WorldWideScience

Sample records for academic entities formally

  1. 40 CFR 262.216 - Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at an eligible academic entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... generated at an eligible academic entity. 262.216 Section 262.216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.216 Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at an eligible academic entity. An eligible academic entity that generates hazardous waste outside of a...

  2. Formal and Informal Academic Language Socialization of a Bilingual Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyonsuk

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines a bilingual child's academic socialization in both formal and informal academic communities. The study follows a high-achieving, bilingual student in a public US elementary school, who paradoxically is seen as a slow learner in her Korean-American Sunday school. From the academic socialization and community of…

  3. Does formal research training lead to academic success in otolaryngology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobian, Michael R; Shah, Noor; Svider, Peter F; Hong, Robert S; Shkoukani, Mahdi A; Folbe, Adam J; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whether formalized research training is associated with higher researcher productivity, academic rank, and acquisition of National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants within academic otolaryngology departments. Each of the 100 civilian otolaryngology program's departmental websites were analyzed to obtain a comprehensive list of faculty members credentials and characteristics, including academic rank, completion of a clinical fellowship, completion of a formal research fellowship, and attainment of a doctorate in philosophy (PhD) degree. We also recorded measures of scholarly impact and successful acquisition of NIH funding. A total of 1,495 academic physicians were included in our study. Of these, 14.1% had formal research training. Bivariate associations showed that formal research training was associated with a greater h-index, increased probability of acquiring NIH funding, and higher academic rank. Using a linear regression model, we found that otolaryngologists possessing a PhD had an associated h-index of 1.8 points higher, and those who completed a formal research fellowship had an h-index of 1.6 points higher. A PhD degree or completion of a research fellowship was not associated with a higher academic rank; however, a higher h-index and previous acquisition of an NIH grant were associated with a higher academic rank. The attainment of NIH funding was three times more likely for those with a formal research fellowship and 8.6 times more likely for otolaryngologists with a PhD degree. Formalized research training is associated with academic success in otolaryngology. Such dedicated research training accompanies greater scholarly impact, acquisition of NIH funding, and a higher academic rank. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E15-E21, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Top-level categories of constitutively organized material entities--suggestions for a formal top-level ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vogt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Application oriented ontologies are important for reliably communicating and managing data in databases. Unfortunately, they often differ in the definitions they use and thus do not live up to their potential. This problem can be reduced when using a standardized and ontologically consistent template for the top-level categories from a top-level formal foundational ontology. This would support ontological consistency within application oriented ontologies and compatibility between them. The Basic Formal Ontology (BFO is such a foundational ontology for the biomedical domain that has been developed following the single inheritance policy. It provides the top-level template within the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. If it wants to live up to its expected role, its three top-level categories of material entity (i.e., 'object', 'fiat object part', 'object aggregate' must be exhaustive, i.e. every concrete material entity must instantiate exactly one of them.By systematically evaluating all possible basic configurations of material building blocks we show that BFO's top-level categories of material entity are not exhaustive. We provide examples from biology and everyday life that demonstrate the necessity for two additional categories: 'fiat object part aggregate' and 'object with fiat object part aggregate'. By distinguishing topological coherence, topological adherence, and metric proximity we furthermore provide a differentiation of clusters and groups as two distinct subcategories for each of the three categories of material entity aggregates, resulting in six additional subcategories of material entity.We suggest extending BFO to incorporate two additional categories of material entity as well as two subcategories for each of the three categories of material entity aggregates. With these additions, BFO would exhaustively cover all top-level types of material entity that application oriented ontologies may use as templates. Our

  5. Social class and academic achievement in college: the interplay of rejection sensitivity and entity beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinschmidt, Michelle L; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo

    2014-07-01

    Undergraduates, especially those from lower income backgrounds, may perceive their social class background as different or disadvantaged relative to that of peers and worry about negative social treatment. We hypothesized that concerns about discrimination based on one's social class (i.e., class-based rejection sensitivity or RS-class) would be damaging to undergraduates' achievement outcomes particularly among entity theorists, who perceive their personal characteristics as fixed. We reasoned that a perceived capacity for personal growth and change, characteristic of incremental theorists, would make the pursuit of a college degree and upward mobility seem more worthwhile and attainable. We found evidence across 3 studies that dispositionally held and experimentally primed entity (vs. incremental) beliefs predicted college academic performance as a function of RS-class. Studies 1a and 1b documented that high levels of both entity beliefs and RS-class predicted lower self-reported and official grades, respectively, among undergraduates from socioeconomically diverse backgrounds. In Study 2, high entity beliefs and RS-class at matriculation predicted decreased year-end official grades among lower class Latino students. Study 3 established the causal relationship of entity (vs. incremental) beliefs on academic test performance as a function of RS-class. We observed worse test performance with higher RS-class levels following an entity (vs. incremental) prime, an effect driven by lower income students. Findings from a 4th study suggest that entity theorists with RS-class concerns tend to believe less in upward mobility and, following academic setbacks, are prone to personal attributions of failure, as well as hopelessness. Implications for education and intervention are discussed.

  6. Is Formal Research Training Associated With Academic Success in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jesse T; Egbert, Mark A; Dodson, Thomas B; Susarla, Srinivas M

    2018-01-01

    Pursuing promotion in academic rank and seeking funded research opportunities are core elements of academic practice. Our purpose was to assess whether formal research training influences academic rank or National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding among full-time academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs). We performed a cross-sectional study of full-time academic OMSs in the United States. The primary predictor variable was completion of formal research training, defined as a research fellowship or advanced non-clinical doctoral research degree (PhD, DMSc, DPH, DPhil, ScD). The outcomes measures were current academic rank and successful acquisition of NIH funding (yes vs no). Other study variables included MD degree, clinical fellowship training, years since training completion, and Hirsch index (H-index), a measure of academic productivity. We computed the descriptive, bivariate, and multiple regression models and set P ≤ .05 as significant. A total of 299 full-time academic OMSs were included in the study sample. Of the 299 OMSs, 41 (13.7%) had had formal research training. Surgeons with formal research training had a greater mean interval since completion of training (P = 0.01) and had a greater mean H-index (P = 0.02). Formal research training was not associated with academic rank (P = .10) but was associated with an increased likelihood of receiving NIH funding (P research training was associated with an increased likelihood of obtaining NIH funding (odds ratio, 3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 9.00; P = .03). Among academic OMSs, those with formal research training had greater success with obtaining NIH funding. However, formal research training did not appear to influence an OMS's current academic rank. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Formal Organization of Knowledge: An Analysis of Academic Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumport, Patricia J.; Snydman, Stuart K.

    2002-01-01

    A case study of San Jose State University examined how changes in what counts as knowledge are reflected in universities' academic structure. Found that the multidimensionality of academic structure, with bureaucratic (departmental) structure relatively fixed and programmatic (degree program) structure relatively open, enables universities to…

  8. Academic Staff's Apathy towards Formal Professional Development Programmes at North West University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makunye, M. M.; Pelser, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore reasons for academics' apathy towards formal professional development programmes at North-West University. The research design was essentially descriptive, employing both qualitative and quantitative research techniques to gather and analyse data. Three techniques, namely, questionnaire surveys, analysis of…

  9. 40 CFR 262.203 - How an eligible academic entity indicates it will be subject to the requirements of this subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or university on file at the teaching hospital for as long as its laboratories are subject to this... Unwanted Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.203 How an eligible academic... all the laboratories owned by the eligible academic entity under the same EPA Identification Number...

  10. Unpacking (In)formal Learning in an Academic Development Programme: A Mixed-Method Social Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Hosein, Anesa

    2015-01-01

    How and with whom academics develop and maintain formal and informal networks for reflecting on their teaching practice has received limited attention even though academic development (AD) programmes have become an almost ubiquitous feature of higher education. The primary goal of this mixed-method study is to unpack how 114 academics in an AD…

  11. Leadership in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Perspectives of Academics in Non-Formal Leadership Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyer, Anne; Sheingold, Brenda Helen; Klopper, Hester C.; Warland, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Developing leaders and leadership are key factors to improve learning and teaching in higher education. Despite the abundance of literature concerning developing formal leadership, fewer studies have been conducted with academics in non-formal leadership roles that focus on how they develop their leadership in learning and teaching. Publication…

  12. Development of brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity and the relationship to formal math academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haist, Frank; Wazny, Jarnet H; Toomarian, Elizabeth; Adamo, Maha

    2015-02-01

    A central question in cognitive and educational neuroscience is whether brain operations supporting nonlinguistic intuitive number sense (numerosity) predict individual acquisition and academic achievement for symbolic or "formal" math knowledge. Here, we conducted a developmental functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of nonsymbolic numerosity task performance in 44 participants including 14 school age children (6-12 years old), 14 adolescents (13-17 years old), and 16 adults and compared a brain activity measure of numerosity precision to scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math index of math academic achievement. Accuracy and reaction time from the numerosity task did not reliably predict formal math achievement. We found a significant positive developmental trend for improved numerosity precision in the parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus specifically. Controlling for age and overall cognitive ability, we found a reliable positive relationship between individual math achievement scores and parietal lobe activity only in children. In addition, children showed robust positive relationships between math achievement and numerosity precision within ventral stream processing areas bilaterally. The pattern of results suggests a dynamic developmental trajectory for visual discrimination strategies that predict the acquisition of formal math knowledge. In adults, the efficiency of visual discrimination marked by numerosity acuity in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and hippocampus differentiated individuals with better or worse formal math achievement, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that two different brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity acuity may contribute to individual differences in math achievement and that the contribution of these systems differs across development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Does Formal Research Training Lead to Academic Success in Plastic Surgery? A Comprehensive Analysis of U.S. Academic Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joseph; Ameri, Afshin; Susarla, Srinivas M; Reddy, Sashank; Soni, Ashwin; Tong, J W; Amini, Neda; Ahmed, Rizwan; May, James W; Lee, W P Andrew; Dorafshar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    It is currently unknown whether formal research training has an influence on academic advancement in plastic surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether formal research training was associated with higher research productivity, academic rank, and procurement of extramural National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding in plastic surgery, comparing academic surgeons who completed said research training with those without. This was a cross-sectional study of full-time academic plastic surgeons in the United States. The main predictor variable was formal research training, defined as completion of a postdoctoral research fellowship or attainment of a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). The primary outcome was scientific productivity measured by the Hirsh-index (h-index, the number of publications, h that have at least h citations each). The secondary outcomes were academic rank and NIH funding. Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple regression statistics were computed. A total of 607 academic surgeons were identified from 94 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited plastic surgery training programs. In all, 179 (29.5%) surgeons completed formal research training. The mean h-index was 11.7 ± 9.9. And, 58 (9.6%) surgeons successfully procured NIH funding. The distribution of academic rank was the following: endowed professor (5.4%), professor (23.9%), associate professor (23.4%), assistant professor (46.0%), and instructor (1.3%). In a multiple regression analysis, completion of formal research training was significantly predictive of a higher h-index and successful procurement of NIH funding. Current evidence demonstrates that formal research training is associated with higher scientific productivity and increased likelihood of future NIH funding. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Formal Academic Leadership Programs on Undergraduates' Leadership Mindset: An Assessment of a Corps of Cadets Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Allison L.; Ho, Sarah P.; Odom, Summer F.; Perdue, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Students enrolled in a Corps of Cadets program at Texas A&M University [N = 336] were surveyed to examine their leadership mindsets and whether their participation in a formal academic leadership program simultaneously influenced their hierarchical and systemic-thinking preferences. No significant differences were found between students…

  15. Employability Enhancement Through Formal and Informal Learning. An Empirical study among Dutch Non-academic University Staff Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heijden, Beate; Boon, Jo; Van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Boon, J., Van der Klink, M., & Meijs, E. (2009). Employability enhancement through formal and informal learning. An empirical study among Dutch non-academic university staff members. International Journal of Training & Development, 13(1), 19-37.

  16. Implementation and Evaluation of a Formal Academic-Peer-Mentoring Programme in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Vanessa; Wood, Leigh; Lai, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Formal mentoring programmes continue to gain popularity in higher education, mirroring trends in industry. The study described in this article examines the design features of a formal mentoring programme for first year undergraduates and focused on three key aspects--the matching process, training and orientation, and interaction frequency. The…

  17. Doctoral Students as Journal Editors: Non-Formal Learning through Academic Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to formal pedagogic elements of the doctorate--supervision and other structured institutional provisions--but we know less about the role played by non-formal practices in doctoral students' learning. This paper explores the experiences of eight doctoral students involved in editing student-run journals. Editorship and…

  18. "Yo Pertenezco Aquí": Academic Identities, Formal Spanish, and Feelings of Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact that membership in a Spanish language theater and poetry troupe had upon a group of Mexican and Chicano university students in terms of the development of academic identities, feelings of belonging, connections with friends and family, and other factors that correlate with academic perseverance. Also examined was the…

  19. Self-regulation in ethnic minority children : associations with academic performance and the transition to formal schooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeniad Malkamak, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of the current dissertation is on the associations between self-regulation and academic outcomes, with special attention to these issues in ethnic minority children. Following a systematic meta-analysis on the association between cognitive self-regulation and academic achievement

  20. Employability enhancement through formal and informal learning: An empirical study among Dutch non-academic university staff members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the

  1. Fear of the Formal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    Over recent decades, institutions exhibiting high degrees of formality have come in for severe criticism. From the private to the public sector, and across a whole spectrum of actors spanning from practitioners to academics, formal organization is viewed with increasing doubt and skepticism. In a...

  2. Neighborhoods, Schools, and Academic Achievement: A Formal Mediation Analysis of Contextual Effects on Reading and Mathematics Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T; Parbst, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    Although evidence indicates that neighborhoods affect educational outcomes, relatively little research has explored the mechanisms thought to mediate these effects. This study investigates whether school poverty mediates the effect of neighborhood context on academic achievement. Specifically, it uses longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, counterfactual methods, and a value-added modeling strategy to estimate the total, natural direct, and natural indirect effects of exposure to an advantaged rather than disadvantaged neighborhood on reading and mathematics abilities during childhood and adolescence. Contrary to expectations, results indicate that school poverty is not a significant mediator of neighborhood effects during either developmental period. Although moving from a disadvantaged neighborhood to an advantaged neighborhood is estimated to substantially reduce subsequent exposure to school poverty and improve academic achievement, school poverty does not play an important mediating role because even the large differences in school composition linked to differences in neighborhood context appear to have no appreciable effect on achievement. An extensive battery of sensitivity analyses indicates that these results are highly robust to unobserved confounding, alternative model specifications, alternative measures of school context, and measurement error, which suggests that neighborhood effects on academic achievement are largely due to mediating factors unrelated to school poverty.

  3. Dynamic collective entity representations for entity ranking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graus, D.; Tsagkias, M.; Weerkamp, W.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Entity ranking, i.e., successfully positioning a relevant entity at the top of the ranking for a given query, is inherently difficult due to the potential mismatch between the entity's description in a knowledge base, and the way people refer to the entity when searching for it. To counter this

  4. Logical Entity Level Sentiment Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We present a formal logical approach using a combinatory categorial grammar for entity level sentiment analysis that utilizes machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging and performs a deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts in order to yield precise...... results. The method should be seen as an alternative to pure machine learning methods for sentiment analysis, which are argued to have high difficulties in capturing long distance dependencies, and can be dependent on significant amount of domain specific training data. The results show that the method...

  5. Superfield formalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional superfields, is a clear signature of the presence of the (anti-)BRST invariance in the original. 4D theory. Keywords. Non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory; Dirac fields; (anti-)Becchi–Roucet–Stora–. Tyutin invariance; superfield formalism; ...

  6. Programming Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Programming Entity Framework is a thorough introduction to Microsoft's new core framework for modeling and interacting with data in .NET applications. This highly-acclaimed book not only gives experienced developers a hands-on tour of the Entity Framework and explains its use in a variety of applications, it also provides a deep understanding of its architecture and APIs -- knowledge that will be extremely valuable as you shift to the Entity Framework version in .NET Framework 4.0 and Visual Studio 2010. From the Entity Data Model (EDM) and Object Services to EntityClient and the Metadata Work

  7. Superfield formalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    framework of the usual superfield approach to BRST formalism [1–9]. This ap- proach, however, has not been able ... within the framework of the superfield formulation. The central theme of a couple of very ... define [23a] the curvature tensor Fµν = ∂µAν −∂νAµ +iAµ ×Aν. Here B and ¯B are the auxiliary fields that satisfy the ...

  8. Beyond formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.

  9. Programming Drupal 7 entities

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, Sammy

    2013-01-01

    The book follows a standard tutorial-based approach to create, retrieve, update, and delete Drupal 7 entities, their properties and fields.Programming Drupal 7 Entities is perfect for intermediate or advanced developers new to Drupal entity development who are looking to get a good grounding in how to code using the new paradigm. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PHP development already, and being vaguely familiar with Drupal, GIT, and Drush will also help.

  10. Medical Named Entity Recognition for Indonesian Language Using Word Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Arief

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, Named Entity Recognition (NER) system is used in medical texts to obtain important medical information, like diseases, symptoms, and drugs. While most NER systems are applied to formal medical texts, informal ones like those from social media (also called semi-formal texts) are starting to get recognition as a gold mine for medical information. We propose a theoretical Named Entity Recognition (NER) model for semi-formal medical texts in our medical knowledge management system by comparing two kinds of word representations: cluster-based word representation and distributed representation.

  11. Young children's non-numerical ordering ability at the start of formal education longitudinally predicts their symbolic number skills and academic achievement in maths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Patrick A; Morsanyi, Kinga; McCormack, Teresa

    2018-01-25

    Ordinality is a fundamental feature of numbers and recent studies have highlighted the role that number ordering abilities play in mathematical development (e.g., Lyons et al., ), as well as mature mathematical performance (e.g., Lyons & Beilock, ). The current study tested the novel hypothesis that non-numerical ordering ability, as measured by the ordering of familiar sequences of events, also plays an important role in maths development. Ninety children were tested in their first school year and 87 were followed up at the end of their second school year, to test the hypothesis that ordinal processing, including the ordering of non-numerical materials, would be related to their maths skills both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The results confirmed this hypothesis. Ordinal processing measures were significantly related to maths both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, and children's non-numerical ordering ability in their first year of school (as measured by order judgements for everyday events and the parents' report of their child's everyday ordering ability) was the strongest longitudinal predictor of maths one year later, when compared to several measures that are traditionally considered to be important predictors of early maths development. Children's everyday ordering ability, as reported by parents, also significantly predicted growth in formal maths ability between Year 1 and Year 2, although this was not the case for the event ordering task. The present study provides strong evidence that domain-general ordering abilities play an important role in the development of children's maths skills at the beginning of formal education. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Programming Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Get a thorough introduction to ADO.NET Entity Framework 4 -- Microsoft's core framework for modeling and interacting with data in .NET applications. The second edition of this acclaimed guide provides a hands-on tour of the framework latest version in Visual Studio 2010 and .NET Framework 4. Not only will you learn how to use EF4 in a variety of applications, you'll also gain a deep understanding of its architecture and APIs. Written by Julia Lerman, the leading independent authority on the framework, Programming Entity Framework covers it all -- from the Entity Data Model and Object Service

  13. Formalization of informally acquired competences as part of academic certificate programs in healthcare – “prototype” of a model / Formalisierung informell erworbener Kompetenzen im Rahmen akademischer Zertifikatsprogramme im Gesundheitsbereich – „Prototyp“ eines Modells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Alexander Karsten

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The health care sector is facing many aspects of transformation. One aspect amongst others herein is an alteration of qualification profiles. Universities have to focus on both aspects determining future qualification profiles and increasing permeability between educational systems in a sense of optimally intermeshing competences that have been acquired at universities and those that have been acquired outside of them. This leads to the question how to create university certificate programs that offers two aspects: academic qualification on the one hand and on the other hand a possibility to identify, evaluate and certify non-formally and informally acquired competences of participating students. The ultimate goal is to identify and evaluate a person´s overall competence in a clearly defined thematic context, whereat competences that have been acquired outside universities will play an important role. Competences that have been certified by these academic programs may be used later for crediting purposes. In this report an initial prototype is being presented. It defines itself mainly as additional novel way of discussing crediting concepts.

  14. Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

  15. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  16. Mastering entity framework

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rahul Rajat

    2015-01-01

    This book is for .NET developers who are developing data-driven applications using ADO.NET or other data access technologies. This book is going to give you everything you need to effectively develop and manage data-driven applications using Entity Framework.

  17. Concrete Security for Entity Recognition: The Jane Doe Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucks, Stefan; Zenner, Erik; Weimerskirch, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Entity recognition does not ask whether the message is from some entity X, just whether a message is from the same entity as a previous message. This turns turns out to be very useful for low-end devices. The current paper proposes a new protocol – the “Jane Doe Protocol” –, and provides a formal...... proof of its concrete security. The protocol neither employs asymmetric cryptography, nor a trusted third party, nor any key pre-distribution. It is suitable for light-weight cryptographic devices such as sensor network motes and RFID tags....

  18. A Formal Specification Framework for Smart Grid Components

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Waseem; Niazi, Muaz A.

    2017-01-01

    Smart grid can be considered as the next step in the evolution of power systems. It comprises of different entities and objects ranging from smart appliances, smart meters, generators, smart storages, and more. One key problem in modeling smart grid is that while currently there is a considerable focus on the practical aspects of smart grid, there are very few modeling attempts and even lesser attempts at formalization. To the best of our knowledge, among other formal methods, formal specific...

  19. On Carcinomas and Other Pathological Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Rosse

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumours, abscesses, cysts, scars and fractures are familiar types of what we shall call pathological continuant entities. The instances of such types exist always in or on anatomical structures, which thereby become transformed into pathological anatomical structures of corresponding types: a fractured tibia, a blistered thumb, a carcinomatous colon. In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a, part_of and transformation_of can facilitate the integration of such ontologies in ways which have the potential to support new kinds of automated reasoning. We here extend this approach to the treatment of pathologies, focusing especially on those pathological continuant entities which arise when organs become affected by carcinomas.

  20. The formality of learning science in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonderup Dohn, Niels

    2010-01-01

    perspectives. Based on a literature review, the educational modes of education are defined as discrete entities (formal, non-formal, and informal education), whereas formality at the psychological level is defined in terms of attributes of formality and informality along a continuum (formal - informal learning......The terms non-formal and informal are attributed to learning in everyday life by many authors, often linked to their interests in particular learning practices. However, many authors use the terms without any clear definition, or employ conflicting definitions and boundaries. An analysis...... of relevant literature revealed two fundamentally different interpretations of informal learning. The one describes formality of education at the organizational level, while the second describes formality of learning at the psychological level. This article presents a conceptual reconciling of these two...

  1. Masses of Formal Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions....

  2. The single entity option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, M.C.; Roberts, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, an owner hires an engineer to design a power facility or other project and then circulates the completed plans to several contractors for competitive bidding. Although there are many variations on this theme, there is an alternative method which is growing in popularity--the design-build concept. In this construction method, the same entity designs and constructs the facility. The design builder may be a single firm with both design and construction capacity in-house, or it may be a combination of two or more firms with complementary abilities. If there are multiple firms, they may be structured as a joint venture or with one of the firms prime and the others in a subcontracting role. The critical aspect is that the owner contracts with one entity which has the responsibility for both designing and constructing the facility. According to statistics compiled by the Design-Build Institute of America and F.W. Dodge DATALINE2, a national reporter of construction statistics and information, from April 1995 to April 1996 the number of design-build contracts increased 103 percent over the previous year. Of a total $212 billion construction market, about $37.2 billion--18 percent--was design build. The strongest growth was in the category of industrial--plants, refineries, factories and warehouses--in which the concept use was up more than 300 percent from the previous year

  3. A Refined Definition for Groups of Moving Entities and its Computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreveld, Marc van; Löffler, Maarten; Staals, Frank; Wiratma, Lionov

    2016-01-01

    One of the important tasks in the analysis of spatio-temporal data collected from moving entities is to find a group: a set of entities that travel together for a sufficiently long period of time. Buchin et al. [2] introduce a formal definition of groups, analyze its mathematical structure, and

  4. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal sem...

  5. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations...... in theoretical understanding of the meanings of authentication. We provide a new insight in this direction and formalize it in CFPS (Common Framework for authentication Protocols' Specifications). CFPS provides a precise scope of definition for authentication protocols, which could make the design and analysis...

  6. Towards an analysis of academic weblogs

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses both the communicative purposes and formal linguistic features of academic weblogs. An initial analysis of 496 weblogs in use within tertiary level institutions was reduced to an in-depth analysis of 39 academic weblogs (a corpus of 16 million words). The objective was to see how much variation there might be between traditional academic genres and academic weblogs. The initial hypothesis is that academic weblogs are far less formal and would favour greater use of lexico-g...

  7. The Quantum Formalism and the GRW Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghì, Nino

    2012-10-01

    The Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber (GRW) theory of spontaneous wave function collapse is known to provide a quantum theory without observers, in fact two different ones by using either the matter density ontology (GRWm) or the flash ontology (GRWf). Both theories are known to make predictions different from those of quantum mechanics, but the difference is so small that no decisive experiment can as yet be performed. While some testable deviations from quantum mechanics have long been known, we provide here something that has until now been missing: a formalism that succinctly summarizes the empirical predictions of GRWm and GRWf. We call it the GRW formalism. Its structure is similar to that of the quantum formalism but involves different operators. In other words, we establish the validity of a general algorithm for directly computing the testable predictions of GRWm and GRWf. We further show that some well-defined quantities cannot be measured in a GRWm or GRWf world.

  8. [Lipedema: a misdiagnosed entity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, S

    2012-07-01

    Lipedema is a clinical entity frequently misdiagnosed or confound with primary lymphedema. Lipedema is a disorder of adipose tissue that occurs almost exclusively in obese women. It is characterized by bilateral enlargement from hip to ankle due to abnormal depositions of subcutaneous fat associated with often mild edema, usually sparing the feet. Disease onset is usually at or soon after puberty. Lipedema results in considerable frustration and distress resulting from the cosmetic appearance. Patients may complain of pain, tenderness, easy bruising of the affected areas with moderate to severe sensitivity to digital pressure or pinching. Imaging studies using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, lymphoscintigraphy are not indicated, except if the diagnosis is atypic or doubtful. Long-term evolution may alter lymphatic system and lead to a lipo-lymphedema with specific complications such as cellulitis. Lipedema management is not codified and included weight loss (poorly improving leg appearance or discomfort), psychological counselling and compression therapy. Liposuction, especially using tumescent local anaesthesia, may reduce edema, spontaneous pain, sensitivity to pressure, bruising and improve appearance resulting in a important increase in quality of life. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Industrial use of formal methods formal verification

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    At present the literature gives students and researchers of the very general books on the formal technics. The purpose of this book is to present in a single book, a return of experience on the used of the "formal technics" (such proof and model-checking) on industrial examples for the transportation domain. This book is based on the experience of people which are completely involved in the realization and the evaluation of safety critical system software based.  The implication of the industrialists allows to raise the problems of confidentiality which could appear and so allow

  10. Entity resolution for uncertain data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayat, N.; Akbarinia, R.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Valduriez, P.

    2012-01-01

    Entity resolution (ER), also known as duplicate detection or record matching, is the problem of identifying the tuples that represent the same real world entity. In this paper, we address the problem of ER for uncertain data, which we call ERUD. We propose two different approaches for the ERUD

  11. Integrating semi-formal and formal requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Olivé, Antoni; Dubois, Eric; Pastor, Joan Antoni; Huyts, Sander

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the integration of informal, semiformal and formal requirements specification techniques. We present a framework for requirements specification called TRADE, within which several well-known semiformal specification techniques are placed. TRADE is based on an analysis of

  12. Geometry and Formal Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, George A.

    This paper presents a method of encoding geometric line-drawings in a way which allows sets of such drawings to be interpreted as formal languages. A characterization of certain geometric predicates in terms of their properties as languages is obtained, and techniques usually associated with generative grammars and formal automata are then applied…

  13. Combining Formal Logic and Machine Learning for Sentiment Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a formal logical method for deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts using machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging. To evaluate the method it is used for entity level sentiment analysis as an alternative to pure machine learning...

  14. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity

    OpenAIRE

    Goonewardene, Sanchia; Persad, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results.

  15. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Sanchia; Persad, Raj

    2015-10-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results.

  16. Necessity of Integral Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yong

    2011-01-01

    To describe the physical reality, there are two ways of constructing the dynamical equation of field, differential formalism and integral formalism. The importance of this fact is firstly emphasized by Yang in case of gauge field [Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (1974) 445], where the fact has given rise to a deeper understanding for Aharonov-Bohm phase and magnetic monopole [Phys. Rev. D 12 (1975) 3845]. In this paper we shall point out that such a fact also holds in general wave function of matter, it may give rise to a deeper understanding for Berry phase. Most importantly, we shall prove a point that, for general wave function of matter, in the adiabatic limit, there is an intrinsic difference between its integral formalism and differential formalism. It is neglect of this difference that leads to an inconsistency of quantum adiabatic theorem pointed out by Marzlin and Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 160408]. It has been widely accepted that there is no physical difference of using differential operator or integral operator to construct the dynamical equation of field. Nevertheless, our study shows that the Schrödinger differential equation (i.e., differential formalism for wave function) shall lead to vanishing Berry phase and that the Schrödinger integral equation (i.e., integral formalism for wave function), in the adiabatic limit, can satisfactorily give the Berry phase. Therefore, we reach a conclusion: There are two ways of describing physical reality, differential formalism and integral formalism; but the integral formalism is a unique way of complete description. (general)

  17. Fear of the Formal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Over recent decades, ‘formal’ organisations have come in for severe criticism. Not only is formal organisation represented as ill suited to the realities of the contemporary organisational world, but as a key source from which organisational dysfunctions themselves emerge. For that reason informal...... and spontaneous modes of organising have emerged, or better re-emerged, as preferable substitutes, because they, in contrast to the formal, allegedly allow for creativity, inventiveness, flexibility, speed, and freedom. Thus, the province of the formal is significantly devalued. In this paper, we explore what we...

  18. Formalizing Arrow's theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. formalization of mathematics; Mizar; social choice theory; Arrow's theorem; Gibbard–Satterthwaite theorem; proof errors. ... Author Affiliations. Freek Wiedijk1. Institute for Computing and Information Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands ...

  19. Formalizing typical crosscutting concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a consistent system for referring crosscutting functionality, relating crosscutting concerns to specific implementation idioms, and formalizing their underlying relations through queries. The system is based on generic crosscutting concerns that we organize and describe in a catalog. We

  20. Named entity normalization in user generated content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Named entity recognition is important for semantically oriented retrieval tasks, such as question answering, entity retrieval, biomedical retrieval, trend detection, and event and entity tracking. In many of these tasks it is important to be able to accurately normalize the recognized entities,

  1. Entity ranking using Wikipedia as a pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Serdyukov, P.; de Vries, A.; Kamps, J.; Huang, X.J.; Jones, G.; Koudas, N.; Wu, X.; Collins-Thompson, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about these entities. Since

  2. Formality in Brackets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Nyqvist, Anette

    suits’ (Nyqvist 2013), and of doing ‘ethnography by failure’ (Garsten 2013). In this paper, we explore the layers of informality and formality in our fieldwork experiences among financial investors and policy experts, and discuss how to ethnographically represent embodied fieldwork practices. How do we...... stage and informal for others. Walking the talk, donning the appropriate attire, wearing the proper suit, may be part of what is takes to figure out the code of formal organizational settings – an entrance ticket to the backstage, as it were. Oftentimes, it involves a degree of mimicry, of ‘following...... conceptualize and articulate the informal and the formal? How do we represent the multidimensional character of organizations while maintaining a degree of integrity of informants? And how do we decide on relevance as we transpose our fieldwork experiences into text? We suggest that ethnographic organization...

