Full Text Available Abstract Background Research knowledge is commonly facilitated at conferences via oral presentations, poster presentations and workshops. Current literature exploring the efficacy of academic posters is however limited. The purpose of this initial study was to explore the perceptions of academic poster presentation, together with its benefits and limitations as an effective mechanism for academic knowledge transfer and contribute to the available academic data. Methods A survey was distributed to 88 delegates who presented academic posters at two Releasing Research and Enterprise Potential conferences in June 2007 and June 2008 at Bournemouth University. This survey addressed attitude and opinion items, together with their general experiences of poster presentations. Descriptive statistics were performed on the responses. Results A 39% return was achieved with the majority of respondents believing that posters are a good medium for transferring knowledge and a valid form of academic publication. Visual appeal was cited as more influential than subject content, with 94% agreeing that poster imagery is most likely to draw viewer's attention. Respondents also believed that posters must be accompanied by their author in order to effectively communicate the academic content. Conclusion This pilot study is the first to explore perceptions of the academic poster as a medium for knowledge transfer. Given that academic posters rely heavily on visual appeal and direct author interaction, the medium requires greater flexibility in their design to promote effective knowledge transfer. This paper introduces the concept of the IT-based 'MediaPoster' so as to address the issues raised within published literature and subsequently enhance knowledge-transfer within the field of academic medicine.
Lane, Joseph P.
The practice of technology transfer continues to evolve into a discipline. Efforts continue in the field of assistive technology (AT) to move technology-related prototypes, resulting from development in the academic sector, to product commercialization within the business sector. The article describes how technology transfer can be linked to…
Valache, C. M.
Full text: The paper presents a description of the Knowledge Transfer (KT) process implemented at Cernavoda NPP, its designing and implementation. It is underlined that applying a KT approach should improve the value of existing processes of the organization through: • Identifying business, operational and safety risks due to knowledge gaps, • Transfer of knowledge from the ageing workforce to the peers and/or the organization, • Continually learning from successes and failures of individual or teams, • Convert tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, • Improving operational and safety performance through creating both new knowledge and better access to existing knowledge. (author
Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana
firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to IJVs. We tested our theory with data from 199 IJVs in South Korea. We found that the willingness...... of parent firms to share knowledge is manifested in an increased capacity to articulate and codify knowledge and create opportunities to transfer this knowledge. Mediated by the effective use of organizational communication channels, articulation and codification capabilities have a significant impact...... on the transfer of knowledge. The creation of opportunities for face-to-face interactions between organizations also has an impact on knowledge transfer, but only when senders and receivers have similar products and technologies...
Full Text Available Background: Knowledge transfer is known as a core process in knowledge management. Its decent and influential function in organizations would result in regeneration and innovation of knowledge.Due to this importance, the most recent research in knowledge management has been inclined toward knowledge transfer concept. We aimed to investigate the most influencing contributing factors in knowledge transfer and knowledge sharing within the faculty members at Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Method: This investigation has been conducted with a qualitative approach using grounded theory. Data were collected using semi- structured interview with 17 faculty members of ten distinct departments of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The data has been transcribed and analyzed.Results: By carefully analyzing the interviews from 272 preliminary open codes after sequential analogies and induction, 54 concepts have been extracted that were categorized into one of eleven classes constituting the effective items and factors in knowledge transfer among faculty members,respectively. These categories could be placed into , non-communication factors and communication factors. The non-communication factors were knowledge actors (professors, organization (university, the knowledge, and surroundings. The communication factors are the factors that are formed in the dual relationships between the relevant factors.Conclusion: A decent knowledge flow in working groups and collaborative societies of faculty members within a department or through different university departments would lead to a better research and education management. This could also bring about some advantages: the research in each department falls in a well-defined, pre-missioned channel, avoiding scattered research works, and enhancing the training and research. The awareness of university senior managers about influencing contributing factors of knowledge transfer and their functions provide a
Sennanye, D.M.; Thugwane, S.J.; Rasweswe, M.A.
Knowledge management has become an important concept in the nuclear industry globally. This has been driven by the fact that new reactors are commissioned and some are decommissioned. Since most old experts are near retirement then there is a need to capture the nuclear knowledge and expertise and transfer it to the new generation. Knowledge transfer is one of the important building blocks of knowledge management. Processes and strategies need to be developed in order to transfer this knowledge. South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has established a document to address strategies that can be used to close the knowledge gap between the young less experienced and experts in the field. This action will help the young generation to participate in knowledge management. The major challenges will be the willingness of the experts to share and making sure that all knowledge is captured, stored and kept up to date. The paper presents the SAYNPS point of view with regard to knowledge transfer. (authors)
Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana
firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to IJVs. We tested our theory with data from 199 IJVs in South Korea. We found that the willingness...
Ulhøi, John Parm; Neergaard, Helle; Bjerregaard, Toke
Using theory on technology transfer and on trust and an indepth study of nine university departments and nineteen science-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the authors explore the nature and direction of knowledge flows during university-industry R&D collaboration. More specifically......, they examine the nature and direction of R&D technological knowledge transfer in collaborations between universities and science-based SMEs and the primary mechanisms regulating such collaborations. The findings suggest that these collaborations are highly recursive processes of technological knowledge...
Biscotti, Dina Louise
Autonomy is a social product. Although some might view autonomy as the absence of social interference in individual action, it is in fact produced through social institutions. It enables social actors to act; it is the justification for the allocation of enormous public resources into institutions classified as "public" or "nonprofit;" it can lead to innovation; and, significantly, it is key to the public acceptance of new technologies. In this dissertation, I analyze the social construction of autonomy for academic science in U.S. university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations. University-industry relationships (UIRs) are a site of concern about the influence of commercial interests on academic science. Agricultural biotechnology is a contentious technology that has prompted questions about the ecological and public health implications of genetically-modified plants and animals. It has also spurred awareness of the industrialization of agriculture and accelerating corporate control of the global food system. Through analysis of in-depth interviews with over 200 scientists and administrators from nine U.S. research universities and thirty agricultural biotechnology companies, I find that both the academy and industry have a vested interest in the social construction of the academy as an autonomous space from which claims to objective, disinterested scientific knowledge can be made. These claims influence government regulation, as well as grower and public acceptance of agricultural biotechnology products. I argue that the social production of autonomy for academic science can be observed in narratives and practices related to: (1) the framing of when, how and why academic scientists collaborate with industry, (2) the meanings ascribed to and the uses deemed appropriate for industry monies in academic research, and (3) the dissemination of research results into the public domain through publications and patents. These narratives and practices
Full text: Institutions of higher education and universities have been at the forefront of intergenerational knowledge transfer. Their role has gone through evolution and several ideas of the university co-exist. Factors like the squeeze on public funding of higher education across nations, exhortation by governments to value work-based learning as a part of higher education and demand for graduates ready to start working immediately on joining a workplace, are making it necessary to further evolve the classical approach towards intergenerational knowledge transfer. The paper presents a framework that has been evolved in India to meet the requirements of intergenerational knowledge transfer. It essentially integrates a workplace and a university in a single entity similar to the practice in medical education. (author
Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation...
Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation......, were used more intensively. Further, the degree of stickiness was significantly lower in the case of prior trust-based relations....
Since the 1980 passage of the US Bayh-Dole Act, academic technology transfer has gained profile globally as a key component of knowledge-driven economic development. Research universities are seen as key contributors. In this article, focusing on the USA and drawing on over twenty years of experience in the field of academic technology transfer in…
Knowledge Management Issues in Academic Libraries in Imo State, Nigeria. ... Information Technologist (The) ... It discussed these issues - types of knowledge and knowledge management practices; the technologies and mechanisms of acquiring; creating; sharing, transferring etc knowledge in the present day knowledge ...
Gabrys, Bogdan; Musial-Gabrys, Katarzyna; Roach, Jim; Innovation through Knowledge Transfer InnovationKT-2012
Across the world there is growing awareness of the importance of innovation and knowledge transfer. Innovation in the sense of generating new knowledge and making better use of existing knowledge, coupled with knowledge transfer and sharing paradigms, have never been more relevant to the universities, industry, commerce and the third sector. This volume represents the proceedings of the Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012 Conference which formed an excellent opportunity to disseminate, share and discuss the impact of innovation, knowledge sharing, enterprise and entrepreneurship. The volume contains papers presented at a Workshop on ‘The Meta Transfer of Knowledge: Challenges in the Transfer of Knowledge in Industry’, others from thematic sessions on ‘Next-Practice in University Based Open Innovation’, ‘Social Innovation and Related Paradigms’, ‘Engagement with Industry and Commerce’ and ‘Knowledge Exchange’. All papers were thoroughly reviewed by referees knowledgeable in...
Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum
Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....
Full Text Available Knowledge is a vital intangible asset for any organization and cannot be valued exactly due its special form of materialization. Although we have this drawback, a scientifically established value should be used in order to measure the performance of knowledge holders. A correct valuation helps to know the worth of assets offered in exploitation. Exploitation of this resource could be done in several different ways, but integration in knowledge networks seems to generate best efficiency ratio. Networks offer the possibility to change information, to obtain new information, to build further ideas arose from network partners or to develop together new ideas. Thus, networks assure conditions to optimize the members’ knowledge portfolios. Optimization of knowledge usage creates benefits for network members. These benefits could be profits (if members are private companies or social welfare (if members are looking after collective purposes. Taxonomy of knowledge networks is diverse, permitting an adaptation to the needs of members. Networks permit a large scale of heterogeneity. Since an important part of new knowledge creating costs is covered from public budgetary resources, a special development is recorded at those networks which are exclusively or partly organized in the public sector or benefit by participation from the public sector.
The genre of academic writing is discipline dependent, so that neither specialists in academic writing nor practising academics in a discipline can, independently of each other, provide students with the necessary help to develop the ability to write in their academic disciplines. Furthermore, the rules are largely tacit, i.e. they are not…
van der Sanden, J.A.T.J.M.
This dissertation focuses on the transfer of knowledge about sex and gender from academic research contexts to different societal domains in an effort to acquire a better understanding of how these knowledge transfer processes take place and to gain insight in the factors that impact the integration
Mudambi, Ram; Piscitello, Lucia; Rabbiosi, Larissa
It is now well recognized that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are differentiated networks wherein subsidiaries vary in terms of their ability to create new knowledge and competencies for their parent groups. In much of this theory, it is taken for granted that subsidiary innovativeness has...... a positive correlation with the extent of reverse knowledge transfers to the parent MNE. Relying on the headquarters-subsidiary view of the MNE, we argue that, beyond a point, increasing subsidiary innovativeness will be associated with lower reverse knowledge transfers. Further, we argue...... that this relationship is sensitive to the subsidiary entry mode. Using data from a sample of 293 Italian subsidiaries, we find strong support for our hypotheses. In particular, our results confirm that the effect of subsidiary innovativeness on reverse knowledge transfers displays an inverted-U shape...
Dao, Li; Napier, Nancy
This paper examines micro dynamic aspects of knowledge sharing and learning in international joint venture settings. Learning of expatriate and local managers appears far more complex and mutually dependent than conventionally speculated in existing literature. The paper proposes that the effect...... and outcome of knowledge transfer from joint venture parents and learning in IJVs are dependent on how individual managers (including both expatriate and local) learn, perceive their learning roles, and enact a learning agenda. Empirical evidence is drawn from two cases of international joint ventures between...
When you ask people whether investment in basic science is worth it, the answer you get is an overwhelming ‘yes’… followed by a pause, and then a question: ‘what’s the immediate benefit?’ Of course we have answers. Basic research at CERN expands the pool of human knowledge. It inspires the young, and provides an important impetus to scientific and technical education. Applications of CERN technology are to be found in many domains, and the results of basic science provide the seeds for applied research. All this is clear and well established, but we can always do more, and that’s why I was particularly impressed with an event that took place at CERN last week. Education and innovation are core missions for CERN, and they came together last week when 17 students from universities in Finland, Greece and Italy presented the results of their five-month challenge-based innovation course (CBI). Developed by CERN along with Aa...
Purpose: This paper seeks to consider whether academic writing should be regarded as knowledge in the making and why all such writing should be continuously challenged. Design/methodology/approach: The approach is that of a reflective discussion which considers academic writing in context, knowledge, reflectiveness and helping others to contest…
Tran, Thien Anh
Academic knowledge and technology transfer has been growing in importance both in academic research and practice. A critical question in managing this activity is how to evaluate its effectiveness. The literature shows an increasing number of studies done to address this question; however, it also reveals important gaps that need more research.…
Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix
Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…
Clarice Secches Kogut
Full Text Available The mainstream literature has focused on knowledge transfers from parent companies to subsidiaries, while paying less attention to knowledge created at the subsidiary level. But there is a growing trend to knowledge co-creation, and the responsibility of knowledge creation has shifted from headquarters to the corporation as a whole and its subsidiaries. Using a thorough systematic review over a 15-year period in top tier journals, this thematic analysis finds interesting literature gaps to be filled and proposes a theoretical framework that conceptualizes the reverse knowledge transfer as a complex process; moreover, we offer a detailed view on the phenomenon of reverse knowledge transfer, seeking to contribute to a better understanding of it and providing a basis to assist corporate managers in global strategic planning and knowledge management and scholars in future academic research in the field.
Full Text Available This study investigated what motivates Brazilian academic researchers to get involved in University-Industry Technology Transfer (UITT and deterrents to contributing to this process. The research relied on interviews with experienced academic scientists and managers from four universities in Brazil. Determination, persistence and entrepreneurship, related to motivational types Self-direction and Stimulation, were prominent. Hedonism, Achievement and Power - highlighting a shift in their professional identity - were also observed. Universalism type involved opening career opportunities, awakening and maintaining the interest of students. The major motivational goals were: generate resources, solve problems, professional challenge, personal gains, personal gratification, academic prestige, competition, and solving problems of society. Factors that discouraged researchers were: time required for UITT, lack of incentive, innovation environment, and fear of contravening university rules, among others. Knowledge of motivational profiles of academic scientists favors the development of incentive policies and programs for UITT, helping to attract and retain qualified researchers at Brazilian universities.
Rosman, Benjamin S
Full Text Available , and Behavior Transfer in Autonomous Robots, AAAI 2014 Fall Symposium Series, 13-15 November 2014 Behavioural Domain Knowledge Transfer for Autonomous Agents Benjamin Rosman Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems Modelling and Digital Science Council...
Indigenous knowledge transfer is becoming an increasingly important issue in the development fraternity as development practitioners seek answers to develop indigenous communities. This article reports on the findings of a study that was aimed at establishing how indigenous knowledge can be preserved and transferred ...
Riis, Jens Ove; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Madsen, Erik Skov
of the transfer process, and a distinction between the sending and the receiving organizational unit. A method for capturing the tacit knowledge embedded in a production job has been developed and tested. The framework and the method will provide a basis for preparing a master plan for knowledge transfer......Empirical studies in three industrial companies have revealed that even companies with many years of experience in production transfer tend to focus attention on planning the physical transfer and on the explicit knowledge associated with normal production. They are uncertain about capturing, trans...
Laursen, Keld; Moreira, Solon; Markus, Arjan
from the widely accepted view that distant, externally-developed knowledge is difficult to incorporate into the focal firm?s own production. We suggest that high levels of intrafirm network diversity, tie strength, and network density are essential for a diversity of knowledge inputs, knowledge...
The Knowledge Transfer group is now offering a half-day course that will give an introduction to intellectual property, contracts for knowledge transfer, and projects involving industry and other external partners. The purpose of the course is to give the essential information about how one can secure ownership of inventions and to provide information on legal and contractual considerations when transferring knowledge and technology or when doing collaborative R&D. The course will also highlight some common pitfalls that should be avoided to increase the chances of successfully transferring knowledge and technology. In addition, the course will involve examples of real projects and challenges. The first session will take place the 19 May 2014. To enroll, please follow this link: “Introduction to knowledge transfer tools”.
and support organizational learning environment, is positively related to the degree ofknowledge transfer to the subsidiary. Moreover, the higher degree of knowledge transfer isexpected when human resource management practices are applied as an integrated system ofinterdependent practices. Hypotheses derived...... from these arguments are tested on the data from 92subsidiaries of Danish multinational corporations located in 11 countries.Key words: knowledge transfer, multintional corporations, HRM, complementarity...
Mantagaris, E. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)
Youth engagement is a key component of the work of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) as it collaborates with Canadians to implement Adaptive Phased Management (APM), Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. Knowledge transfer is an important aspect of APM implementation, which will span several decades and will need to be flexible enough to adjust to changing societal values and new information. By engaging youth, the NWMO is putting in place mechanisms for ongoing societal learning and capacity building, so that future generations will be well-equipped to make decisions and participate in future dialogues on APM. The NWMO convened a Youth Roundtable, comprised of 18- to 25-year-olds with a diversity of backgrounds and experience, to seek advice on the best approaches to engaging youth on this topic. In May 2009, the Roundtable presented its recommendations to the NWMO and its Advisory Council, providing valuable guidance on: development of dynamic messages and communications materials that will resonate with young people; use of new technologies and social media to engage youth where they are already connecting and conversing; and a range of activities to engage youth through the educational system and in their communities. The NWMO has begun to implement many of the Youth Roundtable recommendations and is developing longer-term implementation plans, including a framework for education and outreach to youth. Through its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program, the NWMO is laying the foundation for greater science and technology literacy and enhanced community engagement among young Canadians. Additionally, the NWMO is working with Aboriginal peoples to develop strategies for further engagement of Aboriginal youth, as part of the organization's ongoing collaborative work with Aboriginal peoples that could be affected by the implementation of APM. Youth engagement will continue to be a NWMO priority moving
Youth engagement is a key component of the work of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) as it collaborates with Canadians to implement Adaptive Phased Management (APM), Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. Knowledge transfer is an important aspect of APM implementation, which will span several decades and will need to be flexible enough to adjust to changing societal values and new information. By engaging youth, the NWMO is putting in place mechanisms for ongoing societal learning and capacity building, so that future generations will be well-equipped to make decisions and participate in future dialogues on APM. The NWMO convened a Youth Roundtable, comprised of 18- to 25-year-olds with a diversity of backgrounds and experience, to seek advice on the best approaches to engaging youth on this topic. In May 2009, the Roundtable presented its recommendations to the NWMO and its Advisory Council, providing valuable guidance on: development of dynamic messages and communications materials that will resonate with young people; use of new technologies and social media to engage youth where they are already connecting and conversing; and a range of activities to engage youth through the educational system and in their communities. The NWMO has begun to implement many of the Youth Roundtable recommendations and is developing longer-term implementation plans, including a framework for education and outreach to youth. Through its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program, the NWMO is laying the foundation for greater science and technology literacy and enhanced community engagement among young Canadians. Additionally, the NWMO is working with Aboriginal peoples to develop strategies for further engagement of Aboriginal youth, as part of the organization's ongoing collaborative work with Aboriginal peoples that could be affected by the implementation of APM. Youth engagement will continue to be a NWMO priority moving
Søberg, Peder Veng
Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can....... A proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts...... promote different learning preferences and possibly complementarities may exist between these. Furthermore, double loop learning is not required for beneficial reverse knowledge transfer....
Madsen, Erik Skov
This paper is built around eight longitudinal case studies of knowledge transfer in manufacturing relocation. The paper introduces a model designed to identify knowledge in relation to four task situations on the shop floor in a manufacturing environment. Explicit and tacit knowledge are introduced...... and the paper suggests how the transfer of tacit knowledge, in particular, can be improved. The paper discusses two dramatic shifts in organizational settings, i.e. from operations management to project management in the sending unit before a transfer and the reverse in the receiving unit after relocation...
Lah Salasiah Che
Full Text Available Local knowledge (LK basically refers to the knowledge that people in a given community have developed over time, and continues to develop, through practices and based on experiences. Local beliefs pertaining to ilmu, a central concept in Malay culture that refers to knowledge, is essential among the traditional healers. The vast repository of knowledge and its relevance to locality and local situation makes the conservation of LK a necessity.However, due to the dominance of modern knowledge, diminished inter-generational knowledge transfer has led to LK being threatened with extinction. The fact that LK is practiced by only a few these days could be due to lack of knowledge transfer to the younger generations from the traditional healers who are knowledgeable in the communities. The common transfer mode of local knowledge, usually via words of mouth, may not be sustainable because the LK could vanish when knowledgeable elders die before it is transferred or during resettlements of individuals or communities. The need to conserve LK through knowledge transfer is also pertinent for the continued sustenance of their culture by recognizing, protecting and enforcing the rights of local communities to have continued access to biological resources as well as by protecting their LK, acquired over thousand of years of experimentation and experience, about the uses of these biological resources in traditional healing. Therefore, it is important to have a governance framework to effectively protect this LK of the local communities for the continued sustenance of their culture. This conceptual paper attempts to highlight the significance of conserving LK in traditional healing via effective knowledge transfer method, which should thereafter be translated into a working governance framework that protects the knowledge as well as the holders of such knowledge.
Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne; Pei, Rong
Purpose – Knowledge often is the fundament for strategic competitive advantage. Thus, it is highly relevant to understand better how knowledge is transferred from one generation to the next in family businesses. The purpose of this paper is to link the competitive advantage realisation in family...... businesses to the success of transferring strategically valuable knowledge in different business environments to the next generation. Design/methodology/approach – Building on the contingency model of family business succession (Royer et al., 2008) knowledge transfer in family businesses from different...... cultures is investigated in this paper. From a resource-oriented and transaction cost inspired perspective two family businesses with a similar industry background from China and Europe are compared regarding knowledge transfer in the context of family firm succession taking into account the respective...
Hellström, Tomas; Husted, Kenneth
This paper argues that knowledge mapping may provide a fruitful avenue for intellectual capitalmanagement in academic environments such as university departments. However, while some researchhas been conducted on knowledge mapping and intellectual capital management in the public sector...... reflect of the uses of knowledge mapping at their departments and institutes. Finally a number ofsuggestions are made as to the rationale and conduct of knowledge mapping in academe.Keywords: Knowledge mapping, academic, intellectual capital management, focus group, researchmanagement...
Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne; Pei, Rong
of industry-specific knowledge showing over time (Boyd & Royer, 2012). The focus of the current study is to gain more insight into long-lived family business cases by taking an additional example from the Chinese context and hereby comparing which resources and knowledge types can be suggested to be relevant......Knowledge often is the fundament for strategic competitive advantage. Thus, it is highly relevant to understand better how knowledge is transferred from one generation to the next in family businesses. Building on the contingency model of family business succession (Royer, Simons, Boyd & Rafferty......, 2008) knowledge transfer in family businesses from different cultures is investigated in this paper. From a resource-oriented perspective two family businesses with a similar industry background from China and Europe are compared regarding knowledge transfer in the context of family firm succession...
Objectives: This article reports on an exploratory study undertaken to ascertain how knowledge is created and transferred amongst post-graduate (PG students, using the knowledge (socialisation, externalisation, combination, internalisation [SECI] spiral model. Method: After reviewing relevant literature, a personally administered standardised questionnaire was used to collect data from a convenience sample of PG students in the School of Management, IT and Governance at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The data was analysed to determine if it fit the model based on the four modes of knowledge conversion. Results: Although the School of Management, IT and Governance has mechanisms in place to facilitate knowledge creation and transfer, it nevertheless tends to focus on the four modes of knowledge conversion to varying degrees. Conclusion: The study confirmed that PG students utilise the ‘socialisation’ and ‘externalisation’ modes of knowledge conversion comprehensively; ‘internalisation’ plays a significant role in their knowledge creation and transfer activities and whilst ‘combination’ is utilised to a lesser extent, it still plays a role in PG students’ knowledge creation and transfer activities. PG students also have ‘space’ that allows them to bring hunches, thoughts, notions, intuition or tacit knowledge into reality. Trust and dedication are common amongst PG students. With socialisation and externalisation so high, PG students are aware of each other’s capabilities and competencies, and trust each other enough to share knowledge.
Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne; Pei, Rong
Knowledge often is the fundament for strategic competitive advantage. Thus, it is highly relevant to understand better how knowledge is transferred from one generation to the next in family businesses. Building on the contingency model of family business succession (Royer, Simons, Boyd & Rafferty...... taking into account the respective transaction atmosphere. For the European family business from the Danish-German border region twelve successions were investigated in a former study: Access to experiential knowledge was found to be a driver of competitive advantage with a shift towards the relevance......, 2008) knowledge transfer in family businesses from different cultures is investigated in this paper. From a resource-oriented perspective two family businesses with a similar industry background from China and Europe are compared regarding knowledge transfer in the context of family firm succession...
Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne; Pei, Rong
Knowledge often is the fundament for strategic competitive advantage. Thus, it is highly relevant to understand better how knowledge is transferred from one generation to the next in family businesses. Building on the contingency model of family business succession (Royer, Simons, Boyd & Rafferty...... taking into account the respective transaction atmosphere. For the European family business from the Danish-German border region twelve successions were investigated in a former study: Access to experiential knowledge was found to be a driver of competitive advantage with a shift towards the relevance......, 2008) knowledge transfer in different cultures is investigated in this paper. From a resource-oriented perspective two family businesses with a similar industry background from China and Europe are compared regarding education processes and knowledge transfer in the context of family firm succession...
Full Text Available Background: The skill shortages, hyper-competitive economic environments and untapped economies have created a great deal of focus on knowledge. Thus, continuously creating and transferring knowledge is critical for every organisation. Objectives: This article reports on an exploratory study undertaken to ascertain how knowledge is created and transferred amongst post-graduate (PG students, using the knowledge (socialisation, externalisation, combination, internalisation [SECI] spiral model. Method: After reviewing relevant literature, a personally administered standardised questionnaire was used to collect data from a convenience sample of PG students in the School of Management, IT and Governance at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The data was analysed to determine if it fit the model based on the four modes of knowledge conversion. Results: Although the School of Management, IT and Governance has mechanisms in place to facilitate knowledge creation and transfer, it nevertheless tends to focus on the four modes of knowledge conversion to varying degrees. Conclusion: The study confirmed that PG students utilise the ‘socialisation’ and ‘externalisation’ modes of knowledge conversion comprehensively; ‘internalisation’ plays a significant role in their knowledge creation and transfer activities and whilst ‘combination’ is utilised to a lesser extent, it still plays a role in PG students’ knowledge creation and transfer activities. PG students also have ‘space’ that allows them to bring hunches, thoughts, notions, intuition or tacit knowledge into reality. Trust and dedication are common amongst PG students. With socialisation and externalisation so high, PG students are aware of each other’s capabilities and competencies, and trust each other enough to share knowledge.
Clarence, Sherran; McKenna, Sioux
Much academic development work that is framed by academic literacies, especially that focused on writing, is concerned with disciplinary conventions and knowledges: conceptual, practical, and procedural. This paper argues, however, that academic literacies work tends to conflate literacy practices with disciplinary knowledge structures, thus…
Sharifirad, Gholam R.; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Jazini, Akram; Etemadi, Zinat S.
Background: Communication is the most important part of any educational process, the aim of which is to transfer or exchange ideas and thoughts. It would be provided appropriately if academic members had the communication skills. Considering the important role of academic members in the educational process, in this study, the knowledge, attitude and performance of academic members of School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were investigated with regard to effective communica...
Jensen, Per Anker; Chatzilazarou, Stamatia
Purpose: To investigate how knowledge that derives from operation and maintenance of buildings can be stored and transferred in order to be reused in a future building project? Design/methodology/approach: The paper is theoretically based on knowledge management with a particular focus on interde...
Malano, Rita Guadalupe
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to describe the experience of applying the software development agile philosophy on a System Engineering Academic Research and Development Project and to reflect on the impact on the Project itself and on the working group. The experience tries to test how this modality not only allows a flexible Project planning but also favors, from the early stages of its execution, the development of knowledge and competence. It also puts into consideration the heterogeneous profiles of the working group: researchers, professors, graduates and students on different stages of their academic training. The reflection, which comes from observing the dynamics of knowledge and skills acquisition during the first quarter of the Project's calendar, tries to highlight the observed synergies that occur among the members of the group where everyone learns from everyone, with a common purpose, and the results on knowledge and competence development, thus generating new ways to transfer learning, new ways to acquire knowledge or to improve existing one.
Sajadirad, Solmaz; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann
Local knowledge of globally distributed subsidiaries may be a valuable source of innovation for headquarters. However, acquiring local knowledge of subsidiaries and transforming it into innovation performance remains a challenge for many multinational companies. In this paper, based on analysis...... of eleven multinational companies present in Danish industry, we characterize different approaches to the use of knowledge transfer objects (static vs. dynamic), and discuss the respective effect on innovation performance. A conceptual framework is proposed to classify such different approaches on the basis...
ABSTRACTThe paper supports the idea that organizations can institute various internal structures,policies and practices to overcome transfer barriers and facilitate the degree of knowledgetransfer. I discuss a framework for future empirical research on the relations betweenhuman resource manageme...... (HRM) practices and knowledge transfer in multinationalcorporations (MNC). The proposed model is empirically testable, includes a wider rangeof HRM practices and is not limited to one mode of foreign operations only....
ABSTRACTThe paper supports the idea that organizations can institute various internal structures,policies and practices to overcome transfer barriers and facilitate the degree of knowledgetransfer. I discuss a framework for future empirical research on the relations betweenhuman resource management...... (HRM) practices and knowledge transfer in multinationalcorporations (MNC). The proposed model is empirically testable, includes a wider rangeof HRM practices and is not limited to one mode of foreign operations only....
Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove
A key problem of manufacturing transfer remains that it is often difficult to explain what a company really knows, or why what it does really works. Still, practice indicates that attention is focused on planning the physical move and on the knowledge associated with normal operations. Introducti...... elements of dispatching capacity and places it in a model in a broader context....
Lester, Jaime; Leonard, Jeannie Brown; Mathias, David
Transfer students are a distinct population. Their characteristics lead to a qualitatively different student experience. Drawing on interviews with a cross-sectional sample of transfer students at George Mason University (GMU), this study focused on the ways transfer students perceived their social and academic engagement, on the ways they engaged…
Pike, William A.; May, Richard A.; Turner, Alan E.
Technology to support knowledge transfer and cooperative inquiry must offer its users the ability to effectively interpret knowledge structures produced by collaborators. Communicating the reasoning processes that underlie a finding is one method for enhancing interpretation, and can result in more effective evaluation and application of shared knowledge. In knowledge management tools, interpretation is aided by creating knowledge artifacts that can expose their provenance to scrutiny and that can be transformed into diverse representations that suit their consumers’ perspectives and preferences. We outline the information management needs of inquiring communities characterized by hypothesis generation tasks, and propose a model for communication, based in theories of hermeneutics, semiotics, and abduction, in which knowledge structures can be decomposed into the lower-level reasoning artifacts that produced them. We then present a proof-of-concept implementation for an environment to support the capture and communication of analytic products, with emphasis on the domain of intelligence analysis.
Full Text Available The knowledge transfer project called "Magnetic Valley" that was launched in 2009 is presented below. This project is funded by the Belgian government to investigate and develop products and services that will improve the socio-economic development in the area around the "Centre de Physique du Globe de l'IRM".
Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry
Along with increasing globalization, the management of international manufacturing networks is becoming increasingly important for industrial companies. This paper mainly focuses on the coordination of knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks. In this context, we propose the time...... these questions are discussed, based on which a frame of thought is proposed that managers can use in their quest for network competitiveness....
Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Madsen, Erik Skov
Purpose Even companies with many years of experience in production transfer tend to focus much attention on planning the physical move and on the explicit knowledge associated with normal production. At best management is aware of the challenges of capturing the tacit individual and collective...
Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum
Purpose: In the context of transferring manufacturing knowledge to new locations, whether this is to parties inside or outside the legal boundary of a firm, a key problem remains, that it is often difficult to explain what operators really know, or why what they do really works. Still most attent...
Heeager, Lise Tordrup; Nielsen, Peter Axel
Agile software practices are widely used in a great variety of organizations, and the shift from traditional plan-driven approaches entails a redefinition of processes in these organizations. Intrafirm knowledge transfer of agile software practices between projects is a key concern...
Zalewska-Kurek, Katarzyna; Egedova, Klaudia; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; Roosendaal, Hans E.
In this paper, we present a theory of strategic positioning that explains scientists’ strategic behavior in knowledge transfer from university to industry. The theory is based on the drivers strategic interdependence and organizational autonomy and entails three modes of behavior of scientists:
In response to the increasing need to balance the pressures of global integration and local responsiveness, foreign subsidiaries must play a prominent role in the creation of knowledge that is valuable to the MNE as a whole. In this context, a key managerial problem relates to the balance between...... coordination mechanisms and knowledge flows from the subsidiary to the parent company, known as reverse knowledge transfer. It is crucial to understand the interdependencies between subsidiary roles and key coordination mechanisms, such as subsidiary autonomy, personal and electronic-based coordination...... of these coordination configurations differs for various subsidiary roles....
Turcan, Romeo V.; Heslop, Ben
This paper aims to contribute towards the advancement of an efficient architecture of a single market for knowledge through the development of an integrative model of knowledge transfer. Within this aim, several points of departure can be singled out. One, the article builds on the call...... of the European Commission to improve the European market for KT between research institutions and industry. Two, various barriers exist that hinder efficient KT in Europe, especially in transition economies that recently joined the EU where the issues of restructuring higher education, building trust between...... business and academia, and implementing the respective legislature are enduring. The research objectives were to explore (i) the process of knowledge transfer in universities, including the nature of tensions, obstacles and incentives, (ii) the relationships between key stakeholders in the KT market...
Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa; Ferreira, Andreia
The paper analyses the Portuguese academics' perceptions about changes in their research activities and modes of knowledge production. Quantitative data gathered from an on-line national survey have been used to develop this analysis. Results reveal that the majority of academics declared that they were not involved in knowledge and technology…
Rabbiosi, Larissa; Santangelo, Grazia D.
Research on reverse knowledge transfer (RKT) has relegated subsidiary age to a control variable. However, to the extent that subsidiary age captures experience with host countries and internal networks, it reflects accumulated knowledge stocks and capabilities. We draw on organizational ecology...... theory to theorize that subsidiary age is an important determinant of parent company benefits from RKT and that RKT from older subsidiaries is viewed as more beneficial to the parent company than RKT from younger subsidiaries. This relationship is negatively moderated by the use of acquisitions...
Full Text Available Texts are an important way to share and transfer knowledge. In this paper we analyse the impact of a specific form of texts, so called “knowledge texts”, on the efficiency of knowledge transfer. The objective is to verify or reject several hypotheses on the relationships among the style of educational texts (standard or knowledge styles, learning outcomes (performance of the students after learning and subjective evaluation of conformity of working with individual styles of the texts. For this purpose, we carry out experiment with a homogeneous group of the students (n = 41 divided into an experimental group and a control group. We use statistical methods to process the results of the experiments; ability of the students to solve specific tasks and their opinions on readability and understandability of the texts subject to the time spent for learning. Even if we determine statistically significant relationships between the style of texts and accuracy of the problem solving in the experimental group only, the results allow us to improve the experiment and apply the methodology developed in a less structured branch than the Operational Research (Graph Theory is. The methodology is another benefit of the paper, because it can be applied independently on a particular domain.
The paper seeks to take a technical view of access to knowledge resources and highlights the role of libraries in facilitating access to knowledge in the academic environment. It analyzes the processes involved in organization and retrieval of knowledge resources, which encompasses collection building, organization of ...
Full text: The fast decrease of coal, oil and natural gas as energy resources is pushing the world towards the use of nuclear energy. The expectation of growth in the nuclear field seems to be a great challenge -specially- in developing countries which are in hard need of acquiring nuclear knowledge and nuclear technology as well. In this situation, various factors would have great influence on the implementation of nuclear projects -in particular- for electricity generation. As a matter of fact, it is essential for each country to have its own strategy for national development. In practice, the implementation of such a strategy would need the collective efforts of specialized and efficient human resources for executing the tasks. This would need cooperation with, and/or technical aid of developed countries and international organizations. There are various parameters that may contribute in the national development in a country, the most important of which are the development in science and technology. Then, the industrial development becomes essential for the nuclear industry. In order to achieve this, the information acquiring and knowledge transfer are fundamental tools. The partnership between developed and developing countries would mean cooperation and aid directed to nuclear technology and knowledge transfer; and specialized technical training in the nuclear industry. Supplier countries might need to use high technology in implementing nuclear safeguards commitments, but with minimum side effects. This paper investigates some factors that may have influence on transferring peaceful uses of nuclear knowledge and/or nuclear technology; such as establishing and sustaining the national nuclear workforce, building of public understanding and public acceptance of nuclear science and technology. Also, it discusses the importance of activating and strengthening the international regime of partnership for the welfare and prosperity of human kind; with specific
Grigorov, Ivo; Bayliss-Brown, Georgia; Murphy, David; Thøgersen, Thomas; Mariani, Patrizio
Research funders are increasingly concerned with measurable socio-economic impact of investment in research, and on increasingly shorter timescales. Innovation, and "open innovation" are the policy priorities of the moment and optimising the flow of ideas along the lab-2-market spectrum is essential for re-use of results, fuelling open innovation, and boosting socio-economic impact or public funded research. The presentation showcases two complimentary strategies that Project Managers can employ pre- and/or post-award in order to optimise the exploitation and impact of research project: passive and active knowledge transfer. Passive Knowledge Transfer relies on maximum disclosure of research output (other than commercially exploitable research via patents and other IPR) in the interest of optimal reproducibility, independent validation and re-use by both academic and non-academic users, without necessarily targeting specific users. Tools of the trade include standard public & academic dissemination means (research articles, online media publications, newsletters, generic policy briefs). Additional transparency of the research workflow can be achieved by integrating "open science" (open notebooks, open data, open research software and open access to research publications) as well as Virtual Research Environments (VREs) in the methodology of the proposed work. Ensuring that the proposal partners are suitably trained in best practices of open science, makes proposal grant more competitive at evaluation and the resulting maximum access to research outputs does contribute to better return on investment for funders (Beagrie 2016) and economic growth objectives of public s e.g. Blue Growth (Houghton & Swan 2011, Marine Knowledge 2020 Roadmap). Active Knowledge Transfer, or the pro-active translation of research into policy or commercial context, is the more classical and better known approach (also referred to as extension services, or researchers providing advice e.g. to
Journal for Language Teaching ... approaches to academic literacies development; the role of collaborative partnerships between academic literacies and disciplinary specialists; and how to shift from tacit knowledge of the norms and conventions of disciplines to explicit teaching of these norms and conventions. Drawing ...
Lee, Young S.; Schottenfeld, Matthew A.
Collaboration has become a core competency of the 21st century workforce. Thus, the need of collaboration is reshaping the academic library in higher education to produce competent future workforce. To encourage collaboration in the academic library, knowledge commons that integrate technology to infrastructure and system furniture are introduced.…
Gumport, Patricia J.; Snydman, Stuart K.
A case study of San Jose State University examined how changes in what counts as knowledge are reflected in universities' academic structure. Found that the multidimensionality of academic structure, with bureaucratic (departmental) structure relatively fixed and programmatic (degree program) structure relatively open, enables universities to…
The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate…
This paper reports on an ongoing programme to develop new academic journal reviewers through mentoring. It analyses data from correspondence between experienced reviewer/mentors and new reviewer/mentees at an online journal. With the overlying objective of improving internal review quality, the mentoring programme has been initiated to raise…
Hellström, Tomas; Husted, Kenneth
This paper argues that knowledge mapping may provide a fruitful avenue for intellectual capitalmanagement in academic environments such as university departments. However, while some researchhas been conducted on knowledge mapping and intellectual capital management in the public sector,the unive......This paper argues that knowledge mapping may provide a fruitful avenue for intellectual capitalmanagement in academic environments such as university departments. However, while some researchhas been conducted on knowledge mapping and intellectual capital management in the public sector......,the university has so far not been directly considered for this type of management. The paper initiallyreviews the functions and techniques of knowledge mapping and assesses these in the light of academicdemands. Secondly, the result of a focus group study is presented, where academic leaders were askedto...
