas of Australia. Pharmacy students, in particular, as those who may be able to alleviate this shortage, need to be made more aware of the challenges and rewards of rural pharmacy practice. A marketing tool was developed to promote rural and remote pharmacy practice as a career option. A DVD was produced from interviews with health professionals working in rural and remote areas of Australia. This DVD will complement current rural practical placements, which have been incorporated into the curriculum of Australian schools of pharmacy. Interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals from areas in Tasmania, Northern Queensland and the Northern Territory. Interviewees included pharmacists, graduate pharmacists, pharmacy students, aboriginal health workers and a general practitioner. Each of the interviewees was able to provide personal accounts of experiences in rural and remote healthcare, and roles and opportunities for pharmacists. A final draft of the DVD was shown to University of Tasmania students to assess the impact and quality of the production. A number of common themes arose from interviewing and these were subsequently converted into five key chapters of the DVD - Lifestyle, Belonging, Diversity, Indigenous Health and 'Give it a go'. The final DVD, produced from over 15 h of footage, runs for 35 min. Students reported positive feedback on both the technical quality and the information contained within the DVD; 37% of students who viewed the DVD felt that it increased their awareness of what rural pharmacy has to offer. The rural pharmacy, 'Enjoy the Lifestyle' DVD can be used to increase awareness of rural and remote pharmacy practice to students and other pharmacists, and complements other pharmacy workforce strategies for rural and remote areas of Australia. It could also be a useful approach for adaptation in other countries.
Philip, Achsah; Desai, Avani; Nguyen, Phouc Anne; Birney, Patrick; Colavecchia, Anthony; Karralli, Rusol; Smith, Lindsey; Lorimer, Dirk; Burgess, Gwen; Munch, Kyle; Daniel, Nelvin; Lionetti, Jason; Garey, Kevin W
Pharmacy leader development over time was analyzed using the seven action logics. As part of an ongoing leadership seminar series, students were required to select a visionary pharmacy leader and conduct a structured interview to evaluate pharmacy leaders' action logics. A standardized questionnaire comprising 13 questions was created by the class. Questions addressed leadership qualities during the leaders' early years, education years, and work years. Transcripts were then coded by two separate trained investigators based on the leader's stage of life to provide a score for each action logic individually over time. Kappa coefficient was used to evaluate interrater agreement. A total of 14 leaders were interviewed. All leaders were currently employed and had won national awards for their contributions to pharmacy practice. Overall, there was 82% agreement between the two evaluators' scores for the various characteristics. Action logics changed based on the leaders' life stage. Using aggregate data from all leader interviews, a progression from lower-order action logics (opportunist, diplomat, expert) to higher-order action logics (strategist, alchemist) was found. Ten leaders (71%) were diplomats during their early years. Six leaders (43%) were experts during their education years, and 4 (29%) were strategists or alchemists. During the third life stage analyzed (the work years), 6 leaders (43%) were strategists, and 2 were alchemists. During their work years, all leaders had a percentage of their answers coded as alchemist (range, 5-22%). Throughout their professional careers, pharmacy leaders continually develop skills through formal education and mentorship that follow action logics. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources: Submissions ... The reference section should be typed on separate pages. ... human subjects in their work to seek approval from the appropriate Ethical Committees.
Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S
Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.
Lee, Charlene M; Soin, Herpreet K; Einarson, Thomas R
Research in statistical methods is essential for maintenance of high quality of the published literature. To update previous reports of the types and frequencies of statistical terms and procedures in research studies of selected professional pharmacy journals. We obtained all research articles published in 2001 in 6 journals: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, Formulary, Hospital Pharmacy, and Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. Two independent reviewers identified and recorded descriptive and inferential statistical terms/procedures found in the methods, results, and discussion sections of each article. Results were determined by tallying the total number of times, as well as the percentage, that each statistical term or procedure appeared in the articles. One hundred forty-four articles were included. Ninety-eight percent employed descriptive statistics; of these, 28% used only descriptive statistics. The most common descriptive statistical terms were percentage (90%), mean (74%), standard deviation (58%), and range (46%). Sixty-nine percent of the articles used inferential statistics, the most frequent being chi(2) (33%), Student's t-test (26%), Pearson's correlation coefficient r (18%), ANOVA (14%), and logistic regression (11%). Statistical terms and procedures were found in nearly all of the research articles published in pharmacy journals. Thus, pharmacy education should aim to provide current and future pharmacists with an understanding of the common statistical terms and procedures identified to facilitate the appropriate appraisal and consequential utilization of the information available in research articles.
