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Sample records for academic gender stereotypes

  1. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  2. Academic gender stereotypes of pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at studying the content of academic gender stereotypes of pre-service teachers who are being prepared for working in different cycles of education. The sample included 408 students of teaching programmes of the Teacher Training College, Faculty of Mathematics and Faculty of Philology in Belgrade. It has been established that future class and subject teachers have gender stereotypes about the interests and achievements of students in different school subjects. pre-service teachers from both groups are of the opinion that girls get interested more easily than boys in the majority of school subjects, as well as that girls are more talented for the subjects in the field of humanities and languages, while boys are more talented for the subjects in the field of sciences. Pre-service teachers estimate that boys typically have a low achievement in languages, arts and music, while girls have a low achievement in physics, computer science, technical sciences and physical education. Since teachers’ gender stereotypes can affect students’ achievement, educational and career choices, it is important to raise awareness about the content and consequences of such beliefs in teachers and focus on certain actions towards their altering. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  3. Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemers, Naomi

    2018-01-04

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes. Empirical studies show that gender stereotypes affect the way people attend to, interpret, and remember information about themselves and others. Considering the cognitive and motivational functions of gender stereotypes helps us understand their impact on implicit beliefs and communications about men and women. Knowledge of the literature on this subject can benefit the fair judgment of individuals in situations where gender stereotypes are likely to play a role.

  4. Do Teachers Equate Male and Masculine with Lower Academic Engagement? How Students' Gender Enactment Triggers Gender Stereotypes at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Girls presently outperform boys in overall academic success. Corresponding gender stereotypes portray male students as lazy and troublesome and female students as diligent and compliant. The present study investigated whether these stereotypes impact teachers' perceptions of students and whether students' visible enactment of their gender at…

  5. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    , there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  6. Mothers’ Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs About Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    The role of African American mothers’ academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children’s future educational attainment, perceptions of their children’s academic competence, and academic gender stereotypes. Consistent with hypotheses, mothers held less favorable expectations for sons and perceived sons to be less academically competent than daughters. In addition, mothers reported stereotypes favoring girls over boys in academic domains; stereotype endorsement, in turn, was related to mothers’ educational expectations for and beliefs about the academic competence of their own children, even with youths’ actual achievement controlled. Negative stereotypes about the academic abilities of African American boys may create a negative feedback loop, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the gender gap in African Americans’ educational outcomes. PMID:20648228

  7. Negative Gender Ideologies and Gender-Science Stereotypes Are More Pervasive in Male-Dominated Academic Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Banchefsky

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Male-dominated work environments often possess masculine cultures that are unwelcoming to women. The present work investigated whether male-dominated academic environments were characterized by gender ideologies with negative implications for women. A survey of 2622 undergraduates across a variety of academic majors examined how gender imbalance within the major corresponded with students’ gender ideologies. We hypothesized that men in male-dominated domains might justify their dominance and prototypical status by adopting gender ideologies and stereotypes that denigrate women and treat men as the normative and superior group. Confirming this hypothesis, men in increasingly male-dominated academic majors were more likely to endorse Assimilationism—that women should adapt and conform to masculine work norms in order to succeed—and Segregationism—that men and women should pursue traditional social roles and careers. Moreover, they were less likely to endorse Gender Blindness—that attention to gender should be minimized. They were also more likely to agree with the gender-science stereotype that men do better in math and science than women. In contrast, gender imbalance in the major did not influence women’s gender ideologies, and women in increasingly male-dominated majors were significantly less likely to endorse the gender-science stereotype.

  8. Gender Stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellemers, N.

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing

  9. Impact of Gender Stereotype on Secondary School Students’ Self-Concept and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Igbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender stereotype as a predictor of secondary school students’ self-concept and academic achievement. The study was guided by four purposes, four research questions, and four hypotheses. The study adopted ex post facto design. The research sample was drawn from eight government/public senior secondary schools in Udi education zone. Nine schools were randomly selected from the 227 schools. A total of 342 senior secondary II school (SSII students made up the sample of the study. A 20-item students’ stereotype self-concept questionnaire (SSSCQ was adapted from Marsh’s Self Descriptive Questionnaire II (SDQII, and a 10-item students’ mathematics achievement test (SMAT was developed by the researchers after reviewing related literature. This was done with the help of experts in the areas. The instruments were face and content validated and used for the collection of data. In analyzing the data, mean and standard deviation were used in answering the research questions while a t test was used in testing the four hypotheses. The findings of the study indicate that gender stereotype has significant influence on students’ self-concept and academic achievement in favor of the male students. On the other hand, school location has significant influence on academic achievement of students but has no significant influence on students’ self-concept.

  10. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  11. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  12. Characteristics Expected in Fields of Higher Education and Gender Stereotypical Traits Related to Academic Success: A Mirror Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniers, Catherine; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the content of a gender stereotype concerning general academic achievement matched the characteristics deemed to predict success in the fields of higher education dominated by women and men respectively. A sample of 207 undergraduate students rated the extent to which characteristics ascribed to…

  13. Mothers' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs about Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi

    2010-01-01

    The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…

  14. Gender Stereotyping in Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hussain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping and gender role development is one of the debatable concerns to sociologists especially those who are interested in sociology of gender. This study attempts to investigate the role of family inculcating gender stereotyping in Pakhtun culture and its impact on gender role development conducted in public-sector universities of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The data were collected through in-depth interview method using interview guide as a tool of data collection. A sample size of 24 respondents consisting male and female students and teachers (8 samples from each university through purposive sampling technique was selected from three universities in the region, that is, University of Malakand, University of Swat, and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sharingal (main campus. The collected information has been analyzed qualitatively where primary information has been linked with secondary data for further elaboration and attainment of grounded facts. The study reveals that gender stereotyping and gender role formation are sociocultural and relational constructs, which are developed and inculcated in the institutional network, social interaction, and social relationships especially in family. The study indicated that in family sphere, gender stereotyping and gender role formation are the outcome of gender socialization, differential familial environment, and parents’ differential role with children. The study recommends that gender-balanced familial environment, adopting the strategy of gender mainstreaming and positive role of media, can overcome gender stereotyping and reduce its impacts on gender and social role formation.

  15. Pemberian Stereotype Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Saguni, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are broad categories which reflect the impressions and beliefs about appropriate behavior for women and men. Stereotypical masculine or feminine in the students could produce significant consequences. Gender experts stated that the existence of gender differences in mathematics and natural science are caused by the experience possessed by boys and girls. According to the cognitive view of the interaction between children in the social environment is key to the development o...

  16. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers’ (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents’ attributions about their children’s academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children’s academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents’ stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children’s successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers’ attributions, in turn, were related to children’s attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers’ attributions of their children’s successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents’ beliefs on young adolescents’ identity beliefs are discussed. PMID:23878519

  17. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2013-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers' ( N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents' attributions about their children's academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children's academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents' stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children's successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers' attributions, in turn, were related to children's attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers' attributions of their children's successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents' beliefs on young adolescents' identity beliefs are discussed.

  18. Gender stereotypes in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on stereotypes of women as managers. The literature review summarizes the most common areas of gender stereotypes. In the empirical part we conducted research on a sample of 111 respondents (students. Research data was obtained by administration of translated and adapted questionnaire Women as Managers Scale (L. Peters et al.. Psychometric analysis of the questionnaire was conducted and its factor structure verified. The goal of this study was to create and pilot Czech adaptation of the questionnaire as an instrument for diagnostics of gender stereotypes in different types of organizations

  19. Transcending Frozen Gender Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Troels Bo Haarh; Svanborg, Mikkel; Kühn, Lena; Lomholm Chemnitz, Marie; Barba, Clara; Howard Kitchen, Nikolaj

    2013-01-01

    This project is centered around examining the root of gender stereotyping and discrimination. It entails an account for the heteronormative matrix as an inhibiting norm that was coined by Judith Butler. This ground-giving model will be explored and then applied to Simon Baron-Cohen who participates in the project as a representation of the heteronormative matrix. Cordelia Fine allows us to understand how the matrix influences our way of thinking and performing gender. Gender neutrality is the...

  20. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    OpenAIRE

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female dr...

  1. Gender stereotypes among road users

    OpenAIRE

    Dontsov, Alexander; Kabalevskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driv...

  2. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  3. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  4. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 164 undergraduates (50% women. Taking into account those stereotypes that are still differentially assigned to each gender, this study identifies current gender stereotypes that are independent of sociodemographic characteristics, such as age or sex. In addition, new gender stereotypes emerged recently were gathered, and important changes of stereotypes were emphasized, especially those of feminine stereotypes. According to social role theory, these changes are the consequence of social roles changes. Conclusions highlight that, although part of the results involve progress on the achievement of equality, traditional stereotypic characteristics are still referred to each gender, which perpetuate discrimination.

  5. Are Parents' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Changes in Them Related to Their Perceptions of Their Child's Mathematical Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raty, Hannu; Karkkainen, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    In the course of their child's school years, a group of parents were asked to assess their child's mathematical competence and indicate whether they endorsed the gender stereotype pertaining to it. Once the child had entered upper primary school, the consistent stereotypic parents tended to rate their boys' mathematical competence higher than the…

  6. The colour of gender stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-08-01

    Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  8. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  9. The Persistence of Traditional Gender Stereotypes: Evidence from the Distribution of Academic Honors at a Female-Majority University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A. Lynn; Phillips, G. Michael

    2010-01-01

    A shift from male-majority to female-majority university campuses has opened up new areas for research on gender bias, stereotypes, and discrimination. At one large state university on the west coast, there were more female than male graduates in Spring, 2008 in 7 out of 8 colleges, including the traditionally male-majority areas of business and…

  10. Undoing Gender Stereotypes in Hindi

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    Pande, Anjali

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for using any language is the willingness of the speaker to follow the rules of the game. Socially defined norms of language use then tend to set the limits within which one can express oneself using this language. Whether these norms set the speaker free or whether they act as constraints in a free expression of Self, is a question that will be raised in this article. Using examples from Hindi, the paper highlights the role of such norms of language use in perpetuating gender stereotypes. Gender stereotypes get constructed as part of a broader process of social differentiation but the site of this construction is to a large extent the normal everyday discourse. A normal classroom discussion amongst university students in New Delhi thus shows how deep rooted such stereotypes are and how effectively they get perpetuated through language and linguistic norms in Indian society. The basic premise in this paper is that meanings are context-specific, they are not fixed and they get created in discourse. But since language use is one thread in social fabric, it serves as an instrument to construct and perpetuate gender stereotypes. The paper is more of an essay on issues that became obvious about gender stereotypes during two classroom discussions. It should not therefore be taken as a study into the deeper aspects of gender representation in Hindi.

  11. The Development of Spontaneous Gender Stereotyping in Childhood: Relations to Stereotype Knowledge and Stereotype Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Helene; Morton, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean…

  12. The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in childhood: relations to stereotype knowledge and stereotype flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Hélène; Morton, J Bruce

    2010-03-01

    The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean age 5.1 years) provided evidence for spontaneous gender stereotyping in the AIP, which was reflected in higher latencies for stereotype-incongruent compared with stereotype-congruent toy assignments. The main study, with 66 children (aged 5, 8 and 11 years), compared the development of spontaneous stereotyping with established measures of stereotype flexibility and stereotype knowledge. Stereotype flexibility showed a strong increase from age 5 to 11. In contrast, stereotype knowledge and spontaneous stereotyping remained stable at high levels. The results provide evidence for a dissociation between stereotype flexibility and spontaneous stereotyping, suggesting that spontaneous stereotyping may be more closely related to stereotype knowledge than to stereotype flexibility.

  13. ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION AND GENDER STEREOTYPES

    OpenAIRE

    DALIA PETCU; SORIN SUCIU; VASILE GHERHEŞ; CIPRIAN OBRAD

    2012-01-01

    Our article maintains that advertising communication, as a form of commercial communication, is an important part of public communication. Ads are not just forms of promoting products or services, but also modern forms of speech that contribute significantly to the formation of the individual’s identity in contemporary societies. The study aims to identify and analyze the presence of gender stereotypes in Romanian media advertising.

  14. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  15. Challenging gender stereotypes: resistance and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The likelihood of resisting gender-stereotypic peer group norms, along with expectations about personal resistance, was investigated in 9- to 10-year-olds and 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 292). Participants were told about a stereotype conforming group (boys playing football; girls doing ballet) and a stereotype nonconforming group (boys doing ballet; girls playing football). Contrary to expectations from gender-stereotyping research, participants stated that they would personally resist gender-stereotypic norms, and more so than they would expect their peers to resist. However, expecting peers to resist declined with age. Participants expected that exclusion from the group was a consequence for challenging the peer group, and understood the asymmetrical status of gender stereotypes with an expectation that it would be more difficult for boys to challenge stereotypes than for girls. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. When Using a Negative Gender Stereotype as an Excuse Increases Gender Stereotyping in Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkley, Melissa; Andrade, Angela; Burkley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has shown that women use gender stereotypes to excuse their stereotypic failures, and doing so incurs negative costs. This study examined if the audience who witnesses a woman using such a stereotypic excuse also incurs costs in the form of increased gender stereotype endorsement. Male and female participants reviewed a survey supposedly completed by a female target who recently took a math exam. In this survey, the female target either performed well or poorly on the exam, and when asked to explain her performance, either invoked a gender stereotype as an excuse (e.g., women are worse at math than men) or not. The results indicated that men (but not women) showed greater gender stereotype endorsement after reading about a female target that invoked a stereotypic excuse. These results suggest that when women use a gender stereotype as an excuse, they may unintentionally cause some observers to increase their endorsement of gender stereotypes.

  17. Subliminal Gender Stereotypes: Who Can Resist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breen, Jolien A; Spears, Russell; Kuppens, Toon; de Lemus, Soledad

    2018-05-01

    We examine women's responses to subliminal gender stereotypes, that is, stereotypes present outside conscious awareness. Previous research suggests that subtle stereotypes elicit acceptance and assimilation, but we predict that subliminal exposure to gender stereotypes will trigger resistance in some women. Specifically, we expect resistance to occur among women who are relatively strongly identified with feminists, but not with the broader group of women. We predict that resistance takes the form of persistence in stereotypically masculine domains and (implicit) in-group bias. Indeed, we found that subliminal exposure to stereotypes (vs. counter-stereotypes) led women who identify relatively strongly with feminists, but less strongly with women, to (a) persist in a math task, (b) show increased willingness to sacrifice men in a Moral Choice Dilemma task, and (c) show implicit in-group bias on an evaluative priming task. This evidence of resistance suggests that members of devalued groups are more resilient than previously thought.

  18. Gender Stereotypes in Children's Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahara, May M.

    Research has examined how gender stereotypes and sexism in picture books affect the development of gender identity in young children, how children's books in the last decade have portrayed gender, and how researchers evaluate picture books for misrepresentations of gender. A review of the research indicated that gender development is a critical…

  19. Deconstructing Gender Stereotypes in Leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Bawa Atmadja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The belief of Balinese people towards leak still survive. Leak is a magic based on durgaism that can transform a person from human to another form, such as apes, pigs, etc. People tend to regard leak as evil. In general, the evilness is constructed in gender stereotypes, so it is identified that leak are always women. This idea is a power game based on the ideology of patriarchy that provides legitimacy for men to dominate women with a plea for social harmony. As a result, women are marginalized in the Balinese society. Women should be aware of so it would provide encouragement for them to make emancipatory changes dialogically. Kepercayaan orang Bali terhadap leak tetap bertahan sampai saat ini. Leak adalah sihir yang berbasiskan durgaisme yang dapat mengakibatkan seseorang bisa merubah bentuk dari manusia ke wujud yang lain, misalnya kera, babi, dll. Leak termasuk magi hitam sehingga dinilai bersifat jelek. Pada umumnya perempuan diidentikkan dengan leak sehingga melahirkan asumsi yang bermuatan steriotip gender bahwa leak = perempuan. Gagasan ini merupakan permainan kekuasaan berbasis ideologi patriarkhi dan sekaligus memberikan legitimasi bagi laki-laki untuk menguasai perempuan dengan dalih demi keharmonisan sosial. Akibatnya, perempuan menjadi termarginalisasi pada masyarakat Bali.  Perempuan harus menyadarinya sehingga memberikan dorongan bagi mereka untuk melakukan perubahan secara dialogis emansipatoris.

  20. [Gender stereotypes arising in a state of gender awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the structure of gender stereotypes which might arise in the state of gender awareness that was triggered by social situations where people perceived their gender differences strongly. Out of 1,500 residents in Tokyo aged between 20-60, 342 females and 313 males were randomly chosen and answered the questions about gender consciousness in the state of gender awareness. A factor analysis revealed that "maternity" and "trustworthiness" were the dominant dimensions of gender stereotypes in the state of gender awareness, and that trustworthiness particularly formed the basis of gender stereotypes. Generation differences in gender stereotypes were also revealed between women in their 40 s and 50 s, and between men in their 30 s and 40 s. Generally, power for men and nurture for women were more likely to be perceived in a state of gender awareness.

  1. CRITICAL RETHINKING OF GENDER STEREOTYPES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. CHINWE EZEIFEKA

    MDGs). ... of idioms in enforcing gender stereotypes relate to its strong cognitive and emotive ... establishing a relationship between one domain of meaning and another ..... young widow may be transferred to any eligible sibling of the husband in a ...

  2. Analyzing Gender Stereotyping in Bollywood Movies

    OpenAIRE

    Madaan, Nishtha; Mehta, Sameep; Agrawaal, Taneea S; Malhotra, Vrinda; Aggarwal, Aditi; Saxena, Mayank

    2017-01-01

    The presence of gender stereotypes in many aspects of society is a well-known phenomenon. In this paper, we focus on studying such stereotypes and bias in Hindi movie industry (Bollywood). We analyze movie plots and posters for all movies released since 1970. The gender bias is detected by semantic modeling of plots at inter-sentence and intra-sentence level. Different features like occupation, introduction of cast in text, associated actions and descriptions are captured to show the pervasiv...

  3. Internalized gender stereotypes vary across socioeconomic indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Julia; Schnabel, Konrad; Ortner, Tuulia; Eagly, Alice; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Kröger, Lea; Holst, Elke

    2013-01-01

    In the following we aim to approach the question of why, in most domains of professional and economic life, women are more vulnerable than men to becoming targets of prejudice and discrimination by proposing that one important cause of this inequality is the presence of gender stereotypes in many domains of society. We describe two approaches employed to measure gender stereotypes: An explicit questionnaire based on rating scales and a newly developed Implicit Association Test assessing gende...

  4. GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE SCHOOL DROPOUT: CASE EL FUERTE, SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruíz-Ramírez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are accepted preconceptions of what should be a man and a woman. Affect all areas of life, in the relationships that stablished in the family and the school. Within education, these stereotypes are reflected in the access, retention and completion of education degrees, as well as the area of study that preferred the women and men. They also have different effects on the causes of dropout depending on the gender to which they belong. This article aims to show the influence of gender stereotypes on dropout students and high school students in rural areas, specifically in three schools located in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, the academic unit (AU San Blas and its extensions La Constancia and Las Higueras of Los Natoches. The results were obtained through a wider investigation in 2013.

  5. Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination: How Sexism Impacts Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Stone, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize and integrate some of the latest developmental science research on gender stereotypes and discrimination in childhood and adolescence. We focus on five forms of sexism: (a) stereotypes and discrimination against boys regarding their school behaviors and disciplinary actions; (b) stereotypes and discrimination against girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains; (c) stereotypes and discrimination in sports; (d) peer gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and teasing because of gender atypicality or nonconformity; and (e) sexualized gender stereotypes that sexually objectify girls and assume boys are sexually voracious. First, we document each type of sexism and examine children's awareness and perceptions of that bias, including their own self-reports and attributions. We examine the implications of this sexism for children and adolescents' developmental health (i.e., social, academic, and psychological well-being). We then draw connections between these various areas of research, focusing on how these different forms of sexism interact to reduce equity and justice among children and negatively impact positive developmental outcomes. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender Stereotypes in Same-Sex Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Bro, Jesper Koch; Jensen, Ditte; Stokholm, Martin Valdemar Sachse; Kristoffersen, Simone Ryegaard; Tranberg, Line Falk

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Through five qualitative interviews with people that currently are or have been in same-sex relationship, analyzed by applying the theories of social constructivism by Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann and Queer theorist Judith Butler, the project explores heterosexual stereotypes in same-sex relationships. The result is a thoroughgoing analysis where it appears from the interviews as if the interviewed people reproduce heterosexual stereotypical gender roles in their relationships...

  7. Girls' math performance under stereotype threat: the moderating role of mothers' gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-07-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Predicting Stereotype Endorsement and Academic Motivation in Women in Science Programs: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Marie-Noelle; Guay, Frederic; Senecal, Caroline; Larose, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study proposed and tested a model based on stereotype threat theory. The hypothesis is that women who are exposed to a low percentage of women in a science program are more likely to endorse the gender stereotype that science is a male domain, which will in turn undermine their autonomous academic motivation. A total of 167 women university…

  9. Women in Academic Medicine: Measuring Stereotype Threat Among Junior Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassiotto, Magali; Hamel, Elizabeth Otto; Ku, Manwai; Correll, Shelley; Grewal, Daisy; Lavori, Philip; Periyakoil, V J; Reiss, Allan; Sandborg, Christy; Walton, Gregory; Winkleby, Marilyn; Valantine, Hannah

    2016-03-01

    Gender stereotypes in science impede supportive environments for women. Research suggests that women's perceptions of these environments are influenced by stereotype threat (ST): anxiety faced in situations where one may be evaluated using negative stereotypes. This study developed and tested ST metrics for first time use with junior faculty in academic medicine. Under a 2012 National Institutes of Health Pathfinder Award, Stanford School of Medicine's Office of Diversity and Leadership, working with experienced clinicians, social scientists, and epidemiologists, developed and administered ST measures to a representative group of junior faculty. 174 School of Medicine junior faculty were recruited (62% women, 38% men; 75% assistant professors, 25% instructors; 50% white, 40% Asian, 10% underrepresented minority). Women reported greater susceptibility to ST than did men across all items including ST vulnerability (p gender identification (p women reported lower beliefs in advancement (p = 0.021); however, they had similar career interest and identification, felt just as connected to colleagues, and were equally likely to pursue careers outside academia (all p > 0.42). Innovative ST metrics can provide a more complete picture of academic medical center environments. While junior women faculty are susceptible to ST, they may not yet experience all of its consequences in their early careers. As such, ST metrics offer a tool for evaluating institutional initiatives to increase supportive environments for women in academic medicine.

  10. Gender-marked age stereotypes in english proverbs and sayings

    OpenAIRE

    Галапчук-Тарнавська, Олена Михайлівна; Halapchuk-Tarnavska, Olena M.

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are characteristic features of male/female gender group behavior that are expected by a society.Gender stereotypes in the Ukrainian language are viewed as ethnic stereotypes and perform the function of accumulating and systemizing the social, cultural and historical experiences of the Ukrainian people.Gender-marked age stereotypes are widely accepted believes held about certain age that are perceived as being appropriate for women and men.Family roles are also subject to ch...

  11. The Development of Gender Stereotype Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Children of 4 to 10 years of age were told about children whose sex was not specified and who had a masculine or feminine toy or characteristic. Results indicated that children first learn characteristics relevant to their own sex, and that older children's stereotypic judgments about gender are more extreme than those of younger children. (BC)

  12. Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…

  13. Comparison of gender stereotypes with gender differences across generations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouřilová, Sylvie; Hřebíčková, Martina

    43 2008, 3-4 (2008), s. 709-709 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /XXIX/. 21.07.2008-25.07.2008, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : gender differences * gender stereotypes * five-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  14. The effects of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic textbook images on science performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jessica J; Woodzicka, Julie A; Wingfield, Lylan C

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic images on male and female high school students' science comprehension and anxiety. We predicted stereotypic images to induce stereotype threat in females and impair science performance. Counter-stereotypic images were predicted to alleviate threat and enhance female performance. Students read one of three chemistry lessons, each containing the same text, with photograph content varied according to stereotype condition. Participants then completed a comprehension test and anxiety measure. Results indicate that female students had higher comprehension after viewing counter-stereotypic images (female scientists) than after viewing stereotypic images (male scientists). Male students had higher comprehension after viewing stereotypic images than after viewing counter-stereotypic images. Implications for alleviating the gender gap in science achievement are discussed.

  15. Overcoming Gender Stereotypes & Improving Learning through the Participation of the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Garcia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research on how the daily participation of the "Other Women" women without an academic background or from cultural and ethnic minorities contributes to overcoming sexist stereotypes. The study demonstrates that their participation in instrumental learning activities transforms stereotypical beliefs about the skills of women without academic education, immigrant women, or those from cultural minorities. It can also be observed that their participation in decision-making spaces and in learning activities promotes student learning. In short, this study demonstrates that we need to include the "Other Women" into our diverse schools to progress towards the achievement of gender equity in education and society, and to create more positive learning experiences for all children.

  16. Occupational Gender Stereotypes and Problem-Solving in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The first purpose of the study was to establish how Italian adolescents perceive jobs in the newly emerging economy sectors as well as more traditional jobs from gender-stereotyped and gender-segregated perspectives. The second purpose was to verify the role of problem-solving and gender in gender-role stereotyping. A total of 217 Italian high…

  17. Can gender-fair language reduce gender stereotyping and discrimination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eSczesny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender-fair language (GFL aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been introduced to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman with gender-unmarked forms (police officer, whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant ... he or she instead of the applicant ... he. Integrating research on language structures, language policies, and individual language behavior, the present paper provides an overview of whether and under what circumstances GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination.

  18. Can Gender-Fair Language Reduce Gender Stereotyping and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Formanowicz, Magda; Moser, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of the applicant… he). By integrating research on (1) language structures, (2) language policies, and (3) individual language behavior, we provide a critical review of how GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination. Our review provides a basis for future research and for scientifically based policy-making.

  19. Gendered organisational cultures in German academic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felizitas Sagebiel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will describe and analyse how female professors manage formal and informal norms and values of their departments and organizations. State of the art includes different gender theories and research. With a qualitative methodological design (especially interviews and focus discussion groups, case studies were conducted in companies, political institutions, governmental research organizations and universities. From a gender perspective, the following aspects were analysed: gender stereotypes and gendered leadership expectations, transparent and strategic communication, expectations of output, commitment and availability, gender awareness, and integration in gendered networking and networks. The results focus on academic engineering cultures in investigated research institutes and one technical university.

  20. Gender Stereotyping and Self-Stereotyping Attitudes: A Large Field Study of Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Tor; Smith, Nina; Smith, Valdemar

    2017-01-01

    The dearth of women in top managerial positions is characterized by a high persistence and insensitivity to changes and differences in institutions and policies. This suggests it could be caused by slowly changing social norms and attitudes in the labor market, such as gender stereotypes and gender identity. This paper examines gender stereotypes and self-stereotyping in a large cross section of (about 2,970) managers at different job levels in (1,875) Danish private-sector firms. The survey ...

  1. Exaggerating Accessible Differences: When Gender Stereotypes Overestimate Actual Group Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Tal; Epley, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Stereotypes are often presumed to exaggerate group differences, but empirical evidence is mixed. We suggest exaggeration is moderated by the accessibility of specific stereotype content. In particular, because the most accessible stereotype contents are attributes perceived to differ between groups, those attributes are most likely to exaggerate actual group differences due to regression to the mean. We tested this hypothesis using a highly accessible gender stereotype: that women are more socially sensitive than men. We confirmed that the most accessible stereotype content involves attributes perceived to differ between groups (pretest), and that these stereotypes contain some accuracy but significantly exaggerate actual gender differences (Experiment 1). We observe less exaggeration when judging less accessible stereotype content (Experiment 2), or when judging individual men and women (Experiment 3). Considering the accessibility of specific stereotype content may explain when stereotypes exaggerate actual group differences and when they do not.

  2. Gender differences in child aggression : Relations with gender-differentiated parenting and parents’ gender stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, J. J.; Groeneveld, M.G.; Van der Pol, L.D.; van Berkel, S. R.; Hallers-Haalboom, E.T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; Mesman, J.

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents’ physical control, moderated by parents’ gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role

  3. Explaining gender differences in competitiveness: Gender-task stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Große, Niels Daniel; Riener, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Gender-specific patterns of self-selection into competitive and cooperative environments may have multiple reasons. One of the most prominent explanations to this point is, that there are inherent differences between men and women when it comes to preferences regarding competition. We take a different point of view and claim that gender-task stereotypes are able to explain a large part of the under-representation of women in tournament like environments. We conduct an experiment with a quanti...

  4. Counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear eFinnegan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the use of counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes when certain social role nouns and professional terms are read. Across two experiments, participants completed a judgement task in which they were presented with word pairs comprised of a role noun with a stereotypical gender bias (e.g. beautician and a kinship term with definitional gender (e.g. brother. Their task was to quickly decide whether or not both terms could refer to one person. In each experiment they completed 2 blocks of such judgement trials separated by a training session in which they were presented with pictures of people working in gender counter-stereotypical (Experiment 1 or gender stereotypical roles (Experiment 2. To ensure participants were focused on the pictures, they were also required to answer 4 questions on each one relating to the character’s leisure activities, earnings, job satisfaction and personal life. Accuracy of judgements to stereotype incongruent pairings was found to improve significantly across blocks when participants were exposed to counter-stereotype images (9.87% as opposed to stereotypical images (0.12%, while response times decreased significantly across blocks in both studies. It is concluded that exposure to counter-stereotypical pictures is a valuable strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotype biases in the short term.

  5. Ethical aspects of gender stereotypes in Romanian advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Frunza, Mihaela; Grad, Iulia; Frunza, Sandu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim at arguing that the advertising agencies – as significant organizations in the field of public communication – should follow the example of business corporations that are voluntarily using ethical practices to increase the trust of customers. One area where this can be done safely and constructively is the area of gender stereotypes in advertisement. By removing gender stereotypes and promoting non-stereotypical, creative images of gender relations, ads can simultaneously...

  6. Gender stereotypes: an explanation to the underrepresentation of women in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccia, Thierry; Delplanq, Hervé; Triby, Emmanuel; Bartier, Jean-Claude; Leman, Cécile; Hadef, Hysham; Pottecher, Thierry; Dupeyron, Jean-Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Women are underrepresented in emergency medicine (EM) residency programs in comparison with many other specialties. The reasons for this are unclear. One hypothesis is that negative gender stereotypes about EM careers might exist among female medical students. In the field of education, negative gender stereotypes are known to lead to career avoidance, because they tend to decrease self-efficacy perception. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of negative gender stereotypes about EM practice among medical students and to measure the effects of these stereotypes on females' self-efficacy perception toward EM learning. A survey was conducted of the 255 third-year medical students from three medical schools who attended a mandatory EM academic program in France. They completed an anonymous questionnaire exploring their gender stereotypes about EM practice and their self-efficacy perception toward EM learning. Gender stereotypes are common among medical students, especially in women. Self-efficacy perception is negatively correlated to female students' belief that EM careers are better suited for men (p stereotypes among female medical students may lead to EM career avoidance, because of the decrease in their self-efficacy perception toward EM learning. 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

  7. Women leaders in academia, gender and stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Carolina Moncayo Orjuela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the leadership characteristics typical of women in managerial positions in higher education institutions, starting from a particular literary approach and found in research regarding this topic. It is based on the subjective constructions of social duality between the masculine and feminine genders and attributes in the social relations of power. Also, within the conceptual framework examines leadership as a social construction and, therefore, their dependence on the various social characterizations. To fulfill the goal four themes were set. They allow the categorization of the literature review, namely: leadership and development, gender and stereotypes, leadership and gender, and to end, women's leadership in education institutions. Finally, we present the results of the literature research, where the transactional transformational, participative and authoritarian leadership styles are clearly evident, from which the transformational, characteristic of women, is the must in power and leadership positions in higher education institutions.

  8. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources : A Visual Content Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, A.H.; Rodrigues, Dos Santos Russo P.M.; Land, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Rodenburg, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people’s social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are

  9. Unfair tournaments: gender stereotyping and wage discrimination among Italian graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Castagnetti; Luisa Rosti

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the gender pay gap among Italian university graduates on entry to the labor market, and stresses the importance of gender stereotypes on subjective assessment of individual productivity. We build upon previous research about gender and wage inequality introducing tournament theory as a convenient framework for the gender pay gap analysis. We hypothesize that the effects of gender stereotypes make occupational tournaments unfair. As a consequence, male workers have higher ...

  10. Positive stereotypes, negative outcomes: Reminders of the positive components of complementary gender stereotypes impair performance in counter-stereotypical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahalon, Rotem; Shnabel, Nurit; Becker, Julia C

    2018-04-01

    Gender stereotypes are complementary: Women are perceived to be communal but not agentic, whereas men are perceived to be agentic but not communal. The present research tested whether exposure to reminders of the positive components of these gender stereotypes can lead to stereotype threat and subsequent performance deficits on the complementary dimension. Study 1 (N = 116 female participants) revealed that compared to a control/no-stereotype condition, exposure to reminders of the stereotype about women's communality (but not to reminders of the stereotype about women's beauty) impaired women's math performance. In Study 2 (N = 86 male participants), reminders of the stereotype about men's agency (vs. a control/no-stereotype condition) impaired men's performance in a test of socio-emotional abilities. Consistent with previous research on stereotype threat, in both studies the effect was evident among participants with high domain identification. These findings extend our understanding of the potentially adverse implications of seemingly positive gender stereotypes. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  11. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  12. Reversing Implicit Gender Stereotype Activation as a Function of Exposure to Traditional Gender Roles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lemus, Soledad; Spears, Russell; Bukowski, Marcin; Moya, Miguel; Lupianez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of exposure to traditional gender roles on the activation of gender stereotypes in Spanish women. An associative procedure was used to expose participants to stereotypical vs. counterstereotypical gender roles, and a word categorization task with stereotypically feminine

  13. Students' Gender Stereotypes about Running in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Lin, Shuqiong; Gao, Zan; Francis, Xueying

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred forty-six students (132 boys, 114 girls) were tracked from fifth to eighth grades, and changes in gender stereotypes about running as a male sport, running performance, interest in running, and intention for future running participation were assessed. Results revealed that neither sex held gender stereotypes about running as a male…

  14. Mathematically Gifted Adolescent Females' Mixed Sentiment toward Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chen-yao

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…

  15. CODING LOGICAL MECHANISM AND STEREOTYPING IN GENDER CYBER HUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truly Almendo Pasaribu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.

  16. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Re...

  17. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that…

  18. Stereotype Threat and College Academic Performance: A Latent Variables Approach*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jayanti; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory has gained experimental and survey-based support in helping explain the academic underperformance of minority students at selective colleges and universities. Stereotype threat theory states that minority students underperform because of pressures created by negative stereotypes about their racial group. Past survey-based studies, however, are characterized by methodological inefficiencies and potential biases: key theoretical constructs have only been measured using summed indicators and predicted relationships modeled using ordinary least squares. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshman, this study overcomes previous methodological shortcomings by developing a latent construct model of stereotype threat. Theoretical constructs and equations are estimated simultaneously from multiple indicators, yielding a more reliable, valid, and parsimonious test of key propositions. Findings additionally support the view that social stigma can indeed have strong negative effects on the academic performance of pejoratively stereotyped racial-minority group members, not only in laboratory settings, but also in the real world. PMID:23950616

  19. Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wolf, Elizabeth Baily; Glick, Peter; Crotty, Susan; Chong, Jihye; Norton, Michael I

    2015-10-01

    Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism-collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more-and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Threatening the Heart and Mind of Gender Stereotypes: Can Imagined Contact Influence the Physiology of Stereotype Threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that when a gender stereotype is made salient and the target of the stereotype is asked to perform in the stereotyped domain, targets of the stereotype often perform at a lower level compared to situations when the stereotype was not made salient (Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999). Current models of stereotype threat show that increased physiological arousal and reduced working memory capacity partially explain this decrement in performance (Ben-Zeev, Fein, & Inzlicht, 2005; Sch...