Plonka, Laura; Sharp, Helen; van der Linden, Janet
Whilst knowledge transfer is one of the most widely-claimed benefits of pair programming, little is known about how knowledge transfer is achieved in this setting. This is particularly pertinent for novice−expert constellations, but knowledge transfer takes place to some degree in all constellati...
Target population: All CERN staff and fellows Prerequisites: None Objectives: Get an overview of different forms of knowledge transfer Learn about available tools to: • Facilitate knowledge and technology transfer • Securing ownership and recognition for knowledge and technology Understand what services and support are available to the CERN community from the KT group Content: Why CERN engages in knowledge and technology transfer Modes of knowledge transfer and the general workflow of a knowledge transfer project Introduction to intellectual property with a focus on patents Overview of contracts for knowledge transfer and the basic structure and content of a typical contract Entrepreneurship and available support for starting a company Examples of knowledge transfer projects at CERN For more information, see the Training catalogue.
van Dijck, J.
This article argues that search engines in general, and Google Scholar in particular, have become significant co-producers of academic knowledge. Knowledge is not simply conveyed to users, but is co-produced by search engines’ ranking systems and profiling systems, none of which are open to the
Tumtuma, Chamnan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Yeamsang, Theerawat
The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand was created by research and development. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected via the following steps: a participatory workshop meeting, the formation of a team according to knowledge base, field study, brainstorming, group discussion, activities carried out…
Grigorov, Ivo; Dalmeier-Thiessen, Suenje
Beyond providing basic understanding of how our Blue Planet functions, flows and breathes, the collection of Earth & Marine Research disciplines are of major service to most of today's Societal Challenges: from Food Security and Sustainable Resource Management, to Renewable Energies, Climate Mitigation & Ecosystem Services and Hazards. Natural Resources are a key commodity in the long-term strategy of the EU Innovation Union(1), and better understanding of the natural process governing them, as well as science-based management are seen as a key area for stimulating future economic growth. Such potential places responsibility on research project managers to devise innovative methods to ensure effective transfer of new research to public and private sector users, and society at large. Open Science is about removing all barriers to full sphere basic research knowledge and outputs, not just the publishable part of research but also the data, the software code, and failed experiments. The concept is central to EU's Responsible Research and Innovation philosophy(2), and removing barriers to basic research measurably contributes to the EU's Blue Growth Agenda(3). Despite the potential of the internet age to deliver on that promise, only 50% of today's basic research is freely available(4). The talk will demonstrate how and why Open Science can be a first, passive but effective strategy for any research project to transfer knowledge to society by allowing access and dicoverability to the full sphere of new knowledge, not just the published outputs. Apart from contributing to economic growth, Open Science can also optimize collaboration, within academia, assist with better engagement of citizen scientists into the research process and co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as providing a solid ground for more sophisticated communication strategies and Ocean/Earth Literacy initiatives targeting policy makers and the public at large. (1)EC Digital Agenda
Insch, Gary S; McIntyre, Nancy; Dawley, David
Researchers have linked tacit knowledge to improved organizational performance, but research on how to measure tacit knowledge is scarce. In the present study, the authors proposed and empirically tested a model of tacit knowledge and an accompanying measurement scale of academic tacit knowledge. They present 6 hypotheses that support the proposed tacit knowledge model regarding the role of cognitive (self-motivation, self-organization); technical (individual task, institutional task); and social (task-related, general) skills. The authors tested these hypotheses with 542 responses to the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale, which included the respondents' grade point average-the performance variable. All 6 hypotheses were supported.
Van Dyk, Tobie
Full Text Available The present study examines the relationship between productive knowledge of collocations and academic literacy among first year students at North-West University. Participants were administered a collocation test, the items of which were selected from Nation’s (2006 word frequency bands, i.e. the 2000-word, 3000-word, 5000-word bands; and the Academic Word List (Coxhead, 2000. The scores from the collocation test were compared to those from the Test of Academic Literacy Levels (version administered in 2012. The results of this study indicate that, overall, knowledge of collocations is significantly correlated with academic literacy, which is also observed at each of the frequency bands from which the items were selected. These results support Nizonkiza’s (2014 findings that a significant correlation between mastery of collocations of words from the Academic Word List and academic literacy exists; which is extended here to words from other frequency bands. They also confirm previous findings that productive knowledge of collocations increases alongside overall proficiency (cf. Gitsaki, 1999; Bonk, 2001; Eyckmans et al., 2004; Boers et al., 2006; Nizonkiza, 2011; among others. This study therefore concludes that growth in productive knowledge of collocations may entail growth in academic literacy; suggesting that productive use of collocations is linked to academic literacy to a considerable extent. In light of these findings, teaching strategies aimed to assist first year students meet academic demands posed by higher education and avenues to explore for further research are discussed. Especially, we suggest adopting a productive oriented approach to teaching collocations, which we believe may prove useful.
Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai J.; Pedersen, Torben
Foreign subsidiaries in multinational corporations (MNCs) possess knowledge that has different sources (e.g., the firm itself or various sources in the environment). How such sources influence knowledge transfer is not well understood. Drawing on the "accommodation effect" from cognitive psychology......, the authors argue that accumulation of externally sourced knowledge in a subsidiary may reduce the value of transferring that subsidiary's knowledge to other parts of the MNC. The authors develop a parsimonious model of intrafirm knowledge transfer and test its predictions against a unique data set...... on subsidiary knowledge development that includes the sources of subsidiary knowledge and the extent of knowledge transfer to other MNC units. The authors show that a high level of externally sourced knowledge in a subsidiary is associated with a high level of knowledge transfer from that subsidiary only...
The study used an exploratory descriptive design and the appreciative inquiry framework underpinned data gathering and analysis. The data were collected using workshops, and the participants of the workshops shared their knowledge and experiences of IPECP, which were audio-recorded and analysed using thematic ...
McDevitt, Valerie Landrio; Mendez-Hinds, Joelle; Winwood, David; Nijhawan, Vinit; Sherer, Todd; Ritter, John F; Sanberg, Paul R
Academic technology transfer in its current form began with the passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980, which allowed universities to retain ownership of federally funded intellectual property. Since that time, a profession has evolved that has transformed how inventions arising in universities are treated, resulting in significant impact to US society. While there have been a number of articles highlighting benefits of technology transfer, now, more than at any other time since the Bayh-Dole Act was passed, the profession and the impacts of this groundbreaking legislation have come under intense scrutiny. This article serves as an examination of the many positive benefits and evolution, both financial and intrinsic, provided by academic invention and technology transfer, summarized in Table 1.
The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.
Neamţu Adina Claudia
Full Text Available The current economical evolution determines the improvement process of the employees that should be prepared as well as possible at all levels, so that they could accomplish the objectives of the organization in a world where the success depends on the capacity to supply quality, diversity, the satisfaction of the clients’ needs, optimal advantages and promptness. The easy access to information in the current world forces the universities to keep up to the requirements of the labour market and of the future graduates, to change into open, active, dynamic, emphatic spaces, in launching ramps for them, allowing the simulation of the roles the students will have as adults in the knowledge economy. In this context, the higher education institutions in Romania have understood that only by means of performance and competence we may reach the global domination of a category of complex situation, by mobilizing certain diverse resources (knowledge, practical abilities, social representations, values and attitudes. All of these may develop in the context of a university centre that understands that, next to the theory, the students’ practice is based on an integrated ensemble of knowledge, skills and attitudes that allow the subject, in front of a category of situations of adapting, solving problems and accomplishing projects.
Orendorff, Doug; Ramirez, Alex; Coakes, Elayne
The study of knowledge transfer (KT) has been proceeding in parallel but independently in health services and in business, presenting an opportunity for synergy and sharing. This paper uses a survey of 32 empirical KT studies with their 96 uniquely named determinants of KT success to identify ten unique determinants for horizontal knowledge transfer success. These determinants, the outcome measure of Knowledge Use, and separate explicit and tacit transfer flows constitute the KT Framework, extending the work of previous KT framework authors. Our Framework was validated through a case study of the transfer of clinical practice guideline knowledge between the cardiac teams of selected Ontario hospitals, using a survey of senders and receivers developed from the KT literature. The study findings were: 8 of 10 determinants were supported by the Successful Transfer Hospitals; and 4 of 10 determinants were found to a higher degree in the Successful than non-Successful transfer hospitals. Taken together, the results show substantive support for the KT Framework determinants, indicating aggregate support of 9 of these determinants, but not the 10th - Knowledge Complexity. The transfer of tacit knowledge was found to be related to the transfer of the explicit knowledge and expressed as the transfer or recreation of resource profile and internal process tacit knowledge, where this tacit transfer did not require interactions between Sender and Receiver. This study provides managers with the building blocks to assess and improve the success rates of their knowledge transfers.
Edler, Jakob; Fier, Hedie; Grimpe, Christoph
Despite the growing interest of scholars and policymakers to better understand the determinants for researchers in public science to transfer knowledge and technology to firms, little is known how temporary international mobility of scientists affects both their propensity to engage in knowledge...... and technology transfer (KTT) as well as the locus of such transfer. Based on a sample of more than 950 German academics from science and engineering faculties, we investigate how the duration and the frequency of scientists’ visits at research institutions outside their home country affect KTT activities. We...
Bakar, Muhamad Shahbani Abu; Jalil, Dzulkafli
The growth of Knowledge Economy has transformed human capital to be the vital asset in business organization of the 21st century. Arguably, due to its white-collar nature, knowledge-based industry is more favorable than traditional manufacturing business. However, over dependency on human capital can also be a major challenge as any workers will inevitably leave the company or retire. This situation will possibly create knowledge gap that may impact business continuity of the enterprise. Knowledge retention in the corporate environment has been of many research interests. Learning Management System (LMS) refers to the system that provides the delivery, assessment and management tools for an organization to handle its knowledge repository. By using the aspirations of a proven LMS implemented in an academic environment, this paper proposes LMS model that can be used to enable peer-to-peer knowledge capture and sharing in the knowledge-based organization. Cloud Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), referred to an ERP solution in the internet cloud environment was chosen as the domain knowledge. The complexity of the Cloud ERP business and its knowledge make it very vulnerable to the knowledge retention problem. This paper discusses how the company's essential knowledge can be retained using the LMS system derived from academic environment into the corporate model.
Turkan, Sultan; De Oliveira, Luciana C.; Lee, Okhee; Phelps, Geoffrey
Background/Context: The current research on teacher knowledge and teacher accountability falls short on information about what teacher knowledge base could guide preparation and accountability of the mainstream teachers for meeting the academic needs of ELLs. Most recently, research on specialized knowledge for teaching has offered ways to…
Hutchison, Randolph E.
The dynamic act of knowledge transfer, or the connection of a student's prior knowledge to features of a new problem, could be considered one of the primary goals of education. Yet studies highlight more instances of failure than success. This dissertation focuses on how knowledge transfer takes place during individual problem solving, in…
Purpose: The paper intends to identify the causes or gaps in transfer of managerial knowledge between academia and practitioners and to develop a framework that overcomes the gaps through knowledge management, information technology and human resource practices. The paper aims to suggest a strategic approach based on the knowledge transfer cycle.…
Cope, Bill; Magee, Liam
This book addresses the question of how knowledge is currently documented, and may soon be documented in the context of what it calls 'semantic publishing'. This takes two forms: a more narrowly and technically defined 'semantic web'; as well as a broader notion of semantic publishing. This book examines the ways in which knowledge is represented in journal articles and books. By contrast, it goes on to explore the potential impacts of semantic publishing on academic research and authorship. It sets this in the context of changing knowledge ecologies: the way research is done; the way knowledg
Full Text Available The implementation of an efficient university knowledge management system involves the de-velopment of several software tools that assist the decision making process for the three main activities of a university: teaching, research, and management. Artificial intelligence provides a variety of techniques that can be used by such tools: machine learning, data mining, text mining, knowledge based systems, expert systems, case-based reasoning, decision support systems, intelligent agents etc. In this paper it is proposed a generic structure of a university knowledge management system, and it is presented an expert system, ACDI_UPG, developed for academic research activity evaluation, that can be used as a decision support tool by the university knowledge management system for planning future research activities according to the main objectives of the university and of the national / international academic research funding organizations.
A survey of Australian academic reference librarians was conducted as part of an international collaboration seeking to identify the most important knowledge, skills and attributes now and for the next ten years. Librarians working in or managing reference-related services at university and vocational education and training institutions…
Alanzi, Khalid A.; Alfraih, Mishari M.
Purpose: This quantitative study aims to examine the impact of accumulated knowledge of accounting on the academic performance of Cost Accounting students. Design/methodology/approach The sample consisted of 89 students enrolled in the Accounting program run by a business college in Kuwait during 2015. Correlation and linear least squares…
It concluded and recommended that existing information technological infrastructure should be upgraded, including organization‟s intranet and extranet to facilitate the capturing, organizing, storage and sharing of both explicit and tacit knowledge for the overall progress and development of academic libraries as well as its ...
Ramayah, T; Yeap, Jasmine A L; Ignatius, Joshua
There is a belief that academics tend to hold on tightly to their knowledge and intellectual resources. However, not much effort has been put into the creation of a valid and reliable instrument to measure knowledge sharing behavior among the academics. To apply and validate the Knowledge Sharing Behavior Scale (KSBS) as a measure of knowledge sharing behavior within the academic community. Respondents (N = 447) were academics from arts and science streams in 10 local, public universities in Malaysia. Data were collected using the 28-item KSBS that assessed four dimensions of knowledge sharing behavior namely written contributions, organizational communications, personal interactions, and communities of practice. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the items loaded on the dimension constructs that they were supposed to represent, thus proving construct validity. A within-factor analysis revealed that each set of items representing their intended dimension loaded on only one construct, therefore establishing convergent validity. All four dimensions were not perfectly correlated with each other or organizational citizenship behavior, thereby proving discriminant validity. However, all four dimensions correlated with organizational commitment, thus confirming predictive validity. Furthermore, all four factors correlated with both tacit and explicit sharing, which confirmed their concurrent validity. All measures also possessed sufficient reliability (α > .70). The KSBS is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to formally assess the types of knowledge artifacts residing among academics and the degree of knowledge sharing in relation to those artifacts. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bayliss-Brown, Georgia; Cheallachaín, Cliona Ní
Knowledge transfer, in its most inherent form, can be tracked back to the earliest phase of the Neolithic Revolution, 10,000 years ago, at a time when innovators shared their thoughts on crop cultivation and livestock farming (Bellwood, 2004). Not to be mistaken for science transfer - the export of modern science to non-scientific audiences - it was in the 1960s, that modern knowledge transfer was initiated, when reporting research achievements shifted towards having institutional and political agendas (Lipphardt & Ludwig, 2011). Albeit that the economic contribution of scientific research has been scrutinised for decades; today, there is a pronounced need for the evaluation of its social, cultural and ecological impact. To have impact, it is essential that scientific knowledge is clear and accessible, as well as robust and credible, so that it can be successfully transferred and applied by those identifying solutions for today's societal and environmental challenges. This phenomenon is receiving growing academic interest, where publications including "knowledge transfer" in the title have increased near exponentially for 60 years. Furthermore, we are seeing a definite shift towards embedding a mission of knowledge transfer in Public Research Organisations. This new approach is rewarding researchers whom deliver on all three institutional missions: teaching, research and knowledge transfer. In addition, the European Commission (2008) recommends that "knowledge transfer between universities and industry is made a permanent political and operational priority" and that "sufficient resources and incentives [be] available to public research organisations and their staff to engage in knowledge transfer activities". It is also anticipated that funding agencies will soon make pathways-to-impact statements, also known as knowledge transfer plans, a mandatory requirement of all project proposals. AquaTT is a leader in scientific knowledge management, including knowledge
Zaidi, Mohd Azian; Baharuddin, Mohd Nurfaisal; Bahardin, Nur Fadhilah; Yasin, Mohd Fadzil Mat; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Deraman, Rafikullah
The aims of this paper is to identify a key dimension of knowledge transfer component to improve construction organization performance. It investigates the effectiveness of present knowledge transfer practices currently adopted by the Malaysian construction organizations and examines the relationship between knowledge transfer factors and organizational factors. A survey among 151 respondents including a different contractor registration grade was employed for the study. The survey shows that a seven-teen (17) factors known as creating shared awareness for information sharing, communication, personal skills,individual attitude,training, organizational culture, information technology,motivation, monitoring and supervision, service quality,information accessibility, information supply, socialization process,knowledge tools, coaching and monitoring, staff briefing and information sharing were identify as a key dimension for knowledge transfer success. This finding suggest that through improvement of each factor, the recognition of the whole strategic knowledge transfer process can be increase thus helping to strengthen the Malaysian construction organization for competitive advantages.
Sharifirad, Gholam R; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Jazini, Akram; Etemadi, Zinat S
Communication is the most important part of any educational process, the aim of which is to transfer or exchange ideas and thoughts. It would be provided appropriately if academic members had the communication skills. Considering the important role of academic members in the educational process, in this study, the knowledge, attitude and performance of academic members of School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were investigated with regard to effective communication skills. In this descriptive-analytic study, all academic members of the School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were studied during the second academic semester of 2006-2007. The data were collected by a valid and reliable three-part questionnaire including knowledge (8 questions and maximum score of 8), attitude (31 questions and maximum score of 155) and observational communication skills checklist (20 questions and maximum score of 20). The obtained data were analyzed by calculating central indices using SPSS software. The mean knowledge score of studied people in terms of communicational skills, attitude and performance were 4.1 out of 8, 114.4 out of 155 and 16.3 out of 20, respectively. Although the information of the participants of this study in terms of communication skills was not sufficient, they seemed to have a positive attitude and relatively acceptable performance in communication skills.
Full Text Available Academic non-governmental organizations (NGOs are already one of the most important institutional sites of knowledge production in the countries of the global South. This article defines academic NGOs as those NGOs which produce not only documentation but also academically engaging articles, reports, edited volumes, bibliographies, journals and monographs. It argues that their growth in the recent decades has taken place amidst the mammoth growth in the number of NGOs in general for structural and personal reasons. A case study from Nepal is provided to illustrate, both at the level of procedures and at the level of outcomes, the kinds of contributions academic NGOs have made to the knowledge enterprise. The article ends by suggesting that the links between editorial control over what academic NGOs produce and the funding they receive are more complex than is usually assumed, and that the issue of their accountability needs to be rendered in a multiple-constituency model similar to that at work in conventional universities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v5i0.6356 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 5, 2011: 49-80
Madsen, Sabine; Bødker, Keld; Tøth, Thomas
setup and the company culture. We also draw attention to the fact that client side managers play a crucial role in determining how and with what priority knowledge transfer can take place. Our research indicates that a first, important step towards ensuring successful knowledge transfer in outsourcing...
Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi
The study assessed the enhancement of transfer of knowledge in physics through the use of effective teaching strategies in Nigerian senior secondary schools. Non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design was adopted for the study. A total of 278 physics students took part in the study. Transfer of Knowledge Test in Physics (TKTP) with the…
Dao, Li Thuy; Napier, Nancy
This paper examines micro (individual-level) aspects of knowledge transfer and learning in international joint ventures in an emerging economy context. Learning by expatriate and local managers appears far more complex, mutually dependent, and significant to the knowledge transfer process than su...
The traditional Nupe royal music has survived till the present day in spite of the splitting of the Kingdom into seven emirates. This royal music has passed through generations through a knowledge transfer and acquisition aspects of which are shrouded in mystery. This study investigated this traditional knowledge transfer ...
G. Touburg (Giorgio); C.I.S.G. Lee (Colin)
textabstractA central topic in the knowledge management literature is the distinction between codified and tacit knowledge: the former refers to knowledge that is easily transmittable through formal, systematic language and communicated through blueprints, maps, manuals and similar formats, the
Madsen, Erik Skov
This paper is built on six longitudinal case studies of knowledge transfer in manufacturing relocation. By focusing on tacit and explicit knowledge the paper introduces a model for identification of knowledge in relation to four task situations on the shop floor in a manufacturing environment....... The paper discusses and suggests how the transfer of tacit and explicit knowledge can be improved. Further the paper discusses two dramatic shifts in organizational settings i.e. from operations management and to project management in the sending unit before a transfer and reverses in the receiving unit...
Pino, Abdiel O.; Pladellorens, Josep
A means of facilitating the transfer of Optical inspection methods knowledge and skills from academic institutions and their research partners into Panama optics and optical research groups is described. The process involves the creation of an Integrated Knowledge Group Research (IKGR), a partnership led by Polytechnic University of Panama with the support of the SENACYT and Optics and Optometry Department, Polytechnic University of Catalonia. This paper describes the development of the Project for knowledge transfer "Implementation of a method of optical inspection of low cost for improving the surface quality of rolled material of metallic and nonmetallic industrial use", this project will develop a method for measuring the surface quality using texture analysis speckle pattern formed on the surface to be characterized. The project is designed to address the shortage of key skills in the field of precision engineering for optical applications. The main issues encountered during the development of the knowledge transfer teaching and learning are discussed, and the outcomes from the first four months of knowledge transfer activities are described. In overall summary, the results demonstrate how the Integrated Knowledge Group Research and new approach to knowledge transfer has been effective in addressing the engineering skills gap in precision optics for manufactured industrial sector.
Full Text Available The focus of this study is the transfer of marketing knowledge within Thai joint venture firms. The perspectives of Thai managers were surveyed using a structured instrument. The analysis identifies seven dimensions of marketing management knowledge: promotion management, price management, logistics management, product innovation management, strategic marketing management, cross-cultural management, and target marketing management. The incidence of transfer is highest for activities in strategic marketing management, followed by price management. Transfer in product innovation management and target marketing management tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. Joint venture firms with foreign partners originating from Western, advanced, industrialised nations recorded the highest incidence of knowledge transfer occurring within product innovation management. This trend also holds true for the management of promotion activities. The incidence of transfer in target marketing management is lowest among firms with foreign partners from neighbouring nations. The incidence of knowledge transfer within product innovation and target marketing also tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. An analysis based on industry classification revealed that the transfer of knowledge regarding logistics management occurs most for firms in the manufacturing sector. In the service sector, the highest incidence of knowledge transfer within the areas of promotion management and target marketing management occurred in the agricultural sector.
Fernández, Susana; Aler Mur, Ricardo; Borrajo Millán, Daniel
As any other problem solving task that employs search, AI Planning needs heuristics to efficiently guide the problem-space exploration. Machine learning (ML) provides several techniques for automatically acquiring those heuristics. Usually, a planner solves a problem, and a ML technique generates knowledge from the search episode in terms of complete plans (macro-operators or cases), or heuristics (also named control knowledge in planning). In this paper, we present a novel way of generating ...
Full Text Available -economic opportunities. It concludes by emphasing that a strategy to promnote technology innovation and transfer is required before tapping into, and adding value to, the local input in order that international co-operation and partnerships are adavanced and can...
Jun 10, 2011 ... This paper, discusses the impact of oligopolistic research on transfer of global pharmaceutical manufacturing technology to the less developed countries of the South (Nigeria) in post globalism. On the basis of empirical evidence from the advanced industrialized world, it is argued that the growth of.
The worth of academic knowledge tends to be tested against global metrics of citations and articles published in high-ranking English language academic journals. This paper examines academic knowledge production in three local fields of research with different national languages (English, Finnish and French). It focuses on knowledge production on…
Fongwa, Neba Samuel; Marais, Lochner
The role of knowledge in the current knowledge economy cannot be overly emphasised. Successful regions are continuously being linked to excellence in the production, accumulation, and application of knowledge. Universities have increasingly been at the centre of such knowledge production, application and transfer. Yet, there is little research and…
María Mercedes Carrillo
Full Text Available Society is undergoing rapid changes as a result of the waves of change with the passing of the years. Each day brings new challenges to managers of organizations. Hence, this paper aims to "identify the importance of Management and Knowledge Society to Optimize Teaching Academic Performance". Methodologically article is based on an investigation of documentary-descriptive, based on recognized authors reading; bibliographic texts to support the theoretical literature review. In conclusion, there are: The new management faces a change of learning; It reflects information society, knowledge; We are facing a landscape of challenges, such as the creation of knowledge; Education is a crucial factor in this social transformation. Finally, analyzing the results was evident in the treated subject that the texts consulted and contributions of investigated theoretical gave support and scientific relevance article presented.
Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias
in , reveal deep rural interest in the understanding, transferring and storing of indigenous knowledge from the Herero tribe in Namibia. The Herero community elders possess a great amount of cultural knowledge on husbandry, herb knowledge and religious rituals and the modus operandi of transferring......, increase their digital and textual literacy and to support the development and stability of the country they live in. By using a modern toolbox of animations and game dynamics, we have developed a prototype to allow sharing of indigenous knowledge and to avoid a Western approach the first steps have been...
Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and reflect on the role of knowledge brokers (KBs) in the Seniors Health Research Transfer Network (SHRTN). The paper reviews the relevant literature on knowledge brokering, and then describes the evolving role of knowledge brokering in this knowledge network. Methods The description of knowledge brokering provided here is based on a developmental evaluation program and on the experiences of the authors. Data were gathered through qualitative and quantitative methods, analyzed by the evaluators, and interpreted by network members who participated in sensemaking forums. The results were fed back to the network each year in the form of formal written reports that were widely distributed to network members, as well as through presentations to the network’s members. Results The SHRTN evaluation and our experiences as evaluators and KBs suggest that a SHRTN KB facilitates processes of learning whereby people are connected with tacit or explicit knowledge sources that will help them to resolve work-related challenges. To make this happen, KBs engage in a set of relational, technical, and analytical activities that help communities of practice (CoPs) to develop and operate, facilitate exchanges among people with similar concerns and interests, and help groups and individuals to create, explore, and apply knowledge in their practice. We also suggest that the role is difficult to define, emergent, abstract, episodic, and not fully understood. Conclusions The KB role within this knowledge network has developed and matured over time. The KB adapts to the social and technical affordances of each situation, and fashions a unique and relevant process to create relationships and promote learning and change. The ability to work with teams and to develop relevant models and feasible approaches are critical KB skills. The KB is a leader who wields influence rather than power, and who is prepared to adopt whatever roles and
Verhagen, H.J.; De Vries, W.S.
Practical problems in the transfer of knowledge and skills to coastal engineers in training, with focus on the training of coastal engineers from developing countries and other countries in transition. The difference between the training of scientists and engineers.
Jun 10, 2011 ... process. It includes basic process design or certain types of engineering designs. The peripheral components correspond to the body of knowledge that is needed for the application of core technologies in producing goods and service activities. (Junta del Acuerdo de categena, 1976). This component also ...
Turner, C.L.; Braudt, T.E.
'Knowledge Transfer' is a high-priority imperative as the nuclear industry faces the combined effects of an aging workforce and economic pressures to do more with less. Knowledge Transfer is only a part of the solution to these challenges, however. The more compelling and immediate need faced by industry is Accomplishment Transfer, or the transference of the applied knowledge necessary to assure optimal performance transfer from experienced, high-performing staff to inexperienced staff. A great deal of industry knowledge and required performance information has been documented in the form of procedures. Often under-appreciated either as knowledge stores or as drivers of human performance, procedures, coupled with tightly-focused and effective training, are arguably the most effective influences on human and plant performance. (author)
Rogério Stival Morgado
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to compare the process of transferring knowledge in franchising between Brazilian and international companies operating in Brazil. Franchising has shown an important phenomenon in many countries, with considerable evidence of growing globally. It is a new type of business organization as an object of academic research field offering great reviews, but also limitations as references and studies of depth of field. The traditional literature in management emphasis on franchising, in large part to its importance as a way to circumvent resource constraints, as their characteristics and definition of business practices among its different parts. The transfer of knowledge in franchising is still a gap especially among companies in different countries. In addition, we adopted a methodology that this study followed a qualitative research with in-depth interviews of franchisees. The results show that Brazilian firms oriented transfer of knowledge in franchising for more lawsuits based on tacit knowledge, thus using more informal and less number of transfer mechanisms in these processes. International companies operating in Brazil for franchising rely on formal processes with periodic meetings, training and technological resources, and therefore have a greater control over the process of transferring knowledge to the franchised units. Thus, this study seeks to help we better understand franchising, development processes and their expansion in emerging markets like Brazil.
Ramanadhan, Shoba; Wiecha, Jean L.; Emmons, Karen M.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
As organizations implement novel health promotion programs across multiple sites, they face great challenges related to knowledge management. Staff social networks may be a useful medium for transferring program-related knowledge in multi-site implementation efforts. To study this potential, we focused on the role of extra-team connections (ties…
Using these findings, cognitive training can be designed so that novice engineers may gain the mental structures needed to convert electrical engineering information into usable knowledge. This could represent a new way for knowledge transfer in the 21st century. South African Journal of Higher Education Vol.
Bosch-Sijtsema, Petra M.; Postma, Theo J. B. M.
In this study we examine governance factors affecting knowledge transfer in interorganisational development projects. There is a gap in the literature indicating a need for more insights into processes of knowledge sharing and governance of interorganisational development projects. By using cases
Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette
agencies and industry around the development of ICT. Evidence from three domains, namely e-government, telecommunications and welfare services, indicates the need for problematising current mainstream understandings of innovation. Innovation, as we see it, is occurring through configurations of designers......Innovation systems, ‘triple helix’, and similar expressions, are used to conceptualise the growing need for more integrated forms of co-operation between academia and other societal actors, such as governmental agencies and industry, in order to produce knowledge relevant for society. However...
Dirk J. Roux
Full Text Available Sustainable ecosystem management relies on a diverse and multi-faceted knowledge system in which techniques are continuously updated to reflect current understanding and needs. The challenge is to minimize delay as ideas flow from intent through scientific capability, and finally to implementation to achieve desired outcomes. The best way to do this is by setting the stage for the flow of knowledge between researchers, policy makers, and resource managers. The cultural differences between these groups magnify the challenge. This paper highlights the importance of the tacit dimension of knowledge, and how this renders the concept of knowledge transfer much less useful than the concepts of information transfer and technology transfer. Instead of knowledge transfer, we propose that "co-production" of knowledge through collaborative learning between "experts" and "users" is a more suitable approach to building a knowledge system for the sustainable management of ecosystems. This can be achieved through knowledge interfacing and sharing, but requires a shift from a view of knowledge as a "thing" that can be transferred to viewing knowledge as a "process of relating" that involves negotiation of meaning among partners. Lessons from informal communities of practice provide guidance on how to nurture and promote knowledge interfacing between science and management in R&D programs.
Yang, Cheng; Madsen, Erik Skov; Liangsiri, Jirapha
are derived predominantly from a cognitive perspective and normally focus on the organizational level and are rarely linked with outsourcing. Thus, from the perspective of operations management, the purpose of this paper is to explore how to transfer production know-how on the shop-floor level when...... for knowledge transfer are introduced and classified according to their usage. Practical implications - A framework is summarized to integrate all the elements discussed in this paper, which provides strong support and clear directions to industrial managers when they need to transfer knowledge...... in the relocation projects. Together with the framework, a process to help managers implement their knowledge transfer is also proposed. Originality/value - Besides the framework and process, this paper also indicates that absorptive capacity of a production unit depends not only on the level of technical...
Full Text Available Knowledge is considered to be a key organizational resource in the 21st century and the knowledge management ‘movement’ has alerted organizations to the fact that they should more strategically exploit their knowledge assets. Companies are thus lured by the suggestion that they can gain competitive advantage by the more astute management of their knowledge base and in particular, by the transfer of knowledge across individuals, groups and organizational units, using IT to accomplish this. In this paper, we reflect on this common view of knowledge transfer. More specifically, we question an implication of this view - essentially the possibility of short-circuiting the learning cycle, so that individuals do not have to rely on their personal or shared experiences to identify better practices, but can learn from the codified lessons of others in IT systems. More importantly, we consider the characteristics of knowledge – that knowledge is distributed, ambiguous and disruptive – that makes its transfer highly problematic. Drawing on case research, we relate this to the learning cycle (Kolb 1984 and thereby identify barriers to knowledge transfer. We conclude by considering ways of overcoming these barriers by emphasizing the importance of social systems alongside technical systems.
Madsen, Erik Skov; Yang, Cheng; Liangsiri, Jirapha
on the situations which are extracted from the cases. Two parameters are used to classify the situation: the complexity of knowledge, and the environment for transferring the knowledge. Four different groups of means are identified from the case studies; 1) Documents or manuals and peer-to-peer training, 2......Based on case studies and action research, this paper investigates and discusses appropriate means for transfer knowledge when relocating manufacturing units. The cases include relocations both within the country and overseas. A framework for identifying suitable means is developed based...
Paulick, Isabell; Großschedl, Jörg; Harms, Ute; Möller, Jens
We investigated the factorial structure of preservice teachers' academic self-concept with regard to three domains of professional knowledge (content knowledge [CK], pedagogical content knowledge [PCK], and pedagogical/psychological knowledge [PPK]). We also analyzed the relation between preservice teachers' academic self-concept and their…
This paper explores reasons for negative complementarity among HRM practices. It isbuilt upon the premise that there are certain HRM practices influencing extrinsic andintrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers. If those HRM practices are applied in acomplementary way, their impact on knowledge......-related outcomes will result incrowding effect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and be negative. Hypothesesderived from these arguments are tested on the data from 92 subsidiaries of Danishmultinational corporations located in 11 countries.Extrinsic/intrinsic motivation, HRM practices, knowledge transfer...
-related outcomes will result incrowding effect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and be negative. Hypothesesderived from these arguments are tested on the data from 92 subsidiaries of Danishmultinational corporations located in 11 countries.Extrinsic/intrinsic motivation, HRM practices, knowledge transfer......This paper explores reasons for negative complementarity among HRM practices. It isbuilt upon the premise that there are certain HRM practices influencing extrinsic andintrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers. If those HRM practices are applied in acomplementary way, their impact on knowledge...
Adisa, Femi; Rose, Jeremy
, the authors investigate the mediating role of absorptive capacity in knowledge transfer in SMEs ERP implementations. They present exploratory case studies from 3 Nigerian companies with varying outcomes, and hypothesize that knowledge transfer is complicated by acute information asymmetry, absence of pre......Knowledge transfer between consultants and organizational users influences the outcomes of an Enterprise Resource System (ERP) implementation. Configuration and implementation tasks are dependent on generating some level of shared understanding of both business practices and technology....... These problems become acute in implementations in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs often operate with non-standard business processes, making an effective interchange of process knowledge between consultants and end-users crucial. Using a multiple case study method and content analysis...
Harrington, Denis; Kearney, Arthur
Purpose: This paper aims to consider the extent to which business school transition has created new opportunities in management development, knowledge transfer and knowledge creation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a critical review of knowledge exchange in a business school context with a particular focus on the "translation or…
Collie, Alex; Zardo, Pauline; McKenzie, Donna Margaret; Ellis, Niki
This study explores the views and experiences of knowledge translation of 14 Australian public health academics. Capacity to engage in knowledge translation is influenced by factors within the academic context and the interaction of the academic and policy environments. Early and mid-career researchers reported a different set of experiences and…
Yang, Cheng; Madsen, Erik; Liangsiri, Jirapha
transfer are derived predominantly from a cognitive perspective and normally focus on the organizational level. Thus, from the perspective of operations management, this paper aims to explore how to transfer production know-how on the shop floor level when manufacturing units are relocated and the paper...... and classified according to their usages. Practical implementations--A framework is summarized to integrate all the elements discussed in this paper, which provides strong supports and clear directions to industrial managers when they need to transfer knowledge in the relocation projects. Together...... with the framework, a process to help managers implement their knowledge transfer is also proposed. Originality/value-- Besides the framework and process, this paper also indicates that absorptive capacity of a production unit depends not only on the level of technical competence at its site, but also on whether...
Ahmed, Saeema; Vianello, Giovanna
. The reuse of this knowledge is even more critical when customized machines are involved. The aim of this paper is to investigate the knowledge arising during the later phases of a product’s lifecycle focusing in particular upon the transfer of experience between projects and between different user groups...... the supplier of drilling equipment have been carried out focusing upon mechanisms, initiators, barriers and drivers of experience transfer between projects. The analysis of the interviews shows the importance of cross-project experience transfer and the results can be used to support and organize......The general trend in engineering design is to consider issues related to the product lifecycle during the design of a product. Hence, the capture of knowledge arising during the operation phase (service) and the feedback of this to engineering designers is an important aspect of complex products...
Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias
Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from a loss of valuable cultural knowledge, which has been a foundation for the coming generations’ survival and cultural self-awareness. By transferring cultural knowledge contexts into 3D visualizations, we prototyped and evaluated a system to bridge the gap ...... between elders and urban youth in Namibia. The findings from the field experiment indicate that designers together with rural elders and children can reach a shared design platform by communicating visually.......Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from a loss of valuable cultural knowledge, which has been a foundation for the coming generations’ survival and cultural self-awareness. By transferring cultural knowledge contexts into 3D visualizations, we prototyped and evaluated a system to bridge the gap...
Adisa, Femi; Rose, Jeremy
Knowledge transfer between consultants and organizational users influences the outcomes of an Enterprise Resource System (ERP) implementation. Configuration and implementation tasks are dependent on generating some level of shared understanding of both business practices and technology. These pro......-existing related knowledge and consequent difficulties in developing a shared understanding, and by a tendency to operate with lone consultants and lone organizational representatives.......Knowledge transfer between consultants and organizational users influences the outcomes of an Enterprise Resource System (ERP) implementation. Configuration and implementation tasks are dependent on generating some level of shared understanding of both business practices and technology....... These problems become acute in implementations in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs often operate with non-standard business processes, making an effective interchange of process knowledge between consultants and end-users crucial. Using a multiple case study method and content analysis...
Pereira, Ana Gabriella Amorim Abreu
Knowledge management is paramount nowadays. In order to enable the members of an organization to deal with their current situations effectively it is mandatory to know and enhance its intellectual capital. Managing the organization knowledge is important to the extent that it allows and reinforce its mission (what we are trying to accomplish?), and performance (how do we deliver the results?). As a result of a knowledge management effort, the organization can create value for itself and for society as a whole. In this paper, we argue that a technology developed at a research institute and transferred to an industry is knowledge to be managed in order to create value, both for the society and for the Institute. In order to manage such knowledge, it is proposed an approach to enhance the value creation potential of a technology transfer. This paper propose an investigation to expand the understanding on how a public research institute and a private firm could introduce their value creation wishes into a technology transfer agreement in a way to reflect and provide the realization of those wishes. It is proposed that, from the identification of the organizations expectations it is possible to infer which agreement attributes will contribute to that value creation and to establish satisfactory agreement configurations. These configurations have the potential to generate those consequences, given that, through the transfer, each organization seeks to increase potential benefits and to reduce potential sacrifices. Supported by exchange flow and value creation models, by the knowledge management and the means-end theory, an approach to increase the value creation potential of a technology transfer is proposed. Evidences from a case study sustain the proposed approach. The case study unity is the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, a public research institute. (author)
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of knowledge transfer partnership (KTP)as a means for universities to generate and exchange knowledge to foster sustainable cities and societies. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on a series of separate yet interrelated KTPs between a university and the local authority in the…
Prince, Melvin; Burns, David; Lu, Xinyi; Winsor, Robert
Purpose: This paper aims to use goal-setting theory to explain the transfer of knowledge and skills between master of business administration (MBA) and the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Data were obtained by an online survey of MBA students enrolled in at four US graduate business schools. These were a public and private institution in…
Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lou, Shi-Jer; Tan, Yue; Chiu, Chien-Jung
The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of concept maps as a learning tool where knowledge transfer is the goal. This article includes an evaluation of the learning performance of 42 undergraduate students enrolled in a nanotech course at a university in Taiwan. Canonical correlation and MANOVA analyses were employed to…
Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben; Björkman, Ingmar
Based on a sample of 169 subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the USA, Russia, and Finland, this paper investigates the relationship between MNC subsidiary HRM practices, absorptive capacity and knowledge transfer. First, we examine the relationship between the application...