Jarfaut, A; Nivoix, Y; Vigouroux, D; Kehrli, P; Gaudias, J; Kempf, J-F; Levêque, D; Gourieux, B
Clinical pharmacy has been developed and evaluated in various medical hospital activities. Reviews conducted in this area reported a higher value of this discipline. In surgical services, evenly adverse drug events may occur, so clinical pharmacy activities must also help to optimize the management of drug's patient. The objectives of this literature review is to determine the profile of clinical pharmacy activities developed in surgical services and identify indicators. The research was conducted on Pubmed(®) database with the following keywords (2000-2013), "surgery", "pharmacy", "pharmacist", "pharmaceutical care", "impact" and limited to French or English papers. Studies dealing on simultaneously medical and surgical areas were excluded. Twenty-one papers were selected. The most frequently developed clinical pharmacy activities were history and therapeutic drug monitoring (antibiotics or anticoagulants). Two types of indicators were identified: activity indicators with the number of pharmaceutical interventions, their description and clinical signification, the acceptance rate and workload. Impact indicators were mostly clinical and economic impacts. The development of clinical pharmacy related to surgical patients is documented and appears to have, as for medical patients, a clinical and economical value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Maria do Céu Taveira
Full Text Available Social Cognitive Career Theory suggests that students' preparedness for the school-to-work transition is a developmental process. Middle school children explore various careers, obtain feedback about their academic progress, and develop career self-efficacy and outcome expectations. These processes advance provisional educational/occupational goals. The literature has suggested articulations between career and academic development and how both vary across demographic characteristics, but longitudinal studies linking these processes are scarce. This study tested articulations between career preparedness and academic achievement during middle school years and employed gender and geographical location as potential moderators affecting the linkage between career and school domains. Participants included 429 children (47.8% girls from northern (69.5% and central Portugal (30.5% followed across four occasions of measurement (MageWave1 = 10.23, SD = 0.50. Data was collected with school records, the Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self-Efficacy, Career Exploratory Outcome Expectations Scale, Childhood Career Exploration Inventory and Childhood Career Development Scale. Average and orthnormalized linear, quadratic and cubic trends were computed. Pearson correlation coefficients suggested positive and statistically significant associations between career exploratory outcome expectations and academic achievement average trends. Career planning and self-efficacy expectations were negatively associated with academic achievement quadratic trends. Multiple linear regression models suggested that career exploratory outcome expectations and career planning were respectively statistically significant predictors of the average and quadratic trends of academic achievement. Gender moderated the association between the career variables and academic achievement linear trends as well as the relation of career planning and self-efficacy with academic achievement
Colakoglu, Sidika N.
Based on the theoretical frameworks of the career enactment and the stress perspectives, this study develops and tests a model in which career boundarylessness affects subjective career success through its effect on three career competencies--knowing-why, knowing-how, and knowing-whom--and career autonomy and career insecurity. The results…
Barriers to Career Flexibility in Academic Medicine: A Qualitative Analysis of Reasons for the Underutilization of Family-Friendly Policies, and Implications for Institutional Change and Department Chair Leadership.
Shauman, Kimberlee; Howell, Lydia P; Paterniti, Debora A; Beckett, Laurel A; Villablanca, Amparo C
Academic medical and biomedical professionals need workplace flexibility to manage the demands of work and family roles and meet their commitments to both, but often fail to use the very programs and benefits that provide flexibility. This study investigated the reasons for faculty underutilization of work-life programs. As part of a National Institutes of Health-funded study, in 2010 the authors investigated attitudes of clinical and/or research biomedical faculty at the University of California, Davis, toward work-life policies, and the rationale behind their individual decisions regarding use of flexibility policies. The analysis used verbatim responses from 213 of 472 faculty (448 unstructured comments) to a series of open-ended survey questions. Questions elicited faculty members' self-reports of policy use, attitudes, and evaluations of the policies, and their perceptions of barriers that limited full benefit utilization. Data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Faculty described how their utilization of workplace flexibility benefits was inhibited by organizational influences: the absence of reliable information about program eligibility and benefits, workplace norms and cultures that stigmatized program participation, influence of uninformed/unsupportive department heads, and concerns about how participation might burden coworkers, damage collegial relationships, or adversely affect workflow and grant funding. Understanding underuse of work-life programs is essential to maximize employee productivity and satisfaction, minimize turnover, and provide equal opportunities for career advancement to all faculty. The findings are discussed in relation to specific policy recommendations, implications for institutional change, and department chair leadership.