  1. Ethical Aspects of Gender Stereotypes in Romanian Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRUNZA Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim at arguing that the advertising agencies – as significant organizations in the field of public communication – should follow the example of business corporations that are voluntarily using ethical practices to increase the trust of customers. One area where this can be done safely and constructively is the area of gender stereotypes in advertisement. By removing gender stereotypes and promoting non-stereotypical, creative images of gender relations, ads can simultaneously promote their brands as open-minded, creative and modern and inspire building the trust of their customers.

  2. Rethinking stereotype reliance. Understanding the connection between female candidates and gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nichole M

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of female candidates are running for Congress in American national elections. Despite the rise in female candidates running for office, women are not significantly increasing their presence in the House and Senate. A much hypothesized influence over the electoral fates of female candidates is the role of gender stereotypes. However, political science scholars have struggled to pinpoint the effect of stereotypes on vote choice, if there is any effect. This essay compares the way social psychology and political science scholars theoretically, conceptually and empirically test for gender stereotype influence over evaluations of female candidates and politicians. Differences emerge in the theoretical assumptions made in the two disciplines, the types of measures used in research, and the empirical tests conducted to demonstrate the presence or absence of stereotypes in evaluations of women. The discussion explores how scholars studying female candidates and politicians can integrate insights from social psychology to clarify the role of stereotypes in candidate evaluation and choice.

  3. Prejudices in Cultural Contexts: Shared Stereotypes (Gender, Age) Versus Variable Stereotypes (Race, Ethnicity, Religion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2017-09-01

    Some prejudices share cross-cultural patterns, but others are more variable and culture specific. Those sharing cross-cultural patterns (sexism, ageism) each combine societal status differences and intimate interdependence. For example, in stereotypes of sex and age, lower status groups-women and elders-gain stereotypic warmth (from their cooperative interdependence) but lose stereotypic competence (from their lower status); men and middle-aged adults show the opposite trade-off, stereotypically more competent than warm. Meta-analyses support these widespread ambivalent (mixed) stereotypes for gender and age across cultures. Social class stereotypes often share some similarities (cold but competent rich vs. warm but incompetent poor). These compensatory warmth versus competence stereotypes may function to manage common human dilemmas of interacting across societal and personal positions. However, other stereotypes are more variable and culture specific (ethnicity, race, religion). Case studies of specific race/ethnicities and religions reveal much more cultural variation in their stereotype content, supporting their being responses to particular cultural contexts, apparent accidents of history. To change stereotypes requires understanding their commonalities and differences, their origins and patterns across cultures.

  4. Gender-related academic and occupational interests and goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the theories and empirical evidence concerning whether gender differences in academic and occupational goals and interests exist, and if so, why those differences may be present. Expectancy-value theory, stereotype threat, sociocultural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis lay the theoretical framework for this chapter. Following a brief review of these theories, we describe the evidence for gender differences in academic ability and occupational interests and goals, using meta-analytic reviews wherever possible. Although there are few gender differences in academic ability, some gender differences in occupational goals and interests persist, particularly in science and mathematics. These gender differences may be due to parental or cultural expectations, changes in developmental trends, stereotypes and discrimination, or gendered-expectations to achieve work-family balance. Overall, the pathways to adult occupations are complex, involving many factors that affect occupational goals, interests, and self-concept.

  5. Perception of intentions and actions: gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Wecker, Matthias; Krombholz, Kerstin; Sokolov, Arseny A

    2010-01-22

    Gender differences are evident in the comprehension of social signals, but the underlying basis for these differences is unclear. There is some indication that gender effects have neurobiological sources. Here we manipulated stereotype messages about gender differences in a social cognition task, on which no gender gap has previously been documented. The outcome indicates that manipulation of stereotype messages elicits gender effects. A positive message enhances performance, whereas a negative message diminishes it. Furthermore, this effect is more pronounced in females, with a greater force of a negative stereotype message. The study provides novel insights into the possible sources of gender related fluctuations in social cognition. The findings are discussed in terms of behavioral components and brain mechanisms underpinning gender effects in social cognition. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of gender stereotypes in Spain: traits and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sáez, Mercedes; Morales, J Francisco; Lisbona, Ana

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study is twofold: to determine whether (and how) gender stereotypes have changed over time through a comparison of two different sets of data collected in 1993 (N=1255) and 2001 (N=1255) from a representative sample of the Spanish population, and to examine the relation between gender traits and roles and its stability over time. In addition, special attention is paid to the psychometric properties of the measures of gender traits and roles used in the study. The content of gender stereotypes was found to remain stable over the target period of time, confirming the classical typology (a higher assignment of expressive-communal traits to women and of instrumental-agentic traits to men). The structure of the gender-role questionnaire allows us to distinguish between family-role and work-role stereotyping. Gender-role stereotyping shows a marked decline between 1993 and 2001, a result that contrasts with the stability of trait-role stereotyping. The fact that a very low correlation is observed at the two time points between these two components of gender stereotyping strongly suggests their independence.

  7. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xiao Y. Xu; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  8. The effect of gender stereotype activation on entrepreneurial intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal K; Turban, Daniel B; Bhawe, Nachiket M

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the impact of implicit and explicit activation of gender stereotypes on men's and women's intentions to pursue a traditionally masculine career, such as entrepreneurship, was examined. On the basis of stereotype activation theory, it was hypothesized that men and women would confirm the gender stereotype about entrepreneurship when it was presented implicitly but disconfirm it when it was presented explicitly. Hypotheses were tested by randomly assigning 469 business students to one of 6 experimental conditions and then measuring their entrepreneurial intentions. Results supported the hypothesis when entrepreneurship was associated with stereotypically masculine characteristics but not when it was associated with traditionally feminine characteristics. Men also had higher entrepreneurial intention scores compared with women when no stereotypical information about entrepreneurship was presented, suggesting that underlying societal stereotypes associating entrepreneurship with masculine characteristics may influence people's intentions. However, men and women reported similar intentions when entrepreneurship was presented as gender neutral, suggesting that widely held gender stereotypes can be nullified. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Gender stereotype-inconsistent acts are seen as more acceptable than stereotype-consistent acts, if they are clever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, M.H.J.; Lammers, J.; Ratliff, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Four studies show that gender stereotype-inconsistent behavior is seen as more acceptable than gender stereotype-consistent behavior, if it is clever. Four studies found consistently that participants rated the behavior of a man who relied on attractiveness or passiveness (stereotypically female) to

  10. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…

  11. Stereotyped: Investigating Gender in Introductory Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Shanda; Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Christensen, Warren; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has documented achievement gaps between men and women in math and physics that may reflect, in part, a response to perceived stereotype threat. Research efforts to reduce achievement gaps by mediating the impact of stereotype threat have found success with a short values-affirmation writing exercise. In biology and…

  12. The time course from gender categorization to gender-stereotype activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Li, Qiong; Sun, Shan; Zuo, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Social categorization is the foundation of stereotype activation, and the process from social categorization to stereotype activation is rapid. However, the time from social categorization to stereotype activation is unknown. This study involves a real-time measurement of the time course of gender-stereotype activation beginning with gender categorization using event-related potential technology with a face as the priming stimulus. We found that 195 ms after a face stimulus was presented, brain waves stimulated by male or female gender categorization showed a clear separation, with male faces stimulating larger N200 waves. In addition, 475 ms after a face stimulus appeared or 280 ms after the gendercategorization process occurred, gender-stereotype-consistent and gender-stereotype-inconsistent stimuli were distinct, with gender-stereotype-inconsistent stimuli inducing larger N400 waves. These results indicate that during gender-stereotype activation by face perception, gender categorization occurs approximately 195 ms after seeing a face stimulus and a gender stereotype is activated at approximately 475 ms.

  13. Politicy of care in the criticism towards gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Padilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    analyze gender inequalities among Brazilian women in Portugal and in contemporary nursing based on care politicity in the light of gender; disclose oppression of the female produced by the stereotypes that look upon women as natural caregivers; point out politicity to deconstruct gender stereotypes. theoretical reflection with narrative review of literature to analyze classic references in the feminist epistemology combined with the care politicity thesis. the similarities between the stereotypes of the Brazilian Eves and the Portuguese Maries as either the sexualized or sanctified nurse are inserted in the Jewish-Christian moral genealogy that reaffirms the subservience of the female to the male. by attaching priority to care that needs non-care to expand the possibilities of care giving, the theoretical assumption of politicy of care can contribute to subvert the stereotypical images of Brazilian women in Portuguese lands and in contemporary nursing.

  14. [Gender and job satisfaction in stereotypical masculine and feminine occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Grobelny, Agnieszka; Goździk, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship between gender and job satisfaction among employees involved in a stereotypical masculine (tram driver) and a stereotypical feminine occupation (nurse). It was expected that people with feminine gender schema would be more satisfied with their traditionally feminine occupations compared with those with masculine gender schema and vice versa. A group of 103 individuals, including 47 females (15 tram drivers and 32 nurses) and 56 males (41 tram drivers and 15 nurses) completed the following battery of instruments: The Bem Sex Role Inventory by Kuczyńska, Job Affect Scale by Brief, et al. Job Descriptions Questionnaire by Neuberger and Allerbeck. The results of the study showed that gender proved to be a variable that differentiates the level of job satisfaction (both overall satisfaction and satisfaction with different components) only as regards stereotypical feminine occupations. Moreover, individuals with feminine gender schema working in a stereotypical feminine occupation are more satisfied with co-workers and work conditions, and those with masculine gender schema involved in a stereotypical masculine occupation are more satisfied with a supervisor. The gender analysis can be an important tool for the recruitment and selection procedures and plays an essential role in assessing the person-environment fit.

  15. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  16. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine eBieg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait versus state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207. As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts. Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  17. Backlash against gender stereotype-violating preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jessica; Moss-Racusin, Corinne; Lopez, Michael; Williams, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    While there is substantial evidence that adults who violate gender stereotypes often face backlash (i.e. social and economic penalties), less is known about the nature of gender stereotypes for young children, and the penalties that children may face for violating them. We conducted three experiments, with over 2000 adults from the US, to better understand the content and consequences of adults' gender stereotypes for young children. In Experiment 1, we tested which characteristics adults (N = 635) believed to be descriptive (i.e. typical), prescriptive (i.e. required), and proscriptive (i.e. forbidden) for preschool-aged boys and girls. Using the characteristics that were rated in Experiment 1, we then constructed vignettes that were either 'masculine' or 'feminine', and manipulated whether the vignettes were said to describe a boy or a girl. Experiment 2 (N = 697) revealed that adults rated stereotype-violating children as less likeable than their stereotype-conforming peers, and that this difference was more robust for boys than girls. Experiment 3 (N = 731) was a direct replication of Experiment 2, and revealed converging evidence of backlash against stereotype-violating children. In sum, our results suggest that even young children encounter backlash from adults for stereotype violations, and that these effects may be strongest for boys.

  18. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs. PMID:20625536

  19. On stereotypes, media and redressing gendered social inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Combating gender stereotypes: The role of education and the media’ was one of the two central themes of a ministerial conference of the Council of Europe (24-25 May 2010, Baku, Azerbaijan). The conference aims to develop cross-European policy directed at gender equality. This talk suggests that any

  20. Math-Gender Stereotypes in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenwald, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) "me" with "male" (gender identity), (b) "male" with "math" (math-gender stereotype), and (c) "me" with "math" (math self-concept). Two findings emerged.…

  1. Developing a Teachers' Gender Stereotype Scale toward Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlu, Özge

    2017-01-01

    Gender has become a focus of mathematics education research. While some research show that there are no differences between boys and girls, numerous research studies have indicated that boys have outperformed girls. It is suggested that gender stereotypes, such as expecting girls to show less achievement in mathematics compared to boys, have an…

  2. Flexibility of Gender Stereotypes: Italian Study on Comparative Gender-consistent and Gender-inconsistent Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Sagone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this study is flexibility in gender stereotyping linked to attribution of toys, socio-cognitive traits, and occupations in 160 Italian children aged 6 to 12 years. We used the Gender Toys Choice, the Gender Traits Choice, and the Gender Jobs Choice, a selected set of colored cards containing masculine and feminine stimuli to assign to a male or female or both male and female silhouette (the flexible-choice technique. In order to verify the change of flexibility in gender stereotyping, we made use of four cartoon stories with male and female characters with typical or atypical traits and performing gender-consistent or gender-inconsistent activities. Results indicated that the exposure to cartoon stories with gender-inconsistent information rather than cartoon stories with gender-consistent information increased flexibility in gender stereotyping, showing age differences in favor of children aged 11-12. Implications in relation to the developmental-constructivist approach were noted.

  3. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources: A Visual Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoven, Anne H; Russo, Pedro; Land-Zandstra, Anne M; Saxena, Aayush; Rodenburg, Frans J

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people's social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are visible in education include the use of gender-biased visuals, language, teaching methods, and teachers' attitudes. The goal of this study was to determine whether science education resources for primary school contained gender-biased visuals. Specifically, the total number of men and women depicted, and the profession and activity of each person in the visuals were noted. The analysis showed that there were more men than women depicted with a science profession and that more women than men were depicted as teachers. This study shows that there is a stereotypical representation of men and women in online science education resources, highlighting the changes needed to create a balanced representation of men and women. Even if the stereotypical representation of men and women in science is a true reflection of the gender distribution in science, we should aim for a more balanced representation. Such a balance is an essential first step towards showing children that both men and women can do science, which will contribute to more gender-balanced science and technology fields.

  4. The interaction of morphological and stereotypical gender information in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g. that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures, in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines – noun that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women. Since the studies have been conducted in cultures with broadly similar stereotypes, the effects generally reflect differences in the grammatical systems of the languages. Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb. In this study we collected stereotype norms for 160 role names in Russian, providing a useful resource for further work in this language. We also conducted a reading time study examining the interaction of grammatical and stereotype gender information in the interpretation of both Russian singular noun phrases, and plurals that were (potentially generic masculines. Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, as available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those.

  5. Gender Differences in Child Aggression : Relations With Gender-Differentiated Parenting and Parents' Gender-Role Stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, Joyce J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; van der Pol, Lotte D.; van Berkel, Sheila R.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role

  6. Threatening the heart and mind of gender stereotypes: Can imagined contact influence the physiology of stereotype threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ben; Friedman, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that when a gender stereotype is made salient and the target of the stereotype is asked to perform in the stereotyped domain, targets of the stereotype often perform at a lower level compared to situations when the stereotype was not made salient. The noticeable absence of female faculty and students in math and science departments at coed universities throughout the United States may increase the belief in gender stereotypes and discourage women from pursuing careers in these fields. Contact with counterstereotypical exemplars, such as female science experts, decreases belief in gender stereotypes and increases women's motivation to pursue careers in science. Thus, the present study examined whether imagining an interpersonal interaction with a counterstereotypical exemplar removes the physiological and performance effects of stereotype threat. Subjects were asked to imagine either a nature scene or meeting a female math professor, and were also assigned to either a control or stereotype threat condition. Imagination was used because studies have shown it to be an effective method of simulating interpersonal contact. Subjects were 139 young women (mean age 19 years) recruited from a pool of undergraduates. Results showed that the stereotype threat manipulation elicited greater vagal withdrawal and poorer working memory capacity during the n-back, and that vagal withdrawal was attenuated when the stereotype threat manipulation was preceded by a brief imagined interaction with a counterstereotypical exemplar. This study provides novel evidence that exposure to counterstereotypical exemplars can diminish cardiovascular reactions to salient information about threatening gender stereotypes. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. CRITICAL RETHINKING OF GENDER STEREOTYPES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. CHINWE EZEIFEKA

    society; to scrutinize texts and discursive practices to determine their .... word widow conjures up the image-schema of someone who is dirty. ... stereotypic role is to keep the husband‟s house, cook his meals, enjoy as much of it as she.

  8. Combating gender stereotypes in the education system: success stories

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    GEC 2015. Conferência realizada em Helsínquia, de 9-10 october 2014. Conferência de Abertura do Painel 2 – Combating gender stereotypes in the education system: success stories, da Conferência promovida pelo Conselho da Europa sobre “Combating gender stereotypes in and through education”. Apresentam-se alguns desafios decorrentes do combate ao sexismo na escola e propõem-se algumas linhas de ação, ao nível individual, coletivo, organizacional e institucional. info:eu-repo/semantics/pub...

  9. Gender Stereotypes And Self-Perceptions Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin C. Bosner

    2011-01-01

    In spite of advances made, women in general still do not achieve the same earnings or positions as men do in corporate America. Gender stereotyping has been identified as a major hurdle for women both in business and on college campuses. This study explores gender stereotypes and self-perception of 338 students enrolled in undergraduate business courses at two Western New York colleges.  Using a variation of the Schein Descriptive Index, attitudes about self, same sex and the typical man and ...

  10. Challenging gender stereotypes: Theory of mind and peer group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rizzo, Michael T; Killen, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the social cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3-6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer's group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group's stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively. Participants without FB ToM did not differentiate between their own and the group's evaluation of challenges to the group's stereotypic norms, but those with ToM competence asserted that they would be more supportive of challenging the group norm than would the peer group. Results reveal the importance of social-cognitive competencies for recognizing the legitimacy of challenging stereotypes, and for understanding one's own and other group perspectives. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  12. Perfectionism moderates stereotype threat effects on STEM majors' academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G; Lopez, Frederick G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Stinson, Jennifer M

    2013-04-01

    Using a randomized, between-subjects experimental design, we tested hypotheses that self-critical perfectionism would moderate the effects of subtle stereotype threat (ST) for women and students in underrepresented racial/ethnic groups who are pursuing traditional degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). A diverse sample of freshmen students (N = 294) was recruited from 2 major universities. Students were blocked by gender and race/ethnicity and randomly assigned to experience subtle ST or no ST. Participants in the subtle ST condition were primed to consider their gender, race, and ethnicity prior to completing measures of science self-efficacy. Those in the control condition completed the measures without such priming. Controlling for prior academic performance and university context, ST priming significantly interacted (a) with self-critical perfectionism to predict coping self-efficacy scores and (b) with race/ethnicity to predict end-of-semester STEM grades. A 3-way interaction of ST priming, sex, and self-critical perfectionism also predicted students' grades in courses wherein women and men were more proportionally represented. The Sex × Self-Critical Perfectionism interaction was not significant for those in the ST group but was for those in the control group. Men in the control group had higher grade-point averages (GPAs) at low levels of self-critical perfectionism than they had at higher levels of perfectionism. In contrast, women had lower GPAs when self-critical perfectionism was low, but their GPAs were higher when self-critical perfectionism was high. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for self-efficacy and performance in the pursuit of a STEM major.

  13. Forming impressions: effects of facial expression and gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Tay

    2014-04-01

    The present study of 138 participants explored how facial expressions and gender stereotypes influence impressions. It was predicted that images of smiling women would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting warmth, and that images of non-smiling men would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting competence. As predicted, smiling female faces were rated as more warm; however, contrary to prediction, perceived competence of male faces was not affected by facial expression. Participants' female stereotype endorsement was a significant predictor for evaluations of female faces; those who ascribed more strongly to traditional female stereotypes reported the most positive impressions of female faces displaying a smiling expression. However, a similar effect was not found for images of men; endorsement of traditional male stereotypes did not predict participants' impressions of male faces.

  14. Gender Stereotyping and Female Pupils' Perception of Studying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Stereotyping and Female Pupils' Perception of Studying Advanced Level Sciences: A Survey of One Province in Zimbabwe. C Pinias, VS Matswetu. Abstract. In spite of advances in the field of science and technology, females are still under-represented in the sciences. The study sought to explore the perceptions of ...

  15. Reducing the Effects of Gender Stereotypes on Performance Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Cara C.; Baltes, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether a structured free recall intervention could decrease the influence of traditional gender stereotypes on the performance evaluations of women. College students provided performance ratings for vignettes describing the performance of male and female professors. Without the intervention, raters who had traditional stereotypes…

  16. Social role effects on gender stereotyping in Germany and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmetz, J.; Bosak, J.; Sczesny, S.; Eagly, A. H.

    Social role theory postulates that gender stereotypes are restrained for men and women observed in the same social role. Cultural differences in the valuation of communal attributes might moderate this effect. To examine this possibility, 288 participants (144 German, 144 Japanese) estimated the

  17. Exposure to sexism can decrease implicit gender stereotype bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Miguel R.; Barreto, Manuela; Ellemers, Naomi; Moya, Miguel; Ferreira, Lucia; Calanchini, Jimmy

    Two studies examined the effect of exposure to sexism on implicit gender bias, focusing specifically on stereotypes of men as competent and women as warm. Male and female participants were exposed to sexism or no sexism. In both Experiment 1 (Implicit Association Task; N = 115) and Experiment 2

  18. Sex Stereotyping of Infants: A Review of Gender Labeling Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Marilyn; Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt

    1989-01-01

    Reviews studies of adult and child response to male and female infants based on preconceived sex stereotypes. Evaluates overall conclusions from studies. Indicates that knowledge of infant's gender is not a consistent determinant of adults' reactions but more strongly influences children's reactions. Considers implications for sex role…

  19. Gender Trait Stereotypes: A Comparison of 1978 and 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Betsy Q.; Babbitt, Brian C.

    This study examined stability and change in gender role stereotypes by comparing responses to items on the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) for the typical woman and man in 1978 and in 1986. Subjects were college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course in 1978 (N=85) and in 1986 (N=219). Subjects rated the typical man or typical woman…

  20. Theory of Mind Is Related to Children's Resource Allocations in Gender Stereotypic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Michael T.; Killen, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations between 4- to 6-year-old children's (N = 67) gender stereotypes, resource allocations, and mental state knowledge in gender-stereotypic contexts. Participants were told vignettes about female and male characters completing gender-stereotyped activities (making dolls or trucks). Children held stereotypic…

  1. "Michael Can't Read!" Teachers' Gender Stereotypes and Boys' Reading Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retelsdorf, Jan; Schwartz, Katja; Asbrock, Frank

    2015-01-01

    According to expectancy-value theory, the gender stereotypes of significant others such as parents, peers, or teachers affect students' competence beliefs, values, and achievement-related behavior. Stereotypically, gender beliefs about reading favor girls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' gender stereotypes in relation to…

  2. Gender and Musical Instrument Stereotypes in Middle School Children: Have Trends Changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Dittloff, Alexandra L.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have established that gender stereotypes are associated with children's choice of musical instrument. Though some have suggested that these gender stereotypes may be trending toward change, other studies have indicated that gender stereotypes are long-standing and still very much at issue. This descriptive study of middle school…

  3. Social Perception through Gender Stereotypes of Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor M. Cantera; Josep M. Blanch

    2010-01-01

    The overall goal of this research was to assess the degree of social attachment of certain stereotypes about gender (male provider; female caregiver) and violence (violent, peaceful woman) and is framed in the context of a debate about the extent and limits of a gender approach when it comes to understanding and preventing violence in different types of partner. 741 people were involved in the research, two thirds of them women, living in Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico and El Salvador. In each co...

  4. Gender stereotyping in EFL grammar textbooks. A diachronic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Lewandowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping in educational materials (especially in EFL textbooks has been a common theme in linguistic research (cf., e. g., Hellinger 1980; Porreca 1984; Freebody/Baker 1987; Sunderland 1994; Lee/Collins 2010. However, very little attention has been paid to the representation of men and women in EFL/ESL grammar textbooks; i. e. the way both genders are portrayed in constructed examples of usage and practice sentences. The present contribution is intended to fill this gap. The paper investigates the scope of gender stereotyping from a diachronic perspective: it seeks to demonstrate whether and how the images of men and women have changed following the dissemination of guidelines for non-sexist language and equal treatment of the two genders in English language educational materials. To this aim, two corpora have been compiled. The first one includes sentences derived from three EFL textbooks published in the 1970s and 1980s, while the other one contains analogous data from three 21st century titles. The contrastive analysis of the sentences in the two corpora across 11 semantic domains has found that the recently published grammar textbooks portray the two genders in a much less stereotyped way than the 20th century course books.

  5. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Performance on a Novel Visuospatial Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Susan Miller; Collaer, Marcia L.

    2009-01-01

    Stereotype threat research has shown that being a member of a negatively stereotyped group may result in impaired performance on tests of skills thought to be relevant to the stereotype. This study investigated whether stereotype threat influences gender differences in performance on a novel test of visuospatial ability. Undergraduates (N = 194)…

  7. Syrian refugees: thinking beyond gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lokot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dominant gender narratives among NGOs responding to Syrian refugees, and their subsequent interventions, are based on sometimes simplistic understandings of the ‘traditional’ Syrian household and power dynamics.

  8. Gender Compatibility, Math-Gender Stereotypes, and Self-Concepts in Math and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-01-01

    Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and…

  9. Sexual orientation and gender: stereotypes and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G M

    2005-12-01

    In this essay, I explore empirical research about the relationship between sexual orientation and gender. Both concepts have multiple meanings, which hinder an unequivocal understanding of the relationship between the two concepts. One of the first studies assumed to establish a relationship between male homosexuality and femininity was conducted by L. M. Terman and C. C. Miles (1936). The study actually gives a much more complicated picture of the relationship. Terman and Miles actually found two groups of homosexual men with, respectively, extremely high masculinity and extremely high femininity scores. Subsequently, various other studies examined the relationship between sexual orientation and gender, introducing the concept of androgyNY. While these studies were executed, major changes took place in the homosexual world, which have been characterized as the masculinization of culture. It is unclear how these changes relate to the masculine and feminine properties of the men involved. Various suggestions are made for further research on the relation between gender and sexual orientation.

  10. Gender Stereotyping and the Jersey Shore: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline S. Anderson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reality television is a highly popular genre, with a growing body of scholarly research. Unlike scripted programming, which offers fictional storylines, reality television relies heavily on cast member’s reactions to carefully crafted situations. This study examined the relationship between reality television and gender role stereotyping in a seminal reality television show, MTV’s Jersey Shore. Content analysis was used to conduct an in-depth examination of the first season of Jersey Shore, investigating three gendered issues: physical appearance, social roles and behavioral traits. Findings demonstrated the carefully manufactured relationship between gender role stereotyping and reality television programming in Jersey Shore, and illustrate the development of the female reality show character as related to sexualized behavior and social/emotional gender stereotypes. The depiction of female reality show characters seems to have increased its level of sensationalism, while continuing to be clichéd and conventional, while depiction of male characters is beginning to push the boundaries of being typecast in regards to their physical appearance and role in performing domestic tasks. Additionally, physical alterations on screen were many, warranting further investigation of this behavior.

  11. Young and older adults’ gender stereotype in multitasking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups. With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype’s existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129 and older (n = 112 German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups. When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype’s components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  12. Transnational Academic Mobility and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jons, Heike

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent the participation of researchers in transnational academic mobility, their experiences and perceived outcomes vary by gender. Based on longitudinal statistics, original survey data and semi-structured interviews with former visiting researchers in Germany, the paper shows that the academic world of female…

  13. Gender Stereotyping and Empowerment in Nigeria Society ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender inequality is one of the contemporary issues which have featured prominently in both national and international debates for quite some time now in both developed and developing countries of the world. This has obviously thwarted women status in curriculum implementation in Nigeria education. This observation ...

  14. Gender Stereotypes of Personality: Universal and Accurate?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Löckenhoff, C. E.; Chan, W.; McCrae, R. R.; De Fruyt, F.; Jussim, L.; De Bolle, L. J.; Costa Jr., P. T.; Sutin, A. R.; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, C.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Knežević, G.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P. B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2014), s. 675-694 ISSN 0022-0221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : personality * gender/sex roles * development Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.929, year: 2014 http://jcc.sagepub.com/content/45/5/675

  15. Gender Stereotypes in Advertising: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmeyer, Lynn

    Television and television advertising, because of their pervasiveness and intrusiveness, have been identified by many as potent, formative, and usually negative influences within our culture. Print media, including magazine advertising, although perhaps less potent, are perceived as equally important. The effects of gender portrayals on audiences…

  16. Boys in India challenge gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses CEDPA's Better Life Options Program in India. The program was initiated in 1987 to challenge gender inequities. The program offers over 400,000 girls a chance to develop skills and self-confidence for increasing their options in education, social mobility, work, health, and family and community roles. CEDPA's partner, Prerana, offers an integrated program that provides literacy training, vocational skills, after-school tutoring, health education, and family life education for about 600 girls/year. Vocational training includes nontraditional skills, such as video production and electronics. Prerana established a parallel program in 1994 for boys and young men that aims to change attitudes about girls and women and traditional gender roles. The program offers vocational skills, such as cooking and candle-making. Family life education teaches gender awareness and provides counseling and services for reproductive health. The Prerana program emphasizes men's shared responsibility in parenthood and sexual behavior, shared contribution to family income, health and nutrition, and prevention of violence against women. Since 1994, the program has included 1200 boys in 6 villages in New Delhi. Boys' enrollment is increasing; several young men have volunteered to become depot holders of contraceptive supplies in their villages. For example, one young man who was part of the Prerana program went on to be a depot holder and then a family planning promoter and counselor. He interacts with both young and older men. His contributions were well received by his village.

  17. Gender Stereotyping and the Jersey Shore: A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline S. Anderson; Sharmila Pixy Ferris

    2016-01-01

    Reality television is a highly popular genre, with a growing body of scholarly research. Unlike scripted programming, which offers fictional storylines, reality television relies heavily on cast member’s reactions to carefully crafted situations. This study examined the relationship between reality television and gender role stereotyping in a seminal reality television show, MTV’s Jersey Shore. Content analysis was used to conduct an in-depth examination of the first season of ...

  18. Gender Stereotypes and the Reshaping of Stigma in Rehabilitative Eldercare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg Jensen, Maya Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation policies are becoming increasingly popular in eldercare as a means to ensure dignity and reduce costs. This paper examines the implications of rehabilitation within Danish homecare work, a type of work that is often stigmatized due to its associations with low-status ‘dirty’ body w...... understanding of the ambiguous and varying ways rehabilitative eldercare reshapes and reinforces stigma and gender stereotypes among women who do ‘dirty’ body work....

  19. Gender Differences in Child Aggression: Relations With Gender-Differentiated Parenting and Parents' Gender-Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Stereotype Threat, Gender-Role Conformity, and New Zealand Adolescent Males in Choirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Penelope; Rubie-Davies, Christine Margaret; Hattie, John Allan

    2017-01-01

    Choirs have been stereotypically gendered feminine in many national contexts. When gender-role conformity has been expected in such settings, male choral participation and performance has often been rendered gender incongruent and consequently threatening. Gender stereotype threat was explored as a factor which might instigate a potentially…

  1. Social Perception through Gender Stereotypes of Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor M. Cantera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this research was to assess the degree of social attachment of certain stereotypes about gender (male provider; female caregiver and violence (violent, peaceful woman and is framed in the context of a debate about the extent and limits of a gender approach when it comes to understanding and preventing violence in different types of partner. 741 people were involved in the research, two thirds of them women, living in Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico and El Salvador. In each country, they agreed to a stratified convenience sample according to criteria of gender, age, education level, occupational status and sexual orientation. In one session lasting between 35 and 60 minutes, the participants first answered an IAT (Implicit Association Test and then a series of items in a questionnaire with closed and open ended questions. One section includes 48 items referring to “activities” that the person must categorize numerically on a scale of 1-7, with a semantic differential format, and whose poles are “male” and “woman.” In this series two scales of 24 items each are mixed: hardness and tenderness. From the information obtained it is seen that samples from all countries organize their perception of partner violence according to gender stereotypes. Men and women both perceived attributes of the hardness scale to be masculine, and those of tenderness to be feminine, with these perceived differences in terms of gender role behaviors being even more enhanced and further polarized by the women. The socio-cultural anchor of the gender violence stereotype has theoretical and social implications in that it visualizes abuse from a man to a woman in the heterosexual couple and blurs that which occurs in other forms of partner. This raises topics which should be urgently addressed in the research agenda.

  2. Fairy Tales: Attraction and Stereotypes in Same-Gender Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmlee, Diane; Orzechowicz, David; Fortes, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    We examine the process of romantic attraction in same-gender relationships using open and closed-ended questionnaire data from a sample of 120 men and women in Northern California. Agreeableness (e.g., kind, supportive) and Extraversion (e.g., fun, sense of humor) are the two most prominent bases of attraction, followed by Physical Attractiveness (e.g., appearance, sexy). The least important attractors represent traits associated with material success (e.g., financially secure, nice house). We also find evidence of seemingly contradictory attraction processes documented previously in heterosexual romantic relationships, in which individuals become disillusioned with the qualities in a partner that were initially appealing. Our findings challenge common stereotypes of same-gender relationships. The results document broad similarities between same-gender and cross-gender couples in attraction.

  3. Gender compatibility, math-gender stereotypes, and self-concepts in math and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields.

  4. Female Surgeons as Counter Stereotype: The Impact of Gender Perceptions on Trainee Evaluations of Physician Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassiotto, Magali; Li, Jie; Maldonado, Yvonne; Kothary, Nishita

    2018-02-02

    Similar to women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics disciplines, women in medicine are subject to negative stereotyping when they do not adhere to their sex-role expectations. These biases may vary by specialty, largely dependent on the gender's representation in that specialty. Thus, females in male-dominated surgical specialties are especially at risk of stereotype threat. Herein, we present the role of gender expectations using trainee evaluations of physician faculty at a single academic center, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Using Graduate Medical Education evaluation data of physician faculty from MedHub, we examined the differences in evaluation scores for male and female physicians within specialties that have traditionally had low female representation (e.g., surgical fields) compared to those with average or high female representation (e.g., pediatrics). Stanford Medicine residents and fellows' MedHub ratings of their physician faculty from 2010 to 2014. A total of 3648 evaluations across 1066 physician faculty. Overall, female physicians received lower median scores than their male counterparts across all specialties. When using regression analyses controlling for race, age, rank, and specialty-specific characteristics, the negative effect persists only for female physicians in specialties with low female representation. This finding suggests that female physicians in traditionally male-dominated specialties may face different criteria based on sex-role expectations when being evaluated by trainees. As trainee evaluations play an important role in career advancement decisions, dictate perceptions of quality within academic medical centers and affect overall job satisfaction, we propose that these differences in evaluations based merely on gender stereotypes could account, in part, for the narrowing pipeline of women promoted to higher ranks in academic medicine. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published

  5. Latitude Reduction Based on Gender Categorization and Gender Stereotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Lea

    This dissertation consists of four articles; two articles which apply experimental methodologies from social psychology, and two articles which apply queer theory. These two different methodologies are applied in order to uncover different kinds of asymmetrical power relations driven by sex/gender...... to take a step back from our sex/gender categories, and unveil which effects categorizing by sex/gender has on people who are considered unintelligible by the categories. Therefore, this language philosophical perspective offers tools to analyse non-binary sexed/gendered people, and the sex/gender...... categorization. The social psychology methodology is applied in order to capture fundamental psychological mechanism at play in patriarchal society – striving to unveil gender inequalities between the binary categories of men and women. The queer theoretical meta-perspective is applied in order to allow us...

  6. Battle of the sexes: gender stereotype confirmation and reactance in negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, L J; Thompson, L; Galinsky, A

    2001-06-01

    The authors examined how gender stereotypes affect negotiation performance. Men outperformed women when the negotiation was perceived as diagnostic of ability (Experiment 1) or the negotiation was linked to gender-specific traits (Experiment 2), suggesting the threat of negative stereotype confirmation hurt women's performance relative to men. The authors hypothesized that men and women confirm gender stereotypes when they are activated implicitly, but when stereotypes are explicitly activated, people exhibit stereotype reactance, or the tendency to behave in a manner inconsistent with a stereotype. Experiment 3 confirmed this hypothesis. In Experiment 4, the authors examined the cognitive processes involved in stereotype reactance and the conditions under which cooperative behaviors between men and women can be promoted at the bargaining table (by activating a shared identity that transcends gender).