Harris, Robert John
Purpose: The implementation of e-learning can help SMEs to develop skills to cope with their operational environments, but current literature suggests they are not effectively engaged, partly due to a lack of understanding and mistrust of vendors. This paper considers the potential for a more effective transfer of marketing knowledge to firms…
Koch, Jörn; Sauer, Joachim
Constant and unimpeded communication is an essential ingredient when it comes to successful software development projects. While manageable if the team is within shouting distance, it poses a considerable challenge in global software development (GSD) projects. In this chapter we explore how a lightweight knowledge transfer process can be established between distributed development teams. The leitmotif of the transfer process is a hands-on approach that values actual cooperation on tasks over lecturing the learning team. It introduces a set of practices that take tasks as a central means to both drive the knowledge transfer and to integrate it with the ongoing development process. The practical relevance of the described practices was successfully experienced in a case study.
Lykke, Marianne; Løkkegaard, Sarai; Jantzen, Christian
registered in an university research information management system. The analysis focuses on how to meet the characteristics of SMEs in the design and organisation of the subject terms in the navigation and searching system and in the presentation of the scientific knowledge. The design suggestions are based......Transferring scientific knowledge between universities and industry is known to be problematic, specifically for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that have limited resources and absorption capacity. A variety of channels is used for knowledge transfer. These include what is commonly...... referred to as generic pathways (e.g. scientific publications) and relational pathways (e.g. faculty consulting). The purpose of this research is to extend our knowledge about the design of knowledge organization for a generic pathway interface providing access to scientific knowledge and publications...
Minbaeva, Dana; Mäkelä, Kristiina; Rabbiosi, Larissa
In response to recent calls for more research on micro-foundations, we seek to link human resource management (HRM) and knowledge transfer through individual-level mechanisms, arguing that individual-level conditions of action influence the extent to which employees engage in knowledge exchange. We...... examine four such conditions empirically using data from 811 employees in three Danish multinational corporations (MNCs). Our findings suggest that individual-level perceptions of organizational commitment to knowledge sharing, and extrinsic motivation, directly influence the extent to which employees...... engage in firm-internal knowledge exchange. We also find that intrinsic motivation and engagement in social interaction significantly mediate the relationship between perceived organizational commitment and knowledge exchange. Given that HRM can influence such conditions through an overall signaling...
Kim, Yong-Mi; Abbas, June
This study investigates the adoption of Library 2.0 functionalities by academic libraries and users through a knowledge management perspective. Based on randomly selected 230 academic library Web sites and 184 users, the authors found RSS and blogs are widely adopted by academic libraries while users widely utilized the bookmark function.…
Lykke, Marianne; Løkkegaard, Sarai; Jantzen, Christian
referred to as generic pathways (e.g. scientific publishing) and relational pathways (e.g. faculty consulting). The purpose of this research is to extend our knowledge about the design of generic pathways. The analysis is concentrated on the knowledge organisation system for a research management system......Transferring scientific knowledge between universities and industry is known to be problematic, specifically for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that have limited resources and absorption capacity. A variety of channels is used for knowledge transfer. These include what is commonly...... - how to meet the characteristics of SMEs in the design of subject categories in the navigation system and in the presentation of the scientific knowledge by controlled and uncontrolled keywords and descriptive annotations. The design suggestions are based on findings from a qualitative situation...
Rungruang, Parisa; Donohue, Ross
Few studies have examined the links between perceived transferability of education or perceived transferability of skills and organisational commitment. This paper reports on a study examining the relationships between transferability of education and transferability of skills, and the three components of organisational commitment (affective,…
Böhm, Monika; Collen, Ben
To help stem the continuing decline of biodiversity, effective transfer of technology from resource-rich to biodiversity-rich countries is required. Biodiversity technology as defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a complex term, encompassing a wide variety of activities and interest groups. As yet, there is no robust framework by which to monitor the extent to which technology transfer might benefit biodiversity. We devised a definition of biodiversity technology and a framework for the monitoring of technology transfer between CBD signatories. Biodiversity technology within the scope of the CBD encompasses hard and soft technologies that are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, or make use of genetic resources, and that relate to all aspects of the CBD, with a particular focus on technology transfer from resource-rich to biodiversity-rich countries. Our proposed framework introduces technology transfer as a response indicator: technology transfer is increased to stem pressures on biodiversity. We suggest an initial approach of tracking technology flow between countries; charting this flow is likely to be a one-to-many relationship (i.e., the flow of a specific technology from one country to multiple countries). Future developments should then focus on integrating biodiversity technology transfer into the current pressure-state-response indicator framework favored by the CBD (i.e., measuring the influence of technology transfer on changes in state and pressure variables). Structured national reporting is important to obtaining metrics relevant to technology and knowledge transfer. Interim measures, that can be used to assess biodiversity technology or knowledge status while more in-depth indicators are being developed, include the number of species inventories, threatened species lists, or national red lists; databases on publications and project funding may provide measures of international cooperation. Such a
Susan R. Wilcox
Full Text Available Introduction: Although emergency physicians frequently intubate patients, management of mechanical ventilation has not been emphasized in emergency medicine (EM education or clinical practice. The objective of this study was to quantify EM attendings’ education, experience, and knowledge regarding mechanical ventilation in the emergency department. Methods: We developed a survey of academic EM attendings’ educational experiences with ventilators and a knowledge assessment tool with nine clinical questions. EM attendings at key teaching hospitals for seven EM residency training programs in the northeastern United States were invited to participate in this survey study. We performed correlation and regression analyses to evaluate the relationship between attendings’ scores on the assessment instrument and their training, education, and comfort with ventilation. Results: Of 394 EM attendings surveyed, 211 responded (53.6%. Of respondents, 74.5% reported receiving three or fewer hours of ventilation-related education from EM sources over the past year and 98 (46% reported receiving between 0-1 hour of education. The overall correct response rate for the assessment tool was 73.4%, with a standard deviation of 19.9. The factors associated with a higher score were completion of an EM residency, prior emphasis on mechanical ventilation during one’s own residency, working in a setting where an emergency physician bears primary responsibility for ventilator management, and level of comfort with managing ventilated patients. Physicians’ comfort was associated with the frequency of ventilator changes and EM management of ventilation, as well as hours of education. Conclusion: EM attendings report caring for mechanically ventilated patients frequently, but most receive fewer than three educational hours a year on mechanical ventilation, and nearly half receive 0-1 hour. Physicians’ performance on an assessment tool for mechanical ventilation is
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Bishop, Ann P.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
Increasing reliance on and investment in information technology and electronic networking systems presupposes that computing and information technology will play a motor role in the diffusion of aerospace knowledge. Little is known, however, about actual information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The authors state that the potential contributions of information technology to increased productivity and competitiveness will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge regarding the information-seeking behavior of the members of the social system - those who are producing, transferring, and using scientific and technical information - is incorporated into a new technology policy framework. Research into the use of information technology and electronic networks by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists, collected as part of a research project designed to study aerospace knowledge diffusion, is presented in support of this assertion.
Full Text Available This study attempts to understand how expert knowledge is transmitted in the absence or lack of explicit and formal means of knowledge acquisition, with particular interest in the evolved relationship of a master-apprentice, observable in pockets of traditional communities of practice. An ethnographic study based on content analysis of the transcriptions of members of a craft community from Varanasi, India has been used to strengthen the undermined pedagogical role of observation and emulation in the transfer of inexplicit knowledge. It is argued that in-situ observation and emulation foster situations for facilitating co-production of knowledge, further implying co-authorship. Gaining community membership in craft communities is not merely a matter of gaining a professional degree; instead, it is a slow process of enculturation.Keywords: Observation, Emulation, Inexplicit learning, Master-apprentice. Communities of Practice
Full Text Available The aim of the present analyze is to underline the importance of a systemic approach of knowledge communication in eLearning academic sphere, in order to improve the efficiency and quality of research. Atthe same time, we intend to notice and shape the evolution of both teacher and learner status in higher education. The rhetoric about knowledge is often associated with organization and transfer of information. To provide students with a modern understanding of the „shared values” in higher education has become an important objective. The teachers have to adapt new forms of e-delivery of discipline content, form and inform about e-resources for learning. We have to develop national strategies and add value to the role ofuniversity as a key factor in e-learning. The knowledge transfer at academic level, can be fully realized only when information encounters in the student the optimal set of tools designed to facilitate learning, and an individual style of thinking, so as to analyze fundamental questions and to be able to validate or invalidate the information. The teacher status evolves from content expert to metacognition expert, from guide in valuable information search to knowledge communicator. The present analyze reflects some aspects of the consequences that new forms of communication evolved during transition from traditional to e-academic environment.
This study was based on a Master's dissertation which investigated the knowledge and use of library resources by academic staff at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg (UKZNP) campus. The specific objectives of the study were to determine academic staff knowledge of the library's resources and capabilities; ...
Brunila, Kristiina; Hannukainen, Kristiina
How knowledge capitalism retools the scope of academic research and researchers is an issue which this article ties to the project market in the ethos of knowledge capitalism. In Finland, academic research has been forced to apply for funding in project-based activities reflecting European Union policies. The project market, which in this article…
Chen, Zheng; Miller, Patrick A.; Clements, Terry L.; Kim, Mintai
With increasing academic research in the past few decades, the knowledge scope of landscape architecture has expanded from traditional focus on aesthetics to a broad range of ecological, cultural and psychological issues. In order to understand how academic research and knowledge expansion may have redefined the practice, two surveys were…
Full Text Available This paper motivates, presents and demonstrates in use a methodology based in complex network analysis to support research aimed at identification of sources in the process of knowledge transfer at the interorganizational level. The importance of this methodology is that it states a unified model to reveal knowledge sharing patterns and to compare results from multiple researches on data from different periods of time and different sectors of the economy. This methodology does not address the underlying statistical processes. To do this, national statistics departments (NSD provide documents and tools at their websites. But this proposal provides a guide to model information inferences gathered from data processing revealing links between sources and recipients of knowledge being transferred and that the recipient detects as main source to new knowledge creation. Some national statistics departments set as objective for these surveys the characterization of innovation dynamics in firms and to analyze the use of public support instruments. From this characterization scholars conduct different researches. Measures of dimensions of the network composed by manufacturing firms and other organizations conform the base to inquiry the structure that emerges from taking ideas from other organizations to incept innovations. These two sets of data are actors of a two- mode-network. The link between two actors (network nodes, one acting as the source of the idea. The second one acting as the destination comes from organizations or events organized by organizations that “provide” ideas to other group of firms. The resulting demonstrated design satisfies the objective of being a methodological model to identify sources in knowledge transfer of knowledge effectively used in innovation.
Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi
Purpose In the globalized economy, it is becoming increasingly necessary for firms in emerging economies to adopt advanced knowledge and technology from external sources, both domestic and abroad. This paper aims to identify knowledge flows through domestic and international customer...... of goods along the supply chain and QCD, it is safe to say that transfer of intangible assets among interconnected firms may cause the difference in QCD among firms in Vietnam. Originality/value This represents the first systematic quantitative research on the asymmetric gains from face......-to-face interactions with downstream and upstream firms, and it offers a new development in the study of transfers of intangible assets within a supply chain in Asian emerging economies....
Jensen, Per Anker
The purpose of this article is to present a typology of mechanisms for knowledge transfer from Facilities Management (FM) to building projects. One of the problems in the building industry is a limited degree of learning. The development of professional FM can be the missing link to bridge the gap...... between building operation and building design. To fulfill this role facilities managers not only need the necessary competences but also appropriate methods and tools to be able to influence the building project. The research is based on literature reviews as well as various empirical studies....... The typology is divided in two parts, both based on mechanisms of knowledge push and knowledge pull. The first part has the main focus on the effectiveness of the building requirements and design by knowledge transfer from FM to building project from the front end. Briefing is a central element in this part...
Full Text Available Topics related to knowledge management and knowledge sharing have received extensive attention in the recent literature of management and information science. Much of the discussion has focused on how these processes take place - and frequently fail to take place - in formal business, corporate and organizational settings. Knowledge sharing, however, occurs along the entire spectrum of human activity. Often, information and knowledge are shared in ways that appear unregulated and even outright subversive. This paper surveys many of the recent critiques of formal mechanisms of knowledge sharing. It identifies a set of methods, structures and ethics of "informal" and unauthorized transfer of information, and suggests that these can offer valuable lessons for the further development of the study of knowledge sharing methods, practices and behaviors in all types of settings.
Full Text Available This paper analyses potential mechanism of regional knowledge transfer in region with poorly developed innovation infrastructure (the Autonomous Territorial Unit Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova through interactions between regional major players of the Regional Innovation System - the educational and research institutions, small and medium enterprises (SMEs and local authorities. Solution of this problem can be found in modern studies of territories innovation development through the clustering processes. Through the empirical study - innovation potential analysis of local SMEs - we proposed advantage mechanism which focused on the one type of knowledge cluster – Innovation and Educational Cluster. The symbiosis of entrepreneurs, government agencies, educational institutions and business service providers with the regional core - University, allows to increasing exchange flows of innovative knowledge between all members of the cluster and distributing them to the entire region and beyond. The results and proposals of this study formed the basis of the “Program of increasing the innovation potential of Gagauz SMEs”.
Silva, Samuel Araujo Gomes da; Duarte, Roberto Gonzalez; Castro, José Márcio de
To analyze the influence of four mechanisms of knowledge transfer (training, technical visits, expatriation, and standard operating procedures) on the different dimensions (potential and realized) of absorptive capacity in international technical cooperation. We examine the case of implementation of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos. Data have been collected using semi-structured interviews (applied to 21 professionals of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos, Farmanguinhos, FIOCRUZ, and Itamaraty) and official documents. The data of the interviews have been submitted to content analysis, using the software NVivo. Training and technical visits directly influenced the acquisition and, partly, the assimilation of knowledge. Expatriation contributed with the transformation of this knowledge from the development and refinement of operational routines. Finally, the definition of standard operating procedures allowed the Mozambican technicians to be the actors of the transformation of the knowledge previously acquired and assimilated and, at the same time, it laid the foundations for a future exploration of the knowledge. Training and technical visits mainly influence the potential absorptive capacity, while expatriation and standard operating procedures most directly affect the realized absorptive capacity.
Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.
Technology transfer is an important aspect of, and takes frequently place in, international manufacturing networks. A key component of a specific technology is the knowledge and information that accompanies it. This study explores the difficulties with transferring technological knowledge and
The knowledge transfer efficiency (KTE) is closely relative to the success or failure of technology innovation in strategic alliances. This paper takes the KTE as the essential variable to establish the benefit function model of technology innovations to explore the KTE's influences on partners' innovative decisions under two different modes: independent innovations and alliance innovations. It is found that the higher the KTE, the greater the reducing extent of production costs is. The results could provide some theoretical supports for selections of the optimal competitive-ooperative relationship and managerial flexibility in technical innovation alliances.
Ramayah, T.; Ignatius, Joshua; Leen, Jasmine Yeap Ai
This paper presents a research agenda for a funded research project on knowledge sharing among academics in Malaysia. One of the main objectives is to develop validate and measure of knowledge sharing which is suitable for academicians. Previous studies on knowledge sharing have used standard measurement items which do not cater for the multiple…
The potential for academic knowledge to "interrupt" inter-generational reproduction in education is located in the structural contradictions that shape knowledge and democracy. Since the late 1990s research in the sociology of education, which theorises curriculum knowledge using the ideas of Durkheim, Vygotsky and Bernstein, suggests…
Paxton, Moragh; Frith, Vera
This article explores the issue of what academic literacies research can bring to the study of knowledge and curriculum in higher education from a theoretical perspective and by means of illustrations from a work in progress academic literacies research project in the natural sciences. It argues that reading and writing are central to the process…
Jasimudeen, S; Maghesh Rajan, M
Discusses the advantages of academic networks and the problems of access to journal articles via e-journal consortium's in India. Proposal for an educational social network as part of teh National Knowledge Network (NKN) platform is put forth. The need for digitization of indigenous academic resources and its dissemination through networks for better access is also emphasized
Tara K. McGee; Allan Curtis; Bonita L. McFarlane; Bruce Shindler; Amy Christianson; Christine Olsen; Sarah M. McCaffrey
The importance of knowledge transfer between researchers, policy makers and practitioners is widely recognized. However, barriers to knowledge transfer can make it difficult for practitioners to apply the results of scientific research. This paper describes a project that addressed barriers to knowledge transfer by involving wildfire management practitioners from three...
Daneshgar, Farhad; Parirokh, Mehri
The ability of academic libraries to produce timely and effective responses to various environmental changes constitutes a major challenge for them to enhance their survival rate and maintain growth in competitive environments. This article provides a conceptual model as an analytical tool for both improving current services as well as creating…
Killingberg, Nils Magne
Although academic entrepreneurship is increasingly catching the attention of scholars, the relationship between technology transfer offices (TTOs) and academic spin-off companies (ASOs) is relatively unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore how TTOs are working as intermediaries and helping the ASOs acquire essential resources. The theoretical framework used was based on resource-dependence theory, resource based view and theory on innovation intermediaries. There are e...
Full Text Available This paper is based on a sample of 104 subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs operating in Brazil. It investigates the mechanisms of knowledge transfer in marketing and their relationship to the strategic positioning of the subsidiaries (i.e. global integration and local responsiveness. A positive correlation between the level of global integration and the intensity of knowledge transfer was statistically confirmed and the main mechanisms of knowledge transfer were also revealed. Some widely accepted theories about knowledge transfer in MNCs were empirically confirmed. Finally, this study provided the opportunity to develop several specific insights about knowledge transfer in marketing in the Brazilian context.
Park, Chansoo; Minbaeva, Dana; Vertinsky, Ilan
This paper attempts to fill this gap in the literature by focusing on the influence of knowledge senders’ willingness to share knowledge, their disseminative capacities and the knowledge-transfer opportunities they create on the effectiveness of knowledge transfer. We develop a theoretical framew...
Full Text Available High levels of shared knowledge can positively influence outsourcing performance and the combination of processes designed to transfer explicit and tacit knowledge, has the most influence on the level of shared knowledge. Some organisations...
Hasan, Md. Kamrul; Shabdin, Ahmad Affendi
The present study embodies a conceptual framework, and it studies the concept regarding the depth of vocabulary knowledge. Literature review is employed as a foundation for developing the conceptual framework for the present study. The current study suggests that different dimensions of depth of vocabulary knowledge, namely paradigmatic relations,…
Knowledge Management is the establishment of a system that captures knowledge purposefully for incorporating into business strategies, policies, and practices at all levels of the company. I have generated information from my new book and other materials to prepare this presentation, to show the conference attendees ...
Knowledge management represents an emerging domain becoming more and more important. Concepts like knowledge codification and personalisation, knowledge life-cycle, social and technological dimensions, knowledge transfer and learning management are integral parts. Focus goes here in the process of knowledge transfer for the case of ad hoc teams. The social dimension of knowledge transfer plays an important role. No single individual actors involved in the process, but a collective one, representing the organisation. It is critically important for knowledge to be managed from the life-cycle point of view. A complex communication network needs to be in place to supports the process of knowledge transfer. Two particular concepts, the bridge tie and transactive memory, would eventually enhance the communication. The paper focuses on an informational communication platform supporting the collaborative work on knowledge transfer. The platform facilitates the creation of a topic language to be used in knowledge modelling, storage and reuse, by the ad hoc teams.
Sabet, B.B.; Elorza, F.J.
partners. The paper concludes with the expected outcomes of the present project underlining t he vital requirement to win the radwaste academic educational challenge as it play a pivotal role in generating, acquiring safeguarding and transfer of knowledge. (author)
Miller, Fiona Alice; Sanders, Carrie B; Lehoux, Pascale
Governments have invested heavily in the clinical and economic promise of health innovation and express increasing concern with the efficacy and efficiency of the health innovation system. In considering strategies for 'better' health innovation, policy makers and researchers have taken a particular interest in the work of universities and related public research organizations: How do these organizations identify and transfer promising innovations to market, and do these efforts make best use of public sector investments? We conducted an ethnographic study of technology transfer offices (TTOs) in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada, to consider the place of health and health system imperatives in judgments of value in early-stage health innovation. Our analysis suggests that the valuation process is poorly specified as a set of task-specific judgments. Instead, we argue that technology transfer professionals are active participants in the construction of the innovation and assign value by 'imagining' the end product in its 'context of use'. Oriented as they are to the commercialization of health technology, TTOs understand users primarily as market players. The immediate users of TTOs' efforts are commercial partners (i.e., licensees, investors) who are capable of translating current discoveries into future commodities. The ultimate end users - patients, clinicians, health systems - are the future consumers of the products to be sold. Attention to these proximate and more distal users in the valuation process is a complex and constitutive feature of the work of health technology transfer. At the same time, judgements about individual technologies are made in relation to a broader imperative through which TTOs seek to imagine and construct sustainable innovation systems. Judgments of value are rendered sensible in relation to the logic of valuation for systems of innovation that, in turn, configure users of health innovation in systemic ways.
Full Text Available This study investigates university students' perceptions towards an English for advanced academic writing purposes (AAW course taught in a private university in the United Arab Emirates. It probes into the relevance of the skills taught to the students' academic disciplines. Data was gathered through a short survey administered to students who successfully completed the course. The transferability of skills was measured in light of some of the learning objectives of the AAW stated in its syllabus. Findings indicated positive students' attitudes towards the AAW course. They also revealed that some learning outcomes did transfer to students' writing tasks in their major courses. However, transfer of these skills was more noticeable in some university disciplines (e.g. English more than others (e.g. Business Administration. Detailed explanations of reasons and contexts for skill transfer are presented. This research concludes with some pedagogical recommendations and suggestions for course improvement and further research.
Jahn, Rosa; Müller, Olaf; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan
Universities, public institutions, and the transfer of knowledge to the private sector play a major role in the development of medical technologies. The decisions of universities and public institutions regarding the transfer of knowledge impact the accessibility of the final product, making it easier or more difficult for consumers to access these products. In the case of medical research, these products are pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, or medical procedures. The ethical dimension of access to these potentially lifesaving products is apparent and distinguishes the transfer of medical knowledge from the transfer of knowledge in other areas. While the general field of technology transfer from academic and public to private actors is attracting an increasing amount of scholarly attention, the specifications of knowledge transfer in the medical field are not as well explored. This review seeks to provide a systematic overview and analysis of the qualitative literature on the characteristics and determinants of knowledge transfer in medical research and development. The review systematically searches the literature for qualitative studies that focus on knowledge transfer characteristics and determinants at medical academic and public research institutions. It aims at identifying and analyzing the literature on the content and context of knowledge transfer policies, decision-making processes, and actors at academic and public institutions. The search strategy includes the databases PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, and DiVa. These databases will be searched based on pre-specified search terms. The studies selected for inclusion in the review will be critically assessed for their quality utilizing the Qualitative Research Checklist developed by the Clinical Appraisal Skills Programme. Data extraction and synthesis will be based on the meta-ethnographic approach. This review seeks to further the understanding of the kinds of transfer pathways that exist in medical
Jukkala, Angela; Deupree, Joy P; Graham, Shannon
Health care providers' awareness and knowledge of the impact that limited health literacy has on the health care system and the individual patient was measured. In addition, the usefulness of the Limited Literacy Impact Measure (LLIM) was examined. Two hundred forty providers and students attending a university-sponsored presentation on health literacy were invited to participate. Participants were most knowledgeable about the impact on patients and less knowledgeable about the impact on the health care system. Health care provider knowledge and awareness of limited health literacy continues to be a challenge. Educational programs developed for providers and patients are needed to address the health literacy crisis. Improving health literacy will improve health outcomes while reducing the use of unnecessary health care services.
Schmidt, Danilo Marcello; Böttcher, Lena; Wilberg, Julian; Kammerl, Daniel; Lindemann, Udo
Dealing with knowledge as a relevant resource and factor for production has become increasingly important in the course of globalization. This work focuses on questions about transferring knowledge when many companies work together in a cluster of enterprises. We developed a model of this transfer based on the theory of clusters from the New Institutional Economics’ point of view and based on existing theories about knowledge and knowledge transfer. This theoretical construct is evaluated and...
Karlen, Yves; Compagnoni, Miriam
Implicit theories about the nature of human attributes as either malleable or fixed influence how people perceive knowledge and approach different tasks. Two studies explored the relationship between implicit theory of writing ability, metacognitive strategy knowledge (MSK), and strategy use in the context of academic writing. The pre-study with N…
Marco Arboli, M.
Educational and training systems are a determining factor in the potential for excellence, innovation and competitiveness in the framework of research as a means to improve know-how, capabilities and skills. In recent years, the EU has supported open and distance education through its innovation, education, training and research programs. The European initiatives promote efficiency by improving quality and occupational training in different sectors and by fostering the use of the information technologies. Having followed the new trends in training and the advantages obtained by using the net in training, the CIEMAT has also taken an interest in improving the learning and knowledge transfer environments through its virtual center. It is a space for developing online educational activities in certain areas, in which the center can be considered as expert, such as all subjects related to energy and environment: renewable, radiological protection, atmospheric contamination, fusion, nuclear power, etc. This virtual space includes a Virtual Classroom and a specialized Thematic Portals, and it aims to be a place of reference for the areas of knowledge related to energy and environment. (Author) 5 refs
Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Choi, Chong-Ju
An imbalance exists in almost any type of knowledge and technology transfer due to the information asymmetry of the relationship. However, this is especially the case for reverse technology and knowledge transfer which is epitomised for us by "transfers from an MNC's subsidiary to its headquarters".
Pryakhin, A.; Tikhomirov, G.
Full text: The strategic goal of MEPhI is to become a global leader in education, science and innovations. Influence of the world development and current trends imply flexibility of the university to respond to today’s challenges and ability to introduce new forms and organizational structures for effective and efficient education. Strategic Academic Unit (SAE) is a new academic and scientific entity engaging nuclear industry partners in processes related to knowledge breeding, handling, and transfer through education and experience. The new SAE is titled as Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering (INPhE). SAE comprises objects belonging to three kinds or classes: education, research, and innovations. Education objects are education programs, teachers, students. Research objects are scientific teams and related mega-science laboratories working for fundamental and applied research. Innovations are typically knowledge assets created in research groups together with industrial partners and customers, recognized by the market, and used by all involved players for the next generations in the knowledge breeding chains. The key elements representing capacity of the SAE and maturity of the university are knowledge assets which are outputs of the intellectual activity and intellectual property itself, that they create. (author
Welsch, David M.; Zimmer, David M.
This paper draws attention to a subtle, but concerning, empirical challenge common in panel data models that seek to estimate the relationship between student transfers and district academic performance. Specifically, if such models have a dynamic element, and if the estimator controls for unobserved traits by including district-level effects,…
While many US colleges and universities offer specialized writing courses for multilingual students entering as freshmen, including international students, there is typically little instructional support for the academic English needs of international transfer students. This article describes the development and implementation of a writing course…
The study addresses the degree of transfer of literacy dimensions of academic proficiency (AP), that is, reading comprehension and writing, across three languages--Russian (L1), Hebrew (L2), and English (L3)--and investigates whether a common conceptual source underlies the linguistic and cognitive operations of the trilingual learner (Grosjean,…
The topic of this paper is the school’s responsibility in the intersection between traditional and academic knowledge. The focus is on Sámi traditional knowledge, traditional ways of learning and the school as an area for learning. The heading indirectly communicates that daily living and traditional knowledge are connected. That is however too simple as a general statement, especially in a present-day cultural vitalization perspective. Central concepts in this reflection will be tradition re...
This is due to many international agreements including the Intellectual Property Rights law, the World Trade Organisation, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and so on, which negatively affect local/indigenous communities. The knowledge base of local communities in the South is undermined by such multilateral and ...
Wu, Chien-Hsing; Kao, Shu-Chen; Shih, Lan-Hsin
The transfer of tacit knowledge, one of the most important issues in the knowledge sharing context, needs a multi-dimensional perception in its process. Information technology's (IT) supporting role has already been addressed in the process of tacit knowledge transfer. However, IT has its own characteristics, and in turn, may have dissimilar…
Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario
This article contributes to the literature on knowledge transfer via labor mobility by providing new evidence regarding the role of educational diversity in knowledge transfer. In tracing worker flows between firms in Denmark over the period 1995–2005, we find that knowledge carried by workers who...
Castillo, Jean-Marie; Park, Yoon Soo; Harris, Ilene; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Sood, Lonika; Clark, Maureen D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Brydges, Ryan; Norman, Geoffrey; Woods, Nicole
'Transfer' is the application of a previously learned concept to solve a new problem in another context. Transfer is essential for basic science education because, to be valuable, basic science knowledge must be transferred to clinical problem solving. Therefore, better understanding of interventions that enhance the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning is essential. This review systematically identifies interventions described in the health professions education (HPE) literature that document the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning, and considers teaching and assessment strategies. A systematic search of the literature was conducted. Articles related to basic science teaching at the undergraduate level in HPE were analysed using a 'transfer out'/'transfer in' conceptual framework. 'Transfer out' refers to the application of knowledge developed in one learning situation to the solving of a new problem. 'Transfer in' refers to the use of previously acquired knowledge to learn from new problems or learning situations. Of 9803 articles initially identified, 627 studies were retrieved for full text evaluation; 15 were included in the literature review. A total of 93% explored 'transfer out' to clinical reasoning and 7% (one article) explored 'transfer in'. Measures of 'transfer out' fostered by basic science knowledge included diagnostic accuracy over time and in new clinical cases. Basic science knowledge supported learning - 'transfer in' - of new related content and ultimately the 'transfer out' to diagnostic reasoning. Successful teaching strategies included the making of connections between basic and clinical sciences, the use of commonsense analogies, and the study of multiple clinical problems in multiple contexts. Performance on recall tests did not reflect the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning. Transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning is an essential component of HPE that
Guzzo, Linda R.
Knowledge is a valuable resource that fosters innovation and growth in organizations. There are two forms of knowledge: explicit knowledge or documented information and tacit knowledge or undocumented information which resides in individuals' minds. There is heightened interest in knowledge management and specifically the transfer of tacit…
Full text: As a result of an aging workforce at US federal agencies and federal contractors’ workforce, it is projected that over 20% of the current workforce will be retiring over the next decade. Typically, the institutional knowledge and technical expertise is possessed by senior staff members approaching retirement. In many instances, this knowledge is lost once the employee retires; therefore, creating a huge gap in knowledge and knowledge transfer to new employees joining the workforce. Companies and federal agencies should develop methods to not only maintain the corporate knowledge and technical expertise, but also a transfer this valuable knowledge to the next generation of scientist, engineer and technicians entering the workforce. For example, Florida International University supports DOE-EM’s knowledge transfer through the DOE Fellows STEM programme and the development of international technology platform such as the Knowledge Management Information Tool for nuclear decommissioning (KM-IT). This paper will discuss the knowledge transfer issues faced by federal agencies and federal contractors and innovative tools to capture, store, maintain, and transfer the knowledge to the new generation of scientists, engineers and technicians entering the workplace. (author
Ghitescu, Petre; Prisecaru, Ilie
According to the requirements of the Romanian Nuclear Programme regarding the education and training of the skilled personnel for the nuclear facilities, a knowledge transfer network named REFIN (in Romanian: Retea Educationala in Fizica si Ingineria Nucleara) was developed since 2005. The knowledge target field is nuclear physics and engineering. The main objective of this network is to develop an effective, flexible and modern educational system in the nuclear physics and engineering area which could meet the requirements of all known types of nuclear facilities and therewith be redundant with the perspectives of the European Research Area (FP7, EURATOM). A global strategy was proposed in order to harmonize the curricula between the network facilities to implement pilot modern teaching programs (courses/modules), to introduce advanced learning methods (as Systematic Approach to Training, e-learning and distance-learning), to strengthen and better use the existing research infrastructures of the research institutes in network. The education and training strategy is divided into several topics: university engineering , master, post-graduate, Ph.D. degree, post-doctoral activity, training for industry, improvement. For the first time in our country, a modular scheme is used allowing staff with different technical background to participate at different levels. In this respect, the European system with transferable credits (ECTS) is used. Based on this strategy, courses in 'Radioactive Waste Management' and 'Numerical and Experimental Methods in Reactor Physics' for both MS students and for industry. This way the training activity which a student attends will allow him or her to be involved, depending on specific professional needs, into a flexible educational scheme. This scheme will ensure competence and enhancement and also the possibility of qualification development and a better mobility on labour market. This kind of activity is already in progress in the
Côté, Hélène; de Elía, Ramón; Larrivée, Caroline; Chaumont, Diane
Over the last decade, many countries implemented various initiatives to bring their scientific community to develop more research projects addressing end-user needs. This shift in priorities gave rise to new expressions such as « actionable science », « co-production of knowledge » etc. This phenomenon is noteworthy in climate and climate change related research due to the pressing needs for societies to both adapt to climate change and quickly reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Although the attempt to include users into their projects made perfect sense, academic and even governmental researchers have often been overwhelmed by the "language barrier", the variety of needs, and the magnitude of the viewpoint change required to provide salient, credible and legitimate information to decision makers. In addition, many researchers worry that their growing involvement with users might jeopardize the progress of their own scientific interests and slowdown their academic careers. Useŕs needs are not necessarily well defined nor solely driven by scientific issues. They are a more or less complex mixture of short-term obligations like the sudden realization that an imminent decision needs to take climate change into account, long-term concerns about their risks and vulnerabilities, and knowledge gaps involving interdisciplinary inputs and communication challenges. In this context, the emergence of boundary organizations is a convincing approach to build the interface between science and end users. Since a single individual or even a single organization is rarely able to completely fulfill useŕs expectations, this presentation will show how strong and productive links between academia, boundary organization and users can stimulate knowledge transfer among all parties. To that purpose, examples will be taken from the 15-year existence of Ouranos Consortium on Regional Climatology and Adaptation to Climate Change (Montreal, Canada). We will see how Ouranoś staff -with
: (1) cultural sensitivity, (2) transfer and learning capacity of partners, and (3) the strategic importance and uniqueness of the relationships. The evidence also highlights the importance of inter-cultural communication skills in the knowledge transfer process...
Smith, Charles D.
Structured Abstract Research discoveries may lead to products for commercial development. A central consideration for the researcher is how involved s/he will be in the commercialization process. In some cases a university out-licenses the intellectual property, while in other cases the investigator may want to be involved in the development process and choose to start his or her own company to develop, and possibly to manufacture and sell the product. Before undertaking such a challenge, however, the investigator-turned-entrepreneur must consider a variety of issues, including: career goals, financial and time commitments, potential conflicts of interest and/or commitment, start-up funding, as well as his or her ability to run a company or step aside to allow business experts to make necessary decisions. This article discusses some personal considerations in deciding to start a spin-out company and provides information on some of the available government grants to assist you should you decide to undertake your product’s commercial development. In particular, the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer programs of federal funding agencies are often the source of very early funding for new biomedical companies. PMID:21245769
Smith, Charles D
Research discoveries may lead to products for commercial development. A central consideration for the researcher is how involved she or he will be in the commercialization process. In some cases, a university out-licenses the intellectual property, whereas in other cases, the investigator may want to be involved in the development process and choose to start his or her own company to develop and possibly to manufacture and sell the product. Before undertaking such a challenge, however, the investigator-turned-entrepreneur must consider a variety of issues, including career goals, financial and time commitments, potential conflicts of interest and/or commitment, start-up funding, and his or her ability to run a company or step aside to allow business experts to make necessary decisions. This paper discusses some personal considerations in deciding to start a spinout company and provides information on some of the available government grants to assist you should you decide to undertake your product's commercial development. In particular, the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer programs of federal funding agencies often are the source of early funding for new biomedical companies.
Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema
This paper aims to investigate the knowledge arising during the later phases of the lifecycle of complex customised machinery and understand how this knowledge is transferred between projects and between different user groups. A series of four identical rigs for offshore drilling was selected as ...... investigated. It was found that the transfer of knowledge primarily occurred within the individual phases of the product’s lifecycle and there was poor transfer across the different phases....
This paper describes the issues relating to human resources and maintaining capabilities in an organization. The sustaining elements are: vision and plan for excellence; invest in the plant; invest in human capital; find and fix problems. There is much discussion about knowledge transfer and retention that is mainly focused on technical attributes and proficiency. We are losing more people with the requisite managerial and leadership capability than we can develop and backfill at a Time when our industry is facing increased competition and decreased margins. We are vulnerable because this Increases our dependence on augmented staff for certain key leadership roles. Previous methods for developing people will take too long and does not appeal to current generation. A solution, not the only solution, but the one we have chosen is initial hiring of operators, maintainers and engineers, internal promotion for key roles (FLM, FSOS, Shift Supervisor, Section Manager, ANO) and focus on all three aspects of capability and looking for leadership traits. Look for ambition, drive, initiative and motivation. Identify, separate and stream. Take specific measures to accelerate growth.
Michael E. Kyobe; Mzwandile M. Shongwe
Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies) to pro...
Peace Ossom Williamson
Full Text Available A Review of: Catalano, A. (2015. The effect of a situated learning environment in a distance education information literacy course. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(5, 653-659. http://dx.doi:org/10.1016/j.acalib.2015.06.008 Objective – To assess the efficacy of the application of situated cognition principles in education students’ transfer of knowledge to practice in an online information literacy course. “Situation cognition” refers to a theory in which expert behaviour-modeling, authentic activity and apprenticeship, and learning environment are integral in learning. Design – A randomized controlled trial. Setting – A small private university in New York State. Subjects – 85 education college students in 7 sections of a 1-credit online course titled Introduction to Library Research and Technology. Methods – Each course section was randomly assigned via cluster sampling to “situated cognition” treatment (n = 48 or control conditions (n = 37. The treatment sections provided students with expert modeling, scaffolding, authentic activity, and problem-based assessments according to the principles of situated learning and teaching for transfer; while the control sections provided students with traditional instruction of lectures and handouts.
Full Text Available Our purpose with this article is to show the importance of assessing trends and promoting innovation in a real business context, through a cluster ecosystem, mainly composed of micro-enterprises in the agro-industrial Portuguese sector.As many studies show, Inovcluster (which has 158 associates, from which 120 are enterprises is also a geographic region cluster, which improves innovation performance of businesses seeking to gain competitiveness and ability to improve their exportations in the agro-industrial Portuguese sector.The role of the cluster is fundamental to creating a model for knowledge transfer of innovation capacity, interconnecting its institutional, scientific and business associates. This model has to be adapted to the sector and enterprise characteristics, relying in an interconnecting structure which is more or less decentralized according to the mentioned features. Here we present an experience and case study of the Inovcluster ecosystem and its trends and innovation transfer to business value creation, contextualized within the regional strategy for smart specialization.We have shown how, through the establishment of an Inovcluster network, it is possible to integrate the contribution of different research and academic centres, channelled to assist micro-enterprises by innovating within a geographical constraint.
Guldberg, Karen; Parsons, Sarah; Porayska-Pomsta, Kaska; Keay-Bright, Wendy
Experimental intervention studies constitute the current dominant research designs in the autism education field. Such designs are based on a "knowledge-transfer" model of evidence-based practice in which research is conducted by researchers, and is then "transferred" to practitioners to enable them to implement evidence-based…
Keshavarz-Nia, Navid R.
This study sought to examine the relationship between social interaction and tacit knowledge transfer, as a dyadic exchange of critical knowledge between a Subject Matter Expert (SME) and a Knowledge Recipient (KR). Knowledge was defined as information and know-how, not merely as organized data or a system, but an active social process that was…
Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes
Full Text Available The current study postulates that students' self-reported perceptions on their academic processes are a type of metacognition: academic metacognitive knowledge (AMcK. We investigated, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, three hypotheses: (a AMcK explains the variance of factor scores of students' learning approaches (SLA and academic motivation (AM; (b AMcK is distinct from working metacognition (WMC; and (c AMcK has incremental validity, beyond WMC, on the explanation of general academic achievement (GAA variance. Two tests (indicators of WMC and two scales (indicators of AMcK were administered to 684 ten-to-eighteen-year-old Brazilian children and adolescents. Annual grades in Math, Portuguese, Geography and History were used as indicators of GAA. The results show that none of the three hypotheses can be refuted.