Joice Nedel Ott
Full Text Available The National Examination of Student Performance (ENADE integrates the National System of Higher Education Assessment (SINAES as a mandatory curriculum component in Brazilian undergraduate courses. The objective of this work was to analyze, in a critical-reflexive way, the questions of the ENADE, applied to Pharmacy academics in 2010, in order to understand if the profile of the test and the evaluative intention are consistent with the recommendations by the National Curriculum Guidelines for pharmacy courses (DCNF. Through Qualtrics Survey Software were prepared four questionnaires sent by digital means teachers allocated to 18 Pharmacy courses, public and private institutions, from the Rio Grande do Sul State (RS. A total of 131 teachers evaluatedof the ENADE 2010 test. Teachers’ opinion for suitability of the Specific issues reached an average score 7.78 ± 2.22, most assessed exercise capacity in drugs and medicines (63% they demanded critical-reflective ability (45.5% and interdisciplinary approach (45.3%. The General Training questions, average score was 5.16 ± 2.87 seconds teachers, helped in understanding the social, cultural and economic environment in which health professionals be inserted (42.8% and, to a lesser acuity assessed the critical-reflective character (32.2%, humanist (12.2% and ethical (10.6%. It was through the opinion of teachers, that Pharmacy ENADE 2010 test contemplates the principles defined by NDCF, however presented an asymmetric distribution of the training aspects required to the formation of the general pharmacist.
Graduate students and their career opportunities in ocean and earth sciences were the focus of the Education and Human Resources (E & HR) Committee meeting held at the 1982 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. A standing committee of AGU, the E & HR committee is responsible for matters concerning education in earth, ocean, and planetary sciences from precollege through graduate programs, including career guidance, academic preparation, student recruitment, and manpower supply and demand.At the meeting a draft of the AGU-sponsored Careers in Oceanography booklet by committee chairman C. Hollister was thoroughly discussed and a new draft will emerge soon for final approval. The booklet is designed to complement the Careers in Geophysics booklet recently published by AGU; the booklets contain information about planning a career, job opportunities, educational requirements, and a synopsis of where the prospective student might apply.
De Vera, Mary A; Campbell, Natasha K J; Chhina, Harpreet; Galo, Jessica S; Marra, Carlo
While prior research identified barriers to conducting research in community pharmacies, there remains a need to better understand facilitators to ensure successful collaborations between academic researchers and pharmacists. Our objective was to determine the experiences and perspectives of community pharmacists who have recently conducted a pharmacy practice-based research study to gain in-depth understanding of challenges as well as facilitators and identify strategies and solutions. We conducted a qualitative study involving one-on-one semi-structured telephone interviews with community pharmacists following the completion of a practice-based research study in their pharmacies. Interview transcripts were analysed using inductive content analysis involving open coding, creating categories and abstraction into final themes. Eleven pharmacists participated in the qualitative interviews. We identified six major themes including: (1) barriers (e.g. time constraints); (2) facilitators (e.g. ideal pharmacy layout); (3) support and resources from academic researchers (e.g. helpfulness of training, easy-to-use study materials); (4) pharmacist-initiated strategies for conducting research (beyond prior suggestions from researchers); (5) suggestions for future pharmacy practice research; and (6) motivation for conducting pharmacy practice research. These findings informed practical strategies targeted at academic researchers and pharmacists, respectively, to facilitate the conduct of research in community pharmacists across various stages of the research process. Our study adds to better understanding of community pharmacists' perspectives on conducting research and identifies practical solutions that can be readily implemented by academic researchers and pharmacists participating in research. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