  3. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  4. Ontology or formal ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Ontology or formal ontology? Which word is correct? The aim of this article is to introduce correct terms and explain their basis. Ontology describes a particular area of interest (domain) in a formal way - defines the classes of objects that are in that area, and relationships that may exist between them. Meaning of ontology consists mainly in facilitating communication between people, improve collaboration of software systems and in the improvement of systems engineering. Ontology in all these areas offer the possibility of unification of view, maintaining consistency and unambiguity.

  5. Non-formal Education in the Philippines: A Fundamental Step towards Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ma. Celeste T.; Pijano, Ma. Concepcion V.

    In order to significantly contribute to human resource development, the Philippines must develop an integrated educational system of lifelong learning, with a special emphasis on non-formal education. Despite the value that is placed on formal, or sequential academic schooling, it is non-formal schooling that makes accessible the acquisition of…

  6. Legal entities as subjects administrative responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України

    2016-01-01

    In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...

  7. A Calculus of Located Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Compagnoni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We define BioScapeL, a stochastic pi-calculus in 3D-space. A novel aspect of BioScapeL is that entities have programmable locations. The programmer can specify a particular location where to place an entity, or a location relative to the current location of the entity. The motivation for the extension comes from the need to describe the evolution of populations of biochemical species in space, while keeping a sufficiently high level description, so that phenomena like diffusion, collision, and confinement can remain part of the semantics of the calculus. Combined with the random diffusion movement inherited from BioScape, programmable locations allow us to capture the assemblies of configurations of polymers, oligomers, and complexes such as microtubules or actin filaments. Further new aspects of BioScapeL include random translation and scaling. Random translation is instrumental in describing the location of new entities relative to the old ones. For example, when a cell secretes a hydronium ion, the ion should be placed at a given distance from the originating cell, but in a random direction. Additionally, scaling allows us to capture at a high level events such as division and growth; for example, daughter cells after mitosis have half the size of the mother cell.

  8. SOCIAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BUSINESS ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Perevozova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at investigation of social effectiveness of business entities. Social aspect of business is becoming a necessary component of success, increase of profitability and competitiveness as well as minimization of risks. Social effectiveness is referred to as correspondence between economic activity and main social needs and aims of society, interests of the staff and interests of a certain person. Investigation of social effectiveness of business entities is suggested to analyze with the help of social factors. Social factors are characterized by variability of expectations, relations and interests of society, staff and individuals. We suggest generalized classification of factors which have an impact on social effectiveness of business, we single out external and internal factors. To external factors belong: income of the population, differentiation of population according to income, migration, level of salaries, level of legality of income of population, family status of  population, employment rate, age structure of population etc. As for internal factors we single out the following: low level of basic professional training, use of unskilled workers, absence of conditions for creativity, imperfection of system of motivation of professional growth, absence of specialized centers for certification training etc. Quantity and quality analysis of the above mentioned factors will enable to determine the level of social effectiveness of business entities. For analyses of degree of influence of factors on effectiveness we worked out a questionnaire of expert assessment which is represented in the form of assessment scale. We conducted a questionnaire and analyzed expert results and determined degree of influence of factors on social effectiveness of business. Assessment of level of social effectiveness of business entities was carried out by expert method of certain factor and was represented by a formula. The scale of assessment of

  9. Criteria for logical formalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 14 (2013), s. 2897-2924 ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logic * logical form * formalization * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.637, year: 2013

  10. Formal Verification -26 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is a short tutorial on formal methods which are techniques for specifying and verifying com- plex software and hardware systems. A few ex- amples of successful industrial use of these are also presented. Computers are ubiquitous these days and are used to control various safety critical systems like aircrafts, satel-.

  11. Formalization of Medical Guidelines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Šebesta, K.; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvára, K.; Zvárová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2005), s. 133-141 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GLIF model * formalization of guidelines * prevention of cardiovascular diseases Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  12. The Benefits of Formalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Based on unique panel data consisting of both formal and informal firms, this paper uses a matched double difference approach to examine the relationship between legal status and firm level outcomes in micro, small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. Controlling for determining...

  13. Formalizing Arrow's theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a formalization is done using a computer program called a proof checker or proof assistant. Such a proof assistant .... means 'Prototype Verification System', but the system is far more than a prototype. It actually is one of the ... related to the Lisp programming language (ACL2 means 'A Computational Logic for. Applicative ...

  14. Formalizing physical security procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meadows, C.; Pavlovic, Dusko

    Although the problems of physical security emerged more than 10,000 years before the problems of computer security, no formal methods have been developed for them, and the solutions have been evolving slowly, mostly through social procedures. But as the traffic on physical and social networks is now

  15. Formalized Informal Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2013-01-01

    are examined and the relation between network society competences, learners’ informal learning strategies and ICT in formalized school settings over time is studied. The authors find that aspects of ICT like multimodality, intuitive interaction design and instant feedback invites an informal bricoleur approach......Longitudinal research projects into social practices are both subject to and capture changes in society, meaning that research is conducted in a fluid context and that new research questions appear during the project’s life cycle. In the present study emerging new performances and uses of ICT....... When integrated into certain designs for teaching and learning, this allows for Formalized Informal Learning and support is found for network society competences building....

  16. Readings in Formal Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formal epistemology’ is a term coined in the late 1990s for a new constellation of interests in philosophy,the roots of which are found in earlier works of epistemologists, philosophers of science, and logicians. It addresses a growing agenda of problems concerning knowledge, belief, certainty......, rationality, deliberation, decision, strategy, action and agent interaction – and it does so using methods from logic, probability, computability, decision, and game theory. This volume presents 42 classic texts in formal epistemology, and strengthens the ties between research into this area of philosophy...... and its neighbouring intellectual disciplines. The editors provide introductions to five basic subsections: Bayesian Epistemology, Belief Change, Decision Theory, Interactive Epistemology and Logics of Knowledge and Belief. The volume also includes a thorough index and suggestions for further reading...

  17. Compulsive buying: an overlooked entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Bishnupriya; Basu, Saikat; Basu, Jharna

    2011-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an under-recognised entity among Indian psychiatrists. A Medline search, hand searching of journals and direct communications with lead investigators in compulsive buying have generated numerous studies. Overseas data indicate a community prevalence between 1% and 8% . The phenomenon can be an independent entity or appears as a comorbidity with another axis I or axis II disorder. A degree of suspicion on part of clinician regarding its possible presence is the key to its detection. A few rating instruments are available to quantify the morbidity and screening for compulsive buying. Management involves pharmacotherapy with SSRIs, psychotherapy, self-help groups and self-help books. Epidemiological and clinical studies on compulsive buying should be undertaken by Indian psychiatrists to provide better services for people suffering from compulsive buying.

  18. Formal groups and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of the theory of formal groups and its numerous applications in several areas of mathematics. The seven chapters of the book present basics and main results of the theory, as well as very important applications in algebraic topology, number theory, and algebraic geometry. Each chapter ends with several pages of historical and bibliographic summary. One prerequisite for reading the book is an introductory graduate algebra course, including certain familiarity with category theory.

  19. Entity Framework 41 Expert's Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Liles, Devlin

    2012-01-01

    This book takes a step-by-step problem solving approach that leads you through a problem and explains each step in detail to accomplish the goal. This books gives you concrete code examples as well as detailed information on the decisions involved. This book is for intermediate to advanced .NET developers who have used LINQ to SQL or Entity Framework in some form but want to have more control over the implementation.

  20. 31 CFR 596.308 - Person; entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.308 Person; entity. (a) The term person means an individual or entity. (b) The...

  1. Relatedness-based Multi-Entity Summarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratna, Kalpa; Yazdavar, Amir Hossein; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Sheth, Amit; Cheng, Gong

    2017-08-01

    Representing world knowledge in a machine processable format is important as entities and their descriptions have fueled tremendous growth in knowledge-rich information processing platforms, services, and systems. Prominent applications of knowledge graphs include search engines (e.g., Google Search and Microsoft Bing), email clients (e.g., Gmail), and intelligent personal assistants (e.g., Google Now, Amazon Echo, and Apple's Siri). In this paper, we present an approach that can summarize facts about a collection of entities by analyzing their relatedness in preference to summarizing each entity in isolation. Specifically, we generate informative entity summaries by selecting: (i) inter-entity facts that are similar and (ii) intra-entity facts that are important and diverse. We employ a constrained knapsack problem solving approach to efficiently compute entity summaries. We perform both qualitative and quantitative experiments and demonstrate that our approach yields promising results compared to two other stand-alone state-of-the-art entity summarization approaches.

  2. 47 CFR 1.2110 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... competitive advantage because significant legal constraints restrict the applicant's ability to access such... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Competitive Bidding Proceedings General Procedures § 1.2110 Designated entities. (a) Designated entities are small businesses, businesses...

  3. 47 CFR 22.223 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Licensing Requirements and Procedures Competitive Bidding Procedures § 22.223 Designated entities. (a) Scope... sections. (b) A small business is an entity that either: (1) Together with its affiliates and controlling...

  4. Qualified Entity Certification Program for Medicare Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QECP welcomes any entities that would like to participate in, learn more about, or assess their capability to function as a qualified entity (QE) under section 10332...

  5. Combining Formal Logic and Machine Learning for Sentiment Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a formal logical method for deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts using machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging. To evaluate the method it is used for entity level sentiment analysis as an alternative to pure machine learning...... methods for sentiment analysis, which often work on sentence or word level, and are argued to have difficulties in capturing long distance dependencies....

  6. Entity Ranking using Wikipedia as a Pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; P. Serdyukov; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); J. Kamps

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about

  7. Formal Methods in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Serna A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of formal methods in industry has progressed extensively over the past decade and the results are promising. But despite these achievements and it have been documented in numerous studies, it is still very common the skepticism about its usefulness and applicability. The goal of this paper is to show that its evolution over the past decade exceeds all previous processes and each time they do a better job to satisfy industrial needs. This is achieved by the description of some experiments and the result of various applications in industry and through an analyzing of the needs of companies that must be satisfy the research community in this field.

  8. Formalizing the concept of sound.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-08-03

    The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

  9. Formalization of Database Systems -- and a Formal Definition of {IMS}

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    1982-01-01

    Drawing upon an analogy between Programming Language Systems and Database Systems we outline the requirements that architectural specifications of database systems must futfitl, and argue that only formal, mathematical definitions may 6atisfy these. Then we illustrate home aspects and touch upon...... come ueee of formal definitions of data models and databaee management systems. A formal model of INS will carry this discussion. Finally we survey some of the exkting literature on formal definitions of database systems. The emphasis will be on constructive definitions in the denotationul semantics...... style of the VCM: Vienna Development Nethd. The role of formal definitions in international standardiaation efforts is briefly mentioned....

  10. Formalization of Database Systems -- and a Formal Definition of {IMS}

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    1982-01-01

    come ueee of formal definitions of data models and databaee management systems. A formal model of INS will carry this discussion. Finally we survey some of the exkting literature on formal definitions of database systems. The emphasis will be on constructive definitions in the denotationul semantics......Drawing upon an analogy between Programming Language Systems and Database Systems we outline the requirements that architectural specifications of database systems must futfitl, and argue that only formal, mathematical definitions may 6atisfy these. Then we illustrate home aspects and touch upon...... style of the VCM: Vienna Development Nethd. The role of formal definitions in international standardiaation efforts is briefly mentioned....

  11. Rasmussen's Aneurysm: A Forgotten Entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, A. N.; Costello, R.; Lee, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a rare entity which is a complication of a disease process that had almost disappeared from the Western World. With the recent resurgence in reported cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in Western communities, it is important to recognize complications and sequelae. A young alcoholic male with confirmed active TB suffered a cardiac arrest following massive haemoptysis. Multidetector computed tomography angiography diagnosed a Rasmussen's aneurysm, confirmed by digital subtraction angiography and then successfully embolized with glue. We outline this rare case and the embolization technique and review previously documented reports

  12. Maxillary Osteomyelitis: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaaz Habib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the maxilla is now a rare event with the advent of antibiotics. The two predominant causes are odontogenic infections and sinusitis. Immunocompromised states such as diabetes, HIV, and malnutrition increase the risk of osteomyelitis. It is important to recognize this early as it is a difficult entity to treat with potentially serious consequences. We report an unusual case of right sided maxillary osteomyelitis in a lady with poorly controlled diabetes in rural Lincolnshire. Biopsy of the right maxillary bone showed features of acute osteomyelitis. This responded well to a prolonged course of oral antibiotics.

  13. Predescemetocele: A distinct clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Narang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The case report incorporates a Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT examination for demonstration of the existence of pre-Descemet's layer (PDL; Dua's layer overlying a descemetocele and demonstrates predescemetocele as a separate clinical entity. The prospective analysis was done in two cases that had descemetocele, and OCT demonstrated the presence of PDL over an unruptured descemetocele that offers resilience and can be treated with an elective deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty or a penetrating keratoplasty. A descemetocele, when covered with PDL, should be correctly designated as a predescemetocele. Loss of PDL leads to baring of Descemet's membrane that eventually ruptures.

  14. Constraint satisfaction problems CSP formalisms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ghedira, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    A Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) consists of a set of variables, a domain of values for each variable and a set of constraints. The objective is to assign a value for each variable such that all constraints are satisfied. CSPs continue to receive increased attention because of both their high complexity and their omnipresence in academic, industrial and even real-life problems. This is why they are the subject of intense research in both artificial intelligence and operations research. This book introduces the classic CSP and details several extensions/improvements of both formalisms a

  15. Building ontologies with basic formal ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Arp, Robert; Spear, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    In the era of "big data," science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of particular relevance to biomedicine, covering theoretical components of ontologies, best practices for ontology design, and examples of biomedical ontologies in use. After defining an ontology as a representation of the types of entities in a given domain, the book distinguishes between different kinds of ontologies and taxonomies, and shows how applied ontology draws on more traditional ideas from metaphysics. It presents the core features of the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), now u...

  16. Formal Methods in Knowledge Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Fensel, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a general discussion of the role of formal methods in Knowledge Engineering. We give an historical account of the development of the field of Knowledge Engineering towards the use of formal methods. Subsequently, we discuss the pro's and cons of formal methods. We do this by

  17. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  18. NAMED ENTITY DISAMBIGUATION: A HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HienT. Nguyen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic annotation of named entities for enriching unstructured content is a critical step in development of Semantic Web and many Natural Language Processing applications. To this end, this paper addresses the named entity disambiguation problem that aims at detecting entity mentions in a text and then linking them to entries in a knowledge base. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method, combining heuristics and statistics, for named entity disambiguation. The novelty is that the disambiguation process is incremental and includes several rounds that filter the candidate referents, by exploiting previously identified entities and extending the text by those entity attributes every time they are successfully resolved in a round. Experiments are conducted to evaluate and show the advantages of the proposed method. The experiment results show that our approach achieves high accuracy and can be used to construct a robust entity disambiguation system.

  19. In/formalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Smart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Addressing a variety of locations and subjects across several social contexts and countries, this forum intends to stimulate novel ways of conceptualizing the inevitable interpenetration and entanglement of formalization and informalization as two interlinked social processes. Rather than proposing a new coherent definition of “informality”, we propose to consider “in/formalization” as a space of practice and reflection which is crucial for engaging with contemporary economy, law and politics and their current local and global articulations and scenarios. The forum features contributions by Stamatis Amarianakis, Lenka Brunclíková, Dolores Koenig, B. Lynne Milgram, Sarah Muir, Antonio Maria Pusceddu, Alan Smart, Mechthild von Vacano, Filippo M. Zerilli & Julie Trappe.

  20. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  1. Formalized informal learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a large-scale longitudinal, qualitative study - Project ICT and Learning (PIL) - that engaged the participation of eight primary schools in Denmark, and was conducted between 2006 and 2008. The research design was based on action research, involving teachers...... and other relevant stakeholders, as well as participant observations in the classroom documented by thick descriptions, formal and informal interviews and focus group interviews. The aim of the study was to explore and identify relations between designs for teaching and learning and the students' learning...... of school subjects within defined learning goals and curricula, along with various implementations of ICT in the pedagogical everyday practice (Levinsen & Sørensen 2008). However, another research strand - the topic of this paper - emerged during the project's life cycle as a consequence of ongoing changes...

  2. Entity-Linking via Graph-Distance Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roi Blanco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entity-linking is a natural-language–processing task that consists in identifying the entities mentioned in a piece of text, linking each to an appropriate item in some knowledge base; when the knowledge base is Wikipedia, the problem comes to be known as wikification (in this case, items are wikipedia articles. One instance of entity-linking can be formalized as an optimization problem on the underlying concept graph, where the quantity to be optimized is the average distance between chosen items. Inspired by this application, we define a new graph problem which is a natural variant of the Maximum Capacity Representative Set. We prove that our problem is NP-hard for general graphs; nonetheless, under some restrictive assumptions, it turns out to be solvable in linear time. For the general case, we propose two heuristics: one tries to enforce the above assumptions and another one is based on the notion of hitting distance; we show experimentally how these approaches perform with respect to some baselines on a real-world dataset.

  3. Supporting inter-topic entity search for biomedical Linked Data based on heterogeneous relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Nansu; Lee, Sungin; Ahn, Jinhyun; Kim, Hong-Gee

    2017-08-01

    The keyword-based entity search restricts search space based on the preference of search. When given keywords and preferences are not related to the same biomedical topic, existing biomedical Linked Data search engines fail to deliver satisfactory results. This research aims to tackle this issue by supporting an inter-topic search-improving search with inputs, keywords and preferences, under different topics. This study developed an effective algorithm in which the relations between biomedical entities were used in tandem with a keyword-based entity search, Siren. The algorithm, PERank, which is an adaptation of Personalized PageRank (PPR), uses a pair of input: (1) search preferences, and (2) entities from a keyword-based entity search with a keyword query, to formalize the search results on-the-fly based on the index of the precomputed Individual Personalized PageRank Vectors (IPPVs). Our experiments were performed over ten linked life datasets for two query sets, one with keyword-preference topic correspondence (intra-topic search), and the other without (inter-topic search). The experiments showed that the proposed method achieved better search results, for example a 14% increase in precision for the inter-topic search than the baseline keyword-based search engine. The proposed method improved the keyword-based biomedical entity search by supporting the inter-topic search without affecting the intra-topic search based on the relations between different entities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mucopurulent cervicitis: a clinical entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, F E

    1988-06-01

    Of 297 women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic who were examined for the presence of mucopurulent cervicitis, 96 (32%) satisfied the diagnostic criteria. Mucopurulent cervicitis was strongly associated with the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It was also associated with bacterial vaginosis, the use of oral contraceptives, and sexual contact with men who had non-gonococcal urethritis. Conversely, the presence of opaque cervical secretions did not show these associations, and the results indicated no difference in genital infections in women with clear cervical secretions whether or not more than 10 polymorphonuclear leucocytes per field (at a magnification of x 1000) were present. The findings support the suggestion that mucopurulent cervicitis is a definite clinical entity that requires investigation and treatment.

  5. Viruses: are they living entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    The essence (living or nonliving entities) of viruses has today become an aporia, i.e. a difficulty inherent in reasoning because they shared four fundamental characteristics with livings (multiplication, genetic information, mutation and evolution) without having the capacity to have an independent life. For much time, however, they were considered minuscule pathogenetic micro-organisms in observance of Koch and Pasteur's 'germ theory' albeit no microbiologist could show their existence except their filterability and pathogenetic action. Only some voices based on experimental results raised against this dogmatic view, in particular those of Beijerinck, Baur and Mrowka, without dipping effectively into the dominant theory. The discovery relative to their nucleoprotein nature made between 1934 and 1936 (Schlesinger as for the phage, and Bawden and co-operators as for Tobacco mosaic virus; TMV), together with the first demonstrations of their structures thanks to electron microscopy (from 1939 onwards) started on casting a new light on their true identity, which could be more clearly identified when, from 1955 onwards, phage and TMV proved to be decisive factors to understand the strategies of replication of the genetic material. Following the new knowledge, the theoretical view relative to viruses changed rather radically and the current view looks on these pathogenetic agents as nonliving aggregates of macromolecules provided with biological properties. There is, however, a current of thought, made explicitly by Lwoff that places viruses as compromise between living and non living and, perhaps, as primitive forms of life which have had great importance for the evolution of cellular life. At any rate, viruses are peculiar entities whose importance cannot be unacknowledged.

  6. Orality and literacy, formality and informality in email communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez Sabater

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to the linguistic characteristics of computer-mediated communication (CMC have highlighted the frequent oral traits involved in electronic mail along with features of written language. But email is today a new communication exchange medium in social, professional and academic settings, frequently used as a substitute for the traditional formal letter. The oral characterizations and linguistic formality involved in this use of emails are still in need of research. This paper explores the formal and informal features in emails based on a corpus of messages exchanged by academic institutions, and studies the similarities and differences on the basis of their mode of communication (one-to-one or one-to-many and the sender’s mother tongue (native or nonnative. The language samples collected were systematically analyzed for formality of greetings and farewells, use of contractions, politeness indicators and non-standard linguistic features. The findings provide new insights into traits of orality and formality in email communication and demonstrate the emergence of a new style in writing for even the most important, confidential and formal purposes which seems to be forming a new sub-genre of letter-writing.

  7. Spinor formalism and complex-vector formalism of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han-ying, G.; Yong-shi, W.; Gendao, L.

    1974-01-01

    In this paper, using E. Cartan's exterior calculus, we give the spinor form of the structure equations, which leads naturally to the Newman--Penrose equations. Furthermore, starting from the spinor spaces and the el (2C) algebra, we construct the general complex-vector formalism of general relativity. We find that both the Cahen--Debever--Defrise complex-vector formalism and that of Brans are its special cases. Thus, the spinor formalism and the complex-vector formalism of general relativity are unified on the basis of the uni-modular group SL(2C) and its Lie algebra

  8. Entity resolution in the web of data

    CERN Document Server

    Christophides, Vassilis; Stefanidis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several knowledge bases have been built to enable large-scale knowledge sharing, but also an entity-centric Web search, mixing both structured data and text querying. These knowledge bases offer machine-readable descriptions of real-world entities, e.g., persons, places, published on the Web as Linked Data. However, due to the different information extraction tools and curation policies employed by knowledge bases, multiple, complementary and sometimes conflicting descriptions of the same real-world entities may be provided. Entity resolution aims to identify different descrip

  9. Multifractal formalisms of human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlen, Espen A F; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2013-08-01

    With the mounting realization that variability is an inevitable part of human behavior comes the need to integrate this phenomenon in concomitant models and theories of motor control. Among other things, this has resulted in a debate throughout the last decades about the origin of variability in behavior, the outcome of which has important implications for motor control theories. To date, a monofractal formalism of variability has been used as the basis for arguing for component- versus interaction-oriented theories of motor control. However, monofractal formalism alone cannot decide between the opposing sides of the debate. The present theoretical overview introduces multifractal formalisms as a necessary extension of the conventional monofractal formalism. In multifractal formalisms, the scale invariance of behavior is numerically defined as a spectrum of scaling exponents, rather than a single average exponent as in the monofractal formalism. Several methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of scaling exponents - all within two multifractal formalisms called large deviation and Legendre formalism - are introduced and briefly discussed. Furthermore, the multifractal analyses within these two formalisms are applied to several performance tasks to illustrate how explanations of motor control vary with the methods used. The main section of the theoretical overview discusses the implications of multifractal extensions of the component- and interaction-oriented models for existing theories of motor control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [The nosological entity bulimia nerviosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor Aliño, J J; Cervera Enguix, S

    1991-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are at the present moment, two well defined clinical entities among the group of the eating disorders. The psychopathological differentiation of both syndromes has a great importance for diagnosis and therapy. The authors make a phenomenological description, based on case histories of patients with diagnostics of anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and try to establish an approach to the essential symptomatology of those disorders. The presence of affective symptomatology--depressive, but not exclusively--in the eating behaviour disorders in general and particularly in bulimia nervosa, is nowadays interpreted as an unspecific emotional lability as a response to stressing situations. That is to say, it is a secondary depressive symptomatology, more than a primary mood disorder preceding or underlying bulimia. There is strong evidence in favour of a dysregulation of serotonin metabolism in patients with bulimia nervosa, in the sense of a reduced activity, which manifest itself clinically by binges with food with a high content in carbohydrates. High levels of 5-HT seem to induce increasing feelings of safety, fullness and lead to an interruption of eating. Fluoxetine and this active metabolite are selective inhibitors of the reuptake of 5-HT and their antibulimic effect could be mediated by this mechanism.

  11. Leibniz' First Formalization of Syllogistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    of letters just those which belong to the useful, i.e., valid, modes. The set of codes of valid modes turns out to be a so-called "regular" language (in the sense of formal-language-theory). Leibniz' formalization of syllogistics in his Dissertatio thus contains an estimation of the computational complexity...

  12. Outline of Neutron Scattering Formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, N. F.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron scattering formalism is briefly surveyed. Topics touched upon include coherent and incoherent scattering, bound and free cross-sections, the Van Hove formalism, magnetic scattering, elastic scattering, the static approximation, sum rules, small angle scattering, inelastic scattering, thermal diffuse scattering, quasielastic scattering, and neutron optics.

  13. A Formalization of Linkage Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Christensen, A.I.; Hansen, Jens A.

    In this report a formalization of genetic linkage analysis is introduced. Linkage analysis is a computationally hard biomathematical method, which purpose is to locate genes on the human genome. It is rooted in the new area of bioinformatics and no formalization of the method has previously been ...

  14. Formal Methods: Practice and Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodcock, Jim; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Bicarregui, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Formal methods use mathematical models for analysis and verification at any part of the program life-cycle. We describe the state of the art in the industrial use of formal methods, concentrating on their increasing use at the earlier stages of specification and design. We do this by reporting on...

  15. Academic detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  16. Entity models for trigger-reaction documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; Makkes, M.X.

    2008-01-01

    We define the notion of an entity model for a special kind of document popular on the web: an article followed by a list of reactions on that article, usually by many authors, usually inverse chronologically ordered. We call these documents trigger-reactions pairs. The entity model describes which

  17. 31 CFR 800.211 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 800.211 Section 800.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... separate legal entity) operated by any one of the foregoing as a business undertaking in a particular...

  18. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate accounting...

  19. 31 CFR 595.303 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 595.303 Section 595.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.303 Entity...

  20. Ranking Entities in Networks via Lefschetz Duality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabrandt, Andreas; Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    then be ranked according to how essential their positions are in the network by considering the effect of their respective absences. Defining a ranking of a network which takes the individual position of each entity into account has the purpose of assigning different roles to the entities, e.g. agents...

  1. Code-first development with Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Barskiy, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for software developers with some prior experience with the Microsoft .NET framework who want to learn how to use Entity Framework. This book will get you up and running quickly, providing many examples that illustrate all the key concepts of Entity Framework.

  2. Ranking Very Many Typed Entities on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaragoza, Hugo; Rode, H.; Mika, Peter; Atserias, Jordi; Ciaramita, Massimiliano; Attardi, Guiseppe

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of ranking very many entities of different types. In particular we deal with a heterogeneous set of types, some being very generic and some very specific. We discuss two approaches for this problem: i) exploiting the entity containment graph and ii) using a Web search engine

  3. New procedure for departure formalities

    CERN Multimedia

    HR & GS Departments

    2011-01-01

    As part of the process of simplifying procedures and rationalising administrative processes, the HR and GS Departments have introduced new personalised departure formalities on EDH. These new formalities have applied to students leaving CERN since last year and from 17 October 2011 this procedure will be extended to the following categories of CERN personnel: Staff members, Fellows and Associates. It is planned to extend this electronic procedure to the users in due course. What purpose do departure formalities serve? The departure formalities are designed to ensure that members of the personnel contact all the relevant services in order to return any necessary items (equipment, cards, keys, dosimeter, electronic equipment, books, etc.) and are aware of all the benefits to which they are entitled on termination of their contract. The new departure formalities on EDH have the advantage of tailoring the list of services that each member of the personnel must visit to suit his individual contractual and p...

  4. Gaming frequency and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ip, Barry; Jacobs, Gabriel; Watkins, Alan

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous claims that playing computer and video games may be educationally beneficial, but there has been little formal investigation into whether or not the frequency of exposure to such games actually affects academic performance. This paper explores the issue by analysing the relationships between gaming frequency –measured as the amount of time undergraduate students spend playing games in their free time – and their academic performance as measured by their examination marks. U...

  5. Periocular xanthogranuloma: A forgotten entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Papagoras

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Charalampos Papagoras1, George Kitsos2, Paraskevi V Voulgari1, Anastasia K Zikou3, Maria I Argyropoulou3, Aikaterini Zioga4, Alexandros A Drosos11Rheumatology Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine; 2Department of Ophthalmology; 3Department of Clinical Imaging and Radiology, 4Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Periocular xanthogranulomatous diseases are a rare group of disorders which are characterized by a predilection to affect the orbit and ocular adnexa and special histopathological features, in particular infiltrates comprising non-Langerhans-derived foamy histiocytes and Touton giant cells. The differential diagnosis is difficult and occasionally definite diagnosis cannot be established even after clinical and histopathological findings are taken together. We describe a case of a middle-aged man who presented with a 10-year history of voluminous eyelid swelling with concomitant late-onset atopic manifestations, namely bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis with nasal polyps. After thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, including a biopsy of the eyelid, we classified the patient’s disease to a rare entity that has been relatively recently described: periocular xanthogranuloma associated with adult-onset asthma. In a review of the literature, no prospective trials concerning the treatment of this disease were found. The literature mainly contained case reports and case series in which corticosteroids and chemotherapy with alkylating agents have been reported to be beneficial. We treated our patient with a combination of oral corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide pulses and we observed substantial regression of the eyelid masses together with a normalization of systemic immunologic abnormalities.Keywords: periocular xanthogranuloma, adult-onset asthma, non-Langerhans histiocytoses, cyclophosphamide, methylprednisolone

  6. Formalizing the Relationship Between Commitment and Basic Cryptographic Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sree Vivek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive which offers the functionality of both digital signature and encryption with lower combined computational cost. On the other hand, commitment scheme allows an entity to commit to a value, where the entity reveals the committed value later during a decommit phase. In this paper, we explore the connection between commitment schemes, public key encryption, digital signatures and signcryption. We establish formal relationship between commitment and the other primitives. Our main result is that we show signcryption can be used as a commitment scheme with appropriate security notions. We show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is IND-CCA2 secure, then the hiding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Similarly, we show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is unforgeable, then the relaxed biding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Moreover, we prove that if the underlying signcryption scheme is NM-CCA2, then the commitment scheme is non-malleable.

  7. Formal verification - Robust and efficient code: Introduction to Formal Verification

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In general, FV means "proving that certain properties hold for a given system using formal mathematics". This definition can certainly feel daunting, however, as we will learn, we can reap benefits from the paradigm without digging too deep into ...