Watson, Erin M
This study investigated whether Canadian academic health sciences librarians found knowledge of the health sciences to be important and, if so, how they acquired and maintained this knowledge. Data were gathered using a Web-based questionnaire made available to Canadian academic health sciences librarians. Respondents recognized the need for subject knowledge: 93.3% of respondents indicated that subject knowledge was "very important" or "somewhat important" to doing their job. However, few respondents felt that holding a degree in the health sciences was necessary. Respondents reported devoting on average more than 6 hours per week to continuing education through various means. Reading or browsing health sciences journals, visiting Websites, studying independently, and participating in professional associations were identified by the largest number of participants as the best ways to become and stay informed. Although more research needs to be done with a larger sample, subject knowledge continues to be important to Canadian academic health sciences librarians. Continuing education, rather than formal degree studies, is the method of choice for obtaining and maintaining this knowledge.
Full Text Available This article discusses the experience of being an academic in the UK in the contemporary climate of neoliberal capitalism and ‘metric power’ (Beers 2016. Drawing on existing literature and our own practice, the first portion of the paper explores the relationship between neoliberalism, metrics and knowledge. We then examine how neoliberal mantras and instruments impact the university’s structures and processes, and reflect on consequences for the academic self. We take as a starting point the context of increasing workloads and the pressure on academics to excel in multiple roles, from ‘world-leading’ researchers to ‘excellent’ teachers and ‘service providers’ to professional administrators performing recruitment and (selfmarketing tasks. Neoliberal academia, we suggest, promotes a meritocratic ideology of individual achievement that frames success and failure as purely personal ‘achievements’, which encourages a competitive ethos and chronic self-criticism. This article insists that these problems need to be understood in the context of neoliberal policy-making and the corporatisation of knowledge, including funding cuts and grant imperatives, the low status of teaching, the cynical instrumentation of university league tables, and increased institutional reliance on precarious academic labour. The article goes on to focus on responses that resist, challenge or, in some cases, compound, the problems identified in part one. Responses by dissatisfied academics range in style and approach – some decide against an academic career; others adopt a strategy of individual withdrawal within the system by trying to create and protect spaces of independence – for example, by refusing to engage beyond officially required minimums. This article argues that opportunities for positive systemic change can be found in collective efforts to oppose the status quo and to create alternatives for how academic labour is organised. Therein
Fernández-Molina, Juan-Carlos; Moraes, João Batista E.; Guimarães, José Augusto C.
A solid professional performance on the part of academic librarians at present calls for adequate knowledge about copyright law, not only for the development of their own tasks without infringing the law, but also to guide and provide pertinent advice for library users (faculty and students). This paper presents the results of an online survey of…
This paper contributes to the discussion about the marketisation of universities by providing a historical perspective. Going back to the time when the market for academic knowledge emerged, I argue that it was created through incorporating a number of inherent tensions that have been, and still are, shaping its development. I show how these…
The present study was conducted in the context of learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) with the purpose of assessing the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in academic listening comprehension. The Vocabulary Size Test (VST, Nation & Beglar, 2007) and the Word Associates Test (WAT, Read, 2004) were administered to…
Kress, Tricia M.
Critical theory and critical research are undeniably useful for revealing oppressive social structures and challenging the status quo in the realm of grand theory; yet, they are also useful for creating knowledge structures when academics deploy them on the ground. This article explores how critical theory and critical research can be used to…
Kothuis, B.L.M.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs
The MFFD research program aims for integral design of multifunctional flood defenses. A team of academic researchers from multiple disciplinary backgrounds would integrate their knowledge to reach this goal. The aim of the current research project was to design and
Tan, Christine Nya-Ling; Ramayah, T.
Introduction: This research addresses a primary issue that involves motivating academics to share knowledge. Adapting the theory of reasoned action, this study examines the role of motivation that consists of intrinsic motivators (commitment; enjoyment in helping others) and extrinsic motivators (reputation; organizational rewards) to determine…
Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.
This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…
F.M. van Blankenstein (Floris); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)
textabstractThis study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion
Townsend, Dianna; Bear, Donald; Templeton, Shane; Burton, Amy
The purpose of the current study was to determine relationships between orthographic and morphological awareness of academic words and achievement across content areas. Participants (n = 256), diverse seventh and eighth graders, took three word knowledge measures; two standardized achievement measures were used as outcomes. Orthographic awareness…
Full Text Available In this article, we describe imec’s 101 Programme for academic technology transfer and explain how it supports researchers by following a structured process in a limited amount of time and by carefully involving different stakeholders and people with relevant skills and expertise. The programme combines insights in terms of processes and of team composition from the entrepreneurship literature and puts them into practice in an internal incubation programme that is generated from the bottom-up. Based on hands-on experiences and interviews with key stakeholders in the process, we evaluate the programme and distill lessons learned. The article highlights the importance of a structured technology transfer process in the early stages of opportunity discovery and entrepreneurial action, and it offers insights on team formation for academic spin-offs.
Tan, Christine Nya-Ling
Although knowledge sharing (KS) has been acknowledged as important, universities face issues that may hinder active sharing among its faculty members such as the absence of trust among its members or insufficient incentives rewarded to those who deserved it. The aim of this research is to focus on the impact of knowledge management (KM) factors in…
Cheng, Tingting; Wang, Hengshan; Wang, Lubang
In reality, most economic entities are hierarchical organizations. But in the hierarchical organizations tacit knowledge can be transferred across different hierarchies even across different departments. By use of complex networks technology, a hierarchical organization’s framework is modeled in this paper. Through quantifying a number of technical datas we analyze and have a research on the transfer distance and the optimum tacit knowledge transfer path in hierarchy networks.
Bamford, DR; Forrester, PL; Reid, I; Dehe, B; Bamford, J; Papalexi, M
Where is the competitive edge in Knowledge Transfer? - The impact of KTPs Keywords: Knowledge transfer, Projects, Impact Topic(s): Empirical Research in Operations Management; Innovation, Product and Service Development; Technology Management in Operations Purpose Effective technology transfer from universities to enterprises is a theme that resonates throughout many countries and universities have long been seen as a hotbed of new ideas, technologies and ways of doing things (Henderson, Jaff...
The aim of this study is to investigate how success is the social media as a tool for knowledge sharing among scholars in Indonesia. To evaluate the success of social media we develop a model base on Delone and McLeane IS Success Model. In this article, we would like discuss the process of developing the research model. In developing the model, we conduct literature review from knowledge management, social media and IS Success Model area from previous study. This study resulted in the social success model for academic knowledge sharing in Indonesia.
Catherine D. Ennis
Full Text Available Literate individuals possess knowledge and skill and can apply these to perform tasks in novel settings. Knowledge is at the heart of physical literacy and provides the foundation for knowing what to do and how and when to perform. In this paper I argue that physical literacy includes not only knowledge for performance but also the ability to apply knowledge and use knowledge for innovation. Scholars since the 1930s have addressed the role of knowledge in physical literacy designing curricula centered on transmitting knowledge through a range of interdisciplinary approaches to physical education. This emphasis on physical literacy curricula continues today in the Science, PE, & Me! and The Science of Healthful Living interdisciplinary curricula.
Ennis, Catherine D
Literate individuals possess knowledge and skill and can apply these to perform tasks in novel settings. Knowledge is at the heart of physical literacy and provides the foundation for knowing what to do and how and when to perform. In this paper I argue that physical literacy includes not only knowledge for performance but also the ability to apply knowledge and use knowledge for innovation. Scholars since the 1930s have addressed the role of knowledge in physical literacy designing curricula centered on transmitting knowledge through a range of interdisciplinary approaches to physical education. This emphasis on physical literacy curricula continues today in the Science, PE, & Me! and The Science of Healthful Living interdisciplinary curricula.
Full Text Available The paper describes the problems of knowledge transfer in networks based on the steel industry in Poland. Knowledge is the key element in the development of a company’s competitiveness. This is particularly important in the case of networking, where there is a process of mutual learning between partners. Based on the example of Arcelor-Mittal Group, the transfer of knowledge within an intra-organizational network was presented.
Full Text Available Purpose: Information organization have been a way to facilitate information retrieval. Thus, different knowledge organization systems have been developed over the years. In today's world information and knowledge based economy are the competitive advantage of organizations, and since that knowledge organization systems are one of the pillars of the economy advantage, so this paper sought to investigate the two knowledge information systems: Dewey decimal system to represent the traditional systems and modern systems of representative Folksonomy, in economy advantage in libraries. Methodology: The study sample of this paper is 4800 thesis of an academic library, and this research method is the comparative method, based on the value of information formula. Results: The results of this study indicate that Folksonomy system is much more economical than Dewey system. This article is an original study has not been published before in any other publication. So Folksonomy is a economical knowledge organization system.
Ioi, Toshihiro; Ono, Masakazu; Ishii, Kota; Kato, Kazuhiko
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for the transfer of knowledge and skills in project management (PM) based on techniques in knowledge management (KM). Design/methodology/approach: The literature contains studies on methods to extract experiential knowledge in PM, but few studies exist that focus on methods to convert…
Oye, Nathaniel David; Salleh, Mazleena
This paper present a systematic overview of barriers and solutions of e-learning in knowledge management (KM) and knowledge transfer (KT) with more focus on organizations. The paper also discusses KT in organizational settings and KT in the field of e-learning. Here, an e-learning initiative shows adaptive solutions to overcome knowledge transfer…
Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana
framework that examines the impacts of key knowledge-senders’ abilities and behaviors on the knowledge-transfer process. We test our theory using survey data collected from 199 South Korean IJVs. We find that the willingness of foreign parent firms to share knowledge is manifested in their efforts...
Full Text Available The ideology of the information society has transformed the performance of academic duties within higher education through the permeation of information and communication technologies (ICTs into all aspects of the university. These technologies provide a common ground upon which teaching, research, and administration fuse; but how have such arrangements affected the quality of academic work? This ideology functions through values, hierarchies, rewards and punishments, and surveillance that influence routine work. Using a critical orientation, this paper examines the transformation of the quality of the intellectual products and work processes of higher education in a North American context. It examines how the educational technology industry fosters a type of control over academic workers, inhibiting the individual laborer’s pursuit of educational quality. Grounded in Foucault’s concept of “disciplinary power” and in Freire’s notions of critical consciousness, it suggests a community-centered approach toward building knowledge capital in higher education.
Woltmann, Sabrina; Alkærsig, Lars
novel statistical computational methods form the field of natural language processing to identify the knowledge transfer. We investigate how the level of formalization of collaboration affects the knowledge transfer between universities and companies. Preliminary results indicate that we are able......This paper develops a framework for a novel measurement of outcomes of different types of company-university collaboration. We test whether the level of formalization and the type of interaction influences the outcomes, in particular knowledge transfer. We extend the existing research by applying...... to identify additional forms of knowledge transfer and give companies insights into their potential benefits from different types of relationships. We propose a new perspective that enables companies to shape and adapt their external knowledge search as effective as possible....
Larsson, Annika; Ohlsson, Kjell; Roos, Anna
This report displays how the Swedish nuclear power plants Forsmark, Oskarshamn and Ringhals work with knowledge management. The report also consists of a literature review of appropriate ways to extract tacit knowledge as well as methods to transfer competence. The report is made up of a smaller number of interviews at the nuclear power plants in combination with a questionnaire distributed to a larger number of people at the plants. The results of the interview study is that only one of the Swedish nuclear power plants have a programme to transfer knowledge from older staff to newer. This is, however, not a programme for everyone. Another plant has a programme for knowledge building, but only for their specialists. At both plants, which lack a programme, the interviewees request more structure in knowledge transfer; even though they feel the current way of transferring knowledge with mentors works well. Besides more structure, interviewees present a wish to have more time for knowledge transfer as well as the opportunity to recruit more than needed. Recruiting more than needed is however not very simple due to multiple causes such as nominal sizing departments and a difficulty of recruiting people to work far from larger cities. The way things are now, many feel too under-staffed and under a lot of time pressure daily to also have time for knowledge transfer besides their normal work
Jessani, Nasreen S; Boulay, Marc G; Bennett, Sara C
The potential for academic research institutions to facilitate knowledge exchange and influence evidence-informed decision-making has been gaining ground. Schools of public health (SPHs) may play a key knowledge brokering role-serving as agencies of and for development. Understanding academic-policymaker networks can facilitate the enhancement of links between policymakers and academic faculty at SPHs, as well as assist in identifying academic knowledge brokers (KBs). Using a census approach, we administered a sociometric survey to academic faculty across six SPHs in Kenya to construct academic-policymaker networks. We identified academic KBs using social network analysis (SNA) in a two-step approach: First, we ranked individuals based on (1) number of policymakers in their network; (2) number of academic peers who report seeking them out for advice on knowledge translation and (3) their network position as 'inter-group connectors'. Second, we triangulated the three scores and re-ranked individuals. Academic faculty scoring within the top decile across all three measures were classified as KBs. Results indicate that each SPH commands a variety of unique as well as overlapping relationships with national ministries in Kenya. Of 124 full-time faculty, we identified 7 KBs in 4 of the 6 SPHs. Those scoring high on the first measure were not necessarily the same individuals scoring high on the second. KBs were also situated in a wide range along the 'connector/betweenness' measure. We propose that a composite score rather than traditional 'betweenness centrality', provides an alternative means of identifying KBs within these networks. In conclusion, SNA is a valuable tool for identifying academic-policymaker networks in Kenya. More efforts to conduct similar network studies would permit SPH leadership to identify existing linkages between faculty and policymakers, shared linkages with other SPHs and gaps so as to contribute to evidence-informed health policies. © The
This paper, discusses the impact of oligopolistic research on transfer of global pharmaceutical manufacturing technology to the less developed countries of the South (Nigeria) in post globalism. On the basis of empirical evidence from the advanced industrialized world, it is argued that the growth of oligopolistic research has ...
Haryanti Mohd Affandi; Mohd Hasril Amiruddin; Yuhanis Che Hassan; Fatin Liyana Zainudin
Conducting research and implementing its findings is an important ongoing agenda to empower institutions of higher education in Malaysia. Despite ongoing efforts, the number of academics undertaking research activities in the technical and vocational higher education institutions namely, polytechnic education sector remains quite low. This study explored potential factors that may contribute to this situation namely, academics’ levels of research knowledge, awareness, and attitudes towards re...
The literature concerning links between sport knowledge, sport performance and academic ability is reviewed and related to empirical evidence obtained from a GCSE examination in Physical Education, together with GCSE Mathematics and GCSE English grades. For most sports examined, there was a small but significant positive correlation between sport performance and GCSE Mathematics and English grades, confirming the findings of most previous research. Using a multilevel multivariate model, average sport performance, academic ability and sex were important explanatory variables for sport knowledge, yet only academic ability was an important explanatory variable for the concept of physical education knowledge. Ability in game sports, rather than athletics, were related to sport knowledge. Males scored higher for sport knowledge than females, after taking into account sport performance and academic ability. The effects of sport performance and academic ability on sport knowledge were stable across schools, but there was some evidence that the effect of sex varied across schools. These findings support theories of a role for sport knowledge in sport performance; that such a role should be greater in game sports; that academic ability is important for gaining such knowledge; and they highlight differences in sport knowledge between the sexes.
Michael E. Kyobe
Full Text Available Group learning plays a key role in the transfer of knowledge. In institutions of learning, it enhances students’ understanding, critical thinking, integration of knowledge and knowledge sharing. However, the transfer of knowledge in group projects is often impeded by factors such as time and budget constraints, individual and social barriers, and a lack of motivation.Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated.This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering.The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging
Lemos,Bernardo; Joia,Luiz Antonio
Knowledge and management of such knowledge have been studied for some time now in the field of Management. However, in the 1990s, with the growth in the economy based on intangible assets, companies needed more than an unstructured approach to corporate knowledge management to succeed in this new competitive environment. Therefore, this article aims to identify, in an exploratory way, the relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within a major Brazilian oil company trough a case study. T...
One of the most attractive features of photocatalytic reactions is the ability to achieve energetically uphill (photosynthetic) reactions. In many photocatalytic reactions, the reactions involve multielectron transfers with the adsorbed intermediates. In this case, photocatalysis is nothing but electrocatalysis initiated and driven by the electron potential shift caused by the photocatalyst (photon absorber). This condition is indeed true for photocatalysts for water splitting, which are also electrocatalysts because both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) require multiple electron transfers at the active surfaces. This chapter deals with the product-side in the six-gear concept. It shows the electrocatalytic performance when using an electrocatalyst on the surface. The chapter further shows the current-potential curve for an electrocatalytic process isolated from the photocatalyst process. For an electrocatalyst to achieve electrochemical reactions, the potential of the catalyst must be shifted at the interface of the semiconductor, providing electromotive force or overpotential for redox reactions.
Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Paravizo, Esdras
and workwise distance between operations and engineering design teams, integrating human factors and transferring knowledge are key aspects when designing for better performance systems. Research Objective: Based on an in-depth empirical investigation in an offshore oil company, this study aims to provide......Summative Statement: Integrating human factors and users’ experiences in design projects is a well-known challenge. This study focus on the specific challenges for transferring these experiences and how using a knowledge transfer model can help this integration on the design of high-risk productive...... a framework for the knowledge transfer process from operations into engineering design that helps identifying and facing the challenges for such a transfer process. Methodology: The study was carried out as a case study in an offshore oil company. We used the empirical data collected through interviews...
Pentenero, Monica; Chiecchio, Andrea; Gandolfo, Sergio
The present study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of dentists practicing in the Turin Province (north-western Italy) regarding oral cancer prevention and early detection, to weigh the impact of academic and continuing education and to compare actual and perceived knowledge/practice. A survey was prospectively carried out using an anonymous 23-item questionnaire. Bivariate analyses, multivariate logistic regression analyses and Spearman's correlation analyses examined the overall effect of demographic/background characteristics of responders, with particular emphasis on academic and continuing education. The responder group was formed by 450 dentists representative of the Turin Province Council of Dentists. Both academic and continuing education have a significant impact on knowledge, with a significant association between the time elapsed from continuing education and the degree of knowledge. Knowledge acquired during graduation is seen to significantly weaken in the absence of continuing education. The present study highlights the need of both thorough academic curricula and compulsory current continuing education.
Nielsen, Christian; Cappelen, Katja
This article discusses mechanisms, enablers and barriers for knowledge transfer in university-industry collaboration projects involving companies, students and researchers. Data is collected through 35 qualitative interviews with Danish and Norwegian representatives from the above categories. All...
Profili, Silvia; Sammarra, Alessia; Dandi, Roberto; Mascia, Daniele
Many countries are seeing a dramatic increase in the average age of their clinicians. The literature often highlights the challenges of high replacement costs and the need for strategies to retain older personnel. Less discussed are the potential pitfalls of knowledge acquisition and transfer that accompany this aging issue. We propose a conceptual framework for understanding how clinicians' age interact with ability, motivation, and opportunity to predict clinical knowledge transfer and acquisition in health care organizations. This study integrates life-span development perspectives with the ability-motivation-opportunity framework to develop a number of testable propositions on the interaction between age and clinicians' ability, motivation, and opportunity to acquire and transfer clinical knowledge. We posit that the interaction between ability (the knowledge and skills to acquire knowledge), motivation (the willingness to acquire and transfer knowledge), and opportunity (resources required for acquiring and transferring knowledge) is a determinant of successful knowledge management. We also suggest that clinicians' age-and more specifically, the cognitive and motivational changes that accompany aging-moderates these relationships. This study contributes to existing research by offering a set of testable propositions for future research. These propositions will hopefully encourage empirical research into this important topic and lead to guidelines for reducing the risks of organizational knowledge loss due to aging. We suggest several ways that health care organizations can tailor managerial practices in order to help capitalize on the knowledge-based resources held by their younger and older clinicians. Such initiatives may affect employees' ability (e.g., by providing specific training programs), motivation (e.g., by expanding subjective perceptions of future time at work), and opportunities (e.g., by providing mentoring, reverse mentoring, and coaching
The sustained phase of transition to economies characterised by considerable, and sometimes revolutionary, advances in science, technology and related industries, coupled with subsequent profound changes in economy and society, has increased the importance of the knowledge-intensive phases of production for value-creation. As enterprises, in fact,…
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the adaption of the DEMOLA Innovation Model, developed in Finland, to the South African and African context, supported by an interrogation of tacit knowledge through an adaption of Holsapple and Joshi’s (2002...
Roč. 22, č. 2 (2012), s. 148-161 ISSN 0959-3543 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP403/09/P203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : impact, knowledge transfer * knowledge transfer * Roma expertise Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.684, year: 2012 http://tap.sagepub.com/content/22/2/148.abstract
Guzman, Gustavo; Trivelato, Luiz F.
Purpose: This paper aims to analyse and evaluate the transfer process of codified knowledge (CK) performed under two different approaches: the "socio-technical" and the "top-down". It is argued that the socio-technical approach supports the transfer of CK better than the top-down approach. Design/methodology/approach: Case study methodology was…
Cynthia Miner; Ruth Jacobs; Dennis Dykstra; Becky Bittner
This proceedings compiles papers presented by extensionists, natural resource specialists, scientists, technology transfer specialists, and others at an international conference that examined knowledge and technology transfer theories, methods, and case studies. Theory topics included adult education, applied science, extension, diffusion of innovations, social...
Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin
Literature has identified formal and informal channels in university knowledge and technology transfer (KTT). While formal KTT typically involves a legal contract on a patent or on collaborative research activities, informal transfer channels refer to personal contacts and hence to the tacit dime...
Dinsmore, Daniel L.; Baggetta, Peter; Doyle, Stephanie; Loughlin, Sandra M.
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that transfer ability (positive and negative) varies depending on the nature of the problems, using the knowledge transfer matrix, as well as being dependent on the individual differences of the learner. A total of 178 participants from the United States and New Zealand completed measures of prior…
Heeager, Lise Tordrup; Nielsen, Peter Axel
practices in an interpretive case study. The case company is a pharmaceutical firm where we studied how they develop software and how they transfer their own experience. Based on the literature we develop an initial framework of barriers to knowledge transfer and apply it to interpret the case study. From...
A. van Zyl
Full Text Available This article presents part of the findings of the Research Marketing and Technology Commercialization Survey conducted in South Africa during 2005 and 2006. Part IV (Q4 of this survey was designed to examine nine drivers of knowledge transfer between South African universities in their research and development (R&D collaborations with industry firms. Respondents from a judgemental sample ranked the knowledge transfer for R&D collaboration between university departments and industry as: (a the need to extract appropriate knowledge at the right time to make critical decisions; (b the perception that knowledge is a valuable resource; (c the emphasis on getting a return on investment in research; (d the need to protect knowledge for competitive advantage; (e the need to close the knowledge gap; (f international trade; (g the need to protect intellectual property such as patents and trademarks; (h geographic proximity between the knowledge source and recipient; and (i war, terrorism and natural disasters.
Lappalainen, Jouni; Rosqvist, Juho
This paper explores the ways students perceive the transfer of learned knowledge to new situations - often a surprisingly difficult prospect. The novel aspect compared to the traditional transfer studies is that the learning phase is not a part of the experiment itself. The intention was only to activate acquired knowledge relevant to the transfer target using a short primer immediately prior to the situation where the knowledge was to be applied. Eight volunteer students from either mathematics or computer science curricula were given a task of designing an adder circuit using logic gates: a new context in which to apply knowledge of binary arithmetic and Boolean algebra. The results of a phenomenographic classification of the views presented by the students in their post-experiment interviews are reported. The degree to which the students were conscious of the acquired knowledge they employed and how they applied it in a new context emerged as the differentiating factors.
Full Text Available Virtual new product development teams are geographically dispersed and cross-functional, yet they work on highly interdependent tasks by communicating electronically in work groups. This virtual interdependence, among other issues, presents new challenges for the management of knowledge transfer in global New Product Development (NPD. In this project, virtual competencies were studied with the use of qualitative methods to assess the most significant issues affecting knowledge transfer in virtual settings in global NPD. As a result, the existing theory regarding virtual competencies and virtual organizations was refined and potential barriers for knowledge transfer were discovered. The success of knowledge workers is crucial for the performance of knowledge-based organizations, which form the basis of our global economy; therefore, this study’s findings are significant.
Full Text Available Knowledge transfer between universities and the commercial sector is becoming more prevalent, and different processes have been adopted to facilitate the transfer of knowledge. The ‘In Light of Visual Arts’ project aimed to facilitate knowledge exchange in relation to an innovative concept, the ‘eco-philosophy of light’, between the lighting industry and the arts and cultural sector through an Informal Learning approach. Young visual artists, light designers and lighting technicians were encouraged to explore and exchange experiences in the areas of visual communication, art appreciation and art archiving to create practical lighting solutions. This project offers a feasible framework for the enhancement of artistic training through knowledge sharing, for the benefit of the participants themselves and, in turn, academia, industry and the community. Keywords: informal learning, experiential learning, knowledge transfer, art education, interdisciplinary study
Peet, Melissa R.; Walsh, Katherine; Sober, Robin; Rawak, Christine S.
Experts and leaders within most fields possess knowledge that is largely tacit and unconscious in nature. The leaders of most organizations do not "know what they know" and cannot share their knowledge with others. The loss of this essential knowledge is of major concern to organizations. This study tested an innovative method of tacit…
Rexwhite T. Enakrire
Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of ICT facilities that support knowledge management (KM in academic libraries in Nigeria and South Africa. Methods: Both quantitative through survey and structured questionnaires and qualitative by content analysis and interview research methodologies were applied in the initial study. The qualitative approach of content analysis was applied to literature review, and key informants were also interviewed. One hundred and thirty-two professional librarians and six key informants across the sampled academic libraries in the two countries were targeted for information. The study sampled only six academic libraries, three in each country, which renders generalisation difficult. This article largely focuses on quantitative aspects of the study in the reported findings. Results: Availability and accessibility of ICTs for KM among the sampled libraries were not uniform, even within one country. Infrastructural support has affected some of the university libraries to a great extent. The knowledge and skills for using ICT for KM were largely adequate, but varied within the libraries and librarians as well. The challenges facing the libraries border on inadequate infrastructure and professional staff, but irrespective of the challenges faced, libraries have devised strategies for coping and rendering services. The study has provided new information relating to the use of ICT facilities and services for KM in academic libraries that calls for rigorous continuing education for re-skilling the librarians. The changing user behaviour also calls for major attention. Government support for academic libraries with policy and funding is still crucial. Conclusion and recommendation: The study concludes that because ICTs have had robust histories as used to support information services, both staff and students’ information needs to be met in a variety of ways in academic libraries. This would help to foster and
Shari L Gallop
Full Text Available ‘Packaging’ coastal sediment transport into discrete temporal and spatial scale bands is necessary for measurement programs, modelling, and design. However, determining how to best measure and parameterize information, to transfer between scales, is not trivial. An overview is provided of the major complexities in transferring information on coastal sediment transport between scales. Key considerations that recur in the literature include: interaction between sediment transport and morphology; the influence of biota; episodic sediment transport; and recovery time-scales. The influence of bedforms and landforms, as well as sediment-biota interactions, varies with spatio-temporal scale. In some situations, episodic sediment dynamics is the main contributor to long-term sediment transport. Such events can also significantly alter biogeochemical and ecological processes, which interact with sediments. The impact of such episodic events is fundamentally influenced by recovery time-scales, which vary spatially. For the various approaches to scaling (e.g., bottom-up, aggregation, spatial hierarchies, there is a need for fundamental research on the assumptions inherent in each approach.
As an initial step toward understanding which features of academic language make science-based expository text difficult for students with different English language proficiency (ELP) designations, this study investigated fifth-grade students' thoughts on text difficulty, their knowledge of the features of academic language, and the relationship between academic language and reading comprehension. Forty-five fifth-grade students participated in the study; 18 students were classified as Engli...
Woolcock, Andrew D.; Creevy, Kate E.; Coleman, Amanda E.; Moore, James N.; Brown, Scott A.
Academic self-efficacy affects the success of students in the sciences. Our goals were to develop an instrument to assess the self-efficacy and attitudes toward science of students in an undergraduate physiology course. We hypothesized 1) that our instrument would demonstrate that students taking this course would exhibit greater self-efficacy and more positive attitudes toward science than students in a non-science undergraduate course, and 2) that the physiology students’ self-efficacy and attitudes would improve after completing the course. A 25-question survey instrument was developed with items investigating demographic information, self-efficacy, content knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding science. Students in either an undergraduate physiology course (Group P) or a history course (Group H) completed the survey. Forty-eight students in Group P completed both PRE- and POST-class surveys, while 50 students in Group H completed the pre-class survey. The academic self-efficacy of Group P as assessed by the PRE-survey was significantly higher than Group H (p=0.0003). Interestingly, there was no significant difference between groups in content knowledge in the PRE-survey. The self-efficacy of Group P was significantly higher as assessed by the POST-survey, when compared to the PRE-survey (p<0.0001) coincident with an improvement (p<0.001) in content knowledge for Group P in the POST-survey. This study established a survey instrument with utility in assessing self-efficacy, attitudes, and content knowledge. Our approach has applicability to studies designed to determine the impact of instructional variables on academic self-efficacy, attitudes, and confidence of students in the sciences. PMID:27713903
Chew, Matthew M.
Sociologists of knowledge find that academic stratification is present among individual scholars, genders, networks, fields, and all kinds of scientific organizations, while communications scholars have been studying global cultural asymmetry for a long time. Yet few researchers have explored the global dimension of academic stratification. In…
Sussbauer, Erik J.
Though attention to academic language is a key component of the Teacher Performance Assessment and the new Common Core Standards, little has been researched regarding how pre-service teachers build academic language knowledge and integrate it into their practice teaching experience. This study focuses on the construction and delivery of academic…
Chang, Sandy Ming-San
As an initial step toward understanding which features of academic language make science-based expository text difficult for students with different English language proficiency (ELP) designations, this study investigated fifth-grade students' thoughts on text difficulty, their knowledge of the features of academic language, and the relationship between academic language and reading comprehension. Forty-five fifth-grade students participated in the study; 18 students were classified as English language learners (ELLs) and 27 students were fluent-English speakers. Participants read two science passages, answered comprehension questions, and engaged in a retrospective interview which probed their knowledge on the academic language features of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse. Qualitative analysis was used to code students' thoughts about the challenges to reading comprehension and to identify the challenges that were related to academic language. Quantitative analyses were conducted to examine whether students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension differed by students' ELP designations, as well as to investigate the relationship between students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension. Results for the qualitative analysis revealed that students found difficult vocabulary, reading abilities, and prior knowledge as the greatest challenges to comprehending the science passages. Results from the quantitative analyses indicated that ELL students' knowledge of academic vocabulary, grammar, discourse knowledge, and reading comprehension (as measured by multiple-choice questions) were significantly lower than the fluent-English speaking students. The results also indicated that vocabulary, not grammar or discourse features, was significantly related to students' comprehension scores. The results have implications for understanding the features of academic language that influence students' comprehension of expository
Reichelt, Wieland N; Haas, Florian; Sagmeister, Patrick; Herwig, Christoph
Microbial bioprocesses need to be designed to be transferable from lab scale to production scale as well as between setups. Although substantial effort is invested to control technological parameters, usually the only true constant parameter is the actual producer of the product: the cell. Hence, instead of solely controlling technological process parameters, the focus should be increasingly laid on physiological parameters. This contribution aims at illustrating a workflow of data life cycle management with special focus on physiology. Information processing condenses the data into physiological variables, while information mining condenses the variables further into physiological descriptors. This basis facilitates data analysis for a physiological explanation for observed phenomena in productivity. Targeting transferability, we demonstrate this workflow using an industrially relevant Escherichia coli process for recombinant protein production and substantiate the following three points: (1) The postinduction phase is independent in terms of productivity and physiology from the preinduction variables specific growth rate and biomass at induction. (2) The specific substrate uptake rate during induction phase was found to significantly impact the maximum specific product titer. (3) The time point of maximum specific titer can be predicted by an easy accessible physiological variable: while the maximum specific titers were reached at different time points (19.8 ± 7.6 h), those maxima were reached all within a very narrow window of cumulatively consumed substrate dSn (3.1 ± 0.3 g/g). Concluding, this contribution provides a workflow on how to gain a physiological view on the process and illustrates potential benefits. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:261-270, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Kramer, Desre M.; Cole, Donald C.; Leithwood, Kenneth
In workplace health interventions, engaging management and union decision makers is considered important for the success of the project, yet little research has described the process of making this happen. A case study of a knowledge-transfer process is presented to describe the practices and processes adopted by a knowledge broker who engaged…
Yang, Cheng; Madsen, Erik Skov; Liangsiri, Jirapha
The global spread of production makes companies relocating their manufacturing units to achieve economies of scale, enjoy low-cost labor, or access to new markets. For the relocation, not only equipments, systems and facilities, need to be moved, but also operational knowledge and experience. Based...... systems, prototypes and games, and emulation, are identified and classified according to their usages. Finally, a framework is summarized to integrate all the elements systematically. This provides strong supports and clear directions to managers and could be used as the guideline and the process model...
Ruiz, F.; Gonzalez, J.; Delgado, J.L.
Full text: Technology, the social nature of learning and the generational learning style are conforming new models of training that are changing the roles of the instructors, the channels of communication and the proper learning content of the knowledge to be transferred. New training methodologies are being using in the primary and secondary education and “Vintage” classroom learning does not meet the educational requirements of these methodologies; therefore, it’s necessary to incorporate them in the Knowledge Management processes used in the nuclear industry. This paper describes a practical approach of an enriched learning environment with the purpose of creating and transferring nuclear knowledge. (author
Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum
Purpose The purpose of this chapter is to explore the effect of subsidiary autonomy on intra-MNC knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is outlined and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshor......Purpose The purpose of this chapter is to explore the effect of subsidiary autonomy on intra-MNC knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is outlined and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R......&D offshoring to emerging markets. Findings Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence...... before they can add to the knowledge level of the MNC. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is thereby beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....
van Tilburg, M.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; van Os, A.G.
The aim of this research is to explore the possibility of enlarging the accessibility, usefulness, and utilization of knowledge about the physical-water system for decision- and policymakers. By studying the use of knowledge in the decision-making and policymaking processes, an attempt will me made
The study investigates the impact of the use of web 2.0 applications on knowledge transfer in the Cocoa Sector in Ghana. Transferring knowledge via social media websites has received widespread attention by organizations. However, in most developing countries like Ghana, knowledge transfer still...... proposed that the usage of web 2.0 applications for the different modes of knowledge transfer can be affected by their media richness. And the use of web 2.0 applications for the knowledge transfer modes can influence knowledge transfer success. The study was conducted using a mixed method approach...... with a survey questionnaire. The results of the data analysis confirmed that the media richness of the selected web 2.0 applications affect their usage for the different modes of knowledge transfer....
Full Text Available The article discusses the existing antagonistic understanding among the authors who discuss curriculum from the multiculturalist perspective and the authors of the Historical-Critical Pedagogy. The aim is to explain the postmodern relativists bases and multiculturalism, which opposes the defense of objective knowledge as central to the organization of a curriculum. Finally we point out what content should integrate an academic, with the objective, human development, human emancipation and social transformation, which allow the human being aim to provide social and consciously so increasingly free and universal.
Aim The case is made for conceptualising guidelines as more flexible, interpretative pieces of information that contain a mixture of factual evidence, evidence that requires interpretation and evidence that will be shaped and moulded by the particular context into which it will be introduced. By acknowledging this way of viewing guidelines, practitioners and researchers are more able to understand what works in terms of successful implementation. This perspective differs from rating the type of evidence within guidelines according to the nature of the evidence. Methods The approach used was based on a standard process of formulating theoretical arguments: presenting the background, making and justifying the case by presenting evidence on successful guideline implementation strategies. Having presented the reasons why we should relook at the way we conceptualise and use guidelines, the paper then contrasts the evidence derived from research with examples of practitioners' accounts of managing the introduction of guidelines in practice. From this a number of conceptualisations are presented that offer new ways of constructing multifaceted interventions for guideline implementation. Results A set of arguments has been presented that provide background evidence, draw broad conclusions, address the ongoing issues around non-spread of new information and offer different ways of constructing research studies. The arguments are built on empirical and experiential evidence and refer to several major studies. Conclusions Seven conclusions are drawn from the paper: guidelines are not 'literal' objects - they are complex communication vehicles that are used as catalysts to stimulate discussion, learning and debate across knowledge boundaries; current evidence on guideline implementation reinforces the need to look at complex, multifaceted interventions based on specific diagnosis of barriers to implementation; this process poses conceptual, theoretical and
Ramos, Isabel; Cardoso, Margarida; Carvalho, João Vidal; Graça, José Ismael
R&D has always been considered a strategic asset of companies. Traditionally, companies that have their own R&D function are better prepared to compete in the globalized economy because they are able to produce the knowledge and technology required to advance products and services. SMEs also need to become highly innovative and competitive in order to be successful. Nevertheless, their ability to have an internal R&D function that effectively meets their innovation needs is usually very weak. Open innovation provides access to a vast amount of new ideas and technologies at lower costs than closed innovation. This paper presents an action research study being carried out at University of Minho to develop a business model and technology platform for an innovation brokering service connecting ideas and technologies being developed at Universities with the specific innovation needs of SMEs. The expected contributions of the study include the empirical investigation of the effectiveness and risks of crowdsourcing innovation when applied in the socio-economic context of a European developing country where SMEs represent 99,6% of the businesses.
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Bishop, Ann P.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
Increasing reliance on and investment in information technology and electronic networking systems presupposes that computing and information technology will play a major role in the diffusion of aerospace knowledge. Little is known, however, about actual information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The authors state that the potential contributions of information technology to increased productivity and competitiveness will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge regarding the information-seeking behavior of the members of the social system - those who are producing, transferring, and using scientific and technical information - is incorporated into a new technology policy framework. Research into the use of information technology and electronic networks by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists, collected as part of a research project designed to study aerospace knowledge diffusion, is presented in support of this assertion.
Lauder, W; Reynolds, W; Angus, N
The construct of transfer has enormous importance to nursing as it begins to highlight potential problems in the transfer of knowledge and skills from the campus to the clinical area, from one part of the clinical area to another (e.g. surgical to medical), and from community to the clinical area. Thus, any adequate conceptualization of transfer must account for problems of practice-practice transfer as well as theory-practice transfer. These potential problems are the concern of educators, students and managers who have a responsibility for agency nurses and bank nurses who may find themselves in different specialities on a regular basis. Transfer has relevance to a whole raft of other issues ranging from the application of theories to nursing practice, through to the validity of claims that courses which develop intellectual skills prepare nurses for lifelong learning.
Mughaneswari ap Sahadevan
Full Text Available The meaning of technology transfer is so wide but mostly involving some form of technology-re- lated exchange. However, in this particular paper, technology transfer is consider as a concept to examine the process of disseminating knowledge and skills that a person owned to another per- son in order to generate higher productivity with new approach of producing a particular prod- uct or service. Although, many researchers have explored the evolution of technology transfer, nonetheless some drivers are yet to be explored in a Malaysian manufacturing industry. This study, therefore attempts to determine the relationship between absorptive capacity, transfer capacity, communication motivation and learning intent and technology transfer performance. A survey methodology was used in a Japanese multinational company based in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of 117 questionnaires were received. Results show that absorptive capacity is the most signifi- cant to influence technology transfer performance.
Arsawan, I. W. E.; Sanjaya, I. B.; Putra, I. K. M.; Sukarta, I. W.
