Bennett, Rashad A.
With the proliferation of online graduate enrollment by 35.7% from 2003 to 2014, the literature indicates the number of reported academic integrity cases is on the rise. A quantitative correlational study was used to determine which determinants, if any, had a relationship to the behavioral intent to engage in plagiarism among MBA students…
Ishitani, Terry T.; McKitrick, Sean A.
While monetary benefits from higher education are extensive, there appears to be an absence of empirical evidence on how higher education contributes to civic engagement behavior after college. This study investigated the relationship between college characteristics of students completing a bachelor's degree, such as academic programs and…
Strunk, Kamden K.
Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of time-related academic behavior (i.e., procrastination and timely engagement) in the academic context. Specifically, this study aimed to build a new model for understanding these behaviors in a motivational framework by using motivational orientation to frame these…
Bruhn, Allison; Barron, Sheila; Fernando, Josephine; Balint-Langel, Kinga
Direct behavior ratings have been identified as a practical and feasible alternative to direct observation of behavior for monitoring behavioral progress. Despite the evidence of usability, there have been calls for further examination of direct behavior ratings using different behaviors and scales. To this end, we examined the ratings of…
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement, and tested the possibility of class collective efficacy and class size moderating this relationship. Data were collected from 28 Chinese classrooms (N = 1034 students; grades 7, 8, and 9 with student reports. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test all hypotheses and results revealed a negative relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement; class collective efficacy was also significantly related to academic engagement. Additionally, class collective efficacy and class size moderated the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement: For students in a class with high collective efficacy or small size (≤30 students, the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement was weaker than for those in a class with low collective efficacy or large size (≥43 students. Results are discussed considering self-regulatory mechanisms and social environment theory, with possible implications for teachers of students’ learning provided.
Perkmann, Markus; Tartari, Valentina; McKelvey, Maureen
A considerable body of work highlights the relevance of collaborative research, contract research, consulting and informal relationships for university–industry knowledge transfer. We present a systematic review of research on academic scientists’ involvement in these activities to which we refer......, and pursued by academics to access resources supporting their research agendas. We conclude by identifying future research needs, opportunities for methodological improvement and policy interventions....
Strunk, Kamden K.; Cho, YoonJung; Steele, Misty R.; Bridges, Stacey L.
Procrastination is an educational concern for classroom instructors because of its negative psychological and academic impacts on students. However, the traditional view of procrastination as a unidimensional construct is insufficient in two regards. First, the construct needs to be viewed more broadly as time-related academic behavior,…
Beckers, Sander F.M.; van Doorn, Jenny; Verhoef, Peter C.
In today’s connected world, customer engagement behaviors are very important. Many companies launch initiatives to stimulate customer engagement. However, despite evidence that customer engagement behavior also matters to share-holders, academic research on the firm value consequences of customer
Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander
The relationship between learning environment characteristics and academic engagement of 777 Grade 6 children located in 41 learning environments was explored. Questionnaires were used to tap learning environment perceptions of children, their academic engagement, and their ethnic-cultural
Bureau, Alexander T; Razon, Selen; Saville, Bryan K; Tokac, Umit; Judge, Lawrence W
According to the Dualistic Model of Passion (39), passion entails valuing, liking, and spending time on an activity. The Dualistic Model also posits two types of passion for activities: harmonious passion (individual voluntarily engages in the activity) and obsessive passion (individual is compelled to engage in the activity). The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible links between college students' passion for academic activities and problematic health behaviors including smoking, excessive drinking, exercise addiction, disordered eating, and sleepiness, which is a possible indicator of sleep deprivation. Participants (n = 502) completed a survey gauging passion type and health behaviors. Regression analyses revealed obsessive passion for academic activities was positively associated with scores on measures of excessive drinking (β = .15, p= .008), exercise addiction (β = .19, ppassion for academic activities, in contrast, was negatively associated with excessive drinking behavior (β = -.16, p = .002) and sleep deprivation (β = -.13, p = .007) but was not associated with exercise addiction (β = .002, p = .97) and disordered eating (β = -.04, p = .37). These findings provide further support for the Dualistic Model of Passion. Students who are obsessively passionate about their academic activities are more likely to engage in poor health behaviors and, in turn, may experience greater negative outcomes than students who are harmoniously passionate about their academics.