To provide pharmacy students with an opportunity to develop entrepreneurial thinking and skills. A business proposal building project-based activity was integrated into a two-credit hour pharmacy management course during the eighth semester of the bachelor of pharmacy degree program. The student groups submitted their proposals, mimicking the process of submitting business proposals and obtaining approval in the real world. Essential management tasks including operation procedures, location and layout design, inventory management, personnel management, marketing management, and finance management were taught step-by-step so that students could work on a similar scenario with their proposal building. Students' career preferences were also measured at the beginning and end of the course. Course was assessed by written exffigam and rubric based project evaluation. Student feedbacks of the project were collected using a five-point Likert scale. The project-based activity was well integrated in the course. The project helped the students (n=72) to understand management concepts more clearly, which was reflected by their significantly higher (pproject was successfully designed and executed in a pharmacy management course within a bachelor of pharmacy curriculum. Based on the response received in this project, efforts will be made to provide guidance and support to the students by calling field experts such as pharmacy owners and financiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bloom, Timothy J; Smith, Jennifer D; Rich, Wesley
Objective. To determine the benefit of pharmacy work experience on the development of student pharmacists' professional identity. Methods. Students in all four professional years were surveyed using a validated Professional Self-identity Questionnaire (PSIQ). They were also asked about pharmacy experience prior to matriculation and their performance on Drug Information tests given midway through the P1 year and at the beginning of the P3 year. PSIQ responses and test results were compared based on pharmacy experience. Results. The PSIQ was completed by 293 student pharmacists, for a 67% response rate, with 76% of respondents reporting pharmacy experience prior to matriculation. Statistically higher scores on responses to 6 of the 9 PSIQ Likert-type items were observed from students in the first professional year for those with pharmacy experience; however, only one item in the second year showed differences with none in the third and fourth years. No impact of experience was observed on Top 100 or Top 300 grades. Conclusion. Pre-matriculation pharmacy experience may increase development of professional identity early in the student experience but may have little impact on academic readiness. Schools and colleges of pharmacy hoping to recruit students with an early sense of professional identity should consider adding such experience to their admissions requirements.
Richardson, Alan; Curtis, Anthony D M; Moss, Gary P; Pearson, Russell J; White, Simon; Rutten, Frank J M; Perumal, Dhaya; Maddock, Katie
OBJECTIVE. To implement and assess a task-based learning exercise that prompts pharmacy students to integrate their understanding of different disciplines. DESIGN. Master of pharmacy (MPharm degree) students were provided with simulated information from several preclinical science and from clinical trials and asked to synthesize this into a marketing authorization application for a new drug. Students made a link to pharmacy practice by creating an advice leaflet for pharmacists. ASSESSMENT. Students' ability to integrate information from different disciplines was evaluated by oral examination. In 2 successive academic years, 96% and 82% of students demonstrated an integrated understanding of their proposed new drug. Students indicated in a survey that their understanding of the links between different subjects improved. CONCLUSION. Simulated drug discovery provides a learning environment that emphasizes the connectivity of the preclinical sciences with each other and the practice of pharmacy.
Grunert, Megan L.
Statistics showing the under-representation of women at all levels within the physical sciences abound, particularly at the graduate and faculty levels. Women chemists choosing an academic career tend to select teaching institutions over research institutions. This study examined women at the graduate and faculty levels through interviews and the construction of participant narratives to better understand why many women opt out of a career in academic research. Specific attention was paid to women's decision-making processes and what motivates women to choose careers, the rewards and challenges associated with different careers, and the perception of different careers contribute to their decisions. The participant narratives were analyzed on a cross-case basis and constructivist grounded theory was used to develop a model about women's decision-making regarding their careers. Additionally, preliminary work has suggested that graduate students have inaccurate perceptions of careers in academia. Interviews with faculty at teaching and research institutions provided a clearer picture of what each type of career entails. Career-choice motivators, rewards, and challenges were identified for each of the faculty groups. It was found that graduate student women have inaccurate perceptions of academic research careers, which affects how they make career decisions. A model of career choice shows interactions between motivation and perception that guide the career decision-making process. By better understanding these women and their motivations, changes can be made to foster inclusion and accommodation for women and other underrepresented groups in academic chemistry.