This study aims to examine the relationship between motivation and knowledge transfer to the subsidiaries performance and test the role of absorptive capacity as a moderating variable. The research uses quantitative design through questionnaires distribution with 5 Likert scales. The population frame is five-star hotel in Bali province, Indonesia which amounted to 63 units, the sample of research using proportional random sampling is 54 units and determined the distribution of questionnaires to 162 subsidiaries as the unit of analysis. The research model was built using the structural equation model and analyzed with smart pls- 3 software. The findings of the study revealed that subsidiaries motivation a significant effect on knowledge transfer, knowledge transfer a significant effect on subsidiaries performance, motivation a significant effect on subsidiaries performance and absorptive capacity moderated the relationship between knowledge transfer and subsidiaries performance. These findings suggest that subsidiaries and process of knowledge transfer through absorptive capacity play an important role, and that they have some impact on the subsidiaries performance.
Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed, Saeema
Communication between departments in any company involved in the different phases of product lifecycle is crucial in order to correct faults from previous products. This paper illustrates a case study from the oil industry where knowledge transfer across departments is analysed. Interviews...... with engineering designers and service engineers were carried out. Knowledge arising from the operation of drilling machineries was investigated and compared to that relevant for the engineering designers; furthermore the mechanisms involved in the transfer of knowledge between service and design were investigated....... Differences in knowledge needs were observed in the two departments: engineering designers were more orientated towards knowledge of machinery at a component level while service engineers were interested in obtaining an overview of the systems. The study showed that communication between the departments...
Reig, J.; Hrehor, M.
The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) was set up in 1973 to develop and to co-ordinate the activities of the NEA concerning the technical aspects of the design, construction and operation of nuclear installations insofar as they affect the safety of such installations. Although there is currently no formal 'CSNI knowledge management strategy', i.e. defined CSNI approach and the appropriate resources for activities related to knowledge management as such, the CSNI has been actively involved during its 30 years of existence in a number of areas closely linked with knowledge management. The paper gives a number of specific examples of various CSNI activities which, all together, represent from an international perspective a significant contribution to knowledge management efforts at the national level of the OECD/NEA member countries. (author)
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.
Michael E. Kyobe
Institutions of learning are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile technologies to provide solutions to the challenges facing them. Whilst the integration of the mobile context and technologies in learning environment has been encouraged over the years, and indeed many students today can use mobile phones, the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing impediments to knowledge transfer in group learning has not been investigated. This study investigated the extent to which mobile phones reduce the barriers to knowledge transfer in project groups. The impediments examined include the nature of knowledge, social barriers, lack of time and lack of motivation. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to collect and analyse the data. The sample consisted of 85 students engaged in group projects in the departments of Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Computer Science and Construction Engineering. The results show that mobile phones reduce all four knowledge transfer barriers investigated in the project groups. We found no significant difference in the nature of knowledge shared by teams with weak and strong ties. This suggests that teams with weak social ties who normally experience difficulty sharing complex (tacit knowledge can easily do so with the aid of mobile facilities. In addition, frequent users of mobile phones were motivated to share explicit knowledge with their peers whilst those who often work with tacit knowledge could convert it to explicit form and share it with others. Mobile features like short messaging service and multimedia messaging service (SMS & MMS or what some people refer to as ‘texting’, and email were mainly used to share knowledge and were perceived to reduce knowledge transfer time more than voice facilities. Our findings indicate that most students do not utilise the affordances of mobile phones for tacit knowledge transfer. Sharing of tacit knowledge needs to be encouraged
Full Text Available While there are excellent models of knowledge mobilisation (KMb that address the opportunity for co-production and sharing of best practice knowledge among human service professionals, it remains unclear whether these models will work in less formal settings like community-based non-government organisations (NGOs where there are fewer resources for KMb. For three days, 65 policy-makers, senior staff of NGOs, mental health professionals, KMb specialists and youth participated in a set of simulation exercises to problem solve how to mobilise knowledge in less formal settings that provide services to children and youth in challenging contexts (CYCC. Based on simulation exercises used in other settings (such as the deployment of international aid workers, participants were first provided with reports synthesising best practice knowledge relevant to their workplaces. They then engaged in an appreciative inquiry process, and were finally tasked with developing innovative strategies for KMb. Observation notes and exit interviews were used to evaluate the process and assess impact. Findings related to the process of the simulation exercises show the technique of simulation to be useful but that it requires effort to keep participants focused on the task of KMb rather than the content of best practices within a focal population. With regard to developing innovative KMb strategies, findings suggest that service providers in less formal community-based services prefer KMb activities that promote one-to-one relationships, including the participation of youth themselves, who can speak to the effectiveness of the interventions they have experienced. Unexpectedly, the use of electronic communication, including social media, was not viewed very positively by participants. These results suggest that the use of simulation to search for innovative KMb strategies and to problem solve around barriers to KMb has the potential to inform new ways of co-producing and
Linderman, Albert; Pesut, Daniel; Disch, Joanne
Experienced nurse leaders possess leadership wisdom that must be passed on in thoughtful, systematic ways to younger leaders. Sense making is an intentional process that has been useful in bringing forward a leader's implicit knowledge and wisdom gained over the years. This article examines leadership wisdom, complexity, and knowledge in the context of today's dynamic environment-and offers a concrete example of how the sense-making methodology can work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pelley, Jennifer L.; Daar, Abdallah S.; Saner, Marc A.
Quantum dots (QDs), an important class of emerging nanomaterial, are widely anticipated to find application in many consumer and clinical products in the near future. Premarket regulatory scrutiny is, thus, an issue gaining considerable attention. Previous review papers have focused primarily on the toxicity of QDs. From the point of view of product regulation, however, parameters that determine exposure (e.g., dosage, transformation, transportation, and persistence) are just as important as inherent toxicity. We have structured our review paper according to regulatory risk assessment practices, in order to improve the utility of existing knowledge in a regulatory context. Herein, we summarize the state of academic knowledge on QDs pertaining not only to toxicity, but also their physicochemical properties, and their biological and environmental fate. We conclude this review with recommendations on how to tailor future research efforts to address the specific needs of regulators. PMID:19684286
Matthew Lee Smith
Full Text Available Most universities offer human sexuality courses, although they are not required for graduation. While students in health-related majors may receive sexuality education in formal settings, majority of college students never receive formal sexual health or HIV/AIDS-related education, which may lead to elevated engagement in high-risk sexual behaviors. This study examines perceived knowledge about HIV/AIDS, perceived risk, and perceived consequences among college students by two distinct classifications of academic majors. Data were collected from 510 college students. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed to compare HIV-related covariates by academic major category. Limited differences were observed by Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM categorization. Relative to health and kinesiology (HK majors, those who self-reported being completely knowledgeable about HIV were less likely to be physical sciences, math, engineering, business (PMEB [OR=0.41, P=0.047] or education, humanities, and social sciences (EHS majors [OR=0.25, P=0.004]. PMEB majors were less likely to report behavioral factors as a risk for contracting HIV [OR=0.86, P=0.004] and perceived acquiring HIV would be more detrimental to their quality of life [OR=2.14, P=0.012], but less detrimental to their mental wellbeing [OR=0.58, P=0.042]. Findings can inform college-wide campaigns and interventions to raise HIV/AIDS awareness and improve college health.
Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan; Weidenfeld, Adi
to these programmes in terms of their role in enhancing cross-border knowledge transfer and innovation, particularly in the field of tourism. To shed light on the issue, semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of (12 Russian; 12 Finnish) organisations that had participated in ENPI CBC funded...... tourism related Finnish-Russian cross-border projects. The results shed light on the possibilities of and obstacles to cross-border knowledge transfer and innovation. ENPI CBC programmes between Finland and Russia are highly relevant for successful cross-border knowledge transfer and innovation...... in the tourism sector: the projects were particularly successful in transmitting new service concepts and best practices across the border. While, for example, language issues and the differences in legislative systems between the two countries can constitute barriers for practical CBC, the dissimilarity between...
Knudsen, Mette Præst; Madsen, Erik Skov
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the specific practices of management in the dispatching unit and to identify mechanisms for supporting transfer of shop floor knowledge embedded in operating manufacturing equipment. Design/methodology/approach – The paper applies an inductive and...... – The paper identifies four issues that management faces in the dispatching context when relocating manufacturing facilities. Originality/value – The paper gives new insights to a limited literature of shop floor knowledge transfer when relocating manufacturing facilities.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the specific practices of management in the dispatching unit and to identify mechanisms for supporting transfer of shop floor knowledge embedded in operating manufacturing equipment. Design/methodology/approach – The paper applies an inductive...
This section highlights articles, blog posts and press releases published in the CERN web environment over the past weeks. This way, you won’t miss a thing... Previous successful Knowledge Transfer enterprises have helped to develop several useful technologies, such as these photonic crystals, which glow when high-energy charged particles pass through, and are used for medical imaging. New Knowledge Transfer website to grow CERN’s industry links 23 November – by Harriet Jarlett CERN’s Knowledge Transfer Group has just launched a new tool to encourage CERN researchers and businesses to share their technologies, ideas and expertise. It’s hoped that by facilitating these exchanges the tool will inspire new ways to apply CERN technologies commercially, to help benefit industry and society. Continue to read… The power station at CERN's Prévessin site. (Image: Margot Frenot/CERN). CERN an...
As library and information science (LIS) becomes an increasingly technology-driven profession, particularly in the academic library environment, questions arise as to the extent of information technology (IT) knowledge and skills that LIS professionals require. The purpose of this paper is to ascertain what IT knowledge and skills are needed by…
Creativity of the individual is dependent on numerous factors, such as knowledge, general intelligence and emotional intelligence. The general purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of general intelligence, emotional intelligence and academic knowledge on the emerging of domain-specific creativity. The study was conducted on 178…
Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Osmangani, Aahad M; Daud, Nuraihan Mat; Chowdhury, Abdul Hannan; Hassan, Hasliza
Purpose: This empirical research aims to add value in the existing research on knowledge sharing, investigate the antecedents of knowledge-sharing behaviour by embedding trust and workplace spirituality variable on non-academic staff from higher learning institution in Malaysia. The role of trust, perceived risk and workplace spirituality towards…
Lykke, Marianne; Løkkegaard, Sarai; Jantzen, Christian
registered in an university research information management system. The analysis focuses on how to meet the characteristics of SMEs in the design and organisation of the subject terms in the navigation and searching system and in the presentation of the scientific knowledge. The design suggestions are based...... on findings from a qualitative situation analysis of eight SMEs and on the principles of experience design. Experience design principles have been applied, because the classical design qualities such as completeness, consistency, and recency seem not to be sufficient goals for the knowledge organisation...... system for a generic pathway interface. The paper provides examples and discusses how the experience dimensions have been applied in the design of the knowledge organisation....
Benavides Velasco, C. A.; Quintana Garcia, C.
This paper highlights the importance of cooperation networks between the public system of R and D and industry to promote technology transfer, knowledge management, and the consolidation and growth of new technology firms. Through the case of Air zone,his paper shows the significance of collaboration agreements between University and industry to enhance technology transfer and the success of entrepreneurial projects. (Author) 28 refs
Purpose: There is much hype about academics' attitude to Wikipedia. This paper seeks to go beyond anecdotal evidence by drawing on empirical research to ascertain how academics respond to Wikipedia and the implications these responses have for the take-up of Web 2.0+. It aims to test the hypothesis that Web 2.0+, as a platform built around the…
Gagnon, Johanne; Lapierre, Judith; Gagnon, Marie-pierre; Lechasseur, Kathleen; Dupre, Sophie; Gauthier, Myriam; Farman, Pamela; Lazure, Ginette
in this era of globalisation and international academic training, many nursing programs offer the possibility of intercultural placement to their students in their initial training. The rise of this phenomena is ubiquitous throughout all Canadian universities, leading to increased student mobility at the international level with increased placements being organised at the international level, on several continents. this exploratory study aims at better understanding the processes of knowledge transfer and appropriation during international and intercultural placements in nursing in African countries. the models of empowerment and the Cycle of knowledge to practice have guided this study. a multiple case study has been conducted with six settings of care from two countries of Africa. Individual interviews were conducted with the nursing students (n = 11) and with the African nurses supervisors (n = 9), and group interviews with the local partners (n = 2). Direct and participant observations were also done by the nursing students while they were in Africa in the summer and by the two principal investigators when they spent a week in the settings of care, the following fall. RESULTS : advantages of this learning activity were noted, especially in regards to personal and professional growth of the nursing students and in regards to knowledge transfer to the host settings. DISCUSSION : four themes emerged and led to recommendations as to the importance of: 1) bidirectional communication, continuity of projects between cohorts of nurses, and support at distance and on site, 2) reinforcement of the emancipatory sociopolitical knowing 3) diversity of care and community sites and expositions, and 4) different phases of the Cycle of knowledge to practice.
Plaza, L. M.
Understanding by knowledge transfer, the process by which the scientific knowledge generated by the R+Ds Spanish public system investigators is finally harnessed and officially used by the agents that make up the productive system, or by the administration; this project aims to offer a global view of the main scientific indicators by which said process can be analysed and in particular, of the way that some of these indicators allow us to evaluate this transfer in the case of the Spanish I+D system and in that concerning the Biotechnology sector. (Author) 12 refs.
Full Text Available Pawley and Syder (1983 pointed out that idiomatic expressions can be discussed in terms of nativelike selection (NLS, which refers to the ability of the native speaker to express his/her intended meaning using an expression that is not only grammatical but also nativelike. In the current study, Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to investigate the possible correlations between the variables of language contact (LC, language attitude (LA, and language motivation (LM integrative (Int.M and instrumental (Inst.M, age of L2 onset (AoO, and length of exposure to target language (LoE and English bilinguals’ (EBs knowledge of NLS in an international school—a semi-naturalistic setting. A possible correlation between EB’s NLS scores and their English academic performance (EAP was examined as well. Moreover, multiple regression analysis was conducted to investigate the factors predicting EB’s NLS knowledge. The participants were 281 high school students of mixed gender and ethnicity from an international school in the Philippines. Different questionnaires were used to collect data related to LC, LoE, AoA, LA, and LM. Data concerning NLS knowledge and EAP were gathered using a receptive NLS test together with a standardized English test. The results of the correlation analyses indicated that the variables of LC, LoE, Int.M, and AoO were significantly related to EBs’ knowledge of NLS. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between EB’s knowledge of NLS and their EAP. The results of regression analysis yet revealed that the variables of LC, LA, and Int.M predicted EB’s NLS knowledge. The findings provided pedagogical implications for those involved in EFL/ESL teaching, particularly in international schools.
Van Ree, R.; Beekes, M.L.; Knoef, H.; Koppejan, J.; Driegen, J.; Vos, R.
As part of the title Plan of Action six working groups are involved in finding solutions to the most important bottlenecks in the market introduction of bio-energy systems. In the working group on Technology and Knowledge an overview is given of the best biomass technology/product combinations [nl
Kabanova Natalia N.
Full Text Available It has recently been shown that a person, an author particularly, faces the challenges of visualization in the cognitive process. The aim of this study is to consider the forms of thinking process and the changes happened in education process and in scientific activity. It was noted that the challenges connected with information perceiving during the work with the text occur in the process of creating academic papers as well. We conclude that the topical field of visualization covers not only the educative process assuming information transfer from person to person (model “teacher-student”, but the process of scientific activity. Applying the methods of visualization in publication activity is the factor for effective communication in social and cultural space that provides the opportunity for academic society to recognize results. We offer possible ways to promote scientific papers via online resources such as scientific social networks and tools of media corporations. The scientific social network ResearchGate and Thomson Reuters media corporation product as an online tool “Researcher ID” placed at the bibliographic database Web of Science TM Core Collection are used as the examples. We state that information technology allows authors to promote the results of their studies around the world.
Sajadirad, Solmaz; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum
Many different tools (objects) are applied by companies to transfer knowledge to globally distributed subsidiaries. Nevertheless, tapping into the local knowledge of subsidiaries and transforming this into innovation capabilities remains a challenge for many multinational companies. In this paper...... multinational companies located in Denmark. Based on literature review and empirical evidence, we discuss that inter-firm objects can be considered as boundary objects if they support specific circumstances, i.e., interactions and negotiations, collaboration, shared understanding and identity......, we aim to discuss how different approach to the use of knowledge transfer objects can affect companies’ abilities to obtain the subsidiaries’ knowledge and utilize it to different degrees of innovation performance. For this purpose, we adopted a multiple case study approach consisting of ten...
Ischebeck, Anja; Zamarian, Laura; Schocke, Michael; Delazer, Margarete
Recent imaging studies could show that fact acquisition in arithmetic is associated with decreasing activation in several frontal and parietal areas, and relatively increasing activation within the angular gyrus, indicating a switch from direct calculation to retrieval of a learned fact from memory. So far, however, little is known about the transfer of learned facts between arithmetic operations. The aim of the present fMRI study was to investigate whether and how newly acquired arithmetic knowledge might transfer from trained multiplication problems to related division problems. On the day before scanning, ten complex multiplication problems were trained. Within the scanner, trained multiplication problems were compared with untrained multiplication problems, and division problems related to multiplication (transfer condition) were compared with unrelated division problems (no-transfer condition). Replicating earlier results, untrained multiplication problems activated several frontal and parietal brain areas more strongly than trained multiplication problems, while trained multiplication problems showed relatively stronger activation in the left angular gyrus than untrained multiplication problems. Concerning division, an ROI analysis indicated that activation in the left angular gyrus was relatively stronger for the transfer condition than for the no-transfer condition. We also observed distinct inter-individual differences with regard to transfer that modulated activation within the left angular gyrus. Activation within the left angular gyrus was generally higher for participants who showed a transfer effect for division problems. In conclusion, the present study yielded some evidence that successful transfer of knowledge between arithmetic operations is accompanied by modifications of brain activation patterns. The left angular gyrus seems not only to be involved in the retrieval of stored arithmetic facts, but also in the transfer between arithmetic
Saliola, Federica; Zanfei, Antonello
This paper combines insights from different streams of literature to develop a more comprehensive framework for the analysis of knowledge transfer via value chain relationships. We integrate the existing literature in three ways. First, we consider value chain relationships as a multi-facet process of interaction between buyers and suppliers, involving different modes of knowledge transmission and development. Second, we assess whether and to what extent value chain relationships are associat...
Woltmann, Sabrina; Alkærsig, Lars
that several websites contain very related and partly even traceable content from the university. The results show that university research is represented in the websites of industrial partners. We propose further improvements to enhance the results and potential areas for future implementation. This paper...... is the first step to enable the identification of common knowledge and knowledge transfer via text mining to increase its measurability....
San Mateo Coll., CA.
This study sought to find any difference between students' GPA at College of San Mateo and at 4-year institutions, to identify different characteristics among transfers and their relationship to academic performance, and to assess any relation between performance at a 4-year institution and choice of major in junior college. First-time transfers…
Kim, Bae-Joo; Kim, Gwang-Bong
Knowledge is the most important factor in the safe and reliable operation of NPP. One generation has passed since we began to operate NPP in Korea. And then it became time to retire much experienced personnel in NPP. Although we have many kinds of knowledge sharing systems inside KHNP, we don't have any systematic experience knowledge preservation and transfer systems that are important for the operation of NPP. So we have lost important experience knowledge since we started operating. Especially, KHNP has adopted an internal promotion system as the human resource management policy, which induced frequent job position changes of staff members because there were job positions for a good promotion. Additionally, KHNP doesn't overlap jobs for long enough periods between previous staff and new staff when staff changes occur. With these reasons KHNP could not accumulate experience knowledge inside the company system. Therefore, KHNP could not preserve and transfer to the next generation the experience related to NPP operations systematically. To resolve these issues KNPEI performed a research project from March 2006 to September 2007. The purpose of this report is to introduce the experience knowledge preservation and transfer system that KNPEI has established and the utilization of the system
Andersen, Simon; Hardahl, Nicolai; Hvid, Daniel
From 2001 to 2007 Arla Foods, one of the largest dairy companies in the world has undergone a major Enterprise Architecture transformation involving organizational and technological changes. While the changes have been successful and the organization is enjoying a period of unprecedented success,...
Full Text Available This paper examines how academic dependency of South Asia on the West has resulted in what has been termed ‘captive mind’, and its impact on the knowledge production process of South Asia. To this end, it observes that the relationship between Western centres of Social Science teaching and learning vs. those of the global South, in particular Asia, is an unequal one that stems from the colonial past, leading to the treatment of Western methods and types of knowledge production as superior and therefore worthy of imitation. The application of American and European methods of studying the Social Sciences to Asian settings without due adaptation, it argues, has rendered South Asian Sociology largely incapable of generating original knowledge to contribute to the growth of an emancipatory sociological imagination that will function for the benefit of the populace. Therefore it appeals to South Asian Sociologists – and other Social Scientists – to abandon the practice of studying regional social institutions as if these are exotic phenomena, practices, norms and ritual, and evolve their disciplinary framework in more critical, creative, and relevant ways.
Full Text Available The realisation of the advantages offered by e-learning accompanied by the use of various emerging information technologies has resulted in a noticeable shift by academia towards e-learning. An analysis of the use, knowledge and adoption of emerging technologies by academics in an Open Distance Learning (ODL environment at the University of South Africa (UNISA was undertaken in this study. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use, knowledge and adoption of emerging e-learning technologies by the academics from the selected schools. The academics in the Schools of Arts, Computing and Science were purposively selected in order to draw on views of academics from different teaching and educational backgrounds. Questionnaires were distributed both electronically and manually. The results showed that academics in all the Schools were competent at the use of information technology tools and applications such as emailing, word-processing, Internet, myUnisa (UNISA’s online teaching platform, and Microsoft PowerPoint and Excel. An evaluation of the awareness of different emerging technological tools showed that most academics were aware of Open Access Technologies, Social Networking Sites, Blogs, Video Games and Microblogging Platforms. While the level of awareness was high for these technologies, the use by the academics was low. At least 62.3% of the academics indicated willingness to migrate to online teaching completely and also indicated the need for further training on new technologies. A comparison of the different schools showed no statistically significant difference in the use, knowledge and willingness to adopt technology amongst the academics.
Full Text Available International technology transfers are crucial for developing economies since they may operate as one of the key drivers in the economies’ development path. Previous studies have acknowleged some channels of technology transfers for developing economies. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms of how the technology transfers would occur and take effect in each of the recipient economies and their domestic companies are still to be explored. Furthermore, understanding domestic companies knowledge management is important since it would determine the absorptive capacity of the company toward advanced foreign technologies. This study uses a case of technologically intermediate-level Indonesian manufacturer to show evidence of international technology transfers and their impacts on the development of indigenous technological capabilities of the domestic company, as well as to examine the company’s knowledge management. This study confirmed some benefits of international technology transfers for the domestic company, especially through the major mechanisms of technical license assistances, capital goods imports, turnkey projects, technical consultancies, backward-vertical flows of foreign direct investment, and participation in overseas markets. However, the impacts toward the domestic company’s technological capabilities were generally at intermediate level. This implies that the domestic company needs to spend more investments on in-house R&D activities and to improve its knowledge management systems.
Menda Teodora - Adriana
Full Text Available Currently in Romania, the information sources available to farmers are limited and belong mostly to the public sector. The knowledge provided is relevant but insufficient in order to meet the needs of the Romanian farmers, especially since they are not oriented towards the market, as the main segment of interest. This paper has the intention to emphasize the need to introduce ICT as the main tool in supporting the decision making process and in resolving the specific issues faced by this sector In analyzing the current situation regarding this matter, in order to propose ways to resolve the problems encountered in achieving knowledge transfer, until now, were addressed issues such as: the evolution of the knowledge transfer concept, development milestones and actions that marked the RDI sector as the main producer of information, the main supporters of the farmers in their information actions (World Bank, IFAD, means, procedures and techniques used for transmitting knowledge (extension; consultancy. But what is most important is making all this resulted information available for the farmers, fact which can only be accomplished, in our opinion, by introducing and implementing ICT in the rural areas. The main method of research is the statistical data analysis of the data regarding the components involved in the knowledge transfer process and the current status of implementation of ICT in the rural areas. Among the expected results are included identifying the main restrictive factors in achieving knowledge transfer in rural and the main implications that implementing ICT would have on farmers' market position. Introducing ICT in the rural area is, in our opinion the best way to transform information, as a research result, into knowledge, becoming this way a real input for the farmer In practice, this will lead to lower production costs, lower prices for inputs, increased revenues by increasing the production’s prices and, not least, increased
Background: Knowledge Transfer and Translation(KT) has become an important component in health care systems worldwide. Antidepressant use in pregnancy has become a controversial subject for a number of reasons, including differing interpretations of study results. An important question then arises
Einarson, Adrienne; Egberts, Toine C.; Heerdink, E. Rob
RationaleKnowledge transfer and translation (KT) has become an important component in health care systems worldwide. Antidepressant use in pregnancy has become a controversial subject for a number of reasons, including differing interpretations of study results. MethodsSelected key articles were
Einarson, Adrienne; Egberts, Toine C; Heerdink, E Rob
RATIONALE: Knowledge transfer and translation (KT) has become an important component in health care systems worldwide. Antidepressant use in pregnancy has become a controversial subject for a number of reasons, including differing interpretations of study results. METHODS: Selected key articles were
In this study, it was aimed to determine the levels of the ability of science teaching fourth grade students to transfer their knowledge of astronomy and space sciences to daily life within the scope of the Astronomy and Space Sciences lesson. For this purpose, the research method was designed as the mixed method including both the quantitative…
Carver, Erin L.; Price, Kathleen L.; Wilken, Diane M.
This action research project implemented and evaluated a program for improving student transfer of knowledge to real life experiences. The targeted population consisted of second, sixth, and tenth grade students in a Midwestern community located outside of a major city. Evidence suggested a need for this program as documented by teacher generated…
Lundgren, Solveig M; Robertsson, Barbro
Generic skills or transferable skills have been discussed in terms of whether or not skills learned in one context can be transferred into another context. The current study was aimed to explore nurses' self-perceptions of the knowledge and skills they had obtained while writing a Bachelor's thesis in nursing education, their experience of the extent of transfer and utilization in their current work. Responding nurses (N=42) had all worked from 1 to 1.5 years after their final examination and had completed a questionnaire that was structured with open-ended questions. Only five nurses reported that they were unable to use any of the knowledge and skills they had obtained from writing a thesis. A majority of the nurses (37/42) could give many examples of the practical application of the skills and knowledge they had obtained. Our findings indicate that writing a thesis as part of an undergraduate degree program plays a major role in the acquisition and development of knowledge and skills which can subsequently be transferred into and utilized in nursing practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raza, Syed Ali; Najmi, Arsalan; Shah, Nida
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the significance of knowledge transfer (KT) from universities to organizations by employing in-service employees, who are working in organizations and at the same time studying in the universities, as the channel. Design/methodology/approach: By using survey methodology, data were collected from 216 in-service…
Day, Samuel B.; Goldstone, Robert L.
After more than 100 years of interest and study, knowledge transfer remains among the most challenging, contentious, and important issues for both psychology and education. In this article, we review and discuss many of the more important ideas and findings from the existing research and attempt to bridge this body of work with the exciting new…
Keown, Kiera; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma
Knowledge transfer and exchange is the process of increasing the awareness and use of research evidence in policy or practice decision making by nonresearch audiences or stakeholders. One way to accomplish this end is through ongoing interaction between researchers and interested nonresearch audiences, which provides an opportunity for the two…
Full Text Available in Organizations - Proceedings 10th International Conference, KMO 2015, Maribor, Slovenia 24-28 August 2015 Client-vendor knowledge transfer mechanisms in the context of information systems outsourcing Hanlie Smuts1 and Paula Kotzé2 1 Mobile Telephone...
Bosch-Sijtsema, Petra M.; Rispens, Sonja
Due to geographical dispersion and high use of information technology in virtual settings, face-to-face communication and therefore transfer of knowledge is made more difficult in virtual teams. Virtual teams (VT) are characterized by geographical dispersion, use of IT for communication, members
In a fast moving business environment university-industry collaborations play a critical role in contributing to national economies and furthering a competitive advantage. Knowledge transfer from university to industry is supported by national governments as part of their innovation, national growth and competitiveness agenda. A…
Javidan, Mansour; Stahl, Günther K.; Brodbeck, Felix; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
Distant cross-border business is on the rise. It necessitates effective transfer of knowledge across geographic and cultural borders. In this article we present the key results from the GLOBE study of 62 cultures and apply them to a real-life case of a North European business school designing and
Daniel, Frances; Braasch, Jason L. G.
The present research investigated whether real-world application exercises promoted students' abilities to spontaneously transfer statistical knowledge and to recognize the use of statistics in real-world contexts. Over the course of a semester of psychological statistics, two classes completed multiple application exercises designed to mimic…
Full Text Available Knowledge is a valuable resource that can provide a firm competitive advantages. Food and beverage practices require the existence of knowledge to effectively perform the activities in this key department for many hotels. When hotel firms grow by integrating new hotels in the organizational structure, managers usually want to transfer the knowledge underlying the key practices. However, the transfer is affected by the level of knowledge tacitness, since this characteristic is considered to render the transfer more difficult. With data from 93 new chain hotels where F&B knowledge has been transferred, the results shed some light about the tacitness of F&B knowledge and its transfer. Thus, customer service knowledge is the knowledge with the lowest degree of tacitness, and food planning, production and preparation is the most tacit. The most frequent mechanism to transfer the knowledge on food planning, production and preparation and the knowledge on management and control of purchases and consumption is the use of staff from the headquarters or other chain hotels in long-term assignments; the preferred method for F&B customer service is training courses, lectures and seminars. Moreover, the tacitness of knowledge about F&B customer service negatively affects the knowledge transfer process in several success dimensions.
This study unravels Chicana/Latina college students' perceptions of their experiences after transfer to two four-year universities. The study expands current research and provides a richer, detailed perspective of transfer students' experiences in the fields of math and science through the lens of a Feminist Critical Race Theory. The study specifically focuses on the experience of these students through their narratives, including their academic preparation, reasons for campus selection, and their academic and social integration after transferring to the senior institution. The study includes students who transferred from Santa Ana College, a Hispanic Serving Institution, that enrolls over 24,000 students, 42% of which are from "Hispanic" backgrounds. Female students who transferred from Santa Ana College to one of two four-year universities, University of California, Irvine, or California State University, Fullerton, were selected for participation. A comparative analysis of experiences at the two senior institutions was conducted. Also included was an examination of how each campus promoted or hindered the success of students. Findings will guide policy recommendations at the two- and four-year college level, and may impact statewide policies regarding transfer of Chicanas/Latinas into math and science fields. Moreover, this study will add to the limited research available in the field of community college students and transfer student experiences.
Page Subgroups…………………………………………………………………………...45 Strenghts & Weaknesses…………………………………………………………….46 Knowledge Lens...Knowledge Sharing Strenghts ......................................................................... 115 Table 7. MCSW Knowledge Transfer Strengths...can also be attributed to outsourcing. “Companies’ intent on reducing their capital base or handing off a problem by outsourcing a function forget
Greenwood, Melanie; Walkem, Kerrie; Smith, Lindsay Mervyn; Shearer, Toniele; Stirling, Christine
Preventing plagiarism is an ongoing issue for higher education institutions. Although plagiarism has been traditionally seen as cheating, it is increasingly thought to be the result of poor referencing, with students reporting difficulties citing and referencing bibliographic sources. This study examined the academic knowledge, attitude, skills, and confidence of students in a school of nursing to understand poor referencing. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative survey was distributed to postgraduate (N = 1,000) certificate, diploma, and master's students. Quantitative data gathered demographics, cultural and linguistic background, and use of technology. Thematic analysis discovered patterns and themes. Results showed participants understood requirements for referencing; half indicated poor referencing was due to difficulty referencing Internet sources or losing track of sources, and many lacked confidence in key referencing tasks. Despite this, 50% did not make use of referencing resources. Overall, these data suggest incorrect referencing is rarely intentional and predominantly caused by skills deficit. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
The study investigates the impact of the use of web 2.0 applications on knowledge transfer in the Cocoa Sector in Ghana. Transferring knowledge via social media websites has received widespread attention by organizations. However, in most developing countries like Ghana, knowledge transfer still...... remains a major challenge, especially in the Cocoa Sector. The selection of media for a given task depends on the richness of the media and the characteristics of the task. The four modes of knowledge transfer theorized by Nonaka, require the use of media with varying degrees of richness. The study...
Lucas, A. S.
The organizational changes due to internal promotion or personal rotation require that new workers acquire proper training adapted to needed knowledge, abilities and attitudes. Training should allow make their work suitably. It is not enough teaching associated technical competence to the technology but it is necessary to complement them with abilities associated to the interaction with the people at social level, communication, team work... etc. current training programs tries to reach two objectives, one focused on providing explicit knowledge (gathered in documents, procedures, others) and on other centred in the tacit knowledge. This tacit knowledge is most of the times no structured, nor recorded in document. Implicitly, tacit knowledge remains in outcome workers (manners to work, attitude to face activities, relationship with peers, clients or others. Usually, new worker is able to catch tacit knowledge during on-the-job training process in contact with the outcomes worker (always the training program include this phase of overlap). The best would be to collect and transfer tacit knowledge, at least critic knowledge associated to the job position. This paper presents an overview of important points associated to the tools to retain the explicit knowledge and two tools to capture the tacit knowledge. In addition, main concepts and definitions of these tools will be briefly describes, and benefits to incorporate these tools to the organization dynamics, as well. These tools will cause safer, reliable and efficient organization. (Author)
Christopher Y Park
Full Text Available A key challenge in genetics is identifying the functional roles of genes in pathways. Numerous functional genomics techniques (e.g. machine learning that predict protein function have been developed to address this question. These methods generally build from existing annotations of genes to pathways and thus are often unable to identify additional genes participating in processes that are not already well studied. Many of these processes are well studied in some organism, but not necessarily in an investigator's organism of interest. Sequence-based search methods (e.g. BLAST have been used to transfer such annotation information between organisms. We demonstrate that functional genomics can complement traditional sequence similarity to improve the transfer of gene annotations between organisms. Our method transfers annotations only when functionally appropriate as determined by genomic data and can be used with any prediction algorithm to combine transferred gene function knowledge with organism-specific high-throughput data to enable accurate function prediction. We show that diverse state-of-art machine learning algorithms leveraging functional knowledge transfer (FKT dramatically improve their accuracy in predicting gene-pathway membership, particularly for processes with little experimental knowledge in an organism. We also show that our method compares favorably to annotation transfer by sequence similarity. Next, we deploy FKT with state-of-the-art SVM classifier to predict novel genes to 11,000 biological processes across six diverse organisms and expand the coverage of accurate function predictions to processes that are often ignored because of a dearth of annotated genes in an organism. Finally, we perform in vivo experimental investigation in Danio rerio and confirm the regulatory role of our top predicted novel gene, wnt5b, in leftward cell migration during heart development. FKT is immediately applicable to many bioinformatics
Balaceanu, V.; Constantin, M.; Apostol, M.
This paper intends to highlight the stringency that the nuclear knowledge, mainly the tacit one, must be transferred and preserved and, also, the appropriate methods and tools to perform it should be identified, selected and developed. The paper shows a detailed analysis of the state of the nuclear knowledge in INR. The starting point in this work were two investigations: a questionnaire-based investigation regarding the motivations of the INR retiring experts for knowledge transfer and preservation and an IAEA general questionnaire applied in INR. The necessity of a such analysis is motivated by the fact that in the next 5-10 years many experienced researchers should be retired and the INR staff must very quickly find the best methods and tools for an optimal transfer and preservation of the knowledge, mainly the tacit one because this is embedded in experts' minds. One of the most important conclusion of this analysis is that a short-medium term strategy must be developed, regarding the knowledge management. (authors)
Gooderham, Paul; Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben
are combined with theory on the determinants of social capital. Three governance mechanisms are identified: market-based mechanisms, hierarchical mechanisms, and social mechanisms. The findings, based on data from two Danish MNCs, indicate that although the use of social governance mechanisms promotes positive......The aim of this paper is to extend social capital approaches to knowledge transfer by identifying governance mechanisms that managers can deploy to promote the development of social capital. In order to achieve this objective, insights from the micro-level, knowledge governance approach...... assessment of social capital, hierarchical governance mechanisms constrain its development. The application of market-based governance mechanisms has no significant effect. In addition, the findings provide evidence that social capital has a positive impact on knowledge transfer...
The reuse of knowledge generated during the different phases of a product’s lifecycle is crucial for a company in order to achieve competitive advantage. This thesis investigates knowledge transfer within the service phase and between service and design phases through case studies from the oil...... and engineering designers were interested in knowledge about changes, issues and improvements generated during service; however, engineering designers were more orientated towards knowledge of the equipment at a component level while service engineers were interested in obtaining an overview of the systems...... developing a model for managing the knowledge generated during the service phase. The core of this model, called the RSK model, is the analysis phase, in which information from service cases is evaluated and integrated into existing documentation. The RSK model has been developed based on the case studies...
Murphy, Glen; Salomone, Sonia
While highly cohesive groups are potentially advantageous they are also often correlated with the emergence of knowledge and information silos based around those same functional or occupational clusters. Consequently, an essential challenge for engineering organisations wishing to overcome informational silos is to implement mechanisms that facilitate, encourage and sustain interactions between otherwise disconnected groups. This paper acts as a primer for those seeking to gain an understanding of the design, functionality and utility of a suite of software tools generically termed social media technologies in the context of optimising the management of tacit engineering knowledge. Underpinned by knowledge management theory and using detailed case examples, this paper explores how social media technologies achieve such goals, allowing for the transfer of knowledge by tapping into the tacit and explicit knowledge of disparate groups in complex engineering environments.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to describe the existing knowledge transfer practices in selected aerospace companies as perceived by highly experienced engineers retiring from the company. Specifically it was designed to investigate and describe (a) the processes and procedures used to transfer knowledge, (b) the systems that encourage knowledge transfer, (c) the impact of management actions on knowledge transfer, and (d) constraining factors that might impede knowledge transfer. Methodology. A descriptive case study was the methodology applied in this study. Qualitative data were gathered from highly experienced engineers from 3 large aerospace companies in Southern California. A semistructured interview was conducted face-to-face with each participant in a private or semiprivate, non-workplace setting to obtain each engineer's perspectives on his or her company's current knowledge transfer practices. Findings. The participants in this study preferred to transfer knowledge using face-to-face methods, one-on-one, through actual troubleshooting and problem-solving scenarios. Managers in these aerospace companies were observed as having knowledge transfer as a low priority; they tend not to promote knowledge transfer among their employees. While mentoring is the most common knowledge transfer system these companies offer, it is not the preferred method of knowledge transfer among the highly experienced engineers. Job security and schedule pressures are the top constraints that impede knowledge transfer between the highly experienced engineers and their coworkers. Conclusions. The study data support the conclusion that the highly experienced engineers in the study's aerospace companies would more likely transfer their knowledge to those remaining in the industry if the transfer could occur face-to-face with management support and acknowledgement of their expertise and if their job security is not threatened. The study also supports the conclusion that managers
García-Almeida, Desiderio; Ballesteros-Rodríguez, José
Knowledge is a valuable resource that can provide a firm competitive advantages. Food and beverage practices require the existence of knowledge to effectively perform the activities in this key department for many hotels. When hotel firms grow by integrating new hotels in the organizational structure, managers usually want to transfer the knowledge underlying the key practices. However, the transfer is affected by the level of knowledge tacitness, since this characteristic is considere...
Mughaneswari ap Sahadevan
Full Text Available The meaning of technology transfer is so wide but mostly involving some form of technology-related exchange. However, in this particular paper, technology transfer is consider as a concept to examine the process of disseminating knowledge and skills that a person owned to another person in order to generate higher productivity with new approach of producing a particular product or service. Although, many researchers have explored the evolution of technology transfer, nonetheless some drivers are yet to be explored in a Malaysian manufacturing industry. This study, therefore attempts to determine the relationship between absorptive capacity, transfer capacity, communication motivation and learning intent and technology transfer performance. A survey methodology was used in a Japanese multinational company based in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of 117 questionnaires were received. Results show that absorptive capacity is the most significant to influence technology transfer performance. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Key words: Technology transfer, absorptive capacity, Malaysia. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE
Chimusa, Emile R; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Masilela, Velaphi; Kumuthini, Judit
A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The "omics" fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP). Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection.