Bassette, Laura A.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa
Background: Children with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) struggle with behavioral problems during reading activities in school. One way to address these concerns may be through dog reading programs which are increasing in popularity in schools and libraries. Preliminary anecdotal research suggests dog reading programs may improve…
Lichtinger, Einat; Kaplan, Avi
"Academic self-regulation" refers to the self-generated, reflective, and strategic engagement in academic tasks (Zimmerman, 2000). Self-regulation is crucial for academic success, particularly in higher education, where students are required to take increased responsibility for their learning and where the diversity of courses and activities may…
The engagement of academics in organizational change in higher education institutions is generally understood as involving a wide range of behaviors, and previous studies have situated academics' actions at various points along a continuum between passivity and pro-activity. This article complements this approach by asking how--rather than in…
Gómez H, Paula; Pérez V, Cristhian; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; McColl C, Peter; Torres A, Graciela; Meyer K, Andrea
Stress may affect the sense of wellbeing and academic achievement of university students. To assess the relationship of academic engagement and burnout with academic achievement among first year medical students. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student and Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS) were applied to 277 first year medical students of four universities. Their results were correlated with the grades obtained in the different courses. Moderately high engagement and low burnout levels were detected. There was a high level of satisfaction with studies and a moderate exhaustion level. Academic achievement was associated with the degree of engagement with studies but not with burnout. Conglomerate analysis detected a group of students with high levels of wellbeing, characterized by high levels of academic engagement and low burnout. Other group had moderate levels of engagement and lack of personal fulfilment. Other group, identified as extenuated, had high levels of personal exhaustion and depersonalization. Finally the disassociated group had a low academic engagement, low emotional exhaustion, high levels of depersonalization and lack of personal fulfillment. Academic achievement is associated with the level of engagement with studies but not with burnout.
Full Text Available Despite the increase in Latin America of Higher Education coverage, grave dropout problems persist that question the role of educational experiences to foster students’ academic engagement. This study was carried out in Colombia and sought to establish the relationship between the five benchmarks that compose academic engagement and the academic performance of a group of Colombian university students. The transversal and correlational study used the Spanish version of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE that measures students’ level of participation in five dimensions: Academic challenge, active and collaborative learning, student-faculty interaction, enriching educational experiences, and supportive campus environment and its relationship to academic performance. The findings of 1906 students from 7 universities indicate that there are statistically significant, but weak correlations between the items that compose the benchmarks and students’ academic performance, which lead to reflect upon key aspects to strengthen the education experiences offered to university students.
Full Text Available Inability to deal with lectures efficiently leads students vulnerable to academic burnout. Burnout contributes to the high dropout rate among students, and this phenomenon has occurred on several universities in Indonesia. To overcome these problems, students should generate the feelings, attitudes and positive attitude towards the academic demands, or known as school engagement. School involvement is a predictor of students’ dropout rate. This study aims to analyze the dropout problem in many private universities in Jakarta by examining the psychological variables: academic burnout and school engagement. 208 students from some private university in Jakarta participated and fulfilled two questionnaires: academic burnout and school engagement that has been modified to suit the college setting. Correlation of the variables showed r= - 0.399 (p = 0.000. This means that school engagement plays a role in reducing academic burnout among students. These findings contribute a reference for academic counseling to support the decreasing of students’ dropout rate.
Pike, Gary R.; Smart, John C.; Ethington, Corinna A.
This research examined the relationships among students' academic majors, levels of engagement, and learning outcomes within the context of Holland's person-environment theory of vocational and educational behavior. The study focused on the role of student engagement as a mediating agent in the relationships between academic majors and student…
Kassarnig, Valentin; Mones, Enys; Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas
Identifying the factors that influence academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Previous studies have documented the importance of personality traits, class attendance, and social network structure. Because most of these analyses were based on a single behavioral aspect...
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the extent to which sexual harassment, self-esteem, and academic engagement predict academic success of female secondary school students in Gondar city. Correlational design was employed to answer the research questions raised. Respondents were 366 female ...
Chukwuorji, JohnBosco Chika; Ifeagwazi, Chuka Mike; Nwonyi, Sampson Kelechi; Ujoatuonu, Ikechukwu V. N.