Wilson, J P; Wen, L K
Graduates' assessments of the University of Texas at Austin's nontraditional M.S. degree program in pharmacy administration were studied. A survey was constructed to assess the impact of the master's program on career advancement, to examine why pharmacists enrolled in the program, and to determine if the curriculum provided knowledge or developed skills that were practical or beneficial. The survey was mailed in April 1999 to all persons who had completed the program between 1990 and 1998. A total of 56 graduates responded, for a response rate of 90.3%. The three reasons for entering the program most frequently cited as most important were career advancement, personal development, and the desire to change job responsibilities. Thirty-four respondents (60.7%) reported receiving a promotion or changing jobs for a higher position while they were enrolled in the program or after completing it. Of these 34 respondents, 29 (85.3%) attributed their promotion or new job to the master's degree. On average, graduates reported that the knowledge and skills obtained through the program had been useful in their practice. The benefits of the program that were cited most frequently were management skills, competencies in areas of pharmacy business, opportunity to advance career, job satisfaction, and competitive advantage when applying for a job. A nontraditional master's degree program in pharmacy administration had a positive impact on the career paths of graduates.
Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.
Wilson, Deleise S; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; Visovatti, Moira; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Feetham, Suzanne
To present four case scenarios reflecting the process of research career development using career cartography. Career cartography is a novel approach that enables nurses, from all clinical and academic settings, to actively engage in a process that maximizes their clinical, teaching, research, and policy contributions that can improve patient outcomes and the health of the public. Four early-career nurse researchers applied the career cartography framework to describe their iterative process of research career development. They report the development process of each of the components of career cartography, including destination statement, career map, and policy statement. Despite diverse research interests and career mapping approaches, common experiences emerged from the four nurse researchers. Common lessons learned throughout the career cartography process include: (a) have a supportive mentorship team, (b) start early and reflect regularly, (c) be brief and to the point, (d) keep it simple and avoid jargon, (e) be open to change, (f) make time, and (g) focus on the overall career destination. These four case scenarios support the need for nurse researchers to develop their individual career cartography. Regardless of their background, career cartography can help nurse researchers articulate their meaningful contributions to science, policy, and health of the public. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Shaw, John; Kennedy, Julia; Jensen, Maree; Sheridan, Janie
Objective. To reflect on selection policies and procedures for programs at pharmacy schools that are members of an international alliance of universities (Universitas 21). Methods. A questionnaire on selection policies and procedures was distributed to admissions directors at participating schools. Results. Completed questionnaires were received from 7 schools in 6 countries. Although marked differences were noted in the programs in different countries, there were commonalities in the selection processes. There was an emphasis on previous academic performance, especially in science subjects. With one exception, all schools had some form of interview, with several having moved to multiple mini-interviews in recent years. Conclusion. The majority of pharmacy schools in this survey relied on traditional selection processes. While there was increasing use of multiple mini-interviews, the authors suggest that additional new approaches may be required in light of the changing nature of the profession.
The implications of the research for social work practice are discussed. .... to female academics' rise to the top of their careers in Ghana. ... Saleebey (1996) identifies resilience, empowerment and membership as the key principles of the ...
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., D/B/A Esplanade Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration On November 12, 2010, I, the then Deputy Administrator of the Drug... Pharmacy Care, Inc., d/b/a Esplanade Pharmacy (Registrant), of New Orleans, Louisiana. The Show Cause Order...
Csaky, T. Z.
Two recent trends in the field of health education-the declining emphasis on basic sciences in medical instruction and the heavy emphasis on pharmacology, therapeutics, and clinical pharmacy in colleges of pharmacy-are compared. (Editor)
Holdford, David A
The objectives of this article are to define business models, contrast the business models in pharmacy schools, and discuss issues that can arise from misunderstandings about whom pharmacy schools serve and how they do so.
Full Text Available Opening an independent pharmacy is a process that involves multiple components. The rationale of this project is to discuss different issues that must be investigated prior to opening a new independency pharmacy. This includes the location, structure of the corporation, start-up cost, picking a wholesaler, fulfilling state board requirements and Philadelphia requirements, having a valid license, making professional relationships, and knowing basic marketing research. Methods used include using the knowledge and expertise from an independent pharmacy owner, visiting pharmacies, and interviewing neighbors for basic marketing research. Many aspects of opening an independent pharmacy differ significantly from a retail pharmacy, as there are various issues within the pharmacy and outside the pharmacy that must be extensively researched prior to opening in order to be successful. Type: Student Project
Sutherland, Kathryn A.
Expectations around success in academia vary, and early career academics often receive conflicting messages about what they should concentrate on to achieve promotion or tenure. Taking a social constructionist approach, this paper considers the constructs of objective and subjective career success in academia and shares the perspectives of early…
Gasser, Courtney E.; Shaffer, Katharine S.