  7. Gender Concepts and Gender Stereotypes in a Linguistic Picture of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Petrivna Maslova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article comprehends the notion of a concept and a stereotypes in the linguistic picture of the world through the prism of a gender perspective. The linguistic and philosophical interpretations of the above concepts by well-known scholars are described, special attention is paid to their scientific research. The observation of the city of the world is based on the understanding of the following: the name of the city of culture, the historical city of culture, the special culture of the world, the city of culture, the information picture of the world. The gender stereotypes, concepts and the conceptosphere in interaction with the language are analyzed in detail.

  8. Gender bias in academic recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    for an academic position, the number of the applicant’s career years in the same university as the committee members assumes greater weight for male candidates than for females. Being of the same gender as the committee president is also a factor that assumes greater weight for male applicants. On the other hand...

  9. When stereotypes become 'scientific' statements: dealing with gender issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Ana Flávia do Amaral

    2009-06-01

    The theoretical analysis by Watzlawik (Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 2009) demonstrates the scientific fragility of the constructs of masculinity and femininity based on the oversimplification and overlapping between three levels of analysis: group differences, inter-individual differences and intra-individual differences. Watzlawik presents fresh and relevant contributions in terms of methodological issues, especially about the construction of scientific generalizations. Here I focus on issues related to the transformation of stereotypes in statements about gender differences that claim to be 'scientific'--outlining the socio-political agendas of such statements.

  10. Stereotype threat? Effects of inquiring about test takers' gender on conceptual test performance in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-12-01

    It has been found that activation of a stereotype, for example by indicating one's gender before a test, typically alters performance in a way consistent with the stereotype, an effect called "stereotype threat." On a standardized conceptual physics assessment, we found that asking test takers to indicate their gender right before taking the test did not deteriorate performance compared to an equivalent group who did not provide gender information. Although a statistically significant gender gap was present on the standardized test whether or not students indicated their gender, no gender gap was observed on the multiple-choice final exam students took, which included both quantitative and conceptual questions on similar topics.

  11. Gender roles and gender stereotypes in teaching literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordić-Petković Vladislava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender, identity and sexuality have to be more closely integrated into the broader discussion of literature and language, which can be achieved only through wider application of literary texts in the teaching process. Teaching literature to students of English serves not only the purpose of building an understanding of the human experience, but also tackles the issues of femininity and masculinity and helps sensitize the students to the gender differences and the codes of patriarchal society which result in male dominance. Poems by Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Anne Sexton have proved as valuable texts in teaching gender, as will be discussed in the paper, which focuses on Plath‘s „Lady Lazarus” and the strategies the educator can select in order to achieve the desired objective.

  12. Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Bordalo; Nicola Gennaioli; Andrei Shleifer

    2014-01-01

    We present a model of stereotypes in which a decision maker assessing a group recalls only that group's most representative or distinctive types relative to other groups. Because stereotypes highlight differences between groups, and neglect likely common types, they are especially inaccurate when groups are similar. In this case, stereotypes consist of unlikely, extreme types. When stereotypes are inaccurate, they exhibit a form of base rate neglect. They also imply a form of confirmation bia...

  13. Analysis of gender stereotypic characteristics in leaders and subordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Lupano Perugini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was realized to analyze the way leaders and subordinates describe themselves in relation to perceived gender stereotypic characteristics and, to verify if exists differences in these characteristics according position (leader/ subordinate. Participate 612 individuals, 329 male (54% y 283 female (46%, age average = 37,54 years (DE=11,88. 59 % of the participants occupied executive positions and the rest were subordinates. It was utilized and abbreviate version of the Bem Sex Roles (Bem, 1974 to data recollection. The obtained results show that male leaders describe themselves mainly with agentic-masculine attributes (e.g. dominant, compared with subordinates who describe themselves with communal- feminine characteristics (e.g. submission. On the other hand, the female leaders describe themselves mainly with androgyny attributes combining qualities of both genders (e.g. dominant and sensible to the needs of others; however the female subordinates show communal attributes (e.g. submission

  14. Critical Media Literacy and Gender: Teaching Middle School Children about Gender Stereotypes and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Laurel; Markowitz, Linda; Hedley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the implementation of a small-scale critical media literacy curriculum unit focused on gender stereotypes, especially as they pertain to occupations. The research question was whether students exposed to the critical media literacy (CML) curriculum were more likely than students not exposed to believe: that…

  15. Performing the Grade: Urban Latino Youth, Gender Performance, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foiles Sifuentes, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the intersection of race, gender, class, and academic success through an ethnographic case study in a Texas charter high school. The 98% working-class, Latino student population was exposed to an array of stigmas ascribed to their persons based on negative social stereotypes of race, ethnicity, gender, and class due to the…

  16. Gender Stereotypes in Children's Books: Their Prevalence and Influence on Cognitive and Affective Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharyl Bender; Lach, Mary Alyce

    1990-01-01

    Examines gender stereotyping in children's picture books. A survey of current material indicates only a small increase in the number and prominence of female characters. Discusses the history of gender stereotypes in children's literature and their effect on cognitive development. (DM)

  17. Through Pink and Blue glasses : designing a dispositional empathy game using gender stereotypes and Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Daphne A.; van Kessel, Caro R.; Janssen, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Society is affected by gender stereotypes and a decrease of dispositional empathy (empathy as a stable character trait). We believe there is an overall lack of awareness how gender stereotypes affect us as individuals, both male and female, and our society as a whole. This paper reports on the

  18. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

  19. Gender Stereotypes and Selling Techniques in Television Advertising: Effects on Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Debra; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    This paper examines gender messages within television advertisements. Society is shaped by the suggestions of television advertisers who influence consumers' beliefs on how people should look or act, and many of these advertisements perpetuate stereotypes. Any consideration of the influence of gender stereotyping within TV advertising must first…

  20. Through Pink and Blue glasses : Designing a dispositional empathy game using gender stereotypes and Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Daphne A.; Van Kessel, Caro R.; Janssen, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Society is affected by gender stereotypes and a decrease of dispositional empathy (empathy as a stable character trait). We believe there is an overall lack of awareness how gender stereotypes affect us as individuals, both male and female, and our society as a whole. This paper reports on the

  1. Do Gender-Science Stereotypes Predict Science Identification and Science Career Aspirations among Undergraduate Science Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jessica L.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Loken, Eric; Lo, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether gender-science stereotypes were associated with science identification and, in turn, science career aspirations among women and men undergraduate science majors. More than 1,700 students enrolled in introductory science courses completed measures of gender-science stereotypes (implicit associations and…

  2. Gender Stereotypes and Women's Reports of Liking and Ability in Traditionally Masculine and Feminine Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Debra L.

    2008-01-01

    Gender stereotypes were examined for their causal influence on women's reported liking for and perceived ability to succeed in traditionally masculine and feminine occupations. One hundred twenty-one women were assigned to either a gender-stereotype activation or filler task and then completed measures of liking for, and perceived ability to…

  3. The cognitive costs of the counter-stereotypic: gender, emotion, and social presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Megan K; Kelly, Janice R; Williams, Kipling D

    2014-01-01

    We explored the concurrent and subsequent cognitive consequences of the experience of gender counter-stereotypic emotions. Participants experiencing gender counter-stereotypic emotions were expected to display less emotional expression and demonstrate poorer cognitive performance when in the public condition than when in the private condition. Seventy-one women and 66 men completed an anger- or sadness-inducing task privately or publicly. Participants completed two cognitive tasks: one during and one after the emotion-induction task. Participants exhibited poorer performance during and following gender counter-stereotypic emotions only in the public condition. Direct evidence for greater suppression of gender counter-stereotypic emotions in the public conditions was not obtained. These results suggest that the same public emotional events may be differentially cognitively depleting depending on one's gender, potentially contributing to the perpetuation of stereotypes.

  4. Congruence between gender stereotypes and activity preference in self-identified tomboys and non-tomboys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Dinella, Lisa M

    2012-06-01

    The major goal was to examine a central tenet of cognitive approaches to gender development, namely, that congruence exists between personal gender stereotypes and behaviors. Item-by-item comparisons of girls' stereotypes about activities and their preferences for activities were conducted, for both girls who claimed to be tomboys and those who did not. Congruence was expected for all girls, but because of their gender non-normative interests, tomboys may exhibit less congruence. A secondary goal was to examine factors that might influence congruence, specifically, whether tomboys develop more inclusive stereotypes and develop greater understanding of stereotype variability. Participants included 112 girls (7-12 years old, M age=9). Girls were interviewed about their activity preferences, beliefs about girls' and boys' activity preferences, understanding variability of stereotypes, and identification as tomboys. Tomboys (30% of the sample) and non-tomboys did not differ in their liking of or in the number of liked feminine activities. However, tomboys showed more interest in masculine activities than non-tomboys. Tomboys and non-tomboys did not differ in stereotype inclusiveness, although tomboys showed a trend toward more inclusive stereotypes. Both groups showed high levels of congruence between stereotypes and preferences. Congruence was stronger for nontomboys (14 times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes vs. incongruent ones), as compared to tomboys who were four times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes versus incongruent ones. Implications of these findings for cognitive approaches to gender development are discussed.

  5. Venus and Mars or Down to Earth: Stereotypes and Realities of Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2010-11-01

    Psychological scientists, like lay people, often think in categorical dichotomies that contrast men and women and exaggerate the differences between groups. These value-laden divides tend to privilege one side over the other, often to the advantage of the scientists' own identity group. Besides balancing perspectives in the academic marketplace of ideas, scientists can recognize the complexity of stigma. Gender, like many categories, entails two fundamental dimensions that characterize intergroup stigma (and all interpersonal perception): perceived warmth and competence. These dimensions identify groups viewed with ambivalence (e.g., traditional women are stereotypically warm but incompetent, whereas professional women are allegedly competent but cold). In gender and in other areas, psychological scientists can go beyond value-laden dichotomies and consider the fundamental, continuous dimensions along which we think about stigma. © The Author(s) 2010.

  6. VENUS AND MARS OR DOWN TO EARTH: STEREOTYPES AND REALITIES OF GENDER DIFFERENCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological scientists, like lay people, often think in categorical dichotomies that contrast men and women and exaggerate the differences between groups. These value-laden divides tend to privilege one side over the other, often to the advantage of the scientists’ own identity group. Besides balancing perspectives in the academic marketplace of ideas, scientists can recognize the complexity of stigma. Gender, like many categories, entails two fundamental dimensions that characterize intergroup stigma (and all interpersonal perception): perceived warmth and competence. These dimensions identify groups viewed with ambivalence (e.g., traditional women are stereotypically warm but incompetent, whereas professional women are allegedly competent but cold). In gender and in other areas, psychological scientists can go beyond value-laden dichotomies and consider the fundamental, continuous dimensions along which we think about stigma. PMID:23678365

  7. Neural processing of gendered information is more robustly associated with mothers' gendered communication with children than mothers' implicit and explicit gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Spencer, Hannah; Bos, Peter A; Derks, Belle

    2018-04-26

    Processes like gender socialization (the ways in which parents convey information to their children about how girls and boys should behave) often happen unconsciously and might therefore be studied best with neuroscientific measures. We examined whether neural processing of gender-stereotype-congruent and incongruent information is more robustly related to mothers' gendered socialization of their child than mothers' implicit and explicit gender stereotypes. To this end, we examined event-related potentials (ERPs) of mothers (N = 35) completing an implicit gender-stereotype task and mothers' gender stereotypes in relation to observed gendered communication with their child (2-6 years old) in a naturalistic picture-book-reading setting. Increased N2 activity (previously related to attentional processes) to gender stimuli in the implicit gender-stereotype task was associated with mothers' positive evaluation of similar gendered behaviors and activities in the picture book they read with their child. Increased P300 activity (previously related to attention to unexpected events) to incongruent trials in the gender-stereotype task was associated with a more positive evaluation of congruent versus incongruent pictures. Compared to mothers' gender stereotypes, neural processing of gendered information was more robustly related to how mothers talk to their children about boys' and girls' stereotype-congruent and incongruent behavior, and masculine and feminine activities.

  8. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  9. Error-related negativity varies with the activation of gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Shu, Liangchao; Wang, Xiaoyi; Dai, Shenyi; Che, Hongmin

    2008-09-19

    The error-related negativity (ERN) was suggested to reflect the response-performance monitoring process. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the activation of gender stereotypes influences the ERN. Twenty-eight male participants were asked to complete a tool or kitchenware identification task. The prime stimulus is a picture of a male or female face and the target stimulus is either a kitchen utensil or a hand tool. The ERN amplitude on male-kitchenware trials is significantly larger than that on female-kitchenware trials, which reveals the low-level, automatic activation of gender stereotypes. The ERN that was elicited in this task has two sources--operation errors and the conflict between the gender stereotype activation and the non-prejudice beliefs. And the gender stereotype activation may be the key factor leading to this difference of ERN. In other words, the stereotype activation in this experimental paradigm may be indexed by the ERN.

  10. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes: The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Stoker, Janka I.; Van der Velde, Mandy; Lammers, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a ?good? manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine characteristics and female leaders. This study examines if the gender of an employee, the gender of the manager, and the management gender ratio in an organization are related to employees? manag...

  11. Gender Disparities in Academic Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waljee, Jennifer F; Chang, Kate Wan-Chu; Kim, H Myra; Gyetko, Margaret R; Quint, Elisabeth H; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Woolliscroft, James O; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    In academia, women remain underrepresented. The authors' sought to examine differences in faculty position and professional satisfaction among academic physicians by gender. From 2008 to 2012, academic faculty members at a single institution were surveyed (2008, n = 737; 2010, n = 1151; and 2012, n = 971) regarding current position, choice of position, professional satisfaction, and desire for leaving. Logistic regression was performed to compare aspects of professional satisfaction by gender. Men more often held tenure track positions compared with women (2008, 45 percent versus 20 percent; 2010, 47 percent versus 20 percent; and 2012, 49 percent versus 20 percent; p Women were more likely to engage in only clinical activities compared with men (2008, 31 percent versus 18 percent; 2010, 28 percent versus 14 percent; and 2012, 33 percent versus 13 percent; p Women chose tracks to accommodate work-life balance [2008, OR, 1.9 (95 percent CI, 1.29 to 2.76); 2010, OR, 2.0 (95 percent CI, 1.38 to 2.76); and 2012, OR, 2.1 (95 percent CI, 1.40 to 3.00)], rather than the opportunity of tenure [2008, OR, 0.4 (95 percent CI, 0.23 to 0.75); 2010, OR, 0.5 (95 percent CI, 0.35 to 0.85); and 2012, OR, 0.5 (95 percent CI, 0.29 to 0.76) compared with men. Men reported higher professional satisfaction compared with women (2008, 5.7 versus 5.4, p women. Women report lower levels of professional satisfaction in academic practice compared with men. Given the increasing pressures of academic practice, efforts to align work-life balance and professional goals could potentially improve faculty satisfaction and retention.

  12. Do casual gaming environments evoke stereotype threat? Examining the effects of explicit priming and avatar gender

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, L. K.; Pennington, C.; McCann, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Despite relatively equal participation rates between females and males in casual gaming, females often report stigmatisation and prejudice towards their gaming competency within this sub-domain. Applying the theoretical framework of “stereotype threat”, this research examined the influence of explicit stereotype priming on females’ casual gameplay performance and related attitudes. It also investigated whether the gender of the game avatar heightens susceptibility to stereotype threat. One hu...

  13. Activating gender stereotypes during online spoken language processing: evidence from Visual World Eye Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyykkönen, Pirita; Hyönä, Jukka; van Gompel, Roger P G

    2010-01-01

    This study used the visual world eye-tracking method to investigate activation of general world knowledge related to gender-stereotypical role names in online spoken language comprehension in Finnish. The results showed that listeners activated gender stereotypes elaboratively in story contexts where this information was not needed to build coherence. Furthermore, listeners made additional inferences based on gender stereotypes to revise an already established coherence relation. Both results are consistent with mental models theory (e.g., Garnham, 2001). They are harder to explain by the minimalist account (McKoon & Ratcliff, 1992) which suggests that people limit inferences to those needed to establish coherence in discourse.

  14. "Maybe She Was Provoked": Exploring Gender Stereotypes About Male and Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Carlyle, Kellie E; Harris, Kate Lockwood; Savage, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    The current study is concerned with the different types of gender stereotypes that participants may draw upon when exposed to news stories about intimate partner violence (IPV). We qualitatively analyzed open-ended responses examining four types of gender stereotypes-aggression, emotional, power and control, and acceptability of violence. We offer theoretical implications that extend past research on intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, the gender symmetry debate, and how stereotypes are formed. We also discuss practical implications for journalists who write stories about IPV and individuals who provide services to victims and perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. "Shake It Baby, Shake It": Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Bogers, Sanne; Kloosterman, Monique

    2010-12-01

    In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents' permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old Dutch students revealed that preferences, rather than exposure were associated with attitudes and stereotypes. For both girls and boys, preferences for hip-hop and hard-house music were associated positively with gender stereotypes and preference for classical music was negatively associated with gender stereotypes. Particularly for boys, using internet to find explicit sexual content emerged as a powerful indicator of all attitudes and stereotypes.

  16. Gender Stereotyping and Affective Attitudes Towards Science in Chinese Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxin; Hu, Weiping; Jiannong, Shi; Adey, Philip

    2010-02-01

    This study explores explicit and implicit gender-science stereotypes and affective attitudes towards science in a sample of Chinese secondary school students. The results showed that (1) gender-science stereotyping was more and more apparent as the specialization of science subjects progresses through secondary school, becoming stronger from the 10th grade; girls were more inclined to stereotype than boys while this gender difference decreased with increasing grade; (2) girls tend to have an implicit science-unpleasant/humanities-pleasant association from the 8th grade, while boys showed a negative implicit attitude towards science up to the 11th grade. In self-report, girls preferred humanities to science, while boys preferred science to humanities; (3) implicit affective attitude was closely related to implicit stereotype. In particular, implicit affective attitude has a stronger predictive power on stereotype than the other way around, the result of which may have more significance for girls.

  17. “Shake It Baby, Shake It”: Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Bogers, Sanne; Kloosterman, Monique

    2010-01-01

    In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents’ permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old Dutch students revealed that preferences, rather than exposure were associated with attitudes and stereotypes. For both girls and boys, preferences for hip-hop and hard-house music were associated positively with gender stereotypes and preference for classical music was negatively associated with gender stereotypes. Particularly for boys, using internet to find explicit sexual content emerged as a powerful indicator of all attitudes and stereotypes. PMID:21212809

  18. Math-Gender Stereotypes and Career Intentions: An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Zuo, Bin; Wen, Fangfang; Yan, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to negative math-gender stereotypes undermines the intentions of female college students to engage in careers in the math field, yet the mechanisms by which such stereotypes relate to girls' career intentions remain unclear. We simultaneously tested multiple mediators in a sample of 186 female students from one high school in central…

  19. Parents' Gender-Stereotyped Perceptions of Newborns: The Eye of the Beholder Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed parental gender-stereotyped perceptions of their newborn infant within a group of 40, mostly Caucasian, pairs of parents. Findings show stereotyped descriptions (that is, finer features, less strong, more delicate, and so on) were used when comparing newborn girls with boys. These perceptions persisted across a one-week time interval.…

  20. Korean Children's Evaluation of Parental Restrictions Regarding Gender-Stereotypic Peer Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonjung; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Killen, Melanie; Park, Kyoungja; Kim, Jihyun

    2012-01-01

    Korean children's evaluations of parental restrictions of children's activities based on gender stereotypic expectations were investigated. Third and sixth grade Korean (N = 128) children evaluated scenarios in which a boy or girl desired to play ballet or soccer. Participants used stereotypes to support children's desires to play…

  1. Refusing the Stereotype: Decoding Negative Gender Imagery through a School-Based Digital Media Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Naomi; White, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The media plays a significant role in shaping cultural norms and attitudes, concomitantly reinforcing "body" and "beauty" ideals and gender stereotypes. Unrealistic, photoshopped and stereotyped images used by the media, advertising and fashion industries influence young people's body image and impact on their feelings of body…

  2. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Palumbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA and older adults (OA age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd. We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have

  3. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E; Zebrowitz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability

  4. Hillary Clinton Framed - Gender Stereotypes in the Media Coverage of the 2016 United States Presidential Election

    OpenAIRE

    Mjønerud, Ingunn

    2017-01-01

    This thesis empirically examines the manner in which gender shaped the media coverage of the 2016 United States Presidential Election through the news frames that were employed to discuss Hillary Rodham Clinton and her historical candidacy. This is examined by exploring gender stereotypes and how these stereotypes can influence the success of women seeking positions of high power, before analyzing the major news stories surrounding Clinton and her campaign according to this theory. The result...

  5. Gender differences in risk preferences and stereotypes: Experimental evidence from a matrilineal and a patrilineal society

    OpenAIRE

    Pondorfer, Andreas; Omar Mahmoud, Toman; Rehdanz, Katrin; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    We use a controlled experiment to analyze gender differences in risk preferences and stereotypes about risk preferences of men and women across two distinct island societies in the Pacific: the patrilineal Palawan in the Philippines and the matrilineal Teop in Papua New Guinea. We find no gender differences in actual risk preferences, but evidence for culture-specific stereotypes. Like men in Western societies, Palawan men overestimate women's actual risk aversion. By contrast, Teop men under...

  6. The potential impact of gender stereotypes for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C

    1996-11-01

    The move towards evidence-based health care has meant an increasing pressure on paramedical professionals to become more research aware and research active. However, despite various initiatives designed to encourage research, there remains within nursing a notable paucity of relevant published research. While numerous explanations have been put forward in an attempt to account for this shortfall, they have tended to focus on structural/organizational barriers rather than difficulties located at the individual level. However, Hicks, in studies of midwives and nurse managers suggests that one critical perspective may be the stereotypes and assumptions associated with the nursing profession, these being so diametrically opposed to the core skills required of researchers that they operate as a natural deterrent to research activities of any sort. Embedded within this theory is the notion of gender roles, which are archetypally feminine for nursing yet archetypally masculine for research. However, Hicks' studies, which were both variants of Asch's Central Trait Theory, focused on women both as the hypothetical subject of the exercise involved and as participants. If research is bound up with gender attributions in the way she suggests, it would be necessary to ask if this is still relevant when the gender of the hypothetical figure at the centre of the study is changed. To this end, the present study was conducted which, apart from the modification just highlighted, was a replication of Hicks' earlier studies. In brief, two groups of participants rated a hypothetical male candidate for a nursing post along 15 bipolar dimensions. The candidate had been described by his referee using six adjectives, of which five were identical for each group. However, the final phrase used to describe the first group's candidate was "good clinician' while for the second group it was "good researcher'. The ratings given by the two groups along the 15 dimensions were then compared. It was

  7. Gendered mental disorders: masculine and feminine stereotypes about mental disorders and their relation to stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy; Ebersole, Ashley; Casner, Robert; Coston, Nykhala

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that stereotypes can intersect. For example, the intersection of stereotypes about gender and mental disorders could result in perceptions of gendered mental disorders. In the current research, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people view specific disorders as being masculine or feminine. The masculine stereotype included antisocial personality disorder, addictions, and paraphilias. The feminine stereotype included eating disorders, histrionic personality disorder, body dysmorphia, and orgasmic disorder. In both studies, the perception of disorders as masculine was positively correlated with stigma. Study 3 showed that the positive correlation between masculinity and stigma also occurred when examining specific symptoms rather than full mental disorders. The findings provide further evidence for the intersection of stereotypes and indicate a novel factor in the understanding of stigma.

  8. Has the Traditional Social Perception on Nurses Changed?: attribution of Stereotypes and Gender Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nursing has traditionally been regarded as a female profession. However, in recent years there has been an increase of men. Despite this change, patriarchy still has a profound influence on how general population, patients and even nursing students perceive this occupation. Taking this background into account, the present research aims to analyze gender stereotype and gender role assignment to male and female nurses. A quasi-experimental study was conducted on 121 participants from three groups: patients, non-patients and nursing students. Gender stereotypes and gender roles assignment were analyzing using two factors: level of social domination orientation, and the group membership. Results showed that the gender stereotypes assignment to male and female nurses displayed some similarities; therefore a less stereotypical perception was observed comparing with other recent research. Moreover, participants low in social dominance orientation indicated a preference to traditional gender roles. Considering the group we found a traditional assignment of gender stereotypes over female and male nurses, even among nursing students. In sum, despite the dynamism of the nurses' social perception, still remains a gender bias that needs to be avoided.

  9. Expertise in unexpected places: Children's acceptance of information from gender counter-stereotypical experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseovski, Janet J; Hughes, Chelsea; Miller, Stephanie E

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined children's willingness to accept novel information from expert informants with nontraditional gender role interests. Four- to 8-year-olds heard conflicting information about traditionally feminine or masculine domains from a gender counter-stereotypical expert (e.g., a boy with expertise in ballet) and a layperson of the other gender (e.g., a girl with little knowledge about ballet). Participants were asked which informant was correct, who they would prefer to learn from in the future, and to rate their liking of each informant. Overall, participants selected the gender counter-stereotypical expert as correct. Four- to 5-year-olds reported a preference to learn from same-gender participants in the future irrespective of expertise, whereas 6- to 8-year-olds reported wanting to learn from counter-stereotypical experts. Boys showed relatively greater acceptance of information from a male counter-stereotypical expert than from a female counter-stereotypical expert. Although participants reported greater liking of same-gender informants, liking evaluations were largely positive irrespective of gender norm deviations. Implications for children's acceptance of gender nonconforming activities are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactive effects of sex hormones and gender stereotypes on cognitive sex differences--a psychobiosocial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus; Schoofs, Daniela; Rosenthal, Harriet E S; Jordan, Kirsten

    2009-04-01

    Biological and social factors have been shown to affect cognitive sex differences. For example, several studies have found that sex hormones have activating effects on sex-sensitive tasks. On the other hand, it has been shown that gender stereotypes can influence the cognitive performance of (gender-) stereotyped individuals. However, few studies have investigated the combined effects of both factors. The present study investigated the interaction between sex hormones and gender stereotypes within a psychobiosocial approach. One hundred and fourteen participants (59 women) performed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tasks, including mental rotation, verbal fluency, and perceptual speed. Saliva samples were taken immediately after cognitive testing. Levels of testosterone (T) were analysed using chemiluminescence immunoassay (LIA). To activate gender stereotypes, a questionnaire was applied to the experimental group that referred to the cognitive tasks used. The control group received an identical questionnaire but with a gender-neutral content. As expected, significant sex differences favouring males and females appeared for mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks, respectively. The results revealed no sex difference in perceptual speed. The male superiority in the Revised Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Tests (MRT-3D) was mainly driven by the stereotype-active group. No significant sex difference in MRT-3D appeared in the control group. The MRT-3D was also the task in which a strong gender-stereotype favouring males was present for both males and females. Interestingly, T levels of the stereotype-activated group were 60% higher than that of male controls. The results suggest that sex hormones mediate the effects of gender stereotypes on specific cognitive abilities.

  11. Ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation: an intersectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Laurie T; Blodorn, Alison; Adams, Glenn; Garcia, Donna M; Hammer, Elliott

    2015-04-01

    Stereotypes associating men and masculine traits with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are ubiquitous, but the relative strength of these stereotypes varies considerably across cultures. The present research applies an intersectional approach to understanding ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation within an American university context. African American college women participated in STEM majors at higher rates than European American college women (Study 1, Study 2, and Study 4). Furthermore, African American women had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American women (Studies 2-4), and ethnic differences in implicit gender-STEM stereotypes partially mediated ethnic differences in STEM participation (Study 2 and Study 4). Although African American men had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American men (Study 4), ethnic differences between men in STEM participation were generally small (Study 1) or nonsignificant (Study 4). We discuss the implications of an intersectional approach for understanding the relationship between gender and STEM participation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Choking under the pressure of a positive stereotype: gender identification and self-consciousness moderate men's math test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Choking under pressure occurs when an individual underperforms due to situational pressure. The present study examined whether being the target of a positive social stereotype regarding math ability causes choking among men. Gender identification and self-consciousness were hypothesized to moderate the effect of math-gender stereotypes on men's math test performance. Men high in self-consciousness but low in gender identification significantly underperformed when exposed to gender-relevant test instructions. No significant effects were found under a gender-irrelevant condition. These findings are discussed in the contexts of research on stereotype threat, stereotype lift, and choking under pressure.

  13. Preventing violence against women by challenging gender stereotypes in Scottish primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero...... Tolerance Respect (ZTR) programme developed for Scottish pupils. Given the importance of early preventative action in this area, this paper analyses how gender stereotypes were challenged in ZTR materials for primary pupils aged 10-12 years. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the content...... of the seven lessons in the ZTR primary school programme; the materials were also evaluated in relation to best practice within attitudinal change promotion. Analysis shows that ZTR empowers pupils to reflect on and confront gender stereotypes by developing pupils’ social awareness, as respect is characterized...

  14. Occupational gender stereotypes: is the ratio of women to men a powerful determinant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Tomoko

    2013-04-01

    Gendered division of occupational choices still exists in contemporary Japanese society. Women are underrepresented in traditionally male-dominated fields, while few men occupy positions in traditionally female-dominated areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine occupational gender stereotypes and its relation to the female-to-male ratio of jobholders. Participants were 540 Japanese (262 women, 278 men) who participated in an Internet survey. The results showed that the female-to-male ratio of jobholders was a strong predictor of gender stereotyping. That is to say, contemporary Japanese recognized male-dominated occupations as typically masculine and female-dominated ones as typically feminine. Gender comparisons revealed that men rated female-dominated occupations as more feminine in nature than did women, while women rated male-dominated occupations as more masculine than did men. Future implications for career interventions focusing on occupational gender stereotypes were also discussed.

  15. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes: The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Janka I; Van der Velde, Mandy; Lammers, Joris

    2012-03-01

    PURPOSE: Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a "good" manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine characteristics and female leaders. This study examines if the gender of an employee, the gender of the manager, and the management gender ratio in an organization are related to employees' managerial stereotypes. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: 3229 respondents working in various organizations completed an electronic questionnaire. FINDINGS: The results confirm our hypotheses that, although the general stereotype of a manager is masculine and although most prefer a man as a manager, female employees, employees with a female manager, and employees working in an organization with a high percentage of female managers, have a stronger preference for feminine characteristics of managers and for female managers. Moreover, we find that proximal variables are much stronger predictors of these preferences than more distal variables. IMPLICATIONS: Our study suggests that managerial stereotypes could change as a result of personal experiences and changes in the organizational context. The results imply that increasing the proportion of female managers is an effective way to overcome managerial stereotyping. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study examines the influence on managerial stereotypes of various proximal and distal factors derived from theory among a large group of employees (in contrast to students).

  16. Perfectionism Moderates Stereotype Threat Effects on STEM Majors' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lopez, Frederick G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Stinson, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Using a randomized, between-subjects experimental design, we tested hypotheses that self-critical perfectionism would moderate the effects of subtle stereotype threat (ST) for women and students in underrepresented racial/ethnic groups who are pursuing traditional degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). A diverse sample of…

  17. Tears or Fears? Comparing Gender Stereotypes about Movie Preferences to Actual Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wühr, Peter; Lange, Benjamin P.; Schwarz, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of gender-specific stereotypes about movie-genre preferences for 17 genres. In Study 1, female and male participants rated the extent to which 17 movie genres are preferred by women or men. In Study 2, another sample of female and male participants rated their own preference for each genre. There were three notable results. First, Study 1 revealed the existence of gender stereotypes for the majority of genres (i.e., for 15 of 17 genres). Second, Study 2 revealed the existence of actual gender differences in preferences for the majority of genres (i.e., for 11 of 17 genres). Third, in order to assess the accuracy of gender stereotypes on movie preferences, we compared the results of both studies and found that the majority of gender stereotypes were accurate in direction, but inaccurate in size. In particular, the stereotypes overestimated actual gender differences for the majority of movie genres (i.e., 10 of 17). Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:28392774

  18. The impact of nontraditionalism on the malleability of gender stereotypes in Spain and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Esther Lopez; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2011-08-01

    Gender stereotypes and inequalities are based on and sustained by people's perception of gender roles. The evolution of these gender roles, however, might be substantially different depending on cultural and social evolution in different countries. In a study, we investigated stereotypes in Germany and Spain, where residents might have different beliefs about gender roles due to their different social evolution after the Second World War and their economic and social advances. Results showed that in both countries people's expectations of differences in masculine characteristics between men and women were less noticeable than perceptions in the past or present. We also demonstrated that people perceive an increase in masculinity in women. This increase is more evident in Spaniards than in Germans. In estimations about the past, present, and future, Spaniards also perceived an increase of gender-stereotypic feminine characteristics more in men than in women. Our results are consistent with the predictions of social role theory, as gender stereotypes can include dynamic aspects and the content of these stereotypes is rooted in social roles.

  19. Tears or Fears? Comparing Gender Stereotypes about Movie Preferences to Actual Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wühr, Peter; Lange, Benjamin P; Schwarz, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of gender-specific stereotypes about movie-genre preferences for 17 genres. In Study 1, female and male participants rated the extent to which 17 movie genres are preferred by women or men. In Study 2, another sample of female and male participants rated their own preference for each genre. There were three notable results. First, Study 1 revealed the existence of gender stereotypes for the majority of genres (i.e., for 15 of 17 genres). Second, Study 2 revealed the existence of actual gender differences in preferences for the majority of genres (i.e., for 11 of 17 genres). Third, in order to assess the accuracy of gender stereotypes on movie preferences, we compared the results of both studies and found that the majority of gender stereotypes were accurate in direction, but inaccurate in size. In particular, the stereotypes overestimated actual gender differences for the majority of movie genres (i.e., 10 of 17). Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Traditional Sex and Gender Stereotypes in the Relationships of Non-Disclosing Behaviorally Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Karolynn; Meunier, Étienne

    2018-06-04

    Traditional stereotypes about sex and gender present men as assertive, aggressive, sexually adventurous, and emotionally restrained, and women as docile, passive, sexually modest, and emotionally sensitive. Past research has shown that such stereotypes impose constraints on heterosexual relationships that decrease sexual satisfaction for men and women. This study examined the impact of traditional sex and gender stereotypes on a sample of 203 behaviorally bisexual men who were in a heterosexual relationship with a woman to whom they did not disclose their same-sex behaviors. Participants' descriptions of their partners reified several traditional stereotypes regarding men's and women's sexual dispositions (e.g., men are more sexually adventurous than women), role during sex (e.g., men should be dominant and women submissive), relationship desires (i.e., women prefer long-term intimate relationships and men prefer unattached sexual gratification), and emotional involvement (e.g., women are emotionally sensitive and men emotionally detached). These stereotypes shaped participants' sexual relations with women and men, which were widely conceived as acts of domination-submission. Perceiving women as more skilled for emotional intimacy and affection, most participants would only develop intimate relationships with them; however, some participants also perceived women as too emotionally sensitive and described men as better companions. Many participants were dissatisfied with these gender norms although they conformed to them, further supporting that traditional sex and gender stereotypes impose constraints on relationships that can limit authentic sexual expression and intimate satisfaction.

  1. Preventing violence against women by challenging gender stereotypes in Scottish primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    stereotypes for the individual pupil. Moreover, further attention could have been given to surrounding powerful discourses and media representations that may be at odds with the messages of the programme. The present study illustrates that the growing field of public health can be supported through an “all......Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero...... Tolerance Respect (ZTR) programme developed for Scottish pupils. Given the importance of early preventative action in this area, this paper analyses how gender stereotypes were challenged in ZTR materials for primary pupils aged 10-12 years. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the content...