At the University of Berlin in the Federal Republic of Germany research is done on windmills coupled to centrifugal pumps. This combination might fill a gap in the high flow, low lift applications. The wind turbine that has been developed is a five-bladed sail wing windmill with a diameter of 5 meters. To achieve a high efficiency at a wide speed range, a special low speed, large impeller centrifugal pump has been developed. Tests have been done near the university (average wind speed = 3.5 m/s) and in the northern part of the country (average wind speed of 6.5 m/s). Also work has been done on calculations of towers and a wind electric system. The pitch control, developed for this windmill, has been applied in the sail wing wind pump as well. At the moment the University seeks contact with partners in developing countries to apply the technology. Next to the state-of-the-art of wind pump systems with centrifugal pumps at the Technical University of Berlin, attention is paid to 'non-scientific' development activities and their financing at a university, and a concept for an integrated know how and technology transfer between academic partners. 8 figs., 1 ill., 11 refs
Full Text Available Blurring boundaries between science and technology is a new phenomenon especially in fields such as biotechnology. The present work shows the fate of biotech research papers on foreign patents produced during the last decade in Quilmes National University. It aims at recognizing the flow of scientific knowledge developed at a public university towards foreign companies and organizations as well as reflecting on its technological value, the role of technology transfer management, the institutional significance of technology transfer processes and the need to develop innovative public policies for solving structural failures caused by industrial underdevelopment
Treffeisen, Renate; Grosfeld, Klaus; Kuhlmann, Franziska
Knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the field of climate science have captured intensive attention in recent years as being an important part of research activities. Therefore, the demand and pressure to develop a set of indicators for the evaluation of different activities in this field have increased, too. Research institutes are being asked more and more to build up structures in order to map these activities and, thus, are obliged to demonstrate the success of these efforts. This paper aims to serve as an input to stimulate further reflection on the field of evaluation of knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate sciences. The work performed in this paper is embedded in the efforts of the German Helmholtz Association in the research field of earth and environment and is driven by the need to apply suitable indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in climate research center evaluations. We carry out a comparative analysis of three long-term activities and derive a set of indicators for measuring their output and outcome by balancing the wide diversity and range of activity contents as well as the different tools to realize them. The case examples are based on activities which are part of the regional Helmholtz Climate Initiative Regional Climate Change (REKLIM) and the Climate Office for Polar Regions and Sea Level Rise at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research. Both institutional units have been working on a wide range of different knowledge transfer and dialogue processes since 2008/2009. We demonstrate that indicators for the evaluation must be based on the unique objectives of the individual activities and the framework they are embedded in (e.g., research foci which provide the background for the performed knowledge transfer and dialogue processes) but can partly be classified in a principle two-dimensional scheme. This scheme might serve as a usable basis for climate
Harrison, Margaret B; Nicklin, Wendy; Owen, Marie; Godfrey, Christina; McVeety, Janice; Angus, Val
Over the past decade, the need for healthcare delivery systems to identify and address patient safety issues has been propelled to the forefront. A Canadian survey, for example, demonstrated patient safety to be a major concern of frontline nurses (Nicklin & McVeety 2002). Three crucial patient safety elements, current knowledge, resources, and context of care have been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO 2009). To develop strategies to respond to the scope and mandate of the WHO report within the Canadian context, a pan-Canadian academic-policy partnership has been established. This newly formed Pan-Canadian Partnership, the Queen's Joanna Briggs Collaboration for Patient Safety (referred throughout as "QJBC" or "the Partnership"), includes the Queen's University School of Nursing, Accreditation Canada, the Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and is supported by an active and committed advisory council representing over 10 national organizations representing all sectors of the health continuum, including patients/families advocacy groups, professional associations, and other bodies. This unique partnership is designed to provide timely, focused support from academia to the front line of patient safety. QJBC has adopted an "integrated knowledge translation" approach to identify and respond to patient safety priorities and to ensure active engagement with stakeholders in producing and using available knowledge. Synthesis of evidence and guideline adaptation methodologies are employed to access quantitative and qualitative evidence relevant to pertinent patient safety questions and subsequently, to respond to issues of feasibility, meaningfulness, appropriateness/acceptability, and effectiveness. This paper describes the conceptual grounding of the Partnership, its proposed methods, and its plan for action. It is hoped that our journey may provide some guidance to others as they develop patient safety
Choi, Hee Jun
The purpose of this study was to investigate college students' perceptions of learning and knowledge transfer in problem-based video instruction. To achieve this purpose, this study compared students' interview data of learning and knowledge transfer in problem-based video instruction (PBVI) that was produced for an undergraduate course of the…
Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed, Saeema
Communication between departments in any company involved in the different phases of product lifecycle is crucial in order to correct faults from previous products. This paper illustrates a case study from the oil industry where knowledge transfer across departments is analysed. Interviews....... Differences in knowledge needs were observed in the two departments: engineering designers were more orientated towards knowledge of machinery at a component level while service engineers were interested in obtaining an overview of the systems. The study showed that communication between the departments...... consisted prevalently of information pushed by service engineers to engineering designers. If information flowed in the other direction, i.e. from design to operation, this was likely to be pulled by service engineers. These observations have implications on the structuring and capturing of knowledge...
Full Text Available Kristina A Monteiro, Paul George, Richard Dollase, Luba Dumenco Office of Medical Education, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: The use of multiple academic indicators to identify students at risk of experiencing difficulty completing licensure requirements provides an opportunity to increase support services prior to high-stakes licensure examinations, including the United States Medical Licensure Examination (USMLE Step 2 clinical knowledge (CK. Step 2 CK is becoming increasingly important in decision-making by residency directors because of increasing undergraduate medical enrollment and limited available residency vacancies. We created and validated a regression equation to predict students’ Step 2 CK scores from previous academic indicators to identify students at risk, with sufficient time to intervene with additional support services as necessary. Data from three cohorts of students (N=218 with preclinical mean course exam score, National Board of Medical Examination subject examinations, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK between 2011 and 2013 were used in analyses. The authors created models capable of predicting Step 2 CK scores from academic indicators to identify at-risk students. In model 1, preclinical mean course exam score and Step 1 score accounted for 56% of the variance in Step 2 CK score. The second series of models included mean preclinical course exam score, Step 1 score, and scores on three NBME subject exams, and accounted for 67%–69% of the variance in Step 2 CK score. The authors validated the findings on the most recent cohort of graduating students (N=89 and predicted Step 2 CK score within a mean of four points (SD=8. The authors suggest using the first model as a needs assessment to gauge the level of future support required after completion of preclinical course requirements, and rescreening after three of six clerkships to identify students who might benefit from
Wegner, Elisabeth; Nückles, Matthias
Learning has been described by two conceptual metaphors: as individual acquisition of knowledge ("acquisition metaphor"), and as an enculturation into a subject community ("participation metaphor"). On the other hand, academics' conceptions of teaching are usually reported to vary between teacher and student orientation. In…
Rosman, Tom; Peter, Johannes; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter
The present article investigates the effects of epistemic beliefs (i.e. beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing) on the effectiveness of information literacy instruction (i.e. instruction on how to search for scholarly information in academic settings). We expected psychology students with less sophisticated beliefs (especially…
Ibrahim, Mikail; Baharun, Hazleena; Harun, Haliza; Othman, Normah
Purpose: This study examined the interrelationships between a set of antecedent academic intrinsic motivations and metacognitive strategy such as goal orientation, perceived value and religiosity in Fundamental Knowledge for Matriculation courses (FKM). It also investigated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and metacognitive strategy…
van Helden, G.J.; Aardema, H.; ter Bogt, H.J.; Groot, T.L.C.M.
This study is about knowledge creation for practice in public sector management accounting by consultants and academics. It shows that researchers emphasize the importance of practice, but worry about the prospects of a successful cross-fertilization between practice and research, because of the
van Helden, G. Jan; Aardema, Harrie; ter Bogt, Henk J.; Groot, Tom L. C. M.
This study is about knowledge creation for practice in public sector management accounting by consultants and academics. It shows that researchers emphasize the importance of practice, but worry about the prospects of a successful cross-fertilization between practice and research, because of the
Stewart, Diana E; Dang, Bich N; Trautner, Barbara; Cai, Cecilia; Torres, Sergio; Turner, Teri
Objectives Patient satisfaction impacts healthcare quality and outcomes. Residents play an important role in patient satisfaction at academic institutions. This study aims to assess residents’ patient satisfaction knowledge and determine which learning experiences contributed to their knowledge acquisition. Settings This study was conducted at a health science university in a large, urban, tertiary-care academic medical centre in the USA. Participants All residents from internal medicine (n=185) and paediatrics (n=156) were asked to participate. Design Residents completed a survey from April 2013 to December 2013 that assessed (1) knowledge of factors that impact patient satisfaction and (2) learning experiences that may have contributed to their understanding of the drivers of patient satisfaction (eg, experiential (personal or clinical) or didactics). Trainees identified the importance of factors in determining patient satisfaction on a five-point Likert scale; answers were compiled into a knowledge score. The score was correlated with prior personal/clinical experience and didactics. Results Of the 341 residents, 247 (72%) completed the survey. No difference was found in knowledge among training levels or residency programme. More than 50% incorrectly thought physician board certification, patient’s education, patient’s income and physician’s age impacted satisfaction. Personal experience, through hospitalisation of a relative or friend, was correlated with higher knowledge (67% vs 71%, p=0.03). Ninety-nine per cent (n=238) stated peer observation, and all stated faculty feedback impacted their patient satisfaction knowledge. Seventy-seven per cent (n=185) had attended didactics on satisfaction, but attendance did not correlate with higher scores. Conclusions Our study showed trainees have a few gaps in their patient satisfaction knowledge, and attending past educational sessions on patient satisfaction did not correlate with higher knowledge scores. Our
Information system requirement development is a process of users’ knowledge sharing and transferring. However the tacit requirements developing is a main problem during requirement development process, for the reason of difficult to encoding, express, and communicate. Knowledge fusion and corporate effort is needed to finding tacit requirements. Under this background, our paper try to find out the rule of effort dynamic evolutionary of software developer and user by building an evolutionary game model on the condition of incentive system. And in addition this paper provides an in depth discussion at the end of this paper
Li, Yang [School of Economics and Business Administration, Chongqing University (China)
Information system requirement development is a process of users’ knowledge sharing and transferring. However the tacit requirements developing is a main problem during requirement development process, for the reason of difficult to encoding, express, and communicate. Knowledge fusion and corporate effort is needed to finding tacit requirements. Under this background, our paper try to find out the rule of effort dynamic evolutionary of software developer and user by building an evolutionary game model on the condition of incentive system. And in addition this paper provides an in depth discussion at the end of this paper.
Full Text Available Although research has shown that reading strategy instruction benefits poor readers, research also shows that teachers continue to struggle with reading strategy instruction and remain resistant to its implementation for various reasons. This article reports on the analysis of quantitative data which formed part of a larger, mixed-method study. The study, which sought to create a framework for reading strategy instruction in Grades 4 to 6 through a predominantly qualitative focus, used quantitative data to, among others, provide evidence of whether strategy knowledge transfer is measurable. This article provides evidence that strategy knowledge transfer is measurable and can, therefore, be used as motivation for teachers to implement reading strategy instruction in a sustainable fashion.
Knudsen, Mette Præst; Madsen, Erik Skov
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the specific practices of management in the dispatching unit and to identify mechanisms for supporting transfer of shop floor knowledge embedded in operating manufacturing equipment. Design/methodology/approach – The paper applies an inductive...... – The paper identifies four issues that management faces in the dispatching context when relocating manufacturing facilities. Originality/value – The paper gives new insights to a limited literature of shop floor knowledge transfer when relocating manufacturing facilities....... and a case study approach for exploring three empirical cases that represent different manufacturing facility relocation processes and differences in the applied managerial practices. Findings – The paper identifies two important gaps in international production literature when firms relocate equipment...
Full Text Available Key factors in relationships among Slovenian postgraduate students with a Young researcher status and their mentors are addressed. It was assumed that relationship determines assessment of the usefulness of the training and of knowledge transfer by Young researchers. The problem was explored quantitatively with a survey and qualitatively with focus groups method. Results show that Young researchers are on average satisfied with their mentors and were given good guidance both in contents and methodology. Differences can be observed regarding inclusion in research projects, where mentors of Young researchers in economy scored lower. With factor analysis it was shown that factor ‘mentorship’ is significantly correlated with the assessment of the programme. Analysis of focus groups indicated diverse experiences in mentoring both groups reported about. It was concluded that mentors who encourage the transfer of knowledge are exceptional in their ability to communicate and are teamwork-oriented; they foster active involvement of the candidate in the research group.
Marcelo Müller Beuren
Full Text Available This paper presents a knowledge transfer (KT analysis in an operational project management environment of the petrochemical industry. The main objective of this paper is to identify the major barriers and to suggest improvements activities aiming to foster the KT process. To this end, interviews with members of the project department were conducted by means of a questionnaire. Results were analyzed to identify the most problematic barriers and to propose improvements. The study concluded that the greatest difficulties are related to the transfer of tacit knowledge between different teams. The main contribution of this paper is that it presents an analysis of an unexplored environment and it proposes an improvement of the adapted method for KT study, by using a relationship matrix between the questionnaire and the barriers, so that problems can be identified in an easier manner.
Yuqin, Zhao; Guijun, Wang; Zhenqiang, Bao; Quanke, Pan
Tacit knowledge transfer and sharing can lead to synergy, both employees and enterprise can benefit from it. This paper discusses the setting of incentive mechanism in order to promote tacit knowledge transfer and sharing of employees in the case of asymmetric information, and establishes the incentive model applied double auction theory. We introduce the concept of favor degree to establish the trust mechanism in the process of trading, and we bring forward the repeated double auction model based on favor degree, improving the transaction success rate, and accelerating the long-term cooperative relationship between enterprise and employees, and solving the quantity problems of employees' promotion potential and the sense of belonging in the human resource management. And then we use an example to demonstrate the feasibility of repeated game model.
Vijayakumar, V; Gey, R; Wende, E
Over the past few years IT offshoring has become one of the most important corporate strategies in the software industry and is facing a diversity of challenges. One of them is the efficient transfer of knowledge between two companies, separated significantly in terms of time zone, geographical and cultural distance. Cultural aspects hence represent one of the most critical elements. While considering the software development process, requirements engineering is one of the most critical steps...
Yuan, Yu-Hsi; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Dai, Chien-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Chen, Wan-Fei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Li, Guodong; Wang, Jiangtao
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency, information sharing behavior and information transfer. A research model was established to verify several hypotheses. The research model based on integrated concepts of knowledge management and technology acceptance modeling. Participants were employees of enterprises in Taiwan, selected by combining snowball and convenience sampling. Data obtained from 779 e-surveys. Multiple-regression analysis was employed for hypothesis verification. The results indicate that perceived ease-of-use of mobile devices was affected by computer self-efficacy and computer playfulness directly; meanwhile, perceived ease-of-use directly affects perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness can predict information-sharing behavior in a positive manner, and impact knowledge transfer as well. Based on the research findings, it suggested that enterprises should utilize mobile information devices to create more contact with customers and enrich their service network. In addition, it is recommended that managers use mobile devices to transmit key information to their staff and that they use these devices for problem-solving and decision-making. Further, the staff's skills pertaining to the operation of mobile information devices and to fully implement their features are reinforced in order to inspire the users' knowledge transfer. Enhancing the playfulness of the interface is also important. In general, it is useful to promote knowledge transfer behavior within an organization by motivating members to share information and ideas via mobile information devices. In addition, a well-designed interface can facilitate employees' use of these devices.
This thesis investigates knowledge transfer at trade fairs and examines how private and official actors are involved in these processes. The thesis analyzes empirical findings from two case studies. Casa Pasarela which is a trade fair for home design, and Genera a trade fair for renewable energy. Both trade fairs took place in Madrid spring 2009 and were arranged by IFEMA. The theoretical approaches used in this thesis are concepts from evolutionary economics which mainly include types of kno...
Full Text Available Sri Lanka was badly affected by the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004. The tsunami destroyed about two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline and affected more than 1,000,000 people. It does not only affected the lives of the community, but also had a devastating effect on their housing and livelihoods. The overall loss of 100,000 or more houses due to the tsunami proved to be a major challenge to the emergency response teams and disaster planners. Although several major disasters of varying magnitudes have occurred in the world, the body of knowledge related to post-disaster housing reconstruction and rehabilitation appears fragmented and poorly integrated. This paper attempts to fill this theoretical gap by focusing on the extent to which good practice knowledge transfer helps in overcoming this problem for more effective and efficient delivery of post-tsunami housing in Sri Lanka. The paper applied knowledge transfer principles within the context of the two housing reconstruction strategies employed in post-tsunami housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka; namely donor-driven housing and owner driven housing. The results of this study reveal that the knowledge transfer within this context cannot be simply copied and inserted from one context without any localisation. Therefore, the paper proposes a high-level abstraction of the core principles of community engagement through participatory techniques associated with appropriate capacity and capability building techniques that will enable the various stakeholders to create a new application to suit the appropriate context of the transfer destination (post-tsunami context in Sri Lanka.
Suzana Elena CHIRIAC; Alexandru GHITIU-BRATESCU
Globalisation is a complex process which has implications at multiple levels and around the world. The future world, regarded as a social network, has the potential to create added value for people, while the interconnections between businesses, strategies, countries and sustainability can be ensured through effective communication, collaboration and intercultural dialogue and partnerships. Within the global economy and culture, knowledge transfer is a key point for success and the creation o...
Dai, Chien-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Chen, Wan-Fei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Li, Guodong; Wang, Jiangtao
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency, information sharing behavior and information transfer. A research model was established to verify several hypotheses. The research model based on integrated concepts of knowledge management and technology acceptance modeling. Participants were employees of enterprises in Taiwan, selected by combining snowball and convenience sampling. Data obtained from 779 e-surveys. Multiple-regression analysis was employed for hypothesis verification. The results indicate that perceived ease-of-use of mobile devices was affected by computer self-efficacy and computer playfulness directly; meanwhile, perceived ease-of-use directly affects perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness can predict information-sharing behavior in a positive manner, and impact knowledge transfer as well. Based on the research findings, it suggested that enterprises should utilize mobile information devices to create more contact with customers and enrich their service network. In addition, it is recommended that managers use mobile devices to transmit key information to their staff and that they use these devices for problem-solving and decision-making. Further, the staff’s skills pertaining to the operation of mobile information devices and to fully implement their features are reinforced in order to inspire the users' knowledge transfer. Enhancing the playfulness of the interface is also important. In general, it is useful to promote knowledge transfer behavior within an organization by motivating members to share information and ideas via mobile information devices. In addition, a well-designed interface can facilitate employees' use of these devices. PMID:28886088
Hidayat, Benny; Afif, Zal
Housing is the most affected sector by disasters as can be observed after the 2009 earthquake in West Sumatra province in Indonesia. As in Indonesian construction industry, the housing post-disaster reconstruction is influenced by knowledge and skills of builders or laborers, or locally known as `tukang'. After the earthquake there were trainings to transfer knowledge about earthquake-safe house structure for the builders in the post-disaster reconstruction. This study examined the effectiveness of the training in term of understanding of the builders and application of the new knowledge. Ten semi-structured interviews with the builders were conducted in this study. The results indicate that the builders with prior housing construction experience can absorb and understand the new knowledge about earthquake-safe house structure. Combination of lecturing and practice sessions also help the builders to understand the knowledge. However, findings of this research also suggest there is a problem in implementation of the new knowledge. Utilization of earthquake-safe house structure may leads to a rise in house cost. As a result, some house owners prefer to save money than to adopt the new knowledge.
Full Text Available `Background: In today’s business environment, a company is able to maintain its competitive position if it constantly generates knowledge and disseminates this knowledge within the organization, as well as transforms it into new competences. The ability to transfer knowledge becomes one of the key factors in the improvement of a company’s competitive position. This hypothesis is applicable particularly in the case of cooperation within networks, as they are an excellent opportunity for mutual learning between partners. Objectives: The purpose of the paper is to analyse the process of knowledge transfer in intra-organizational networks. Method: Due to the specificity of the research object, the case study method has been chosen. In order to make an in-depth analysis of the case study, we selected a group of several criteria based on the theory which we believe to be fundamental to the effectiveness of knowledge management in networks, and compared them with the situation in the ArcelorMittal Group. Results: Our research show that ArcelorMittal Group has met almost all the criteria of effective knowledge management in its intra-organizational network. Some exceptions, albeit merely to an extent, are mostly the result of historical circumstances, , i.e. the process of growth through acquisitions, and the acquisition of companies at different stages of organizational development, as well as organizational culture. Conclusion: Based on theoretical assumptions, the study analysed in details the components of knowledge management applied by the corporation in question. Therefore this study might be utilised to formulate a refutable hypothesis and verify them on a larger group of companies from different sectors of the economy. The main limitations of the paper are mostly related to the inherent approach therein
Emile R Chimusa
Full Text Available A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The "omics" fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP. Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection.
Daniel Z. Levin; Rob Cross
Research has demonstrated that relationships are critical to knowledge creation and transfer, yet findings have been mixed regarding the importance of relational and structural characteristics of social capital for the receipt of tacit and explicit knowledge. We propose and test a model of two-party (dyadic) knowledge exchange, with strong support in each of the three companies surveyed. First, the link between strong ties and receipt of useful knowledge (as reported by the knowledge seeker) ...
Full Text Available In an increasingly e-literate society, new and media technologies are proliferating and traditional teaching approaches are challenged to meet new requirements. Other aspects such as teamwork and knowledge exchange are also becoming more important. Collaborative working methods are more dominant in the networked business environment. The vocational training at universities is therefore continuously facing with new challenges. The objective of this paper is to show how the implementation of a holistic teaching approach including the idea of blended learning can be an effective way to train students in collaborative and academic working skills, methodological expertise, information literacy, as well as making students aware of new developments in media literacy. This approach follows our proposed concept DIAMOND (Didactical Approach for Media Competence Development with a main focus on the implementation of the "knowledgeenhancing helix." This pedagogical concept was developed corresponding the requirements for "good online learning." The paper accordingly discusses the theoretical framework and presents a case study where the concept was implemented in practice.
Breckwoldt, J; Lingemann, C; Wagner, P
Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the most effective intervention for out of hospital sudden cardiac arrest; therefore, basic life support (BLS) courses for lay persons have become well established in industrialized countries, often since decades. Despite this favorable situation bystander CPR rates still remain low in some countries (e.g. in Germany), indicating serious implementation problems. The quality of instruction in these courses could be one reason for low bystander CPR rates. We therefore analyzed official lay BLS courses in terms of the teaching quality in the domains of knowledge, skills and attitudes (according to Bloom's taxonomy). A total of 20 officially accredited lay BLS courses in Berlin, Germany, were analyzed by a participating observer, who remained blinded to the instructor and course participants until the end of the course. Courses were offered by German rescue organizations and private providers according to European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines. Teaching quality was rated by a standardized checklist including 21 observable criteria of teaching quality for transfer of knowledge (n = 10), skills (n = 8) and attitudes (n = 3). In order to achieve comparability between items the results of each criterion were quantified by Likert scales ranging from +2 (very good) to -2 (very poor). The average score of all courses was +0.47 (SD ±0.46) for transfer of knowledge, +0.03 (SD ±0.61) for skills and -1.08 (SD ±0.73) for attitudes. In the domain of knowledge transfer, learning atmosphere and course structure were rated to be generally good, whilst marked deficits were found with respect to correctness of content. In the domain of skills the more positive ratings were given for teaching of single BLS elements (e.g. compressions and ventilation), in contrast to the training of BLS context, where e.g. realistic scenarios were only used by 3 out of 20 instructors. The domain of attitude transfer had the worst
There is soon-to-be a shortage of qualified U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As a result, many science-related jobs are being filled by technically-skilled foreign workers. If the U.S wants to maintain its global economic leadership, then it must ensure a continuous growth of highly-trained individuals in STEM disciplines. Therefore, American institutions of higher education, including community colleges, must identify potential factors that contribute to the lack of interest in STEM majors, as well as the low rate of success of students who enter STEM majors but struggle to finish their degrees. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of community college transfer students who are pursuing bachelor degrees in STEM majors at Iowa State University (ISU). What were their transfer experiences and what influenced their academic success in STEM. Participants were encouraged to share their transfer experiences while at the community college as well as their experiences on the ISU campus. They were also asked about their level of academic involvement, their relationships with faculty, and their participation in peer group activities prior to and after transferring. The research design included both quantitative and qualitative components, which provided an in-depth look at the experiences of STEM non-engineering and engineering students. Quantitative data include students' background characteristics, demographic information, and college activities at the community college and ISU. Qualitative data were used to illuminate students' overall transfer experience and their successful journey in STEM fields. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed a better understanding of the strategies students put into practice once they transfer from a community college to a four-year institution in pursuit of a STEM bachelor's degree. The results of this study suggest that there is an association among the
Since nurse education moved to universities, a reoccurring concern of health consumers, health administrators, and some practising nurses is that nurses are not able to transfer the theoretical knowledge of holistic care into practice. Much has been written about this concern usually under the heading of the theory-practice gap. A common reason that has been highlighted as the cause of this gap is that the theoretical knowledge that nurses learn in academia is predicated on concepts such as humanism and holistic caring. In contrast, the bureaucratic organisation where nurses provide care tends to be based on management concepts where cost containment and outcome measures are more acceptable. Hence nurses' learned values of holistic caring are pitted against the reality of the practice setting. So what is this practice reality? This paper attempts to provide an insider view of why the theoretical knowledge of holistic care may be difficult to enact in the clinical setting. In-depth taped interviews with nurses and participant observation were conducted in acute care hospitals in Western Australia. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. The findings indicated that utilitarian nursing and role models had impacted on the transference of theoretical knowledge of holistic care into practice. The paper outlines some measures that nurses themselves can undertake to ensure the narrowing of the theory-practice gap in this area.
Mitev, Mladen; Corniani, Enrico; Manolova, Maria; Pironkov, Lybomir; Tsvetkov, Iskren
The CORONA project is funded by the European Commission under the FP7 programme with overall objective to establish a Regional Centre of Competence for VVER Technology and Nuclear Applications. The Centre will provide support and services for preservation and transfer of VVER-related nuclear knowledge as well as know-how and capacity building. Specific training schemes aimed at nuclear professionals and researchers, non-nuclear professionals and students are developed and implemented in cooperation with local, national and international training and educational institutions. Pilot trainings are executed for each specific target group to assess the applicability of the training materials. The training scheme implemented for nuclear professionals and researchers is focussed on the NPP Lifetime Management. The available knowledge on enhancing safety and performance of nuclear installations with VVER technology is used in the preparation of the training materials. The Online Multimedia Training Course on VVER Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement and Integrity Assessment, developed by the joint effort of JRC-IET and IAEA is used in the training. The outcome collected from the trainees showed that the tool meets its primary goal of consolidating the existing knowledge on the VVER RPV Embrittlement and Integrity Assessment, provides adequate ground for transfer of this knowledge.
Perkmann, Markus; Tartari, Valentina; McKelvey, Maureen
A considerable body of work highlights the relevance of collaborative research, contract research, consulting and informal relationships for university–industry knowledge transfer. We present a systematic review of research on academic scientists’ involvement in these activities to which we refer...
Søberg, Peder Veng
Purpose – The paper investigates important impediments to knowledge creation within newly established foreign invested R&D centers in China, and India. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents a framework based primarily on knowledge creation theory, in order to better understand barriers...... for transfer - and creation of innovation related knowledge, within newly established foreign invested R&D units in emerging markets, in particular China and India. The paper utilizes extensive empirical data, collected in a holistic multiple case study, including three globally leading MNCs, originating from...... Scandinavia, which have established R&D units in China and India. Findings – Examples of innovations in China and India within Scandinavian MNCs are presented, which illustrate that innovation is indeed possible in China and India. However, impediments to innovation also exist, especially concerning...
Jagul Huma Lashari
Full Text Available It is well understood that the creation and applications of new knowledge is the primary factor that drives economic growth. Aim ofthis research is to examine the KTCs (Knowledge Transfer Channels in the universities of Sindh, Pakistan leading towards the scientific and technological development of environment sector. This research identified 29 KTCs from literature those were examined, making exploratory interviews with PhD faculty members of universities offering degrees in field of environment. The identified 29 KTCs are grouped together into 7 groups based on their characteristics. KTC-1: Publications (2-variables; KTC-2: Networking (4-variables; KTC-3: Mobility of Researchers (6- variables; KTC-4: Joint Research (5-variables; KTC-5: Intellectual Property with (2-variables; KTC- 6: Co-operations (6-variables; KTC-7: Institutional Infrastructure (3-variables. Findingsshows, relevancy of KTCs in terms of their role towards the utilization of knowledge capital towards development by means of professional publications from KTC-1, participation of industry staff in conferences and workshops from KTC-2, students working as trainees in the industry and outflow of graduates at M.Phil. level from KTC-3, consultancy of university staff members in the industry from KTC-4, research work in co-operation with research institutes and with consultants from KTC-6 and sharing of physical infrastructure from KTC-7 also shows their impact towards the utilization of knowledge capital for development of environment sector. None of variablefrom KTC-5 related to intellectual property rights shows their impact towards utilization of knowledge capital. This research contributes empirical results of KTCs in universities, with policy implications for future knowledge transfer, which can contribute in the development of society.
Ladyshewsky, Richard K.; Flavell, Helen
The higher education sector has increasingly begun to pay more attention to academic leadership. This qualitative study explores how such an investment in a 20-week leadership development program influenced the behaviour of 10 academic staff in the role of program coordinator 6 to 12 months following participation in the program. Otherwise known…
In this article the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is discussed by accounting for external impacts. It is shown that factors which are neither part of the knowledge transfer activity nor part of the participating institution may have significant impact on the potential usefulness of knowledge transfer activities. Differences in the potential usefulness are leading to different initial conditions of the knowledge transfer activities. This needs to be taken into account when comparing different knowledge transfer activities, e.g., in program evaluations. This study is focusing on regional climate services at the German Baltic Sea coast. It is based on two surveys and experiences with two identical web tools applied on two regions with different spatial coverage. The results show that comparability among science based knowledge transfer activities is strongly limited through several external impacts. The potential usefulness and thus the initial condition of a particular knowledge transfer activity strongly depends on (1) the perceived priority of the focused topic, (2) the used information channels, (3) the conformity between the research agenda of service providing institutions and information demands in the public, as well as (4) on the spatial coverage of a service. It is suggested to account for the described external impacts for evaluations of knowledge transfer activities. The results show that the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is limited and challenge the adequacy of quantitative measures in this context. Moreover, as shown in this case study, in particular regional climate services should be individually evaluated on a long term perspective, by potential user groups and/or by its real users. It is further suggested that evaluation criteria should be co-developed with these stakeholder groups.
Larsson, Annika; Ohlsson, Kjell; Roos, Anna
This report displays how the Swedish nuclear power plants Forsmark, Oskarshamn and Ringhals work with knowledge management. The report also consists of a literature review of appropriate ways to extract tacit knowledge as well as methods to transfer competence. The report is made up of a smaller number of interviews at the nuclear power plants in combination with a questionnaire distributed to a larger number of people at the plants. The results of the interview study is that only one of the Swedish nuclear power plants have a programme to transfer knowledge from older staff to newer. This is, however, not a programme for everyone. Another plant has a programme for knowledge building, but only for their specialists. At both plants, which lack a programme, the interviewees request more structure in knowledge transfer; even though they feel the current way of transferring knowledge with mentors works well. Besides more structure, interviewees present a wish to have more time for knowledge transfer as well as the opportunity to recruit more than needed. Recruiting more than needed is however not very simple due to multiple causes such as nominal sizing departments and a difficulty of recruiting people to work far from larger cities. The way things are now, many feel too under-staffed and under a lot of time pressure daily to also have time for knowledge transfer besides their normal work.
This report is intended primarily for senior and middle level managers in nuclear power plant operating organizations. It is intended to provide them practical information they can use to improve the transfer of knowledge from the current generation of NPP operating organization personnel to the next generation in an effective manner. The information provided in this report is based upon the experience of Member State operating organizations as well as other related industries. In September 2000, the IAEA held a technical meeting on the topic of an ageing workforce and declining educational infrastructures. The proceedings of this meeting were distributed on CD-ROM as Working Material. Several recent IAEA meetings including a senior level meeting held in June 2002 in Vienna and a technical session of the IAEA General Conference in September 2002 addressed methods of knowledge transfer. This is the first IAEA report published on this specific topic. In 2000, the IAEA Technical Working Group on the Training and Qualification of NPP Personnel (TWG-T and Q) suggested that the IAEA should develop a publication on the definition of core competencies to be maintained by an NPP operating organization. The TWG-T and Q suggested that this TECDOC should provide additional detail beyond that specified in the recently revised Safety Guide NS-G-2.8, Recruitment, Qualification and Training of Personnel for Nuclear Power Plants. This task was included in the approved programme for 2002-2003. In March 2001, IAEA-TECDOC-1204, A Systematic Approach to Human Performance Improvement: Training Solutions was published. This TECDOC provides a comprehensive list of core competencies. These competencies provide the additional detail beyond that specified in Safety Guide NS-G-2.8 that the TWG-T and Q had suggested. The aspect of core competencies that is not addressed in IAEA-TECDOC-1204 is how to effectively transfer these competencies to the generation that replaces the workforce that
Full Text Available Knowledge society lies on the ruins of national culture that thought people to function in a single universal form of science. This type of society is tightly related to a post-national multicultural world that nourishes the erosion of classical (Kantian and Humboldian cultural and scientific foundations of the university. We are now witnessing it’s transformation into a “multiversity” dominated by the competitive international academic market for students and scholars and “commodified” knowledge. The fiscal crisis of publicly financed universities forced them to constantly pursue other forms of income, the industry being the most obvious solution. In the place of universities of reason and culture the drastic decrease of public funding generated the commercialization of the universities. This is because there is an “asymmetric convergence”: while universities are adopting corporate values and principles the industry itself is not influenced by the academic values and norms. The pursuit of knowledge for mere intellectual curiosity and also the conception of the knowledge as a public good have been abandoned in favor of applied research serving corporate interests. The resulting academic capitalism is far from being the best solution to budget cuts and this study is trying to highlight some of advantages but also the most important shortcomings of this present trend in our universities.
Carlan, N A; Kramer, D M; Bigelow, P; Wells, R; Garritano, E; Vi, P
A six-year study is exploring the most effective ways to disseminate ideas to reduce musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the construction sector. The sector was targeted because MSDs account for 35% of all lost time injuries. This paper reports on the organization of the construction sector, and maps potential pathways of communication, including social networks, to set the stage for future dissemination. The managers, health and safety specialists, union health and safety representatives, and 28 workers from small, medium and large construction companies participated. Over a three-year period, data were collected from 47 qualitative interviews. Questions were guided by the PARIHS (Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services) knowledge-transfer conceptual framework and adapted for the construction sector. The construction sector is a complex and dynamic sector, with non-linear reporting relationships, and divided and diluted responsibilities. Four networks were identified that can potentially facilitate the dissemination of new knowledge: worksite-project networks; union networks; apprenticeship program networks; and networks established by the Construction Safety Association/Infrastructure Health and Safety Association. Flexible and multi-directional lines of communication must be used in this complex environment. This has implications for the future choice of knowledge transfer strategies.
Full Text Available Limited adoption of mobile technology for informal learning and continuing professional development within Australian healthcare environments has been explained primarily as an issue of insufficient digital and ehealth literacy of healthcare professionals. This study explores nurse supervisors’ use of mobile technology for informal learning and continuing professional development both for their own professional practice, and in their role in modelling digital knowledge transfer, by facilitating the learning and teaching of nursing students in the workplace. A convenience sample of 27 nurse supervisors involved with guiding and supporting undergraduate nurses participated in one of six focus groups held in two states of Australia. Expanding knowledge emerged as the key theme of importance to this group of clinicians. Although nurse supervisors regularly browsed Internet sources for learning and teaching purposes, a mixed understanding of the mobile learning activities that could be included as informal learning or part of formal continuing professional development was detected. Participants need educational preparation and access to mobile learning opportunities to improve and maintain their digital and ehealth literacy to appropriately model digital professionalism with students. Implementation of mobile learning at point of care to enable digital knowledge transfer, augment informal learning for students and patients, and support continuing professional development opportunities is necessary. Embedding digital and ehealth literacy within nursing curricula will promote mobile learning as a legitimate nursing function and advance nursing practice.
Moskaliuk, Johannes; Bertram, Johanna; Cress, Ulrike
Virtual training environments are appropriate to train complex tasks that require collaboration and interaction among the members of a team, especially if training in reality is not possible, too expensive or too dangerous. The field study reported in this paper compared three training conditions (virtual condition, standard condition, and control condition). The participants were police officers who were being trained in the communication between ground forces and a helicopter crew during an operation. This task (like many other tasks of the police, fire brigade and emergency services) is of high complexity and has no single "correct" solution, is based on specialization of tasks within a team, requires intensive communication among team members, and consists of situations in which human beings are in danger. Learning outcomes and knowledge transfer were measured as dependent variables. The results validate that virtual training was as efficient as standard training with regard to knowledge acquisition, and it was even more efficient with regard to knowledge transfer. With regard to the perceived value of the training, the participants judged standard training to be better than virtual training (except for training satisfaction, where no difference was found between standard and virtual training). These results indicate that virtual training is an effective tool for training in complex tasks that require collaboration and cannot fully be trained for in reality.