This study examined the associations of sense of community (SOC) and academic engagement in a seminary. The seminarians (N = 300) completed the Classroom Sense of Community Inventory (CSCI)-School Form, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Version. Results showed that a perception that the seminary provided a positive learning community for…
So, Eun Sun; Park, Byoung Mo
This study aimed to examine the most prominent health-related behaviors impacting the academic performance of Korean adolescents. The 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data were analyzed using an ordinal regression analysis after adjusting for general and other health behaviors. Before adjustment, all health behaviors were significantly associated with academic performance. After adjustment for other health behaviors and confounding factors, only smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 2.16), p academic performance, and engaging in a regular diet [OR = 0.65, 95% CI (0.65, 0.62), p academic performance. Regular diet, reducing smoking and alcohol drinking, and physical activity should be the target when designing health interventions for improving academic performance in Korean adolescents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Waterman, Emily A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.
Although parenting is clearly linked to academic engagement in adolescence, less is known about links between parenting and academic engagement in emerging adulthood. A diverse sample of college students (N = 633; 53.1% female, 45.7% White/European American, 28.3% Asian American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 26.4% Hispanic/Latino American, 21.6% Black/African American, and 2.8% Native American/American Indian) answered surveys about mothers’ and fathers’ parenting style, parent-offspring relationship quality, academic attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic performance. Emerging adults with more permissive mothers viewed grades as less important than emerging adults with less permissive mothers. Mothers’ authoritarian parenting, mothers’ permissive parenting, and relationship quality with father were differentially related to academic engagement depending on emerging adults’ gender. Both mothers’ and fathers’ parenting characteristics may impact the academic engagement of emerging adults via past parenting behaviors and current quality of the parent-offspring relationship, despite decreased physical proximity of emerging adults and their parents. PMID:28529398
Waterman, Emily A; Lefkowitz, Eva S
Although parenting is clearly linked to academic engagement in adolescence, less is known about links between parenting and academic engagement in emerging adulthood. A diverse sample of college students ( N = 633; 53.1% female, 45.7% White/European American, 28.3% Asian American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 26.4% Hispanic/Latino American, 21.6% Black/African American, and 2.8% Native American/American Indian) answered surveys about mothers' and fathers' parenting style, parent-offspring relationship quality, academic attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic performance. Emerging adults with more permissive mothers viewed grades as less important than emerging adults with less permissive mothers. Mothers' authoritarian parenting, mothers' permissive parenting, and relationship quality with father were differentially related to academic engagement depending on emerging adults' gender. Both mothers' and fathers' parenting characteristics may impact the academic engagement of emerging adults via past parenting behaviors and current quality of the parent-offspring relationship, despite decreased physical proximity of emerging adults and their parents.
Full Text Available Aim/purpose - Research addressing the customer engagement behavior (CEB has rapidly developed in the marketing discipline, contributing to the knowledge on network organization. However, insights into the specific outcomes of CEB remain largely nebulous. Few comprehensive conceptual frameworks of CEB effects exists in the literature to-date. The empirical verification of CEB outcomes, particularly at the firm level, is still missing. Design/methodology/approach - In this article we first provide an overview of the CEB conceptualizations and its effects. Next we develop the CEB firm-level performance outcomes framework. Finally we explore CEB process, forms and outcomes in Stanley Black & Decker, applying qualitative methodological approach (case research incl. participant observation. Findings - We propose the logically arranged CEB effects in the conceptual model integrated with marketing metrics which are related to the recent advances in customer equity and customer asset management. Research implications/limitations - In empirical research we focused on the CEB effects related to one type of customer behaviors, i.e. Stanley Black& Decker customers' involvement in the product development and innovation which is a limitation in obtain-ing the comprehensive empirical picture of all CEB forms and its outcomes. Further empirical research (incl. quantitative one is necessary to verify our conceptual model. Originality/value/contribution - Our model of firm-level performance effects of CEB extends existing proposals and contributes to the knowledge on effective CEB management process in network organizations.
Spasenović Vera Z.
The paper considers correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Attention first focuses on the issue of prosocial behavior defining, making it operational and measuring it. Next consideration is given to the ways that prosocial behavior contributes to academic achievement. It is thought that prosocial behavior can produce indirect effects on student prosocial behavior because it is bound to certain academically relevant forms of behavior leading to successful lear...
Collie, Rebecca J.; Holliman, Andrew J.; Martin, Andrew J.