  2. An Investigation of Gender Stereotypes as Revealed through Children's Creative Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Schlegel, Mary Ann; Gray-Schlegel, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Examines the creative writing of third- and sixth-grade students for gender differences when provided with story starters that introduced either a male or a female character. Finds that identifiable difference and trends related to gender and age appeared in the stories, reflecting the pervasiveness and power of sex-role stereotypes. (RS)

  3. An Intersectional Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Stereotypes: Testing Three Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Negin; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2013-01-01

    We compared perceived cultural stereotypes of diverse groups varying by gender and ethnicity. Using a free-response procedure, we asked 627 U.S. undergraduates to generate 10 attributes for 1 of 17 groups: Asian Americans, Blacks, Latinos, Middle Eastern Americans, or Whites; men or women; or 10 gender-by-ethnic groups (e.g., Black men or Latina…

  4. Voice Quality and Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Lebanese Women with Reinke's Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Nayla; Portes, Cristel; Lancia, Leonardo; Legou, Thierry; Baider, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Women with Reinke's edema (RW) report being mistaken for men during telephone conversations. For this reason, their masculine-sounding voices are interesting for the study of gender stereotypes. The study's objective is to verify their complaint and to understand the cues used in gender identification. Method Using a self-evaluation study,…

  5. Reconsidering the Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Advancement of Women in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agars, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, gender issues in the workplace have received much attention. A review of this literature, however, reveals limited investigation of the impact of gender stereotypes on personnel decisions and the demographic differences present in upper management. In fact, this issue has rarely received serious attention. A…

  6. Implicit Gender Stereotypes and Essentialist Beliefs Predict Preservice Teachers' Tracking Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberger, Miriam; Nerb, Josef; Schmitz, Florian; Keller, Johannes; Sütterlin, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which differences in implicit and explicit math--language gender stereotypes, and essentialist beliefs among preservice teachers affect tracking recommendations for math/science versus language-oriented secondary schools. Consistent with expectations, the results suggest that student's gender influences…

  7. Young Children's Classification, Stereotyping and Play Behaviour for Gender Neutral and Ambiguous Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Dempsey, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and ambiguous toys in 31 three- to five-year-old children's play behaviour…

  8. The Responders' Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts' stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  9. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers playing the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Florianne Fabre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders. The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo. When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  10. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F.; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics. PMID:26834684

  11. Bringing up Gender: Academic Abjection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    The principal questions raised in this article are: what does it mean to bring up the topic of gender in a space where it is not known, and how can this moment of bringing up gender--or not bringing it up--be conceptualised? The article departs from the thoughts and questions that were provoked by an interview conducted with a Gender Studies…

  12. On the Gender-Science Stereotypes held by Scientists: Explicit accord with Gender-Ratios, Implicit accord with Scientific Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick L Smyth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Women’s representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women’s representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men’s, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female, including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines’ gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines’ scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors’ affecting development of adults’ and, especially, children’s implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.

  13. On the gender-science stereotypes held by scientists: explicit accord with gender-ratios, implicit accord with scientific identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Frederick L; Nosek, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.

  14. Negating Stereotype Threat: Autonomy Support and Academic Identification Boost Performance of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Dustin R.; Komarraju, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we examined the effects of stereotype threat and autonomy support on the test performance of 190 African American college students. Participants completed a set of 7 easy and 7 difficult problems from Raven's Progressive Matrices and a survey including measures of Academic Self-Concept, Learning Climate, and…

  15. The Academic Opportunity Gap: How Racism and Stereotypes Disrupt the Education of African American Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Ahorlu, Robin Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Using Critical Race Theory as a framework, this article reveals how racism and stereotypes obstruct the academic success of black students. Through the use of focus groups, African American undergraduates from a large California State University campus, share the ways in which campus racism impacts their achievement potential as well as their…

  16. Multiple standards of aging: gender-specific age stereotypes in different life domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornadt, Anna E; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Whereas it is often stated that aging might have more negative consequences for the evaluation of women compared to men, evidence for this assumption is mixed. We took a differentiated look at age stereotypes of men and women, assuming that the life domain in which older persons are rated moderates gender differences in age stereotypes. A sample of 298 participants aged 20-92 rated 65 - year-old men and women on evaluative statements in eight different life domains. Furthermore, perceptions of gender- and domain-specific age-related changes were assessed by comparing the older targets to 45 - year-old men and women, respectively. The results speak in favor of the domain specificity of evaluative asymmetries in age stereotypes for men and women, and imply that an understanding of gendered perceptions of aging requires taking into account the complexities of domain-specific views on aging.

  17. The role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling gender-stereotypical associations: a TMS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Platania, Elisa; Papagno, Costanza

    2011-06-01

    Stereotypes associated with gender, race, ethnicity and religion are powerful forces in human social interactions. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies point to a role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling stereotypical responses. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to highlight the possible causal role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the right anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (aDMPFC) in controlling gender-stereotypical responses. Young male and female participants were tested. Our results showed that applying TMS over the left DLPFC and the right aDMPFC increased the gender-stereotypical bias in male participants compared to when TMS was applied to a control site (vertex). This suggests that both the left DLPFC and the right aDMPFC play a direct role in stereotyping. Females did not show a significant gender bias on the IAT; correspondingly their responses were unaffected by TMS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  19. Parent-Child Math Anxiety and Math-Gender Stereotypes Predict Adolescents’ Math Education Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina J Casad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children’s math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA. Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and for boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents’ math anxiety in the effects of children’s math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents’ math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  20. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  1. Tears or Fears? Comparing Gender Stereotypes about Movie Preferences to Actual Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Wühr, Peter; Lange, Benjamin P.; Schwarz, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of gender-specific stereotypes about movie-genre preferences for 17 genres. In Study 1, female and male participants rated the extent to which 17 movie genres are preferred by women or men. In Study 2, another sample of female and male participants rated their own preference for each genre. There were three notable results. First, Study 1 revealed the existence of gender stereotypes for the majority of genres (i.e., for 15 of 17 genres). Second, Study 2 re...

  2. Ambient belonging: how stereotypical cues impact gender participation in computer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Plaut, Victoria C; Davies, Paul G; Steele, Claude M

    2009-12-01

    People can make decisions to join a group based solely on exposure to that group's physical environment. Four studies demonstrate that the gender difference in interest in computer science is influenced by exposure to environments associated with computer scientists. In Study 1, simply changing the objects in a computer science classroom from those considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., Star Trek poster, video games) to objects not considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., nature poster, phone books) was sufficient to boost female undergraduates' interest in computer science to the level of their male peers. Further investigation revealed that the stereotypical broadcast a masculine stereotype that discouraged women's sense of ambient belonging and subsequent interest in the environment (Studies 2, 3, and 4) but had no similar effect on men (Studies 3, 4). This masculine stereotype prevented women's interest from developing even in environments entirely populated by other women (Study 2). Objects can thus come to broadcast stereotypes of a group, which in turn can deter people who do not identify with these stereotypes from joining that group.

  3. Gender sensitive language policies and deconstruction of gender stereotypes in textbooks of Spanish as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kuzmanović Jovanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of gender representations in Spanish/L2 textbooks on perpetuation or deconstruction of gender stereotypes in the classroom. Although the results of numerous studies of gender representation in such books performed in the past two decades suggest that teaching materials have been an important instrument in perpetuating gender stereotypes, recent researches have revealed certain changes in this area. The present analysis supports these findings. The research corpus consists of eleven textbooks of Spanish/L2 (level A1 and A2 by different Spanish publishers, all of them published in the last four years. The gender roles in which women and men appear are critically analyzed. The results of the analysis suggest that there has been a conscious effort by both authors and editors in order to change the stereotypical gender representation in these didactic materials. We offer an explanation for these changes suggesting that they can be accounted for by the action of a different model of gender sensitive language policies, the bottom-up model, where the crucial factors of change are not the activities of the official institutions but rather are to be found in different communities of practice, i.e., all people involved in creating, publishing and distributing teaching materials, as well as linguists who investigate the relationship between language and gender.

  4. Stereotype susceptibility narrows the gender gap in imagined self-rotation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraga, Maryjane; Duncan, Lauren; Jacobs, Emily C; Helt, Molly; Church, Jessica

    2006-10-01

    Three studies examined the impact of stereotype messages on men's and women's performance of a mental rotation task involving imagined self-rotations. Experiment 1 established baseline differences between men and women; women made 12% more errors than did men. Experiment 2 found that exposure to a positive stereotype message enhanced women's performance in comparison with that of another group of women who received neutral information. In Experiment 3, men who were exposed to the same stereotype message emphasizing a female advantage made more errors than did male controls, and the magnitude of error was similar to that for women from Experiment 1. The results suggest that the gender gap in mental rotation performance is partially caused by experiential factors, particularly those induced by sociocultural stereotypes.

  5. Stereotypes in Four Current AOUM Sexuality Education Curricula: Good Girls, Good Boys, and the New Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Graling, Kelly; Lustig, Kara

    2011-01-01

    It has long been noted that sexuality education curricula contain gender stereotypes and heterosexism that may be harmful to people of all genders. Many of the stereotypes and sources of heterosexism that have been discussed in the literature have to do with old-fashioned and restrictive roles for men and women and focus on heterosexual sex and…

  6. Sex and the money--How gender stereotypes modulate economic decision-making: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    In the present event-related potential study, we investigated whether and how participants playing the ultimatum game as responders modulate their decisions according to the proposers' stereotypical identity. The proposers' identity was manipulated using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender (e.g., Teacher; Engineer), paired with either feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., Anna; David). Greater FRN amplitudes reflected the early processing of the conflict between the strategic rule (i.e., earning as much money as possible) and ready-to-go responses (i.e., refusing unequal offers and discriminating proposers according to their stereotype). Responders were found to rely on a dual-process system (i.e., automatic and heuristic-based system 1 vs. cognitively costly and deliberative system 2), the P300 amplitude reflecting the switch from a decision making system to another. Greater P300 amplitudes were found in response to both fair and unfair offers and male-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting an automatic decision making based on heuristics, while lower P300 amplitudes were found in response to 3€ offers and the female-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting a more deliberative reasoning. Overall, the results indicate that participants were more motivated to engage in a costly deliberative reasoning associated with an increase in acceptation rate when playing with female-stereotyped proposers, who may have induced more positive and emphatic feelings in the participants than did male-stereotyped proposers. Then, we assume that people with an occupation stereotypically marked with female gender and engaged in an economic negotiation may benefit from their occupation at least in the case their counterparts lose their money if the negotiation fails. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Translating Gender Stereotypes: An Overview on Global Telefiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez L. de Heredia

    2016-02-01

    Placing considerable importance on ideology in Translation Studies and, by doing so, refusing and turning down the view of the translation as a neutral bridge, an invisible agent, we will pay attention to the fact that not only linguistic but especially cultural, and even ideological, differences arouse when dealing with the act of translating. In particular, we will focus on the subject of manipulation and rewriting of stereotypes in the field of audiovisual translation.

  8. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype’s existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collec...

  9. Gender stereotypes about intellectual ability emerge early and influence children's interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Lin; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Cimpian, Andrei

    2017-01-27

    Common stereotypes associate high-level intellectual ability (brilliance, genius, etc.) with men more than women. These stereotypes discourage women's pursuit of many prestigious careers; that is, women are underrepresented in fields whose members cherish brilliance (such as physics and philosophy). Here we show that these stereotypes are endorsed by, and influence the interests of, children as young as 6. Specifically, 6-year-old girls are less likely than boys to believe that members of their gender are "really, really smart." Also at age 6, girls begin to avoid activities said to be for children who are "really, really smart." These findings suggest that gendered notions of brilliance are acquired early and have an immediate effect on children's interests. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. When gentlemen are first and ladies are last: effects of gender stereotypes on the order of romantic partners' names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Peter; Watson, Nila; Fletcher, Laura; McQueen, Grant

    2011-03-01

    A preference to name stereotypically masculine before stereotypically feminine individuals explains why men are typically named before women, as on the Internet, for example (Study 1). Heterosexual couples are named with men's names first more often when such couples are imagined to conform to gender stereotypes (Studies 2 and 3). First-named partners of imaginary same-sex couples are attributed more stereotypically masculine attributes (Study 4). Familiarity bounds these effects of stereotypes on name order. People name couples they know well with closer people first (Study 5), and consequently name familiar heterosexual couples with members of their own gender first (Study 6). These studies evidence a previously unknown effect of the semantics of gender stereotypes on sentence structure in the everyday use of English. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Perceived Gender Based Stereotypes in Educational Technology Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Doris U.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers point out gender differences in the adoption and use of technology. Men tend to be the early adopters of computer technologies, whereas women are thought of as laggards. Several writings exist that identified ads in the media as gender biased. Thomas and Treiber, who examined race, gender, and status in popular magazines, indicate that…

  12. Children's Implicit and Explicit Gender Stereotypes about Mathematics and Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A.; Lopata, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Study objectives were to clarify children's gender-based implicit and explicit mathematics and reading stereotypes, and to determine if implicit and explicit measures were related or represented distinct constructs. One hundred and fifty-six boys and girls (mean age 11.3 years) from six elementary schools completed math or reading stereotype…

  13. Conformity under uncertainty: reliance on gender stereotypes in online hiring decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Silberzahn, Raphael

    2014-02-01

    We apply Bentley et al.'s theoretical framework to better understand gender discrimination in online labor markets. Although such settings are designed to encourage employer behavior in the northwest corner of Homo economicus, actual online hiring decisions tend to drift southeast into a "confirmation bias plus weak feedback loops" pattern of discrimination based on inaccurate social stereotypes.

  14. The Effect of Target Age on the Activation of Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powlishta, Kimberly K.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the impact of target age on gender stereotyping. College and elementary students viewed photographs of men, women, boys, and girls, rating each for masculine, feminine, and neutral personality traits. Adults also rated likelihood of masculine and feminine traits in adults versus children. Target age had important implications for…

  15. Musicians Crossing Musical Instrument Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Harold F.; Hafeli, Mary; Sears, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined computer-mediated communication (CMC) -- blogs and responses to YouTube postings -- to better understand how CMCs reflect adolescents' attitudes towards musicians playing instruments that cross gender stereotypes. Employing purposive sampling, we used specific search terms, such as "girl drummer", to identify a…

  16. Re-ment--Reverse Mentoring as a Way to Deconstruct Gender Related Stereotypes in ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permoser, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    In applying a reverse mentoring approach, the project "re-ment" aims at raising the interest of female students for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) professions and at contributing to the deconstruction of gender stereotypes in this field. This approach offers a completely new and innovative perspective in the field of…

  17. Gender Stereotyped Descriptors in Children's Picture Books: Does "Curious Jane" Exist in the Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Bowker, Diane M.

    1996-01-01

    Subtle effects of gender stereotyping in children's literature were studied in 30 noted children's books from 1984 through 1994. Results show more males in titles and pictures, with no difference in central roles. Males were described as more active, but adjectives used for females were more positively evaluated. (SLD)

  18. "Shake It Baby, Shake It": Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Bogers, S.; Kloosterman, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents' permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate

  19. Women's Representation in Science Predicts National Gender-Science Stereotypes: Evidence from 66 Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David I.; Eagly, Alice H.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    In the past 40 years, the proportion of women in science courses and careers has dramatically increased in some nations but not in others. Our research investigated how national differences in women's science participation related to gender-science stereotypes that associate science with men more than women. Data from ~350,000 participants in 66…

  20. Toys, sociocognitive traits, and occupations: Italian children's endorsement of gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Sagone, Elisabetta

    2007-06-01

    In a sample of 136 Italian children ages 8 to 12 years (M = 9.6, SD = 1.2; 68 boys, 68 girls), gender stereotypes related to gender-typed toys, traits, and occupational choices were examined, using the forced-choice technique between a male and a female silhouette. Stereotypy was established considering boys' and girls' choices for the 70%-100% range. Differences in gender stereotyping for age and sex of participants were verified. Analysis indicated children attributed toys prevalently connected with aesthetic aspect and domestic activities to the female silhouette, while technology, warfare, locomotion, and construction toys were attributed to the male. Children attributed physical and verbal aggressiveness and dominance to the male silhouette; the female profile was exclusively characterized by sweetness. The occupational stereotypical male model was structured in both practical-manual activities and of highly cultural and specialist relevance, while for the female model the number of activities, mainly of a domestic type, were reduced. Significant main effect of sex of children was found, but no significant age-related differences in the three domains. Results were discussed within the framework of gender-stereotype theories.

  1. Adolescents' Judgments of Homophobic Harassment toward Male and Female Victims: The Role of Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Katherine E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-six adolescents, drawn from a high school in a Midwestern suburb, provided judgments of a hypothetical incident of homophobic harassment with either a male or female victim. Participants also completed a revised version of the Macho Scale, measuring their endorsement of gender stereotypes (a = 0.75). Without the interaction…

  2. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Ellen A.; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children,…

  3. What Do True Gender Ratios and Stereotype Norms Really Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    Gygax, Pascal M.; Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam

    2016-01-01

    We present a Focused Review on work that was conducted to compare perceived distributions of men and women in occupations and other social roles with actual real world distributions. In previous work, we showed that means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high. However, in the present paper, although we argue that comparing subjective gender stereotype norms and real world data about gender ratios is an interesting endeavor, we also discuss the limits to an...

  4. Has the traditional social perception on nurses changed? Attribution of stereotypes and gender roles

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda Lopez, Maria; Castillo Mayén, María del Rosario; Montes Berges, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Nursing has traditionally been regarded as a female profession. However, in recent years there has been an increase of men. Despite this change, patriarchy still has a profound influence on how general population, patients and even nursing students perceive this occupation. Taking this background into account, the present research aims to analyze gender stereotype and gender role assignment to male and female nurses. A quasi-experimental study was conducted on 121 participants from three grou...

  5. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math de...

  6. The Cost of Acting "Girly": Gender Stereotypes and Educational Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Favara, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at horizontal sex segregation in education as a factor contributing to gender segregation in the labor market. Economic theories fail to explain why women with the same years of schooling and educational attainment as men are under-represented in many technical degrees, which typically lead to better paid occupations. Following Akerlof and Kranton (2000), I research whether gender identity affects boys' and girls' educational choices and when the gendered pattern appears firs...

  7. The role of androgynous gender stereotypes in entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez i Quintana, Anna; Hormiga Pérez, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have addressed the phenomenon of entrepreneurship from a gender perspective. In many of them, the gender perspective consists of analyzing the differences shown in the behavior of entrepreneurs based on their biological sex. This approach has several limitations in interpreting the phenomenon and, moreover, developing supportive policies. This paper addresses entrepreneurship from the perspective of the role orientation associated with gender. Based on a questionnaire to 780 ...

  8. Gender and Instrument Associations, Stereotypes, and Stratification: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wych, Gina M. F.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines and synthesizes 30 years of research into the relationship between gender and musical instruments. Specifically, the review focuses on how this relationship affects instrument selection by grade school students entering a school music program. Topics include the gender typing of musical instruments, instrument…

  9. 'Her market has closed': Critical rethinking of gender stereotypes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These gender categorizations tend to position women in the domestic and repressed sphere leaving the public and liberal operating space to the males, seemingly negating the postmodern concepts of gender equality and women empowerment. The work argues that these idioms have become clichéd in the present age ...

  10. Social comparison, self-stereotyping, and gender differences in self-construals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Serge; Chatard, Armand; Martinot, Delphine; Crisp, Richard J; Redersdorff, Sandrine

    2006-02-01

    Four studies examined gender differences in self-construals and the role of social comparison in generating these differences. Consistent with previous research, Study 1 (N=461) showed that women define themselves as higher in relational interdependence than men, and men define themselves as higher in independence/agency than women. Study 2 (N=301) showed that within-gender social comparison decreases gender differences in self-construals relative to a control condition, whereas between-genders comparison increases gender differences on both relational interdependence and independence/agency. Studies 3 (N=169) and 4 (N=278) confirmed these findings and showed that changing self-construal changes gender differences in social dominance orientation. Across the 4 studies, strong evidence for the role of in-group stereotyping as mediator of the effect of gender on self-construal was observed on the relational dimension but not on the agentic dimension. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Mathematics and Gender Stereotypes in One Jewish and One Druze Grade 5 Classroom in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mittelberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report findings from qualitative case studies of two grade 5 classrooms in Israel, one Jewish and one Druze. The aim was to identify classroom factors contributing to the differences in the gendered patterns of mathematics outcomes for Jewish and Arab Israeli students. Marked differences were found in the teachers' gender-related interactions with students, and their beliefs and expectations of boys' and girls' mathematical capabilities. The Jewish teacher held conventional gender-stereotyped beliefs of male mathematical superiority. The Druze teacher believed that girls required affirmative action to overcome implied gender biases in favour of males in the Druze community. The findings support earlier research and theoretical perspectives on gender-related issues in the mathematics classroom. In particular, when teachers hold gender-biased beliefs and expectations, students' classroom experiences and mathematics learning outcomes are impacted along gender lines.

  12. Academic musculoskeletal radiology: influences for gender disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Sadia R; Khurshid, Kiran; Jalal, Sabeena; Bancroft, Laura; Munk, Peter L; Nicolaou, Savvas; Khosa, Faisal

    2018-03-01

    Research productivity is one of the few quintessential gauges that North American academic radiology departments implement to determine career progression. The rationale of this study is to quantify the relationship of gender, research productivity, and academic advancements in the musculoskeletal (MSK) radiology to account for emerging trends in workforce diversity. Radiology residency programs enlisted in the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database (FREIDA), Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) and International Skeletal Society (ISS) were searched for academic faculty to generate the database for gender and academic profiles of MSK radiologists. Bibliometric data was collected using Elsevier's SCOPUS archives, and analyzed using Stata version 14.2. Among 274 MSK radiologists in North America, 190 (69.34%) were men and 84 (30.66%) were women, indicating a statistically significant difference (χ2 = 6.34; p value = 0.042). The available number of female assistant professors (n = 50) was more than half of the male assistant professors (n = 88), this ratio however, plummeted at higher academic ranks, with only one-fourth of women (n = 11) professors compared to men (n = 45). The male MSK radiologist had 1.31 times the odds of having a higher h-index, keeping all other variables constant. The trend of gender disparity exists in MSK radiology with significant underrepresentation of women in top tiers of academic hierarchy. Even with comparable h-indices, at the lower academic ranks, a lesser number of women are promoted relative to their male colleagues. Further studies are needed to investigate the degree of influence research productivity has, in determining academic advancement of MSK radiologists.

  13. Relationship between gender and university students' academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was based on the impact of gender on academic performance ON Arts-related subjects, a case study of Nasarawa State University, Keffi, using a sample of 160 participants derived from Art-based faculties. A questionnaire was used as the prime instrument to correlate the participant's responses to their ...

  14. Gender stereotypes and linguistic sexism present in books in educational context for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Finco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, since the 1970s, there has been a significant debate on the studies on linguistic sexism that have contributed to the problematization of the presence of gender stereotypes in children's literature. This article presents a historical reconstruction of the debate developed in Italy in the last forty years. The debate showed the importance of problematizing the patterns of identity and behavior transmitted through reading in educational contexts for children. This context also led to the drafting of the Polite Project, which invites editors to be respectful with gender differences, both text and images. It presents important research on the problem of the presence of stereotyped messages of gender present in books for children and the changes that have occurred throughout this process.

  15. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  16. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vander Heyden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM and girls’ underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., ‘spatial ability is for boys’ in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT. Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest – instruction – posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children’s spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding. The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children’s choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  17. Word embeddings quantify 100 years of gender and ethnic stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nikhil; Schiebinger, Londa; Jurafsky, Dan; Zou, James

    2018-04-17

    Word embeddings are a powerful machine-learning framework that represents each English word by a vector. The geometric relationship between these vectors captures meaningful semantic relationships between the corresponding words. In this paper, we develop a framework to demonstrate how the temporal dynamics of the embedding helps to quantify changes in stereotypes and attitudes toward women and ethnic minorities in the 20th and 21st centuries in the United States. We integrate word embeddings trained on 100 y of text data with the US Census to show that changes in the embedding track closely with demographic and occupation shifts over time. The embedding captures societal shifts-e.g., the women's movement in the 1960s and Asian immigration into the United States-and also illuminates how specific adjectives and occupations became more closely associated with certain populations over time. Our framework for temporal analysis of word embedding opens up a fruitful intersection between machine learning and quantitative social science.

  18. Race is gendered: how covarying phenotypes and stereotypes bias sex categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kerri L; Freeman, Jonathan B; Pauker, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    We argue that race and sex categories are psychologically and phenotypically confounded, affecting social categorizations and their efficiency. Sex categorization of faces was facilitated when the race category shared facial phenotypes or stereotypes with the correct sex category (e.g., Asian women and Black men) but was impaired when the race category shared incompatible phenotypes or stereotypes with the correct sex category (e.g., Asian men and Black women). These patterns were evident in the disambiguation of androgynous faces (Study 1) and the efficiency of judgments (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5). These patterns emerged due to common facial phenotypes for the categories Black and men (Studies 3 and 5) and due to shared stereotypes among the categories Black and men and the categories Asian and women (Studies 4 and 5). These findings challenge the notion that social categories are perceived independent of one another and show, instead, that race is gendered.

  19. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype Among Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Ellen A; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children, and in accordance with our developmental intergroup theoretical framework, were related to children's cognitive development and media exposure. Study 2 (N = 155) replicated the previous findings using more ecologically valid and realistic images of girls and further explored individual differences in the endorsement of the sexualized girl stereotype. Additional results indicated that the belief that girls should be appearance focused predicted their endorsement of the sexualized girl stereotype. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  1. A Theory of Productive Activity: The Relationships among Self-Concept, Gender, Sex Role Stereotypes, and Work-Emergent Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kristen R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework that focuses on the division of labor by gender to account for both sex role stereotypes and the correspondence between these stereotypes and self-concepts of women and men. According to this framework, self-images of adults are largely constituted by attributes generated by their productive activity. (Author/ABB)

  2. Gender and Ethnic Stereotypes in Student Teachers' Judgments: A New Look from a Shifting Standards Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Katharina; Kessels, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Teacher judgments of student performance might be biased by stereotypes, which can result in disadvantages for members of negatively stereotyped social groups. On the basis of the shifting standards theory, we examined gender and ethnic biases in student teachers' judgments. According to this theory, whether such judgment biases are masked or…

  3. Event-related potential evidence of accessing gender stereotypes to aid source monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P Andrew; Crawford, Jarret T; Radebaugh, Anne M; Taranto, Elizabeth

    2013-01-23

    Source memory for the speaker's voice (male or female) was investigated when semantic knowledge (gender stereotypes) could and could not inform the episodic source judgment while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Source accuracy was greater and response times were faster when stereotypes could predict the speaker's voice at test. Recollection supported source judgments in both conditions as indicated by significant parietal "old/new" ERP effects (500-800ms). Prototypical late ERP effects (the right frontal "old/new" effect and the late posterior negativity, LPN) were evident when source judgment was based solely on episodic memory. However, these two late ERP effects were diminished and a novel, frontal-negative ERP with left-central topography was observed when stereotypes aided source judgments. This pattern of ERP activity likely reflects activation of left frontal or left temporal lobes when semantic knowledge, in the form of a gender stereotype, is accessed to inform the episodic source judgment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Why Does Gender Matter? Counteracting Stereotypes with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Olaiya E.; Cameron, Petronella A.

    2011-01-01

    The early gender bias experiences that children encounter can shape their attitudes and beliefs related to their development of interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships, access to education equality, participation in the corporate work world, as well as stifling their physical and psychological well being. For early childhood educators, being…

  5. Influences for Gender Disparity in Academic Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M; Khurshid, K; Sanelli, P C; Jalal, S; Chahal, T; Norbash, A; Nicolaou, S; Castillo, M; Khosa, F

    2018-01-01

    There has been extensive interest in promoting gender equality within radiology, a predominately male field. In this study, our aim was to quantify gender representation in neuroradiology faculty rankings and determine any related factors that may contribute to any such disparity. We evaluated the academic and administrative faculty members of neuroradiology divisions for all on-line listed programs in the US and Canada. After excluding programs that did not fulfill our selection criteria, we generated a short list of 85 US and 8 Canadian programs. We found 465 faculty members who met the inclusion criteria for our study. We used Elsevier's SCOPUS for gathering the data pertaining to the publications, H-index, citations, and tenure of the productivity of each faculty member. Gender disparity was insignificant when analyzing academic ranks. There are more men working in neuroimaging relative to women (χ 2 = 0.46; P = .79). However, gender disparity was highly significant for leadership positions in neuroradiology (χ 2 = 6.76; P = .009). The median H-index was higher among male faculty members (17.5) versus female faculty members (9). Female faculty members have odds of 0.84 compared with male faculty members of having a higher H-index, adjusting for publications, citations, academic ranks, leadership ranks, and interaction between gender and publications and gender and citations (9). Neuroradiology faculty members follow the same male predominance seen in many other specialties of medicine. In this study, issues such as mentoring, role models, opportunities to engage in leadership/research activities, funding opportunities, and mindfulness regarding research productivity are explored. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. Beyond Cinematic Stereotypes. Using Religion to Imagine Gender Differently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Sjö

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In films, religious characters are often gendered in quite traditional ways, but there are some notable exceptions. This article discusses two Scandinavian films that partly break the mold. The analysis illustrates how in films varied forms of religion are gen¬dered quite differently, and explores the ways in which religious themes can open up for alternative male and female characters. Different ways of understanding the representations are discussed and related to views on the place and role of religion in the contemporary Scandinavian context. The article draws on the mediatization of religion theory as a theoretical framework, but also highlights the challenges that complex images of gender and religion pose to this theory.

  7. Fairy Tales: Attraction and Stereotypes in Same-Gender Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Felmlee, Diane; Orzechowicz, David; Fortes, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    We examine the process of romantic attraction in same-gender relationships using open and closed-ended questionnaire data from a sample of 120 men and women in Northern California. Agreeableness (e.g., kind, supportive) and Extraversion (e.g., fun, sense of humor) are the two most prominent bases of attraction, followed by Physical Attractiveness (e.g., appearance, sexy). The least important attractors represent traits associated with material success (e.g., financially secure, nice house). W...

  8. Beyond stereotypes? Talking about gender in school booktalk

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson Barajas, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish educational system states that work in schools should depict and mediate equality. One way of achieving this is through fiction, which according to the syllabus provides students with knowledge about the living conditions of women and men during different epochs and places. The present paper examines gender in a Swedish school, analysing ‘book club’ discussions, using a discursive approach. The data consist of video-recorded teacher-led booktalk sessions, involving small groups of...

  9. Gender and management: stereotypes and attributions for a sucessful career

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Conceição; Amâncio, Lígia

    1996-01-01

    The experiment reported here belongs to a larger research project, which aims at analyzing the effects of gender representation and expectations on the perception of managerial power and success. In this experiment 240 high school students of both sexes received a short description of a successful manager. The actor's sex, marital status (married/divorced) and sector of activity of the organization (electronics/health) where the manager currently worked were manipulated in this description...

  10. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Bernhard; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects—something that in the present study proved to be especially beneficial for women

  11. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Bernhard; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects-something that in the present study proved to be especially beneficial for women

  12. Who's funny: gender stereotypes, humor production, and memory bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickes, Laura; Walker, Drew E; Parris, Julian L; Mankoff, Robert; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

    2012-02-01

    It has often been asserted, by both men and women, that men are funnier. We explored two possible explanations for such a view, first testing whether men, when instructed to be as funny as possible, write funnier cartoon captions than do women, and second examining whether there is a tendency to falsely remember funny things as having been produced by men. A total of 32 participants, half from each gender, wrote captions for 20 cartoons. Raters then indicated the humor success of these captions. Raters of both genders found the captions written by males funnier, though this preference was significantly stronger among the male raters. In the second experiment, male and female participants were presented with the funniest and least funny captions from the first experiment, along with the caption author's gender. On a memory test, both females and males disproportionately misattributed the humorous captions to males and the nonhumorous captions to females. Men might think men are funnier because they actually find them so, but though women rated the captions written by males slightly higher, our data suggest that they may regard men as funnier more because they falsely attribute funny things to them.

  13. Gender stereotypes among women engineering and technology students in the UK: lessons from career choice narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating quantitative and qualitative data from E&T students at a UK university, this paper examines the gendered nature of career choice narratives. It finds that women often maintain contradictory views; upholding gendered stereotypes about women's suitability for the so-called masculine work, yet also subscribing to ideals that the sector is accessible to all who wish to work in it. This is explained using an individualist framework in which women construct an autonomous sense of self, yet are also shaped by a gendered self. Women's discourse around career choice, therefore, reveals the problematic nature of gender norms for achieving gender equity in E&T.

  14. Assessing gender stereotypes and sexual risk practices in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch Gallén, Ángel; Tomás Aznar, Concepción; Rubio Aranda, Encarnación

    2017-06-22

    To analyze the construct validity and the internal consistency of the 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI-12) questionnaire and to study the association between gender stereotypes and sexual risk practices in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cross-sectional study of 601 MSM who voluntarily and anonymously responded to an online survey on risk practices and gender stereotypes. The BSRI-12 was used to obtain gender stereotypes (masculine, feminine, undifferentiated and androgynous). For data analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the BSRI-12 and logistic regression were performed. Two main factors (Cronbach alpha 0.95 and 0.81) were obtained from the EFA. Using the androgynous roles as the reference category, we found lower odds of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among those who endorse feminine roles (OR: 0.53; 95%CI: 0.29-0.95). Endorsing masculine roles with alcohol consumption (OR: 1.92; 95%CI: 1.15-3.20) or the undifferentiated when not knowing the partner's serological status (OR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.02-2.35) were associated with higher odds of UAI compared to those endorsing the androgynous roles. Undifferentiated participants also perform receptive UAI using poppers (OR: 2.19; 95%CI: 1.24-3.87), and insertive UAI not knowing the serological status of the sexual partner (OR: 1.69; 95%CI: 1.04-2.76) compared to androgynous participants. The BSRI is a valid and consistent instrument for identifying gender stereotypes in MSM. A greater proportion of participants within the undifferentiated and the masculine category engage in risk practices with the influence of substance consumption and unawareness of their sexual partner's serological status. The information obtained may be useful to define intervention and prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual Self-Descriptions and Gender Stereotypes in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Fernández Liporace

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents partial results from a study carried out to analyze the way young college students self-describe their sexual behavior in relation with sex. Data show significant differences in certain adjectives, linked with traditional roles assigned to women and men in sexual relationships; an additional comparison with results about gender sterotypes reported by Williams & Best (1994 is made. A survey on sociodemographic data and a list of 70 adjectives that describe sexual behaviors were administered to a sample of 248 college students from Buenos Aires city and its suburban area.