Women's experiences in academia are laden with a fundamental set of issues pertaining to gender inequalities. A model reflecting women's career development and experiences around their academic pipeline (or career in academia) is presented. This model further conveys a new perspective on the experiences of women academicians before, during and…
Hepner, Marilyn M.; Faaborg, Linda W.
This report presents an analysis and interpretation of responses from women administrators in higher education concerning influences on their careers, professional mobility, and self-perceptions. Issues discussed include the inadequacy of information concerning women administrators, influences on career growth, differences between academic and…
Mittendorff, Kariene; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe
Internationally, schools acknowledge their responsibility in guiding students not only in their academic growth, but also in their lifelong career development. In relation to this development, vocational schools in the Netherlands are implementing integral career guidance in which teachers receive a new task in guiding students in developing their…
People launch a private career practice for many reasons. Often the motivation is to seek a working life with more control over--and flexibility relating to--time, freedom, location, work style, client base, family life, etc. Career practitioners who launch a private practice have often worked in the academic, government, military or non-profit…
Delvecchio, Susan; McEwan, Thaddeus; McEwen, Beryl C.
Comparison of 238 African-American students (81% at traditionally black institutions) and 250 white students revealed no differences in preferences for accounting, finance, or market research careers. African Americans had a higher preference for human resource management careers regardless of age, academic standing, or work experience. (Contains…
This paper analyzes the impact of academic inbreeding in relation to academic research, and proposes a new conceptual framework for its analysis. We find that mobility (or lack of) at the early research career stage is decisive in influencing academic behaviors and scientific productivity. Less mobile academics have more inward oriented…
González Ramos, Ana M.; Fernández Palacín, Fernando; Muñoz Márquez, Manuel
Why is the gender gap so large in researchers' career progression? Do men and women have different priorities in their academic careers? This study explores men's and women's academic work to shed light on the strategies of male and female researchers. The online survey collected data on Andalusian researchers to determine possible differences in…
K.Šliogeryte`s master thesis. Master thesis supervisor associate professor Jonas Grincevičius (2015/2016), lecturer J. Daukšienė(2016/2017); Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical technology and Social pharmacy department. – Kaunas. Master thesis: prescription medicine sharing experience among pharmacy students. The aim: to evaluate LUHS Pharmacy faculty students` experience in prescription drugs` sharing. Methods: empirical qualitative method...
Park, Taehwan; Yusuf, Akeem A; Hadsall, Ronald S
To examine pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt. Two hundred thirteen pharmacy students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed using items designed to assess attitudes toward debt. Factor analysis was performed to identify common themes. Subgroup analysis was performed to examine whether students' debt-tolerant attitudes varied according to their demographic characteristics, past loan experience, monthly income, and workload. Principal component extraction with varimax rotation identified 3 factor themes accounting for 49.0% of the total variance: tolerant attitudes toward debt (23.5%); contemplation and knowledge about loans (14.3%); and fear of debt (11.2%). Tolerant attitudes toward debt were higher if students were white or if they had had past loan experience. These 3 themes in students' attitudes toward debt were consistent with those identified in previous research. Pharmacy schools should consider providing a structured financial education to improve student management of debt.
Pace, Adam C.; Greene, Joy; Deweese, Joseph E.; Brown, Dana A.; Cameron, Ginger; Nesbit, James M.; Wensel, Terri
The objective of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess the attitude of student pharmacists toward prayer in general and in particular as it relates to their academic performance. To fulfill the study objective, faculty from seven colleges of pharmacy located at Christian universities collaboratively developed the Student…
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pharmacy services. 51.180... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... aspects of the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of...
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt and...
Keith A. Wilson; Yvonne Perrie
Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787) — A journal of pharmacy education and practice is an international scientific open access journal on pharmacy education and practice, and is published by MDPI online quarterly. The practice of pharmacy is changing at an unprecedented rate as the profession moves from a focus upon preparation and supply of medicines to a clinical patient-facing role. While an understanding of the science related to medicines remains core to pharmacy education, the changes in practice ...
Dec 9, 2014 ... a generalist role dependent on the application of pre-determined policies and rules, ..... wellness (Peterson 2000; Ryan & Deci 2000), they showed low optimism and ..... 'Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic.