Einarson, Adrienne; Egberts, Toine C; Heerdink, E Rob
Knowledge transfer and translation (KT) has become an important component in health care systems worldwide. Antidepressant use in pregnancy has become a controversial subject for a number of reasons, including differing interpretations of study results. Selected key articles were indentified and retrieved from the literature. Relevant information was extracted and synthesized into themes, addressing each of the stated objectives. (1) To determine how knowledge regarding the safety/risk of antidepressant use in pregnancy is created; (2) to describe different research models and statistical analyses that have been used, so as to critically evaluate the results; and (3) to identify how this information is currently disseminated. All of the methods used for examining the safety of antidepressants in pregnancy have some deficiencies in study design and analysis, thus reinforcing the need for accurate interpretations when discussing results. In addition, dissemination in both the scientific and lay press has been selective and therefore potentially biased. It is critical, starting with the creators of knowledge, through to the recipients that discrepancies are resolved, as lack of clarity may impede the transfer of unambiguous evidence-based information from health care providers to patients, thus impacting decision making. For example, by implementing improved (KT) strategies, a pregnant, depressed woman, will be empowered to make a rational evidence-based decision regarding whether or not she should take an antidepressant during pregnancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kitazato, Hiroshi; Kijima, Akihiro; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Fujikura, Katsunori
On March 11, 2011, huge earthquake and tsunamis took place coastal regions of Northeast Japan. Coastal infrastructure collapsed due to high waves of tsunamis. Marine ecosystems were also strongly disturbed by the earthquakes and tsunamis. TEAMS (Tohoku Ecosystem-Associated Marine Sciences) has started for monitoring recovering process of marine ecosystems. The project continues ten years. First five years are mainly monitored recovery process, then we should transfer our knowledge to fishermen and citizens for restoration of fishery and social systems. But, how can we actually transfer our knowledge from science to citizens? This is new experience for us. Socio-technology constructs a "high quality risk communication" model how scientific knowledge or technologies from scientific communities to citizens. They are progressing as follows, "observation, measurements and data", → "modeling and synthesis" → "information process" → "delivery to society" → " take action in society". These steps show detailed transition from inter-disciplinarity to trans-disciplinarity in science and technology. In our presentation, we plan to show a couple of case studies that are going forward from science to society.
da Silva, Samuel Araujo Gomes; Duarte, Roberto Gonzalez; de Castro, José Márcio
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of four mechanisms of knowledge transfer (training, technical visits, expatriation, and standard operating procedures) on the different dimensions (potential and realized) of absorptive capacity in international technical cooperation. METHODS We examine the case of implementation of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos. Data have been collected using semi-structured interviews (applied to 21 professionals of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos, Farmanguinhos, FIOCRUZ, and Itamaraty) and official documents. The data of the interviews have been submitted to content analysis, using the software NVivo. RESULTS Training and technical visits directly influenced the acquisition and, partly, the assimilation of knowledge. Expatriation contributed with the transformation of this knowledge from the development and refinement of operational routines. Finally, the definition of standard operating procedures allowed the Mozambican technicians to be the actors of the transformation of the knowledge previously acquired and assimilated and, at the same time, it laid the foundations for a future exploration of the knowledge. CONCLUSIONS Training and technical visits mainly influence the potential absorptive capacity, while expatriation and standard operating procedures most directly affect the realized absorptive capacity. PMID:29166441
Full Text Available Social ties play an important role in agricultural knowledge exchange, particularly in developing countries with high exposure to agriculture development interventions. Institutions often facilitate agricultural training projects, with a focus on agroecological practices, such as agroforestry and agrobiodiversity. The structural characteristics of social networks amongst land managers influences decision-making to adopt such adaptive agroecoloigcal practice; however, the extent of knowledge transfer beyond direct project participants is often unknown. Using a social network approach, we chart the structure of agrarian knowledge networks (n = 131 in six communities, which have been differentially exposed to agriculture development interventions in Ghana. Farmer network size, density and composition were distinctly variable; development project-affiliated farmers were embedded in larger networks, had non-affiliated farmers within their networks, were engaged in more diverse agricultural production and reported adopting and adapting agroecological practice more frequently. Such bridging ties that link across distinctive groups in a network can expose network members to new and innovative agroecological practices, such as increasing agrobiodiversity, thus, contributing to livelihood strategies that mitigate environmental and market risk. Furthermore, we show that these knowledge networks were crop-specific where network size varied given the type of crop produced. Such factors, which may influence the rate and extent of agroecological knowledge diffusion, are critical for the effectiveness of land management practices as well as the persistence of agriculture development interventions.
Samuel Araujo Gomes da Silva
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of four mechanisms of knowledge transfer (training, technical visits, expatriation, and standard operating procedures on the different dimensions (potential and realized of absorptive capacity in international technical cooperation. METHODS We examine the case of implementation of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos. Data have been collected using semi-structured interviews (applied to 21 professionals of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos, Farmanguinhos, FIOCRUZ, and Itamaraty and official documents. The data of the interviews have been submitted to content analysis, using the software NVivo. RESULTS Training and technical visits directly influenced the acquisition and, partly, the assimilation of knowledge. Expatriation contributed with the transformation of this knowledge from the development and refinement of operational routines. Finally, the definition of standard operating procedures allowed the Mozambican technicians to be the actors of the transformation of the knowledge previously acquired and assimilated and, at the same time, it laid the foundations for a future exploration of the knowledge. CONCLUSIONS Training and technical visits mainly influence the potential absorptive capacity, while expatriation and standard operating procedures most directly affect the realized absorptive capacity.
Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David
Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively. Then they received occasional transfer trials-never directly reinforced-drawn from untrained regions of the stimulus space. We hypothesized that implicit-procedural category learning-allied to associative learning-would transfer weakly because it is yoked to the training stimuli. This result was confirmed for humans and monkeys. We hypothesized that explicit category learning-allied to abstract category rules-would transfer robustly. This result was confirmed only for humans. That is, humans displayed explicit category knowledge that transferred flawlessly. Monkeys did not. This result illuminates the distinctive abstractness, stimulus independence, and representational portability of humans' explicit category rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Guyton, Edith; Farokhi, Elizabeth
In order to determine if successful academic performance assures good teaching, four measures of academic achievement of teacher education graduates of Georgia State University from 1981 through 1984 were correlated with on-the-job performance assessments. Results are presented and implications for education policies are discussed. (Author/MT)
Safe management of the long-lived and high-level radioactive waste originating primarily from nuclear power stations requires isolating and confining the waste for periods up to 100 000 years. Disposal in deep geological formations is currently the solution advocated by international organisations (e.g. the IAEA and the OECD-NEA) and governments, but nowhere in the world is such repository for civilian nuclear waste in operation yet. Concerns about the governance of the involved risks and uncertainties for such long periods lie at the heart of the controversies that have slowed down the identification of a solution. In order to draw lessons potentially relevant for the governance of long-term climate risks, this paper examines the ways in which two interrelated aspects have been addressed in nuclear waste management in France, the US, and the Nordic countries. The first issue concerns "reversibility" - i.e. the possibility on one hand to retrieve the waste once it has been disposed of in a repository, and on the other to return at any point in time along the decision-making process to the previous decision-making phase. Reversibility constitutes today a fundamental, legally binding requirement in French radioactive waste policy. A strategy for managing risk and uncertainty as such, reversibility nevertheless also poses significant safety challenges of its own. The second topic goes beyond the timescales (max. 300 years) in which reversibility is usually considered applicable, addressing the question of intergenerational knowledge transfer, comparing the Nordic and the American approaches to the issue. The key challenge here is ensuring the transfer to the future generations - for periods up to 100 000 years - of sufficient knowledge concerning the siting, characteristics and management of the waste deposited in a repository. Even more fundamentally, instead of knowledge transfer, should we rather aim at "active forgetting", in order to prevent the curious in the
Barber, Christopher G; Haque, Nuzrul; Gardner, Ben
The identification and development of novel drugs requires a multidisciplinary team of individuals whose membership changes during the lifecycle of a project. Incomplete knowledge transfer across this team can be a barrier to effective decision-making and efficient drug discovery. We have deployed a new infrastructure supporting information storage and distribution within small teams using Microsoft's SharePoint server technology in conjunction with the desktop application OneNote. This delivers a user-friendly collaborative workspace that is fast, flexible and carries a low training burden. Demand from drug project teams for this 'solution' has now resulted in site-wide deployment to over 500 people across research.
McLean, Michelle; Shaban, Sami; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah
Increasingly, it is being recognised in higher and medical education that learners should be adequately prepared for the unpredictable nature of professional practice. Several generic or transferable skills or capabilities (e.g., communication, information handling) that will enable graduates to function in an ever-changing professional world have been identified. Using a validated inventory comprising six categories of transferable skills, three cohorts of incoming male and female medical students at a Gulf university documented their level of practice and confidence for 31 skills. The exercise was repeated a year later. New medical students identified computer and organisational skills and the ability to manage their learning as strengths, but scores for technical and numeracy, information handling and presentation and communication skills suggested that learners generally required guidance. A year later, despite considerable self-reported information handling and communication skills development, learners generally did not consider themselves self-sufficient. A significant gender difference emerged, with incoming males reporting less experience and confidence in many skills. This gap was reduced but did not disappear over the first academic year. An audit such as this may be useful for identifying individual skills levels as well as providing insight into shortcomings in the academic programme in terms of opportunities for transferable skills development.
J. C. Bunch
Full Text Available This study’s purpose was to compare the effectiveness of the traditional, lecture and discussion method to a digital game-based learning (DGBL approach on students’ near and far knowledge transfer abilities in agriculture and mathematics regarding a unit on swine diseases in animal science courses. Two research questions guided the study, which employed a quasi-experimental, between-groups design. No statistically significant differences (p > .05 were found between the counterfactual group and the treatment group regarding students’ near and far knowledge transfer. Based on this result, it can be recommended that professional development opportunities be created with an emphasis on using serious games to teach course content for in-service teachers without diminishing students’ knowledge transfer. Specifically, the creators of this professional development should consider emphasizing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge development in teachers. In addition, future investigations should focus on the kind of transfer that occurred, whether positive, negative, or zero.
De Luca, A.; Marin-Ferrer, M.; Peerani, P.; Janssens, W.
This Paper focuses on analysing and comparing two main paradigms adopted to tackle the question of knowledge transfer, i.e. a top-down approach versus a bottom-up grassroots approach. This is done without excluding the fact that the two approaches can ultimately complement each other in effectively bringing about a sustainable method to improve interaction between the experienced workforce with the newcomers. The study examines the context and the method on which these two approaches are based (online and real life interaction). The examples we will be using are the NuSaSET Portal, with its community driven knowledge network, the ESARDA Course, which adopts a conservative 'Lecture' approach and the INNM Student Chapters. Both former activities are hosted by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. (authors)
Kronenfeld, Michael R
The objective of this study was to identify trends in academic health sciences libraries (AHSLs) as they adapt to the shift from a print knowledgebase to an increasingly digital knowledgebase. This research was funded by the 2003 David A. Kronick Traveling Fellowship. The author spent a day and a half interviewing professional staff at each library. The questionnaire used was sent to the directors of each library in advance of the visit, and the directors picked the staff to be interviewed and set up the schedule. Seven significant trends were identified. These trends are part of the shift of AHSLs from being facility and print oriented with a primary focus on their role as repositories of a print-based knowledgebase to a new focus on their role as the center or "nexus" for the organization, access, and use of an increasingly digital-based knowledgebase. This paper calls for a national effort to develop a new model or structure for health sciences libraries to more effectively respond to the challenges of access and use of a digital knowledgebase, much the same way the National Library of Medicine did in the 1960s and 1970s in developing and implementing the National Network of Libraries of Medicine. The paper then concludes with some examples or ideas for research to assist in this process.
Kronenfeld, Michael R.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify trends in academic health sciences libraries (AHSLs) as they adapt to the shift from a print knowledgebase to an increasingly digital knowledgebase. This research was funded by the 2003 David A. Kronick Traveling Fellowship. Methods: The author spent a day and a half interviewing professional staff at each library. The questionnaire used was sent to the directors of each library in advance of the visit, and the directors picked the staff to be interviewed and set up the schedule. Results: Seven significant trends were identified. These trends are part of the shift of AHSLs from being facility and print oriented with a primary focus on their role as repositories of a print-based knowledgebase to a new focus on their role as the center or “nexus” for the organization, access, and use of an increasingly digital-based knowledgebase. Conclusion: This paper calls for a national effort to develop a new model or structure for health sciences libraries to more effectively respond to the challenges of access and use of a digital knowledgebase, much the same way the National Library of Medicine did in the 1960s and 1970s in developing and implementing the National Network of Libraries of Medicine. The paper then concludes with some examples or ideas for research to assist in this process. PMID:15685271
José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández
Full Text Available This paper has the objective to demonstrate the contributions achieved by the International Network of Researchers in Competitiveness (INRCO in academic collaboration and scientific knowledge generation. Part of the assumption sustaining that economic globalization processes, information and communication technologies revolution lead to the increasing environmental complexity and uncertainty of a knowledge society. One answer is the study and analysis of competitiveness considered as the strategy to achieve higher levels of economic growth and socio-cultural development in all micro, meso and macro levels. The method used is the analytic-deductive based on the evidence of related data with the activity and results in publications of the International Network of Researchers in Competitiveness. Consequently, it has been adapted certain speculative notions in a theoretical analysis exploring the social dynamics of the scientific activities. It is concluded that the management of the researchers’ dynamic network is capable to generate, apply and recycle the critical knowledge and the assets of academic and scientific talent through a dynamic combination of resources that have a position inside the formal e informal borders and between these borders of participant academics and institutions.
Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; Areces, Débora; García, Trinidad; González-Castro, Paloma
Self-regulation on behalf of the student is crucial in learning Mathematics through hypermedia applications and is an even greater challenge in these IT environments. Two aims are formulated. First, to analyze the effectiveness of a hypermedia tool in improving perceived knowledge of self-regulatory strategies and the perceived usage of the planning, executing and assessment strategy on behalf of students with low, medium and high levels of academic performance. Second, to analyze the effectiveness of the hypermedia tool in improving perceived usage of the strategy for planning, monitoring and evaluating on behalf of students with a perceived knowledge (low, medium and high). Participants were 624 students (aged 10-13), classified into a treatment group (TG; 391) and a comparative group (CG; 233). They completed a questionnaire on perceived knowledge (Perceived Knowledge of Self-Regulatory Strategies) and another one on perceived usage of the strategy for planning, performing and evaluating (Inventory of Self-regulatory Learning Processes). Univariate covariance analyses (ANCOVAs) and Student-t tests were used. ANCOVA results were not statistically significant. However, the linear contrast indicated a significant improvement in perceived knowledge of strategies among the TG with low, medium and high academic performance (p ≤ .001). Results are discussed in the light of past and future research.
Hyttinen, L.; Helminen, N.
Explicit knowledge and implementation of proper IT systems have been of concern of many organizations which recognize the importance of managing knowledge for safety operation and sustainable competitive advantage. Data and document management systems have been implemented to capture, store and distribute explicit knowledge. However, recently also awareness of the existence of tacit knowledge in organizations has arisen. What kind of role this undocumented knowledge, which the employees have acquired through their careers, plays in nuclear power plant context? This paper explores the role of tacit knowledge and the challenges related to its transfer at the two Finnish nuclear power plants. (author)
Hyttinen, L.; Rintala, N.
Explicit knowledge and implementation of proper IT systems have been of concern of many organisations which recognise the importance of managing knowledge for safety operation and sustainable competitive advantage. Data and document management systems have been implemented to capture, store and distribute explicit knowledge. However, recently also awareness of the existence of tacit knowledge in organisations has arisen. What kind of role does this undocumented knowledge, which the employees have acquired throughout their careers, play in nuclear power plant context? This paper explores the role of tacit knowledge and the challenges related to its transfer at the two Finnish nuclear power plants. (author)
Provvidenza, Christine; Engebretsen, Lars; Tator, Charles; Kissick, Jamie; McCrory, Paul; Sills, Allen; Johnston, Karen M
To: (1) provide a review of knowledge transfer (KT) and related concepts; (2) look at the impact of traditional and emerging KT strategies on concussion knowledge and education; (3) discuss the value and impact of KT to organisations and concussion-related decision making and (4) make recommendations for the future of concussion education. Qualitative literature review of KT and concussion education literature. PubMed, Medline and Sport Discus databases were reviewed and an internet search was conducted. The literature search was restricted to articles published in the English language, but not restricted to any particular years. Altogether, 67 journal articles, 21 websites, 1 book and 1 report were reviewed. The value of KT as part of concussion education is increasingly becoming recognised. Target audiences benefit from specific learning strategies. Concussion tools exist, but their effectiveness and impact require further evaluation. The media is valuable in drawing attention to concussion, but efforts need to ensure that the public is aware of the right information. Social media as a concussion education tool is becoming more prominent. Implementation of KT models is one approach which organisations can use to assess knowledge gaps; identify, develop and evaluate education strategies and use the outcomes to facilitate decision-making. Implementing KT strategies requires a defined plan. Identifying the needs, learning styles and preferred learning strategies of target audiences, coupled with evaluation, should be a piece of the overall concussion education puzzle to have an impact on enhancing knowledge and awareness.
Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.
Research suggests that the development of emotional regulation in early childhood is interrelated with emotional understanding and language skills. Heuristic models are proposed on how these factors influence children's emerging academic motivation and skills. (Contains 2 figures.)
Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.
Research suggests that the development of emotional regulation in early childhood is interrelated with emotional understanding and language skills. Heuristic models are proposed on how these factors influence children’s emerging academic motivation and skills.
Batra, Chirayu; Janin, Denis
IYNC in a Nutshell: The mission - IYNC (International Youth Nuclear Congress) is the global network of a new generation of nuclear professionals to: •Communicate the benefits of nuclear science and applications •Promote the peaceful use of nuclear power •Provide a platform for networking •Facilitate knowledge transfer between generations and across boundaries; The structure - IYNC is a non-profit organization run by: •11 Officers •Board of Directors •50 National Representatives (e.g. YGN) •20 Members at Large •Dedicated committees and team for projects (30+) → more than 80 volunteers; The activities - •Biannual Congress (IYNCWiN18) •Grants Committee •YGN Startup & Support •Bulletin, Newsletter – sign up www.iync.org •Innovation4Nuclear (I4N) •Nuclear4Climate •Annual Board of Directors. YGN (Young Generation Network): What is a YGN? • A group of young professionals and students interested in nuclear science and technology; Benefits: •Knowledge transfer •Train the future international leaders •Networking •Attracts, develops and retains young professionals
Kirsch, Richard; Assarzadegan, Naziheh; Messenger, David E; Juda, Ari; Riddell, Robert H; Pollett, Aaron; Streutker, Catherine J; Divaris, Dimitrios X; Newell, Ken J; Price, Russell G; Smith, Sharyn; Al-Haddad, Sahar; Parfitt, Jeremy R; Driman, David K
Venous invasion (VI) is an independent predictor of hematogenous metastasis and mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC) yet remains widely underreported. Its detection may require recognition of subtle morphologic clues, which at times are only unmasked with an elastin stain. This study evaluates the impact of a knowledge transfer initiative (KTI) on VI detection in a "real-world" pathology practice setting. Following participation in an interobserver variability study of VI detection (Kirsch et al, 2013), 12 participants received educational materials highlighting key issues in VI detection. Eighteen months later, participants were invited to submit pathology reports from all CRC resections signed out 18 months prior to and 18 months following the KTI (n = 266 and n = 244, respectively). Nine pathologists participated. Reports were reviewed for VI and other established prognostic factors. Numbers of elastin stains and tumor-containing blocks were also recorded. Comparative analyses were adjusted for baseline differences in tumor, lymph node, and metastasis stage; tumor location; use of neoadjuvant therapy; and number of tumor-containing blocks. VI detection increased significantly post-KTI versus pre-KTI (39.3% versus 18.4%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.86 [1.91-4.28], P knowledge transfer in increasing VI detection in routine pathology practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Coutu, Marie-France; Durand, Marie-José; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Loisel, Patrick
Purpose This study assesses how well two cartoons transfer knowledge of principles of work disability prevention among stakeholders, according to their level of experience. We also document stakeholders' perceptions of the usefulness of the cartoons. Method We performed a descriptive study. Two groups of stakeholders were recruited: (1) experienced (working for more than 2 years in work disability), (2) non-experienced (in training). A self-administered questionnaire with open-ended questions documented stakeholders' understanding of each cartoon box and their perception of the possible usefulness of the cartoons. We transformed qualitative responses into quantitative responses for descriptive purposes. We performed independent t tests to compare the groups' level of understanding, and content analysis for the perception of usefulness. Results Overall, 149 stakeholders (50 experienced and 99 non-experienced) participated and identified 79.4 and 61.4 % of all principles presented in each of the two cartoons respectively. Experienced stakeholders identified more principles compared to non-experienced stakeholders (p = 0.007). Both cartoons were perceived to be useful for knowledge transfer. Conclusions Principles were generally well identified in the cartoons by all participants. Cartoons can be used as an effective tool among stakeholders to achieve a common understanding in order to coordinate their actions.
Full Text Available The paper identifies knowledge management determinants of knowledge transfer from subsidiaries to headquarters in the top Oil & Gas companies in Central and Eastern Europe as their level of innovations, internationalization and economic importance are emerging. The paper sheds a light not only on the process of knowledge transfer parent-subsidiary but via versa as it is critical in the 21st century for better adapting to specific business needs in certain geographical regions. Thus, this reversed knowledge from subsidiaries to headquarters is critical for the given business sector where the level of innovation and amount of R&D investments are enormous. The study argues that the reversed process of knowledge transfers from subsidiary to parent company is positively related to company performance and business diversification. Nowadays the knowledge formed in the subsidiaries of Multinational Corporations (MNCs is transferred to headquarters by investing in R&D centres, building new exploration and testing sites abroad. In the reversed knowledge transfer process we can identify main challenges, which are very critical to analyse and determine the exact process.
Vaisnys, P.; Bieth, M.; Kosilov, A.; Lipar, M.
Full text: Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. The adequate management of human resources, proper educational system and training approaches and methods to achieve and maintain the proper competencies of personnel are indispensable elements of knowledge management for nuclear industry. To transfer the knowledge from the experience to the newcomers, to establish the consistent links between the national educational system and qualification needs, to respond to the changes in the nuclear technology, to ensure the adequate level of corporate memory are the examples of the links between the knowledge management and the training. The paper presents the extensive information on the challenges, the nuclear industry encounters in the training and qualification (T and Q) of the personnel, and the good practises that are in use at nuclear power plants to respond to these challenges. The information presented is based on the experience from the IAEA OSART missions which review the training and qualification matters at the nuclear power plants among the other operational management programmes. IE/JRC-EC supports the OSART activities by providing the experts for the specific operational areas and participating in the development of the IAEA Safety Standards. New Project launched in the IE in 2007, SONIS (Safety of nuclear installations) is focused on the operational aspects of nuclear power plants, in particular maintenance, and the qualification and training of the maintenance personnel is of the particular interest of SONIS. The information presented in the paper is the result of the thorough analysis of the OSMIR Data Base. This database is a compilation of recommendations, suggestions and good practices from OSART mission reports, and covers all missions from January 1991 to the most recent missions for which an official reports have been published. It was
Carlos F. Lerner
Full Text Available Background: In resident primary care continuity clinics, at the end of each academic year, continuity of care is disrupted when patients cared for by the graduating class are redistributed to other residents. Yet, despite the recent focus on the transfers of care between resident physicians in inpatient settings, there has been minimal attention given to patient care transfers in academic ambulatory clinics. We sought to elicit the views of pediatric residents regarding year-end patient handoffs in a pediatric resident continuity clinic.Methods: Residents assigned to a continuity clinic of a large pediatric residency program completed a questionnaire regarding year-end transfers of care.Results: Thirty-one questionnaires were completed out of a total 45 eligible residents (69% response. Eighty seven percent of residents strongly or somewhat agreed that it would be useful to receive a written sign-out for patients with complex medical or social issues, but only 35% felt it would be useful for patients with no significant issues. Residents more frequently reported having access to adequate information regarding their new patients’ medical summary (53% and care plan (47% than patients’ functional abilities (30%, social history (17%, or use of community resources (17%. When rating the importance of receiving adequate sign-out in each those domains, residents gave most importance to the medical summary (87% of residents indicating very or somewhat important and plan of care (84%. Residents gave less importance to receiving sign-out regarding their patients’ functional abilities (71% social history (58%, and community resources (58%. Residents indicated that lack of access to adequate patient information resulted in additional work (80%, delays or omissions in needed care (56%, and disruptions in continuity of care (58%.Conclusions: In a single-site study, residents perceive that they lack adequate information during year-end patient transfers
Valencia-Vázquez, Roberto; Pérez-López, Maria E; Vicencio-de-la-Rosa, María G; Martínez-Prado, María A; Rubio-Hernández, Rubén
As society evolves its welfare level increases, and as a consequence the amount of municipal solid waste increases, imposing great challenges to municipal authorities. In developed countries, municipalities have established integrated management schemes to handle, treat, and dispose of municipal solid waste in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Municipalities of developing and transition countries are not exempted from the challenges involving municipal solid waste handling, but their task is not easy to accomplish since they face budget deficits, lack of knowledge, and deficiencies in infrastructure and equipment. In the northern territory of Mexico, the municipality of Durango is facing the challenge of increased volumes of waste with a lack of adequate facilities and infrastructure. This article analyses the evolution of the municipal solid waste management of Durango city, which includes actions such as proper facilities construction, equipment acquisition, and the implementation of social programmes. The World Bank, offering courses to municipal managers on landfill operation and waste management, promoted the process of knowledge and technology transfer. Thereafter, municipal authorities attended regional and some international workshops on waste management. In addition they followed suggestions of international contractors and equipment dealers with the intention to improve the situation of the waste management of the city. After a 15-year period, transfer of knowledge and technology resulted in a modern municipal solid waste management system in Durango municipality. The actual system did not reach the standard levels of an integrated waste management system, nevertheless, a functional evaluation shows clear indications that municipality actions have put them on the right pathway. © The Author(s) 2014.
Wilkinson, Heather; Gallagher, Michael; Smith, Mark
This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project involving academics and practitioners in six local authority social work departments. It contributes to recent debates about the coproduction of knowledge, presenting findings in three key areas: the importance of relationships for knowledge exchange; "what works" for practitioners…
Rhodes, Jo; Lok, Peter; Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Fang, Shih-Chieh
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to examine the relationships of organizational learning, social capital and the effectiveness of knowledge transfer and perceived organisational performance. Integrating organizational learning capability with social capital networks to shape a holistic knowledge sharing and management enterprise…
Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Diez, C. Ray; Tsai, Huei-Yin
This study aimed to explore how vocational high school students transfer knowledge through a problem-based learning (PBL) Internet platform. A PBL Internet platform was provided to 33 sophomore mechanical engineering students for a 6-week teaching experiment. A survey questionnaire, observation and interview were research instruments. The findings include: 1) factual, conceptual and process knowledge are the major types of knowledge and the sources of knowledge transfer (KT) include students, instructors and industries, but may be acquired differently depending on the level of problem-solving needs; 2) students' KT includes highly experienced tacit knowledge and more concrete explicit knowledge; 3) students' attitudes toward the six domains of using the PBL Internet platform all show positive significance, including the platform, the platform instructors, the platform mobility, online interaction, the PBL and the platform interface mechanism of students' perceptions; 4) the capability and the willingness for KT in instructors, industries and students all have some impact on the effectiveness of KT.
Athayde, Simone; Stepp, John Richard; Ballester, Wemerson C
This paper contributes to the development of theoretical and methodological approaches that aim to engage indigenous, technical and academic knowledge for environmental management. We present an exploratory analysis of a transdisciplinary project carried out to identify and contrast indigenous and academic perspectives on the relationship between the Africanized honey bee and stingless bee species in the Brazilian Amazon. The project was developed by practitioners and researchers of the Instituto Socioambiental (ISA, a Brazilian NGO), responding to a concern raised by a funding agency, regarding the potential impact of apiculture development by indigenous peoples, on the diversity of stingless bee species in the Xingu Park, southern Brazilian Amazon. Research and educational activities were carried out among four indigenous peoples: Kawaiwete or Kaiabi, Yudja or Juruna, Kīsêdjê or Suyá and Ikpeng or Txicão. A constructivist qualitative approach was developed, which included academic literature review, conduction of semi-structured interviews with elders and leaders, community focus groups, field walks and workshops in schools in four villages. Semi-structured interviews and on-line surveys were carried out among academic experts and practitioners. We found that in both indigenous and scientific perspectives, diversity is a key aspect in keeping exotic and native species in balance and thus avoiding heightened competition and extinction. The Africanized honey bee was compared to the non-indigenous westerners who colonized the Americas, with whom indigenous peoples had to learn to coexist. We identify challenges and opportunities for engagement of indigenous and scientific knowledge for research and management of bee species in the Amazon. A combination of small-scale apiculture and meliponiculture is viewed as an approach that might help to maintain biological and cultural diversity in Amazonian landscapes. The articulation of knowledge from non
Full Text Available This study investigates how the absorptive capacity could be increased to improve internal and external knowledge transfer in subsidiaries of multinational companies. We look at the way in which the literature on absorptive capacity has evolved, and how it links the internal and external knowledge transfer. Based on 3 case studies conducted at Romanian subsidiaries of multinational companies, we find some patterns, which could explain how the successful knowledge flows should be managed within the multinational company and outside of it, in the supply chain network.
Artemisa Flores Espinola
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the process of publication of six feminist academic journals. The genesis of journals as well as the level of participation of men and women, collaboration and productivity is presented. In this perspective, they are analyzed and compared two groups of academics journals (the first composed of three general feminist journals and the second of three feminist academics journals specialized in philosophy, sociology and psychology. The results show that the historical context and the political commitment of journals explain the differences and similarities between them and between the two groups of magazines. While the participation of men is a minority in every magazine, it is much higher in general. The collaboration between authors and authors is higher in magazines due to its strong empirical component
Hollingsworth, Thaddeus D; Duszak, Richard; Vijayasarathi, Arvind; Gelbard, Rondi B; Mullins, Mark E
In order to provide high quality care to their patients and utilize imaging most judiciously, physician trainees should possess a working knowledge of appropriate use, radiation dose, and safety. Prior work has suggested knowledge gaps in similar areas. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge of imaging appropriateness, radiation dose, and MRI and contrast safety of physician trainees across a variety of specialties. Between May 2016 and January 2017, three online surveys were distributed to all interns, residents, and fellows in ACGME accredited training programs at a large academic institution over two academic years. Response rates to three surveys ranged from 17.2% (218 of 1266) for MRI and contrast material safety, 19.1% (242 of 1266) for imaging appropriateness, to19.9% (246 of 1238) for radiation dose. Overall 72% (509 of 706) of survey respondents reported regularly ordering diagnostic imaging examinations, but fewer than half (47.8%; 470 of 984) could correctly estimate radiation dose across four commonly performed imaging studies. Only one third (34%; 167 of 488) of trainees chose appropriate imaging in scenarios involving pregnant patients. Trainee post-graduate year was not significantly correlated with overall radiation safety scores, and no significant difference was found between radiation safety or appropriate imaging scores of those who participated in a medical school radiology elective vs. those who did not. A total of 84% (57 of 68) of radiology trainees and 43% (269 of 630) of non-radiology trainees considered their knowledge adequate but that correlated only weakly correlated to actual knowledge scores (pimaging safety exist among many trainees. In order to enhance the value of imaging at the population level, further work is needed to assess the most appropriate method and stage of training to address these knowledge gaps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Winskog, Calle; Tonkin, Anne; Byard, Roger W
Transfer of knowledge is the cornerstone of any educational organisation, with senior staff expected to participate in the training of less experienced colleagues and students. Teaching in the field is, however, slightly different, and a less theoretical approach is usually recommended. In terms of Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) activities, practical work under supervision of a field team stimulates tactile memory. A more practical approach is also useful when multiple organizations from a variety of countries are involved, as language barriers make it easier to manually show someone how to solve a problem, instead of attempting to explain complex concepts verbally. "See one, do one, teach one" is an approach that can be used to ensure that teaching is undertaken with the teacher grasping the essentials of a situation before passing on the information to someone else. The key principles of adult learning that need to be applied to DVI situations include the following: participants need to know why they are learning and to be motivated to learn by the need to solve problems; previous experience must be respected and built upon and learning approaches should match participants' background and diversity; and finally participants need to be actively involved in the learning process. Active learning involves the active acquisition of knowledge and/or skills during the performance of a task and characterizes DVI activities. Learning about DVI structure, activities and responsibilities incorporates both the learning of facts ("declarative knowledge") and practical skills ("procedural knowledge"). A fundamental requirement of all DVI exercises should be succession planning with involvement of less experienced colleagues at every opportunity so that essential teaching and learning opportunities are maximized. DVI missions provide excellent teaching opportunities and international agencies have a responsibility to teach less experienced colleagues and local staff
Chimiza K. Lamazhaa
per se, and as such becomes the focus of many studies. The main bulk of studies of Tuvan mindset and immaterial culture is done by the ethnic Tuvan scholars (A.K. Kuzhuget, V.Yu. Suzukey, M.V. Mongush, O.M. Khomushku, M.B. Kenin-Lopsan, etc.. In their works, Tuvan mindset appears as both an object of study and a complex historical phenomenon, in full diversity of its many aspects, including what was lost in the 20th century. Native speakers of Tuvan also analyzed the cultural concepts which reflect the features of mindset. An increasing number of tuvinologists who are ethnic Tuvans helps intensify the trend towards subjectivity in academic knowledge. A good example can be found, e.g., in applying Indigenous methodology to the studies of Tuvan culture and mindset of Tuvans.
Schmidt, Robert L; Chute, Deborah J; Colbert-Getz, Jorie M; Firpo-Betancourt, Adolfo; James, Daniel S; Karp, Julie K; Miller, Douglas C; Milner, Danny A; Smock, Kristi J; Sutton, Ann T; Walker, Brandon S; White, Kristie L; Wilson, Andrew R; Wojcik, Eva M; Yared, Marwan A; Factor, Rachel E
-Statistical literacy can be defined as understanding the statistical tests and terminology needed for the design, analysis, and conclusions of original research or laboratory testing. Little is known about the statistical literacy of clinical or anatomic pathologists. -To determine the statistical methods most commonly used in pathology studies from the literature and to assess familiarity and knowledge level of these statistical tests by pathology residents and practicing pathologists. -The most frequently used statistical methods were determined by a review of 1100 research articles published in 11 pathology journals during 2015. Familiarity with statistical methods was determined by a survey of pathology trainees and practicing pathologists at 9 academic institutions in which pathologists were asked to rate their knowledge of the methods identified by the focused review of the literature. -We identified 18 statistical tests that appear frequently in published pathology studies. On average, pathologists reported a knowledge level between "no knowledge" and "basic knowledge" of most statistical tests. Knowledge of tests was higher for more frequently used tests. Greater statistical knowledge was associated with a focus on clinical pathology versus anatomic pathology, having had a statistics course, having an advanced degree other than an MD degree, and publishing research. Statistical knowledge was not associated with length of pathology practice. -An audit of pathology literature reveals that knowledge of about 12 statistical tests would be sufficient to provide statistical literacy for pathologists. On average, most pathologists report they can interpret commonly used tests but are unable to perform them. Most pathologists indicated that they would benefit from additional statistical training.
Full Text Available Many reproductive health studies have examined trends and outcomes of adolescent sexual behaviour but have overlooked the patterns of reproductive communication between mothers and daughters that have implications on girls’ reproductive wellbeing. Although there is a need to safeguard adolescent health, not enough work exists at the interface between female reproductive change and communication. The patterns of communication determine the effectiveness of reproductive knowledge transfer to safeguard girls’ reproductive health at a time of social change. Despite widespread opinion about the taboo nature of sexual and reproductive communication in traditional African settings, its prevalence among mothers and daughters in Ugep, Nigeria, was found to be quite high. The context, form, direction and level of communication reveal that the females engage in reproductive communication in a private environment and through peaceful and friendly strategies. Communication is achieved through sharing of meaning and mutual understanding, which has implications for adolescent female reproductive health.
On 2 November, the Knowledge & Technology Transfer (KTT) Group presented to the Directorate three proposals that aim to enhance KTT activities. One important aspect of the proposals is the direct involvement of all members of CERN, who are strongly encouraged to communicate any ideas for additional applications of their work. KTT is a high-priority activity area because of its potential to demonstrate the role of CERN as a source of innovation, delivering tangible benefits to society. In particular, through its know-how and its leadership, CERN is today generating innovations applicable in domains such as medical sciences, energy and the environment, as well as many others. “The measures endorsed by the Directorate on 2 November include a comprehensive policy for managing the intellectual property related to CERN technologies”, explains Claudio Parrinello, head of the KTT Group in the DG Department. “This includes a proposal to redistribute part of the income generated by ...
Woltmann, Sabrina; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Alkærsig, Lars
recognition. Text samples for this purpose can include files containing social media contents, company websites and annual reports. The empirical focus in the present study is on the technical sciences and in particular on the case of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). We generated two independent......Knowledge transfer by universities is a top priority in innovation policy and a primary purpose for public research funding, due to being an important driver of technical change and innovation. Current empirical research on the impact of university research relies mainly on formal databases...... and indicators such as patents, collaborative publications and license agreements, to assess the contribution to the socioeconomic surrounding of universities. In this study, we present an extension of the current empirical framework by applying new computational methods, namely text mining and pattern...
Berndes, S.; Kornwachs, K.
The purpose of this paper is to present requirements to Information and Documentation Systems for high-level waste repositories from an ethical point of view. A structured synopsis of ethical arguments used by experts from Europe and America is presented. On the one hand the review suggests to reinforce the obligation to transfer knowledge about high level waste repositories. This obligation is reduced on the other hand by the objection that ethical obligations are dependent on the difference between our and future civilizations. This reflection results in proposing a list of well-balanced ethical arguments. Then a method is presented which shows how scenarios of possible future civilizations for different time horizons and related ethical arguments are used to justify requirements to the Information and Documentation System
Full Text Available Community-engaged health research can have both immediate and lasting impacts, yet is often plagued with various unknowns and unanticipated delays – this can be especially true in hospital settings with older adults. In this informal case study based on the authors’ collective experiences of an unraveling of the research process, the challenges and issues faced in assessing the health benefits of the “Music & Memory” iPod program in a complex continuing care hospital wing are discussed. Specifically, the lessons learned through the processes of acquiring ethical approval to work with a particularly vulnerable population, of effectively measuring the benefits of the program, and of the day-to-day logistical issues are recounted, with suggestions for overcoming these challenges through transferable practices for working with vulnerable or older adults and mobilizing the knowledge gained.
Recognizing that graduate students seldom have the opportunity to participate collaboratively, either in providing or receiving feedback to improve their academic writing skills, this study reports on the design of a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) system used to investigate how graduate students transform and construct their…
Elkins, Stacey Michelle
The purpose of this study was to provide professional development in vocabulary instructional practices and analyze the impact on student achievement. This quasi-experimental study utilized the PLC to curriculum map English/Language Arts state academic vocabulary words in K-4 into each of the four nine-weeks. The first through fourth grade…
This research paper reports the results of a Web-based survey designed to explore the attitude of Library and Information Science (LIS) academics to Web 2.0. It investigates their familiarity with Web 2.0 concepts, tools and services and applications as these relate to LIS education, and the barriers to their use. A Web-based questionnaire was…
Figueiredo, L S; Ugrinowitsch, H; Freire, A B; Shea, J B; Benda, R N
Providing the learner control over aspects of practice has improved the process of motor skill acquisition, and self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) schedules have shown specific advantages over externally controlled ones. A possible explanation is that self-controlled KR schedules lead learners to more active task involvement, permitting deeper information processing. This study tested this explanatory hypothesis. Thirty undergraduate volunteers of both sexes, aged 18 to 35, all novices in the task, practiced transporting a tennis ball in a specified sequence within a time goal. We compared a high-involvement group (involvement yoked, IY), notified in advance about upcoming KR trials, to self-controlled KR (SC) and yoked KR (YK) groups. The experiment consisted of three phases: acquisition, retention, and transfer. We found both IY and SC groups to be superior to YK for transfer of learning. Postexperiment participant questionnaires confirmed a preference for receiving KR after learner-perceived good trials, even though performance on those trials did not differ from performance on trials without KR. Equivalent IY and SC performances provide support for the benefits of task involvement and deeper information processing when KR is self-controlled in motor skill acquisition.
Siron, Stéphanie; Dagenais, Christian; Ridde, Valéry
This study describes the current state of research on knowledge transfer strategies to improve public health in low-income countries, to identify the knowledge gaps on this topic. In this scoping review, a descriptive and systematic process was used to analyse, for each article retained, descriptions of research context and methods, types of knowledge transfer activities and results reported. 28 articles were analysed. They dealt with the evaluation of transfer strategies that employed multiple activities, mostly targeting health professionals and women with very young children. Most often these studies used quantitative designs and measurements of instrumental use with some methodological shortcomings. Results were positive and suggested recommendations for improving professional practices, knowledge and health-related behaviours. The review highlights the great diversity of transfer strategies used, strategies and many conditions for knowledge use. The review provides specific elements for understanding the transfer processes in low-income countries and highlights the need for systematic evaluation of the conditions for research results utilization.