  8. Academic Blogging: Academic Practice and Academic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkup, Gill

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…

  9. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  10. Leibniz' First Formalization of Syllogistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    of letters just those which belong to the useful, i.e., valid, modes. The set of codes of valid modes turns out to be a so-called "regular" language (in the sense of formal-language-theory). Leibniz' formalization of syllogistics in his Dissertatio thus contains an estimation of the computational complexity......In his Dissertatio de Arte Combinatoria from 1666 Leibniz provides a formal presentation of syllogistics within the framework of his general-combinatoric program. He does not set up an axiomatic system for the derivation of all valid syllogistic mode, rather he formulates a set of rules which...

  11. Named entity recognition in Slovene text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Štajner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach and an implementation of a named entity extractor for Slovene language, based on a machine learning approach. It is designed as a supervised algorithm based on Conditional Random Fields and is trained on the ssj500k annotated corpus of Slovene. The corpus, which is available under a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA licence, is annotated with morphosyntactic tags, as well as named entities for people, locations, organisations, and miscellaneous names. The paper discusses the influence of morphosyntactic tags, lexicons and conjunctions of features of neighbouring words. An important contribution of this investigation is that morphosyntactic tags benefit named entity extraction. Using all the best-performing features the recognizer reaches a precision of 74% and a recall of 72%, having stronger performance on personal and geographical named entities, followed by organizations, but performs poorly on the miscellaneous entities, since this class is very diverse and consequently difficult to predict. A major contribution of the paper is also showing the benefits of splitting the class of miscellaneous entities into organizations and other entities, which in turn improves performance even on personal and organizational names. The software, developed in this research is freely available under the Apache 2.0 licence at http://ailab.ijs.si/~tadej/slner.zip, while development versions are available at https://github.com/tadejs/slner.

  12. Graph-structured Conditional Random Fields for Named Entity Categorization in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yotaro; Asahara, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Yuji

    This paper presents a method for categorizing named entities in Wikipedia. In Wikipedia, an anchor text is glossed in a linked HTML text. We formalize named entity categorization as a task of categorizing anchor texts with linked HTML texts which glosses a named entity. Using this representation, we introduce a graph structure in which anchor texts are regarded as nodes. In order to incorporate HTML structure on the graph, three types of cliques are defined based on the HTML tree structure. We propose a method with Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to categorize the nodes on the graph. Since the defined graph may include cycles, the exact inference of CRFs is computationally expensive. We introduce an approximate inference method using Tree-based Reparameterization (TRP) to reduce computational cost. In experiments, our proposed model obtained significant improvements compare to baseline models that use Support Vector Machines.

  13. Academic Hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  14. How Does Ethics Institutionalization Reduce Academic Cheating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Ifeoluwa; Garner, Bart; Ammeter, Anthony; Krey, Nina; Beu Ammeter, Danielle; Schafer, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Extant research on academic cheating primarily focuses on the impact of honor codes on academic cheating. However, the influence of ethics institutionalization is curiously missing in past research. The authors developed and validated a structural equations model in the R programming language to examine the impact of formal (explicit) and informal…

  15. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 300.5 Submission of an entity statement. (a) Determining the type of reporting entity. The entity statement requirements vary by type of reporting entity. For the purposes of these guidelines, there are... determine whether it qualifies to begin reporting as a small emitter. (3) For entities not intending to...

  16. El Salvador - Formal Technical Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — With a budget of nearly $20 million, the Formal Technical Education Sub-Activity was designed to strengthen technical and vocational educational institutions in the...

  17. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  18. Readings in Formal Epistemology : Sourcebook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arló-Costa, H.; Hendricks, V.F.; van Benthem, J.

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents 38 classic texts in formal epistemology, and strengthens the ties between research into this area of philosophy and its neighbouring intellectual disciplines. The editors provide introductions to five subsections: Bayesian Epistemology, Belief Change, Decision Theory,

  19. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...... und ESN and hierarchy’s effects regarding the sociotechnical design and implementation of related systems....

  20. Gaming Frequency and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Barry; Jacobs, Gabriel; Watkins, Alan

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous claims that playing computer and video games may be educationally beneficial, but there has been little formal investigation into whether or not the frequency of exposure to such games actually affects academic performance. This paper explores the issue by analysing the relationships between gaming frequency--measured as the…

  1. Xanthogranulomatous Endometritis: An Unusual Pathological Entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcinoma. Makkar M, Gill MK, Singh DP. Department of Pathology, Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bathinda, India. Abstract. Xanthogranulomatous endometritis is an unusual pathological entity mimicking endometrial carcinoma. This shows sheets of foamy histiocytes alongwith other inflammatory cells.

  2. Xanthogranulomatous Endometritis: An Unusual Pathological Entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stroma, along with numerous histiocytes having foamy cytoplasm, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and areas of hemorrhage [Figures 1‑3]. No evidence of malignancy was present. Serological marker for carcinoembryonic antigen was. Xanthogranulomatous Endometritis: An Unusual. Pathological Entity Mimicking Endometrial.

  3. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified...

  4. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified...

  5. Formalized description of strategic control system functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sborshchikov Sergey Borisovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Investment and construction activity as a technical and economic system represents a complex of coordinated elements interdependent in frames of a more complicated structure and logically constituting a whole entity which is controlled basing on control actions stated in a plan. The processes of investment and construction activity are determined by different flows of workforce, raw materials, energy, main funds and investments. On the other hand the system functioning influences these flows. The article presents the structure of investment and construction activity as a technical-and-economic system with large number of input and output flows. For its functioning implementation of strategic control is necessary. The authors consider a suggestion that providing balanced and proportional growth basing on the general aim is the important result of strategy control. Both inner and outer impacts should be taken into account. The higher is the hierarchy level of the investment and construction activity, the higher the degree of complexity of control, management and decision-making functions grow. The formalized description of strategic controlling process is given.

  6. Preserving cultural heritage objects: provenance formalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Tomasi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preservation is a composite task, because digital objects are multilevel, stratified, and complex entities. In order to ensure conceptual preservation, the cultural object must be accompanied by the most accurate details about the provenance. With the provenance, in fact, it is possible to attribute paternity to the actions linked to that cultural object, in such a way as to guarantee its reliability. Given the amount of existing information on the Web, there is a need for mechanisms to determine the provenance of the data, in order to guarantee not just the reliability of the information but also the authoritativeness, so that the final user can use it. By translating these principles into ontology, the object is preserved in its conceptual dimension. Two ontologies aimed at the formalization of the provenance (PRoles and HiCO are then described, which have also been tested on two different projects: a structured collection (a catalog and a set of unstructured documents (a digital edition.

  7. A bibliographic study on entity linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Habib Bechelane Maia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linking Entities (LE is an important research topic that has recently attracted great attention from researchers. In the LE tasks, textual mentions found in natural language are linked to their corresponding entry in a knowledge database. This task is challenging due to problems such as name variation, entity ambiguity, or because the entity mentioned may not exist in the knowledge database. Goals: To present the problems related to LE, its typical applications, as well as to synthesize their main approaches in the context of concept linkage. Methodology: Survey research with the current literature, for a detailed description of the state of the art of the approaches in LE, as well as for the systematization and categorization of the identified approaches. Results: Most of the studies in LE divide this process into two stages: recognition and linking of entities. However, new proposals have unified these steps into a single process. Conclusion: Although more complex, the new LE approaches allow us to capture the dependence between Entity Liaison and Entity Recognition decisions, minimizing errors and inconsistencies. Evaluations should occur in unified databases, considering the difficulty of comparing different database results due to the influence they have on testing outputs.

  8. Formalization of an environmental model using formal concept analysis - FCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon-García, Rubén D.; Burgos-Salcedo, Javier D.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, there is a huge necessity to generate novel strategies for social-ecological systems analyses for resolving global sustainability problems. This paper has as main purpose the application of the formal concept analysis to formalize the theory of Augusto Ángel Maya, who without a doubt, was one of the most important environmental philosophers in South America; Ángel Maya proposed and established that Ecosystem-Culture relations, instead Human-Nature ones, are determinants in our understanding and management of natural resources. Based on this, a concept lattice, formal concepts, subconcept-superconcept relations, partially ordered sets, supremum and infimum of the lattice and implications between attributes (Duquenne-Guigues base), were determined for the ecosystem-culture relations.

  9. Early Career Academic Staff Support: Evaluating Mentoring Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. Denard; Lunsford, Laura Gail; Rodrigues, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Which academics benefit from participation in formal mentoring programmes? This study examined the needs and mentoring networks of new academics with evaluative data from a pilot mentoring programme. Themes from these data point towards re-envisioning initiatives for academic staff development. First, an examination of the expansion of mentoring…

  10. Introducing the Guard-Stage-Milestone Approach for Specifying Business Entity Lifecycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Richard; Damaggio, Elio; Fournier, Fabiana; Gupta, Manmohan; Heath, Fenno (Terry); Hobson, Stacy; Linehan, Mark; Maradugu, Sridhar; Nigam, Anil; Sukaviriya, Piyawadee; Vaculin, Roman

    A promising approach to managing business operations is based on business entities with lifecycles (BEL's) (a.k.a. business artifacts), i.e., key conceptual entities that are central to guiding the operations of a business, and whose content changes as they move through those operations. A BEL type includes both an information model that captures, in either materialized or virtual form, all of the business-relevant data about entities of that type, and a lifecycle model, that specifies the possible ways an entity of that type might progress through the business by responding to events and invoking services, including human activities. Most previous work on BEL's has focused on the use of lifecycle models based on variants of finite state machines. This paper introduces the Guard-Stage-Milestone (GSM) meta-model for lifecycles, which is an evolution of the previous work on BEL's. GSM lifecycles are substantially more declarative than the finite state machine variants, and support hierarchy and parallelism within a single entity instance. The GSM operational semantics are based on a form of Event-Condition-Action (ECA) rules, and provide a basis for formal verification and reasoning. This paper provides an informal, preliminary introduction to the GSM approach, and briefly overviews selected research directions.

  11. Informal work and formal plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Formal pathways models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer...... trajectories. METHODS AND THEORY: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. RESULTS: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment....... The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients' active...

  12. Formal connections in deformation quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masulli, Paolo

    product on a Poisson manifold that is in general non-commutative and corresponds to the composition of the quantized observables. While in general it is difficult to express a star product globally on a curved manifold in an explicit way, we consider a case where this is possible, namely that of a Kähler...... terms. This allows us to express the equations determining a trivialization of the formal connection completely in graph terms, and solving them amounts to finding a linear combination of graphs whose derivative is equal to a given expression. We shall also look at another approach to the problem...... that is more calculative. Moreover we use the graph formalism to give a set of recursive equations determining the formal connection for a given family of star products....

  13. Logical formalization and the formalization of logic(s)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 233 (2016), s. 55-80 ISSN 0024-5836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logical formalization * logical analysis * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. Integrating Semi-formal and Formal Software Specification Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Dubois, Eric

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the integration of informal, semiformal and formal system specification techniques. We present a framework for system specification called TRADE, within which several well-known semiformal specification techniques are placed. TRADE is based on an analysis of structured

  15. Academic dishonsty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    avoidance and mastery orientation, Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA), awareness of academic rules and regulations, assessment practices, faculty, and university attended predicted the different types of academic dishonesty with varying levels of significance. INTRODUCTION. Today's undergraduate students are ...

  16. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  17. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited, and inconclusive. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent...... cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries...

  18. Anatomical entity mention recognition at literature scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-03-15

    Anatomical entities ranging from subcellular structures to organ systems are central to biomedical science, and mentions of these entities are essential to understanding the scientific literature. Despite extensive efforts to automatically analyze various aspects of biomedical text, there have been only few studies focusing on anatomical entities, and no dedicated methods for learning to automatically recognize anatomical entity mentions in free-form text have been introduced. We present AnatomyTagger, a machine learning-based system for anatomical entity mention recognition. The system incorporates a broad array of approaches proposed to benefit tagging, including the use of Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)- and Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO)-based lexical resources, word representations induced from unlabeled text, statistical truecasing and non-local features. We train and evaluate the system on a newly introduced corpus that substantially extends on previously available resources, and apply the resulting tagger to automatically annotate the entire open access scientific domain literature. The resulting analyses have been applied to extend services provided by the Europe PubMed Central literature database. All tools and resources introduced in this work are available from http://nactem.ac.uk/anatomytagger. sophia.ananiadou@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. academic libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Enhancing research visibility of academics: the role of academic libraries. Information Impact: Journal of Information and. Knowledge Management. 2017, Vol. .... Social media platforms allow users to connect, create, promote, share and follow interest groups. With these capabilities, academic libraries can make use of ...

  20. Estimation of default probability for corporate entities in Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujnović Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a quantitative PD model development has been excercised according to the Basel Capital Accord standards. The modeling dataset is based on the financial statements information from the Republic of Serbia. The goal of the paper is to develop a credit scoring model capable of producing PD estimate with high predictive power on the sample of corporate entities. The modeling is based on 5 years of end-of-year financial statements data of available Serbian corporate entities. Weight of evidence (WOE approach has been applied to quantitatively transform and prepare financial ratios. Correlation analysis has been utilized to reduce long list of variables and to remove highly interdependent variables from training and validation datasets. According to the best banking practice and academic literature, the final model is provided by using adjusted stepwise Logistic regression. The finally proposed model and its financial ratio constituents have been discussed and benchmarked against examples from relevant academic literature.

  1. Gender, Student Perceptions, Institutional Commitments and Academic Dishonesty: Who Reports in Academic Dishonesty Cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Christopher A.; Carr, Jim R.; McCullough, Sesi M.; Morgan, Sally J.; Oleson, Ted; Ressel, Maggie

    2004-01-01

    The academic dishonesty literature generally focuses on the causes of academic dishonesty, and outlines deterrence strategies, as well as the punishment methods used in formal sanction. Student self-monitoring techniques are becoming a more visible alternative that places greater emphasis on proactive prevention methods as opposed to reactive…

  2. 15 CFR 744.16 - Procedure for requesting removal or modification of an Entity List entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for requesting removal or modification of an Entity List entity. 744.16 Section 744.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT...

  3. Tagging Named Entities in Croatian Tweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Baksa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named entity extraction tools designed for recognizing named entities in texts written in standard language (e.g., news stories or legal texts have been shown to be inadequate for user-generated textual content (e.g., tweets, forum posts. In this work, we propose a supervised approach to named entity recognition and classification for Croatian tweets. We compare two sequence labelling models: a hidden Markov model (HMM and conditional random fields (CRF. Our experiments reveal that CRF is the best model for the task, achieving a very good performance of over 87% micro-averaged F1 score. We analyse the contributions of different feature groups and influence of the training set size on the performance of the CRF model.

  4. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    401–406. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 401. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal. P K KHARE*, P L JAIN† and R K PANDEY‡. Department of Postgraduate Studies & Research in Physics & Electronics, Rani Durgavati University,. Jabalpur 482 001, India. †Department of Physics, Government PG College, Damoh 470 ...

  5. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  6. Rotor and wind turbine formalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The main conventions used in this book for the study of rotors are introduced in this chapter. The main assumptions and notations are provided. The formalism specific to wind turbines is presented. The forces, moments, velocities and dimensionless coefficients used in the study of rotors...

  7. Formalization in Component Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Jens Peter; Knudsen, John; Makowski, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    may be specified in a formal language convenient for its purpose and, in principle, unrelated to languages for other aspects. Each aspect forms its own semantic domain, although a semantic domain may be parameterized by values derived from other aspects. The proposed conceptual framework is introduced...

  8. Formal tautologies in Czech language

    OpenAIRE

    Bílková, Jana

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose ofthis work was to describe and classify FT used in the contemporary Czech language and to demonstrate formal and semantic variety and high functional potential of this specific class of sentences. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

  9. Formal systems for persuasion dialogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Henry

    This article reviews formal systems that regulate persuasion dialogues. In such dialogues two or more participants aim to resolve a difference of opinion, each trying to persuade the other participants to adopt their point of view. Systems for persuasion dialogue have found application in various

  10. Automatic Testing with Formal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tretmans, G.J.; Belinfante, Axel

    1999-01-01

    The use of formal system specifications makes it possible to automate the derivation of test cases from specifications. This allows to automate the whole testing process, not only the test execution part of it. This paper presents the state of the art and future perspectives in testing based on

  11. UML-ising formal techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; George, Chris W.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    these different UML views are unified, integrated, correlated or merely co-located is for others to dispute. We also seek to support multiple views, but are also in no doubt that there must be sound, well defined relations between such views. We thus report on ways and means of integrating formal techniques...

  12. Formalizing ICD coding rules using Formal Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqian; Pathak, Jyotishman; Chute, Christopher G

    2009-06-01

    With the 11th revision of the International Classification of Disease (ICD) being officially launched by the World Health Organization (WHO), the significance of a formal representation for ICD coding rules has emerged as a pragmatic concern. To explore the role of Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) on examining ICD10 coding rules and to develop FCA-based auditing approaches for the formalization process. We propose a model for formalizing ICD coding rules underlying the ICD Index using FCA. The coding rules are generated from FCA models and represented in the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL). Two auditing approaches were developed focusing upon non-disjoint nodes and anonymous nodes manifest in the FCA model. The candidate domains (i.e. any three character code with their sub-codes) of all 22 chapters of the ICD10 2006 version were analyzed using the two auditing approaches. Case studies and a preliminary evaluation were performed for validation. A total of 2044 formal contexts from the candidate domains of 22 ICD chapters were generated and audited. We identified 692 ICD codes having non-disjoint nodes in all chapters; chapters 19 and 21 contained the highest proportion of candidate domains with non-disjoint nodes (61.9% and 45.6%). We also identified 6996 anonymous nodes from 1382 candidate domains. Chapters 7, 11, 13, and 17, have the highest proportion of candidate domains having anonymous nodes (97.5%, 95.4%, 93.6% and 93.0%) while chapters 15 and 17 have the highest proportion of anonymous nodes among all chapters (45.5% and 44.0%). Case studies and a limited evaluation demonstrate that non-disjoint nodes and anonymous nodes arising from FCA are effective mechanisms for auditing ICD10. FCA-based models demonstrate a practical solution for formalizing ICD coding rules. FCA techniques could not only audit ICD domain knowledge completeness for a specific domain, but also provide a high level auditing profile for all ICD chapters.

  13. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Noyola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  14. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate Reporting Entity A... Part 420—Separate Reporting Entity Subject to the following conditions, one or more aggregating entity(ies) (e.g., parent, subsidiary, or organizational component) in a reporting entity, either separately...

  15. Awareness of Entities, Activities and Contexts in Ambient Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Ambient systems are modeled by entities, activities and contexts, where entities exist in contexts and engage in activities. A context supports a dynamic collection of entities by services and offers awareness information about the entities. Activities also exist in contexts and model ongoing...

  16. 77 FR 56571 - Unincorporated Business Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... under State law for certain business activities. For purposes of this proposed rule, a UBE includes... unincorporated business trusts, organized under State law. This rule does not apply to UBEs that one or more... System institutions to organize entities under State law to engage in business activity. However...

  17. 31 CFR 598.303 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 598.303 Section 598.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS..., organization, network, group, or subgroup, or any form of business collaboration. ...

  18. 31 CFR 800.212 - Foreign entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign entity. 800.212 Section 800.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... business is outside the United States or its equity securities are primarily traded on one or more foreign...

  19. Xanthogranulomatous endometritis: an unusual pathological entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xanthogranulomatous endometritis is an unusual pathological entity mimicking endometrial carcinoma. This shows sheets of foamy histiocytes alongwith other inflammatory cells. We, hereby, report a case of 45 year multigravida female with irregular menstrual history, clinically diagnosed as carcinoma and ...

  20. 77 FR 28250 - Entity List Additions; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 744 [Docket No. 111027661-2429-02] RIN 0694-AF43 Entity List Additions; Corrections AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... Administration, Bureau of Industry and Security, Department of Commerce, Phone: (202) 482-5991, Fax: (202) 482...

  1. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not... winning bid on any of the licenses in this subpart. (3) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs, may use a bidding credit of 15 percent...

  2. 47 CFR 101.1429 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling... this chapter. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified in § 1.2110(f)(2)(iii) of this chapter. ...

  3. 31 CFR 594.303 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 594.303 Section 594.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.303...

  4. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Eligibility for small business provisions. (1) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its... three years. This definition applies only with respect to licenses in Block C (710-716 MHz and 740-746... credits. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium...

  5. 42 CFR 6.3 - Eligible entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (relating to grants for health services for the homeless); and (4) Section 340A of the Act (relating to... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligible entities. 6.3 Section 6.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT...

  6. Polynomials formalism of quantum numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, K.V.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the recently suggested perturbation formalism based on the method of quantum number polynomials are considered in the context of the general anharmonicity problem. Using a biatomic molecule by way of example, it is demonstrated how the theory can be extrapolated to the case of vibrational-rotational interactions. As a result, an exact expression for the first coefficient of the Herman-Wallis factor is derived. In addition, the basic notions of the formalism are phenomenologically generalized and expanded to the problem of spin interaction. The concept of magneto-optical anharmonicity is introduced. As a consequence, an exact analogy is drawn with the well-known electro-optical theory of molecules, and a nonlinear dependence of the magnetic dipole moment of the system on the spin and wave variables is established [ru

  7. Contextual approach to quantum formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this book is to show that the probabilistic formalisms of classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be unified on the basis of a general contextual probabilistic model. By taking into account the dependence of (classical) probabilities on contexts (i.e. complexes of physical conditions), one can reproduce all distinct features of quantum probabilities such as the interference of probabilities and the violation of Bell’s inequality. Moreover, by starting with a formula for the interference of probabilities (which generalizes the well known classical formula of total probability), one can construct the representation of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes or, in the abstract formalism, by normalized vectors of the complex Hilbert space or its hyperbolic generalization. Thus the Hilbert space representation of probabilities can be naturally derived from classical probabilistic assumptions. An important chapter of the book critically reviews known no-go theorems...

  8. Musical Formalism and Political Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Neufeld

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical formalism, which strictly limits the type of thing any description of the music can tell us, is ill-equipped to account for contemporary performance practice. If performative interpretations are in a position to tell us something about musical works—that is if performance is a kind of description, as Peter Kivy argues—then we have to loosen the restrictions on notions of musical relevance to make sense of performance. I argue that musical formalism, which strictly limits the type of thing any description of the music can tell us, is inconsistent with Kivy's quite compelling account of performance. This shows the difficulty that actual performances pose to overly rigid conceptions of music. Daniel Barenboim's unannounced performance of Wagner in Israel in 2001 shows that the problem of the boundaries of musical relevance is no mere philosophical puzzle. It is a pressing problem in the musical public sphere.

  9. Informal work and formal plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2012-01-01

    trajectories. METHODS AND THEORY: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. RESULTS: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment...... and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories. Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed. DISCUSSION: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work....... The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients' active...

  10. Stroh formalism and Rayleigh waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tanuma, Kazumi

    2008-01-01

    Introduces a powerful and elegant mathematical method for the analysis of anisotropic elasticity equationsThe reader can grasp the essentials as quickly as possibleCan be used as a textbook, which presents compactly introduction and applications of the Stroh formalismAppeals to the people not only in mathematics but also in mechanics and engineering sciencePrerequisites are only basic linear algebra, calculus and fundamentals of differential equations

  11. Formal Women-only Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesèche, Florence; Josserand, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    /organisations and the wider social group of women in business. Research limitations/implications: The authors focus on the distinction between external and internal formal women-only networks while also acknowledging the broader diversity that can characterise such networks. Their review provides the reader with an insight...... member level, the authors suggest that such networks can be of value for organisations and the wider social group of women in management and leadership positions....

  12. Review of the helicity formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, F.; Cerrada, M.; Fernandez, E.

    1972-01-01

    Our purpose in these notes has been to present a brief and general review of the helicity formalism. We begin by discussing Lorentz invariance, spin and helicity ideas, in section 1 . In section 2 we deal with the construction of relativistic states and scattering amplitudes in the helicity basis and we study their transformation properties under discrete symmetries. Finally we present some more sophisticated topics like kinematical singularities of helicity amplitudes, kinematical constraints and crossing relations 3, 4, 5 respectively. (Author) 8 refs

  13. Variational formalism for spin particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathy, P.

    1977-11-01

    The geometrical formulation of Hamilton's principle presented in a previous paper has been related to the usual one in terms of Lagrangian functions. The exact conditions for their equivalence are obtained and a method is given for the construction of a Lagrangian function. The formalism is extended to spin particles and a local Lagrangian is constructed in this case, too. However, this function cannot be extended to a global one. (D.P.)

  14. Ashtekar formalism with real variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalau, W.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1990-12-01

    A new approach to canonical gravity is presented which is based on the Ashtekar formalism. But, in contrast to Ashtekar's variables, this formulation does not need complex quantities nor does it lead to second class constraints. This is achieved using SO(3,1) as a gauge group instead of complexified SO(3). Because of the larger group additional first class constraints are needed which turn out to be cubic and quartic in the momenta. (author). 13 refs

  15. Effectiveness of a formal post-baccalaureate pre-medicine program for underrepresented minority students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, B; Edwards, A S; Segal, S S; Gillum, L H; Lindsay, A; Johnson, N

    2001-08-01

    To address the effectiveness of a formal postbaccalaureate (PB) experience for underrepresented minority (URM) students before medical school. The program provided an intense year-long experience of course work, research, and personal development. There were 516 participants from one medical school: 15 URM medical students had completed the formal PB program, 58 students had done independent PB work before matriculation, and 443 students were traditional matriculants. Cognitive and academic indicators [college science and non-science grade-point averages (GPAs); biology, physics, and verbal MCAT scores; and percentage scores from first-year medical school courses] were compared for the three groups. Both groups of students with PB experience demonstrated competency in the first year of medical school consistent with traditional students even though the students who had completed the formal PB program had lower MCAT scores and lower college GPAs than did the traditional students. Traditional predictors of academic performance during the first year of medical school did not significantly contribute to actual academic performances of students from the formal PB program. The results support the use of a formal PB program to provide academic readiness and support for URM students prior to medical school. Such a program may also improve retention. Noncognitive variables, however, may be important to understanding the success of such students in medical school.

  16. On shape grammars, color grammars and sortal grammars : A sortal grammar interpreter for varying shape grammar formalisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouffs, R.

    2012-01-01

    Grammar formalisms for design come in a large variety, requiring different representations of the entities being generated, and different interpretative mechanisms for this generation. Most examples of shape grammars rely on labeled shapes, a combination of line segments and labeled points. Color

  17. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Cook

    Full Text Available As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB, a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration.

  18. Outcomes of modified formal online debating in graduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandall-Walker, Virginia; Park, Caroline L; Munich, Kim

    2012-06-29

    Formal debating is a process for argumentation with a long history of use in classroom settings to promote students' development of skills associated with influencing others. In an online, 14-week, MN nursing course, modified formal debate procedures and rules were used to address contemporary issues in nursing. A qualitative descriptive study of student's reflections about engaging in the debate process was conducted involving 24 of 48 students representing three sections of this course taught by three professors during the 2009-2010 academic year. On analysis, the data revealed five categories of outcomes: 1) Risk Taking; 2) Defence of a Position; 3) Coverage of all Aspects; 4) Skill and Knowledge Transfer; and 5) Critical Thinking. Additionally, factors that influenced each of these outcomes are described. Study findings support the compelling benefits of debating in online learning environments using a format modified for use online.

  19. Expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The literature on business expatriates has been increasing rapidly, but research on expatriate academics has remained scant, despite the apparent increasing globalisation of the academic world. Therefore, more research is needed on the latter group of expatriates. This paper aims to fil...

  20. Regulations in establishing and developing urban entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Slavoljub C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this work is to represent relatively new method of analyzing, planning and developing various projects in different architectural fields. The concept 'pattern' symbolizes a new view on objects and items that are already exist around us or those that will be created in the future. By explaining this concept, this work focus on describing 'pattern' as a new system or 'pattern language' that identifies foundation and development of unplanned cities. Every town or urban entity symbolizes 'pattern', but it is made from various 'patterns' as well. There are certain rules i.e. patterns that particular urban entities follow in order to establish themselves and 'pattern language' has been developed on that basis. The main purpose of this work is to emphasize this phenomenon and reveal the significance that 'patterns' have in urbanism development. Their understanding is of great importance so they can be implemented not only in theoretical but also in practical examination and analysis.

  1. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles

  2. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  3. Measuring the effect of formalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoelen, K.; Mohn, P.

    1998-01-01

    We present an ongoing research activity concerned with measuring the effect of an increased level of formalization in software development. We summarize the experiences from a first experimental development. Based on these experiences, we discuss a number of technical issues; in particular, problems connected to metrics based on fault reports. First of all, what is a fault? Secondly, how should the fault counting be integrated in the development process? Thirdly, any reasonable definition of fault depends on a notion of satisfaction. Hence, we must address the question: What does it mean for a specification or an implementation to satisfy a requirement imposed by a more high-level specification? (author)

  4. The formal de Rham complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharinov, V. V.

    2013-02-01

    We propose a formal construction generalizing the classic de Rham complex to a wide class of models in mathematical physics and analysis. The presentation is divided into a sequence of definitions and elementary, easily verified statements; proofs are therefore given only in the key case. Linear operations are everywhere performed over a fixed number field {F} = {R},{C}. All linear spaces, algebras, and modules, although not stipulated explicitly, are by definition or by construction endowed with natural locally convex topologies, and their morphisms are continuous.

  5. A rare clinic entity: Huge trichobezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayatullah Hamidi, Dr, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Trichobezoars should be suspected in young females with long standing upper abdominal masses; as the possibility of malignancy is not very common in this age group. While USG is inconclusive, trichobezoar can be accurately diagnosed with CT. In patient with huge trichobezoar, laparotomy can be performed firstly because of big size and location of mass, and psychiatric recommendation should be made to prevent relapse of this entity.

  6. Is Alzheimer's disease a homogeneous disease entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2013-10-01

    The epidemic proportions of dementia in old age are a cause of great concern for the medical profession and the society at large. It is customary to consider Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common cause of dementia, and vascular dementia (VaD) as being the second. This dichotomous view of a primary neurodegenerative disease as opposed to a disorder where extrinsic factors cause brain damage led to separate lines of research in these two entities. New biomarkers, particularly the introduction of modern neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid changes, have, in recent years, helped to identify anatomical and chemical changes of VaD and of AD. Nevertheless, there is a substantial difference between the two entities. While it is clear that VaD is a heterogeneous entity, AD is supposed to be a single disorder. Nobody attempts to use CADASIL as a template to develops treatment for sporadic VaD. On the other hand, early-onset AD is used to develop therapy for sporadic AD. This paper will discuss the problems relating to this false concept and its consequences.

  7. A survey of formal languages for contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper we present the current status on formal languages and models for contracts. By a formal model is meant an unambiguous and rigorous representation of contracts, in order to enable their automatic validation, execution, and analysis — activates that are collectively referred...... to as contract lifecycle management (CLM). We present a set of formalism requirements, which represent features that any ideal contract model should support, based on which we present a comparative survey of existing contract formalisms....

  8. 19 CFR 4.9 - Formal entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal entry. 4.9 Section 4.9 Customs Duties U.S... FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.9 Formal entry. (a) General. Section 4.3 provides which vessels are subject to formal entry and where and when entry must be made. The formal entry...