  16. Career Advancement Outcomes in Academic Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): Gender, Mentoring Resources, and Homophily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun

    This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement outcomes at early career stages. Female academic scientists have disadvantages in the career progress in the academic STEM. They tend to fall behind throughout their career paths and to leave the field compared to their male colleagues. Researchers have found that gender differences in the career advancement are shaped by gender-biased evaluations derived from gender stereotypes. Other studies demonstrate the positive impacts of mentoring and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads. To add greater insights to the current findings of female academic scientists' career disadvantages, this dissertation investigates comprehensive effects of gender, mentoring, and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on female scientists' career advancement outcomes in academic science. Based on the Status Characteristics Theory, the concept of mentoring, Social Capital Theory, and Ingroup Bias Theory, causal path models are developed to test direct and indirect effects of gender, mentoring resources, and gender homophily on STEM faculty's career advancement. The research models were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) with data collected from a national survey, funded by the National Science Foundation, completed in 2011 by tenured and tenure-track academic STEM faculty from higher education institutions in the United States. Findings suggest that there is no gender difference in career advancement controlling for mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads and other factors including research productivity and domestic caregiving responsibilities. Findings also show that the positive relationship between

  17. Gender moderates the impact of stereotype threat on cognitive function in cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2010-09-01

    Research reveals mixed results for the effects of cannabis on cognitive functioning. These divergent results might stem from stereotype threat (ST), which occurs when individuals believe that a group to which they belong is inferior, resulting in poor test performance. Widespread media coverage of purported cannabis-related deficits in cognitive functioning may elicit ST among cannabis users, particularly among men, who may be more likely than women to identify with the cannabis-user stereotype. To investigate this hypothesis, cannabis users (30 male, 27 female) read a summary of research indicating either that cannabis produced deficits (ST condition), or that cannabis actually created no changes in cognitive functions. Participants then completed cognitive tests. Examination of the gender x condition interaction revealed significant results on 4 tests: the California Verbal Learning Test-II immediate recall task, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test for number of words generated and number of switches between clusters, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Males exposed to ST performed worse on all tests compared to men not exposed to ST, while women exposed to ST performed better than women not exposed. These results suggest that cognitive deficits observed in male cannabis users may be attributed to ST rather than decreased functioning. Surprisingly, women in the ST condition scored higher than controls. Perhaps female users do not identify with the typical cannabis stereotype. This study highlights the importance of disconfirming relevant stereotypes prior to examination of the cognitive abilities of cannabis users. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender and stereotypes in motivation to study computer programming for careers in multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubé, Wendy; Lang, Catherine

    2012-03-01

    A multimedia university programme with relatively equal numbers of male and female students in elective programming subjects provided a rare opportunity to investigate female motivation to study and pursue computer programming in a career. The MSLQ was used to survey 85 participants. In common with research into deterrence of females from STEM domains, females displayed significantly lower self-efficacy and expectancy for success. In contrast to research into deterrence of females from STEM domains, both genders placed similar high values on computer programming and shared high extrinsic and intrinsic goal orientation. The authors propose that the stereotype associated with a creative multimedia career could attract female participation in computer programming whereas the stereotype associated with computer science could be a deterrent.

  19. Beyond gender stereotypes in language comprehension: self sex-role descriptions affect the brain's potentials associated with agreement processing

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo eCanal; Paolo eCanal; Alan eGarnham; Jane eOakhill

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as king or engineer) or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P60...

  20. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  1. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  2. What Women and Men Should Be, Shouldn't Be, Are Allowed To Be, and Don't Have To Be: The Contents of Prescriptive Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Deborah A.; Carranza, Erica

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework to characterize the contents of prescriptive gender stereotypes; distinguishes between prescriptions and proscriptions that are intensified or relaxed by virtue of one's gender. Two studies examined the framework's utility for characterizing prescriptive gender stereotypes in society overall and on a highly masculine college…

  3. Collaboration and Gender Equity among Academic Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joya Misra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities were established as hierarchical bureaucracies that reward individual attainment in evaluating success. Yet collaboration is crucial both to 21st century science and, we argue, to advancing equity for women academic scientists. We draw from research on gender equity and on collaboration in higher education, and report on data collected on one campus. Sixteen focus group meetings were held with 85 faculty members from STEM departments, separated by faculty rank and gender (i.e., assistant professor men, full professor women. Participants were asked structured questions about the role of collaboration in research, career development, and departmental decision-making. Inductive analyses of focus group data led to the development of a theoretical model in which resources, recognition, and relationships create conditions under which collaboration is likely to produce more gender equitable outcomes for STEM faculty. Ensuring women faculty have equal access to resources is central to safeguarding their success; relationships, including mutual mentoring, inclusion and collegiality, facilitate women’s careers in academia; and recognition of collaborative work bolsters women’s professional advancement. We further propose that gender equity will be stronger in STEM where resources, relationships, and recognition intersect—having multiplicative rather than additive effects.

  4. Analysing Resistance of Stereotyped Sexuality via ‘Gender Performance’ in The Silk Fan and Under the Blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Soleha binti Mohd Noor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies had shown that gender stereotyping is still evident in contemporary Malaysian English literature particularly in novels. By using the concepts of ‘gender performance’ and ‘performativity’ introduced by Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble (1990, the current study aims to prove that there is an act of resistance among the new generations/contemporary Malaysian writers against the gender norms placed on sexuality. These writers resisted the norms by performing “gender trouble” through the construction of their characters’ gender identity. Two short stories are selected from 25 Malaysian Short Stories: Best of Silverfish New Writing 2001 – 2005 as the scope of the study to answer these questions; (a what are the stereotypedgender performances’ of the characters’ sexuality in the two selected short stories?, and (b how do contemporary Malaysian writers resist stereotyped sexuality using ‘gender performance’ in their writings? The study found that the selected characters from the short story The Silk Fan and Under the Blanket, do perform “gender trouble” in resisting gender expectations on their sexuality. Thus, based on the results of this study, it is hoped that the misconceptions on gender and the conventional way of thinking about sexuality and gender in Malaysian society can be somewhat liberated.

  5. Voice Quality and Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Lebanese Women With Reinke's Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Nayla; Portes, Cristel; Lancia, Leonardo; Legou, Thierry; Baider, Fabienne

    2016-12-01

    Women with Reinke's edema (RW) report being mistaken for men during telephone conversations. For this reason, their masculine-sounding voices are interesting for the study of gender stereotypes. The study's objective is to verify their complaint and to understand the cues used in gender identification. Using a self-evaluation study, we verified RW's perception of their own voices. We compared the acoustic parameters of vowels produced by 10 RW to those produced by 10 men and 10 women with healthy voices (hereafter referred to as NW) in Lebanese Arabic. We conducted a perception study for the evaluation of RW, healthy men's, and NW voices by naïve listeners. RW self-evaluated their voices as masculine and their gender identities as feminine. The acoustic parameters that distinguish RW from NW voices concern fundamental frequency, spectral slope, harmonicity of the voicing signal, and complexity of the spectral envelope. Naïve listeners very often rate RW as surely masculine. Listeners may rate RW's gender incorrectly. These incorrect gender ratings are correlated with acoustic measures of fundamental frequency and voice quality. Further investigations will reveal the contribution of each of these parameters to gender perception and guide the treatment plan of patients complaining of a gender ambiguous voice.

  6. Gender stereotypes in occupational choice: a cross-sectional study on a group of Italian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaci T

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tiziana Ramaci,1 Monica Pellerone,1 Caterina Ledda,2 Giovambattista Presti,1 Valeria Squatrito,1 Venerando Rapisarda2 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, 2Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Background: Gender beliefs represent cultural schemas for interpreting or making sense of the social and employment world, as they can influence attitudes, career aspirations, and the vocational decision process of young people, especially the adolescence.Materials and methods: This study examined the influence of gender stereotypes on the choice of career in adolescents. A group of 120 students were recruited to complete an ad hoc questionnaire, Scale of Perceived Occupational Self-Efficacy, and Semantic Differentials. The objectives of the study were to analyze the relationship between occupational self-efficacy and professional preference; to measure the influence of independent variables, such as age and gender, on the representation that students have of themselves and of the profession; and to identify the predictor variables of self-efficacy in the vocational decision.Results: Data showed that the distance between professional identity and social identity increases with age. Results underline that males seem to perceive themselves more self-efficient in military, scientific–technological, and agrarian professions than females. Furthermore, the type of job performed by parents appears to be a self-efficacy predictor variable in the choice of professions in the services area.Conclusion: Individuals’ perceived occupational self-efficacy, gender, age, and parents’ profession have implications for exploratory behavior. The conditions that make gender differences salient are more likely to favor self-representations of the career and consistent assessments with these representations. Keywords: adolescent, gender stereotypes, occupational

  7. Academic Self-Concept, Gender and Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses gender differences in academic self-concept for a cohort of children born in 1958 (the National Child Development Study). It addresses the question of whether attending single-sex or co-educational schools affected students' perceptions of their own academic abilities (academic self-concept). Academic self-concept was found…

  8. Gender stereotypes in psychosocial care for female crack and powder cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érika Barbosa de Oliveira; Pereira, Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo; Penna, Lúcia Helena Garcia

    2018-05-10

    The study analyzed health professionals' conceptions toward female users of crack and powder cocaine currently receiving psychosocial care, based on a gender perspective. Seventeen health professionals were interviewed, and systematic observations were made of the spaces for collective care in a Center for Psychosocial Care specializing in alcohol and drug addiction in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analysis of the interviews and field diaries using the hermeneutic-dialectic method revealed three categories: frailty as a constitutive attribute of women's condition, the women's emotional addiction to crack and powder cocaine use, and gender stereotypes during psychosocial care. The health professionals voiced a traditional view of the heterosexual, docile, and maternal woman and reproduced stereotypical concepts when addressing female crack and cocaine users as sensitive, frail individuals, emotionally dependent on men and more involved in the home and family. These professionals need a more refined understanding of gender issues in the mental health-disease process in order to allow overcoming preconceived notions and reductionist health care practices.

  9. Salary and the Gender Salary Gap in the Academic Profession

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Melanie E.

    1999-01-01

    The academic profession is an occupation in which pay has fallen dramatically, resulting in the setting up of a Committee of Inquiry to examine both pay relativities and mechanisms for pay determination. This paper considers salary determination and the gender salary gap in the academic labour market drawing upon a particularly detailed data set of 900 academics from five traditional Scottish Universities. Results reveal an aggregate gender salary differential for academic staff of 15%. Most ...

  10. Heroes and housewives: the role of gender and gender stereotypes in parenting and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Endendijk, Joyce Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Gender is one of the most important organizers of social life, from the cradle to the grave. In the family context gender shapes biological, social, and cognitive processes at both the parent and child level. The general aim of the studies presented in this dissertation is to provide more insight into the role of child gender, parent gender, and sibling gender composition in the socio-emotional development of children. In Chapter 2 the extent to which mothers and fathers use differential cont...

  11. Breaking Away From the Male Stereotype of a Specialist: Gendered Language Affects Performance in a Thinking Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Kollmayer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental online-survey study investigated if different written language forms in German have an effect on male bias in thinking. We used answers to the specialist riddle as an indicator for male bias in mental representations of expertise. The difficulty of this thinking task lies in the fact that a gender-unspecified specialist is often automatically assumed to be a man due to gender stereotypes. We expected that reading a text in gender-fair language before processing the specialist riddle helps readers achieve control over automatically activated gender stereotypes and thus facilitates the restructuring and reinterpretation of the problem, which is necessary to reach the conclusion that the specialist is a woman. We randomly assigned 517 native German speakers (68% women to reading a text on expertise written either in gender-fair language or in masculine generics. Subsequently, participants were asked to solve the specialist riddle. The results show that reading a text in gender-fair language before processing the riddle led to higher rates of answers indicating that the specialist is a women compared to reading a text in masculine generics (44% vs. 33% in women and men regardless of their self-stereotyping concerning agency and communion. The findings indicate that reading even a very short text in gender-fair language can help people break their gender-stereotype habit and thus reduce male bias in thinking. Our research emphasizes the importance of using gender-fair language in German-language texts for reducing gender stereotypes.

  12. Israeli Kindergarten Children's Gender Constancy for Others' Counter-Stereotypic Toy Play and Appearance: The Role of Sibling Gender and Relative Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    To test divergent theoretical predictions as to the impact of having a younger or older, same-sex sibling or opposite-sex sibling on other gender constancy, Israeli kindergarten children in two-child families responded to a gender constancy task in which a male and female picture target engaged in counter-stereotypic toy play and adopted…

  13. The Development of Sex Role Stereotypes in the Third Year: Relationships to Gender Labeling, Gender Identity, Sex-Typed Toy Preference, and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, Marsha; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The onset and development of preschoolers' awareness of sex role stereotypes, gender labeling, gender identity, and sex-typed toy preference were explored in 26-, 31-, and 36-month-old children. Family characteristics that affect early sex role development also were investigated. (Author/RH)

  14. On the gender–science stereotypes held by scientists: explicit accord with gender-ratios, implicit accord with scientific identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Frederick L.; Nosek, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity. PMID:25964765

  15. Gender Stereotypes and Gendered Vocational Aspirations among Swiss Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjar, Andreas; Aeschlimann, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Horizontal gender inequalities appear to be rather stable, with girls more often choosing "female" service professions, and boys choosing career paths related to science, technology, engineering or Mathematics. Purpose: Non-egalitarian patriarchal gender-role orientations and gender associations (perceived femininity) of the…

  16. Cautious caregivers: gender stereotypes and the sexualization of men nurses' touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joan A

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the experience of men nurses and the ways in which gender relations structure different work experiences for women and men in the same profession. Men are now entering the nursing profession in record numbers and challenging the notion that men are inappropriate in caregiver roles or incapable of providing compassionate and sensitive care. A limitation of the current state of knowledge regarding caring and men nurses is that it is primarily focused on men nursing students, not practising nurses. Little is known about men nurses' practices of caring and how such practices reflect the gendered nature of nursing and nurses' caring work. The theme of men nurses as cautious caregivers emerged from data that were collected in two rounds of semi-structured interviews with eight men nurses practising in Nova Scotia, Canada. Thematic analysis, informed by feminist theory and masculinity theory, was used as the method for analysing the data. For men nurses, the stereotype of men as sexual aggressors is compounded by the stereotype that men nurses are gay. These stereotypes sexualize men nurses' touch and create complex and contradictory situations of acceptance, rejection and suspicion of men as nurturers and caregivers. They also situate men nurses in highly stigmatized roles in which they are subject to accusations of inappropriate behaviour. For men nurses, this situation is lived as a heightened sense of vulnerability and the continual need to be cautious while touching and caring for patients. Ultimately, this situation impacts on the ability of men nurses to do the caring work they came into nursing to do.

  17. Can gender priming eliminate the effects of stereotype threat? The case of simple dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungwitz, Vivien; Sedlmeier, Peter; Schwarz, Marcus

    2018-05-31

    Mathematics and mental rotation are classic fields where it has been shown that priming women with their gender identity impedes performance. Whereas past research focused mainly on stereotype threat effects in women in a narrowly defined context, this study broadened the research focus: We primed 264 women and men equally with a male, a neutral, or a female prime before they had to solve a simple dynamic system task. As expected, female-primed women subsequently performed worst of all six groups. Solution rates were almost 14% higher for the women in the male-primed condition. Men performed better than women in all three priming conditions. However, this difference was reduced in the male-primed condition as women's performance had increased as anticipated. Unexpected was a decline in the male performance in the same condition. The study showed that gender priming had a significant effect on women in tasks involving simple dynamic systems. However, mathematical knowledge and area of occupation clearly were stronger predictors for both men and women. Priming alone cannot eliminate the effects of stereotype threat. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Gender stereotypes and education: A comparative content analysis of Malaysian, Indonesian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi school textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kazi Md Mukitul; Asadullah, M Niaz

    2018-01-01

    Using government secondary school English language textbooks from Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, we conducted a quantitative content analysis in order to identify gender stereotypes in school education. In total, 21 categories of exclusion and quality of representation were used to study gender stereotypes. Our analysis confirms a pro-male bias in textbooks: the aggregate female share is 40.4% in textual and pictorial indicators combined. Female occupations are mostly traditional and less prestigious while the characters are predominantly introverted and passive in terms of personality traits. Women are also shown to be mostly involved in domestic and in-door activities while men have a higher presence in professional roles. Systematic underrepresentation of females is evident regardless of whether we look at the text or pictures. A cross-country analysis shows that the female share in picture content is only 35.2% in Malaysia and Bangladesh. Overall, the proportion of female to male characters (text and pictures combined) is balanced in Malaysia and Indonesia (44.4% and 44.1% respectively) while this share is only 24.4% and 37.3% in Pakistani and Bangladeshi textbooks respectively. The finding of underrepresentation of women in Pakistani textbooks, in terms of quality and quantity, is robust to the selection of province-, grade- and subject-specific textbooks, as well as the range and type of categories used.

  19. The influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Fuster-Baraona, Tamara; Garita, Carlos; Sánchez, Marta; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Valverde-Cerros, Oscar; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    To identify the influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Qualitative, descriptive research was used in this study. Adolescents and parents were recruited from socioeconomically diverse populations in rural and urban areas of San José, Costa Rica. Subjects were 92 adolescents (14 to 17 years old) and 48 parents. Focus group data were transcribed and entered into the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti version 5.0. Analyses were grounded on the social cognitive theory. Five themes emerged from the focus group discussions: (1) Costa Rican adolescents associate the consumption of moderate quantities of healthy foods with femininity and male homosexuality. (2) The consumption of hearty portions of nonhealthy foods was associated with masculinity and male heterosexuality. (3) There is an emerging view that it is acceptable for heterosexual male adolescents to take care of their bodies through healthy eating. (4) Body care among female adolescents is an element of femininity and body image. (5) Parents reinforce their daughters' persistent concern with weight control because they perceive it as feminine behavior. Health promoters should be aware of the existing and changing food stereotypes around gender as an avenue for the promotion of healthy eating.

  20. Gender stereotypes and education: A comparative content analysis of Malaysian, Indonesian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi school textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kazi Md. Mukitul

    2018-01-01

    Using government secondary school English language textbooks from Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, we conducted a quantitative content analysis in order to identify gender stereotypes in school education. In total, 21 categories of exclusion and quality of representation were used to study gender stereotypes. Our analysis confirms a pro-male bias in textbooks: the aggregate female share is 40.4% in textual and pictorial indicators combined. Female occupations are mostly traditional and less prestigious while the characters are predominantly introverted and passive in terms of personality traits. Women are also shown to be mostly involved in domestic and in-door activities while men have a higher presence in professional roles. Systematic underrepresentation of females is evident regardless of whether we look at the text or pictures. A cross-country analysis shows that the female share in picture content is only 35.2% in Malaysia and Bangladesh. Overall, the proportion of female to male characters (text and pictures combined) is balanced in Malaysia and Indonesia (44.4% and 44.1% respectively) while this share is only 24.4% and 37.3% in Pakistani and Bangladeshi textbooks respectively. The finding of underrepresentation of women in Pakistani textbooks, in terms of quality and quantity, is robust to the selection of province-, grade- and subject-specific textbooks, as well as the range and type of categories used. PMID:29351305

  1. Gender stereotypes in occupational choice: a cross-sectional study on a group of Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaci, Tiziana; Pellerone, Monica; Ledda, Caterina; Presti, Giovambattista; Squatrito, Valeria; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2017-01-01

    Gender beliefs represent cultural schemas for interpreting or making sense of the social and employment world, as they can influence attitudes, career aspirations, and the vocational decision process of young people, especially the adolescence. This study examined the influence of gender stereotypes on the choice of career in adolescents. A group of 120 students were recruited to complete an ad hoc questionnaire, Scale of Perceived Occupational Self-Efficacy, and Semantic Differentials. The objectives of the study were to analyze the relationship between occupational self-efficacy and professional preference; to measure the influence of independent variables, such as age and gender, on the representation that students have of themselves and of the profession; and to identify the predictor variables of self-efficacy in the vocational decision. Data showed that the distance between professional identity and social identity increases with age. Results underline that males seem to perceive themselves more self-efficient in military, scientific-technological, and agrarian professions than females. Furthermore, the type of job performed by parents appears to be a self-efficacy predictor variable in the choice of professions in the services area. Individuals' perceived occupational self-efficacy, gender, age, and parents' profession have implications for exploratory behavior. The conditions that make gender differences salient are more likely to favor self-representations of the career and consistent assessments with these representations.

  2. GREEK «ΦΥΣΙΣ» AS THE BASIS OF GENDER STEREOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Storozhuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Considering the fact that the concept «by nature» formed the basis of diametrically different approaches to the interpretation of the place and role of women not only in Greek society, but determined the gender relations up to this time, the article examines the features of the interpretation of the term «nature» («φύσις» in Greek outlook and the impact of natural-philosophical ideas on the evolution of gender relations of Ancient period. Methodology of the study is caused by interdisciplinary approach, involving not only the use of scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis and generalization and so on. Basic principles of philosophical hermeneutics, hypothetical-deductive method and contextual analysis are used at the same time. Originality lies in the denial of existing idea in contemporary intellectual discourse that the concept «by nature» is a conceptual prerequisite for ensuring gender inequality. Against this background, it is shown that gender equality and inequalities are both caused by the dominant in the public worldview meta-narrative paradigm and specific features of interpretation of the concept «by nature» (or «nature». So when nature is seen in physiological or empirical sense, it establishes a pattern of gender inequality. The same can occur in cases of dogmatization and mythologizing of empiricism, which appears on the ideological level as a meta-narrative. However, when the concept of «nature» acquires metaphysical meaning and is viewed as a kind of potentiality that is actualized in the presence of favorable conditions prerequisites of gender equality are emerging. Conclusions. Having considered the proposed by Greek philosophy approaches to gender interaction as a kind of stereotypes, we conclude that the development of gender relations in individual historical terms was caused by the specificity of the dominant narrative of life and world order.

  3. Effect of Cognitive Style and Gender on JSS Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive style and gender on student's academic achievement in social studies. It was designed to obtain empirical evidence of effects of cognitive style and gender as well as the interaction effects of cognitive style on student's academic achievement in social studies. The subjects of the ...

  4. The influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of female same-sex intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena; Glass, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a serious problem that affects the health and safety of lesbian and bisexual women. To begin to address the paucity of research, a mixed methods study was conducted to identify shared and unique risk and protective factors for FSSIPV. This article reports on qualitative findings related to the influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of FSSIPV. Findings indicate that gender role stereotyping shapes women's experiences of FSSIPV by influencing individual, familial, community, and societal perceptions and responses to this phenomenon.

  5. Judging the gender of the inanimate: Benevolent sexism and gender stereotypes guide impressions of physical objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Benjamin R

    2017-09-01

    Within a given culture, sexist ideologies and stereotypes are largely characterized by their prescriptive expectations for the types of social and behavioural domains men and women occupy. The activities that take place within these respective domains, however, frequently involve designed, physical artefacts. This study reports a pair of studies that test whether sexist schemas are capable of guiding not only impressions of men and women as social groups, but also their impressions of the inanimate objects associated with these groups. In Study 1, benevolent sexism was found to predict a greater willingness to classify physical objects as being either highly feminine or highly masculine, even when these objects had a neutral rating by the sample as a whole. In Study 2, stereotypes consistent with legitimizing ideologies (i.e., competence and warmth) predicted rating associated objects in complementary ways, in terms of greater liking of feminine objects but greater presumed competence needed for using masculine objects. These results demonstrate how sexist beliefs and attitudes are capable of bleeding into people's impressions of the physical world. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain's Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as "king" or "engineer") or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the Event Related Potential response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more "feminine" or "expressive" self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less "expressive" participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  7. Beyond gender stereotypes in language comprehension: self sex-role descriptions affect the brain's potentials associated with agreement processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eCanal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as king or engineer or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female, or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female. When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the ERP response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more feminine or expressive self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less expressive participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  8. Gender stereotypes, aggression, and computer games: an online survey of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Kamala O

    2004-12-01

    Computer games were conceptualized as a potential mode of entry into computer-related employment for women. Computer games contain increasing levels of realism and violence, as well as biased gender portrayals. It has been suggested that aggressive personality characteristics attract people to aggressive video games, and that more women do not play computer games because they are socialized to be non-aggressive. To explore gender identity and aggressive personality in the context of computers, an online survey was conducted on women who played computer games and women who used the computer but did not play computer games. Women who played computer games perceived their online environments as less friendly but experienced less sexual harassment online, were more aggressive themselves, and did not differ in gender identity, degree of sex role stereotyping, or acceptance of sexual violence when compared to women who used the computer but did not play video games. Finally, computer gaming was associated with decreased participation in computer-related employment; however, women with high masculine gender identities were more likely to use computers at work.

  9. Heroes and housewives : the role of gender and gender stereotypes in parenting and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, Joyce Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Gender is one of the most important organizers of social life, from the cradle to the grave. In the family context gender shapes biological, social, and cognitive processes at both the parent and child level. The general aim of the studies presented in this dissertation is to provide more insight

  10. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Ertl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have <30% females. It was investigated to which degree individual stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects

  11. Chronic Stereotype Threat Is Associated With Mathematical Achievement on Representative Sample of Secondary Schoolgirls: The Role of Gender Identification, Working Memory, and Intellectual Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Krejtz, Izabela; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness of working memory functions. Moving beyond past theory, this study examined a new mechanism by which chronic stereotype threat decreases school achievement – namely intellectual helplessness. We assumed that repeated experience of stereotype threat works as intellectual helplessness training. After the phase of cognitive mobilization, cognitive exhaustion appears, because the individual has no gain from intense cognitive effort. Corroborating previous research on acute stereotype threat, we demonstrated that chronic stereotype threat is negatively associated with mathematical achievement. Additionally, it was also associated with lower effectiveness of working memory functions, which seems to show depletion of working memory as an effect of chronic stereotype threat. The results also demonstrated that both mediational paths from chronic stereotype threat to mathematical achievement: through working memory depletion and through intellectual helplessness were significant but only for girls that were highly identified with their gender group. In sum, we extended a well-established model of acute stereotype threat to its chronic version and suggested a new mechanism of chronic stereotype threat, which involves intellectual helplessness. Implications for stereotype threat theory and educational practice are discussed. PMID:29666599

  12. Chronic Stereotype Threat Is Associated With Mathematical Achievement on Representative Sample of Secondary Schoolgirls: The Role of Gender Identification, Working Memory, and Intellectual Helplessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Bedyńska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness of working memory functions. Moving beyond past theory, this study examined a new mechanism by which chronic stereotype threat decreases school achievement – namely intellectual helplessness. We assumed that repeated experience of stereotype threat works as intellectual helplessness training. After the phase of cognitive mobilization, cognitive exhaustion appears, because the individual has no gain from intense cognitive effort. Corroborating previous research on acute stereotype threat, we demonstrated that chronic stereotype threat is negatively associated with mathematical achievement. Additionally, it was also associated with lower effectiveness of working memory functions, which seems to show depletion of working memory as an effect of chronic stereotype threat. The results also demonstrated that both mediational paths from chronic stereotype threat to mathematical achievement: through working memory depletion and through intellectual helplessness were significant but only for girls that were highly identified with their gender group. In sum, we extended a well-established model of acute stereotype threat to its chronic version and suggested a new mechanism of chronic stereotype threat, which involves intellectual helplessness. Implications for stereotype threat theory and educational practice are discussed.

  13. Chronic Stereotype Threat Is Associated With Mathematical Achievement on Representative Sample of Secondary Schoolgirls: The Role of Gender Identification, Working Memory, and Intellectual Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Krejtz, Izabela; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness of working memory functions. Moving beyond past theory, this study examined a new mechanism by which chronic stereotype threat decreases school achievement - namely intellectual helplessness. We assumed that repeated experience of stereotype threat works as intellectual helplessness training. After the phase of cognitive mobilization, cognitive exhaustion appears, because the individual has no gain from intense cognitive effort. Corroborating previous research on acute stereotype threat, we demonstrated that chronic stereotype threat is negatively associated with mathematical achievement. Additionally, it was also associated with lower effectiveness of working memory functions, which seems to show depletion of working memory as an effect of chronic stereotype threat. The results also demonstrated that both mediational paths from chronic stereotype threat to mathematical achievement: through working memory depletion and through intellectual helplessness were significant but only for girls that were highly identified with their gender group. In sum, we extended a well-established model of acute stereotype threat to its chronic version and suggested a new mechanism of chronic stereotype threat, which involves intellectual helplessness. Implications for stereotype threat theory and educational practice are discussed.

  14. Conflict in intimate vs non-intimate relationships : When gender role stereotyping overrides biased self-other judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, ES; de Dreu, CKW; Buunk, BP

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to explore whether bias in self-other judgments pertains to conflict in intimate relationships and is overruled by gender role stereotypes in non-intimate relationships between males and females, it was predicted that when the opponent was one's intimate partner, both

  15. Gender Stereotypes of Children's Toys: Investigating the Perspectives of Adults Who Have and Do Not Have Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekee, Kristy; Brown, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Often certain types of toys are considered more appropriate either for boys or for girls to play with. Therapists often use toys to engage children in intervention activities to promote skill development. This study investigated the gender stereotype perspectives of children's toys held by adults who were and were not parents. Fifty-two…

  16. Art and Fairy Tales in an Interdisciplinary Interplay: Teaching Interventions towards Negotiation and Subversion of Gender Roles and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moula, Evangelia; Kabouropoulou, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary project under discussion is suitable to be addressed to students of either primary or secondary education and it interweaves the art of painting with fairy tales. The aims of the project are: the deeper understanding of the complexity of human nature and the sensitization of students regarding gender roles and stereotypes. On…

  17. Sex, cheating, and disgust: enhanced source memory for trait information that violates gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneisen, Meike; Bell, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines memory for social-exchange-relevant information. In Experiment 1 male and female faces were shown together with behaviour descriptions of cheating, altruistic, and neutral behaviour. Previous results have led to the hypothesis that people preferentially remember schema-atypical information. Given the common gender stereotype that women are kinder and less egoistic than men, this atypicality account would predict that source memory (that is, memory for the type of context to which a face was associated) should be enhanced for female cheaters in comparison to male cheaters. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed this hypothesis. Experiment 2 reveals that source memory for female faces associated with disgusting behaviours is enhanced in comparison to male faces associated with disgusting behaviours. Thus the atypicality effect generalises beyond social-exchange-relevant information, a result which is inconsistent with the assumption that the findings can be ascribed to a highly specific cheater detection module.

  18. Perceptions of domestic violence in lesbian relationships: stereotypes and gender role expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Betsi; Terrance, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    In light of evidence suggesting that violence between lesbian couples is oftentimes dismissed as "mutually combative," expectations that support this perception were examined. Participants (N = 287) evaluated a domestic violence situation within the context of a lesbian partnership. As physical appearance may be used to support gender- and heterosexist-based stereotypes relating to lesbians, participants evaluated a domestic violence incident wherein the physical appearance of both the victim and perpetrator were systematically varied. Overall, women perceived the situation as more dangerous than did men. However, among women, the plausibility of the victim's claim, and blame assigned to the perpetrator and victim, varied as a function of the physical appearance of the couple. Implications of this research as well as future directions are discussed.

  19. Stereotype Threat, Identification with Academics, and Withdrawal from School: Why the Most Successful Students of Colour Might Be Most Likely to Withdraw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.; Walker, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Claude Steeles' stereotype threat hypothesis posits that when there are negative stereotypes about the intellectual capacity of certain (stigmatised) groups, members of that group suffer aversive consequences; group members who are most strongly identified with the stigmatised domain in question (e.g., intellectual or academic ability) are those…

  20. "You Would Not Believe What I Have to Go through to Prove My Intellectual Value!" Stereotype Management among Academically Successful Black Mathematics and Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ebony O.; Martin, Danny B.

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype management is introduced to explain high achievement and resilience among 23 Black mathematics and engineering college students. Characterized as a tactical response to ubiquitous forms of racism and racialized experiences across school and non-school contexts, stereotype management emerged along overlapping paths of racial, gender, and…

  1. Gender inequalities in transnational academic mobility and the ideal type of academic entrepreneur

    OpenAIRE

    Leemann, Regula Julia

    2010-01-01

    Based on a study on academic career paths of PhD graduates in Switzerland, this paper is concerned with the individual and institutional factors that affect transnational academic mobility in the postdoctoral period. It will be argued that the institutionalisation of geographic mobility in academic career paths through research funding institutions and universities have gendering and stratifying effects. Complex formations related to gender, partnership, children, and dual-career constellatio...

  2. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  3. Gender Specific Differences in the Perceived Antecedents of Academic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell W.

    This document consists of the report of a study undertaken to establish the existence of any gender specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. The definition of stress as a negative emotion strongly associated with doubt about coping is suggested to be particularly relevant to the academic arena where students…

  4. The Unique Trio: Academic Achievement, Sport, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachaf, Miri; Katz, Yaacov J.; Shoval, Ella

    2013-01-01

    This study examined gender, participation in sport and academic achievement of Israeli high school students. The study examined the academic achievement of those who participated in competitive or non-competitive sport and those who did not participate in sport. Results indicate that female athletes who participated in competitive sport attained…

  5. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…

  6. Gender Influence On Managerial Efficiency Of Academic Librarians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study discusses the influences of gender on managerial efficiency of academic librarians in Nigeria. The rationale for the study was to investigate if gender grouping has an influence on the managerial competence of librarians in Nigeria. The total enumeration sampling technique with a questionnaire instrument was ...

  7. Gendered Pedagogic Identities and Academic Professionalism in Greek Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouroufli, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Feminist scholarship has considered how pedagogical identities and emotions are implicated in the gender politics of belonging and othering in higher education. This paper examines how gendered and embodied pedagogy is mobilised in Greek medical schools to construct notions of the ideal academic and assert women's position women in Academic…

  8. Lifestyle integration-gender based stereotypes: a study on Schein‟s career anchors within an ODeL HEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marili Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on research that examined the differences between the aspirations of females and males in the workplace in terms of Schein‟s career anchors and enablers. The stereotype that females only work to ensure enhanced family lifestyles remains evident in the daily life of all (Hoobler, Lemmon & Wyane, 2014, p. 704; Mihail, 2006. Furthermore the stereotype that males‟ focus is much more ambitious in terms of reaching the highest managerial achievement/technical/ functional competence is regarded as a reality within society (Hoobler, Lemmon & Wyane, 2014, p. 704; Mihail, 2006. Insight into the question whether females work to live or live to work was investigated and this article reports on the differences between females and males regarding their work life ambitions. The data resulted from a quantitative research approach and the population consisted of 4 200 employees within an Open Distance electronic Learning (ODeL Higher Education Institution (HEI in South Africa. The focus was on the composition of a structured career conversation framework, using the original Schein career anchors (Schein, 1978; 1990; 1996 and the three-factor career-enabler model, developed by Grobler, Bezuidenhout and Rudolph (2014. Descriptive statistics, chi-square statistics as well as independent t-test analysis was used to identify the differences between genders with regard to career anchors and career enablers in different career stages. The results of the analysis illustrated that females focus more on the autonomy/independence- and lifestyle integration career anchors than males in the first 3 years of employment, thereafter their focus remains more on the lifestyle integration career anchor than males. Males however focus more on the general managerial career anchor in the first 3 years of their careers than women; and after 3 years males‟ focus moves more to the entrepreneurial creativity career anchor. The reported differences between

  9. On the Leaky Math Pipeline: Comparing Implicit Math-Gender Stereotypes and Math Withdrawal in Female and Male Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…

  10. Gender-, Race-, and Income-Based Stereotype Threat: The Effects of Multiple Stigmatized Aspects of Identity on Math Performance and Working Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…

  11. Enduring Influence of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women's Academic Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Drury, Benjamin J.; Vichayapai, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    The current work examines whether a brief exposure to a computer science role model who fits stereotypes of computer scientists has a lasting influence on women's interest in the field. One-hundred undergraduate women who were not computer science majors met a female or male peer role model who embodied computer science stereotypes in appearance…

  12. Gender as a predictor for academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Lestari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Profesionalisme adalah hal penting yang harus diperhatikan oleh profesi dokter agar dapat menjaga kepercayaan masayarakat pada profesi ini. Mengembangkan atribut profesionalisme selama masa studi merupakan langkah yang dapat dilakukan oleh institusi pendidikan untuk mengembangkan profesionalisme siswa. Meskipun demikian, professionalism mungkin tidak hanya berpengaruh pada kinerjanya sebagai dokter kelak, namun juga akan berpengaruh pada kinerja ketika masih menjadi mahasiswa. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara faktor demografi dan atribut profesionalisme dengan keberhasilan akademik siswa. Metode: Subjek penelitian potong lintang ini terdiri dari mahasiswa tahun ke 4 Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (FK Unissula Semarang semester Tahun ke empat. Data mengenai atribut profesionalisme dinilai dengan menggunakan inventory “Penilaian profesionalisme mahasiswa kedokteran”, yang disusun dengan menggunakan metode Delphi oleh beberapa ahli dari berbagai bidang. Data mengenai keberhasilan akademik siswa yang diketahui dari indeks prestasi akademik (IPK dikumpulkan dari Unit IT FK Unissula. Data dianalisis memakai regresi Cox dengan waktu yang konstan menggunakan STATA versi 9. Hasil: Sebanyak 86.25% (207 dari 240 mahasiswa berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini. Hasil akhir analisis menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat satupun atribut profesionalisme yang merupakan prediktor keberhasilan akademik yang dicerminkan IPK. Meskipun demikian, gender merupakan faktor yang dapat memprediksi keberhasilan akademik mahasiswa FK Unissula. Mahasiswa perempuan dibandingkan mahasiswa laki-laki 35% lebih tinggi mendapat nilai IPK [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1, 35; 95 interval kepercayaan (CI = 1, 05-1, 74. Kesimpulan: Mahasiswa perempuan dibandingkan laki-laki lebih berhasil untuk mendapatkan nilai indeks prestasi kumulatif. (Health Science Indones 2010; 1: 43 - 50 Kata kunci: gender, atribut

  13. Language, Culture, Gender, and Academic Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has explored the complex, situated process by which students from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds become socialized into academic discourses and practices. As part of a multiple case study involving seven international students, this study provides an in-depth analysis of the academic discourse socialization…

  14. Job Satisfaction of Academics: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Taylor, Maria de Lourdes; White, Kate; Gouveia, Odilia

    2014-01-01

    Academic work in higher education has been influenced by global trends such as accountability, massification and deteriorating financial support. Within this broader context, the performance of academic staff as teachers and researchers has an impact on student learning and implications for the quality of higher education institutions (HEIs).…

  15. Similarities and Differences between Parents and Children with Respect to Gender Prejudice: the Intertwinement between Family and Cultural Stereotype Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alfieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the similarities and differences in gender prejudice between parents and their offspring. This work is divided into two phases: our goal in Phase I was to investigate whether any similarity exists in the prejudice response profiles of parents and their young adult offspring. Phase II sought to uncover the levels of unique similarity between parents and child in gender prejudice (cultural stereotype effect. Participants were 293 Italian families (young adult child, mother and father, for a total of 879 people. Each participants completed the Ambivalent Sexism (Glick & Fiske, 1996 and Ambivalence toward Men (Glick & Fiske, 1999 scales. As our research included family data, specific analysis were used, such dyadic indexes (Kenny, Kashy & Cook, 2006. Results reveal that (1 the response profiles of parents and offspring are dissimilar, and (2 the slight shared variance between them is determined by the cultural stereotype effect.