Shah, Amita Roy
This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…
Ludwikowski, Wyndolyn M. A.; Vogel, David; Armstrong, Patrick Ian
Although many students struggle with career-related issues in college, comparatively few engage the career services offered by their academic institutions for help with their difficulties. In addition, there is little research on the factors influencing students' decisions to engage in counseling for career-related issues, making it difficult to…
Kuijpers, Marinka; Scheerens, Jaap
Career development gains new meaning in the context of employability demands in a knowledge economy. In this context, increased mobility, a dynamic work environment, and an increased level of career support from employers are seen as characteristics of a modern career. All of these characteristics
This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…
Lengel, Matthew; Kuhn, Catherine H; Worley, Marcia; Wehr, Allison M; McAuley, James W
To assess the impact of technician involvement on the completion of medication therapy management (MTM) services in a community pharmacy setting and to describe pharmacists' and technicians' perceptions of technician involvement in MTM-related tasks and their satisfaction with the technician's role in MTM. Prospective observational study. In the fall of 2015, pharmacists and selected technicians from 32 grocery store-based community pharmacies were trained to use technicians within MTM services. Completed MTM claims were evaluated at all pharmacies for 3 months before training and 3 months after training. An electronic survey, developed with the use of competencies taught in the training and relevant published literature, was distributed via e-mail to trained employees 3 months after training. The total number of completed MTM claims at the 32 pharmacy sites was higher during the posttraining time period (2687 claims) versus the pretraining period (1735 claims). Of the 182 trained participants, 112 (61.5%) completed the survey. Overall, perceived technician involvement was lower than expected. However, identifying MTM opportunities was the most commonly reported technician MTM task, with 62.5% of technicians and 47.2% of pharmacists reporting technician involvement. Nearly one-half of technicians (42.5%) and pharmacists (44.0%) agreed or strongly agreed they were satisfied with the technician's role in MTM services, and 40.0% of technicians agreed that they were more satisfied with their work in the pharmacy after involvement in MTM. Three months after initial training of technicians in MTM, participation of technicians was lower than expected. However, the technicians involved most often reported identifying MTM opportunities for pharmacists, which may be a focus for future technician trainings. In addition, technician involvement in MTM services may increase satisfaction with many aspects of work for actively involved technicians. Copyright © 2018 American
Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni
Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency.
This memoir reviews my academic career in solar physics for 60 years, including my research on non-LTE modeling, white-light flares, and small-scale solar activities. Through this narrative, the reader can catch a glimpse of the development of solar physics research in mainland China from scratch. In the end, some prospects for future development are given.
Koenigsfeld, Carrie Foust; Tice, Angela L
Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site.
Weathers, Trenna; Unni, Elizabeth
Objective. To assess the level of publication rates from 2011 through 2015 by Social and Administrative Sciences (SAS) faculty at non-research intensive pharmacy schools. Methods. The Web of Science database was searched using faculty names identified from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty and professional staff roster. Publication rates of SAS faculty were calculated and compared using several demographic subcategories such as public/private school, part of an academic health center, schools with PhD program, funding status, etc. Results. The 208 SAS faculty members from 59 colleges contributed to 478 publications with a mean of 95.6 publications per year and 1.62 publications per institution per year. The number of publications increased 45% over the five years from 67 publications in 2011 to 122 in 2015.The average number of publications was 0.92 per year per SAS faculty compared to 0.82 publications per year per faculty from other basic pharmaceutical sciences divisions. The most commonly published research was research articles in the area of scholarship of teaching and learning. The significant predictors of publications were being part of an academic health center, having a PhD program, and higher percent of faculty members who are SAS faculty. Conclusion. Despite being affiliated with institutions with missions less targeted on research, this study showed SAS faculty members at non-research intensive institutions consistently contribute to published literature. Further studies are needed to examine reasons for the lack of publishing by almost half of the SAS faculty and ways to increase research and publication in the field of SAS.