  9. Conception of Repairable Dynamic Fault Trees and resolution by the use of RAATSS, a Matlab® toolbox based on the ATS formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manno, G.; Chiacchio, F.; Compagno, L.; D'Urso, D.; Trapani, N.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Fault Tree (DFT) is a well-known stochastic technique for conducting reliability studies of complex systems. At the state of the art, existing tools (both academic and commercial) do not fully support DFT with repairable components and repeated events, lowering the penetration of this powerful technique in real industrial applications (e.g., industrial processes and plants, computer, electronic and network applications). One of the main reasons limiting the attractiveness of DFT is that, originally, DFTs were conceived without repairable components; only recently few related works have started to deal with a formal semantic, which would avoid undefined behavior and misinterpretation of DFT. Other researchers have tackled the problem by introducing extensions of the original Fault Trees (FTs) technique like Boolean Driven Markov Processes (BDMPs) and Generalized Fault Trees (GFTs). However, despite they consider repairable systems and repeated events, we have found that the introduction of a different formalism with more complex features has again limited the penetration of these powerful methods in real applications. The target of this work is the original DFT technique. Starting from the state of the art, a set of standardized rules that frame the behaviors of dynamic gates are designed and a well-defined semantic for repairable-DFT is drawn through the application of a novel formalism, the Adaptive Transitions System (ATS). The proposed theoretical framework is afterward used to code a software tool, RAATSS, for the resolution of extended, repairable-DFT. Moreover, this work introduces some novel concepts regarding the modeling of a system by a DFT and provides a basic hint of the ATS capabilities to describe interdependencies in complex system. - Highlights: • A semantic for Repairable Dynamic Fault Tree (RDFT) was conceived. • Practical motivation for the use of RDFT is presented. • The conception of failure gates for the computation of the

  10. Formalizing the concept phase of product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the use of formal techniques to improve the concept phase of product realisation. As an industrial application, a new concept of interventional X-ray systems has been formalized, using model checking techniques and the simulation of formal models. cop. Springer International Publishing

  11. Formal Testing of Correspondence Carrying Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.; Maharaj, S.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays formal software development is characterised by use of multitude formal specification languages. Test case generation from formal specifications depends in general on a specific language, and, moreover, there are competing methods for each language. There is a need for a generic approach to

  12. Named Entity Extraction and Disambiguation from an Uncertainty Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2011-01-01

    Named entity extraction and disambiguation have received much attention in recent years. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. This work addresses two problems with named entity extraction and disambiguation. First, almost no

  13. Academic Allies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Rebekka Birkebo

    the national associations of European law: Fédération Internationale pour le Droit Européen, the European law journal Common Market Law Review, and the ITL project, carried out at the European University Institute.It carefully documents an alliance between academics and community actors with the aim...... of providing academic support to the constitutional claim, and it argues that the academic discipline of European law was built and developed through a circular attribution of legal ideas, legitimacy, and self-image between the European Court of Justice, the Commission, and academia –most particularly so...

  14. Liberal Entity Extraction: Rapid Construction of Fine-Grained Entity Typing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lifu; May, Jonathan; Pan, Xiaoman; Ji, Heng; Ren, Xiang; Han, Jiawei; Zhao, Lin; Hendler, James A

    2017-03-01

    The ability of automatically recognizing and typing entities in natural language without prior knowledge (e.g., predefined entity types) is a major challenge in processing such data. Most existing entity typing systems are limited to certain domains, genres, and languages. In this article, we propose a novel unsupervised entity-typing framework by combining symbolic and distributional semantics. We start from learning three types of representations for each entity mention: general semantic representation, specific context representation, and knowledge representation based on knowledge bases. Then we develop a novel joint hierarchical clustering and linking algorithm to type all mentions using these representations. This framework does not rely on any annotated data, predefined typing schema, or handcrafted features; therefore, it can be quickly adapted to a new domain, genre, and/or language. Experiments on genres (news and discussion forum) show comparable performance with state-of-the-art supervised typing systems trained from a large amount of labeled data. Results on various languages (English, Chinese, Japanese, Hausa, and Yoruba) and domains (general and biomedical) demonstrate the portability of our framework.

  15. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... entities and public corporations. Securities registered in the name of, or assigned to, a State, county, city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may be... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political entities and public...

  16. Formal modeling of virtual machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, A. B.; Hibbard, T. N.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic software design can be based on the development of a 'hierarchy of virtual machines', each representing a 'level of abstraction' of the design process. The reported investigation presents the concept of 'data space' as a formal model for virtual machines. The presented model of a data space combines the notions of data type and mathematical machine to express the close interaction between data and control structures which takes place in a virtual machine. One of the main objectives of the investigation is to show that control-independent data type implementation is only of limited usefulness as an isolated tool of program development, and that the representation of data is generally dictated by the control context of a virtual machine. As a second objective, a better understanding is to be developed of virtual machine state structures than was heretofore provided by the view of the state space as a Cartesian product.

  17. Formal analysis of electromagnetic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Afshar, Sanaz; Hasan, Osman; Tahar, Sofiène

    2014-09-01

    Optical systems are increasingly being used in safety-critical applications. Due to the complexity and sensitivity of optical systems, their verification raises many challenges for engineers. Traditionally, the analysis of such systems has been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and numerical computations. However, these techniques cannot provide accurate results due to the risk of human error and inherent approximations of numerical algorithms. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to use theorem proving (i.e., a computer-based technique that allows to express mathematical expressions and reason about their correctness by taking into account all the details of mathematical reasoning) as a complementary approach to improve optical system analysis. This paper provides a higher-order logic (a language used to express mathematical theories) formalization of electromagnetic optics in the HOL Light theorem prover. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our approach, we present the analysis of resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices.

  18. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  19. Formal algorithmic elimination for PDEs

    CERN Document Server

    Robertz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the correspondence between systems of partial differential equations and their analytic solutions using a formal approach, this monograph presents algorithms to determine the set of analytic solutions of such a system and conversely to find differential equations whose set of solutions coincides with a given parametrized set of analytic functions. After giving a detailed introduction to Janet bases and Thomas decomposition, the problem of finding an implicit description of certain sets of analytic functions in terms of differential equations is addressed. Effective methods of varying generality are developed to solve the differential elimination problems that arise in this context. In particular, it is demonstrated how the symbolic solution of partial differential equations profits from the study of the implicitization problem. For instance, certain families of exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations can be computed.

  20. Best Practices Mentoring New Full-Time Faculty: Reenergizing and Improving an Existing Formal Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Jayne

    2011-01-01

    Mentoring is often used in academic settings (deJanasz & Sullivan, 2004). There is though, a lack of evaluation of these mentoring programs (Savage, Karp & Logue, 2004). Hopkins and Grigoriu (2005) found that research on mentoring in community colleges focused more on the informal mentoring of college leadership and less on the formal mentoring of…

  1. Academic Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela ZECA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Academic Marketing is an investment in a future dominated by The Forth Industrial Revolution and Globalization and not an expense. This aspect will basically alter our way to teach and to learn. In its dimensions, arguably changes will be like anything we has seen before. We try to assess how will be all unfold but, anyway, academic field response at this challenge should be integrated and comprehensive, involving all stakeholders both public and private sectors, because these changes herald upheaval of whole organizations. The educational service is a special one, delivered today but with effects in the future, the future of the individual, the future of generation, the future of nations. The educational service policy adapted to the requirements of time, brings to the front the opportunity of academic marketing. To analyze demand in a professional way, to measure trends and correlated university programs with the forecast demand for jobs, it is the subject. In the case of academic education, we are talking also about cost, distribution and promotion policies, but being a special service we also discuss about ethic boundaries. This work is an open chapter focusing studies on academic megamarketing, the work keeping up with the pace of change, students enrolment mobility, overtakes job market, and an imposed win-win-win formula, applied for students, local community and academic field.

  2. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs...... for the protocol. All along this process, we discover vulnerabilities and unstated assumptions of the protocol. As the method is intuition based, the quality of results depends on the expertise of the security analyst, however, the structured intuition has two major advantages: Firstly we get a precise...

  3. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H. Partee

    2010-12-01

    . J. Hintikka & P. Suppes (eds. ‘Approaches to Natural Language’, 221–242. Dordrecht: Reidel. Reprinted in Montague (1974, 247–270; Reprinted in Portner and Partee, eds., 2002, 17–34http://newstar.rinet.ru/~goga/biblio/essential-readings/01-Montague-The.Proper.Treatment.of.Quantification.in.OrdinarMontague, R. 1974. Formal Philosophy. Selected Papers of Richard Montague. New Haven/London: Yale University Press. Edited and with an introduction by Richmond H. Thomason. Newmeyer, F. J. 1980. Linguistic Theory in America: The First Quarter Century of Transformational Generative Grammar. New York: Academic Press.Parsons, T. 1968. ‘A semantics for English’. Ms.Parsons, T. 1972. ‘An Outline of a Semantics of English’. Ms. University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Partee, B. H. 1971. ‘On the requirement that transformations preserve meaning’. In C. J. Fillmore & D. T. Langendoen (eds. ‘Studies in Linguistic Semantics’, 1–21. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Partee, B. H. 1973a. ‘The semantics of belief-sentences’. In J. M. E. Moravcsik K. J. J. Hintikka & P. Suppes (eds. ‘Approaches to Natural Language’, 309–336. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, B. H. 1973b. ‘Some transformational extensions of Montague grammar’. Journal of Philosophical Logic 2: 509–534. Reprinted in Partee (1976, pp. 51–76.http://semanticsarchive.net/Archive/TEwODQ3Z/.Partee, B. H. 1973c. ‘Comments on Montague’s paper’. In J. M. E. Moravcsik K. J. J. Hintikka & P. Suppes (eds. ‘Approaches to Natural Language’, 243–258. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, B. H. 1975. ‘Montague grammar and transformational grammar’. Linguistic Inquiry 6: 203–300.Partee, B. H. (ed.. 1976. Montague Grammar. New York: Academic Press.Partee, B. H. 1979. ‘Semantics - mathematics or psychology?’ In R. Bäuerle, U. Egli & A. von Stechow (eds. ‘Semantics from Different Points of View’, 1–14. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Partee, B. H. 1982. ‘Belief-sentences and the limits of semantics

  4. Academic Talent Development Programs: A Best Practices Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Françoys

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe how schools should structure the development of academic talent at all levels of the K-12 educational system. Adopting as its theoretical framework the "Differentiating Model of Giftedness and Talent," the author proposes (a) a formal definition of academic talent development (ATD) inspired by the principles…

  5. Late entrants into the academic profession: Conceptual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A conceptual framework emerged which reflects the context, process and outcomes of programme participation in formal higher education qualifications. The framework could be the basis for developmental strategies of academic staff – particularly in researchoriented universities with late entrants from a variety of ...

  6. Academic ROI: What Does the Most Good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The author, who has served as a school board member and district superintendent, advocates that school districts use an academic return on investment approach to evaluate and make decisions about spending, specifically in special education. This approach requires that schools formally evaluate all programs, efforts, and strategies by multiple…

  7. Acute steroid myopathy: a highly overlooked entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, Michal; Schattner, Ami; Kozak, Natasha; Mate, Andras; Berrebi, Alain; Shvidel, Lev

    2018-02-15

    Myopathy in patients being treated with corticosteroids is known primarily among chronically-treated patients or in critically ill and mechanically-ventilated patients receiving corticosteroids, often in high doses. To highlight the entity of acute, early-onset corticosteroid-treatment-associated myopathy and its characteristics. Reporting our experience with four patients and reviewing all published reports of myopathy developing ≤14 days of initiating corticosteroid-treatment. Acute corticosteroid myopathy (ASM) exists, though the syndrome appears to be rare. It is characterized by unpredictability and heterogeneity, sometimes developing within 1-3 days, after a single dose, which may not be high and administered by varied routes. Proximal limb muscle weakness is the most common form, but distal limb, bulbar and respiratory muscles may be involved. Steroid cessation often leads to improvement/resolution, but irreversibility may occur. A high index of suspicion for the possibility of ASM is necessary, to ensure drug discontinuation and recovery. This is particularly true since the entity is not widely recognized and its symptoms are often erroneously interpreted as due to the patient's underlying disease.

  8. Academic sensemaking and behavioural responses – exploring how academics perceive and respond to identity threats in times of turmoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Lise

    2018-01-01

    -level management and the political system, the coupling and identification between academic staff and the formal organization may become weaker. Also, the behavioural responses perceived threats are studied, by examining the ‘us’/‘them’ categorizations of the academics, providing a burgeoning conceptual framework...

  9. Formal appraisal of undergraduate medical students: is it worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah G; Levene, Malcolm I

    2004-02-01

    Medical student stress is most often related to difficulties of adjusting to university academic standards, and work-social life balance. Faculty systems identify academically failing students for counselling, whilst the majority of students do not have opportunities for individual discussion about progress. This study reports a pilot formal appraisal process for first-year undergraduates. Preparatory material required students to reflect on their academic performance, factors contributing to their university life and satisfaction with career choice. Individual appraisal sessions were held with trained, experienced senior faculty staff, with completion of an appraisal record to document agreed outcomes. Individualized study skills advice was the commonest documented outcome on appraisal records. Students were overwhelmingly positive about the experience, reporting both enhanced perceptions of faculty and reduced anxiety about academic performance. Medical schools have responsibilities to consider ways to optimize students' performance; attainment can be related more to personal and motivational factors than academic ability.

  10. Innovation and Academic Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    2006-01-01

    Literature on skill-biased technological and organisational change has established that these kinds of changes are positively related with demand for highly skilled (and highly educated) labour. Most of the literature is based on the hypothesis that technological and organisational change cause...... a larger demand for highly skilled labour (see e.g. Abramovitz and David 1996; Bresnahan 1999), but it has also been argued that ample supply of highly skilled labour may affect technological change (Acemoglu 2002), and that the relationship is likely to be complementary and interdependent (Caroli and Van...... will be written on an assumption of a positive relationship between innovation and use of academic skills subject to a continuing importance of practical know-how and non-formal learning processes. Confronting this assumption with Danish empirics, interesting research questions arise. Danish empirics thus show...

  11. Formal and Legal Aspects of Buying and Commissioning Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas, Sebastian; Nowotarski, Piotr; Milwicz, Roman

    2017-10-01

    Formal and legal aspects of buying flats and their reception is very current topic and touches wide group of buyers. Annually in Poland great amount of flats is being sold and put to use. However, the case of housing purchase requires knowledge of both the construction and the legal aspects each buyer has to encounter. The paper faces the subject of formal and legal aspects, and analyses accompanying procedure of purchase and reception of housing in Poland. The article presents principles associated with the acquisition of a dwelling, process of works reception, removal of detected faults, fault-free reception, transfer of ownership, warranties, guarantees and possibilities of their enforcement. Contracting parties of the developer agreement were revealed. In addition, the entities present in the course of works such as general contractor were mentioned, due to the fact of his direct influence on the results of a contract terms between developer and buyer. Logical connection between three parties (buyer-developer-general contractor) were shown and direct and indirect dependencies were revealed. Existing laws and regulations that govern the relationship between the developer and the buyer of a dwelling were determined showing basic rights and responsibilities of each. The article also presents problems resulting from delaying the completion of works by developer’s fault and indicates possible legal paths to follow in order claim their rights. Due to the fact, that many of discussed formal and legal aspects in this subject have their origin connected to construction works and design issues, author suggests increased quality control and efficient work organization in order to solve problems before appearance.

  12. Applications of the Decoherence Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd Andrew

    In this work the decoherence formalism of quantum mechanics is explored and applied to a number of interesting problems in quantum physics. The boundary between quantum and classical physics is examined, and demonstration made that quantum histories corresponding to classical equations of motion become more probable for a broad class of models, including linear and nonlinear models of Brownian motion. The link between noise, dissipation, and decoherence is studied. This work is then applied to systems which classically exhibit dissipative chaotic dynamics. A theory is explicated for treating these systems, and the ideas are applied to a particular model of the forced, damped Duffing oscillator, which is chaotic for certain parameter values. Differences between classical and quantum chaos are examined, particularly differences arising in the structure of fractal strange attractors, and the conceptual difficulties in framing standard notions of chaos in a quantum system. A brief discussion of previous work on quantum chaos is included, and the differences between Hamiltonian and dissipative chaos pointed out; a somewhat different interpretation of quantum chaos from the standard one is suggested. A class of histories for quantum systems, in phase space rather than configuration space, is studied. Different ways of representing projections in phase space are discussed, and expressions for the probability of phase space histories are derived; conditions for such histories to decohere are also estimated in the semiclassical limit.

  13. A Formal Description of Problem Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Souleymane KOUSSOUBE; Roger NOUSSI; Balira O. KONFE

    2014-01-01

    Michael Jackson defines a Problem Frame as a mean to describe and classify software development problems. The initial description of problem Frames is essentially graphical. A weakness of this proposal is the lack of formal specification allowing efficient reasoning tools. This paper deals with Problem Frames’ formal specification with Description Logics. We first propose a formal terminology of Problem Frames leading to the specification of a Problem Frames’ TBOX and a specific problem’s ABO...

  14. Survey of Existing Tools for Formal Verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punnoose, Ratish J.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Jackson, Mayo

    2014-12-01

    Formal methods have come into wide use because of their effectiveness in verifying "safety and security" requirements of digital systems; a set of requirements for which testing is mostly ineffective. Formal methods are routinely used in the design and verification of high-consequence digital systems in industry. This report outlines our work in assessing the capabilities of commercial and open source formal tools and the ways in which they can be leveraged in digital design workflows.

  15. Formal Information Model for Representing Production Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Siltala, Niko; Järvenpää, Eeva; Lanz, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Part 2: Intelligent Manufacturing Systems; International audience; This paper introduces a concept and associated descriptions to formally describe physical production resources for modular and reconfigurable production systems. These descriptions are source of formal information for (automatic) production system design and (re-)configuration. They can be further utilized during the system deployment and execution. The proposed concept and the underlying formal resource description model is c...

  16. What Determines Firms’ Decisions to Formalize?

    OpenAIRE

    Neil McCulloch; Günther G. Schulze; Janina Voss

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the decision of small and micro firms to formalize, i.e. to obtain business and other licenses in rural Indonesia. We use the rural investment climate survey (RICS) that consists of non-farm rural enterprises, most of them microenterprises, and analyze the effect of formalization on tax payments, corruption, access to credit and revenue, taking into account the endogeneity of the formalization decision to such benefits and costs. We show, contrary to most of the liter...

  17. A Mathematical Formalization Proposal for Business Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BAILESTEANU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic sciences have known a spectacular evolution in the last century; beginning to use axiomatic methods, applying mathematical instruments as a decision-making tool. The quest to formalization needs to be addressed from various different angles, reducing entry and operating formal costs, increasing the incentives for firms to operate formally, reducing obstacles to their growth, and searching for inexpensive approaches through which to enforce compliancy with government regulations. This paper proposes a formalized approach to business growth, based on mathematics and logics, taking into consideration the particularities of the economic sector.

  18. Practice-Oriented Formal Methods to Support the Software Development of Industrial Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088632; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique

    Formal specification and verification methods provide ways to describe requirements precisely and to check whether the requirements are satisfied by the design or the implementation. In other words, they can prevent development faults and therefore improve the quality of the developed systems. These methods are part of the state-of-the-practice in application domains with high criticality, such as avionics, railway or nuclear industry. The situation is different in the industrial control systems domain. As the criticality of the systems is much lower, formal methods are rarely used. The two main obstacles to using formal methods in systems with low- or medium-criticality are performance and usability. Overcoming these obstacles often needs deep knowledge and high effort. Model checking, one of the main formal verification techniques, is computationally difficult, therefore the analysis of non-trivial systems requires special considerations. Furthermore, the mainly academic tools implementing different model c...

  19. Leveraging Pattern Semantics for Extracting Entities in Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fangbo; Zhao, Bo; Fuxman, Ariel; Li, Yang; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Entity Extraction is a process of identifying meaningful entities from text documents. In enterprises, extracting entities improves enterprise efficiency by facilitating numerous applications, including search, recommendation, etc. However, the problem is particularly challenging on enterprise domains due to several reasons. First, the lack of redundancy of enterprise entities makes previous web-based systems like NELL and OpenIE not effective, since using only high-precision/low-recall patterns like those systems would miss the majority of sparse enterprise entities, while using more low-precision patterns in sparse setting also introduces noise drastically. Second, semantic drift is common in enterprises (“Blue” refers to “Windows Blue”), such that public signals from the web cannot be directly applied on entities. Moreover, many internal entities never appear on the web. Sparse internal signals are the only source for discovering them. To address these challenges, we propose an end-to-end framework for extracting entities in enterprises, taking the input of enterprise corpus and limited seeds to generate a high-quality entity collection as output. We introduce the novel concept of Semantic Pattern Graph to leverage public signals to understand the underlying semantics of lexical patterns, reinforce pattern evaluation using mined semantics, and yield more accurate and complete entities. Experiments on Microsoft enterprise data show the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26705540

  20. Malignant struma ovarii: a rare oncologic entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Frederico Paes; Mendonca, Sandro Bichara; Souza, Thiago Ferreira de

    2004-01-01

    Struma ovarii (SO) malignant is a rare ovarian teratoid tumor, consisting predominantly of thyroid tissue. It has low incidence and a few cases described by the literature. Usually appears in the 4th or 5th decade of life. Generally they are diagnosed after surgery, being the diagnostic reserved for the lesions on the ectopic thyroid tissue based on cellular atypia, mitotic activity, capsular invasion and metastases. Due to its rarity,it does not still have a consensus about the best therapeutical management and protocol of accompaniment for patients with this neoplastic entity. This article reports a case of a patient with malignant S O, reviewing the relevant aspects of the literature. (author)

  1. Eosinophilic Enterocolitis: An Exceedingly Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard José Lopes Azevedo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic enterocolitis is an exceptionally rare condition with few described cases in the literature, representing the least frequent manifestation of the wide spectrum of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. We describe a case of a young male patient presenting with a panmural form of the disease, manifested by abdominal pain, distention, and watery diarrhea with 4 days of evolution, bowel wall thickening, and ascites. Eosinophilic ascites is probably the most unusual presentation form of this entity. It poses a diagnostic challenge because of its nonspecific symptoms, associated with the absence of standardized histological criteria, hence requiring a high level of suspicion. There is also no consensus regarding treatment: it should be individualized according to the patient's age and severity of symptoms.

  2. Lipedema: a clinical entity distinct from lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkin, G H; Miller, T A

    1994-11-01

    In a review of 250 cases of lymphedema of the lower extremity, 9 patients were noted to share unique similarities in their history and physical findings. Although these patients had mild swelling in their pretibial areas and were all referred with a diagnosis of lymphedema of the legs, their findings differed significantly from the usual patient with either congenital or acquired lymphedema. Notably, the lower extremity swelling was always bilateral and symmetrical in nature and never involved the feet. Skin changes characteristic of lymphedema were not found, and consistent fat pads were present anterior to the lateral malleoli in each patient. These findings are representative of a clinical entity known as lipedema, which is distinct from lymphedema and for which treatment may be different.

  3. Formal language constrained path problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  4. Academic Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  5. Academic Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  6. Academic Words and Academic Capitalism Academic Words and Academic Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Billig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo sugiere que esta época es la mejor y peor para la labor académica. La mejor en cuanto hay más publicaciones académicas que nunca. Y la peor porque sobra mucho de estas publicaciones. Trabajando en las condiciones competitivas del capitalismo académico, los académicos se sienten en la necesidad de continuar publicando, independientemente de que tengan algo que decir. Las presiones de publicar continuamente y promover la propia perspectiva se reflejan en la manera en la que los científicos sociales están escribiendo. Y es que los académicos utilizan un lenguaje técnico basado en sustantivos, con una precisión menor a la del lenguaje ordinario. Los estudiantes de postgrado han sido educados en esta manera de escribir como una condición previa a iniciarse en las ciencias sociales. Así, la naturaleza misma del capitalismo académico no sólo determina las condiciones en las que los académicos trabajan, sino que también afecta su manera de escribir.


    This paper suggests that it is the best and worst of times for academic work. It is the best of times because there are more academics publishing than ever before. It is the worst of times because there is much unnecessary publication. Working in the competitive conditions of academic capitalism, academics feel impelled to keep publishing, whether or not they have anything to say. The pressures to publish continually and to promote one’s own approach are reflected in the way that social scientists are writing. Academics use a noun-based technical language, which is less precise than ordinary language. Postgraduates are taught this way of writing as a precondition for entering the social sciences. In this way, the nature of academic capitalism not only determines the conditions under which academics are working but it affects the way that they are writing.

  7. Society as a crime victim of legal entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tortious acts of legal entities have unforeseen harmful consequences in all areas. In the greedy desire to gain profit, certain legal entities do not have any regard for the most important resources of individuals and society. Damage resulting from the commission of criminal acts is very high for the whole society, especially when it comes to crimes against the environment. In order to prevent and combat corporate crime in criminal law, an increasingly wider acceptance of criminal liability of legal entities was adopted. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of corporate crime, as well as the reasons for the introduction of the criminal responsibility of legal entities. In this regard, we analyzed the law provisions regarding the liability of legal entities for criminal offenses, and concluded that despite the criminal-political need to react with more serious sanctions to the offenses of legal entities, there are certain obstacles and problems that stand in the way of introducing this responsibility.

  8. A Conceptual Formalization of Crosscutting in AOSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Conejero, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a formalization of crosscutting based on a conceptual framework for AOSD. Crosscutting is clearly distinguished from the related concepts scattering and tangling. The definitions of these concepts are formalized and visualized with matrices and matrix operations. This allows more precise

  9. Formalizing Evaluation in Music Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a formalism to disambiguate the evaluation of music information retrieval systems. We define a ``system,'' what it means to ``analyze'' one, and make clear the aims, parts, design, execution, interpretation, and assumptions of its ``evaluation.'' We apply this formalism to discuss...

  10. Applicability of four parameter formalisms in interpreting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    terms of applicability of the three well known four-parameter formalisms for the representation of the thermody- namic properties of binary systems. The study indicates that the derived values of the infinite dilution parameters based on the formalisms compare favourably with the computed data available in the literature.

  11. Hamiltonian path integral formalism with higher derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelos-Neto, J.; Natividade, C.P. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica)

    1991-07-01

    We study the Hamiltonian path integral formalism for systems containing higher derivatives. First we show the consistency of the formalism in applications involving only scalar fields. Later we use the Maxwell electromagnetic theory with a higher order regularization term to show that the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky (BFV) theory can also be consistently described. (orig.).

  12. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  13. Formal balancing of chemical reaction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, Abraham; Rao, S.; Jayawardhana, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we recall and extend the main results of Van der Schaft, Rao, Jayawardhana (2015) concerning the use of Kirchhoff’s Matrix Tree theorem in the explicit characterization of complex-balanced reaction networks and the notion of formal balancing. The notion of formal balancing corresponds

  14. Coefficient rings of formal group laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchstaber, V M; Ustinov, A V

    2015-01-01

    We describe the coefficient rings of universal formal group laws which arise in algebraic geometry, algebraic topology and their application to mathematical physics. We also describe the homomorphisms of these coefficient rings coming from reductions of one formal group law to another. The proofs are based on the number-theoretic properties of binomial coefficients. Bibliography: 37 titles

  15. Formal Engineering Hybrid Systems: Semantic Underpinnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate some issues in applying formal methods to hybrid system development and develop a categorical framework. We study the themes of stochastic reasoning, heterogeneous formal specification and retrenchment. Hybrid systems raise a rich pallets of aspects that need to be

  16. Industrial Practice in Formal Methods : A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bicarregui, Juan C.; Fitzgerald, John; Larsen, Peter Gorm

    2009-01-01

    We examine the the industrial application of formal methods using data gathered in a review of 62 projects taking place over the last 25 years. The review suggests that formal methods are being applied in a wide range of application domains, with increasingly strong tool support. Significant chal...

  17. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, Muhammad Torabi; Dimitrakos, Theo; Martinelli, Fabio

    We formally specify a payment protocol described by Vogt et al. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the mCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free mu-calculus. These properties are then

  18. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-23

    Dec 23, 2008 ... The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those ...

  19. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those biologists who believe ...

  20. Context and Domain Knowledge Enhanced Entity Spotting in Informal Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhl, Daniel; Nagarajan, Meena; Pieper, Jan; Robson, Christine; Sheth, Amit

    This paper explores the application of restricted relationship graphs (RDF) and statistical NLP techniques to improve named entity annotation in challenging Informal English domains. We validate our approach using on-line forums discussing popular music. Named entity annotation is particularly difficult in this domain because it is characterized by a large number of ambiguous entities, such as the Madonna album "Music" or Lilly Allen's pop hit "Smile".

  1. EVALUATION METHODS USED FOR TANGIBLE ASSETS BY ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Csongor CSŐSZ; Partenie DUMBRAVĂ

    2014-01-01

    At many entities the net asset value is influenced by the evaluation methods applied for tangible assets, because the value of intangible assets and financial assets is small in most cases. The objective of this paper is to analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities and medium and large entities for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. Furthermore, we analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation appli...

  2. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  3. WCF multi-layer services development with Entity framework

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Mike

    2014-01-01

    If you are a C#, VB.NET, or C++ developer and want to get started with WCF and Entity Framework, then this book is for you. Competence in Entity Framework will be needed to follow the examples in the book, but experience in creating WCF services using Entity Framework is not necessary. Developers and architects evaluating SOA implementation technologies for their company will find this book useful.

  4. Enhancing System Realisation in Formal Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran-Jørgensen, Peter Würtz Vinther

    – a formal methods tool that supports the Vienna Development Method. The development of the code generation infrastructure has involved the re-design of the software architecture of Overture. The new architecture brings forth the reuse and extensibility features of Overture to take into account the needs......Software for mission-critical systems is sometimes analysed using formal specification to increase the chances of the system behaving as intended. When sufficient insights into the system have been obtained from the formal analysis, the formal specification is realised in the form of a software...... implementation. One way to realise the system’s software is by automatically generating it from the formal specification – a technique referred to as code generation. However, in general it is difficult to make guarantees about the correctness of the generated code – especially while requiring automation...

  5. System for Award Management (SAM) Public Extract - Entity Registration

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset contains the information available under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) for those entities registered to do business with the Federal government...

  6. INFORMATION AND STRATEGIC DECISIONS IN ECONOMIC ENTITIES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN IOAN SABĂU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and decision are two key elements economic entities management. Information represents the support of decision making by those managing the economic entity, helping them take the right decision for them to achieve set objectives. Strategic decisions provide long-term success of the economic entity outlining its internal and external stand. Those responsible for making strategic decisions have the ability to influence the economic entity’s success through these decisions they take, the role of the strategy being to ensure perfect correspondence between what the economic entity can do and what it could do, given the opportunities and threats in the environment they conduct business.

  7. How Well can We Learn Interpretable Entity Types from Text?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a largely unsupervised approach to learning interpretable, domain-specific entity types from unlabeled text. It assumes that any common noun in a domain can function as potential entity type, and uses those nouns as hidden variables in a HMM. To constrain training, it extracts co......-occurrence dictionaries of entities and common nouns from the data. We evaluate the learned types by measuring their prediction accuracy for verb arguments in several domains. The results suggest that it is possible to learn domain-specific entity types from unlabeled data. We show significant improvements over...... an informed baseline, reducing the error rate by 56%....