  16. Pretty as a Princess: Longitudinal Effects of Engagement With Disney Princesses on Gender Stereotypes, Body Esteem, and Prosocial Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Rasmussen, Eric E; Nelson, David A; Birkbeck, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    This study examined level of engagement with Disney Princess media/products as it relates to gender-stereotypical behavior, body esteem (i.e. body image), and prosocial behavior during early childhood. Participants consisted of 198 children (M age  = 58 months), who were tested at two time points (approximately 1 year apart). Data consisted of parent and teacher reports, and child observations in a toy preference task. Longitudinal results revealed that Disney Princess engagement was associated with more female gender-stereotypical behavior 1 year later, even after controlling for initial levels of gender-stereotypical behavior. Parental mediation strengthened associations between princess engagement and adherence to female gender-stereotypical behavior for both girls and boys, and for body esteem and prosocial behavior for boys only. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers playing the Ultimatum Game

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Eve Floriane; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypical...

  18. The relationship between gender role stereotypes and requisite managerial characteristics: the case of nursing and midwifery professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkery, Elaine; Tiernan, Siobhan; Morley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    To examine the relationship between gender role stereotypes and requisite managerial characteristics within the nursing and midwifery profession. Studies have been carried out to determine gender role stereotypes and requisite managerial characteristics across a number of industries and among student samples. No study has been carried out within the nursing and midwifery profession. In order to allow for direct comparisons with previous research Schein's Descriptive Index (SDI) was used. A total 239 undergraduate and 171 postexperience responses were collected. Female nurses and midwives did not gender type the managerial role, whereas males gender typed the managerial role in favour of men. Student nurses and midwives recorded a stronger correlation between women and management than their qualified counterparts. Males gender typed the managerial role in favour of men. With an increase in numbers of men joining the profession and increased representation of males at the Clinical Nurse Manager (CMN) level there is a possibility that the profession will become two tiered. Health care organisations should pay careful consideration to career development and implement career structures which ensure equal access to managerial roles for both genders. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns.

  20. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on Legal Perceptions of Lesbian Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Lynch, Kellie R; Golding, Jonathan M; Renzetti, Claire M

    2015-05-19

    The present study examined legal perceptions of lesbian intimate partner violence (IPV) in an experimental context. Undergraduate women and men from the Southeastern United States (N = 217) read a trial summary in which the defendant was charged with physically assaulting her same-sex partner. The trial varied as to whether the victim and defendant were depicted via images as either feminine or masculine. Participants rendered verdicts and made judgments about the victim and defendant (e.g., credibility). Results indicated that the victim's and defendant's masculine or feminine appearance affected these judgments. Female participants viewed a masculine victim as more credible than a feminine victim when the defendant was masculine. When the victim was masculine, they viewed a masculine defendant as more responsible for the victim's injuries than a feminine defendant. Male participants had higher sympathy for a masculine versus feminine victim overall, but had more anger toward a masculine defendant versus a feminine defendant accused of assaulting a feminine victim. Finally, fewer participants mentioned the defendant's history of violence as a reason for a guilty of felony verdict for a feminine victim with a feminine defendant versus all other combinations of victim and defendant masculine/feminine appearance. Results are discussed in terms of gender stereotypes influencing legal decision-making in IPV cases among lesbian couples. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Ambivalent Sexism as a Mediator for Sex Role Orientation and Gender Stereotypes in Romantic Relationships: A Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferzan Curun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the mediating effects of ambivalent sexism (hostile and benevolent in the relationship between sex role orientation (masculinity and femininity and gender stereotypes (dominance and assertiveness in college students. The variables were measured using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI, and the Attitudes toward Gender Stereotypes in Romantic Relationships Scale (AGSRRS. These inventories were administered to 250 undergraduate students at Istanbul University in Istanbul and Suleyman Demirel University in Isparta, Turkey. Results indicate that benevolent sexism mediates the relationship between hostile sexism and male dominance. Benevolent sexism also mediates femininity and male dominance, as well as femininity and male assertiveness. Hostile sexism was mediated only between the masculine personality trait and benevolent sexism. The present findings expand the literature on sex role orientation by revealing evidence that masculine and feminine individuals experience ambivalent sexism distinctively. The results are discussed in terms of the assumptions of sex role orientation, ambivalent sexism, and gender stereotypes.

  2. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes : The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, Janka I.; Van der Velde, Mandy; Lammers, Joris

    Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a "good" manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine

  3. Children and Adults Use Gender and Age Stereotypes in Ownership Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Sarah; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Friedman, Ori

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life, we are often faced with the problem of judging who owns an object. The current experiments show that children and adults base ownership judgments on group stereotypes, which relate kinds of people to kinds of objects. Moreover, the experiments show that reliance on stereotypes can override another means by which people make…

  4. The publication gender gap in US academic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Claudia; Wright, Robert; Girod, Sabine

    2017-02-14

    Terms such as "glass ceiling" and "sticky floor" are still commonly used to describe women's role in academic surgery. Despite continued efforts to address disparities between men and women in the field, gender inequalities persist. In this investigation we highlight gender differences in published surgical literature by both quantity and impact. Websites for departments of surgery of three academic centers were reviewed to assess the bibliometrics of publications by gender over a two-week period. A one-way ANOVA showed a significantly higher H-index for men than women (p > .05). Further, one-way ANOVA showed significantly more articles published by men than women (p = .019). These differences are most dramatic at the rank of associate professor where the H-index for men is three times that of the women. The rank of full professor showed men had double the number of articles published. These findings align with the previous research that shows a disparity between males and females as they climb the academic ladder. Conducting and publishing research is a vital part of advancement in academic medicine. This study suggests that publication productivity may be a factor that hinders women from advancing within surgery compared to men. Continuing to explore and identify reasons for this gender difference in academic surgery may highlight ways to address the imbalance.

  5. "I Can Do More Things": How Black Female Student-Athletes Contend with Race, Gender, and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Tomika

    2015-01-01

    Black female student-athletes who attend a predominantly White, Division I institution navigate their college experiences differently than their peers. They may face social, academic, and athletic challenges related to their race and gender which may impact their social and academic integration into the campus community. The purpose of this study…

  6. Gender differences in locomotor and stereotypic behavior associated with l-carnitine treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Itri, Elenora; Hauser, Peter; De Tolla, Louis; Yu, Sui-Foh; Testa, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Maria Angela; Trimarchi, Francesco; Amato, Antonino

    2011-02-01

    The carnitines exert neuroprotective and neuromodulatory actions, and carnitine supplementation increases locomotor activity (LMA) in experimental animals. We measured 13 indexes of LMA and 3 indexes of stereotypic activity (STA) in adult male and female caged mice. In a randomized 4-week trial, 10 males and 10 females received 50 mg/kg body weight PO l-carnitine, and another 10 males and 10 females received placebo. Compared with placebo-treated females, placebo-treated males had a greater number of stereotypies (NSTs), stereotypy counts (STCs), stereotypy time (STT), and right front time (RFT), but smaller total distance traveled (TDT), margin distance (MD), number of vertical movements (NVMs), and left rear time (LRT). Compared with placebo-treated males, carnitine-treated males had greater horizontal activity (HA), movement time (MT), NVM, STT, TDT, STC, MD, LRT, and clockwise revolutions (CRs), but smaller left front time (LFT) and RFT. Compared with placebo-treated females, carnitine-treated females had greater NST, STC, STT, LFT, and RFT, but smaller NM, HA, NVM, VA, MT, anticlockwise revolutions (ACRs), CR, TDT, and MD; right rear time (RRT) remained statistically insignificant across all comparisons. In summary, l-carnitine caused gender differences to persist for STC, diminish for NST and STT, disappear for LRT and NVM, change in the opposite direction for TDT and MD, appear de novo for HA, VA, NM, MT, and LFT, and remain absent for RRT and ACR. Some indexes of LMA and STA are sexually dimorphic in adult mice, and l-carnitine differentially maintains, diminishes/cancels, inverts, or creates the sexual dimorphism of particular indexes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivi?re, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely...

  8. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain’s Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as “king” or “engineer”) or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a...

  9. Angel, handmaiden, battleaxe or whore? A study which examines changes in newly recruited student nurses' attitudes to gender and nursing stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinks, Annette M; Bradley, Eleanor

    2004-02-01

    This article presents the findings of a comparative study, which investigated the attitudes of two groups of newly recruited student nurses to gender and nursing stereotypes. The 1992 sample (n=100) was a group of student nurses who were in their second day of studies of a Project 2000 type curriculum. The 2002 sample (n=96) were in their second month of studies of a "Fitness for Practice" curriculum [Fitness for Practice (the 'Peach Report'), UKCC, London, 1999]. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which utilised a Likert scale for measurement of attitudes to statements pertaining to gender and nursing stereotypes. The findings reveal significant differences between the characteristics of the two groups of students. For example, the 2002 group were generally older and had more healthcare experience. However, male representation in the sample groups was similar. The overall high scores and implied propensity towards beliefs in gender and nursing stereotypes in the 1992 study was found not to be the case for the 2002 sample. This is particularly true of most statements related to gender stereotypes, nursing as 'feminine', male nurse stereotyping and issues related to nurses' uniform. However, there is less evidence of changes in attitudes towards female nursing stereotypes with indecision being a general feature of both the 1992 and 2002 responses.

  10. Gender as predictor of academic achievement in English among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of gender on academic achievement in English Language among senior secondary school students in Calabar metropolis, Cross River State. The researchers adopted survey designfor the study. The study sample comprise 660 Senior Secondary School two (SSS II) students drawn from ...

  11. The contribution of gender to students' academic performances | Fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work used the ex post facto to design and deepen our understanding of the relationship between gender and students academic performances in social studies. The sample comprised 330 JSS III students (130 male and 200 female) drawn from 50 out of 73 schools in Calabar Educational Zone. Two instruments were ...

  12. A gender-based comparison of academic rank and scholarly productivity in academic neurological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, Krystal L; Nahass, Meghan M; Husain, Qasim; Agarwal, Nitin; Patel, Smruti K; Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2014-07-01

    The number of women pursuing training opportunities in neurological surgery has increased, although they are still underrepresented at senior positions relative to junior academic ranks. Research productivity is an important component of the academic advancement process. We sought to use the h-index, a bibliometric previously analyzed among neurological surgeons, to evaluate whether there are gender differences in academic rank and research productivity among academic neurological surgeons. The h-index was calculated for 1052 academic neurological surgeons from 84 institutions, and organized by gender and academic rank. Overall men had statistically higher research productivity (mean 13.3) than their female colleagues (mean 9.5), as measured by the h-index, in the overall sample (p0.05) in h-index at the assistant professor (mean 7.2 male, 6.3 female), associate professor (11.2 male, 10.8 female), and professor (20.0 male, 18.0 female) levels based on gender. There was insufficient data to determine significance at the chairperson rank, as there was only one female chairperson. Although overall gender differences in scholarly productivity were detected, these differences did not reach statistical significance upon controlling for academic rank. Women were grossly underrepresented at the level of chairpersons in this sample of 1052 academic neurological surgeons, likely a result of the low proportion of females in this specialty. Future studies may be needed to investigate gender-specific research trends for neurosurgical residents, a cohort that in recent years has seen increased representation by women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From Stereotypes of Gender Difference to Stereotypes of Theory: A Response to Hayley Davis' Review of Deborah Tannen's "Gender and Discourse."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerian, Keli

    1997-01-01

    Responding to Hayley Davis' view of gender in discourse, asserts that she misinterprets Deborah Tannen as claiming that all men are well-intentioned and misunderstood, and that this misinterpretation is a theme appearing throughout Davis' review of Tannen's collection of essays, "Gender and Discourse". (29 references) (CK)

  14. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  15. The erasure of gender in academic surgery: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Fiona; Rice, Kathleen; Christian, Jennifer; Seemann, Natashia; Baxter, Nancy; Moulton, Carol-Anne; Cil, Tulin

    2016-10-01

    The number of women in surgery has steadily increased, yet their numbers in academic surgery positions and in high-ranking leadership roles remain low. To create strategies to address and improve this problem, it is essential to examine how gender plays into the advancement of a woman's career in academic surgery. Focus group (1) and one-on-one qualitative interviews (8) were conducted with women academic surgeons from various subspecialties in a large university setting. Interviews examined women surgeons' accounts of their experiences as women in surgery. Audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim and coded thematically. NVivo10 software was used for cross-referencing of data and categorization of data into themes. Focus group data suggested that gender discrimination was pervasive in academic surgery. However, in interviews, most interviewees strongly disavowed the possibility that their gender had any bearing on their professional lives. These surgeons attempted to distance themselves from the possibility of discrimination by suggesting that differences in men and women surgeons' experiences are due to personality issues and personal choices. However, their narratives highlighted deep contradiction; they both affirmed and denied the relevance of gender for their experience as surgeons. As overt acts of discrimination become less acceptable in society, it does not necessarily disappear but rather manifests itself in covert forms. By disavowing and distancing themselves from discrimination, these women exposed the degree to which these issues continue to be pervasive in surgery. Women surgeons' ability to both identify and resist discrimination was hobbled by narratives of individualism, gender equality, and normative ideas of gender difference. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Gender stereotypes in occupational choice: a cross-sectional study on a group of Italian adolescents [Erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaci T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ramaci T, Pellerone M, Ledda C, Presti G, Squatrito V, Rapisarda V. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2017;10:109–117. On page 116, Reference section, an error was introduced in the numbering regarding reference 44. The correct reference details are:44. Wraga M, Duncan L, Jacobs EC, Helt M, Church J. Stereotype susceptibility narrows the gender gap in imagined self-rotation performance. Psychon Bull Rev. 2006;13(5:813–819.The reference citation in the main text is correct.Read the original article

  17. Monograph gender in academic writing context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Regina Rodrigues de Souza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The monograph genre is a social action which organizes the academic culture at the conclusion stage of a Graduation and a Specialization university course, as well as it is a textual action laid out in written production. For this article, we select six copies of this genre, from Letters and Social Sciences courses, through a multiple case study, with a descriptive-interpretativist methodology, to analyze this genre and its recurring movements in your introduction section. Supported by sociorhetorical approaches, as Swales (1990; 2004 and Bhatia (2004; 2009, we investigate monographs in continuous with other initiation genres in the scientific domain. We  conclude that they reveal a prototypicality marked by more general movements, as identifying theme, object presentation, question and research objectives. In addition, for more specific movements, in the case of our data, such as the information searches are derived from projects developed in the institutional promotion programme for the training of researchers (PIBIC, adapting to the situational context and communicative that evokes.

  18. An Integrated Framework for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westring, Alyssa; McDonald, Jennifer M; Carr, Phyllis; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, the National Institutes of Health funded 14 R01 grants to study causal factors that promote and support women's biomedical careers. The Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers, a multi-institutional collaboration of the investigators, is one product of this initiative.A comprehensive framework is needed to address change at many levels-department, institution, academic community, and beyond-and enable gender equity in the development of successful biomedical careers. The authors suggest four distinct but interrelated aspects of culture conducive to gender equity: equal access to resources and opportunities, minimizing unconscious gender bias, enhancing work-life balance, and leadership engagement. They review the collection of eight articles in this issue, which each address one or more of the four dimensions of culture. The articles suggest that improving mentor-mentee fit, coaching grant reviewers on unconscious bias, and providing equal compensation and adequate resources for career development will contribute positively to gender equity in academic medicine.Academic medicine must adopt an integrated perspective on culture for women and acknowledge the multiple facets essential to gender equity. To effect change, culture must be addressed both within and beyond academic health centers (AHCs). Leaders within AHCs must examine their institutions' processes, resources, and assessment for fairness and transparency; mobilize personnel and financial resources to implement evidence-based initiatives; and assign accountability for providing transparent progress assessments. Beyond AHCs, organizations must examine their operations and implement change to ensure parity of funding, research, and leadership opportunities as well as transparency of assessment and accreditation.

  19. The gendered stereotype of the 'good manager': Sex role expectations towards male and female managers

    OpenAIRE

    Gmür, Markus

    2006-01-01

    In the past 30 years, U.S. and international studies have shown that societal expectations of the 'good manager' are closely related to the male stereotype. However, it is not clear, whether this stereotype is the same for men andwomen alike in managerial positions. The results of a German study with 625 students and 376 professionals participating between 1997 and 2005 are presentedin the short note below. The main findings of the study are: 1. Female managers are expected to conform more cl...

  20. Selection committees for academic recruitment: does gender matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in the academic system is a problem common to many countries, often associated with gender discrimination. In the Italian academic context in particular, favoritism is recognized as a diffuse phenomenon affecting hiring and career advancement. One of the questions...... that naturally arises is whether women who do assume decisional roles, having witnessed other phenomena of discrimination, would practice less favoritism than men in similar positions. Our analysis refers to the particular case of favoritism in the work of university selection committees responsible for career...

  1. The malleability of gender stereotypes: influence of population size on perceptions of men and women in the past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Müller, Stephanie M; López-Zafra, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on the malleability of gender stereotypes show that they are flexible, dynamic structures that change with the passage of time. In a study, we examined perceptions about men and women of the past, present, and future in Spain and focused on the influence of an important demographic variable on these perceptions: the population size of people's location of residence. Results showed that people perceived an increase in similarity of men and women from the past to the present and from the present to the future. In less-populated locations, however, men and women were more gender stereotyped and, consequently, still perceived to be further from equality than those in more populated areas. We concluded that the study of dynamic gender stereotypes benefits from extensive research in populations that vary in their demographic characteristics and shows the importance of recent movements in rural areas supporting women's participation in the modernization process.

  2. The Interaction between Gender Stereotypes and Life Values as Factors in the Choice of Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    The author states that, the sex-role identity of both men and women forms and changes as a function of the conditions of upbringing, schooling, and the degree of pressure of sex-role stereotypes that are instilled by the mass media. In spite of the proclaimed "equal opportunities" for men and women when it comes to acquiring some…

  3. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Academic Procrastination, Satisfaction with Academic Life and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Procrastination has become one of the most researched topics due its adverse effects on the both general and student population in social sciences. The general tendency toward delaying academic tasks has been conceptualized as academic procrastination in academic setting. It is a prevalent issue among students and a numerous students…

  4. Limits to meritocracy? Gender in academic recruitment and promotion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, women researchers are sometimes at a disadvantage in academic recruitment due to insufficient network ties and subtle gender biases among evaluators. But how exactly do highly formal recruitment procedures allow space for mobilizing informal, potentially gendered......, network ties? Focusing on the preliminary stages of recruitment, this study covers an underexposed aspect of women’s underrepresentation in academia. By combining recruitment statistics and interviews with department heads at a Danish university, it identifies a discrepancy between the institutionalized...... beliefs among managers in the meritocracy and the de facto functioning of the recruitment procedures. Of the vacancies for associate- and full professorships, 40% have one applicant, and 19% are announced under closed procedures with clear implications for gender stratification. The interviews reveal...

  5. On the Gender-Science Stereotypes held by Scientists: Explicit accord with Gender-Ratios, Implicit accord with Scientific Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick L Smyth; Brian A. Nosek; Brian A. Nosek

    2015-01-01

    Women’s representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women’s representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men’s, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and sc...

  6. Leveraging the Social Role of Dad to Change Gender Stereotypes of Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bernadette; Banchefsky, Sarah

    2018-04-01

    Trait stereotypes of men tend to be more fixed and negative than those of women. The current studies test whether stereotypes of men can be shifted through leveraging their social role as fathers. Trait attributes perceived to characterize women and moms were highly redundant, but those of men and dads were less so; moreover, men were perceived more negatively than dads, women, and moms (Study 1). Perceivers for whom the social role father was made salient rated men more similarly to dads, and no less similarly to men, and rated men more positively relative to a control condition (Study 2). Finally, among men, a threat to the category men resulted in greater opposition to benevolent social policies, but not if the social role father was primed (Study 3). Discussion focuses on positive consequences of increasing the psychological connection between men and fatherhood.

  7. Ingredients of gender-based stereotypes about food. Indirect influence of food type, portion size and presentation on gendered intentions to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger) × 2 (portion size: small vs. big) × 2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered "feminine food", and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender differences in promotions and scholarly productivity in academic urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Mohannad A; Gaither, Thomas W; Osterberg, E Charles; Yang, Glen; Greene, Kirsten L; Weiss, Dana A; Anger, Jennifer T; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-10-01

    The gender demographics within urology are changing as more women are entering the workforce. Since research productivity strongly influence career advancement, we aim to characterize gender differences in scholarly productivity and promotions in a cohort of graduated academic urologists. Urologists who graduated between 2002 and 2008 from 34 residency programs affiliated with the top 50 urology hospitals as ranked in 2009 by U.S. News & World Report were followed longitudinally. Only urologists affiliated with an academic teaching hospital were included for analysis. A total of 543 residents graduated, 459 (84.5%) males and 84 (15.5%) females. Of these, 173 entered academia, 137 (79.2%) males and 36 (20.8%) females. Women had fewer publications compared to men (mean 19.3 versus 61.7, p = 0.001). Fewer women compared to men were promoted from assistant professor 11 (30.6%) versus 83 (60.6%), p = 0.005. Fewer women achieved associate professor 10 (27.8%) versus 67 (48.9%), p = 0.005 or professor ranks 1 (2.8%) versus 16 (11.7%), p = 0.005 respectively compared to men. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, after controlling for the number of total publications and number of years since graduation, gender was not predictive of achieving promotion, OR = 0.81 (95% CI 0.31-2.13), p = 0.673. Women are underrepresented in senior faculty roles in urology. Scholarly productivity seems to play a major role in academic promotion within urology. With increasing women in academic urology, further studies are needed to explore predictors of promotion and how women can achieve higher leadership roles in the field.

  9. Gender Stereotypes in Cinderella (ATU 510A and The Princess on the Glass Mountain (ATU 530

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärri Toomeos-Orglaan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the best-known role-based stereotypes in European fairy tales is that of an active male and a passive female. Awareness of such a stereotype is connected with the feminist approach that criticises the domination of the male point of view in fairy tales and the depiction of women from the position of men. The article focuses on analysing if and how the stereotype is realised in the context of two fairy tale types – Cinderella (ATU 510A and The Princess on the Glass Mountain (ATU 530. According to Bengt Holbek, fairy tales as symbolic texts are closely connected to the real world as they refer to the latter through fantastic phenomena and events. Holbek is interested in the meaning of magical elements in the living tradition: according to him the world of fairy tales does not reflect the real world directly, but reveals the storytellers’ and their audiences’ ideas of what the latter should be like. What emerges as an important question is whose vision is transmitted by such fairy tale interpretations; whether researchers are able to interpret the meanings the tales might have had for the storytellers, or whether it is just the viewpoint of the researcher that is reflected.

  10. Recognizing the centrality of gender identity and stereotype knowledge in gender development and moving toward theoretical integration: reply to Bandura and Bussey (2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N; Szkrybalo, Joel

    2004-09-01

    Most of the critique in the A. Bandura and K. Bussey (see record 2004-18097-001) commentary is a misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the points made by C. L. Martin, D. N. Ruble, and J. Szkrybalo in their 2002 Psychological Bulletin article (see record 2002-18663-003). First, Martin et al. never intended to present a comprehensive theory; instead, it was a review of 2 different cognitive approaches to gender development. Second, there is no time line test that has been failed; instead, gender cognitions may occur earlier than initially believed. Third, Bandura and Bussey dismissed central gender cognitions-gender identity and gender stereotype knowledge-despite considerable evidence in their support. Fourth, Bandura and Bussey never addressed the gaps and ambiguities inherent in their theory that Martin et al. questioned in their earlier article. Finally, Bandura and Bussey's misunderstandings of cognitive theorists' views on socialization agents, sociocultural influences, agency, and motivation created theoretical rifts where none exist. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  11. An Action Five Strategy For Bridging The Gender Gap In Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic research and productivity remain major criteria for determining productivity among university academics. Faculty progress and success are measured by their research productions. In the search for gender equality in higher education, the gender gaps in academic research productions raise concerns. Not only ...

  12. Why Are Women Underrepresented in Computer Science? Gender Differences in Stereotypes, Self-Efficacy, Values, and Interests and Predictors of Future CS Course-Taking and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses why women are underrepresented in Computer Science (CS). Data from 1319 American first-year college students (872 female and 447 male) indicate that gender differences in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personality exist. If students had had a positive experience in their…

  13. [An Investigation of Factors Associated with Emotional Exhaustion among Hospital Nurses: Adherence to "Maternal Affection" and Agreement with Stereotypical Gender Roles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Rei; Nomura, Kyoko; Hiraike, Haruko; Murakami, Aya; Tanabe, Ayumi; Tsuchiya, Akiko; Okinaga, Hiroko

    2018-01-01

    To investigate factors including adherence to "maternal affection" and stereotypical gender roles associated with emotional exhaustion among hospital nurses. In 2014, among 2,690 workers recruited for this study, 891 participated with written informed consent. Of these, we investigated 464 hospital nurses. Adherence to maternal affection and emotional exhaustion were measured using valid and reliable scales developed by Egami (2005, 12 items) and Kubo (1992, 5 items), respectively. Stereotypical gender role was measured by asking "how much do you agree with the idea that women should stay home and men should work?". Workfamily conflict was measured in terms of the discrepancy in priority in life (i.e., a work or a private life) between the participant's ideal and the real world. The majority of our participants were women (86%), aged 39 or younger (80%), and single (70%). About one-quarter had workfamily conflict (26%) and agreed with the stereotypical gender role (28%). The mean scores of emotional exhaustion and adherence to maternal affection were 17.2 (out of 25) and 30.8 (out of 48), respectively. A stepwise multivariable model showed that being a woman (p=0.028), being young (p=0.022), being single (p=0.007), and having workfamily conflict (pgender role were not significantly associated with emotional exhaustion. This study demonstrated that adherence to "maternal affection" and stereotypical gender roles were not associated with psychological burnout. Special attention should be paid to hospital nurses who are women, young, or single, or who have workfamily conflict.

  14. Pretty as a Princess: Longitudinal Effects of Engagement with Disney Princesses on Gender Stereotypes, Body Esteem, and Prosocial Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Nelson, David A.; Birkbeck, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    This study examined level of engagement with Disney Princess media/products as it relates to gender-stereotypical behavior, body esteem (i.e. body image), and prosocial behavior during early childhood. Participants consisted of 198 children (M[subscript age] = 58 months), who were tested at two time points (approximately 1 year apart). Data…

  15. Re-thinking gender (in)equality within the South African academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of gender (in)equality in the South African society has featured prominently in the recent past. In this article the researchers attempt to determine the extent of gender (in)equality in the South African academic profession, by means of gender responses to five work-related aspects of the academic profession.

  16. Perceived gender-based barriers to careers in academic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Amalia; Hauschild, Tricia; Elder, William B; Neumayer, Leigh A; Brasel, Karen J; Crandall, Marie L

    2013-08-01

    Women represent roughly 50% of US medical students and one third of US surgery residents. Within academic surgery departments, however, women are disproportionately underrepresented, particularly at senior levels. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that female surgeons perceive different barriers to academic careers relative to their male colleagues. A modified version of the Career Barriers Inventory-Revised was administered to senior surgical residents and early-career surgical faculty members at 8 academic medical centers using an online survey tool. Likert-type scales were used to measure respondents' agreement with each survey item. Fisher's exact test was used to identify significant differences on the basis of gender. Respondents included 70 women (44 residents, 26 faculty members) and 84 men (41 residents, 43 faculty members). Women anticipated or perceived active discrimination in the form of being treated differently and experiencing negative comments about their sex, findings that differed notably from those for male counterparts. Sex-based negative attitudes inhibited the career aspirations of female surgeons. The presence of overt and implicit bias resulted in a sense that sex is a barrier to female surgeons' career development in academic surgery. No differences were observed between male and female respondents with regard to career preparation or structural barriers. Female academic surgeons experience challenges that are perceived to differ from their male counterparts. Women who participated in this study reported feeling excluded from the dominant culture in departments of surgery. This study may help guide transformative initiatives within academic surgery departments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Persistence of Gender Stereotypes in Teaching History. A Study Through Textbooks and Perceptions of Students in Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Jesús Gómez-Carrasco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the persistence of gender stereotypes in History Education. This study is conducted through an iconographic analysis of textbooks and the perception of students in Secondary Education in Spain. The educational reforms carried out in Spain over the last twenty five years have improved some aspects of gender equality, especially the introduction of some cross-cutting themes related to this subject. However, investigations related to sexism in school materials have revealed the persistence of some gender clichés. To do this research, we have analysed 128 pictures on three History textbooks for fourth grade students of Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain. In the analysis, various categories were combined and they allowed a multifactorial study. Furthermore, these data have been contrasted with the answers given to a questionnaire on gender stereotypes by 152 students of two grades. The results show that, despite the improvement of textbooks, an imbalance still survives in the representation of male and female genders and in the images associated with them. In the answers to the questionnaire, disparate findings are also perceived. Although some sexist prejudices seem to be overcome, especially those related to the role of men and women at home, images and negative stereotypes about gender relations and women’s role still persist.

  18. A meta-analysis of gender stereotypes and bias in experimental simulations of employment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Amanda J; D'Mello, Susan D; Sackett, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Gender bias continues to be a concern in many work settings, leading researchers to identify factors that influence workplace decisions. In this study we examine several of these factors, using an organizing framework of sex distribution within jobs (including male- and female-dominated jobs as well as sex-balanced, or integrated, jobs). We conducted random effects meta-analyses including 136 independent effect sizes from experimental studies (N = 22,348) and examined the effects of decision-maker gender, amount and content of information available to the decision maker, type of evaluation, and motivation to make careful decisions on gender bias in organizational decisions. We also examined study characteristics such as type of participant, publication year, and study design. Our findings revealed that men were preferred for male-dominated jobs (i.e., gender-role congruity bias), whereas no strong preference for either gender was found for female-dominated or integrated jobs. Second, male raters exhibited greater gender-role congruity bias than did female raters for male-dominated jobs. Third, gender-role congruity bias did not consistently decrease when decision makers were provided with additional information about those they were rating, but gender-role congruity bias was reduced when information clearly indicated high competence of those being evaluated. Fourth, gender-role congruity bias did not differ between decisions that required comparisons among ratees and decisions made about individual ratees. Fifth, decision makers who were motivated to make careful decisions tended to exhibit less gender-role congruity bias for male-dominated jobs. Finally, for male-dominated jobs, experienced professionals showed smaller gender-role congruity bias than did undergraduates or working adults. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. The impact of gender stereotypes on the evaluation of general practitioners' communication skills: an experimental study using transcripts of physician-patient encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Jennifer; Demmel, Ralf

    2007-12-01

    The present study has been designed to test for the effect of physicians' gender on the perception and assessment of empathic communication in medical encounters. Eighty-eight volunteers were asked to assess six transcribed interactions between physicians and a standardized patient. The effects of physicians' gender were tested by the experimental manipulation of physicians' gender labels in transcripts. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two testing conditions: (1) perceived gender corresponds to the physician's true gender; (2) perceived gender differs from the physician's true gender. Empathic communication was assessed using the Rating Scales for the Assessment of Empathic Communication in Medical Interviews. A 2 (physician's true gender: female vs. male)x2 (physician's perceived gender: female vs. male)x2 (rater's gender: female vs. male) mixed multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) yielded a main effect for physician's true gender. Female physicians were rated higher on empathic communication than male physicians irrespective of any gender labels. The present findings suggest that gender differences in the perception of physician's empathy are not merely a function of the gender label. These findings provide evidence for differences in male and female physicians' empathic communication that cannot be attributed to stereotype bias. Future efforts to evaluate communication skills training for general practitioners may consider gender differences.