University entry is a time of great change for students. The extent to which students are able to effectively navigate such change likely has an impact on their success in university. In the current study, we examined this by way of adaptability, the extent to which students' adaptability is associated with their behavioural engagement at…
Full Text Available The number of social networking services (SNSs users in Bangladesh is increasing at an accelerating rate. There are many who argue that SNS usage is destroying the students’ future by diminishing their academic engagement. The authors aim to investigate whether there is any relationship between students’ academic performance and their SNS usage. The study chose Facebook as a representative of SNSs because this is the most popular platform for online social connectivity and conducted a survey regarding the usage of Facebook among students of Business Administration from three private Bangladeshi private universities. The research results show that Facebook can be used for at least 21 academic tasks or goals and that these can be grouped into six major factors. Moreover, students opine that their online socializing does not reduce their study time, instead it helps them get the latest study related information, sharing courses, class schedules etc. After running a regression analysis, the authors conclude that the students’ level of engagement with the academic life through Facebook does not influence their academic results. The reason for this insignificant relation between academic results and academic engagement through SNSs may be due to the non-diversified course curriculum, the traditional way of delivering lectures and evaluating, limited study materials, non-receptiveness to technology-based learning etc. However, the authors propose to include SNSs as a study tool as it is a popular media and to conduct further research to better understand the effective way of using it in the education system.
Mouri Dey; Ali Arshad Chowdhury
The number of social networking services (SNSs) users in Bangladesh is increasing at an accelerating rate. There are many who argue that SNS usage is destroying the students’ future by diminishing their academic engagement. The authors aim to investigate whether there is any relationship between students’ academic performance and their SNS usage. The study chose Facebook as a representative of SNSs because this is the most popular platform for online social connectivity and conducted a survey...
Datu, Jesus Alfonso D; King, Ronnel B; Valdez, Jana Patricia M
Interdependent happiness has been found to be positively associated with optimal psychological outcomes in collectivist cultures. However, the association between interdependent happiness and key academic outcomes has remained unexplored. The current study examined the association of interdependent happiness with key academic outcomes such as autonomous motivation, engagement, and achievement using both cross-sectional (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) approaches. Study 1 revealed that interdependent happiness positively predicted academic engagement (partly) via autonomous motivation. Study 2 showed that prior interdependent happiness positively predicted subsequent academic engagement even after controlling for autoregressor effects. In addition, reciprocal associations among the key variables were found. Taken together, results of the two studies suggest that interdependent happiness plays an adaptive role in the academic context especially in a collectivist cultural setting. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kassarnig, Valentin; Mones, Enys; Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas
Identifying the factors that influence academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Previous studies have documented the importance of personality traits, class attendance, and social network structure. Because most of these analyses were based on a single behavioral aspect...... and/or small sample sizes, there is currently no quantification of the interplay of these factors. Here, we study the academic performance among a cohort of 538 undergraduate students forming a single, densely connected social network. Our work is based on data collected using smartphones, which...... the students used as their primary phones for two years. The availability of multi-channel data from a single population allows us to directly compare the explanatory power of individual and social characteristics. We find that the most informative indicators of performance are based on social ties...
Urquijo, Itziar; Extremera, Natalio
Introduction: The present study examined the mediating role of academic engagement in the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic satisfaction when controlling for sociodemographic variables and other classic constructs such as conscientiousness and personality traits. Method: The sample included 203 university students (140…
Full Text Available The scientific literature provides empirical evidence on the relationship between school engagement and numerous important variables of the adolescents’ educational context. The school engagement has been related, among other important constructs, with burnout of both teachers and students, school performance, satisfaction with the school, behavioral disruption, goal orientation and motivational climate in the classroom. Because of it, the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between perceived motivational class climate and students’ academic achievement, with school engagement acting as a mediator. A sample of 2028 teenagers completed various instruments to measure the perception of motivational climate, perceived basic psychological needs satisfaction, perceived autonomy support provided by the teacher, and academic achievement. The data were analyzed using a structural equation model with observed variables (path analysis. The results have shown a significant relationship between motivational climate and school engagement, and of this with academic achievement. It should also be highlighted the direct relationship of perceived competence and perceived autonomy support with perception of academic success. Of the three variables to be predicted (Portuguese and Mathematics marks and Academic success, the largest percentage of variance explained was the one of academic success. The results are discussed within the framework of achievement goal theory, the self-determined motivation, and in terms of contributing practical issues to adolescents’ teaching-learning process.