  8. Indexing concepts and/or named entities Indicizzare concetti e/o named entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Buizza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A partire da un punto di vista semantico più che morfologico, l'articolo è focalizzato il problema del significato dei nomi propri, con contributi della filosofia del linguaggio e della linguistica semantica. Sono indagate le entità individuali: il loro isolamento all’interno della rete di soggetti e la relazione esemplificativa, il trattamento nelle classificazioni. Le profonde diversità rilevate fra concetti e entità denominate suggeriscono di dichiararle esplicitamente da un punto di vista teorico e di adottare dispositivi che diano risultati unitari ma chiaramente distinguibili nei sistemi di recupero dell’informazione.  
    Questo contributo è stato presentato col titolo Indexing concepts and/or named entities all'11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Roma, 23-26 febbraio 2010, non pubblicato negli atti, e qui leggermente ampliato.

    Starting from a semantic rather than form a morphological point of view, the essay examines the problem of the meaning of proper names, with contributions coming from the philosophy of language and the semantic linguistics. Individual entities are explored: the way they are isolated in the thread of subjects, the illustrative relation, and the classification treatment. The deep differences between concepts and called entities suggest to declare them specifically in a theoretical way, and to adopt devices that lead to uniform but noticeable results in information retrieval systems.
    This article has been discussed as "Indexing concepts and/or named entities" to the 11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Rome, 23-26 February 2010, here extended since it is not published in the conference proceedings.

  9. Academic Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Heine, Carmen

    Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt, og når det er nødvendigt, og at man har en korrekt udformet fortegnelse over referencer. Vejledningen indeholder konkrete eksempler på korrekt kildeangive......Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt, og når det er nødvendigt, og at man har en korrekt udformet fortegnelse over referencer. Vejledningen indeholder konkrete eksempler på korrekt...

  10. Academic Reference and Instruction Librarians and Dweck's Theories of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces psychologist Carol S. Dweck's entity and incremental theories of intelligence and explores the prevalence of these theories in academic librarians who participate in reference and instruction activities. Based on existing research, it is possible that implicit theories of intelligence could affect the ways in which…

  11. Against the Odds: Academic Underdogs Benefit from Incremental Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jody L.; Burnette, Jeni L.; Allison, Scott T.; Stone, Heather

    2011-01-01

    An implicit theory of ability approach to motivation argues that students who believe traits to be malleable (incremental theorists), relative to those who believe traits to be fixed (entity theorists), cope more effectively when academic challenges arise. In the current work, we integrated the implicit theory literature with research on top dog…

  12. 26 S proteasomes function as stable entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Tanaka, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    , shuttles between a free state and the 26-S proteasome, bringing substrate to the complex. However, S5a was not found in the free state in HeLa cells. Besides, all subunits in PA700, including S5a, exchanged at similar low rates. It therefore seems that 26-S proteasomes function as stable entities during...... dissociate and reassemble during initiation of protein degradation in a ternary complex with the substrate, as in the dissociation-reassembly cycles found for ribosomes and the chaperonin GroEL/GroES. Here we followed disassembly and assembly of 26-S proteasomes in cell extracts as the exchange of PA700...... subunits between mouse and human 26-S proteasomes. Compared to the rate of proteolysis in the same extract, the disassembly-reassembly cycle was much too slow to present an obligatory step in a degradation cycle. It has been suggested that subunit S5a (Mcb1, Rpn10), which binds poly-ubiquitin substrates...

  13. On Fitting a Formal Method into Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gmehlich, Rainer; Grau, Katrin; Hallerstede, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    of industrial use. We report on where Event-B and its tools have succeeded, where they have not. We also report on advances that were inspired by the case study. Interestingly, the case study was not a pure formal methods problem. In addition to Event-B, it used Problem Frames for capturing requirements....... The interaction between the two proved to be crucial for the success of the case study. The heart of the problem was tracing informal requirements from Problem Frames descriptions to formal Event-B models. To a large degree, this issue dictated the approach that had to be used for formal modelling. A dedicated...

  14. Towards Formal Implementation of PUS Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, D.

    2009-05-01

    As an effort to promote the reuse of on-board and ground systems ESA developed a standard for packet telemetry and telecommand - PUS. It defines a set of standard service models with the corresponding structures of the associated telemetry and telecommand packets. Various missions then can choose to implement those standard PUS services that best conform to their specific requirements. In this paper we propose a formal development (based on the Event-B method) of reusable service patterns, which can be instantiated for concrete application. Our formal models allow us to formally express and verify specific service properties including various telecommand and telemetry packet structure validation.

  15. Named entity recognition in a South African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, AJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Named Entity Recognition (NER) is the process of identifying occurrences of words or expressions as belonging to a particular category of a Named Entity (NE).The aim of the project was to test the feasibility of a probabilistic NER system using...

  16. 26 CFR 1.892-5 - Controlled commercial entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled commercial entity. 1.892-5 Section 1.892-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.892-5 Controlled commercial entity. (a)-(a)(2...

  17. 78 FR 21603 - Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments AGENCY... seeking input on a proposed Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards addressing the Reporting Entity. The Standard is available at http://www.fasab.gov/board-activities/documents-for-comment/exposure...

  18. 78 FR 45051 - Unincorporated Business Entities; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... under State law for certain business activities. In accordance with the law, the effective date of the...) institutions' use of unincorporated business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business... business entities, such as unincorporated business trusts, organized under State law. The final rule does...

  19. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in a...

  20. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each air...

  1. 76 FR 66181 - Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...)(C) Example (i) and (ii) of this section. If LLCB does not pay the tax on its sale of coal under... Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... regulations relating to disregarded entities and excise taxes. These regulations also make conforming changes...

  2. Optimising closely held entities to enhance commercial participation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1984, the South African Close Corporations Act introduced a simple, inexpensive and flexible closelyheld entity for the business consisting of a single ... In more recent law reform initiatives in Australia and especially the United Kingdom, various options were analysed to optimise closely-held entities with a view to ...

  3. Combining Document-and Paragraph-Based Entity Ranking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rode, H.; Serdyukov, Pavel; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    We study entity ranking on the INEX entity track and pro- pose a simple graph-based ranking approach that enables to combine scores on document and paragraph level. The com- bined approach improves the retrieval results not only on the INEX testset, but similarly on TREC’s expert finding task.

  4. Audiovisual interpretative skills: between textual culture and formalized literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Jiménez, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the process of acquiring interpretative skills to decode audiovisual texts among adolescents and youth. Based on the conception of such competence as the ability to understand the meanings connoted beneath the literal discourses of audiovisual texts, this study compared two variables: the acquisition of such skills from the personal and social experience in the consumption of audiovisual products (which is affected by age difference, and, on the second hand, the differences marked by the existence of formalized processes of media literacy. Based on focus groups of young students, the research assesses the existing academic debate about these processes of acquiring skills to interpret audiovisual materials.

  5. EVALUATION METHODS USED FOR TANGIBLE ASSETS BY ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor CSŐSZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At many entities the net asset value is influenced by the evaluation methods applied for tangible assets, because the value of intangible assets and financial assets is small in most cases. The objective of this paper is to analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities and medium and large entities for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. Furthermore, we analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities in Romania and Hungary, respectively the differences between medium and large entities regarding de evaluation methods for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. For this empirical study the questionnaire is used – as research technique, and to demonstrate the significant differences between the evaluation methods we used the Kolmogorov – Smirnov Z test.

  6. The Intersituational Generality of Formal Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mary Ann; Ausubel, David P.

    1969-01-01

    Shows that, contrary to Piagetian Theory, formal thought in a variety of subject matters is not possible until sufficient requisite concrete background experience in each content area involved has been attained. (MH)

  7. Graphical And Textual Notations In Formal Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bove, Rocco; Dipoppa, Giovanni; Groven, Arne-Kristian; Sivertsen, Terje

    1996-07-01

    The present report describes the current status of the co-operative project between ENEA and the OECD Halden Reactor Project on graphical and formal methods for software specification. The aim of this project is to contribute to a clarification of the relationship between graphical descriptions and formal specifications, and to provide guidelines for how they can be combined in order to utilize the strengths of' each approach. The overall aim of such a combination is to improve the formal basis of graphical descriptions and make formal specifications more generally comprehensible. The research reported includes the application of the IPTES technology on the APRM case example, an approach to the translation of Petri nets into algebraic specification, and the specification of real-time distributed systems using time-extended LOTOS. (author)

  8. El Salvador - Non-Formal Skills Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Non-Formal Skills Development Sub-Activity had a budget of $5 million (USD) to provide short-term training to vulnerable populations in El Salvador's Northern...

  9. Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Joann S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

  10. Regla formal de justicia, valores y principios

    OpenAIRE

    López Ruiz, Francisco

    1995-01-01

    SUMARIO: 1. Racionalidad y regla formal de justicia. 2. Las diferencias estructurales entre normas y principios. 3. Clases de principios. 4. Funciones de los principios. 5. Principios y racionalidad material del Derecho. Publicado

  11. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auernheimer, Brent

    1990-01-01

    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  12. Formalisms for reuse and systems integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Reuse and integration are defined as synergistic concepts, where reuse addresses how to minimize redundancy in the creation of components; while, integration focuses on component composition. Integration supports reuse and vice versa. These related concepts support the design of software and systems for maximizing performance while minimizing cost. Knowledge, like data, is subject to reuse; and, each can be interpreted as the other. This means that inherent complexity, a measure of the potential utility of a system, is directly proportional to the extent to which it maximizes reuse and integration. Formal methods can provide an appropriate context for the rigorous handling of these synergistic concepts. Furthermore, formal languages allow for non ambiguous model specification; and, formal verification techniques provide support for insuring the validity of reuse and integration mechanisms.   This edited book includes 12 high quality research papers written by experts in formal aspects of reuse and integratio...

  13. Toward a formal ontology for narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciotti, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the rationale and the first draft of a formal ontology for modeling narrative texts are presented. Building on the semiotic and structuralist narratology, and on the work carried out in the late 1980s by Giuseppe Gigliozzi in Italy, the focus of my research are the concepts of character and of narrative world/space. This formal model is expressed in the OWL 2 ontology language. The main reason to adopt a formal modeling approach is that I consider the purely probabilistic-quantitative methods (now widespread in digital literary studies inadequate. An ontology, on one hand provides a tool for the analysis of strictly literary texts. On the other hand (though beyond the scope of the present work, its formalization can also represent a significant contribution towards grounding the application of storytelling methods outside of scholarly contexts.

  14. Statistical Survey of Non-Formal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Nývlt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available focused on a programme within a regular education system. Labour market flexibility and new requirements on employees create a new domain of education called non-formal education. Is there a reliable statistical source with a good methodological definition for the Czech Republic? Labour Force Survey (LFS has been the basic statistical source for time comparison of non-formal education for the last ten years. Furthermore, a special Adult Education Survey (AES in 2011 was focused on individual components of non-formal education in a detailed way. In general, the goal of the EU is to use data from both internationally comparable surveys for analyses of the particular fields of lifelong learning in the way, that annual LFS data could be enlarged by detailed information from AES in five years periods. This article describes reliability of statistical data aboutnon-formal education. This analysis is usually connected with sampling and non-sampling errors.

  15. Inflammatory breast carcinoma: pathological or clinical entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo, R S; Angel, C D; Ana, L H; Antonio, L C; Vicente, M S; Carlos, F M; Vicente, G P

    2000-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) diagnosis is usually based in the presence of typical clinical symptoms (redness and edema in more than 2/3 of the breast), which are not always associated with pathologic characteristics (subdermal lymphatics involvement). Whether exclusively pathologic findings without clinical symptoms are sufficient for IBC diagnosis remains controversial. A retrospective analysis of 163 clinically diagnosed IBC (CIC) either with dermal lymphatics invasion or not, was compared with another group of 99 patients with dermal lymphatics invasion without clinical symptoms (occult inflammatory carcinoma) (OIC). The following clinical and pathological characteristics have been analyzed and compared: age, menopausal status, clinical axillar node involvement, symptoms duration before diagnosis, grade, estrogen receptors, presence of metastases at diagnosis, local recurrence, metastasic dissemination, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Median age was younger in CIC (52.3 vs. 63.8 years; p < 0.001). Symptom duration before diagnosis were significantly shorter in CIC (3.4 vs. 6.8 months: p < 0.0001). Visceral (36.2% vs. 17.2%; p = 0.001) and brain metastases (7.4% vs. 1%; p = 0.02) was significantly more frequent in CIC. Negative estrogen receptors were more frequent in CIC (34.9% vs. 65.1%: p < 0.004). Five-years DFS (25.6 vs. 51.6%; p < 0.0001) and OS (28.6 vs. 40%; p < 0.05) were shorter in CIC. CIC (regardless of subdermal lymphatics involvement) must be clearly differentiated from OIC. Prognosis of CIC patients is poorer, so this two entities should be clearly differentiated when therepeutic results are reported.

  16. Approaches to Formal Verification of Security Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Suvansh; Jain, Mohit; Chaplot, Vikrant

    2011-01-01

    In recent times, many protocols have been proposed to provide security for various information and communication systems. Such protocols must be tested for their functional correctness before they are used in practice. Application of formal methods for verification of security protocols would enhance their reliability thereby, increasing the usability of systems that employ them. Thus, formal verification of security protocols has become a key issue in computer and communications security. In...

  17. Improved formalism for precision Higgs coupling fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, Tim; Peskin, Michael E.; Jung, Sunghoon; Tian, Junping

    2017-08-01

    Future e + e - colliders give the promise of model-independent determinations of the couplings of the Higgs boson. In this paper, we present an improved formalism for extracting Higgs boson couplings from e + e - data, based on the Effective Field Theory description of corrections to the Standard Model. We apply this formalism to give projections of Higgs coupling accuracies for stages of the International Linear Collider and for other proposed e + e - colliders.

  18. Towards a Formal Model of Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    There is a definite lack of formal support for modeling realistic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The CONAWA calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new constructs...... and capabilities. The calculus is a step in the direction of making formal methods applicable in the area of pervasive computing....

  19. Towards a Formal Notion of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Krukow, Karl Kristian

    2003-01-01

    Trust management systems have been proposed as an alternative to traditional security mechanisms in Global Computing. We present some challenges in establishing a formal foundation for the notion of trust, and some preliminary ideas towards a category of trust models.......Trust management systems have been proposed as an alternative to traditional security mechanisms in Global Computing. We present some challenges in establishing a formal foundation for the notion of trust, and some preliminary ideas towards a category of trust models....

  20. Improved formalism for precision Higgs coupling fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Jung, Sunghoon; Karl, Robert; List, Jenny; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Peskin, Michael E.; Tian, Junping

    2018-03-01

    Future e+e- colliders give the promise of model-independent determinations of the couplings of the Higgs boson. In this paper, we present an improved formalism for extracting Higgs boson couplings from e+e- data, based on the effective field theory description of corrections to the Standard Model. We apply this formalism to give projections of Higgs coupling accuracies for stages of the International Linear Collider and for other proposed e+e- colliders.

  1. Formalization of Many-Valued Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Partiality is a key challenge for computational approaches to artificial intelligence in general and natural language in particular. Various extensions of classical two-valued logic to many-valued logics have been investigated in order to meet this challenge. We use the proof assistant Isabelle...... to formalize the syntax and semantics of many-valued logics with determinate as well as indeterminate truth values. The formalization allows for a concise presentation and makes automated verification possible....

  2. Unifying Class-Based Representation Formalisms

    OpenAIRE

    Calvanese, D.; Lenzerini, M.; Nardi, D.

    2011-01-01

    The notion of class is ubiquitous in computer science and is central in many formalisms for the representation of structured knowledge used both in knowledge representation and in databases. In this paper we study the basic issues underlying such representation formalisms and single out both their common characteristics and their distinguishing features. Such investigation leads us to propose a unifying framework in which we are able to capture the fundamental aspects of several representatio...

  3. Formal System Verification for Trustworthy Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    step is for the first time formal and machine-checked. Contemporary OS verification projects include Verisoft, Verisoft XT, and Verve . The Verisoft...tens of thousands lines of code. The Verve kernel [22] shows that type and memory safety properties can be established on the assembly level via type...systems and therefore with much lower cost. Verve contains a formally verified runtime system, in particular a garbage collector that the type system

  4. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    6, 7 May LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Decoding the Human Genome, Scientific basis and ethic and social aspects by S.E. Antonarakis and A. Mauron / Univ. of Geneva Decoding the Human genome is a very up-to-date topic, raising several questions besides purely scientific, in view of the two competing teams (public and private), the ethics of using the results, and the fact that the project went apparently faster and easier than expected. The lecture series will address the following chapters: Scientific basis and challenges, Ethical and social aspects of genomics. Academic Training Françoise Benz Tel. 73127

  5. Formality of the Chinese collective leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the linguistic patterns in the discourse of four generations of the collective leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1921 to 2012. The texts of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao were analyzed using computational linguistic techniques (a Chinese formality score) to explore the persuasive linguistic features of the leaders in the contexts of power phase, the nation's education level, power duration, and age. The study was guided by the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, which includes a central route (represented by formal discourse) versus a peripheral route (represented by informal discourse) to persuasion. The results revealed that these leaders adopted the formal, central route more when they were in power than before they came into power. The nation's education level was a significant factor in the leaders' adoption of the persuasion strategy. The leaders' formality also decreased with their increasing age and in-power times. However, the predictability of these factors for formality had subtle differences among the different types of leaders. These results enhance our understanding of the Chinese collective leadership and the role of formality in politically persuasive messages.

  6. Application of Formal Methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to examine: (1 why are necessary the formal methods for software systems today, (2 high integrity systems through the methodology C-by-C –Correctness-by-Construction–, and (3 an affordable methodology to apply formal methods in software engineering. The research process included reviews of the literature through Internet, in publications and presentations in events. Among the Research results found that: (1 there is increasing the dependence that the nations have, the companies and people of software systems, (2 there is growing demand for software Engineering to increase social trust in the software systems, (3 exist methodologies, as C-by-C, that can provide that level of trust, (4 Formal Methods constitute a principle of computer science that can be applied software engineering to perform reliable process in software development, (5 software users have the responsibility to demand reliable software products, and (6 software engineers have the responsibility to develop reliable software products. Furthermore, it is concluded that: (1 it takes more research to identify and analyze other methodologies and tools that provide process to apply the Formal Software Engineering methods, (2 Formal Methods provide an unprecedented ability to increase the trust in the exactitude of the software products and (3 by development of new methodologies and tools is being achieved costs are not more a disadvantage for application of formal methods.

  7. Corporate Forms Facilitating Non-Profit Networking: Formalizing the Informal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakulevičienė Lyra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation and networking among a variety of organisations for the purpose of research, projects, and other activities ranges from ad hoc to long term organisational relationships, formalised or based on informal cooperation. Although informality is frequently much valued and drives organisations to partner on substance rather than bureaucracy, formalisation of networks and cooperation might be indispensible for effective partnerships and activities, as well as representation of mutual interests beyond the national level. How shall such networks be formalised at European and/or national levels so that they are flexible enough, involve minimum bureaucracy, and engage the maximum scope of possible activities? This article focuses on the analysis of possible legal structures facilitating the work of a group of entities and individuals engaged in cross-border activities. This study examines the potential of national legal opportunities in five countries: Belgium, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland and the Netherlands, and the proven legal form of EEIG in reducing the barriers for cooperation, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of these legal forms for a formalized network and the purposes it serves.

  8. BDDCS Class Prediction for New Molecular Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Cruciani, Gabriele; Benet, Leslie Z.; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2012-01-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) was successfully employed for predicting drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with respect to drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), drug transporters and their interplay. The major assumption of BDDCS is that the extent of metabolism (EoM) predicts high versus low intestinal permeability rate, and vice versa, at least when uptake transporters or paracellular transport are not involved. We recently published a collection of over 900 marketed drugs classified for BDDCS. We suggest that a reliable model for predicting BDDCS class, integrated with in vitro assays, could anticipate disposition and potential DDIs of new molecular entities (NMEs). Here we describe a computational procedure for predicting BDDCS class from molecular structures. The model was trained on a set of 300 oral drugs, and validated on an external set of 379 oral drugs, using 17 descriptors calculated or derived from the VolSurf+ software. For each molecule, a probability of BDDCS class membership was given, based on predicted EoM, FDA solubility (FDAS) and their confidence scores. The accuracy in predicting FDAS was 78% in training and 77% in validation, while for EoM prediction the accuracy was 82% in training and 79% in external validation. The actual BDDCS class corresponded to the highest ranked calculated class for 55% of the validation molecules, and it was within the top two ranked more than 92% of the times. The unbalanced stratification of the dataset didn’t affect the prediction, which showed highest accuracy in predicting classes 2 and 3 with respect to the most populated class 1. For class 4 drugs a general lack of predictability was observed. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) confirmed the degree of accuracy for the prediction of the different BDDCS classes is tied to the structure of the dataset. This model could routinely be used in early drug discovery to prioritize in vitro tests for NMEs (e.g., affinity to transporters

  9. Educational Process Reengineering and Diffusion of Innovation in Formal Learning Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Rongbutsri, Nikorn

    2011-01-01

    In technology mediated learning while relative advantages of technologies is proven, lack of contextualization and process centric change, and lack of user driven change has kept intervention and adoption of educational technologies among individuals and organizations as challenges. Reviewing...... the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, this study focuses on the formal part. This paper coins the term 'Educational Process Reengineering (EPR) based on the established concept of 'Business Process Reengineering (BPR) for process improvement of teaching learning activities, academic...... administration and evaluation and assessment. Educational environments are flexible and not governed by standard operating procedures, making technology use lithe. Theory of diffusion of innovations‟ is recommended to be integrated to reason and measure acceptance or rejection of EPR selected technology...

  10. CRIMINAL LAW RESPONSIBILITY OF LEGAL ENTITIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Akbulut

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Turkish Law, only natural persons can be counted as perpetrators. Due to their characteristics, legal entities cannot directly commit crimes and cannot be perpetrators. Nevertheless, the criminal liability of the legal entities due to the actions of the persons who act on behalf of legal entities had been a hot topic until the Turkish Penal Code no 5237 came into force. Provisions about the legal entities’ criminal liability in several penal codes other than the abovementioned Turkish Penal Code were another matter of the debates. Further, the Constitutional Court of Turkey held that legal entities’ criminal responsibility was not unconstitutional. In the Code No 5237 that came into force on the 1st of June, 2005; it was explicitly stated that legal entities cannot be imposed with penal sanctions. Since criminal responsibility is personal, the legal entities, which do not have any ability to commit an offence, cannot be punished due to the actions of persons who act on behalf of legal entities. In other respects, according to article 20 of the Turkish Penal Code, security measures can be applied to legal entities whereas penal sanctions cannot be applied. By Turkish Penal Code Art 20, provisions regarding legal entities’ criminal responsibility in other penal codes were repealed. However, it is hard to claim that the debate regarding criminal responsibility of legal entities is over for the doctrine. The security measures to be imposed on legal entities are prescribed in Art 60 of the Turkish Penal Code. Security measures to be imposed within Art 60 are following: Cancellation of permit and confiscation. In this paper, the conditions for legal entities’ security measure responsibility; the debates in this regard and the provisions made will be examined.

  11. CONSIDERATION REGARDING CURRENT ASSETS IN THE CONSTRUCTION ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Adriana COJOCARU (ALIONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for current assets mainly aims to obtain useful information on the management of their best in order to make management decisions. Counting efficiency of these assets, their importance, provides improved performance of the entity. In this paper we want to study the degree of implementation of policies and accounting treatments on the current assets in the specific construction economic entities, the problems of implementation and thus better addressing their theoretical and procedural to improve the information provided by financial statements. Due to the importance of proper conduct of business owned entities, accounting current assets should result in optimal and efficient control of current assets.

  12. Classification and elimination of overlapped entities in DXF files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.A. Atia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer aided engineering; design, drafting and manufacturing, software packages are widely used in modern industry. The product development cycle, from idea to manufacturing, goes through different stages using different computer aided programs. These programs exchange a lot of information in different formats. One of these formats is 2D drawing in DXF standard format. The exchanged files suffer from overlapped entities and different interpretation for entity formats. This paper emphasizes on the sources of this problem and its negative effects. Moreover, it introduces software for eliminating the overlapping entities and re-classification of them. In addition, the paper explains the algorithms, which are encapsulated in the software.

  13. Employee turnover and productivity among small business entities in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the problems of employee turnover on productivity among small business entities in Nigeria, and recommend remedial actions. Employee turnover is the separation of employees from employers and replacement with other employees. Productive manpower is a critical element for the economic survival of any small business entity. The survey research design was used for the study. The sample comprised of 320 respondents. Data generated were analyzed by using descriptive, and Z-test statistical techniques. It was found that employee turnover adversely affects productivity in small business entities.

  14. IDENTIFYING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FINANCING SOURCES OF TOURIST ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DAVID

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Located at the intersection of the two spheres (tourism markets and financial ones, the tourism entity in Romania is interested in finding the formula to assure optimum financing by attracting financial resources in the field, on the one hand and on the other hand it is interested in meeting the high demand for profit from tourism and economic sphere. The objective determinant of Romanian tourism entity is to maximize the value by carrying out a profitable activity. The touristic entity must obtain profit to generate sufficient funds to distribute cash dividends to shareholders, while paying creditors at a favorable interest on borrowed funds.

  15. Guidelines for enhancing learning curiosity of non-formal student using daily life context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongkondaw Ornwipa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were: to study learning curiosity within student, teacher and administrators, and to suggest the student of non-formal education learning curiosity by using daily life context. A sample was selected from a group of student of non-formal education for 400 students, categorized to 184 students of secondary education, students of high school education 216, 40 teachers of non-formal education and 20 administrators with district level of the office of the Non - Formal and Informal Education by Multi - Stage Sampling. The research tools were surveyed by using questionnaire of students. The results of the study were as follows and the questionnaire as learning curiosity of the teacher and administrator from the Non - Formal and Informal Education awareness, and transcribing from focus group discussion. The quantitative analysis by the computer program (SPSS for statistical analysis and analyzing qualitative data by content analysis were included. The results of the study were as follows a student learning curiosity was in high level, a student supporting for learning curiosity in occupation was in high level, the teacher opinion for learning curiosity of student was in middle level. The supporting should be academic, Work and family consecutive. The administrator of the Non - Formal and Informal Education thought, learning curiosity of student was in middle level. The student should be gained occupation knowledge for the first, because of their lifestyle in the north eastern of Thailand; they needed to support their family. Almost citizens were agriculturist, gardener, farmer or merchandiser, and then to permit academic education, family and socialization, the occupation developing was given precedence.

  16. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Results Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. Conclusions By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full

  17. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Leonid L; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-05-19

    Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full preservation of data

  18. Mellon Conference: Panel on "Licensing, Copyright and Fair Use." The HYPATIA Project (toward an ASCAP for Academics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Jane C.; Janklow, Morton L.

    The HYPATIA Project envisions the creation of a digital depository and licensing and tracking service for unpublished "academic" works, including working papers, other works-in-progress, lectures, and other writings that are not normally published in formal academic journals. Any academic who wishes to deposit a work will be welcome to…

  19. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    25, 26, 27, 28 February and 1st March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 LECTURE SERIES Neutrino masses and oscillations by A. de Rujula / CERN-TH This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos. Academic Training Françoise Benz Secretariat Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  20. What Challenges and Benefits Can Non-Formal Law and Language Integrated Learning Bring to University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabekova, Atabekova; Gorbatenko, Rimma; Belousov, Aleksandr; Grebnev, Ruslan; Sheremetieva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the ways in which non-formal content and language integrated learning within university studies can affect students' academic progress. The research has included theoretical and empirical studies. The article focuses on the observation of students' learning process, draws attention to challenges and benefits students experienced…

  1. Fourier Series Formalization in ACL2(r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong K. Chau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We formalize some basic properties of Fourier series in the logic of ACL2(r, which is a variant of ACL2 that supports reasoning about the real and complex numbers by way of non-standard analysis. More specifically, we extend a framework for formally evaluating definite integrals of real-valued, continuous functions using the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Our extended framework is also applied to functions containing free arguments. Using this framework, we are able to prove the orthogonality relationships between trigonometric functions, which are the essential properties in Fourier series analysis. The sum rule for definite integrals of indexed sums is also formalized by applying the extended framework along with the First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and the sum rule for differentiation. The Fourier coefficient formulas of periodic functions are then formalized from the orthogonality relations and the sum rule for integration. Consequently, the uniqueness of Fourier sums is a straightforward corollary. We also present our formalization of the sum rule for definite integrals of infinite series in ACL2(r. Part of this task is to prove the Dini Uniform Convergence Theorem and the continuity of a limit function under certain conditions. A key technique in our proofs of these theorems is to apply the overspill principle from non-standard analysis.

  2. Construction of Formal Ontology on Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda FIRAT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a general point of view, the defined reality models by using a formal language are called formal ontology. These general purposeful models can be also used in the special fields of application. Because ontologies are large-scale by their nature, they have the potential of hosting errors and deficiencies in case they are generated by human labor. Besides, an ontology formed such a way will be difficult to be adapted to a application specific. In this study, an application of a computerized formal ontology formation saved from probable problems which are likely to arise using human labor will be introduced. In the application, semantic analysis of Turkish has been targetted as a special application field using corpus-based marking method in the framework of formal concept analysis. Beside the applications of these kinds of natural language processing formal ontologies are used considerably in the field of education as they present the information in the way of semantic structures clearly and meaningfully. The most important reasons of this are the use of the information technologies such as expansion of constructivist approach and the concept maps used for educational reasons.

  3. Formal modeling of robot behavior with learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Ryan; Miller, Alice; Porr, Bernd; Di Prodi, P

    2013-11-01

    We present formal specification and verification of a robot moving in a complex network, using temporal sequence learning to avoid obstacles. Our aim is to demonstrate the benefit of using a formal approach to analyze such a system as a complementary approach to simulation. We first describe a classical closed-loop simulation of the system and compare this approach to one in which the system is analyzed using formal verification. We show that the formal verification has some advantages over classical simulation and finds deficiencies our classical simulation did not identify. Specifically we present a formal specification of the system, defined in the Promela modeling language and show how the associated model is verified using the Spin model checker. We then introduce an abstract model that is suitable for verifying the same properties for any environment with obstacles under a given set of assumptions. We outline how we can prove that our abstraction is sound: any property that holds for the abstracted model will hold in the original (unabstracted) model.

  4. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF COMPLEX ECONOMIC ENTITY AS ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Viktorovna Troshkova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The topicality of this research is determined by a low innovative activity of complex economic entities. Due to the implementation of a new version of the international standard ISO 9001:2015, it is required to both adjust documentation and make new strategic decisions regarding the changes in internal and external environment. The majority of Russian organizations underestimates the role of organizational innovations in the development of an economic entity. The authors view a quality management system (QMS of an economic entity not only to form the environment for the effective innovative development of a parent company and its separate business units but also to be an organizational innovation capable of accelerating the diffusion of organizational changes and launching the organizational expansion. The analysis of the interdependence between QMS and organizational innovations proved the lack of the integrative concept for creating the QMS of a complex economic entity as a direction of innovative development.

  5. Fraud Indicators Applied to Legal Entities : An Empirical Ranking Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Braak; R. Choenni; M.S. Bargh

    2014-01-01

    Legal persons (i.e., entities such as corporations, companies, partnerships, firms, associations, and foundations) may commit financial crimes or employ fraudulent activities like money laundering, tax fraud, or bankruptcy fraud. Therefore, in the Netherlands legal persons are automatically screened

  6. The entity-to-algorithm allocation problem: Extending the analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the investigation into the algorithm selection problem in hyper-heuristics, otherwise referred to as the entity-to-algorithm allocation problem, introduced by Grobler et al.. Two newly developed population-based portfolio...