  20. Gender disparities in research productivity among 9952 academic physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Svider, Peter F; Cherla, Deepa V; Diaz, Lucia; Kovalerchik, Olga; Mauro, Kevin M; Baredes, Soly; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S

    2013-08-01

    The number of women in medicine has increased considerably over the past 3 decades, and they now comprise approximately half of medical school matriculants. We examine whether gender disparities in research productivity are present throughout various specialties and compare these findings to those previously described among otolaryngologists. Bibliometric analysis. Research productivity, measured by the h-index, was calculated for 9,952 academic physicians representing 34 medical specialties. Additionally, trends in how rate of research productivity changed throughout different career stages were compared. Women were underrepresented at the level of professor and in positions of departmental leadership relative to their representation among assistant and associate professors. Male faculty had statistically higher research productivity both overall (H = 10.3 ± 0.14 vs. 5.6 ± 0.14) and at all academic ranks. For the overall sample, men and women appeared to have equivalent rates of research productivity. In internal medicine, men had higher early-career productivity, while female faculty had productivity equaling and even surpassing that of their male colleagues beyond 20 to 25 years. Men and women had equivalent productivity in surgical specialties throughout their careers, and similar rates in pediatrics until 25 to 30 years. Female academic physicians have decreased research productivity relative to men, which may be one factor contributing to their underrepresentation at the level of professor and departmental leader relative to their proportions in junior academic ranks. Potential explanations may include fewer woman physicians in the age groups during which higher academic ranks are attained, greater family responsibilities, and greater involvement in clinical service and educational contributions. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Gender, Academic Careers and the Sabbatical: A New Zealand Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Spronken-Smith, R.; Stringer, R.; Wilson, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines academics' access to and perceptions of sabbaticals at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Statistical and inductive analysis of survey data from 915 academics (47% of all academics employed) revealed inequalities in access to and experience of sabbaticals, and highlighted academic, personal and gender issues. Men…

  2. Assessing gender equity in a large academic department of pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotbart, Harley A; McMillen, Deborah; Taussig, Heather; Daniels, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    To determine the extent of gender inequity in a large academic pediatrics department and to demonstrate an assessment methodology other departments can use. Using deidentified data, the authors evaluated all promotion track faculty in the University of Colorado School of Medicine's Department of Pediatrics in 2009 by five parameters: promotion, tenure, leadership roles, faculty retention, and salary. Outcome metrics included time to promotion and at rank; awards of tenure, time to tenure, and time tenured; departmental leadership positions in 2009; attrition rates from 2000 to 2009; and salary in academic year 2008-2009 compared with national benchmarks. Women constituted 54% (60/112) of assistant professors and 56% (39/70) of associate professors but only 23% (19/81) of professors. Average years to promotion at each rank and years at assistant and associate professor were identical for men and women; male professors held their rank six years longer. Only 18% (9/50) of tenured faculty were women. Men held 75% (18/24) of section head and 83% (6/7) of vice chair positions; women held 62% (13/21) of medical director positions. More women than men retired as associate professors and resigned/relocated as professors. Women's pay (98% of national median salary) was lower than men's (105% of median) across all ranks and specialties. These gender disparities were due in part to women's later start in academics and the resulting lag time in promotion. Differences in the awarding of tenure, assignment of leadership roles, faculty retention, and salary may also have played important roles.

  3. Gender difference in academic planning activity among medical students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy Van Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, as doctor of medicine is socially considered a special career, both men and women who are enrolled in medical universities often study topics of medicine seriously. However, as culturally expected, women often perform better than men. Because of this, teaching leadership and management skill (LMS to develop academic planning activity (APA for female medical students would also be expected to be more effective than male counterparts. This research aimed to compare by gender the effect of teaching LMS on increasing APA, using propensity score matching (PSM. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey utilizing a self-reported structured questionnaire on a systematic random sample of 421 male and female medical students in Hanoi Medical University, this study adopted first regression techniques to construct a fit model, then PSM to create a matched control group in order to allow for evaluating the effect of LMS education. RESULTS: There were several interesting gender differences. First, while for females LMS education had both direct and indirect effects on APA, it had only direct effect on males' APA. Second, after PSM to adjust for the possible confounders to balance statistically two groups - with and without LMS education, there is statistically a significant difference in APA between male and female students, making a net difference of 11% (p<.01, equivalent to 173 students. The difference in APA between exposed and matched control group in males and females was 9% and 20%, respectively. These estimates of 9.0 and 20.0 percentage point increase can be translated into the practice of APA by 142 males and 315 females, respectively, in the population. These numbers of APA among male and female students can be explained by LMS education. CONCLUSIONS: Gender appears to be a factor explaining in part academic planning activity.

  4. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: A registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backhans Mona

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. Methods The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120. A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978–1979 and full-time work for mothers (1980. The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981–2001. Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. Results The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. Conclusion A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood.

  5. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: A registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Backhans, Mona; Hallqvist, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Background In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. Methods The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120). A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978–1979) and full-time work for mothers (1980). The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981–2001). Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. Results The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. Conclusion A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood. PMID:18793385

  6. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: a registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Backhans, Mona; Hallqvist, Johan

    2008-09-15

    In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120). A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978-1979) and full-time work for mothers (1980). The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981-2001). Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood.

  7. Gender stereotypes in management: a comparative study of communist and postcommunist Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Boroş, Smaranda

    2011-08-01

    This study sets out to investigate the changes in the perception of women in leading positions in communist and postcommunist Romania. The study uses a noninvasive paradigm of analyzing the content of obituaries for women and men in leading positions published in a national journal, and shows that the gender gap in management widened during the postcommunist period. In postcommunist Romania, women are perceived as being less able to lead/manage and more relational in their leadership style as compared to men, while in the communist period the gender differences were not significant.

  8. Expressing pride: Effects on perceived agency, communality, and stereotype-based gender disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosi, Prisca; Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Heilman, Madeline E

    2016-09-01

    Two experimental studies were conducted to investigate how the expression of pride shapes agency-related and communality-related judgments, and how those judgments differ when the pride expresser is a man or a woman. Results indicated that the expression of pride (as compared to the expression of happiness) had positive effects on perceptions of agency and inferences about task-oriented leadership competence, and negative effects on perceptions of communality and inferences about people-oriented leadership competence. Pride expression also elevated ascriptions of interpersonal hostility. For agency-related judgments and ascriptions of interpersonal hostility, these effects were consistently stronger when the pride expresser was a woman than a man. Moreover, the expression of pride was found to affect disparities in judgments about men and women, eliminating the stereotype-consistent differences that were evident when happiness was expressed. With a display of pride women were not seen as any more deficient in agency-related attributes and competencies, nor were they seen as any more exceptional in communality-related attributes and competencies, than were men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Understanding the Gender Gap in Mathematics Achievement: The Role of Self-Efficacy and Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwery, Denise; Hulac, David; Schweinle, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This literature review provides school psychologists with an understanding of the important issues related to the gender gap in mathematics achievement. The extant literature suggests that girls tend to receive lower scores than boys on standardized math tests, but in general these differences tend to be small. However, girls have better classroom…

  10. "...But that's Just the Stereotype": Gender and Ethnicity in Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Tehmina N.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of gender and ethnicity in young minority ethnic British citizens' transition to adulthood. As part of a larger study using a mixed methods approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young men and women aged 14-24 at different stages of education, employment and non-employment. By employing Bourdieu's…

  11. Challenging Gender Stereotypes through Literature: Picture Books with Strong Female Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Kay A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of using picture books to encourage development of gender role equity. Provides guidelines for selection of children's literature with capable female characters. Includes examples from recently published picture books. Presents discussion questions that teachers might use to help students focus on female character…

  12. Gender Stereotyping and the Influence of Race in Sport among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, James; Soohoo, Sonya; Reel, Justine; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    One of the most dreaded insults in sports is, "You throw like a girl," because it epitomizes society's gender logic about physiological differences between men and women. Although physiological differences between the sexes exist, people label these abilities and behaviors as masculine or feminine as a result of social and cultural expectations.…

  13. Do Women Prefer Pink? : The Effect of a Gender Stereotypical Stock Portfolio on Investing Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prast, H.M.; Rossi, M.; Torricelli, C.; Druta, C.

    We investigate whether lack of familiarity may contribute to an explanation of the gender gap in stock market participation and risk taking. We use ads in widely read women magazines to select companies that we assume to be more familiar to women than to men, and construct a “pink” portfolio. We

  14. Do women prefer pink? : The effect of a gender stereotypical stock portfolio on investing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prast, Henriette; Rossi, M.; Torricelli, C.; Sansone, D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether lack of familiarity may contribute to an explanation of the gender gap in stock market participation and risk taking. We use ads in widely read women magazines to select companies that we assume to be more familiar to women than to men, and construct a “pink” portfolio. We

  15. Gender Stereotypic Interest Patterns as Determinants of Cognitive Abilities in Transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Mark R.; Heritage, Jeanette G.

    The designation "transsexual" refers to those who persistently believe their gender to be incongruous with their anatomical morphology. This study involves a group of 21 female sexual reversal surgery (SRS) candidates and a group of 59 male SRS candidates to observe if transsexual cognitive ability patterns are correlated with levels of…

  16. Gender Discrimination as a Function of Stereotypic and Counterstereotypic Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Thalma E.; Mashraki-Pedhatzur, Sharon; Mantzur, Ahmed; Libby, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Investigated seventh graders' gender discrimination from a cross-cultural perspective. Israeli Arabs and Jews rated two hypothetical male candidates for class representative (who were generally masculine or outstandingly feminine) on their beliefs about their ability to be elected and their willingness to interact with them. Both groups…

  17. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-12-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.

  18. The Development of Children's Gender-Science Stereotypes: A Meta-analysis of 5 Decades of U.S. Draw-A-Scientist Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David I; Nolla, Kyle M; Eagly, Alice H; Uttal, David H

    2018-03-20

    This meta-analysis, spanning 5 decades of Draw-A-Scientist studies, examined U.S. children's gender-science stereotypes linking science with men. These stereotypes should have weakened over time because women's representation in science has risen substantially in the United States, and mass media increasingly depict female scientists. Based on 78 studies (N = 20,860; grades K-12), children's drawings of scientists depicted female scientists more often in later decades, but less often among older children. Children's depictions of scientists therefore have become more gender diverse over time, but children still associate science with men as they grow older. These results may reflect that children observe more male than female scientists in their environments, even though women's representation in science has increased over time. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  19. Gender stereotypes and superior conformity of the self in a sample of cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félonneau, Marie-Line; Causse, Elsa; Constant, Aymery; Contrand, Benjamin; Messiah, Antoine; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    In the field of driving, people tend to think they are more competent and more cautious than others. This is the superior conformity of the self (SCS). Our main hypothesis was that, among cyclists, women would show a higher SCS on cautiousness, though men would show a higher SCS concerning competence. 1799 cyclists provided a self-assessment of their own cautiousness and of other people's cautiousness. The same procedure was used for competence. Consistent with the hypothesis, the SCS was gender-specific: it was more prominent for women concerning cautiousness and more prominent for men concerning competence. These results could explain why people tend to ignore the safety campaigns. They also indicate the importance of adapting messages concerning safety measures to gender. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Career Advancement Outcomes in Academic Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): Gender, Mentoring Resources, and Homophily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement…

  1. Single-Parent Families: The Role of Parent's and Child's Gender on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Kushner, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Using national survey data, the present study investigated whether adolescents living with parents of their same gender fare better on academic achievement than their peers living with opposite-gender parents. Multiple analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) procedures were employed to examine the effects of the children's gender in single-father and…

  2. Disinhibition of stereotyping: Context, prejudice, and target characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawakami, K.L.; Spears, R.; Dovidio, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    The present research examined the moderating influences of individual differences in sexism on the application of gender stereotypes to stereotypic versus nonstereotypic targets as a function of contexts that induced sex stereotypic or counterstereotypic responses. Specifically, participants first

  3. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  4. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.

  5. Pretty in pink: The early development of gender-stereotyped colour preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobue, Vanessa; Deloache, Judy S

    2011-09-01

    Parents commonly dress their baby girls in pink and their baby boys in blue. Although there is research showing that children prefer the colour blue to other colours (regardless of gender), there is no evidence that girls actually have a special preference for the colour pink. This is the focus of the current investigation. In a large cross-sectional study, children aged 7 months to 5 years were offered eight pairs of objects and asked to choose one. In every pair, one of the objects was always pink. By the age of 2, girls chose pink objects more often than boys did, and by the age of 2.5, they had a significant preference for the colour pink over other colours. At the same time, boys showed an increasing avoidance of pink. These results thus reveal that sex differences in young children's preference for the colour pink involves both an increasing attraction to pink by young girls and a growing avoidance of pink by boys. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Co-educar la mirada contra los estereotipos de género en TV Co-educating the gaze against gender stereotypes in TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Belmonte Arocha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan en este trabajo un conjunto de series de televisión que plantean una representación estereotípica de los géneros. Pese a su aparente modernidad, múltiples productos culturales-televisivos siguen siendo portadores de discursos que reproducen la desigualdad en la representación de lo femenino y lo masculino, a través de estereotipos de género que actúan como modelos de desigualdad para la construcción de identidad de sus jóvenes espectadores. Frente a ellas, una alfabetización audiovisual, desde un enfoque coeducativo, podría ser un buen instrumento contra la desigualdad. TV serials analyzed in this paper show a representation of stereotyped gender. These cultural products, despite its apparent modernity, reproduce inequalities in the representation of the feminine and masculine through gender stereotypes which are sexist models for the construction of gender identity among its young viewers. Besides, a gender and co-education approach for an audiovisual alphabetization should be a good way against inequality.

  7. Stereotype or grammar? The representation of gender when two-year-old and three-year-old French-speaking toddlers listen to role nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Arik; Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute; Zesiger, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Using a preferential looking paradigm, the current study examined the role that grammatical gender plays when preschool French-speaking toddlers process role nouns in the masculine form (e.g., chanteurs masculine 'singers'). While being auditorily prompted with "Look at the 'a role noun'!", two- and three-year-olds were presented with two pictures of two characters ('boy-boy' versus 'girl-boy') with attributes of the given role noun (e.g., singers with microphone and music notes). All role nouns were presented in the masculine plural form, which, despite its use to refer to mixed-gender groups, can be interpreted as referring to men. We expected toddlers to be biased by stereotypes, yet when non-stereotypical role nouns were presented, toddlers were not influenced by grammatical gender, but by their own sex (even more so for three-year-old toddlers). The absence of sensitivity to grammatical cues for either age group is discussed in terms of the developmental awareness of grammatical gender.

  8. Gender differences in promotion and scholarly impact: an analysis of 1460 academic ophthalmologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Santiago A; Svider, Peter F; Misra, Poonam; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Langer, Paul D; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, gender differences in academic promotion have been documented within surgical fields. To the best of our knowledge, gender discrepancies in association with scholarly productivity have not been well assessed among academic ophthalmologists. Because research productivity is strongly associated with academic career advancement, we sought to determine whether gender differences in scholarly impact, measured by the h-index, exist among academic ophthalmologists. Academic rank and gender were determined using faculty listings from academic ophthalmology departments. h-index and publication experience (in years) of faculty members were determined using the Scopus database. Academic medical center. From assistant professor through professor, the h-index increased with subsequent academic rank (p 0.05). Overall, men had higher h-indices (h = 10.4 ± 0.34 standard error of mean) than women (h = 6.0 ± 0.38 standard error of mean), a finding that was only statistically significant among assistant professors in a subgroup analysis. Women were generally underrepresented among senior positions. When controlling for publication range (i.e., length of time publishing), men had higher h-indices among those with 1 to 10 years of publication experience (p careers. Women in academic ophthalmology continue to be underrepresented among senior faculty. Although women surpass men in scholarly productivity during the later stages of their careers, low scholarly impact during the earlier stages may impede academic advancement and partly explain the gender disparity in senior academic positions. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotional Intelligence and its Relationship with Gender, Academic Performance and Intellectual Abilities of Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez Sierra, Maria de los Dolores; Borges del Rosal, Maria Africa; Ruvalcaba Romero, Norma; Villegas, Karina; Lorenzo, Maryurena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional intelligence has been linked to several variables, such as gender, and academic performance. In the area of high intellectual abilities, the literature shows controversy, without a unanimous result on the relationship between both variables. In the present study we analyzed the modulatory effect has academic performance in…

  10. Gender Inequality and Research Performance: Moving beyond Individual-Meritocratic Explanations of Academic Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2016-01-01

    Academic debates addressing the persistent gender gap in science reveal considerable contestation of the relevance and extent of the problem. Particular attention has been given to the question of whether women's high attrition rates should be ascribed to the structural and cultural barriers inherent to the academic system or instead…

  11. Support to Academic Based Research on Leadership Vision and Gender Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Sally

    1997-01-01

    .... Support to Academic Based Research on Leadership Vision and Gender Implications suggests that additional scholarly research, including that which can be leveraged by the U.S. Army from academic institutional efforts, is necessary to achieve the vision of the fourth AWC and to support the U.S. Army in its re-engineering efforts.

  12. Learned Helplessness and Psychological Adjustment: Effects of Age, Gender and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valas, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Studied the relationships among academic achievement, learned helplessness, and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depression), controlled for gender and age, for 1,580 students with data collected in grades 3 and 4, 6 and 7, and 8 and 9. Results show that academic achievement is directly and indirectly related to the pattern of…

  13. Gender Differences in First-Year College Students' Academic Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, António M.; Alfonso, Sonia; Araújo, Alexandra M.; Deaño, Manuel; Costa, Alexandra R.; Conde, Ângeles; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2018-01-01

    Based on a multidimensional definition of academic expectations (AEs), the authors examine students' AE component scores across countries and genders. Two samples (343 Portuguese and 358 Spanish students) completed the Academic Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ) six months after enrolling in their universities. Factorial invariance was ensured across…

  14. Mapping Women's and Gender Studies in the Academic Field in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Milica Antic

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to map the development of women's and gender studies (WGS) in the academic field in Slovenia. Slovenia is the first of the former Yugoslav state republics in which WGS have succeeded in entering the academic field and becoming part of institutionalised university study. In this paper we will ask the following…

  15. College Students' Academic Motivation: Differences by Gender, Class, and Source of Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; LeBlanc, Michael; McKnight, Kelly R.; Lei, Ting

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe college students' (n = 856) gender, year in school and source of tuition funding in relation to their academic motivation. The design was cross-sectional and used cluster sampling. The Academic Motivation Scale was used to measure students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as well as amotivation. Three…

  16. The Influence of Dispositional Optimism and Gender on Adolescents' Perception of Academic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Vivien S.; Yeo, Lay See; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of optimism together with gender, on students' perception of academic stress. Four hundred and thirty secondary school students from Singapore participated in this study and data were collected using two self-report measures: the Life Orientation Test and the Academic Expectation Stress Inventory. Results revealed…

  17. Gender Divergence in Academics' Representation and Research Productivity: A Nigerian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opesade, Adeola Omobola; Famurewa, Kofoworola Folakemi; Igwe, Ebelechukwu Gloria

    2017-01-01

    Gender equity is increasingly seen as an indicator of development and global acceptance in networks of higher education. Despite this, gender divergence in research productivity of academics coupled with under-representation of women in science has been reported to beset female's scholarly activities. Previous studies provide differing results,…

  18. Longitudinal Cross-Gender Factorial Invariance of the Academic Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouzet, Frederick M. E.; Otis, Nancy; Pelletier, Luc G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and latent construct invariance of the Academic Motivation Scale (Vallerand, Blais, Brier, & Pelletier, 1989; Vallerand et al., 1992, 1993) across both gender and time. An integrative analytical strategy was used to assess in one set of nested models both longitudinal and cross-gender invariance, and…

  19. The effect of stereotypes and prejudices regarding gender roles on the relation between nurses and "Muslim fathers" in health institutions within the Community of Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pascual, Juan Luis; Esteban-Gonzalo, Laura; Rodríguez-García, Marta; Gómez-Cantarino, Sagrario; Moreno-Preciado, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Modern Western societies are characterized by a considerable cultural and ethnic diversity whereby different groups and minorities live side by side. However, not all people are viewed in the same light by the autochthonous population. This is particularly true in the case of Muslim immigrants, who are often prone to negative stereotyping and prejudice. This has become increasingly apparent since the 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and the subsequent attacks in various Western countries. This study seeks to analyze the relation between female nurses and those labeled by nurses as "Muslim fathers," as part of a research project on the care of immigrant children in Madrid (Spain). The findings promote reflection on the effects of nurses' stereotypes and prejudices regarding the gender roles of "Muslim fathers" and the relations between these groups. These prejudices can lead to situations of cultural imposition and/or discrimination. Self-reflection regarding stereotypes and prejudices is necessary in order to provide culturally competent care. The anthropobiological approach by Marie Françoise Collière may be useful for extending this type of care universally, not only to immigrant groups, as everyone, including nurses, patients, and family members, belong to part of a specific sociocultural context. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A "ton of feathers": gender discrimination in academic medical careers and how to manage it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Phyllis L; Szalacha, Laura; Barnett, Rosalind; Caswell, Cheryl; Inui, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the experience of gender discrimination among a limited sample of women in academic medicine, specifically, the role of discrimination in hindering careers, coping mechanisms, and perceptions of what institutions and leaders of academic medicine can do to improve the professional workplace climate for women. In-depth, semistructured telephonic individual interviews of 18 women faculty who experienced or may have experienced discrimination in the course of their professional academic medical careers from 13 of the 24 institutions of the National Faculty Survey. A consensus taxonomy for classifying content evolved from comparisons of coding. Themes expressed by multiple faculty were studied for patterns of connection and grouped into broader categories. Forty percent of respondents ranked gender discrimination first out of 11 possible choices for hindering their career in academic medicine. Thirty-five percent ranked gender discrimination second to either "limited time for professional work" or "lack of mentoring." Respondents rated themselves as poorly prepared to deal with gender discrimination and noted effects on professional self-confidence, self-esteem, collegiality, isolation, and career satisfaction. The hierarchical structure in academe is perceived to work against women, as there are few women at the top. Women faculty who have experienced gender discrimination perceive that little can be done to directly address this issue. Institutions need to be proactive and recurrently evaluate the gender climate, as well as provide transparent information and fair scrutiny of promotion and salary decisions. According to this subset of women who perceive that they have been discriminated against based on gender, sexual bias and discrimination are subtly pervasive and powerful. Such environments may have consequences for both women faculty and academic medicine, affecting morale and dissuading younger trainees from entering academic careers. Medical schools

  1. A gender-based comparison of promotion and research productivity in academic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ann M; Gupta, Arjun B; John, Elizabeth S; Lopez, Santiago A; Lambert, William Clark

    2016-04-18

    Gender disparities within academic promotion have been reported in several medical specialties. Female representationin association with research productivity has not been reported among academic dermatologists. As research productivity is a heavily weighted factor in determining promotion, we sought to determine whether gender disparities in academic rank and scholarly impact, measured by the h-index, exist in academic dermatology. In 2015, the authors determined gender and academic rank using academic dermatology department websites. H- index and publication range were determined using the Scopus database. Rank, h-index, and publication range were compared between male and female academic dermatologists. The h-index of academic dermatologists increased with successive academic rank from Assistant Professor through Professor (p<0.001), although no significant difference existed between Chairs and Professors. Publication range also increased with each successive rank from Assistant Professor through Professor (p<0.001), with no statistical significant difference between publication range of Chairs and Professors. Overall, men had higher h-indices than female colleagues (p<0.001). This difference was maintained when controlling for academic rank among Assistant Professors, Professors, and Chairs and when controlling for publication range in years. Women in academic dermatology are underrepresented among senior academic ranks. The difference in scholarly productivity between male and female academic dermatologists may contribute to this disparity. Recommendation for earlyinvolvement in research activities may help minimize this gap.

  2. Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  3. Efforts Towards Gender Equity in Academic and Employment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job-opportunities specify educational levels, types and quality, which an applicant must have to secure the job opportunity. As such ... in narrowing down the gap between female and male university students' enrolment in academic programmes and academics, technical and administrative staff in employment opportunities.

  4. Research productivity and gender disparities: a look at academic plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Angie M; Mady, Leila J; Villanueva, Nathaniel L; Goljo, Erden; Svider, Peter F; Ciminello, Frank; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2014-01-01

    The h-index has utility in examining the contributions of faculty members by quantifying both the amount and the quality of research output and as such is a metric in approximating academic productivity. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the relationship between h-index and academic rank in plastic surgery and (2) to describe the current gender representation in academic plastic surgery to assess whether there are any gender disparities in academic productivity. The h-index was used to evaluate the research contributions of plastic surgeons from academic departments in the United States. There were 426 (84%) men and 79 (16%) women in our sample. Those in higher academic ranks had higher h-index scores (p productivity between men and women in assistant and associate professor positions (6.4 vs 5.1, respectively; p = 0.04). The h-index is able to objectively and reliably quantify academic productivity in plastic surgery. We found that h-indices increased with higher academic rank, and men had overall higher scores than their female colleagues. Adoption of this metric as an adjunct to other objective and subjective measures by promotions committees may provide a more reliable measure of research relevance and academic productivity in academic plastic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of and reasons, or excuses, for academic procrastination as a function of gender and academic grade level. In Study 1, a factor analysis of responses by 203 Turkish undergraduate students to an academic procrastination measure provided evidence of reliability and validity for the revised scale. In Study 2,784 students (363 women, 421 men; M age = 20.6 years, SD age = 1.74 years) completed the validated Turkish Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. The results were that 52% of students self-reported frequent academic procrastination, with male students reporting more frequent procrastination on academic tasks than female students. Significantly more female students than male students reported greater academic procrastination because of fear of failure and laziness; male students reported more academic procrastination as a result of risk taking and rebellion against control than did female students.

  6. Indicators of Esteem: Gender and Prestige in Academic Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Kelly; Howson, Camille Kandiko

    2016-01-01

    The continued gender imbalance in senior positions in higher education is a problem that persists despite decades of feminist research and publications in the area, as well as interventions in many countries to promote the advancement of women. In this article we view the issue of gender inequality through the lens of the prestige economy, which…

  7. Gender-role stereotypes and interpersonal behavior: How addicted patients view their ideal male and female therapist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Gijs, L.A.C.L.

    2000-01-01

    This study focuses on the influences of self-perceived interpersonal behavior of addicted inpatients (n = 107) on the stereotypes of their ideal male and female therapist. Based on the interpersonal model of personality patients were asked to describe their ideal male and female therapist.

  8. The Effects of Stereotyped Toys and Gender on Play Assessment in Children Aged 18-47 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Glover, Katrina Gill; Ruane, Amy; Ryalls, Brigette Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study in which children, ages 18-47 months (n=30), were observed for 30 minutes in a playroom to determine if: (1) stereotyped toys impact children's play; (2) their behavior influences cognitive development; and (3) which toys are appropriate for the assessment sessions. Includes references. (CMK)

  9. Gender Inequalities in Transnational Academic Mobility and the Ideal Type of Academic Entrepreneur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemann, Regula Julia

    2010-01-01

    Based on a study on academic career paths of PhD graduates in Switzerland, this paper is concerned with the individual and institutional factors that affect transnational academic mobility in the postdoctoral period. It will be argued that the institutionalisation of geographic mobility in academic career paths through research funding…

  10. Unsettling the yin-yang harmony: An analysis of gender inequalities in academic mobility among Chinese scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, M.W.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the gendered nature of international academic mobility. Drawing on a qualitative research on Chinese scholars who have professional mobility experiences overseas, specifically in Germany, the paper demonstrates how the practice, meanings and perceptions of academic mobility are

  11. Unsettling the yin-yang harmony: An analysis of gender inequalities in academic mobility among Chinese scholars

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, M.W.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the gendered nature of international academic mobility. Drawing on a qualitative research on Chinese scholars who have professional mobility experiences overseas, specifically in Germany, the paper demonstrates how the practice, meanings and perceptions of academic mobility are highly gendered. Research findings highlight how gender, intersecting with other axes of differences, shapes the power geometries of the transnationalized academic field, and in turn, facilitates ...

  12. Neural basis of stereotype-induced shifts in women's mental rotation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraga, Maryjane; Helt, Molly; Jacobs, Emily; Sullivan, Kerry

    2007-03-01

    Recent negative focus on women's academic abilities has fueled disputes over gender disparities in the sciences. The controversy derives, in part, from women's relatively poorer performance in aptitude tests, many of which require skills of spatial reasoning. We used functional magnetic imaging to examine the neural structure underlying shifts in women's performance of a spatial reasoning task induced by positive and negative stereotypes. Three groups of participants performed a task involving imagined rotations of the self. Prior to scanning, the positive stereotype group was exposed to a false but plausible stereotype of women's superior perspective-taking abilities; the negative stereotype group was exposed to the pervasive stereotype that men outperform women on spatial tasks; and the control group received neutral information. The significantly poorer performance we found in the negative stereotype group corresponded to increased activation in brain regions associated with increased emotional load. In contrast, the significantly improved performance we found in the positive stereotype group was associated with increased activation in visual processing areas and, to a lesser degree, complex working memory processes. These findings suggest that stereotype messages affect the brain selectively, with positive messages producing relatively more efficient neural strategies than negative messages.

  13. Collaboration in academic medicine: reflections on gender and advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Phyllis L; Pololi, Linda; Knight, Sharon; Conrad, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Collaboration in academic medicine is encouraged, yet no one has studied the environment in which faculty collaborate. The authors investigated how faculty experienced collaboration and the institutional atmosphere for collaboration. In 2007, as part of a qualitative study of faculty in five disparate U.S. medical schools, the authors interviewed 96 medical faculty at different career stages and in diverse specialties, with an oversampling of women, minorities, and generalists, regarding their perceptions and experiences of collaboration in academic medicine. Data analysis was inductive and driven by the grounded theory tradition. Female faculty expressed enthusiasm about the potential and process of collaboration; male faculty were more likely to focus on outcomes. Senior faculty experienced a more collaborative environment than early career faculty, who faced numerous barriers to collaboration: the hierarchy of medical academe, advancement criteria, and the lack of infrastructure supportive of collaboration. Research faculty appreciated shared ideas, knowledge, resources, and the increased productivity that could result from collaboration, but they were acutely aware that advancement requires an independent body of work, which was a major deterrent to collaboration among early career faculty. Academic medicine faculty have differing views on the impact and benefits of collaboration. Early career faculty face concerning obstacles to collaboration. Female faculty seemed more appreciative of the process of collaboration, which may be of importance for transitioning to a more collaborative academic environment. A reevaluation of effective benchmarks for promotion of faculty is warranted to address the often exclusive reliance on individualistic achievement.

  14. Avoiding the Issue of Gender in Japanese Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Baker, Dale; Sugi, Ayumi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Uysal, Sibel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how the patriarchal structure of Japanese society and its notions of women, femininity, and gendered stereotypes produced strong cultural barriers to increasing the participation of females in science education. Baseline data on attitudes toward science and the perceptions of gender issues in science education, academic major…

  15. YOU AND I ARE DIFFERENT, BUT THAT DOES NOT MAKE YOU BETTER. A STUDY ON GENDER STEREOTYPES AMONG STUDENTS OF MIDDLE SCHOOL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Raquel Baltazar-Rangel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest for knowing about the ways boys, girls and teenagers are solving their differences in the school context has grown considerably in the last lustrum. Overcoat when the preoccupation for giving an answer to the bullying behaviors is centered in the gender category. However, there are some behaviors that, without being considerate atypical, are creating a type of relations that conceal a way of violence and strengthen the traditional stereotypes. With the encourage for contributing in the construction of knowledge and alternatives, i propose to show what are the ideas that possess the student in the last grade of high school about the behaviors, attitudes, the activities and the gender geography and how they determine the agreements for living together. I ́m interested in bring out those behaviors from their familiar scope and that, from their first childhood until their adolescence, they have been reproducing in the daily life as they are part of the institutionalized practices. Furthermore, beginning with the idea that the primary apprenticeships endow the human of experiences that determine his interaction with other humans. From the information collected with the direct and participant observation into the classrooms, in the school halls, in the development of some activities and with the information from some interviews, i recognized some factors which intervene in: 1 the sort of relations that they establish based on their gender and; 2 the way that they take possession of the school spaces to reproduce some control practices, domination and power based on this social construction. This is understandable at least among the student in high school if we consider that most of them behave themselves on base to the stereotypes learned in the familiar scope and only some of them have begun a reflective process detonating their agency capacity to modify their next reality in the school context.

  16. Gender and Academic Leadership Practices at Copenhagen Business School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria; Villeseche, Florence

    . First, it examines the following aspects in relation to gender: 1) Management practices in recruitment and promotion (with a special focus on scouting and nudging); 2) Management practices in establishing and maintaining good work cultures and attractive research environments; 3) Best practices......This report examines the relationship between gender and the Heads of Department group’s leadership practices at Copenhagen Business School. This research project is one of the initiatives of the action plan developed by the Diversity and Inclusion Council at this university. Its aim is two fold...... and guidelines for the promotion of diversity and equality, including suggestions for avoiding unconscious bias. Second, this initiative aims to stimulate self-reflexivity and open dialogue on the topic of gender and talent development among CBS’s management groups and between these groups and the Diversity...

  17. Factors Influencing the Gender Breakdown of Academic Radiology Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James C; Yoon, Sora C; Cater, Sarah Wallace; Grimm, Lars J

    2017-07-01

    To determine the gender distribution of radiology residency programs and identify associations with radiology departmental factors. The residency programs affiliated with the top 50 research medical school from US News and World Report were identified. The gender of all radiology residency graduates from each program from 2011 to 2015 were collected. Radiology departmental factors were collected: gender of chairperson, gender of program director, gender of faculty, geographic location, and city population of the residency program. The median percentage of female radiology faculty and residents were calculated and classified as above or below the median. Comparisons were made between residency programs and departmental factors via a Pearson χ 2 univariate test or logistic regression. There were 618 (27.9%) female and 1,598 (72.1%) male residents in our study, with a median female representation of 26.4% in each program. Programs with a female residency program director were significantly more likely to have an above-median percentage of female residents versus a male program director (68.4% versus 38.7%, P = .04). Programs in the Northeast (70.6%) and West (70.0%) had higher above-median female representation than the South (10.0%) and Midwest (38.5%, P < .01). There was no association with city population size (P = .40), gender of faculty (P = .40), residency size (P = .91), or faculty size (P = .15). Radiology residency programs with a female residency program director and those in the Northeast or West have a greater concentration of female residents. Residency programs that aim to increase female representation should investigate modifiable factors that can improve their recruitment practices. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender disparity among US anaesthesiologists: are women underrepresented in academic ranks and scholarly productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkova, A A; Svider, P F; Chang, C Y; Diaz, L; Eloy, J A; Eloy, J D

    2013-09-01

    The h-index is an objective indicator of research productivity and influence on scholarly discourse within a discipline. It may be a valuable adjunct for measuring research productivity, a key component in decisions regarding appointment and promotion in academic medicine. The objectives of this analysis were to (1) examine whether there are gender disparities in research productivity among academic anaesthesiologists, and (2) compare results to measures of research productivity in other specialties. A bibliometric analysis of faculty members from 25 academic anaesthesiology departments was performed using the Scopus database. Academic anaesthesiologists were organised by academic rank and gender. The h-index and publication range (in years) of faculty members were calculated. Male anaesthesiologists had higher research productivity, as measured by the h-index, than female colleagues. Organised by rank, this difference was noted only among full professors. Men had higher overall and early-career research productivity, while women had mid-career research productivity rates equivalent to and surpassing that of their male colleagues. Gender disparities in research productivity were also noted among a sample of academic physicians in other specialties. While men had higher overall research productivity, women had equivalent or higher mid-career research output, suggesting that early-career considerations unique to women should be taken into account during appointment and promotion in academic anaesthesiology. While disparities in gender representation among anaesthesiologists have also been noted in Europe, further study as to whether these differences also extend to research productivity and academic promotion outside of the US would be of interest. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Gender Differences in Publication Productivity Among Academic Urologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Erik N; Lenherr, Sara M; Hanson, Heidi A; Jessop, Terry C; Lowrance, William T

    2017-05-01

    To describe the publication productivity of academic urologists in the United States by gender. Gender inequality is prevalent in most surgical subspecialties, including urology. Despite small numbers of women in academic positions, differences in scholarly impact by gender are relatively unknown. We assembled a list of 1922 academic urologists (1686 men (87.7%), 236 women (12.3%)) at 124 academic institutions throughout the United States as of February 2016. Scopus and Google Scholar were queried for bibliometric data on each individual, including h-index and m-quotient. We analyzed these metrics for both genders by educational background, subspecialty, National Institutes of Health funding, and academic rank. Men had higher median h-indices than women overall (P productivity by successive rank after controlling for career duration (m-quotient). Women were more likely to choose a practice that specialized in pediatric urology or female urology/pelvic reconstructive surgery than their male counterparts (P advancement such as lack of mentorship or discriminatory policies may help pioneering female urologists as they progress in their careers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Gender Diversity Strategy in Academic Departments: Exploring Organizational Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xuhong; Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Full inclusion of women into the academics remains a daunting challenge in the United States. The situation is particularly acute within science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields where the underrepresentation of women and their career disadvantages attract a great deal of attention. Based on a dataset combining a survey of…

  1. Gender, Self-Perception, and Academic Problems in High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Muller, Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of education to socioeconomic attainment and other life course trajectories, early academic struggles can have long-term consequences if not addressed. Analysis of a nationally representative sample with official school transcripts and extensive data on adolescent functioning identified a social psychological pathway in this linkage between external feedback about early struggles and truncated educational trajectories. For girls, class failures absent of diagnosed learning disabilities engendered increasingly negative self-perceptions that, in turn, disrupted math and science course-taking, especially in family and peer contexts in which academic success was prioritized. For boys, diagnosed learning disabilities, regardless of class performance, engendered the same changes in self-perception and the same consequences of these changes for course-taking across family and peer contexts. These results reveal how ability labels and ability-related performance indicators come together to influence the long-term educational prospects of girls and boys attending mainstream schools in which the majority of students do not have learning disabilities or severe academic problems. Keywords: education, learning disability, academic failure, peers, and stigma.