Toohey, Danny; McGill, Tanya; Whitsed, Craig
Transnational education (TNE) is an important facet of the international education learning and teaching landscape. Ensuring academics are positively engaged in TNE is a challenging but necessary issue for this form of educational provision if the risks inherent in TNE are to be successfully mitigated. This article explores job satisfaction for…
Park, Sanghoon; Yun, Heoncheol
Providing effective motivational support is a critical determinant of a successful online distance learning experience for students in higher education. In this study, we examined how students' academic level and use of 8 motivational regulation strategies influence 3 types of student engagement: behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, and…
Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Lerner, Richard M.; Leventhal, Tama
During adolescence, peer groups present an important venue for socializing school-related behaviors such as academic achievement and school engagement. While a significant body of research emphasizes the link between a youth's immediate peer group and academic outcomes, the current manuscript expands on this idea, proposing that, in addition to…
Casey, M M; McVitie, S
At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.
Casey, M M; McVitie, S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.
Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Bosker, Roel
Learning environments play an important role for students' learning and outcomes. Research indicates that many students show poor academic motivation. Teachers' behavior can function as a protective factor for sustaining students' interest and active engagement in schools. However, the knowledge
Employee engagement has been understood from various academic and practical perspectives, mainly due to its recent popularity. This study explores not only positive movements--positive psychology, positive organizational scholarship (POS), and positive organizational behavior (POB)--as a background of engagement but also the conceptualization,…
Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E; Bachman, Jerald G
Teenagers working over 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and participating in extracurricular activities; and (2) that the relationship between paid work and school performance is spurious, reflecting preexisting differences between students in academic ability, motivation, and school commitment. Using longitudinal data from the ongoing national Monitoring the Future project, this research examines the impact of teenage employment on school performance and academic engagement during the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. We address issues of spuriousness by using a two-level hierarchical model to estimate the relationships of within-individual changes in paid work to changes in school performance and other school-related measures. Unlike prior research, we also compare youth school performance and academic orientation when they are actually working in high-intensity jobs to when they are jobless and wish to work intensively. Results indicate that the mere wish for intensive work corresponds with academic difficulties in a manner similar to actual intensive work.
Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary
Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…
Besley, John; Kahlor, Lee Ann; Koh, Hyeseung; Copple, Jacob; Yuan, Shupei
In this study, we present results from an extensive survey of US-based microbiologists (adults) to explore these scientists’ perceptions and behaviors related to communicating their research. Specifically, we explored the frequency with which microbiologists engage in public communication, how they evaluate their public communication experiences, and the factors associated with their willingness to engage in face-to-face and online public communication in the future. Data from a multi-wave online survey suggest that microbiologists (N = 903) are somewhat frequent communicators who derive great value from their outreach efforts. The results further suggest that social and psychological drivers of future intentions to engage with the public are consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Specifically, microbiologists with more positive attitudes toward engagement were more willing to partake in direct and online communication activities. Similarly, microbiologists who believe they possess communication skills are more willing than their less efficacious colleagues to do either type of outreach. Our results also indicate that more-senior and more-active researchers are more willing to participate in direct and online engagement. Implications for communication training are discussed. PMID:29904524
Phuc Huu Nguyen
Full Text Available Abstract. This paper suggests a theoretical framework for analyzing the mechanism of the behavior of academic researchers whose interests are tangled and vary widely in academic factors (the intrinsic satisfaction in conducting research, the improvement in individual research ability, etc. or non-academic factors (career rewards, financial rewards, etc.. Furthermore, each researcher also has his/her different academic stances in their preferences about academic freedom and academic entrepreneurship. Understanding the behavior of academic researchers will contribute to nurture young researchers, to improve the standard of research and education as well as to boost collaboration in academia-industry. In particular, as open innovation is increasingly in need of the involvement of university researchers, to establish a successful approach to entice researchers into enterprises’ research, companies must comprehend the behavior of university researchers who have multiple complex motivations. The paper explores academic researchers' behaviors through optimizing their utility functions, i.e. the satisfaction obtained by their research outputs. This paper characterizes these outputs as the results of researchers' 3C: Competence (the ability to implement the research, Commitment (the effort to do the research, and Contribution (finding meaning in the research. Most of the previous research utilized the empirical methods to study researcher's motivation. Without adopting economic theory into the analysis, the past literature could not offer a deeper understanding of researcher's behavior. Our contribution is important both conceptually and practically because it provides the first theoretical framework to study the mechanism of researcher's behavior. Keywords: Academia-Industry, researcher behavior, ulrich model’s 3C.
Spasenović Vera Z.