  7. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  8. First order formalism for quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiser, M.; Holman, R.; Neto, N.P.

    1987-05-01

    We develop a first order formalism for the quantization of gravity. We take as canonical variables both the induced metric and the extrinsic curvature of the (d - 1) -dimensional hypersurfaces obtained by the foliation of the d - dimensional spacetime. After solving the constraint algebra we use the Dirac formalism to quantize the theory and obtain a new representation for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, defined in the functional space of the extrinsic curvature. We also show how to obtain several different representations of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation by considering actions differing by a total divergence. In particular, the intrinsic and extrinsic time approaches appear in a natural way, as do equivalent representations obtained by functional Fourier transforms of appropriate variables. We conclude with some remarks about the construction of the Hilbert space within the first order formalism. 10 refs

  9. Designing for Non-Formal Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2008-01-01

    perspective on designing for non-formal learning by elaborating from a position at the juncture of social semiotics and Vygotskian inspired socio-cultural theories. The embodied complex processes of sign transformation, by way of modes, media, play and engagement will be discussed. To support my position I...... opportunities in empowerment of children with impairment, especially in respect of their ‘non-formal learning' potentials. The questioning of how to best use the technology so as to optimise possibilities and overcome constraints in education, therapy and rehabilitation is an aspect of my talk. Additionally, I...... semiotic point of view. This is due to the fact that design is a way to configure communicative resources and social interaction (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001) which, from my position, supports designing for non-formal learning which is at the core of my research. In this presentation, I will introduce my...

  10. Formal analogies in physics teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo; Ricardo, Elio

    2012-01-01

    the relevance of the subject, formal analogies are rarely systematically approached in physics education. In order to discuss this issue with pre-service physics teachers, we planned a lecture and designed a questionnaire with the goal of encouraging them to think about some “coincidences” in well known......Reasoning by similarities, especially the ones associated with formal aspects, is one of the most valuable sources for the development of physical theories. The essential role of formal analogies in science can be highlighted by the fact that several equations for different physical situations have...... the exact same appearance. Coulomb’s law’s similarity with Newton’s, Maxwell’s application of fluid theory to electromagnetism and Hamilton’s optical mechanical analogy are some among many other examples. These cases illustrate the power of mathematics in providing unifying structures for physics. Despite...

  11. PERANAN PENDIDIKAN FORMAL DALAM PROSES PEMBUDAYAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanda Juanda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals the role of formal education in the process of enculturation, including six aspects: education and encul-turation, educational policy in Indonesia, educational aspects as cultural phenomena, the functions of culture in education, the role of formal education in the process of enculturation, and the process of enculturation through formal education. The policy of equal right for education is designed to give equal opportunity to all people to get education without discrimination to any ethnic group. Education is an endeavour of developing the community culture to be a modern society, developed and harmonious based on the shared cultural values. Enculturation process is an attempt to guide someone’s attitude and behaviour based on science and skill.

  12. Formal verification of industrial control systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. For many kinds of problems, testing is not an efficient method. Formal methods, such as model checking appears to be an appropriate complementary method. However, it is not common to use model checking in industry yet, as this method needs typically formal methods expertise and huge computing power. In the EN-ICE-PLC section, we are working on a [methodology][1] and a tool ([PLCverif][2]) to overcome these challenges and to integrate formal verification in the development process of our PLC-based control systems. [1]: http://cern.ch/project-plc-formalmethods [2]: http://cern.ch/plcverif

  13. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernández Adiego, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  14. Considering the health care entity C corporation conversion to tax pass-through entity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    The double taxation of C corporation income from operations and from the ultimate sale of its assets makes the C corporation an inefficient tax status for many health care entities. At the time of this writing, the changes in the federal tax law that are scheduled to take effect in 2013 will increase this level of double-taxation inefficiency. The owners of a C corporation practice can avoid the C corporation status tax inefficiency by converting the practice to either (1) S corporation status or (2) LLC status. The conversion of the health care C corporation to an S corporation may be accomplished without a current tax cost. However, the conversion of a health care C corporation to an LLC status can result in a current tax at both the corporation level and the shareholder level. Nonetheless, the current conversion tax cost may be less than the future tax cost (1) of operating the practice as a C corporation and incurring double taxation at what may be higher tax rates or (2) of incurring the higher tax cost (or reduced price) on the ultimate disposition of the practice assets and the attendant double taxation of the appreciation in the value of the practice assets. Since individual income tax rates on qualifying dividends from C corporations and on capital gains are currently at very low rates, this may be a good time for C corporation practice owners to consider the costs and benefits of a conversion to either S corporation status or LLC status. The practice owners should consult with their accounting, legal, and valuation advisors in order to consider all of the costs and benefits of a possible corporate tax status conversion. An estimation of both the costs and benefits of the corporate tax status conversion depends on the concluded fair market values of the medical practice, dental practice, or other health care entity assets. And, that practice asset appraisal should encompass all of the practice assets, both tangible assets and intangible assets.

  15. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  16. Formalizing languages for service oriented computing

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Service Oriented Computing is a new programming paradigm for addressing distributed system design issues. Services are autonomous computational entities which can be dynamically discovered and composed in order to form more complex systems able to achieve different kinds of task. E-government, e-business and e-science are some examples of the IT areas where Service Oriented Computing will be exploited in the next years. At present, the most credited Service Oriented Computing technology is...

  17. Educación no formal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tignanelli, H.

    Se comentan en esta comunicación, las principales contribuciones realizadas en el campo de la educación en astronomía en los niveles primario, secundario y terciario, como punto de partida para la discusión de la actual inserción de los contenidos astronómicos en los nuevos contenidos curriculares de la EGB - Educación General Básica- y Polimodal, de la Reforma Educativa. En particular, se discuten los alcances de la educación formal y no formal, su importancia para la capacitación de profesores y maestros, y perspectivas a futuro.

  18. Towards formalization of inspection using petrinets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.; Naeem, M.; Bahadur, F.; Wahab, A.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving better quality software has always been a challenge for software developers. Inspection is one of the most efficient techniques, which ensure the quality of software during its development. To the best of our knowledge, current inspection techniques are not realized by any formal approach. In this paper, we propose an inspection technique, which is not only backed by the formal mathematical semantics of Petri nets, but also supports inspecting concurrent processes. We also use a case study of an agent based distributed processing system to demonstrate the inspection of concurrent processes. (author)

  19. Formal Concept Analysis for Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Qadi, Abderrahim El; Aboutajedine, Driss; Ennouary, Yassine

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a mechanism to improve Information Retrieval (IR) on the web. The method is based on Formal Concepts Analysis (FCA) that it is makes semantical relations during the queries, and allows a reorganizing, in the shape of a lattice of concepts, the answers provided by a search engine. We proposed for the IR an incremental algorithm based on Galois lattice. This algorithm allows a formal clustering of the data sources, and the results which it turns over are classified by ...

  20. The UML as a Formal Modeling Notation

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Andy; France, Robert; Lano, Kevin; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is rapidly emerging as a de-facto standard for modelling OO systems. Given this role, it is imperative that the UML needs a well-defined, fully explored semantics. Such semantics is required in order to ensure that UML concepts are precisely stated and defined. In this paper we motivate an approach to formalizing UML in which formal specification techniques are used to gain insight into the semantics of UML notations and diagrams and describe a roadmap for ...

  1. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare...... these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey...

  2. Formal Institutions and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent cross-country stud......A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent cross...

  3. Formalizing the Problem of Music Description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Bardeli, Rolf; Langlois, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a formalism for “the problem of music descrip- tion” results in, among other things: ambiguity in what problem a music description system must address, how it should be evaluated, what criteria define its success, and the paradox that a music description system can reproduce the “ground...... truth” of a music dataset without attending to the music it contains. To address these issues, we formal- ize the problem of music description such that all elements of an instance of it are made explicit. This can thus inform the building of a system, and how it should be evaluated in a meaningful way...

  4. Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Niebert, Peter

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the First International Workshop on Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems, FORMATS 2003, held in Marseille, France in September 2003. The 19 revised full papers presented together with an invited paper and the abstracts...... of two invited talks were carefully selected from 36 submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. All current aspects of formal method for modeling and analyzing timed systems are addressed; among the timed systems dealt with are timed automata, timed Petri nets, max-plus algebras, real......-time systems, discrete time systems, timed languages, and real-time operating systems....

  5. A Formal Model For Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    the declarative nature of the projected graphs (which are also DCR graphs). We have also provided semantics for distributed executions based on synchronous communication among network of projected graphs and proved that global and distributed executions are equivalent. Further, to support modeling of processes...... using DCR Graphs and to make the formal model available to a wider audience, we have developed prototype tools for specification and a workflow engine for the execution of DCR Graphs. We have also developed tools interfacing SPIN model checker to formally verify safety and liveness properties on the DCR...

  6. Augmenting Reality and Formality of Informal and Non-Formal Settings to Enhance Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sanagustin, Mar; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Santos, Patricia; Kloos, Carlos Delgado; Blat, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Visits to museums and city tours have been part of higher and secondary education curriculum activities for many years. However these activities are typically considered "less formal" when compared to those carried out in the classroom, mainly because they take place in informal or non-formal settings. Augmented Reality (AR) technologies…

  7. The Dynamics of Formal Organization: Essays on bureaucracy and formal rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Osadchiy (Sergey)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTheories of bureaucracy in organization studies constitute a perspective in which formal or written rules are seen as fundamental to the understanding of organization. It is argued, for example, that formal rules facilitate organizational decision-making, establish the basis for

  8. Lending Policies of Informal, Formal, and Semi-formal Lenders: Evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Pham, T.T.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares lending policies of formal, informal and semiformal lenders with respect to household lending in Vietnam. The analysis suggests that the probability of using formal or semiformal credit increases if borrowers provide collateral, a guarantor and/or borrow for business-related

  9. Does the H Index Correlate With Academic Rank Among Full-Time Academic Craniofacial Surgeons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Rada, Erin M; Lopez, Joseph; Swanson, Edward W; Miller, Devin; Redett, Richard J; Kumar, Anand R

    To assess the relationship between the H index and the academic rank among full-time academic craniofacial surgeons. This was a cross-sectional study of full-time academic craniofacial surgeons. Data were compiled and analyzed at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital. The study sample included 127 full-time academic craniofacial surgeons. Overall, 89% were men, the mean number of years since completion of training was 16.2 ± 11.2 years. Most surgeons had a background in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Approximately 75% had completed formal fellowship training. The mean H index for the sample was 12.4 ± 9.9. The H index was strongly correlated with academic rank (r s = 0.62, p academic rank (coefficient = 0.33, p = 0.04). Among full-time academic craniofacial surgeons, the H index is strongly correlated with the academic rank. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of Academic Physiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Podcasts AAP Podcasts Leadership & Academic Development Program for Academic Leadership (PAL) Volunteer Opportunities Mentorship Programs Publications & News American Journal of PM&R AAP Newsletter RFC Newsletter - Physiatry ...

  11. Emotional Intelligence, Academic Procrastination and Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic achievement is the main measure of the level of education attained, which is meant to achieve the curriculum objective of success and priority. The study investigated effect of emotional intelligence and academic procrastination on academic achievement of students in two Nigerian Universities. The study adopted ...

  12. PRACTICE OF DRAFTING AND IMPLEMENTING OF FINANCING PROJECTS IN NON-FORMAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUZOIANU Daniela Angela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Petroleum and Gas University, besides teaching and research activities, a priority is non-formal education area. In the academic center of Ploiesti, the activities of non-formal education take place through Center for Porjects, Programs and Cultural - Artistic events (CPPECA and Student’s Culture House, located in the University campus (CCS. The mission of the Center for Projects, Programs and Cultural - Artistic events and Student’s Culture House is: - To offer a big diversity of activities in non-formal education area for students and teachers; - To become an essential and defining pillar in continous formation of young people. The purpose is to promote excellence also in non-formal education fied , starting from the value and tradition of university education in Romanian oil area The Center for Project, Programs and Cultural - Artistic events (CPPECA and Student’s House of Culture have: • An educational function; • A real multidirectional cultural vocation through: - initiating,implementing and developing cultural projects and programs; - organizing and developing specific events like shows, festivals, national and international contests. The paper presents practical aspects in development and implementation of financing projects in non-formal education field.

  13. A COMPARISON OF THE CAPITAL STRUCTURES OF THE TOP 40MULTINATIONAL ENTITIES AND THE TOP 40 JSE-LISTED ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana H. Harmse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategies and policies of multinational entities (MNEscentre onthe focalgoal of any company, which isto maximise profits and shareholder wealth.Management aims for an optimum ownership structure by implementing variousstrategies. One of these strategies is the debt-to-equity ratio (the capital structure.Previous studiesconductedonvariouscountries’locally-listed entities confirmthat the capital structure of an entity has an impact on the value ofthat entity.Thisthen raisesan interesting question as to whetherthecapital structures ofthetop 40Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE-listedentitiesare similar to those ofthe top40 global MNEs.Based on market capitalisation on 31December2014, this studysought to compare the capital structures,using the debt-to-equity ratio,ofthe top40JSE-listed entitieswith those ofthe top 40globalMNEs on the Fortune 500list.Independent t-testswere performed on thedebt-to-equity ratios of thetop 40JSE-listed entities and the top 40globalMNEsas a group.Both independent t-tests and the Mann-Whitney testswereperformedonthedebt-to-equity ratiosofapplicable entities of the group divided into threeselectedindustries. The resultsof theindependent t-testindicateastatistical andpractically significant differencebetween the top 40 JSE-listed entities and the top 40 global MNEs’ capitalstructures.The resultsof the Mann-Whitney testsindicatethat if the financialindustry is excluded,there isnostatistical orpractically significant differencebetween the capital structures of the top 40 JSE-listed entities and the top 40MNEs.However, based on the effect size there is a practical visible difference.

  14. Entity recognition from clinical texts via recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zengjian; Yang, Ming; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Zhe; Xu, Hua

    2017-07-05

    Entity recognition is one of the most primary steps for text analysis and has long attracted considerable attention from researchers. In the clinical domain, various types of entities, such as clinical entities and protected health information (PHI), widely exist in clinical texts. Recognizing these entities has become a hot topic in clinical natural language processing (NLP), and a large number of traditional machine learning methods, such as support vector machine and conditional random field, have been deployed to recognize entities from clinical texts in the past few years. In recent years, recurrent neural network (RNN), one of deep learning methods that has shown great potential on many problems including named entity recognition, also has been gradually used for entity recognition from clinical texts. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the performance of LSTM (long-short term memory), a representative variant of RNN, on clinical entity recognition and protected health information recognition. The LSTM model consists of three layers: input layer - generates representation of each word of a sentence; LSTM layer - outputs another word representation sequence that captures the context information of each word in this sentence; Inference layer - makes tagging decisions according to the output of LSTM layer, that is, outputting a label sequence. Experiments conducted on corpora of the 2010, 2012 and 2014 i2b2 NLP challenges show that LSTM achieves highest micro-average F1-scores of 85.81% on the 2010 i2b2 medical concept extraction, 92.29% on the 2012 i2b2 clinical event detection, and 94.37% on the 2014 i2b2 de-identification, which is considerably competitive with other state-of-the-art systems. LSTM that requires no hand-crafted feature has great potential on entity recognition from clinical texts. It outperforms traditional machine learning methods that suffer from fussy feature engineering. A possible future direction is how to integrate knowledge

  15. Towards a Formal Framework for Computational Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Krukow, Karl Kristian; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2006-01-01

    We define a mathematical measure for the quantitative comparison of probabilistic computational trust systems, and use it to compare a well-known class of algorithms based on the so-called beta model. The main novelty is that our approach is formal, rather than based on experimental simulation....

  16. Rhythmic Characteristics of Colloquial and Formal Tamil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Elinor

    2006-01-01

    Application of recently developed rhythmic measures to passages of read speech in colloquial and formal Tamil revealed some significant differences between the two varieties, which are in diglossic distribution. Both were also distinguished from a set of control data from British English speakers reading an equivalent passage. The findings have…

  17. Does Formal Environmental Knowledge Inform the Everyday ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the link between formal environmental knowledge encapsulated in the University of Cambridge International Examination Curriculum and learners' ability to translate this knowledge into everyday practices in Lesotho. The paper reports on research undertaken in three secondary schools in Lesotho ...

  18. Formal Schema Theory and Teaching EFL Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Barbara N; Man, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Inquirers designed and conducted a study investigating whether or not results derived from previous research focusing on teaching and learning English as a native or foreign language would be replicated in a learning environment in which English is taught as a foreign language as in China. Because activation of formal schemata plays an important…

  19. Revisiting the formal foundation of Probabilistic Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, B.; van Keulen, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    One of the core problems in soft computing is dealing with uncertainty in data. In this paper, we revisit the formal foundation of a class of probabilistic databases with the purpose to (1) obtain data model independence, (2) separate metadata on uncertainty and probabilities from the raw data, (3)

  20. Effective operator formalism for open quantum systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2012-01-01

    We present an effective operator formalism for open quantum systems. Employing perturbation theory and adiabatic elimination of excited states for a weakly driven system, we derive an effective master equation which reduces the evolution to the ground-state dynamics. The effective evolution...

  1. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-23

    Dec 23, 2008 ... changing gene frequencies, and the optimization programme represents design. The fundamental strategy of the Formal. Darwinism Project is linking two .... tions research. Note that there is no sense of generations, or of genes. Indeed there is no population, and so for many rea- sons there is no sense of ...

  2. Formally analysing the concepts of domestic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.

    2011-01-01

    The types of police inquiries performed these days are incredibly diverse. Often data processing architectures are not suited to cope with this diversity since most of the case data is still stored as unstructured text. In this paper Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is showcased for its exploratory

  3. Uncertainty and Reconfigurability in Hilbertean Formal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    Hilbertian Formal Methods is a recently introduced paradigm for embedded systems operating in harsh physical environments. This paradigm has been more developed for the deterministic case. However, it is very rare that a physical environment follows precisely a deterministic rule and then it is more

  4. Formal verification of algorithms for critical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, John M.; Von Henke, Friedrich

    1993-01-01

    We describe our experience with formal, machine-checked verification of algorithms for critical applications, concentrating on a Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm for synchronizing the clocks in the replicated computers of a digital flight control system. First, we explain the problems encountered in unsynchronized systems and the necessity, and criticality, of fault-tolerant synchronization. We give an overview of one such algorithm, and of the arguments for its correctness. Next, we describe a verification of the algorithm that we performed using our EHDM system for formal specification and verification. We indicate the errors we found in the published analysis of the algorithm, and other benefits that we derived from the verification. Based on our experience, we derive some key requirements for a formal specification and verification system adequate to the task of verifying algorithms of the type considered. Finally, we summarize our conclusions regarding the benefits of formal verification in this domain, and the capabilities required of verification systems in order to realize those benefits.

  5. A Formal Model for Trust Lifecycle Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagealla, Waleed; Carbone, Marco; English, Colin

    2003-01-01

    We propose a formal model of trust informed by the Global Computing scenario and focusing on the aspects of trust formation, evolution, and propagation. The model is based on a novel notion of trust structures which, building on concepts from trust management and domain theory, feature at the sam...

  6. Incremental guideline formalization with tool support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serban, Radu; Puig-Centelles, Anna; ten Teije, Annette

    2006-01-01

    Guideline formalization is recognized as an important component in improving computerized guidelines, which in turn leads to better informedness, lower inter-practician variability and, ultimately, to higher quality healthcare. By means of a modeling exercise, we investigate the role of guideline

  7. A New Formalism for Relational Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Larsen, Kim Skak; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1992-01-01

    We present a new formalism for relational algebra, the FC language, which is based on a novel factorization of relations. The acronym stands for factorize and combine. A pure version of this language is equivalent to relational algebra in the sense that semantics preserving translations exist...

  8. Moving interprofessional learning forward through formal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Judy

    2010-04-01

    There is increasing agreement that graduates who finish tertiary education with the full complement of skills and knowledge required for their designated profession are not 'work-ready' unless they also acquire interpersonal, collaborative practice and team-working capabilities. Health workers are unable to contribute to organisational culture in a positive way unless they too attain these capabilities. These capabilities have been shown to improve health care in terms of patient safety, worker satisfaction and health service efficiency. Given the importance of interprofessional learning (IPL) which seeks to address these capabilities, why is IPL not consistently embedded into the education of undergraduates, postgraduates and vocationally qualified personnel through formal assessment? This paper offers an argument for the formal assessment of IPL. It illustrates how the interests of the many stakeholders in IPL can benefit from, and contribute to, the integration of IPL into mainstream professional development and tertiary education. It offers practical examples of assessment in IPL which could drive learning and offer authentic, contextual teaching and learning experiences to undergraduates and health workers alike. Assessment drives learning and without formal assessment IPL will continue to be viewed as an optional topic of little relative importance for learners. In order to make the next step forward, IPL needs to be recognised and endorsed through formal assessment, both at the tertiary education level and within the workplace environment. This is supported by workforce initiatives and tertiary education policy which can be used to specify the capabilities or generic skills necessary for effective teamwork and collaborative practice.

  9. What makes industries believe in formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.A.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; Danthine, A.S.; Leduc, G.; Wolper, P.

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of formal methods in the design and development departments of an industrial company has far reaching and long lasting consequences. In fact it changes the whole environment of methods, tools and skills that determine the design culture of that company. A decision to replace current

  10. A Formal Model for Context-Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan

    here is a definite lack of formal support for modeling real- istic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The Conawa calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new construc...

  11. Simulation and formal analysis of visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a simulation model for visual attention is discussed and formally analysed. The model is part of the design of an agent-based system that supports a naval officer in its task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in which the model is

  12. Maintaining formal models of living guidelines efficiently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyfang, Andreas; Martínez-Salvador, Begoña; Serban, Radu; Wittenberg, Jolanda; Miksch, Silvia; Marcos, Mar; Ten Teije, Annette; Rosenbrand, Kitty C J G M

    2007-01-01

    Translating clinical guidelines into formal models is beneficial in many ways, but expensive. The progress in medical knowledge requires clinical guidelines to be updated at relatively short intervals, leading to the term living guideline. This causes potentially expensive, frequent updates of the

  13. Formal Verification of Circuits and Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Today formal verification is finding increasing acceptance in some areas, especially model abstraction and functional verification. Other major chal- lenges, like timing verification, remain before this technology can be posed as a complete alternative to simulation. This special issue is devoted to presenting some of the ...

  14. Protocol design and implementation using formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; Vissers, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of formal methods that support correct protocol design and implementation. These methods are placed in the framework of a design methodology for distributed systems that was studied and developed within the ESPRIT II Lotosphere project (2304). The paper focuses on

  15. A formal model for total quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. van der Made-Potuijt; H.B. Bertsch (Boudewijn); L.P.J. Groenewegen

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTotal Quality Management (TQM) is a systematic approach to managing a company. TQM is systematic in the sense that it is uses facts through observation, analysis and measurable goals. There are theoretical descriptions of this management concept, but there is no formal model of it. A

  16. Formal synthesis of naturally occurring norephedrine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A concise and simple synthesis of 1-hydroxy-phenethylamine derivatives has been achieved following classical organic transformations using commercially available chiral pools. The said derivatives were explored for the synthesis of naturally occurring bio-active small molecules. Formal synthesis of norephedrine, virolin ...

  17. A Formal Model of Identity Mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camenisch, Jan; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Sommer, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Identity Mixer is an anonymous credential system developed at IBM that allows users for instance to prove that they are over 18 years old without revealing their name or birthdate. This privacy-friendly tech- nology is realized using zero-knowledge proofs. We describe a formal model of Identity...

  18. Confusion about entrepreneurship? Formal versus informal small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chestt

    that contributes to both business formation and the ultimate expansion or growth of the business. The entrepreneurial actions related to these business activities are analysed in this study. The differential application of these actions in the formal and informal business panels is of particular importance for this study. Although ...

  19. Applicability of four parameter formalisms in interpreting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The four parameter functions are generally considered to be adequate for representation of the thermodynamic properties for the strongly interacting binary systems. The present study involves a critical comparison in terms of applicability of the three well known four-parameter formalisms for the representation of the ...

  20. Educational attainment, formal employment and contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on this, the study examines educational attainment, formal employment and contraceptives practices among working women in Lagos State University. Survey design was adopted for the study. Using Stratified and simple random sampling techniques, quantitative data was gathered through the administration of ...

  1. 29 CFR 101.20 - Formal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal hearing. 101.20 Section 101.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD STATEMENTS OF PROCEDURES Representation Cases Under... a copy of the petition, is served on the unions and employer filing or named in the petition and on...

  2. Formalism and the notion of truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Joseph M.

    The most widely acknowledged conceptions of truth take some kind of relation to be at truth's core. This dissertation attempts to establish that an adequate conception of this relation begins with an investigation of the entanglement of the formal and the material as set forth in the model theoretical development of set theoretical mathematics. Truth concerns first and most crucially a certain commerce across the border between the formal and the material, between the ideal and the real. The entanglement of the formal and the material must be thought in itself, apart from or prior to any assimilation into philosophical schemas committed to larger metaphysical claims. This is accomplished in model theory. The twentieth century witnessed two attempts at bringing model theoretical mathematics to bear on accounting philosophically for the concept of truth: that of Alfred Tarski, and that of Alain Badiou. In order to investigate the relevance of model theory to the task of working out a philosophical conception of truth, this dissertation investigates, through comparative work, these two thinkers. It is necessary to see where their projects converge in important ways, as well as where their projects diverge in equally important ways. What brings their work into close proximity is their shared conviction that truth must be thought in light of model theory. Nonetheless, the two do not agree about exactly how model theory sheds light on truth. Comparative study thus reveals both a shared site for thinking and a struggle over the significance of that site. Agreement between Tarski and Badiou concerns the excess of the purely formal over itself, marked by the generation of an undecidable statement within formal systems of a certain level of complexity. Both thinkers determine that this formal excess touches on the material, and both further determine that the consequent entanglement of the formal and the material provides the basic frame for any philosophical consideration

  3. Deep learning with word embeddings improves biomedical named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maryam; Weber, Leon; Neves, Mariana; Wiegandt, David Luis; Leser, Ulf

    2017-07-15

    Text mining has become an important tool for biomedical research. The most fundamental text-mining task is the recognition of biomedical named entities (NER), such as genes, chemicals and diseases. Current NER methods rely on pre-defined features which try to capture the specific surface properties of entity types, properties of the typical local context, background knowledge, and linguistic information. State-of-the-art tools are entity-specific, as dictionaries and empirically optimal feature sets differ between entity types, which makes their development costly. Furthermore, features are often optimized for a specific gold standard corpus, which makes extrapolation of quality measures difficult. We show that a completely generic method based on deep learning and statistical word embeddings [called long short-term memory network-conditional random field (LSTM-CRF)] outperforms state-of-the-art entity-specific NER tools, and often by a large margin. To this end, we compared the performance of LSTM-CRF on 33 data sets covering five different entity classes with that of best-of-class NER tools and an entity-agnostic CRF implementation. On average, F1-score of LSTM-CRF is 5% above that of the baselines, mostly due to a sharp increase in recall. The source code for LSTM-CRF is available at https://github.com/glample/tagger and the links to the corpora are available at https://corposaurus.github.io/corpora/ . habibima@informatik.hu-berlin.de. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Concepciones acerca de la maternidad en la educación formal y no formal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado Calderón, Kathia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta algunos resultados de la investigación desarrollada en el Instituto de Investigación en Educación (INIE, bajo el nombre "Construcción del concepto de maternidad en la educación formal y no formal". Utilizando un enfoque cualitativo de investigación, recurrimos a las técnicas de elaboración de dibujos, entrevistas y grupo focal como recursos para la recolección de la información. De esta manera, podemos acercarnos a las concepciones de la maternidad que utilizan los participantes de las diferentes instancias educativas (formal y no formal con quienes se trabajó. This article presents some results the research developed in the Instituto de Investigación en Educación (INIE, named "Construcción del concepto de maternidad en la educación formal y no formal". It begins with a theoretical analysis about social conceptions regarding motherhood in the occidental societies. Among the techniques for gathering information were thematic drawing, interview and focus group, using a qualitative approach research method. This is followed by a brief summary of main findings. The article concludes with a proposal of future working lines for the deconstruction of the motherhood concept in formal and informal education contexts.

  5. Formalization and Land Grabbing in Africa: Facilitation or Protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first focuses on investment and land grabbing, and the second on the formalization of rural property rights. Less has been written on the impact of formalization on land grabbing and of land grabbing on formalization. Recently, formalization has been put forward to protect the rights of pastoralists and farmers from land ...

  6. 20 CFR 702.336 - Formal hearings; new issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; new issues. 702.336 Section... Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.336 Formal hearings; new issues. (a) If, during the course of the formal hearing, the evidence presented warrants consideration of an issue or issues not previously considered...

  7. S4MPLE--sampler for multiple protein-ligand entities: simultaneous docking of several entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Laurent; Horvath, Dragos

    2013-01-28

    S4MPLE is a conformational sampling tool, based on a hybrid genetic algorithm, simulating one (conformer enumeration) or more molecules (docking). Energy calculations are based on the AMBER force field [Cornell et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 5179.] for biological macromolecules and its generalized version GAFF [Wang et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2004 , 25, 1157.] for ligands. This paper describes more advanced, specific applications of S4MPLE to problems more complex than classical redocking of drug-like compounds [Hoffer et al. J. Mol. Graphics Modell. 2012, submitted for publication.]. Here, simultaneous docking of multiple entities is addressed in two different important contexts. First, simultaneous docking of two fragment-like ligands was attempted, as such ternary complexes are the basis of fragment-based drug design by linkage of the independent binders. As a preliminary, the capacity of S4MPLE to dock fragment-like compounds has been assessed, since this class of small probes used in fragment-based drug design covers a different chemical space than drug-like molecules. Herein reported success rates from fragments redocking are as good as classical benchmarking results on drug-like compounds (Astex Diverse Set [Hartshorn et al. J. Med. Chem. 2007, 50, 726.]). Then, S4MPLE is successfully challenged to predict locations of fragments involved in ternary complexes by means of multientity docking. Second, the key problem of predicting water-mediated interaction is addressed by considering explicit water molecules as additional entities to be docked in the presence of the "main" ligand. Blind prediction of solvent molecule positions, reproducing relevant ligand-water-site mediated interactions, is achieved in 76% cases over saved poses. S4MPLE was also successful to predict crystallographic water displacement by a therefore tailored functional group in the optimized ligand. However, water localization is an extremely delicate issue in terms of weighing of

  8. Formal Assurance Certifiable Tooling Formal Assurance Certifiable Tooling Strategy Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Eric; Oglesby, David; Bhatt, Devesh; Murugesan, Anitha; Engstrom, Eric; Mueller, Joe; Pelican, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This is the Final Report of a research project to investigate issues and provide guidance for the qualification of formal methods tools under the DO-330 qualification process. It consisted of three major subtasks spread over two years: 1) an assessment of theoretical soundness issues that may affect qualification for three categories of formal methods tools, 2) a case study simulating the DO-330 qualification of two actual tool sets, and 3) an investigation of risk mitigation strategies that might be applied to chains of such formal methods tools in order to increase confidence in their certification of airborne software.