  2. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  3. The Evolving Manager Stereotype: The Effects of Industry Gender Typing on Performance Expectations for Leaders and Their Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Susan F.; Sauer, Stephen J.; Thomas-Hunt, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how external evaluators' assessments of a management team and its leader are impacted by congruence between the leader's gender and the gender typing of the industry in which the team works. We experimentally tested our theory using industries that are either male typed or gender neutral, with teams led by male and female…

  4. Shaping stereotypical behaviour through the discussion of social stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura G E; Postmes, Tom

    2011-03-01

    In two studies, we demonstrate that small group discussions change the extent to which an activated stereotype affects performance in a relevant domain. In Study 1, female participants were asked why men are (or are not) better than them at maths. They generated their answers individually or through group discussion, and their subsequent maths performance was highest when they collectively challenged the stereotype and lowest when they collectively affirmed the stereotype. When participants affirmed the stereotype through discussion, they used more theories which supported the validity of the stereotype, compared to the individual thought condition; and consensus mediated the effect of group discussion on performance (relative to individual rumination). In Study 2, male and female participants affirmed or challenged the stereotype in same-gender discussion groups. After affirming the stereotype, women's performance decreased relative to their baseline scores and men's performance was 'lifted'. In contrast, when they challenged the stereotype, there was no difference between the performance of men and women on the maths test. This pattern of effects was mediated by confidence in mathematical ability. The findings support the idea that topical small group discussions can, in the short term, differentially alter the impact that stereotypes have on performance. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Crumbling Ivory Towers: Academic Organizing and its Gender Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, Y.W.M.; Brouns, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The under-representation of women at the top of the academy is a persistent and fascinating issue, mostly analysed as a result of women's choices or as an issue of personnel management. In this article, the focus is on the functioning of universities as social institutions, where gender is ‘done’ in

  6. "Keeping in mind the gender stereotype": the role of need for closure in the retrieval-induced forgetting of female managers' qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Pellegrini, Valerio; De Cristofaro, Valeria; Giannini, Annamaria; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2018-05-19

    The present research addressed the question of whether need for closure (NFC; Kruglanski in The psychology of closed mindedness, Psychology Press, New York, 2004) biases individuals' memory of female leaders. Merging research on role congruity theory of leadership (Koenig et al. in Psychol Bull 4:616-642, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023557 ) and research on retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF, Anderson et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cognit 20:1063-1087, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.5.861 ), we hypothesized and found that high-NFC participants show (1) a higher RIF of dimensions commonly associated with the leadership prototype (agentic/masculine) ascribed to female manager targets, when selectively retrieved dimensions commonly associated with the female prototype (communal/feminine) were ascribed to the same target; and (2) a lessened RIF of female stereotypical dimensions ascribed to female manager targets, when selectively retrieved prototypical leadership dimensions were ascribed to the same target. Overall, the present findings suggest that when faced with women leaders, high NfC enhances the accessibility of gender stereotype-congruent memories and reduces the accessibility of prototypical leadership ones, thus reducing the RIF of communal/feminine memories.

  7. Gender difference in academic performance of nursing students in a Malaysian university college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Chik, W Z; Salamonson, Y; Everett, B; Ramjan, L M; Attwood, N; Weaver, R; Saad, Z; Davidson, P M

    2012-09-01

    To examine differences in academic performance between male and female nursing students, and to identify whether professional identity and language usage were explanatory factors of academic performance. Although the numbers of men entering the nursing profession are increasing, societal stereotypes and the lack of male role models in nursing may have a negative impact on motivation, and hence, academic performance. A total of 147 students who were enrolled in an undergraduate nursing programme in Peninsula Malaysia were surveyed in January 2011. In addition to demographic and academic data, three instruments were administered to measure language acculturation and professional identity. The mean age of participants was 20.0 (SD: 1.5) years with 81% being female. Almost all students spoke the Malay language at home. Although there were no differences between male and female nursing students in relation to professional identity (P=0.496), male nursing students reported a lower mean English language usage score (9.9 vs. 10.9, P=0.011) and a higher mean Malay language usage score (20.4 vs. 18.8, P=0.017). Males were also found to have lower academic performance than female students, as measured by grade point average (GPA) (2.7 vs. 3.2, Pgender was the only significant predictor of academic performance (β=-0.44, P<0.001). Males represent less than 10% of the nursing workforce in developed countries, with some developing countries experiencing even lower participation rates. Promoting academic support of male nursing students may assist in increasing the number of male registered nurses in the nursing workforce. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Academic cheating and gender differences in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cladellas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the issue of academic cheating, describe its causes, and examine the obstacles this behaviour creates for learning. The research was carried out with 306 students from Barcelona (Spain which were administered both with a psycho educational interview and a questionnaire. Results are similar to those from other countries and show that more than half of the students are in the habit of frequently cheating, and that boys cheat significantly more often than girls. To finish, the text suggests teaching strategies to control academic cheating in educational institutions, such as: Being aware of the problem and taking the decision to tackle it, including ethics tuition in the curricular content, teaching summarising and rephrasing techniques, frequently revising students’ writings, and last but not least, being very strict with deadlines and not accepting unwarranted excuses repeatedly made by students for not observing them.

  9. Stereotype Threat, Inquiring about Test Takers' Race and Gender, and Performance on Low-Stakes Tests in a Large-Scale Assessment. Research Report. ETS RR-15-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Rock, Donald A.; Bridgeman, Brent

    2015-01-01

    This study explores stereotype threat on low-stakes tests used in a large-scale assessment, math and reading tests in the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS). Issues identified in laboratory research (though not observed in studies of high-stakes tests) were assessed: whether inquiring about their race and gender is related to the…

  10. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  11. Why are women underrepresented in Computer Science? Gender differences in stereotypes, self-efficacy, values, and interests and predictors of future CS course-taking and grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    This study addresses why women are underrepresented in Computer Science (CS). Data from 1319 American first-year college students (872 female and 447 male) indicate that gender differences in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personality exist. If students had had a positive experience in their first CS course, they had a stronger intention to take another CS course. A subset of 128 students (68 females and 60 males) took a CS course up to one year later. Students who were interested in CS, had high computer self-efficacy, were low in family orientation, low in conscientiousness, and low in openness to experiences were more likely to take CS courses. Furthermore, individuals who were highly conscientious and low in relational-interdependent self-construal earned the highest CS grades. Efforts to improve women's representation in CS should bear these results in mind.

  12. Moving up the ladder : heterogeneity influencing academic careers through research orientation, gender, and mentors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, Ward; Werker, C.; Hopp, Christian

    2018-01-01

    We look into the question whether heterogeneity stemming from research orientation, gender, or disciplinary and cultural differences with their PhD supervisors helps or hampers academics’ careers. Based on a sample of 248 academics at two leading European universities of technology, we combine

  13. Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Current study examines the predictors of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.…

  14. An International Study of the Gendered Nature of Academic Work: Some Cross-Cultural Explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Millicent; Bornholt, Laurel; Summers, Fiona

    1997-01-01

    Examines gender-related nature of academic work, based on an international survey of college and university faculty. Describes commonalities for areas of discrimination among men and women faculty in Australia, Germany, Hong Kong, Israel, Mexico, Sweden, United Kingdom, and United States. Focuses on working conditions, professional activities…

  15. Academic Achievement, Employment, Age and Gender and Students' Experience of Alternative School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Meister, Denise G.; Forthun, Larry; Coatsworth, J. Doug; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore associations between academic achievement, employment, gender, and age in relation to students' sense of school membership and perception of adults in school. The sample consisted of 102 secondary, alternative school students. Results indicated that students with a more positive perception…

  16. Continuity or Change? Gender, Family, and Academic Work for Junior Faculty in Ontario Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Sandra; Webber, Michelle; Smyth, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 40 or so years, women's share of faculty positions in Canada and elsewhere has increased considerably, if not yet reaching parity. Yet working in the gendered university remains problematic. This article uses data from a qualitative research project in which 38 junior academics were interviewed about their responses to being on the…

  17. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  18. Impact of Vocational Interests, Previous Academic Experience, Gender and Age on Situational Judgement Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; van Trigt, Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-01-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the…

  19. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; Trigt, van Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree

  20. Exploring Undergraduate Students' Ethical Perceptions in Barbados: Differences by Gender, Academic Major and Religiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Philmore; Persaud, Nadini

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether there were differences in students' ethical perceptions based on gender, academic major and religiosity. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered survey was conducted of 132 students at a university in Barbados, to determine ethical perceptions on five moral constructs: justice,…

  1. Effect of Foreign Language Anxiety on Gender and Academic Achievement among Yemeni University EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Yassin, Amr Abdullatif; Maasum, Tengku Nor Rizan Bt Tengku Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in terms of anxiety among Yemeni university EFL learners. It also aimed to investigate the correlation between the level of anxiety and the academic achievement of the students. The participants of this study were 155 students chosen from the population through stratified random sampling. The…

  2. Academic Achievement and Perceived Peer Support among Turkish Students: Gender and Preschool Education Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursal, Murat

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the academic achievement and perceived peer support levels of 4th-8th grade Turkish elementary and middle school students at low socio-economic status. Factorial design analyses were used to test the statistical effects of gender and preschool education variables on the dependent variables. The findings…

  3. The Effect of Academics' Dress and Gender on Student Perceptions of Instructor Approachability and Likeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Amber M.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to discover student perceptions of academics' dress and gender and their impact on perceived instructor approachability and likeability. Three categories of dress were examined: casual, business casual and professional. The results of this study suggest students at career-arts institutions perceive female teachers as less…

  4. Approaching Gender Equity in Academic Chemistry: Lessons Learned from Successful Female Chemists in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Friedmann, Jaimie; Childs, Ann; Hillier, Judith

    2018-01-01

    The internationally acknowledged gender gap in science continues to be an unrelenting concern to science educators; aggregate data in the UK show that both recruitment and retention of women in academic science remain relatively low. Most published research focuses on women in the broad field of science, generates correlations or predictions, or…

  5. Gender Issues in the Recruitment and Selection of Academic Staff in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines gender issues in the recruitment and selection of academic staff in a Nigerian university. The recruitment and selection practices of the university are examined with a view to ascertaining whether such practices encourage male dominance. Primary data were obtained through the administration of ...

  6. Self-Concept among Primary School Students According to Gender and Academic Achievement Variables in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Srour, Nadia Hayel; Al-Ali, Safa Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the level of self-concept among primary school students according to gender and academic achievement variables in Amman. A random sample was chosen from fourth, fifth and sixth grades in private schools in Amman city. The sample of the study consisted of (365) male and female students, (177) males and (188)…

  7. Gender Attributions of Science and Academic Attributes: AN Examination of Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, and Technology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, W. Jay

    Questionnaire data (n = 297) examined the relationship between gender attributions of science and academic attributes for undergraduate science, mathematics, and technology majors from the perspective of gender schema theory. Female and male respondents perceived that (a) the role of scientist was sex typed as masculine, (b) their majors were more valuable for members of their gender than for those of the opposite gender, (c) their majors were more valuable for themselves than for members of their gender in general. Androgynous attributions of scientists and the value of one's major for women predicted value for oneself, major confidence, and career confidence, and masculine attributions of scientists predicted class participation for female respondents. Feminine attributions of scientists predicted graduate school intent; value for women predicted major confidence and subjective achievement, and value for men predicted value for oneself, course confidence, and career confidence for male respondents.

  8. Managing an academic career in science: What gender differences exist and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gayle Patrice

    The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from 1993 to 2001 to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children. Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented.

  9. Faculty perceptions of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, P L; Ash, A S; Friedman, R H; Szalacha, L; Barnett, R C; Palepu, A; Moskowitz, M M

    2000-06-06

    Gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment are common in medical practice and may be even more prevalent in academic medicine. To examine the prevalence of gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment among medical school faculty and the associations of gender-based discrimination with number of publications, career satisfaction, and perceptions of career advancement. A self-administered mailed questionnaire of U.S. medical school faculty that covered a broad range of topics relating to academic life. 24 randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States. A random sample of 3332 full-time faculty, stratified by specialty, graduation cohort, and sex. Prevalence of self-reported experiences of discrimination and harassment, number of peer-reviewed publications, career satisfaction, and perception of career advancement. Female faculty were more than 2.5 times more likely than male faculty to perceive gender-based discrimination in the academic environment (P productivity but lower career satisfaction scores than did other women (Padvancement (72% compared with 47%). Publications, career satisfaction, and professional confidence were not affected by sexual harassment, and self-assessed career advancement was only marginally lower for female faculty who had experienced sexual harassment (P = 0.06). Despite substantial increases in the number of female faculty, reports of gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment remain common.

  10. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Current Status of Gender and Racial/Ethnic Disparities Among Academic Emergency Medicine Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Tracy E; Linden, Judith A; Rounds, Kirsten; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Lopez, Bernard L; Boatright, Dowin; Garg, Nidhi; Heron, Sheryl L; Jameson, Amy; Kass, Dara; Lall, Michelle D; Melendez, Ashley M; Scheulen, James J; Sethuraman, Kinjal N; Westafer, Lauren M; Safdar, Basmah

    2017-10-01

    A 2010 survey identified disparities in salaries by gender and underrepresented minorities (URM). With an increase in the emergency medicine (EM) workforce since, we aimed to 1) describe the current status of academic EM workforce by gender, race, and rank and 2) evaluate if disparities still exist in salary or rank by gender. Information on demographics, rank, clinical commitment, and base and total annual salary for full-time faculty members in U.S. academic emergency departments were collected in 2015 via the Academy of Administrators in Academic Emergency Medicine (AAAEM) Salary Survey. Multiple linear regression was used to compare salary by gender while controlling for confounders. Response rate was 47% (47/101), yielding data on 1,371 full-time faculty: 33% women, 78% white, 4% black, 5% Asian, 3% Asian Indian, 4% other, and 7% unknown race. Comparing white race to nonwhite, 62% versus 69% were instructor/assistant, 23% versus 20% were associate, and 15% versus 10% were full professors. Comparing women to men, 74% versus 59% were instructor/assistant, 19% versus 24% were associate, and 7% versus 17% were full professors. Of 113 chair/vice-chair positions, only 15% were women, and 18% were nonwhite. Women were more often fellowship trained (37% vs. 31%), less often core faculty (59% vs. 64%), with fewer administrative roles (47% vs. 57%; all p disparities in salary and rank persist among full-time U.S. academic EM faculty. There were gender and URM disparities in rank and leadership positions. Women earned less than men regardless of rank, clinical hours, or training. Future efforts should focus on evaluating salary data by race and developing systemwide practices to eliminate disparities. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Gender roles for Alice and Bob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip

    2013-04-01

    As the head of a department that is striving to achieve bronze status under the Athena SWAN (Scientific Women's Academic Network) programme, I have become extremely sensitive to gender stereotyping, and I am afraid that the "Alice and Bob" image on the cover of your March issue on quantum frontiers set off some alarm bells.

  13. Chronic Stereotype Threat Is Associated With Mathematical Achievement on Representative Sample of Secondary Schoolgirls: The Role of Gender Identification, Working Memory, and Intellectual Helplessness

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Bedyńska; Izabela Krejtz; Grzegorz Sedek

    2018-01-01

    Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness ...

  14. Seeking Emancipation from Gender Regulation: Reflections on Home space for a Black Woman Academic/ Single Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa William-­White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the work of Judith Butler on gender regulation, Black Feminist Thought (BFT, and autobiographic storytelling, this piece illustrates how essentialist notions of gender, and discourses related to gender create conflict in shaping identity construction for a Black woman academic and single mother (BWA/SM in the United States. This piece reveals complex gendered and racialized tropes related to notions of motherhood and womanhood, particularly within the author’s own family. Included here is how the author attempts to transcend these complexities in her quest for self­definition and self­actualization, unbridled by gender norms. Yet, race, gender and parental status are significant intersecting categories in identity construction, andinherent in the constructions are hegemonic discourses with which the author continues to grapple. Consequently, the struggle to transcend these forces is further complicated by the limited representation of Black women in the US academy, and by the types of academic work where they find themselves typically situated.

  15. Seeking Emancipation from Gender Regulation: Reflections on Home Space for a Black Woman Academic/Single Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    William-­White, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Using the work of Judith Butler on gender regulation, Black Feminist Thought (BFT), and autobiographic storytelling, this piece illustrates how essentialist notions of gender, and discourses related to gender create conflict in shaping identity construction for a Black woman academic and single mother (BWA/SM) in the United States. This piece…

  16. The Effect Of Stereotype On Cognitive Performance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour ... Abstract. This study investigated the effect stereotypes have on cognitive performance. ... Therefore understanding the nature of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination is the first step in combating these practices.

  17. Disinhibition of stereotyping : context, prejudice, and target characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawakami, K; Spears, R; Dovidio, JF

    2002-01-01

    The present research examined the moderating influences of individual differences in sexism on the application of gender stereqtypes to stereotypic versus nonstereotypic targets as a function of contexts that induced sex stereotypic or counterstereotypic responses. Specifically, participants first

  18. The Roots of Stereotype Threat: When Automatic Associations Disrupt Girls' Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, Silvia; Cadinu, Mara; Tomasetto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although stereotype awareness is a prerequisite for stereotype threat effects (Steele & Aronson, 1995), research showed girls' deficit under stereotype threat before the emergence of math-gender stereotype awareness, and in the absence of stereotype endorsement. In a study including 240 six-year-old children, this paradox was addressed by…

  19. Gender inequality in career advancement for females in Japanese academic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoshi, Kae; Nomura, Kyoko; Fukami, Kayo; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kinoshita, Koichi; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2014-11-01

    During the past three decades, the participation of women in medicine has increased from 10.6% (1986) to 19.7% (2012) in Japan. However, women continue to be underrepresented in the top tiers of academic medicine. We highlight gender inequality and discuss the difficulties faced by female surgeons in Japanese academic surgery. Using anonymous and aggregate employment data of medical doctors at Kyoto University Hospital from 2009 and 2013, and a commercially-published faculty roster in 2012-2013, we compared gender balance stratified by a professional and an academic rank. The numbers of total and female doctors who worked at Kyoto University Hospital were 656 and 132 (20.1%) in 2009 and 655 and 132 (20.2%) in 2013, respectively. Approximately half the men (n = 281) were in temporary track and the rest (n = 242) were in tenure track, but only one fifth of women (n = 24) were in tenure track compared to 108 women in temporary track (p < 0.0001) in 2013. There were three female associate professors in basic medicine (8.1%), two female professors in clinical non-surgical medicine (3.9%) and one female lecturer in clinical surgical medicine (2.3%) in 2012. Fewer female doctors were at senior positions and at tenure positions than male doctors at Kyoto University Hospital. There were no female associate and full professors in surgery. The status of faculty members indicates the gender differences in leadership opportunities in Japanese academic surgery.

  20. Striving for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine Careers: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Carol; Gordon, Lynn; Travis, Elizabeth; Chatterjee, Archana; Chaudron, Linda; Fivush, Barbara; Gulati, Martha; Jagsi, Reshma; Sharma, Poonam; Gillis, Marin; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Grover, Amelia; Lautenberger, Diana; Moses, Ashleigh

    2016-08-01

    Women represent approximately half of students entering medical schools and more than half of those entering PhD programs. When advancing through the academic and professional fields, however, women continually face barriers that men do not. In this Commentary, the authors offer ideas for coordinating the efforts of organizations, academic institutions, and leaders throughout the scientific and medical professions to reduce barriers that result in inequities and, instead, strive for gender parity. Specific areas of focus outlined by the authors include facilitating women's access to formal and informal professional networks, acknowledging and addressing the gender pay gap as well as the lack of research funding awarded to women in the field, and updating workplace policies that have not evolved to accommodate women's lifestyles. As academic institutions seek access to top talent and the means to develop those individuals capable of generating the change medicine and science needs, the authors urge leaders and change agents within academic medicine to address the systemic barriers to gender equity that impede us from achieving the mission to improve the health of all.

  1. Eliminating Gender-Based Bias in Academic Medicine: More Than Naming the "Elephant in the Room".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Anna U; Chaiyachati, Krisda H; Weissman, Gary E; Liao, Joshua M

    2018-06-01

    Gender-based discrimination and bias are widespread in professional settings, including academic medicine. Overt manifestations such as sexual harassment have long been identified but attention is only more recently turning towards subtler forms of bias, including inequity in promotion and compensation. Barriers to progress vary across institutions and include lack of awareness, inadequate training, poor informational transparency, and challenging power dynamics. We propose five solutions that the academic medical community can adopt to not only name, but also address, gender-based bias as the proverbial elephant in the room: definitively identify the systemic nature of the problem, prompt those with influence and power to advance a culture of equity, broadly incorporate evidence-based explicit anti-sexist training, increase transparency of information related to professional development and compensation, and use robust research methods to study the drivers and potential solutions of gender inequity within academic medicine. While implementing these proposals is no small task, doing so is an important step in helping the academic medical community become more just.

  2. Gender difference in color preference across cultures: \\ud An archetypal pattern modulated by a female cultural stereotype

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnardel, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    A gender difference in color preference among British participants has been repeatedly reported, in which both males and females show a preference for blue-green colors, while females express an additional preference for pink-purple colors6,10,12. To investigate the robustness of gender difference in color preference in a different culture, we tested 81 young adult Indians from a school of Design and compared them to 80 young British students in Psychology. A 35-item International Personality...

  3. Stereotypes and Stereotyping: A Moral Analysis | Blum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stereotypes are false or misleading generalizations about groups held in a manner that renders them largely, though not entirely, immune to counterevidence. In doing so, stereotypes powerfully shape the stereotyper's perception of stereotyped groups, seeing the stereotypic characteristics when they are not present, failing ...

  4. Scientific Creativity and High Ability: Gender and academic level differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier ESPARZA MOLINA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and educational level on scientific creativity among gifted/talented students. A cohort of creatividad científica y alta habilidad: diferencias de género y nivel educativo 78 secondary school students from 12 to 16 years old participated in this research. The scientific creativity was measured using the Creative Scientific Ability Test (Sak & Ayas, 2011 designed for secondary school students from 11 to 14 years old. Its theoretical framework sets up the measurement of a three dimensional structure: general creative abilities (fluency, flexibility and creativity, scientific creative abilities (hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation and scientific knowledge. This test has the right adequate psychometric properties with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.848 (Sak & Ayas, 2013. Results indicated that male students scored significantly higher in a task named Interaction Graph which measures hypothesis generation in interdisciplinary science. The analysis also showed that students involved in upper education levels scores significantly higher in general fluency and in the task called The Food Chain which measures evidence evaluation in the area of ecology.

  5. [Academic medicine and gender: women in surgical specialities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; López-Ramírez, María Karina Lizbeth; Veláquez-Ramírez, Gabriela Abigail; Farías-Llamas, Oscar Alejandro; Olivares-Becerra, Juan José; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Scientific advances have always been used as a measure to place societies in the context of developed and developing countries. This circumstance has directly influenced the division among the sexes and among social strata. Traditionally women have been relegated to an inferior status and in some instances their role as active participants in social and economic development has been annulled. In professional spheres, women have reached positions that previously seemed unattainable due to social and cultural limitations imposed by men and sometimes by women themselves. Medical school is currently no longer an obstacle for women to gain entry to, approximately 50% of medical students are women. On the other hand, surgical residences constitute a more complex situation. In order for women to decide to apply to a surgical residence, they have to take into account a variety of factors, among them, the difficulty of joining a male dominated environment where women have to demonstrate they are able and capable of performing sometimes at the expense of having to carry an additional work load. Women admitted to surgical residences will have to face gender discrimination, pregnancy and family responsibilities as well as salary inequities and sometimes even sexual harassment. We aimed to show the circumstances and obstacles that women are confronted with during surgical training and the influence these have in their personal and professional development.

  6. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p performance on three scenarios (p performance on two scenarios (p performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  7. Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

  8. Counter-Stereotypes and Feminism Promote Leadership Aspirations in Highly Identified Women

    OpenAIRE

    Leicht, Carola; Goclowska, Malgorzata A.; Van Breen, Jolien A.; de Lemus, Soledad; Randsley de Moura, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1) counter-stereotype salience and (2) feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with greater leadership aspiration regardless of feminism, while when gender stereotypes are salient, women's identification would predict greater leadersh...

  9. Gender differences in health care provider-patient communication: are they due to style, stereotypes, or accommodation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Richard L

    2002-12-01

    This article examines gender differences in health care provider-patient communication within the framework of an ecological model of communication in the medical encounter. The ecological perspective posits that, although health care provider-patient interactions are situated within a number of contexts (e.g. organizational, political, cultural), the interpersonal domain is the primary context within which these interactions unfold. Hence, gender may influence provider-patient interaction to the extent that it can be linked to the interactants' goals, skills, perceptions, emotions, and the way the participants adapt to their partner's communication. The evidence reviewed in this essay indicates that gender differences in medical encounters may come from several sources including differences in men's and women's communicative styles, perceptions of their partners, and in the way they accommodate their partner's behavior during the interaction. However, because gender is but one of many personal and partner variables (e.g. age, ethnicity, personal experiences) that can influence these processes, gender differences are often quite modest (if apparent at all) when examined across a population of health care providers and patients. Implications for future research and communicative skill training are discussed.

  10. Interpreting the relationships between single gender science classes and girls' academic motivation and interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sonya L.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how and to what extent single gender science classes affect motivation to learn scientific concepts, interest in science, and college major intent among high school and middle school girls. This study was designed to determine whether students' motivation to learn science changes when they are placed in a single gender science class. The study also measured whether the students' level of interest in science and desire to major in science changes based on their enrollment in a single gender class. Finally, the study investigated the career and college major intentions of the sample population used in the study. Girls in single gender groupings engage in more academic risk taking and participate more than girls in coeducational classes. This benefit alone responds to reform efforts and supports the abolition of gender-based obstacles. Single gender grouping could help encourage more girls to take interest in majoring in science, a field that is considered to be masculine. By increasing students' interest in science while enrolled in single gender classes, students may become more motivated to learn science. This study was conducted using seven, eighth, ninth and tenth grade girls from single sex and coeducational science classes. The students participated in 2 surveys, the Science Motivational Survey and the Test of Science Related Attitudes, at the beginning of the semester and at the end of the semester. In respect to girls in high school single gender science classes, results were contrary to recent studies that state that girls who received science education in a single gender setting have an increase in motivation and attitude towards science. The results did show that middle school girls in single gender science classes did show an increase in motivation.

  11. Gender stereotyping for sociability, dominance, character, and mental health: a meta-analysis of findings from the bogus stranger paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, A

    1998-08-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted of target gender effects on trait attributions from 18 bogus stranger studies that had manipulated target gender and target physical attractiveness. Collapsed over sex of perceivers, female targets were seen as more sociable, happier, and possessing greater character than male targets. However, these effects were small and were often moderated by the perceivers' sex. Male perceivers viewed female targets as more sociable and happier than male targets, whereas female perceivers viewed male targets as more dominant than female targets. There was no moderation of the gender effect on attributions of character, as both sexes viewed females more favorably than males and the effect size was very small for perceivers of both sexes.

  12. Estereotipos de género en los contenidos audiovisuales infantiles Gender stereotypes in audiovisual products for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Espinar Ruiz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la transmisión de características estereotipadas de hombres y mujeres a través de la programación y la publicidad infantil. Para ello se emplea una muestra de programas y espacios publicitarios emitidos a lo largo del año 2004 en las cadenas de televisión de emisión en abierto de ámbito nacional. De esta forma, se analiza la presencia de hombres y mujeres, los rasgos asociados a los diferentes personajes, así como las características principales de la publicidad dirigida a niñas y niños. In this paper we analyze the transmission of stereotyped characteristics of men and women through audiovisual products for children. With this aim, we employ a sample of programs and advertisements forecasted in 2004 in the Spanish television. In this sense, we analyze the presence of men and women, the elements associated with different characters, and the principal features of advertisements targeted at girls and boys.

  13. Real-World Outcomes and Critical Thinking: Differential Analysis by Academic Major and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Franco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Real-World Outcomes is an inventory that measures everyday problematic behaviors that represent decisions where critical thinking is presumably absent; assessing the negative outcomes of poor daily decisions helps to infer the degree of critical thinking that mediates everyday reasoning. In the present paper, we describe the process of translation and cultural adaptation of this inventory to Portuguese. We present evidence of its administration to 259 college students concerning reliability, and differences based on academic major and gender. No statistically significant differences were found, either due to academic major or gender. Results suggest the value of this instrument to assessing daily decision making and life outcomes, and also, to estimate the quality of critical thinking in everyday life.

  14. Qualitative Differences Among Gender-Stereotyped Toys: Implications for Cognitive and Social Development in Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cynthia L.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates a system of toy classification developed to improve the assessment of gender differences in cognitive and social development. One hundred adults rated 50 children's toys on 122 "functional" dimensions. Results showed that these toys could be reliably described according to multidimensional similarities, and confirmed that toys considered…

  15. The Effect of Gender on Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff in Malaysian Public Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ma’rof Bin Redzuan, Haslinda Abdullah, Aida Mehrad, Hanina Halimatussadiah

    2015-01-01

    Based on last due decades, job satisfaction assumed as one of the imperative organizational factors that has great role among staff at workplace; furthermore,focusing on this important factor and finding effective items that impact on the level of job satisfaction is very essential. The main purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between gender and job satisfaction of academic staff at public universities in Malaysia. The Job Descriptive Index inventory (JDI) was used to mea...

  16. Gender Trends in Academic Radiology Publication in the United States Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin E; Chen, Pauline; Weston, Brian; Anderson, Redmond; Zeffiro, Timothy; Ahmed, Awad; Zeffiro, Thomas A

    2018-02-12

    Although substantial increases in publications by female academic radiologists have appeared over the last several decades, it is possible that the rate of increase is decreasing. We examined temporal trends in gender composition for full-time radiology faculty, radiology residents, and medical students over a 46-year period. We examined authorship gender trends to determine if the increases in female authorship seen since 1970 have been sustained in recent years and whether female radiologists continue to publish in proportion to their numbers in academic departments. Original articles for selected years in Radiology and in the American Journal of Roentgenology between 1970 and 2016 were examined to determine the gender of first, corresponding, and last authors. Generalized linear models evaluated (1) changes in proportions of female authorship over time and (2) associations between proportions of female authorship and female radiology faculty representation. While linear increases in first, corresponding, and senior authorships were observed for female radiologists from 1970 to 2000, the rate of increase in female first and corresponding authorships then changed, with the slope of the first author relationship decreasing from 0.81 to 0.34, corresponding to 47% fewer female first authors added per year. In contrast, the proportion of female last authorship continued to increase at the same rate. The proportion of female first authorship was linearly related to the proportion of female radiology faculty from 1970 to 2016. Annual increases in first author academic productivity of female radiologists have lessened in the past 16 years, possibly related to reductions in the growth of female radiology faculty and trainees. As mixed, compared to homogeneous gender, authorship teams are associated with more citations, efforts to encourage more women to pursue careers in academic radiology could benefit the radiology research community. Copyright © 2018 The Association

  17. UTILIZATION OF LEISURE TIME AND ACADEMIC CAREERS: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY GENDER PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Nitza Davidovitch; Eran Druckman

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses on the advancement of women in academia from an interdisciplinary perspective. It examines the leisure activities of faculty from various departments from a gender-based point of view, with regard to the association between time devoted to research and teaching and time devoted to family and social life. In addition, other possible correlations between academic output (number of articles per year, number of conferences attended, research grants submitted, teaching feedba...

  18. Gender differences in academic surgery, work-life balance, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Dadrie; Fecher, Alison M; Dolejs, Scott C; Yoder, Joseph; Schmidt, C Maximillian; Couch, Marion E; Ceppa, DuyKhanh P

    2017-10-01

    An increasing number of women are pursuing a career in surgery. Concurrently, the percentage of surgeons in dual-profession partnerships is increasing. We sought to evaluate the gender differences in professional advancement, work-life balance, and satisfaction at a large academic center. All surgical trainees and faculty at a single academic medical center were surveyed. Collected variables included gender, academic rank, marital status, family size, division of household responsibilities, and career satisfaction. Student t-test, Fisher's exact test, and chi-square test were used to compare results. There were 127 faculty and 116 trainee respondents (>80% response rate). Respondents were mostly male (77% of faculty, 58% of trainees). Women were more likely than men to be married to a professional (90% versus 37%, for faculty; 82% versus 41% for trainees, P working full time (P working spouse and to be primarily responsible for managing their households. Additional consideration for improvement in recruitment and retention strategies for surgeons might address barriers to equalizing these gender disparities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Gender and Ethnic Diversity in Academic PM&R Faculty: National Trend Analysis of Two Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jaeho; Byrd, Kia; Nguyen, Michael O; Liu, Michael; Huang, Yuru; Bae, Gordon H

    2017-08-01

    Over the years, a number of studies have demonstrated an increase in gender and ethnic diversity among US physicians. Despite substantial progress in eliminating gender and racial inequities in the field of medicine, women and ethnic minorities are still underrepresented among medical faculty at academic institutions. This study aims to describe the trends in gender and ethnic diversity among Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) faculty through statistical analysis of data describing gender and ethnicity of full-time academic faculty gathered from the Association of American Medical Colleges Faculty Roster from 1994 to 2014. Proportions representing the percentages of females and ethnic minorities of a given faculty position in medical schools were compared across each of the other faculty ranks. Results showed that the average yearly percent increases in the proportion of female PM&R faculty in associate professor (0.68%) and full professor (0.54%) positions were greater than those in instructor (0.30%) and assistant professor (0.35%) positions. In contrast, the average yearly percent increase in the proportion of non-Caucasian PM&R faculty in full professor positions (0.19%) was less than those in instructor (0.84%), assistant (0.93%), and associate professor (0.89%) positions. Overall, trends among faculty exhibit a steady increase in gender and ethnic diversity, although promotion disparity continues to exist among specific academic positions for some groups. This study provides a current perspective on recent changes in diversity among faculty in PM&R and may prove useful when defining strategies to improve workforce diversity.

  20. The influence of gender on personality variables conditioning learning: Emotional intelligence and academic procrastination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Clariana,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research analyses the relationship between academic procrastination and emotional intelligence taking also into account the gender and age influence. Psychology undergraduates from the UAB (Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Spain and the UIB (Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain, 45 males and 147 females constituted the sample of the study. Academic procrastination was assessed by means of the D scale (CLARIANA & MARTÍN, 2008 and emotional intelligence by means of the EQ–i (BAR–ON, 1997. The results show that academic procrastination has a significant negative relationship with intrapersonal intelligence, emotional quotient and mood. Moreover, female students scored significantly higher than males both in intrapersonal and interpersonal Intelligence while males obtained higher scores in both stress management and adaptability.