Full Text Available SL Scahill,1 M Atif,2 ZU Babar3,4 1School of Management, Massey Business School, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Pharmacy School, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 3School of Pharmacy, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, England, UK; 4School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Background: There is much fragmentation and little consensus in the use of descriptors for the different disciplines that make up the pharmacy sector. Globalization, reprofessionalization and the influx of other disciplines means there is a requirement for a greater degree of standardization. This has not been well addressed in the pharmacy practice research and education literature. Objectives: To identify and define the various subdisciplines of the pharmacy sector and integrate them into an internationally relevant conceptual model based on narrative synthesis of the literature. Methods: A literature review was undertaken to understand the fragmentation in dialogue surrounding definitions relating to concepts and practices in the context of the pharmacy sector. From a synthesis of this literature, the need for this model was justified. Key assumptions of the model were identified, and an organic process of development took place with the three authors engaging in a process of sense-making to theorize the model. Results: The model is “fit for purpose” across multiple countries and includes two components making up the umbrella term “pharmaceutical practice”. The first component is the four conceptual dimensions, which outline the disciplines including social and administrative sciences, community pharmacy, clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. The second component of the model describes the “acts of practice”: teaching, research and professional advocacy; service and academic enterprise. Conclusions: This model aims to expose issues
De Four-Babb, Joyanne; Pegg, Jerine; Beck, Makini
Academia is changing and a growing number of academics are finding themselves in non-tenure-track positions, experiencing increasing numbers of career transitions, or following alternative career trajectories. Academics in these positions often find themselves positioned as outsiders within their institutions and/or the broader academic community.…
Conclusion: This study concludes that the current status of community pharmacy practice is below par. There is a need to involve more pharmacists at community level and develop awareness programs to counter patients′ routine drug issues and reducing the burden of disease from society.
Thompson, Dennis F; Nahata, Milap C
To determine yearly (phase 1) and cumulative (phase 2) publication records of pharmaceutical science faculty members at research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy. The publication records of pharmaceutical science faculty members at research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy were searched on Web of Science. Fifty colleges and schools of pharmacy were randomly chosen for a search of 1,042 individual faculty members' publications per year from 2005 to 2009. A stratified random sample of 120 faculty members also was chosen, and cumulative publication counts were recorded and bibliometric indices calculated. The median number of publications per year was 2 (range, 0-34). Overall, 22% of faculty members had no publications in any given year, but the number was highly variable depending on the faculty members' colleges or schools of pharmacy. Bibliometric indices were higher for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics, with pharmacology ranking third and social and administrative sciences fourth. Higher bibliometric indices were also observed for institution status (ie, public vs private) and academic rank (discipline chairperson vs non-chairperson and professor vs junior faculty member) (ppharmaceutical science disciplines and academic ranks within research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy. These data may be important for benchmarking purposes.
Mok, Timothy Y; Romanelli, Frank
Objective. A review was conducted to determine implementation strategies, utilities, score interpretation, and limitations of the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcome Assessment (PCOA) examination. Methods. Articles were identified through the PubMed and American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education , and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases using the following terms: "Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment," "pharmacy comprehensive examination," and "curricular assessment." Studies containing information regarding implementation, utility, and predictive values for US student pharmacists, curricula, and/or PGY1/PGY2 residents were included. Publications from the Academic Medicine Journal , the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (ACCP) were included for background information and comparison of predictive utilities of comprehensive examinations in medicine. Results. Ten PCOA and nine residency-related publications were identified. Based on published information, the PCOA may be best used as an additional tool to identify knowledge gaps for third-year student pharmacists. Conclusion. Administering the PCOA to students after they have completed their didactic coursework may yield scores that reflect student knowledge. Predictive utility regarding the North American Pharmacy Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) and potential applications is limited, and more research is required to determine ways to use the PCOA.
This document contains four symposium papers on career issues in human resource development (HRD). "Are Careers What They Used To Be: A Factor Analysis of Schein's Career Orientations Inventory" (Gerri Mukri, Sharon Confessore) is a statistical analysis of Schein's Career Orientations Inventory that finds the inventory to be a…
Weber, Robert J.
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212
Christensen, Mette Krogh
This paper aims to extend our understanding of sports coaching careers and challenge related stage-based models by outlining and describing a typology of careers in high-performance sports coaching. A constructivist research approach is applied that intends to gain insight into the realities...... of coaches’ careers.Datawere drawn fromin-depth interviews with 10 Danish high-performance sports coaches. Results identified four classifying features that pave the way for the establishment of a typology consisting of three ideal types: (1) the elite-athlete coach; (2) the academic coach; and (3) the early......-starter coach. The findings are theorized throughWenger’s concept of paradigmatic pathways and Bourdieu’s concept of cultural capital. The study illuminates paradigmatic trajectories and conversions of cultural capital in high-performance sports coaching careers that may act as models for young athletes...