  9. The Advisor and Instructor as a Dynamic Duo: Academic Motivation and Basic Psychological Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Tracie D.; Young-Jones, Adena D.; Yadon, Carly A.; Carr, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Students learn in and out of a formal classroom, and instructors and academic advisors play key roles in academic motivation and learning. Therefore, through the lens of self-determination theory, we examined the ways perceived support from instructors and advisors relates to satisfaction of college students' basic psychological needs. Advisor and…

  10. Target-Setting, Early-Career Academic Identities and the Measurement Culture of UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Early-career academics are subject to a barrage of formal measurements when they secure a first academic post in a UK university. To support this process, guidance is provided by universities on what is measured, though this can lack disciplinary nuance. This article analyses the perceptions of a sample of social scientists of the process of…

  11. Writing for the World: Wikipedia as an Introduction to Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    As students move from writing personal essays to writing formal academic texts in English, they face several new challenges. Writing tasks in higher education often require students to draw upon outside sources and to adopt the styles and genres of academic discourse. They must conduct research, summarize and paraphrase, cite sources, adopt genre…

  12. Dual Credit Student Enrollment: Does It Contribute to Academic Performance at the Community College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roscoe A.

    2017-01-01

    This research compares the academic performance of two groups of students at the community college level of higher education. These two groups are dual credit students and non-dual credit students. The academic records of these students were examined from the years 2010-2014. Students in both groups had completed their formal high school education…

  13. Academic Help Seeking: A Framework for Conceptualizing Facebook Use for Higher Education Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Paul V.; Amador, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to understand how higher education students, specifically preservice teachers, used Facebook to seek academic help. Results indicated that participants who regularly used Facebook to seek academic support formally and informally, considered the network to be social in nature, generated a sense of community through…

  14. An Institutional Framework for Heterogeneous Formal Development in UML

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Alexander; Mossakowski, Till; Roggenbach, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for formal software development with UML. In contrast to previous approaches that equip UML with a formal semantics, we follow an institution based heterogeneous approach. This can express suitable formal semantics of the different UML diagram types directly, without the need to map everything to one specific formalism (let it be first-order logic or graph grammars). We show how different aspects of the formal development process can be coherently formalised, ranging fr...

  15. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Quality of the Accounting Information of Brazilian Third Sector Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Maciel Ramos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the objective was to analyze the quality of accounting information of Brazilian non-profit organizations. As for the objective the research is characterized as a descriptive one; as for the research strategy it is documental and as for the approach it is quantitative. In order to measure the quality of the accounting information of the analyzed entities, it was prepared a checklist starting from the accounting rules that guide the accounting practice of the third sector entities made up of seven sections and 59 requisites, which enabled the construction of the Quality Index for Accounting Information. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics (minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation and the results indicated a low level of the accounting information quality reported by the analyzed entities, especially when compared to for-profit organizations. One comes to the conclusion, based on the findings, that the analyzed entities present a low level of quality as to the accounting information which may jeopardize the information usefulness reported by these entities users.

  17. Entity recognition in the biomedical domain using a hybrid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaldella, Marco; Furrer, Lenz; Tasso, Carlo; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2017-11-09

    This article describes a high-recall, high-precision approach for the extraction of biomedical entities from scientific articles. The approach uses a two-stage pipeline, combining a dictionary-based entity recognizer with a machine-learning classifier. First, the OGER entity recognizer, which has a bias towards high recall, annotates the terms that appear in selected domain ontologies. Subsequently, the Distiller framework uses this information as a feature for a machine learning algorithm to select the relevant entities only. For this step, we compare two different supervised machine-learning algorithms: Conditional Random Fields and Neural Networks. In an in-domain evaluation using the CRAFT corpus, we test the performance of the combined systems when recognizing chemicals, cell types, cellular components, biological processes, molecular functions, organisms, proteins, and biological sequences. Our best system combines dictionary-based candidate generation with Neural-Network-based filtering. It achieves an overall precision of 86% at a recall of 60% on the named entity recognition task, and a precision of 51% at a recall of 49% on the concept recognition task. These results are to our knowledge the best reported so far in this particular task.

  18. A cross-sectional baseline survey among academic healthcare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet, 74% lacked high level of EBM knowledge, 76% had no formal EBM training and 92% were unfamiliar with the Cochrane library. Motivation to attend EBM training was high among the respondents. Our results highlight the inadequacy of EBM knowledge and training among academics. There is a need to train ...

  19. Intellectual Freedom in Academic Libraries: Surveying Deans about Its Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, deans and directors of academic libraries were surveyed about intellectual freedom. The survey found that most respondents said they rarely think about intellectual freedom yet said it was "somewhat" or "very" important in their libraries. Most did not have formal intellectual freedom policies; they often relied…

  20. Engaging Pediatricians in Developmental Screening: The Effectiveness of Academic Detailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigfeld, Lisa; Chandhok, Laura; Spiegelman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Use of formal developmental screening tools in the pediatric medical home improves early identification of children with developmental delays and disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorders. A pilot study evaluated the impact of an academic detailing module in which trainers visited 43 pediatric primary care practices to provide education about…

  1. Limits to meritocracy? Gender in academic recruitment and promotion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, women researchers are sometimes at a disadvantage in academic recruitment due to insufficient network ties and subtle gender biases among evaluators. But how exactly do highly formal recruitment procedures allow space for mobilizing informal, potentially gendered, net...

  2. Small "p" Publishing: A Networked Blogging Approach to Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julia W.; Hughes, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights a middle ground for academic publishing between formal peer-reviewed journals and informal blogging that we call "Small "p" Publishing." Having implemented and tested a publishing network that illustrates this middle ground, we describe its unique contributions to scholars and learning communities. Three features that…

  3. Exploiting formal, non-formal and informal learning when using business games in leadership education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Kenneth; Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to address the necessity of allowing non-formal and informal processes to unfold when using business games for leadership development. While games and simulations have long been used in management training and leadership development, emphasis has been placed on the formal...... parts of the process and especially on the gaming experience. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on a qualitative study of a French management game on change management, in which the game-based learning process is examined in light of adult learning. Findings This paper concludes that less...... formal dialogues that stem from formal activities make important contributions to the learning process. Consequently, the use of business games in leadership development should be didactically designed to facilitate such dialogues. While playing the game takes center stage, activities such as theory...

  4. Formal Analysis of Graphical Security Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi

    The increasing usage of computer-based systems in almost every aspects of our daily life makes more and more dangerous the threat posed by potential attackers, and more and more rewarding a successful attack. Moreover, the complexity of these systems is also increasing, including physical devices......, software components and human actors interacting with each other to form so-called socio-technical systems. The importance of socio-technical systems to modern societies requires verifying their security properties formally, while their inherent complexity makes manual analyses impracticable. Graphical...... models for security offer an unrivalled opportunity to describe socio-technical systems, for they allow to represent different aspects like human behaviour, computation and physical phenomena in an abstract yet uniform manner. Moreover, these models can be assigned a formal semantics, thereby allowing...

  5. The MODUS approach to formal verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Soler, José; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2014-01-01

    in the process of providing competitive products Objectives: In relation to this, MODUS (Method and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide small and medium-sized businesses ways to improve their position in the embedded market through a pragmatic and viable solution......Background: Software reliability is of great importance for the development of embedded systems that are often used in applications that have requirements for safety. Since the life cycle of embedded products is becoming shorter, productivity and quality simultaneously required and closely...... Methods/Approach: This paper will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that can assist formal verification and formal model checking. Results: Based on automated analysis of the characteristics of the system and by controlling the choice of the existing opensource model...

  6. Formalism and physical interpretation in Schroedinger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paty, M.

    1992-01-01

    The question of the relation between a formalism and its physical interpretation arises not only when theoretical and conceptual systems are reorganized, but in the theoretical elaboration as well. The Schroedinger's work and thought are examined in this paper with this double concern. His work on the mathematical formalism is constantly sustained by a proper physical thought which takes the form of a wave intuition that guarantees him intelligibility. Concerning his interpretation of quantum mechanics, his thought remains characterized, through its evolution, by a w ave image of the world . The way he deals with space-time structure in General Relativity and favours the possibility of a direct interpretation of space-time geometrical quantities, is also studied. (author). 75 refs

  7. Formal verification of a deadlock detection algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Verbeek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Deadlock detection is a challenging issue in the analysis and design of on-chip networks. We have designed an algorithm to detect deadlocks automatically in on-chip networks with wormhole switching. The algorithm has been specified and proven correct in ACL2. To enable a top-down proof methodology, some parts of the algorithm have been left unimplemented. For these parts, the ACL2 specification contains constrained functions introduced with defun-sk. We used single-threaded objects to represent the data structures used by the algorithm. In this paper, we present details on the proof of correctness of the algorithm. The process of formal verification was crucial to get the algorithm flawless. Our ultimate objective is to have an efficient executable, and formally proven correct implementation of the algorithm running in ACL2.

  8. On the Coherence of Probabilistic Relational Formalisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber De Bona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several formalisms that enhance Bayesian networks by including relations amongst individuals as modeling primitives. For instance, Probabilistic Relational Models (PRMs use diagrams and relational databases to represent repetitive Bayesian networks, while Relational Bayesian Networks (RBNs employ first-order probability formulas with the same purpose. We examine the coherence checking problem for those formalisms; that is, the problem of guaranteeing that any grounding of a well-formed set of sentences does produce a valid Bayesian network. This is a novel version of de Finetti’s problem of coherence checking for probabilistic assessments. We show how to reduce the coherence checking problem in relational Bayesian networks to a validity problem in first-order logic augmented with a transitive closure operator and how to combine this logic-based approach with faster, but incomplete algorithms.

  9. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  10. A Formal Framework for Workflow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravo, Glória

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we provide a new formal framework to model and analyse workflows. A workflow is the formal definition of a business process that consists in the execution of tasks in order to achieve a certain objective. In our work we describe a workflow as a graph whose vertices represent tasks and the arcs are associated to workflow transitions. Each task has associated an input/output logic operator. This logic operator can be the logical AND (•), the OR (⊗), or the XOR -exclusive-or—(⊕). Moreover, we introduce algebraic concepts in order to completely describe completely the structure of workflows. We also introduce the concept of logical termination. Finally, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for this property to hold.

  11. The formal logic of business rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rábová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of improvement areas and utilization of information and communication technologies have gained value and priority in our knowledge driven society. Rules define constraints, conditions and policies of how the business processes are to be performed but they also affect the behavior of the resource and facilitate strategic business goals achieving. They control the business and represent business knowledge. The research works about business rules show how to specify and classify business rules from the business perspective and to establish an approach to managing them that will enable faster change in business processes and other business concepts in all areas of the business. In concrete this paper deals with four approaches to business rules formalization, i. e. notation of OCL, inference rules, decision table and predicate logic and with their general evaluation. The article shows also the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches of formalization. They are the example of every mentioned approach.

  12. Measurements and mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavnov, D. A.

    2007-03-01

    A scheme for constructing quantum mechanics is given that does not have Hilbert space and linear operators as its basic elements. Instead, a version of algebraic approach is considered. Elements of a noncommutative algebra (observables) and functionals on this algebra (elementary states) associated with results of single measurements are used as primary components of the scheme. On the one hand, it is possible to use within the scheme the formalism of the standard (Kolmogorov) probability theory, and, on the other hand, it is possible to reproduce the mathematical formalism of standard quantum mechanics, and to study the limits of its applicability. A short outline is given of the necessary material from the theory of algebras and probability theory. It is described how the mathematical scheme of the paper agrees with the theory of quantum measurements, and avoids quantum paradoxes.

  13. A Formal Basis for Safety Case Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    By capturing common structures of successful arguments, safety case patterns provide an approach for reusing strategies for reasoning about safety. In the current state of the practice, patterns exist as descriptive specifications with informal semantics, which not only offer little opportunity for more sophisticated usage such as automated instantiation, composition and manipulation, but also impede standardization efforts and tool interoperability. To address these concerns, this paper gives (i) a formal definition for safety case patterns, clarifying both restrictions on the usage of multiplicity and well-founded recursion in structural abstraction, (ii) formal semantics to patterns, and (iii) a generic data model and algorithm for pattern instantiation. We illustrate our contributions by application to a new pattern, the requirements breakdown pattern, which builds upon our previous work

  14. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.

  15. $\\delta N$ formalism from superpotential and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2016-02-16

    We consider the superpotential formalism to describe the evolution of scalar fields during inflation, generalizing it to include the case with non-canonical kinetic terms. We provide a characterization of the attractor behaviour of the background evolution in terms of first and second slow-roll parameters (which need not be small). We find that the superpotential is useful in justifying the separate universe approximation from the gradient expansion, and also in computing the spectra of primordial perturbations around attractor solutions in the $\\delta N$ formalism. As an application, we consider a class of models where the background trajectories for the inflaton fields are derived from a product separable superpotential. In the perspective of the holographic inflation scenario, such models are dual to a deformed CFT boundary theory, with $D$ mutually uncorrelated deformation operators. We compute the bulk power spectra of primordial adiabatic and entropy cosmological perturbations, and show that the results...

  16. Pendekatan Non Formal Dan Formal Dalam Menganalisis Artefak Sebagai Media Pendidikan Sen1 Rupa

    OpenAIRE

    Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi; Mardiyatmo, Mardiyatmo

    1999-01-01

    An artifact is an object made by man and assumedto possess symbolic and esthetic values. An artifactcomes into existence through a concept of creationand based on an esthetic aspect.Artifacts can be used as educational media forcertain teaching materials. They can be in the form ofhardware (e.g., temples) and software (e.g., paintings).Non formal and formal approaches can be usedto analyze artifacts so that a comprehensive understandingis obtained. Such a combined use of approaches isalso mul...

  17. Asset mapping for an Asian American community: Informal and formal resources for community building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzie S. Weng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of the Asian American population in the Southern region of the United States, mainstream and Asian American community must be aware of both informal and formal supports that are available for the population in order to effectively address needs and allocate resources. This community-based project identified informal and mainstream support that is available to an Asian American community using asset mapping. The asset-based community development framework was used in which the capacities of the local people and their associations are recognized to be essential in building a more powerful community, to helping a community be more self-sustaining, and to developing better relationships among entities. This study provides an inventory of community assets that otherwise may have been ignored and thus has the potential to contribute to a better functioning Asian American community in Jacksonville, Florida. 719 assets were identified as available potential resources for members of the Asian American community with a majority as formal resources. Of the informal assets, a majority are organizations. In general, formal resources are centralized, whereas informal resources are more evenly distributed throughout the city. These results can contribute to the establishment of more culturally accessible services and utilization of services.

  18. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AN ENTITY FROM CONSTRUCTION SECTOR USING DASHBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN BRICIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the analysis of performances of economic entities from the construction sector from Romania. The necessary data for preparation and analysis up through dashboard of the economic entity are provided by managerial accounting through Target Costing method. The way of implementing and observing of stages which are completed in managerial accounting through Target Costing method are also presented in the paper based on the existing literature. For data analysis it was used a questionnaire based on three questions whose results were analyzed and which formed the basis of our entire course of scientific approach. The paper ends with the authors' conclusions about the performance analysis of economic entities in a construction project using dashboard showing the benefits of its long-term decisions.

  19. Using Local Grammar for Entity Extraction from Clinical Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Ghoulam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Information Extraction (IE is a natural language processing (NLP task whose aim is to analyze texts written in natural language to extract structured and useful information such as named entities and semantic relations linking these entities. Information extraction is an important task for many applications such as bio-medical literature mining, customer care, community websites, and personal information management. The increasing information available in patient clinical reports is difficult to access. As it is often in an unstructured text form, doctors need tools to enable them access to this information and the ability to search it. Hence, a system for extracting this information in a structured form can benefits healthcare professionals. The work presented in this paper uses a local grammar approach to extract medical named entities from French patient clinical reports. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieved an F-Measure of 90. 06%.

  20. Enhanced Named Entity Extraction via Error-Driven Aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmond, T D; Perry, N C; Guensche, J W; Nitao, J J; Glaser, R E; Kidwell, P; Hanley, W G

    2010-02-22

    Despite recent advances in named entity extraction technologies, state-of-the-art extraction tools achieve insufficient accuracy rates for practical use in many operational settings. However, they are not generally prone to the same types of error, suggesting that substantial improvements may be achieved via appropriate combinations of existing tools, provided their behavior can be accurately characterized and quantified. In this paper, we present an inference methodology for the aggregation of named entity extraction technologies that is founded upon a black-box analysis of their respective error processes. This method has been shown to produce statistically significant improvements in extraction relative to standard performance metrics and to mitigate the weak performance of entity extractors operating under suboptimal conditions. Moreover, this approach provides a framework for quantifying uncertainty and has demonstrated the ability to reconstruct the truth when majority voting fails.

  1. Formal First Integrals of General Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is trying to make a complete study on the integrability for general analytic nonlinear systems by first integrals. We will firstly give an exhaustive discussion on analytic planar systems. Then a class of higher dimensional systems with invariant manifolds will be considered; we will develop several criteria for existence of formal integrals and give some applications to illustrate our results at last.

  2. Heuristics structure and pervade formal risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Brian H

    2014-04-01

    Lay perceptions of risk appear rooted more in heuristics than in reason. A major concern of the risk regulation literature is that such "error-strewn" perceptions may be replicated in policy, as governments respond to the (mis)fears of the citizenry. This has led many to advocate a relatively technocratic approach to regulating risk, characterized by high reliance on formal risk and cost-benefit analysis. However, through two studies of chemicals regulation, we show that the formal assessment of risk is pervaded by its own set of heuristics. These include rules to categorize potential threats, define what constitutes valid data, guide causal inference, and to select and apply formal models. Some of these heuristics lay claim to theoretical or empirical justifications, others are more back-of-the-envelope calculations, while still more purport not to reflect some truth but simply to constrain discretion or perform a desk-clearing function. These heuristics can be understood as a way of authenticating or formalizing risk assessment as a scientific practice, representing a series of rules for bounding problems, collecting data, and interpreting evidence (a methodology). Heuristics are indispensable elements of induction. And so they are not problematic per se, but they can become so when treated as laws rather than as contingent and provisional rules. Pitfalls include the potential for systematic error, masking uncertainties, strategic manipulation, and entrenchment. Our central claim is that by studying the rules of risk assessment qua rules, we develop a novel representation of the methods, conventions, and biases of the prior art. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. A Formal Definition of VDM-SL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans; Damm, F.; Dawes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This joint report from the Danish Institute for Applied Computer Science (IFAD), the Technical Universities of Delft and Denmark and the University of Leicester contains the background and technical material used in the production of the ISO Standard that defines the specification language part o...... and reviewers of the project - these changes have improved the style and technical correctness of the formal definitions used to define VDM-SL....

  4. Towards an Ashtekar formalism in eight dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, J A

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of extending the Ashtekar theory to eight dimensions. Our approach relies on two notions: the octonionic structure and the MacDowell-Mansouri formalism generalized to a spacetime of signature 1 + 7. The key mathematical tool for our construction is the self-dual (antiself-dual) four-rank fully antisymmetric octonionic tensor. Our results may be of particular interest in connection with a possible formulation of M -theory via matroid theory

  5. Towards a Formal Model of Social Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid

    of the interactions, it focuses on the topics discussed and how they are discussed. What keywords appear? What pronouns are used? How far are negative or positive sentiments expressed? In this report, we first present and discuss a conceptual model of social data followed by a formal model based on set theory. Second...... model. Finally, we exemplify our approach with help of a case study on big social data of the fast fashion company, H&M. from its Facebook page....

  6. Globalization and formal sector migration in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aguayo-Tellez, Ernesto; Muendler, Marc-Andreas; Poole, Jennifer Pamela

    2008-01-01

    We use novel linked employer–employee data to study the relationship between globalization and formal sector interstate migration for Brazil. We estimate the worker’s multichoice migration problem and document that previously unobserved employer covariates are significant predictors associated with migration flows. Our results provide support for the idea that globalization acts on internal migration through the growth of employment opportunities at locations with a high concentration of fore...

  7. Fourth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This publication consists of papers presented at NASA Langley Research Center's fourth workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. Topic considered include: Proving properties of accident; modeling and validating SAFER in VDM-SL; requirement analysis of real-time control systems using PVS; a tabular language for system design; automated deductive verification of parallel systems. Also included is a fundamental hardware design in PVS.

  8. Time delay in a multichannel formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberzettl, Helmut; Workman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    We reexamine the time-delay formalism of Wigner, Eisenbud, and Smith, which was developed to analyze both elastic and inelastic resonances. An error in the paper of Smith has propagated through the literature. We correct this error and show how the results of Eisenbud and Smith are related. We also comment on some recent time-delay studies, based on Smith's erroneous interpretation of the Eisenbud result

  9. A FORMALISM FOR FUZZY BUSINESS RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Mazilescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a formalism for fuzzy rule bases, included in our prototype system FUZZY_ENTERPRISE. This framework can be used in Distributed Knowledge Management Systems (DKMSs, real-time interdisciplinary decision making systems, that often require increasing technical support to high quality decisions in a timely manner. The language of the first-degree predicates facilitates the formulation of complex knowledge in a rigorous way, imposing appropriate reasoning techniques.

  10. Academic training: Introduction to Supersymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 12, 13, 14, 15 February, from 11:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Introduction to Supersymmetry D. Kaplan, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA In these lectures, I will introduce supersymmetry as an extension to spacetime symmetries both formally and physically. I will present motivations for why we think supersymmetry may exist in the real world, and may manifest itself at the LHC. I will describe the current set of models of softly broken supersymmetry at the electroweak scale and the parts that make them exciting and the parts that make people sick. I will then cover the phenomenology of the various models - the spectra and some of the best studied collider signals. Finally, I will describe the phenomenology of the full supersymmetric parameter space in general terms and discuss this collider signals not covered by the classic models.

  11. Formal Specification of Real-Time Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groven, Arne-Kristian

    1996-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study on formal specification of real-time distributed control systems. Emphasis has been but on the ability to describe both system architecture, system functionality and timed system behaviour inside the same formal framework. A timed extension of the ISO standardized formal description language LOTOS (ISO 8807), called TE-LOTOS, has been used for describing the timed behaviour. The functionality can be described in LOTOS, which is a subset of the timed extension. A graphical notation has been used for describing system architecture, transformable to a subset of LOTOS. This methodology has been used to specify a test example, a steam-boiler control system. Modularization of the specification is an important issue. This is achieved by isolating the time-dependent aspect in one part of the specification, and the system functionality in another. This modularization facilitates the separation of general aspect from the more specific aspects. This is demonstrated by comparison with another type of control systems, the APRM system (HWR-397). (author)

  12. [How to write an article: formal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral de la Calle, M A; Encinas de la Iglesia, J

    2013-06-01

    Scientific research and the publication of the results of the studies go hand in hand. Exquisite research methods can only be adequately reflected in formal publication with the optimum structure. To ensure the success of this process, it is necessary to follow orderly steps, including selecting the journal in which to publish and following the instructions to authors strictly as well as the guidelines elaborated by diverse societies of editors and other institutions. It is also necessary to structure the contents of the article in a logical and attractive way and to use an accurate, clear, and concise style of language. Although not all the authors are directly involved in the actual writing, elaborating a scientific article is a collective undertaking that does not finish until the article is published. This article provides practical advice about formal and not-so-formal details to take into account when writing a scientific article as well as references that will help readers find more information in greater detail. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Qualitative simulation in formal process modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Elin R.

    1999-01-01

    In relation to several different research activities at the OECD Halden Reactor Project, the usefulness of formal process models has been identified. Being represented in some appropriate representation language, the purpose of these models is to model process plants and plant automatics in a unified way to allow verification and computer aided design of control strategies. The present report discusses qualitative simulation and the tool QSIM as one approach to formal process models. In particular, the report aims at investigating how recent improvements of the tool facilitate the use of the approach in areas like process system analysis, procedure verification, and control software safety analysis. An important long term goal is to provide a basis for using qualitative reasoning in combination with other techniques to facilitate the treatment of embedded programmable systems in Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). This is motivated from the potential of such a combination in safety analysis based on models comprising both software, hardware, and operator. It is anticipated that the research results from this activity will benefit V and V in a wide variety of applications where formal process models can be utilized. Examples are operator procedures, intelligent decision support systems, and common model repositories (author) (ml)

  14. Formal refinement of extended state machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fayolle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional formal development process, e.g. using the B method, the informal user requirements are (manually translated into a global abstract formal specification. This translation is especially difficult to achieve. The Event-B method was developed to incrementally and formally construct such a specification using stepwise refinement. Each increment takes into account new properties and system aspects. In this paper, we propose to couple a graphical notation called Algebraic State-Transition Diagrams (ASTD with an Event-B specification in order to provide a better understanding of the software behaviour. The dynamic behaviour is captured by the ASTD, which is based on automata and process algebra operators, while the data model is described by means of an Event-B specification. We propose a methodology to incrementally refine such specification couplings, taking into account new refinement relations and consistency conditions between the control specification and the data specification. We compare the specifications obtained using each approach for readability and proof complexity. The advantages and drawbacks of the traditional approach and of our methodology are discussed. The whole process is illustrated by a railway CBTC-like case study. Our approach is supported by tools for translating ASTD's into B and Event-B into B.

  15. Leslie Martin and the formal order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime J. Ferrer Fores

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper analyzes the architecture of Sir Leslie Martin (1908-2000 and covers the intense professional career that starts with the Nursery School at Northwich, Cheshire (1937-1938 or the Alastair Morton house at Brampton (1938 which are ascribed to the orthodoxy of modern architecture, and  continues with the projects he planned as the architect responsible of the railway company for stations and railroad infrastructure rearrangements in the postwar, interventions that will prepare him for his architectural maturity stage which he crystallizes in buildings for the Royal Festival Hall in London (1948-1951, the Harvey Court, Cambridge (1958-1962, the auditoriums  for the Middleton Hall, University of Hull (1958 , the School of Music  (1974 and College (1979 at Cambridge University and his proposal for  the University of Bristol (1979 that illustrate the essential basis of his  coherent architectural career where the tradition of modern architecture, the spatial continuity and the formal order converge. This analysis of the works in the fifties, sixties and seventies illustrates the architect’s constants  through the chronological exploration of his works that reveal the  compositional mechanisms, the search for formal order and the correct spatial organization taking into account the functional requirements, the relationship with the site and the technological resources that determine his entire career which is characterized by formal consistency and architectural coherence.

  16. Twisted speckle entities inside wave-front reversal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulov, A. Yu

    2009-01-01

    The previously unknown property of the optical speckle pattern reported. The interference of a speckle with the counterpropagating phase-conjugated (PC) speckle wave produces a randomly distributed ensemble of a twisted entities (ropes) surrounding optical vortex lines. These entities appear in a wide range of a randomly chosen speckle parameters inside the phase-conjugating mirrors regardless to an internal physical mechanism of the wave-front reversal. These numerically generated interference patterns are relevant to the Brillouin PC mirrors and to a four-wave mixing PC mirrors based upon laser trapped ultracold atomic cloud.

  17. Event-Entity-Relationship Modeling in Data Warehouse Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    We use the event-entity-relationship model (EVER) to illustrate the use of entity-based modeling languages for conceptual schema design in data warehouse environments. EVER is a general-purpose information modeling language that supports the specification of both general schema structures and multi......-dimensional schemes that are customized to serve specific information needs. EVER is based on an event concept that is very well suited for multi-dimensional modeling because measurement data often represent events in multi-dimensional databases...

  18. Ossification of the bilateral Achilles tendon: a rare entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Abhishek J; Arora, Richa

    2015-01-01

    Ossification of the Achilles tendon is a rare clinical entity comprising of one or more segments of variable sized ossified masses in the fibrocartilaginous substance of the tendon. The etiology of ossification of the Achilles tendon is multifactorial with recurrent trauma and surgery comprising major predisposing factors, with others being metabolic, systemic, and infectious diseases. The possibility of a genetic predisposition towards this entity has also been raised, but has not yet been proven. We present a rare case of ossification of the bilateral Achilles tendons without any history of trauma or surgery in a 48-year-old female patient

  19. The sky entities as represented in African literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urama, Evelyn N.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical observations used by the ancient people of Africa were developed out of the people's desire to have concrete manifestations of their gods and religious beliefs as well as for time-keeping - day, night and calendar for agricultural and festive seasons. The sky entities (the solar and stellar systems) observed become part of the lives and events here on Earth and so are also part of the context of African literature. This paper examines the ways in which different African peoples have reflected on the role of the sky entities in their literature.

  20. Rightsizing Projects for Non-Research-Intensive Schools of Nursing via Academic-Clinical Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooken, Wendy Carter; Eckhardt, Ann L; McNutt-Dungan, Marianne; Woods, Jonathan

    Most academic-clinical partnerships are described as formal agreements between schools of nursing at research-intensive universities and large teaching hospitals. This article demonstrates less formal versions of academic-clinical partnerships established between a small, private liberal arts university school of nursing and 2 regional clinical agencies. In both exemplars, students, faculty, and staff contributed to evidence-based practice projects. Schools of nursing in non-research-intensive environments can develop right-size academic-clinical partnerships that are beneficial for all parties involved.

  1. FINANCIAL REPORTING IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS AND NON-FINANCIAL ENTITIES. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Vitan

    2011-01-01

    The present paperwork contains issues regarding financial reporting at the public institutions and non – financial entities. The main aspects are regarding the obligation of all entities to present the financial statements, the content of financial statements in public institutions and non-financial entities. Also, is presented the similarities and the differences aspects between financial reporting of these two patrimonial entities.

  2. 10 CFR 300.12 - Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.12 Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission... provisions of this part. EIA will also review its records to verify that the reporting entity has submitted... credited to the entity as “registered reductions” which can be held by the reporting entity for use...

  3. Encoding of Fundamental Chemical Entities of Organic Reactivity Interest using chemical ontology and XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Vijayasarathi; Punnaivanam, Sankar

    2015-09-01

    Fundamental chemical entities are identified in the context of organic reactivity and classified as appropriate concept classes namely ElectronEntity, AtomEntity, AtomGroupEntity, FunctionalGroupEntity and MolecularEntity. The entity classes and their subclasses are organized into a chemical ontology named "ChemEnt" for the purpose of assertion, restriction and modification of properties through entity relations. Individual instances of entity classes are defined and encoded as a library of chemical entities in XML. The instances of entity classes are distinguished with a unique notation and identification values in order to map them with the ontology definitions. A model GUI named Entity Table is created to view graphical representations of all the entity instances. The detection of chemical entities in chemical structures is achieved through suitable algorithms. The possibility of asserting properties to the entities at different levels and the mechanism of property flow within the hierarchical entity levels is outlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. UMass at TREC WEB 2014: Entity Query Feature Expansion using Knowledge Base Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    task on the category A subset and demonstrate the benefit of entity-centric approaches even for non-entity queries like “dark chocolate health benefits...category A subset and demonstrate the benefit of entity-centric approaches even for non-entity queries like ???dark chocolate health benefits???. 15

  5. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... all items of the entity that would be partnership items, as defined in section 6231(a)(3) and the... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return...

  6. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  7. Development of a Research Agenda Focused on Academic Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C; Livingood, William C; Keck, C William; Amos, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    An academic health department (AHD) is a formal partnership between an academic institution and a governmental public health agency. Case studies have described the value of individual AHDs in the areas of student engagement, practice-based research, workforce development, and service. With growing interest in AHDs and the increasing importance of academic-practice linkages in both academic programs' and public health agencies' accreditation processes, articulating a research agenda focused on the AHD model can be useful for stimulating the research and practice fields to further develop the evidence base for AHDs. We provide a research agenda, developed through an iterative process involving academicians, practitioners, and others interested in academic-practice linkages.