Davies, Alicia; Wong, Carol A; Laschinger, Heather
The purpose of this study was to test Kanter's theory by examining relationships among structural empowerment, leader-member exchange (LMX) quality and nurses' participation in personal knowledge transfer activities. Despite the current emphasis on evidence-based practice in health care, research suggests that implementation of research findings in everyday clinical practice is unsystematic at best with mixed outcomes. This study was a secondary analysis of data collected using a non-experimental, predictive mailed survey design. A random sample of 400 registered nurses who worked in urban tertiary care hospitals in Ontario yielded a final sample of 234 for a 58.5% response rate. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the combination of LMX and structural empowerment accounted for 9.1% of the variance in personal knowledge transfer but only total empowerment was a significant independent predictor of knowledge transfer (β=0.291, t=4.012, Pleader-member exchange quality resulted in increased participation in personal knowledge transfer in practice. The results reinforce the pivotal role of nurse managers in supporting empowering work environments that are conducive to transfer of knowledge in practice to provide evidence-based care. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Linnander, Erika; Yuan, Christina T; Ahmed, Shirin; Cherlin, Emily; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Curry, Leslie A
Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania's Medical Stores Department (MSD). We conducted a process evaluation including in-depth interviews with 70 participants between July 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to each phase of the partnership, with focus on challenges and strategies to address them, as well as benefits perceived by partners. Partners faced challenges in (1) identifying relevant knowledge to transfer, (2) translating operational solutions from Coca-Cola to MSD, and (3) maintaining momentum between project phases. Strategies to respond to these challenges emerged through real-time problem solving and included (1) leveraging the receptivity of MSD leadership, (2) engaging a boundary spanner to identify knowledge to transfer, (3) promoting local recognition of commonalities across industries, (4) engaging external technical experts to manage translation activities, (5) developing tools with visible benefits for MSD, (6) investing in local relationships, and (7) providing time and space for the partnership model to evolve. Benefits of the partnership perceived by MSD staff included enhanced collaboration and communication, more proactive orientations in managing operations, and greater attention to performance management. Benefits perceived by Coca-Cola staff included strengthened knowledge transfer capability and enhanced job satisfaction. Linking theoretical constructs with practical experiences from the field, we highlight the challenges, emergent strategies, and perceived benefits of a partnership
Yuan, Christina T.; Ahmed, Shirin; Cherlin, Emily; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Curry, Leslie A.
Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania’s Medical Stores Department (MSD). We conducted a process evaluation including in-depth interviews with 70 participants between July 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to each phase of the partnership, with focus on challenges and strategies to address them, as well as benefits perceived by partners. Partners faced challenges in (1) identifying relevant knowledge to transfer, (2) translating operational solutions from Coca-Cola to MSD, and (3) maintaining momentum between project phases. Strategies to respond to these challenges emerged through real-time problem solving and included (1) leveraging the receptivity of MSD leadership, (2) engaging a boundary spanner to identify knowledge to transfer, (3) promoting local recognition of commonalities across industries, (4) engaging external technical experts to manage translation activities, (5) developing tools with visible benefits for MSD, (6) investing in local relationships, and (7) providing time and space for the partnership model to evolve. Benefits of the partnership perceived by MSD staff included enhanced collaboration and communication, more proactive orientations in managing operations, and greater attention to performance management. Benefits perceived by Coca-Cola staff included strengthened knowledge transfer capability and enhanced job satisfaction. Linking theoretical constructs with practical experiences from the field, we highlight the challenges, emergent strategies, and perceived benefits of a
Full Text Available Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania's Medical Stores Department (MSD. We conducted a process evaluation including in-depth interviews with 70 participants between July 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to each phase of the partnership, with focus on challenges and strategies to address them, as well as benefits perceived by partners. Partners faced challenges in (1 identifying relevant knowledge to transfer, (2 translating operational solutions from Coca-Cola to MSD, and (3 maintaining momentum between project phases. Strategies to respond to these challenges emerged through real-time problem solving and included (1 leveraging the receptivity of MSD leadership, (2 engaging a boundary spanner to identify knowledge to transfer, (3 promoting local recognition of commonalities across industries, (4 engaging external technical experts to manage translation activities, (5 developing tools with visible benefits for MSD, (6 investing in local relationships, and (7 providing time and space for the partnership model to evolve. Benefits of the partnership perceived by MSD staff included enhanced collaboration and communication, more proactive orientations in managing operations, and greater attention to performance management. Benefits perceived by Coca-Cola staff included strengthened knowledge transfer capability and enhanced job satisfaction. Linking theoretical constructs with practical experiences from the field, we highlight the challenges, emergent strategies, and perceived benefits of a
From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical
Ugbor, U.; Cilliers, A.; Kurwitz, R. C.
Full text: In order to address the effectiveness of national networks in Member States, and to implement regional and national strategies, it is important to understand the necessary conditions that ensure successful creation and sharing of knowledge, including, effective policy and programme incentives, promoting collaboration, innovation and networking. Furthermore, Member States with aspirations to develop their nuclear programmes (power and non-power applications in agriculture, industry and health sector), need to develop their own capabilities if they are to fully benefit from the social and economic opportunities from nuclear science and technology. Ultimately nuclear innovation programmes that take into account the role of universities, education and industry would lead to a robust nuclear programme that maximizes social and economic benefit. This paper a presents an initiative for capturing best practices in the areas of university collaboration and innovation, which are driven by learning, research and entrepreneurship. The initiative covers Knowledge (creation), Innovation and Collaboration for Science and Technology Adoption, Resourcing and Transfer (KIC-START). (author
Batzias, Dimitris F.; Ifanti, Konstantina
Process simulation models are usually empirical, therefore there is an inherent difficulty in serving as carriers for knowledge acquisition and technology transfer, since their parameters have no physical meaning to facilitate verification of the dependence on the production conditions; in such a case, a 'black box' regression model or a neural network might be used to simply connect input-output characteristics. In several cases, scientific/mechanismic models may be proved valid, in which case parameter identification is required to find out the independent/explanatory variables and parameters, which each parameter depends on. This is a difficult task, since the phenomenological level at which each parameter is defined is different. In this paper, we have developed a methodological framework under the form of an algorithmic procedure to solve this problem. The main parts of this procedure are: (i) stratification of relevant knowledge in discrete layers immediately adjacent to the layer that the initial model under investigation belongs to, (ii) design of the ontology corresponding to these layers, (iii) elimination of the less relevant parts of the ontology by thinning, (iv) retrieval of the stronger interrelations between the remaining nodes within the revised ontological network, and (v) parameter identification taking into account the most influential interrelations revealed in (iv). The functionality of this methodology is demonstrated by quoting two representative case examples on wastewater treatment.
Tuomisto, F.; Cizelj, L.; Dieguez Porras, P.
Full text: The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association strives to develop a more harmonized approach for education in the nuclear sciences and nuclear engineering in Europe and to integrate European education and training in nuclear safety and radiation protection. Improved co-operation and sharing of academic resources and capabilities at the national and international level is an important long-term objective. With respect to stakeholders, such as nuclear industries, research centers, regulatory bodies and other nuclear infrastructures, the primary objectives of ENEN are to create a secure basis of skills and knowledge of value to the EU, and to maintain a high-quality supply of qualified human resources for design, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear infrastructures, industries and power plants. ENEN supports activities aimed at maintaining the necessary competence and expertise for the continued safe use of nuclear energy and applications of radiation and nuclear techniques in agriculture, industry and medicine. In this technical brief we describe selected activities pursued to reach these goals. (author
Contemporary school curriculum regards academic achievement as important to prepare for economic activity and competition. The humanistic elements, what is a human life?, how should we live?, are lost sight of in these skill-centered and performance-centered curriculum. When criterion-referenced evaluation in the classroom is put together with the evaluation for accountability, it becomes a monolithic evaluation system which emphasize an aspect of learning outcomes. To overcome this bottlenec...
Yang, Rui; Welch, Anthony R.
The master discourses of economic globalisation and the knowledge economy each cite knowledge diasporas as vital "trans-national human capital". Based on a case study of a major Australian university, this article examines the potential to deploy China's large and highly-skilled diaspora in the service of Chinese and Australian…
Lawless, Kimberly A.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.
Numerous research studies have highlighted the significant impact of domain knowledge and individual interest on learning. However, much of this prior research has neglected several important issues regarding the dynamic interplay of domain knowledge and individual interest both within and between domains as well as across developmental stages of…
Indigenous knowledge is multidimensional encompassing the beliefs, practices, arts, spirituality and other forms of traditional and cultural experiences that belong to Indigenous communities globally. In order to protect, preserve and recognize the knowledge of the Indigenous people of Fiji, known as the iTaukei, the University of Fiji has…
Carney, Martin J; Weissler, Jason M; Koltz, Peter F; Fischer, John P; Wu, Liza C; Serletti, Joseph M
Academic research productivity is limited by strenuous resident and faculty schedules but nevertheless is imperative to the growth and success of our discipline. The authors report institutional experience with their clinical research fellowship model, providing two positions per year. A critical analysis of research productivity was performed for all trainees, faculty, and research fellows from 2000 to 2015. Academic productivity was determined by the number of peer-reviewed publications, podium presentations, and h-index. Academic fate of previous research fellows was also noted. During the 16-year timeframe, 484 articles were published in print. Notably, 92 articles were published from 2000 to 2007 and 392 articles were published from 2008 to 2015 (p = 0.0066), demonstrating linear growth after instituting the research fellowship. In addition, 33 articles were published from 2002 to 2004 before leadership change, 47 from 2005 to 2007 after leadership change but before fellowship, and 58 from 2008 to 2010 in the first few years of the fellowship (p = 0.0204). Overall, 39.9 percent of publications appeared in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, with a total of 77 different peer-reviewed journal inclusions. American Association of Plastic Surgeons, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, and Northeastern Society of Plastic Surgeons podium presentations totaled 143 between 2005 and 2015. Of the eight previous fellows who applied into integrated and independent programs, 100 percent have matched. Incorporation of a formalized research fellowship into a plastic surgery program can drastically increase clinical research contribution in a reproducible fashion.
Horwitz, Joshua; Grilley, Anna; Kennedy, Orla
In a policy arena characterized by polarized debate, such as the consideration of legal interventions to prevent gun violence, research evidence is an important tool to inform decision-making processes. However, unless the evidence is communicated to stakeholders who can influence policy decisions, the research will often remain an academic exercise with little practical impact. The Educational Fund to Stop Violence's process of "unfreezing" individual perceptions and conventional interpretations of the relationship between mental illness and gun violence, forming a consensus, and translating this knowledge to stakeholders through state discussion forums is one way to inform policy change. The recent passage of gun violence prevention legislation in California provides an example of successfully closing the knowledge translation gap between research and decision-making processes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Agriculture is the main economic activity in Tanzania and the country´s largest employer, providing livelihood for at least 80 % of the economically active population. Many studies have identified key challenges facing the sector for Africa in general – among these lack of access to knowledge. For agricultural producers, access to knowledge is important for an improved productivity and competitiveness. The fast diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICT such as mobile phones across Africa in the last years has resulted in an improved access and transfer of agricultural knowledge. Studies have shown that rural actors like farmers in remote areas even use mobile phones for their farming business. Based on qualitative interviews in the Mwanza Region in northwestern Tanzania, this study aims to identify and categorise the different types of knowledge which are transferred via mobile phones. Our results show that mobile phones enlarge the ability of farmers to access business-relevant knowledge at an increasing spatial scale. However, the effects of the use depend on the type of knowledge and other factors. The results add to existing studies by deepening the understanding of the benefits of ICT on knowledge access and transfer for the context of rural small-scale framers in Tanzania.
Cambon, Linda; Alla, François
It is becoming increasingly necessary, in France, to develop a more efficient public health policy and define research in terms of the perspective of its use for public decisions and clinical practice. One possible solution consists of knowledge transfer and sharing based on a continuous exchange and interaction process between scientists and potential users of research data - field workers and health policy decision-makers. Such a process would involve collaboration with users to help them apply the evidence produced by research as well as the mobilization of research scientists to develop research more adapted to needs. This article defines the goals of development of knowledge transfer in the French setting. The conceptual bases are defined and four strategic axes and their operational modalities are developed. This proposal also integrates all of the public authorities concerned: promote knowledge transfer; reinforce observation and diffusion of evidence and its usability; promote the development of more adapted public health research by facilitating research scientist /research data user relationships; assist the various parties in the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Apart from improving the efficiency of health policies, the development of knowledge transfer and sharing would also strengthen the credibility of certain intervention strategies, especially in the field of prevention, by designing evidence-based strategies.
L.H.M. van de Burgwal (Linda); M. van der Waal (Mark); H.J.H.M. Claassen (Eric)
textabstractScientific advancement and advancements in information technology have increased our capability for sharing information, and spreading scientific discoveries throughout society. In the past decade the Dutch government has been trying to stimulate the knowledge economy through various
van de Burgwal, L.H.M.; van der Waal, M.B.; Claassen, H.J.H.M.
Scientific advancement and advancements in information technology have increased our capability for sharing information, and spreading scientific discoveries throughout society. In the past decade the Dutch government has been trying to stimulate the knowledge economy through various means. Among
Bressan, Beatrice Alessandra; Lavonen, J; Nordberg, M; Saarikko, H; Streit-Bianchi, M
The present study analyses knowledge creation, acquisition and transfer in the five LHC physics experiments at CERN: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, and TOTEM. A questionnaire was provided during collaboration meetings and a total of 291 replies were obtained and analysed. The results of this research study provide evidence that the social process of participation in meetings, acquisition of skills in different areas, and the development of interests by interaction with colleagues are key elements of the learning process. Furthermore, the results indicate that knowledge acquisition in a multicultural environment plays a mediating role in the interaction between social capital constructs (social interaction, relationship quality, and network ties) and competitive advantage outcomes (invention development and technological distinctiveness). Social interaction, relationship quality, and network ties are connected to greater knowledge acquisition, and also contribute to innovation and transfer of the knowledge to indust...
Describes the conception and functioning of a new reactor (EL-2) using compressed gas as primary coolant. The aim of the use of compressed gas as primary coolant is to reduce the quantity of heavy water used in the functioning of the reactor. Description of the reactor vessel (dimensions, materials, reflector and protection). Description of the cells and the circulation of the gas within the cells. A complete explanation of the control and regulating of the reaction by the ionization chamber is given. Heavy water is used as modulator: it describes the heavy water system and its recombination system. The fuel slugs are cooled by compressed gas: its system is described as well as the blower and the heat exchanger system. Water is supplied by a cooling tower which means the reactor power is dependant of the atmospheric conditions. Particular attention has been given to the tightness of the different systems used. The relation between neutron flow and the thermal output is discussed: the thermal output can be calculated by measuring the gas flow and its heating or by measuring the neutron flow within the reactor, both methods gives closed results. Reactivity study: determination of the different factors which induce a variation of reactivity. Heat transfer: discussion on the use of different heat transfer systems, determination of the required chemical and physical properties of the primary coolant as well as the discussion of the nuclear and thermal requirements for the choice of it. A comparison between the use of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas shows an advantage in using nitrogen with the existing knowledge. Reflexion on the relevance of this work and the future perspectives of the use of compressed gas as primary coolant. (M.P.)
By any measure, our efforts to protect and restore the environment have failed to keep pace with environmental change, despite extraordinary scientific advances. Clearly there is a problem in knowledge transfer, which is often blamed on limited public awareness, misunderstanding or even apathy. Whether it's moving research to practice, informing policy, or educating the public on the environmental challenges of our time, our track record is poor. A major part of our failure lies in how scientists and practitioners understand (or misunderstand) and practice knowledge transfer. What actually drives knowledge acquisition and the motivation to gain knowledge, and what does this say about the methods used for knowledge transfer? Is the problem a supply issue (deficit of knowledge) or a demand issue (personal relevance)? The false assumptions that spin out of how we conceptualize knowledge acquisition lead to investment in knowledge transfer balanced heavily in "science communication" and "awareness raising" activities that tend to be unidirectional, top-down, and rarely linked to personal interests. Successful adaptation to environmental change requires a theoretical and practical understanding of coupled natural-human systems as well as advances in bridging knowledge systems and the science-society gap. To be effective, this means a "translational science" approach that promotes the capture and integration of scientific and local knowledge, addresses the influences of scale (biophysically, socially, institutionally), encourages mutual learning among all parties, and builds capacity as part of the process. The facilitation and translation of information and meanings among stakeholders can lead to the co-production of knowledge, more informed decision making, and in a very pragmatic way, more effective use of assessments and other products of scientific discovery. The purpose of this presentation is to shed light on what underlies the majority of investment in knowledge
Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management
Enhancing research visibility of academics: the role of academic libraries. Information Impact: Journal of Information and. Knowledge Management. 2017, Vol. .... Social media platforms allow users to connect, create, promote, share and follow interest groups. With these capabilities, academic libraries can make use of ...
Woltmann, S.; Clemmensen, L.; Alkærsig, L
Knowledge transfer by universities is a top priority in innovation policy and a primary purpose for public research funding, due to being an important driver of technical change and innovation. Current empirical research on the impact of university research relies mainly on formal databases and indicators such as patents, collaborative publications and license agreements, to assess the contribution to the socioeconomic surrounding of universities. In this study, we present an extension of the current empirical framework by applying new computational methods, namely text mining and pattern recognition. Text samples for this purpose can include files containing social media contents, company websites and annual reports. The empirical focus in the present study is on the technical sciences and in particular on the case of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). We generated two independent text collections (corpora) to identify correlations of university publications and company webpages. One corpus representing the company sites, serving as sample of the private economy and a second corpus, providing the reference to the university research, containing relevant publications. We associated the former with the latter to obtain insights into possible text and semantic relatedness. The text mining methods are extrapolating the correlations, semantic patterns and content comparison of the two corpora to define the document relatedness. We expect the development of a novel tool using contemporary techniques for the measurement of public research impact. The approach aims to be applicable across universities and thus enable a more holistic comparable assessment. This rely less on formal databases, which is certainly beneficial in terms of the data reliability. We seek to provide a supplementary perspective for the detection of the dissemination of university research and hereby enable policy makers to gain additional insights of (informal) contributions of knowledge
Dolan, N C; Lee, A M; McDermott, M M
This study assessed whether age-related differences in breast carcinoma knowledge and perceived risk exist among women in a primary care setting and whether these women's beliefs about the best age to begin screening mammography reflect those of their physicians. Consecutive women ages 30-70 years who visited an academic general medicine practice were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing breast carcinoma knowledge, beliefs, and perceived risk. Women's risk estimates were compared with individual risk probabilities derived from the Gail model. Women's beliefs about when to begin screening mammography were compared with the beliefs of the attending physicians in the practice. Questionnaire results were compared across age groups. Six hundred seventy-four women completed the survey. Overall, knowledge scores were negatively correlated with age (correlation coefficient = -0.30, P = 0.001). The level of knowledge about the benefits of mammography was high across all age groups. In contrast, knowledge that breast carcinoma incidence increases with age was poor. Only 28% of all women recognized that breast carcinoma is more common among women age 65 years than among women age 40 years. Among all women, 26% underestimated their risk of developing breast carcinoma in the next 10 years, 32% correctly estimated their risk, and 42% overestimated their risk. Fifty-five percent thought that mammography should begin when a woman is age 30-35 years. In contrast, all surveyed physicians recommended that a woman start undergoing mammography at age 40 years or older. In this primary care setting, older women had poorer breast carcinoma knowledge than younger women but were equally likely to appreciate the benefits of mammography. Most women were unaware that age is a risk factor for breast carcinoma. Improved education of females by their physicians may resolve some of the observed discrepancies regarding the optimal age to begin screening mammography.
Culler, L. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Albert, M. R.; Ayres, M.
Modern graduate education must extend beyond disciplinary content to prepare students for diverse careers in science. At Dartmouth, a graduate program in Polar Environmental Change uses interdisciplinary study of the polar regions as a core from which students develop skills and knowledge for tackling complex environmental issues that require cooperation across scientific disciplines and with educators, policy makers, and stakeholders. Two major NSF-funded initiatives have supported professional development for graduate students in this program, including an IGERT (Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship) and leadership of JSEP's (Joint Science Education Project) Arctic Science Education Week in Greenland. We teach courses that emphasize the links between science and the human dimensions of environmental change; host training sessions in science communication; invite guest speakers who work in policy, academia, journalism, government research, etc.; lead an international field-based training that includes policy-focused meetings and a large outreach component; provide multiple opportunities for outreach and collaboration with local schools; and build outreach and education into graduate research programs where students instruct and mentor high school students. Students from diverse scientific disciplines (Ecology, Earth Science, and Engineering) participate in all of the above, which significantly strengthens their interdisciplinary view of polar science and ability to communicate across disciplines. In addition, graduate students have developed awareness, confidence, and the skills to pursue and obtain diverse careers. This is reflected in the fact that recent graduates have acquired permanent and post-doctoral positions in academic and government research, full-time teaching, and also in post-docs focused on outreach and science policy. Dartmouth's interdisciplinary approach to graduate education is producing tomorrow's leaders in science.
Wills, Kimberly Kay
With billions of dollars being spent annually on training and a low return on investment for training being achieved, it was imperative to understand the role of supervisors and how they influenced training transfer. The specific problem was that no research had examined the hierarchical role of supervisors of faculty in the college and university…
French, Catherine E; Ferlie, Ewan; Fulop, Naomi J
Academic Health Science Centres (AHSCs) have been a key feature of the North American healthcare landscape for many years, and the term is becoming more widely used internationally. The defining feature of these complex organisations is a tripartite mission of delivering high quality research, medical education and clinical care. The biomedical innovations developed in AHSCs are often well documented, but less is known about the policy and organisational processes which enable the translation of research into patient care. This paper has two linked purposes. Firstly, we present a scoping review of the literature which explores the managerial, political and cultural perspectives of AHSCs. The literature is largely normative with little social science theory underpinning commentary and descriptive case studies. Secondly, we contribute to addressing this gap by applying a policy transfer framework to the English case to examine how AHSC policy has spread internationally. We conclude by suggesting a research agenda on AHSCs using the relevant literatures of policy transfer, professional/managerial relations and boundary theory, and highlighting three key messages for policy makers: (1) competing policy incentives for AHSCs should be minimised; (2) no single AHSC model will fit all settings; (3) AHSC networks operate internationally and this should be encouraged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Arvanitis, Spyridon; Kubli, Ursina; Sydow, Nora; Wörter, Martin
This study is part of a large project aiming at the investigation of a) extent and b) economic relevance of knowledge and technology transfer (KTT) between science institutions (universities, universities of a pplied science and other public re search institutions) and private corporations. Under knowledge and technology transfer we understand very broadly any activities targeted at transferring knowledge an d technology that may help a company or a research institution – depending on the dir...
Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J; Kleuver, Cherie G; Farver, Joann M
In this study we evaluated the predictive validity of conceptual scoring. Two independent samples of Spanish-speaking language minority preschoolers (Sample 1: N = 96, mean age = 54·51 months, 54·3% male; Sample 2: N = 116, mean age = 60·70 months, 56·0% male) completed measures of receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages at two time points approximately 9-12 months apart. We examined whether unique L1 and L2 vocabulary at time 1 predicted later L2 and L1 vocabulary, respectively. Results indicated that unique L1 vocabulary did not predict later L2 vocabulary after controlling for initial L2 vocabulary. An identical pattern of results emerged for L1 vocabulary outcomes. We also examined whether children acquired translational equivalents for words known in one language but not the other. Results indicated that children acquired translational equivalents, providing partial support for the transfer of vocabulary knowledge across languages.
Full Text Available This paper explores two Korean cases of Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT to address climate change in developing countries. The target technologies were carbon capture and utilization (CCU in a project in Bantayan Island, Philippines, and waste-to-energy (WTE technology in Santiago, Dominican Republic. These projects were conducted by the Republic of Korea’s Green Technology Center. The study analyses the rationale of KTT (“international environment” and “motives”, its objects (technology types and activities (“informational contacts”, “research activities”, “consulting” and “education and training”. It concludes that the KTT efforts of these two case studies can be characterized as “uninformed transfer”, given a lack of information on situational factors. In particular, these projects faced cooperation problems between national and local governments in the target countries due to different levels of commitment among different stakeholder groups. In conclusion, this study identifies the implications of an acceptability gap between national and local actors in renewable energy projects of KTT.
Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan; Weidenfeld, Adi
Knowledge transfer and innovation cooperation between the EU and its neighbours has remained weakly developed. To promote this cooperation, the EU has set up initiatives for the European neighbourhood. The issue has, however, received very limited scholarly attention in the field of tourism. This...
Ellington, Virginia Beth Elder
This research study was undertaken to gain a richer understanding of the use of patient-introduced online health information during the physician/patient examination and knowledge transfer process. Utilizing qualitative data obtained from ten family physician interviews and workflow modeling using activity diagrams and task structure charts, this…
Vinke-de Kruijf, Joanne
Countries around the world face pressing, often similar, water problems. International projects in which knowledge is transferred from one country to another can contribute to solving these problems. Building on the experiences of three Dutch-funded flood risk management projects in Romania, this
Ngoma, Ngoma Sylvestre
Virtual teams are increasingly viewed as a powerful determinant of competitive advantage in geographically distributed organizations. This study was designed to provide insights into the interdependencies between virtual collaboration, collaboration technologies, knowledge transfer, and virtual team performance in an effort to understand whether…
Recently, many organizational accidents have occurred in the electric power, railroad, airline, chemical, food and medical industries due to a lack of knowledge and technology indispensable for effective management. This raises the question of how important transfer of technology and knowledge management is in organizations. This paper clarified present state and related subjects of this problem in terms of human and organizational factors and introduced some advanced cases for the solution so as to find a way to practice the situation-dependent combined approach of existing organizational training and latest knowledge science. (T. Tanaka)
mmersive Virtual Learning Environments (IVLEs) are extensively used in training, but few rigorous scienti c investigations regarding : the transfer of learning have been conducted. Measurement of learning transfer through evaluative methods is key...
Immersive Virtual Learning Environments (IVLEs) are extensively used in training, but few rigorous scientific investigations regarding the : transfer of learning have been conducted. Measurement of learning transfer through evaluative methods is key ...
Crowe, Dale; LaPierre, Martin; Kebritchi, Mansureh
With augmented intelligence/knowledge based system (KBS) it is now possible to develop distance learning applications to support both curriculum and administrative tasks. Instructional designers and information technology (IT) professionals are now moving from the programmable systems era that started in the 1950s to the cognitive computing era.…
This paper examines the extent to which the staff of the Balme Library, University of Ghana, Legon share knowledge among themselves, so as to enhance efficiency and productivity. A total number of forty-six members of staff of the library were sampled, with forty completing the questionnaire). Interviews were also ...
Anderson, Kristen; Accurso, Erin C; Kinasz, Kathryn R; Le Grange, Daniel
This study examined physician residents' and fellows' knowledge of eating disorders and their attitudes toward patients with eating disorders. Eighty physicians across disciplines completed a survey. The response rate for this survey across disciplines was 64.5 %. Participants demonstrated limited knowledge of eating disorders and reported minimal comfort levels treating patients with eating disorders. Psychiatry discipline (p = 0.002), eating disorder experience (p = 0.010), and having ≥4 eating disorder-continuing medical education credits (p = 0.037) predicted better knowledge of anorexia nervosa but not bulimia nervosa. Psychiatry residents (p = 0.041), and those who had treated at least one eating disorder patient (p = 0.006), reported significantly greater comfort treating patients with eating disorders. These results suggest that residents and fellows from this sample may benefit from training to increase awareness and confidence necessary to treat patients with eating disorders. Sufficient knowledge and comfort are critical since physicians are often the first health care provider to have contact with patients who have undiagnosed eating disorders.
Examines the dark analyses of modern higher education presented in Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind" and Northrop Frye's "On Education." The University of Toronto proposes an Integrated Studies (Unity of Knowledge) program which would involve students in interdisciplinary studies in humanities, social sciences,…
De La Paz, Susan; Wissinger, Daniel R.
Historians use a range of genres in presenting their subjects, yet educators have increasingly privileged argumentation to help novices to reason with historical content. However, the influence genre and content knowledge are relatively unmeasured in this discipline. To learn more, the authors asked 101 eleventh-grade students to compose an…
Kesteren, M.T.R. van; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Ruiter, D.; Morris, R.G.; Fernandez, G.S.E.
The acquisition and retention of conceptual knowledge is more effective in well-structured curricula that provide an optimal conceptual framework for learning new material. However, the neural mechanisms by which preexisting conceptual schemas facilitate learning are not yet well understood despite
van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén
The acquisition and retention of conceptual knowledge is more effective in well-structured curricula that provide an optimal conceptual framework for learning new material. However, the neural mechanisms by which preexisting conceptual schemas facilitate learning are not yet well understood despite
Tran, Van Dat
This experimental study investigated the effects of cooperative learning on the achievement and knowledge retention of 110 first-year primary education students toward the psychology subject over the eight weeks of instruction at An Giang University. These tertiary students were divided into two matched groups of 55 to be taught by the same…
Deng, Zhaohong; Choi, Kup-Sze; Jiang, Yizhang; Wang, Shitong
Inductive transfer learning has attracted increasing attention for the training of effective model in the target domain by leveraging the information in the source domain. However, most transfer learning methods are developed for a specific model, such as the commonly used support vector machine, which makes the methods applicable only to the adopted models. In this regard, the generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression (GHRR) method is introduced in order to train various types of classical intelligence models, including neural networks, fuzzy logical systems and kernel methods. Furthermore, the knowledge-leverage based transfer learning mechanism is integrated with GHRR to realize the inductive transfer learning method called transfer GHRR (TGHRR). Since the information from the induced knowledge is much clearer and more concise than that from the data in the source domain, it is more convenient to control and balance the similarity and difference of data distributions between the source and target domains. The proposed GHRR and TGHRR algorithms have been evaluated experimentally by performing regression and classification on synthetic and real world datasets. The results demonstrate that the performance of TGHRR is competitive with or even superior to existing state-of-the-art inductive transfer learning algorithms.
Córdoba Caro, Luis Gonzalo; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; García Preciado, Ventura
The main objective of the study is to analyze whether students of Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) of Badajoz city known foods that are part of a healthy breakfast. It also intends to see the relationship of this knowledge with lifestyle habits and academic performance. A representative sample of 1197 secondary students in the city of Badajoz (Spain) (50.1% female) was calculated their Body Mass Index (BMI) and were asked to fill in a questionnaire, previously validated in a pilot study, which included sociodemographic items as well as others related with life style habits. They were also asked to choose among a series of food, which of them were a part of a healthy breakfast. 49.2% of adolescents know foods which are a part of a healthy breakfast. Very low correlations were obtained between all the variables analyzed and knowledge of foods that make up a healthy breakfast. However, within a few variables are significant differences (Pbreakfast and know the amount of fruit that should be consumed daily. Life style habits of adolescents are not related to the knowledge about the foods that are part of a healthy breakfast. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén
The acquisition and retention of conceptual knowledge is more effective in well-structured curricula that provide an optimal conceptual framework for learning new material. However, the neural mechanisms by which preexisting conceptual schemas facilitate learning are not yet well understood despite their fundamental importance. A preexisting schema has been shown to enhance memory by influencing the balance between activity within the medial-temporal lobe and the medial pFC during mnemonic processes such as encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Specifically, correctly encoding and retrieving information that is related to preexisting schemas appears rather related to medial prefrontal processing, whereas information unrelated or inconsistent with preexisting schemas rather relates to enhanced medial temporal processing and enhanced interaction between these structures. To further investigate interactions between these regions during conceptual encoding in a real-world university setting, we probed human brain activity and connectivity using fMRI during educationally relevant conceptual encoding carefully embedded within two course programs. Early second-year undergraduate biology and education students were scanned while encoding new facts that were either related or unrelated to the preexisting conceptual knowledge they had acquired during their first year of study. Subsequently, they were tested on their knowledge of these facts 24 hr later. Memory scores were better for course-related information, and this enhancement was associated with larger medial-prefrontal, but smaller medial-temporal subsequent memory effects. These activity differences went along with decreased functional interactions between these regions. Furthermore, schema-related medial-prefrontal subsequent memory effects measured during this experiment were found to be predictive of second-year course performance. These results, obtained in a real-world university setting, reveal brain
Full Text Available The research purpose was to determine whether the economics and business administration higher education institutions from the European Union members states are facilitating the development of the future knowledge workers or not. In order to achieve this goal, we employed an exploratory research and we combined a qualitative approach with a quantitative one. We focused on the common courses that are taught in the best European Union higher education institutions, according to the QS World University Rankings. We applied a content analysis to 267 syllabuses that belonged to 21 economics and business administration faculties. Then we employed a logistic regression in order to determine if the teaching methods, used during the bachelor studies, can predict the development of the future knowledge workers. The results have showed that the economics and business administration higher education institutions from the European Union member states tend to respond positively to companies’ necessity by developing almost 50% of the “ideal” knowledge worker profile. These findings have implications on both educational and managerial level. At the educational level, it reflects the vulnerable area of the educational process namely, skills development. It seems to be forgotten that education is more than just sharing explicit knowledge; it is about developing the current and the future citizens, building characters and stimulating the need for lifelong learning. At the managerial level, it brings forefront the deficiencies of the future human resources and it indicates the need for adapting the organizational culture and practices. What had been overlooked by the educational system may be complemented by an open organizational culture, an inspirational leadership and an effective coaching process.
Full Text Available La organización debe propiciar mecanismos que activen la dimensión colectiva del conocimiento, que influyan en la manera en que se diseñan los puestos y los procesos de trabajo, generando una red de relaciones adecuada para la generación y transferencia del conocimiento por toda la organización. La utilización de un modelo les permitirá optimizar sus recursos y capacidades disponibles, lo cual se refleja en el desempeño del trabajador y en el fortalecimiento de la cultura organizacional. El modelo que se propone en este trabajo está concebido con enfoque sistémico y posee 3 etapas que contienen sus procedimientos, técnicas y métodos. La metodología utilizada implica los componentes fundamentales de un Observatorio para la Gestión del Talento Humano, tales como: el direccionamiento estratégico, indicadores de cultura organizacional, formación y competitividad y las bases para diseñar modelos que se sustentan en principios, objetivos, premisas, dimensiones estructurales, elementos y actividades. El modelo se diseña de manera estratégica, con el propósito de preparar y ayudar a las personas para que desarrollen las competencias necesarias que aseguren un buen desempeño personal y laboral.AbstractThe organization should promote mechanisms that trigger the collective dimension of knowledge, which influence how jobs and work processes are designed, creating a network of relations suitable for the generation and transfer of knowledge throughout the organization. Using a model will help optimize their resources and capabilities, which is reflected in the worker's performance and in the strengthening of the organizational culture. The model proposed in this paper is designed with a systemic approach and has 3 stages containing procedures, techniques and methods. The methodology involves the fundamental components of an Observatory for Human Resource Management, such as: strategic management, organizational culture indicators
Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Pascual-Soler, Marcos; Monterde-I-Bort, Héctor
The statistical reform movement and the American Psychological Association (APA) defend the use of estimators of the effect size and its confidence intervals, as well as the interpretation of the clinical significance of the findings. A survey was conducted in which academic psychologists were asked about their behavior in designing and carrying out their studies. The sample was composed of 472 participants (45.8% men). The mean number of years as a university professor was 13.56 years (SD= 9.27). The use of effect-size estimators is becoming generalized, as well as the consideration of meta-analytic studies. However, several inadequate practices still persist. A traditional model of methodological behavior based on statistical significance tests is maintained, based on the predominance of Cohen’s d and the unadjusted R2/η2, which are not immune to outliers or departure from normality and the violations of statistical assumptions, and the under-reporting of confidence intervals of effect-size statistics. The paper concludes with recommendations for improving statistical practice.
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of two instructional approaches (4C-ID versus conventional on learners’ knowledge-acquisition and learning transfer of the electrical circuits content in Physics. Participants were 129 9th graders from a secondary school in Lisbon, M = 14.3 years, SD = 0.54. The participants were divided in two groups: an experimental group constituted three intact classes (n = 78; and a control group constituted two intact classes (n = 51. The experimental group was taught using a digital learning environment designed with the 4C-ID model principles while the control group learned the same contents through a conventional method. We assessed the students’ performance (knowledge-acquisition and transfer, the perceived cognitive load, and the instructional efficiency. Results indicated that the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group on a knowledge-acquisition test and in a learning transfer test. They also perceived a less cognitive load in the transfer test and the learning environment developed with the 4C-ID model proved to be more instructional efficient than the conventional method.
Trocky, Nina M; McLeskey, Sandra W; McGuire, Deborah; Griffith, Kathleen; Plusen, Abby
The unique partnership between an affiliate of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure(©) foundation and a school of nursing offered faculty the ability to creatively inject breast cancer content into the baccalaureate curriculum. In-house breast cancer experts and external consultants developed seven breast cancer-specific educational Web-based modules to supplement a packed curriculum taught by generalists in a cost-efficient manner. Easily integrated into the baccalaureate program, these modules provided evidence-based breast cancer content to nursing students. Following completion of the modules, baccalaureate students' knowledge of breast cancer improved. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the knowledge of evidence-based dentistry (EBD among dental faculty members in the city of Bhopal in central India. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered at two dental colleges in Bhopal City. All dental faculty members who were present on the day of the study and who agreed to participate were included in the study. A total of 50 dental faculty members returned the questionnaire. Six Likert-type questions were asked, and the percentages of various responses were used for analysis. Sixteen faculty members (32.0% strongly agreed that EBD is a process of making decisions based on scientifically proven evidence. Fifteen faculty members (30.0% strongly disagreed or disagreed with the item stating that the best and quickest way to find evidence is by reading textbooks or asking experienced colleagues. Thirteen faculty members (26.0% strongly agreed that EBD allows dentists to improve their scientific knowledge and clinical skills. It is recommended that EBD be included in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula and in intensive continuing dental education programs that are conducted for dental faculty members.
LUCIANA THURLER TEDESCHI
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the knowledge growth of the members of the Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency League in comparison with a nonparticipating group, with similar characteristics, at the Fluminense Federal University. Methods: we evaluated 50 league members and 50 non-members (control group through questionnaires applied at the beginning and end of a school year. We used a generalized linear model, with interaction effect between groups and tests (multiple comparisons with Bonferroni correction. We included the following control variables: gender, period, age, and attendance to some other course on a similar topic. Results: there was an increase of 22 percentage points (p<0.001 for the group with more than 75% presence in the League compared with the eight points in the control group (p<0.05. There was no statistically significant growth for the group with less than 75% presence. Conclusion: the growth of knowledge was significantly higher in the group that assiduously participated in the League, which reinforces its importance in complementing the traditional content of medical courses.
Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter
Introduction: The present paper argues that adequate self-perceptions of academic ability are essential for students' realization of their intellectual potential, thereby fostering learning of complex skills, e.g., information-seeking skills. Thus, academic self-concept should moderate the relationship between intelligence and information…
NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 6: Aerospace knowledge diffusion in the academic community: A report of phase 3 activities of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.
Descriptive and analytical data regarding the flow of aerospace-based scientific and technical information (STI) in the academic community are presented. An overview is provided of the Federal Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, illustrating a five-year program on aerospace knowledge diffusion. Preliminary results are presented of the project's research concerning the information-seeking habits, practices, and attitudes of U.S. aerospace engineering and science students and faculty. The type and amount of education and training in the use of information sources are examined. The use and importance ascribed to various information products by U.S. aerospace faculty and students including computer and other information technology is assessed. An evaluation of NASA technical reports is presented and it is concluded that NASA technical reports are rated high in terms of quality and comprehensiveness, citing Engineering Index and IAA as the most frequently used materials by faculty and students.
Maria Carolina Bovério Galzerani
Full Text Available This article’s aim is to produce a narrative based on the experiences of a compulsory subject from the Pedagogy Graduation Course/Unicamp, which is dedicated to the formation of teachers to the work with history and geography on the early years of basic education. The text is organized in four small reflexive movements so that is possible to remember a long road of teaching/learning whose main motto and challenge have been how to work on the notions of space, time and social relations with 07 to 10-year-old children. The main point of this educational experience is the construction of an aesthetic rationality that is seen as a promoter of more dynamic relations among the subjects – teacher and students – involved in the production of more autonomous knowledge and sensitivities, which are associated to the different social-cultural experiences of those subjects.