  8. Anthropological analysis of differences in psychomotor skills area high school students and their linkages with the formal representation of kinesiological education classes in the curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešović Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine differences in anthropological space psychomotor skills and their connection with the formal representation of kinesiological education classes in the curriculum of secondary school students, conducted the study in part on a simple random sample of 200 female high school population of entities, which are described with 7 sets of primary psychomotor indicators. According to the criterion of formal representation of kinesiological education classes in the curriculum, the sample was stratified on the subsample with two or four hours a week. To determine the difference discriminant analysis was applied. According to the actual parameters, confirmed the initial assumption that the system of psychomotor variables and criterion variables no statistically significant association, then it was concluded that the results do not contradict current scientific knowledge indicated the need and transition model curriculum in favor of the treated population biopsihosocijalnog integrity of its entities.

  9. Incorporating current research into formal higher education settings using Astrobites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan E.; Kohler, Susanna; Faesi, Chris; Villar, Ashley; Zevin, Michael

    2017-10-01

    A primary goal of many undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in the physical sciences is to prepare students to engage in scientific research or to prepare students for careers that leverage skillsets similar to those used by research scientists. Even for students who may not intend to pursue a career with these characteristics, exposure to the context of applications in modern research can be a valuable tool for teaching and learning. However, a persistent barrier to student participation in research is familiarity with the technical language, format, and context that academic researchers use to communicate research methods and findings with each other: the literature of the field. Astrobites, an online web resource authored by graduate students, has published brief and accessible summaries of more than 1300 articles from the astrophysical literature since its founding in 2010. This article presents three methods for introducing students at all levels within the formal higher education setting to approaches and results from modern research. For each method, we provide a sample lesson plan that integrates content and principles from Astrobites, including step-by-step instructions for instructors, suggestions for adapting the lesson to different class levels across the undergraduate and graduate spectrum, sample student handouts, and a grading rubric.

  10. Formalization of the Resolution Calculus for First-Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A formalization in Isabelle/HOL of the resolution calculus for first-order logic is presented. Its soundness and completeness are formally proven using the substitution lemma, semantic trees, Herbrand’s theorem, and the lifting lemma. In contrast to previous formalizations of resolution, it consi......A formalization in Isabelle/HOL of the resolution calculus for first-order logic is presented. Its soundness and completeness are formally proven using the substitution lemma, semantic trees, Herbrand’s theorem, and the lifting lemma. In contrast to previous formalizations of resolution...

  11. Business Entity Selection: Why It Matters to Healthcare Practitioners. Part II--Corporations, Limited Liability Companies, and Professional Entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithman, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    The Bureau of Labor statistics indicates only a 50% four-year survivability rate among businesses classified as "education and health services." Gaining knowledge of IRS business entities can result in cost savings, operational efficiency, reduced liability, and enhanced sustainability. Each entity has unique disadvantages, depending on size, diversity of ownership, desire to expand, and profitability. Business structures should be compatible with organizational mission or vision statements, services and products, and professional codes of ethics. Healthcare reform will require greater business acumen. We have an ethical duty to disseminate and acquire the knowledge to properly establish and manage healthcare practices to ensure sustainable services that protect and serve the community.

  12. Pair Hidden Markov Model for Named Entity Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabende, P.; Tiedemann, J.; Nerbonne, J.; Sobh, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a pair-Hidden Markov Model (pair-HMM) for the task of evaluating the similarity between bilingual named entities. The pair-HMM is adapted from Mackay and Kondrak [1] who used it on the task of cognate identification and was later adapted by Wieling et al. [5] for Dutch dialect

  13. Nanofluidic device for extraction of elastic bio-entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    The invention relates to a nanofluidic device for extraction of elastic bio-entities suspended in liquid. The device comprises a main passage and a plurality of nanoslits extending from a sidewall of the main passage. The main passage has a first height and each nanoslit has a second height so...

  14. Evaluation of Named Entity Recognition in Dutch online criminal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, M.P.; Brinkhuis, M.J.S.; Bex, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility for citizens to submit crime reports and criminal complaints online is becoming ever more common, especially for cyber- and internet-related crimes such as phishing and online trade fraud. Such user-submitted crime reports contain references to entities of interest, such as the

  15. Evaluation of Named Entity Recognition in Dutch Online Criminal Complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, M.P.; Brinkhuis, M.J.S.; Bex, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility for citizens to submit crime reports and criminal complaints online is becoming ever more common, especially for cyber- and internet-related crimes such as phishing and online trade fraud. Such user-submitted crime reports contain references to entities of interest, such as the

  16. Amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis: A rare clinical entity

    OpenAIRE

    Gundannavar, Gayatri; Rosh, Radhika M.; Chandrasekaran, Shoba; Hussain, Ahad M.

    2013-01-01

    This case report presents two female patients whose chief complaint was discoloration of teeth. On careful clinical examination it was found that the patients had features of amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis. This article will give an insight of clinical and radiographic features of amelogenesis imperfecta with localised aggressive periodontitis, which is a rare clinical entity.

  17. GASB's New Standard on Reporting Entity for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, W. Gary

    1991-01-01

    Explains the impact on school district financial reporting of the Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statement 14, "The Financial Reporting Entity." One of Statement 14's objectives is for financial report users to be able to distinguish between the primary government and its component units. (MLF)

  18. Continuities and discontinuities between humans, intelligent machines, and other entities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soraker, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    When it comes to the question of what kind of moral claim an intelligent or autonomous machine might have, one way to answer this is by way of comparison with humans: Is there a fundamental difference between humans and other entities? If so, on what basis, and what are the implications for science

  19. Primary Ovarian Leiomyoma: An Uncommon Entity ‑ Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immunohistochemical evidence for considering ovarian myxoma as a variant of the thecoma-fibroma group of ovarian stromal tumors. Arch. Pathol Lab Med 1993;117:802-8. How to cite this article: Jena A, Patnayak R, Vijaylaxmi B, Lakshmi AY. Primary ovarian leiomyoma: An uncommon entity - Case report and a brief.

  20. Electricity: An Underlying Entity in Matter and Life, A Sustaining ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Darshana Jolts - Electricity: an Underlying Entity in Matter and Life, A Sustaining Principle in Modern Civilization. V V Raman. Reflections Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 393-405 ...

  1. Detecting Underlying Stance Adopted When Human Construe Behavior of Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kazunori; Ono, Kouhei; Ito, Akira

    Whether or not humans can construe the behaviors of entities depends on their psychological stance. The philosopher Dennett proposed human cognitive strategies (three stances) in which humans construe the behavior of other animated objects, including other humans, artifacts, and physical phenomena:‘intentional’, ‘design’ and ‘physical’ stances. Detecting the psychological stance taken toward entities is difficult, because such mental state attribution is a subjective cognitive process and hard to measure. In the present study, we proposed a novel method for detecting underlying stance adopted when human construe behavior of entities. In our method the subject was asked to select the most suitable action sequence shown in three movies each of which representing Dennett’s three stances. To valid our method we have conducted an experiment in which the subjects were presented thirty short videos and asked to compare them to the three movies. The result indicated that the subjects did not focused on prior knowledge about the entity but could focused on motion characteristics per se, owing to simple and typical motion of an abstract shaped object.

  2. Toxic cannabis psychosis IS a valid entIty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-10-20

    Oct 20, 1990 ... Toxic cannabis psychosis. •. IS a valid. •. entIty. K. SOLOMONS, V. M. NEPPE, J. M. KUYL. Summary. One hundred black men admitted to hospital with acute psychiatric symptoms were investigated for the presence of urinary cannabis metabolltes in order to delineate the psy- chiatric role played by 'dagga', ...

  3. Lichen planus hypertrophicus of the vulva - a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Anupa Mary; Kaimal, Sowmya

    2017-09-01

    Vulvovaginal lichen planus is a type of chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the vulva, usually seen as a part of widespread lichen planus. The common clinical types of vulval lichen planus include papulosquamous, erosive and pigmented types. Hypertrophic lichen planus of the vulva is a rare entity. We report a case of hypertrophic lichen planus of the vulva which clinically simulated genital warts.

  4. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... issue or invest in additional securities, to borrow money or to make loans to other persons. Describe... issuing entity as well as the creation (and perfection and priority status) of any security interest in... material terms of any agreement providing for such sale, transfer or creation of a security interest. File...

  5. 78 FR 19271 - Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... regard to the selection and retention of investors, the solicitation of capital contributions, and the... safeguards; and the actual conduct of its investors, management entities, suppliers, and customers during the... product evaluations, maintain or manage sufficient inventory in its own facility, or employ or otherwise...

  6. Formal Modeling and Verification for MVB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifunction Vehicle Bus (MVB is a critical component in the Train Communication Network (TCN, which is widely used in most of the modern train techniques of the transportation system. How to ensure security of MVB has become an important issue. Traditional testing could not ensure the system correctness. The MVB system modeling and verification are concerned in this paper. Petri Net and model checking methods are used to verify the MVB system. A Hierarchy Colored Petri Net (HCPN approach is presented to model and simulate the Master Transfer protocol of MVB. Synchronous and asynchronous methods are proposed to describe the entities and communication environment. Automata model of the Master Transfer protocol is designed. Based on our model checking platform M3C, the Master Transfer protocol of the MVB is verified and some system logic critical errors are found. Experimental results show the efficiency of our methods.

  7. Formal specification is an experimental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorner, D. [Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)

    1992-09-01

    Traditionally, abstract models of large, complex systems have been given in free-form mathematics, combining - often in ad-hoc, not formally supported ways - notions from the disciplines of partial differential equations, functional analysis, mathematical statistics, etc. Such models have been very useful for assimilation of information, analysis (investigation), and prediction (simulation). These models have, however, usually not been helpful in deriving computer representations of the modelled systems - for the purposes of computerized monitoring and control, Computing science, concerned with how to construct objects that can exist within the computer, offers ways of complementing, and in some cases, replacing or combining traditional mathematical models. Formal, model-, as well as property-oriented, specifications in the styles of denotational (respectively, algebraic semantics) represent major approaches to such modelling. In this expository, discursive paper we illustrate what we mean by model-oriented specifications of large, complex technological computing systems. The three modelling examples covers the introvert programming methodological subject of SDEs: software development environments, the distributed computing system subject of wfs`s: (transaction) work flow systems, and the extrovert subject of robots: robotics! the thesis is, just as for mathematical modelling, that we can derive much understanding, etc., from experimentally creating such formally specified models - on paper - and that we gain little in additionally building ad-hoc prototypes. Our models are expressed in a model-oriented style using the VDM specification language Meta-IV In this paper the models only reflect the {open_quotes}data modelling{close_quotes} aspects. We observe that such data models are more easily captured in the model-oriented siyle than in the algebraic semantics property-oriented style which originally was built of the abstraction of operations. 101 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Formal Housing Sector Reform in Neoliberal Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Mallo Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, Nigeria has deployed neoliberal principles in the provision of formal housing. This approach was adopted on the assumption that the implementation of enabling reforms would enhance the role of the private sector and equally promote the development of a formal housing system in Nigeria. This has not occurred; the neoliberal housing approach has brought fewer results than the reform promised. The study therefore aims to explore the agency and actions of Nigerian authorities in response to this neoliberal agenda. To achieve this aim, the following objectives are pursued: The first objective analyses why neoliberalism failed to effectively change the housing market in Nigeria; the second examines the impact of neoliberal restructuring process on housing provision in Nigeria; and the last analyses the success of legislative reform that were carried to support housing provision under Nigeria’s neoliberalism. To achieve these objectives, the paper adopts a documentary method and in accordance with this, a wide range of documentary evidence was collected for a content analysis. The findings of the analysis suggest that economic recession, political instability and changing ideological stances of successive governments affected the consistency of neoliberal reforms. Furthermore, the reforms implemented were seen to be progressive but the events occurred rather slowly, haphazardly and uncoordinated. A time lag is also observed in the reform processes and the sequence of events shows a lack of consideration of the interdependency of legislation and action. This policy review concludes that the neoliberal approach has the potential to improve the delivery of formal housing; however the authorities need to be consistent with the reforms while at the same time aligning legislation and action.

  9. Interatomic Potentials via the Effective Action Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamny, M.; Valiev, M.; Fernando, G. W.

    1998-03-01

    We present a method for the generation of interatomic potentials from first principles calculations using the marat>effective action formalism which leads to a systematic definition for effective two-body interatomic potentials. We do this by reducing the fully interacting system to an auxilliary system which interacts via a two-body interatomic potential. This definition can be trivially extended to higher order interatomic potentials. Unlike other approaches, our interatomic potentials are obtained from a sampling of configuration space pertaining to the thermodynamic environment of interest.

  10. Program Developments: Formal Explanations of Implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Developments: Formal Explanations of Implementations ’V 0 CD 0 -n rat INORAIO S.EN >.IN-iIUT : 0 C)- - LA - INFORMATION SCIENCES. INSTITUTE 4616 Admiralti’ Cr...We could write the steps which transform . .. I I la 25 ... the program in-line, or we could invoke a transformation which is globally defined. Let’s...34 Acta Informatica 10, (3), 1978, 245-264,265-272. [Balzer 69] Balzer, R. M., "EXDAMS--extendable debugging and monitoring system," in Spring Joint

  11. Aspects of the supersymmetric Goldstone formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, W.

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis deal with the discussion of general properties of Goldstone excitations in global N=1 supersymmetric theories. The results can become relevant in the framework of theories which interpret quarks and leptons as composite 'quasi-Goldstone fermions'. The thesis is arranged in two main parts: the first is occupied by group-theoretical aspects, i.e. by the spectrum of supersymmetric Goldstone excitations as well as by geometrical considerations which are connected with effective Lagrangian densities. In the second main part dynamic questions like for instance mass generation are treated. For this a suitable formalism is developed. (orig.) [de

  12. From Safety Analysis to Formal Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Mark; Ravn, Anders P.; Stavridou, Victoria

    1998-01-01

    Software for safety critical systems must deal with the hazards identified bysafety analysis. This paper investigates, how the results of onesafety analysis technique, fault trees, are interpreted as software safetyrequirements to be used in the program design process. We propose thatfault tree...... analysis and program development use the samesystem model. This model is formalized in areal-time, interval logic, based on a conventional dynamic systems modelwith state evolving over time. Fault trees are interpreted astemporal formulas, and it is shown how such formulas can be usedfor deriving safety...

  13. First formal ITER negotiations make excellent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, P.

    2001-01-01

    November 8 and 9 2001 marked the historic beginning of formal negotiations meetings on the ITER project. Delegations from Canada, the European Union, Japan and the Russian Federation met in Toronto, Canada, for the first in a series of Negotiations that is expected to lead, by the end of 2002, to an agreement on the joint implementation of ITER. This agreement will govern, under international law, the construction, operation and decommissioning of ITER. The Negotiations concluded by issuing a joint news release, reflecting a commitment to share the progress reports on the efforts to implement ITER

  14. Representations of spacetime: Formalism and ontological commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Jonathan Stanley

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The first is on the relation between formalism and ontological commitment in the context of theories of spacetime, and the second is on scientific realism. The first part begins with a look at how the substantivalist/relationist debate over the ontological status of spacetime has been influenced by a particular mathematical formalism, that of tensor analysis on differential manifolds (TADM). This formalism has motivated the substantivalist position known as manifold substantivalism. Chapter 1 focuses on the hole argument which maintains that manifold substantivalism is incompatible with determinism. I claim that the realist motivations underlying manifold substantivalism can be upheld, and the hole argument avoided, by adopting structural realism with respect to spacetime. In this context, this is the claim that it is the structure that spacetime points enter into that warrants belief and not the points themselves. In Chapter 2, an elimination principle is defined by means of which a distinction can be made between surplus structure and essential structure with respect to formulations of a theory in two distinct mathematical formulations and some prior ontological commitments. This principle is then used to demonstrate that manifold points may be considered surplus structure in the formulation of field theories. This suggests that, if we are disposed to read field theories literally, then, at most, it should be the essential structure common to all alternative formulations of such theories that should be taken literally. I also investigate how the adoption of alternative formalisms informs other issues in the philosophy of spacetime. Chapter 3 offers a realist position which takes a semantic moral from the preceding investigation and an epistemic moral from work done on reliability. The semantic moral advises us to read only the essential structure of our theories literally. The epistemic moral shows us that such structure

  15. Thermo field theory versus imaginary time formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Y.; Nishino, H.; Grigjanis, R.

    1983-11-01

    We calculate a two-loop diagram at finite temperature to compare Thermo Field Theory (=Th.F.Th.) with the conventional imaginary time formalism (=Im.T.F.). The summation over the Matsubara frequency in Im.T.F. is carried out at two-loop level, and the result is shown to coincide with that of Th.F.Th. We confirm that in Im.T.F. the temperature dependent divergences cancel out at least in the calculation of effective potential of phi 4 theory, as in Th.F.Th. (author)

  16. Closing the gap between formalism and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Ravn

    2008-01-01

    A common problem in learning mathematics concerns the gap between, on the one hand, doing the formalisms and calculations of abstract mathematics and, on the other hand, applying these in a specific contextualized setting for example the engineering world. The skills acquired through problem......-based learning (PBL), in the special model used at Aalborg University, Denmark, may give us some idea of how to bridge this gap. Through an investigation of a series of examples of student projects concerning the application of mathematical subjects-such as matrices, differential equations, cluster analysis...

  17. Canonical formalism for coupled beam optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheifets, S.A.

    1989-09-01

    Beam optics of a lattice with an inter-plane coupling is treated using canonical Hamiltonian formalism. The method developed is equally applicable both to a circular (periodic) machine and to an open transport line. A solution of the equation of a particle motion (and correspondingly transfer matrix between two arbitrary points of the lattice) are described in terms of two amplitude functions (and their derivatives and corresponding phases of oscillations) and four coupling functions, defined by a solution of the system of the first-order nonlinear differential equations derived in the paper. Thus total number of independent parameters is equal to ten. 8 refs

  18. Entropy Current Formalism for Supersymmetric Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L; Grassi, P A; Trigiante, M

    2015-01-01

    The recent developments in fluid/gravity correspondence give a new impulse to the study of fluid dynamics of supersymmetric theories. In that respect, the entropy current formalism requires some modifications in order to be adapted to supersymmetric theories and supergravities. We formulate a new entropy current in superspace with the properties: 1) it is conserved off-shell for non dissipative fluids, 2) it is invariant under rigid supersymmetry transformations 3) it is covariantly closed in local supersymmetric theories 4) it reduces to its bosonic expression on space-time.

  19. Formalized Search Strategies for Human Risk Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Pedersen, O. M.

    and documentation of the PRA coverage, including the search strategies applied, is discussed and aids are proposed such as plant description in terms of a formal abstraction hierarchy and use of cause-consequence-charts for the documentation of not only the results of PRA but also of its coverage. Typical human...... risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation "work analysis", procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned...

  20. Towards a formal logic of design rationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1997-01-01

    Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...

  1. Components of formalized description of selecting tools for ensuring stability of banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Pogorelenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A banking system is one of the key elements of a financial market of any country. Effectiveness and functional orientation of a banking system provide continuous and targeted financial resources flowing between different sectors of economy and this allows to perform economic activities of various entities. Thus, a banking system plays an essential role in the formation of market relations. A question of stable functioning of a banking system can be defined as a key one. The basic task is to improve the management of a banking system by achieving its stability. The disclosure of formalized description of the definition of tools to influence the selection procedure for ensuring stability of a banking system should be determined as the primary objective. For reaching the goal a comparative study has been introduced and generalized concerning the concept definition of «banking system» and the ideology of its management according to the circumstances and factors of influence. The combination of individual components is to determine the instruments of influence on the banking system activity in the form of chain ties. On the base of the analysis carried out the article grounds the necessity of the generalized use of formalized description of the procedures for selecting instruments for ensuring stability of a banking system. For the purpose of this procedure the author has also grounded, determined and disclosed some of its components. To implement the relevant qualitative phase of formalization the author has proposed the use of chain patterns, and to quantify the individual parameters of such a procedure the methodology of border stochastic analysis has been offered. As a scientific novelty of the present research it is necessary to note the qualitative and quantitative phases for formal presentation of describing procedures for the selection of tools to ensure banking system stability as well as the introduction of chain schemes for the

  2. Use of formal benefit/cost evaluations in health system decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Bernard S

    2004-05-01

    To examine actual use of formal benefit/cost and benefit/risk results in health system decision making by public and private healthcare organizations. A direct survey with questions about healthcare decisions made by the respondent or the respondent's organization. The scope of this survey precluded meaningful quantitative analysis, thus descriptive and qualitative analyses were performed. An initial questionnaire was tested in 2001 with 15 respondents in 4 countries. In 2002, a revised questionnaire was sent to a convenience sample of 116 individuals representing information users (providers, payers, and regulators) and information producers (technology firms and academics) in France, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Responses were received from 104 people (89.7%). Every information user employed benefit/risk analyses to accept or reject new interventions and delete existing technologies. In addition, 42.1% of information users also used formal benefit/cost results (cost effectiveness, cost benefit, and/or cost utility). Seven providers/payers in the United States, 1 in France, and 1 in the United Kingdom required such analyses, as did 1 UK regulator. Most did not produce their own analyses but relied on those of public organizations (eg, Food and Drug Administration, National Institute of Clinical Effectiveness), academics, and pharmaceutical firms. A surprisingly high percent of information users (42.1%) employed any formal economic cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, or cost utility analysis, CEA, CBA, or CUA evaluations in deciding whether to accept, pay for, or reject new interventions or to delete old interventions. Still, this figure was substantially higher than expected given the results of previous studies, nearly all of which found low use of formal benefit/risk and benefit/cost analyses.

  3. Formal methods in software development: A road less travelled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A van der Poll

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An integration of traditional verification techniques and formal specifications in software engineering is presented. Advocates of such techniques claim that mathematical formalisms allow them to produce quality, verifiably correct, or at least highly dependable software and that the testing and maintenance phases are shortened. Critics on the other hand maintain that software formalisms are hard to master, tedious to use and not well suited for the fast turnaround times demanded by industry. In this paper some popular formalisms and the advantages of using these during the early phases of the software development life cycle are presented. Employing the Floyd-Hoare verification principles during the formal specification phase facilitates reasoning about the properties of a specification. Some observations that may help to alleviate the formal-methods controversy are established and a number of formal methods successes is presented. Possible conditions for an increased acceptance of formalisms in oftware development are discussed.

  4. Formalization of Hostel Management System. | Obi | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HMS) can invariably contribute greatly to the success, profitability and customerbased approach of such an organization. The use of formal specification creates a formal approach for specifying the underlying functions and properties of the ...

  5. Academic Entitlement and Academic Performance in Graduating Pharmacy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.

  6. 77 FR 58006 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; Removal of Person From the Entity List Based on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... located in Belarus, Canada, the People's Republic of China (China), Egypt, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland... and South Africa. The entities located in Canada, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Lebanon, Taiwan, and the... the extent permitted by law, pursuant to Executive Order 13222. Rulemaking Requirements 1. Executive...

  7. Regaining the Square of Opposition in Formal Ontology Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2014-01-01

    Use of formal ontologies is becoming widespread in information systems. Forerunners of formal ontologies are scientific classification systems such as the Linnaean biological ones. Unlike biological classifications modern formal ontologies are often non-hierarchical. A formal ontology in its basic form simply specifies all direct inclusion relationships between a finite repertoire of classes. Individuals may be conceived of as singleton classes. An assertion "P sub Q" states that class P is a...

  8. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  9. Formal ontologies in biomedical knowledge representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S; Jansen, L

    2013-01-01

    Medical decision support and other intelligent applications in the life sciences depend on increasing amounts of digital information. Knowledge bases as well as formal ontologies are being used to organize biomedical knowledge and data. However, these two kinds of artefacts are not always clearly distinguished. Whereas the popular RDF(S) standard provides an intuitive triple-based representation, it is semantically weak. Description logics based ontology languages like OWL-DL carry a clear-cut semantics, but they are computationally expensive, and they are often misinterpreted to encode all kinds of statements, including those which are not ontological. We distinguish four kinds of statements needed to comprehensively represent domain knowledge: universal statements, terminological statements, statements about particulars and contingent statements. We argue that the task of formal ontologies is solely to represent universal statements, while the non-ontological kinds of statements can nevertheless be connected with ontological representations. To illustrate these four types of representations, we use a running example from parasitology. We finally formulate recommendations for semantically adequate ontologies that can efficiently be used as a stable framework for more context-dependent biomedical knowledge representation and reasoning applications like clinical decision support systems.

  10. The MODUS Approach to Formal Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewka Lukasz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Software reliability is of great importance for the development of embedded systems that are often used in applications that have requirements for safety. Since the life cycle of embedded products is becoming shorter, productivity and quality simultaneously required and closely in the process of providing competitive products Objectives: In relation to this, MODUS (Method and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality project aims to provide small and medium-sized businesses ways to improve their position in the embedded market through a pragmatic and viable solution Methods/Approach: This paper will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that can assist formal verification and formal model checking. Results: Based on automated analysis of the characteristics of the system and by controlling the choice of the existing opensource model verification engines, model verification producing inputs to be fed into these engines. Conclusions: The MODUS approach is aligned with present market needs; the familiarity with tools, the ease of use and compatibility/interoperability remain among the most important criteria when selecting the development environment for a project

  11. Formalism and Interpretation in Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilce, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Quantum Mechanics can be viewed as a linear dynamical theory having a familiar mathematical framework but a mysterious probabilistic interpretation, or as a probabilistic theory having a familiar interpretation but a mysterious formal framework. These points of view are usually taken to be somewhat in tension with one another. The first has generated a vast literature aiming at a “realistic” and “collapse-free” interpretation of quantum mechanics that will account for its statistical predictions. The second has generated an at least equally large literature aiming to derive, or at any rate motivate, the formal structure of quantum theory in probabilistically intelligible terms. In this paper I explore, in a preliminary way, the possibility that these two programmes have something to offer one another. In particular, I show that a version of the measurement problem occurs in essentially any non-classical probabilistic theory, and ask to what extent various interpretations of quantum mechanics continue to make sense in such a general setting. I make a start on answering this question in the case of a rudimentary version of the Everett interpretation.

  12. Functional Constructivism: In Search of Formal Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    The Functional Constructivism (FC) paradigm is an alternative to behaviorism and considers behavior as being generated every time anew, based on an individual's capacities, environmental resources and demands. Walter Freeman's work provided us with evidence supporting the FC principles. In this paper we make parallels between gradual construction processes leading to the formation of individual behavior and habits, and evolutionary processes leading to the establishment of biological systems. Referencing evolutionary theory, several formal descriptors of such processes are proposed. These FC descriptors refer to the most universal aspects for constructing consistent structures: expansion of degrees of freedom, integration processes based on internal and external compatibility between systems and maintenance processes, all given in four different classes of systems: (a) Zone of Proximate Development (poorly defined) systems; (b) peer systems with emerging reproduction of multiple siblings; (c) systems with internalized integration of behavioral elements ('cruise controls'); and (d) systems capable of handling low-probability, not yet present events. The recursive dynamics within this set of descriptors acting on (traditional) downward, upward and horizontal directions of evolution, is conceptualized as diagonal evolution, or di-evolution. Two examples applying these FC descriptors to taxonomy are given: classification of the functionality of neuro-transmitters and temperament traits; classification of mental disorders. The paper is an early step towards finding a formal language describing universal tendencies in highly diverse, complex and multi-level transient systems known in ecology and biology as 'contingency cycles.'

  13. Versatile Formal Methods Applied to Quantum Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzel, Wayne [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudinger, Kenneth Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Using a novel formal methods approach, we have generated computer-veri ed proofs of major theorems pertinent to the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This was accomplished using our Prove-It software package in Python. While many formal methods tools are available, their practical utility is limited. Translating a problem of interest into these systems and working through the steps of a proof is an art form that requires much expertise. One must surrender to the preferences and restrictions of the tool regarding how mathematical notions are expressed and what deductions are allowed. Automation is a major driver that forces restrictions. Our focus, on the other hand, is to produce a tool that allows users the ability to con rm proofs that are essentially known already. This goal is valuable in itself. We demonstrate the viability of our approach that allows the user great exibility in expressing state- ments and composing derivations. There were no major obstacles in following a textbook proof of the quantum phase estimation algorithm. There were tedious details of algebraic manipulations that we needed to implement (and a few that we did not have time to enter into our system) and some basic components that we needed to rethink, but there were no serious roadblocks. In the process, we made a number of convenient additions to our Prove-It package that will make certain algebraic manipulations easier to perform in the future. In fact, our intent is for our system to build upon itself in this manner.

  14. Formal specification level concepts, methods, and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Soeken, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces a new level of abstraction that closes the gap between the textual specification of embedded systems and the executable model at the Electronic System Level (ESL). Readers will be enabled to operate at this new, Formal Specification Level (FSL), using models which not only allow significant verification tasks in this early stage of the design flow, but also can be extracted semi-automatically from the textual specification in an interactive manner.  The authors explain how to use these verification tasks to check conceptual properties, e.g. whether requirements are in conflict, as well as dynamic behavior, in terms of execution traces. • Serves as a single-source reference to a new level of abstraction for embedded systems, known as the Formal Specification Level (FSL); • Provides a variety of use cases which can be adapted to readers’ specific design flows; • Includes a comprehensive illustration of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, along with examples of how to i...

  15. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alen

    2008-12-01

    The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those biologists who believe on theoretical grounds that there is no sense of fitness that can usefully be said to be optimized. The current paper's main objective is to provide a careful mathematical introduction to the project, and it also reflects on the project's scope and limitations. The central argument is the proof of close ties between the mathematics of motion, as embodied in the Price equation, and the mathematics of optimization, as represented by optimization programmes. To make these links, a general and abstract model linking genotype, phenotype and number of successful gametes is assumed. The project has begun with simple dynamic models and simple linking models, and its progress will involve more realistic versions of them. The versions given here are fully mathematically rigorous, but elementary enough to serve as an introduction.

  16. Land grabbing and formalization in Africa : a critical inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, H.; Cunningham, S.

    2015-01-01

    Two developments in Africa have generated an extensive literature. The first focuses on investment and land grabbing and the second on the formalization of rural property rights. Less has been written on the impact of formalization on land grabbing and of land grabbing on formalization. Recently,

  17. An approach of requirements tracing in formal refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jastram, Michael; Hallerstede, Stefan; Leuschel, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Formal modeling of computing systems yields models that are intended to be correct with respect to the requirements that have been formalized. The complexity of typical computing systems can be addressed by formal refinement introducing all the necessary details piecemeal. We report on preliminar...... changes, making use of corresponding techniques already built into the Event-B method....

  18. Evaluating the effect of a lightweight formal technique in industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osaiweran, A.; Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.; Groote, J.F.; Rijnsoever, B. van

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of applying the commercial formal technique Analytical Software Design (ASD) to an industrial project. In ASD, interfaces and software designs are modelled using a formal tabular notation. The ASD tool set supports formal checks of these models, such as deadlock freedom and

  19. "Passing It On": Beyond Formal or Informal Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Informal pedagogies are a subject of debate in music education, and there is some evidence of teachers abandoning formal pedagogies in favour of informal ones. This article presents a case of one teacher's formal pedagogy and theorises it by comparing it with a case of informal pedagogy. The comparison reveals affordances of formal pedagogies…

  20. 40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35... advertising. Each contract shall be awarded after formal advertising, unless negotiation is permitted in accordance with § 35.936-18. Formal advertising shall be in accordance with the following: (a) Adequate...