Full Text Available The paper considers correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Attention first focuses on the issue of prosocial behavior defining, making it operational and measuring it. Next consideration is given to the ways that prosocial behavior contributes to academic achievement. It is thought that prosocial behavior can produce indirect effects on student prosocial behavior because it is bound to certain academically relevant forms of behavior leading to successful learning and work. Also, correlation is interpreted by means of teacher’s preferences of prosocial students, which is reflected in teacher expectations and behavior towards students but in evaluating their work too. In addition, prosocial behavior may produce direct effects, for it is through peer prosocial interactions that positive intellectual exchange is performed, which contributes to more successful mastering of teaching content. The paper provides a survey of investigations whose results indicate that there exists correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Also, consideration is given to possible methods and treatments for encouraging prosocial behavior in school context, especially the role of teacher in the process and the importance of the program for promoting student prosocial skills.
Full Text Available There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13. Findings show that: (a academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, (c homework time management was associated with the approach to homework; (d and the approach to homework, like the rest of the variables of the model (except for the time spent on homework, was related to the student's academic motivation (i.e., academic goals.
This study examines the relationships among Taiwanese ninth graders' perceptions of autonomy support versus psychological control in the classroom context, work engagement versus academic burnout, and their avoidance of help seeking as well as self-handicapping behaviors. Four hundred and thirty-five ninth-grade Taiwanese students completed a…
Maralani, Farnaz Mehdipour; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Hejazi, Elahe
Some of the key issues in educational psychology are the way of students' engagement at school, controlling anxiety, and academic achievement. In line with that, the purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between variables that are basic psychological needs, academic engagement, and test anxiety with regard to structural…
Aung, Myo Nyein; Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Wannakrairot, Pongsak
Physical exercise results in an active well-being. It is likely that students' engagement in physical exercise keeps them motivated to perform academic endeavors. This study aimed to assess the relation of time engaged in physical exercise with medical students' motivation for academic work. Prospectively, 296 second-year medical students…
Strauser, David R.; O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Wong, Alex W. K.
The authors investigated the relationship between the variables of work engagement, developmental work personality, and academic effort in a sample of college students. This study provides evidence for the hypothesized positive relationship between academic effort, engagement, and work personality. When gender was controlled, the Work Tasks…
Flynt, Cynthia J.
PREDICTING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT FROM CLASSROOM BEHAVIORS by Cynthia J. Flynt Nancy Bodenhorn & Kusum Singh, Co-Chairs Counselor Education (ABSTRACT) This study examined the influence of behaviors exhibited in the classroom on reading and math achievement in the first, third and eighth grades; and the influence of teacher perceptions on reading and math achievement of African-Americans versus White students and male versus female students. Lastly, the study examined te...
Liu, Ru-De; Zhen, Rui; Ding, Yi; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jia; Jiang, Ronghuan; Xu, Le
The current study assessed 869 elementary school students in China using self-report questionnaires, to examine the multiple mediating effects of academic self-efficacy and positive academic emotions (enjoyment and relief) in the relations between teacher support and academic engagement (cognitive, behavioural and emotional aspects) within a math…
Cappella, Elise; Kim, Ha Yeon; Neal, Jennifer W; Jackson, Daisy R
Applying social capital and systems theories of social processes, we examine the role of the classroom peer context in the behavioral engagement of low-income students (N = 80) in urban elementary school classrooms (N = 22). Systematic child observations were conducted to assess behavioral engagement among second to fifth graders in the fall and spring of the same school year. Classroom observations, teacher and child questionnaires, and social network data were collected in the fall. Confirming prior research, results from multilevel models indicate that students with more behavioral difficulties or less academic motivation in the fall were less behaviorally engaged in the spring. Extending prior research, classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties-social network equity-had more behaviorally engaged students in the spring, especially in classrooms with higher levels of observed organization (i.e., effective management of behavior, time, and attention). Moreover, social network equity attenuated the negative relation between student behavioral difficulties and behavioral engagement, suggesting that students with behavioral difficulties were less disengaged in classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties. Findings illuminate the need to consider classroom peer contexts in future research and intervention focused on the behavioral engagement of students in urban elementary schools.
O'Toole, Nadia; Due, Clemence
While past literature has explored school engagement in older students, there is less research for younger children specifically, and very little which engages children themselves in the research process. This paper provides insight into school engagement for academically at-risk students in the second year of school through a participatory…
Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G
We investigated growth trajectories for classroom performance goal practices and for student behavioral engagement across grades 2 to 5 for 497 academically at-risk elementary students. This study is the first longitudinal investigation of performance goal practices in the early elementary years. On average, teacher use of performance goal practices increased and students' behavioral engagement declined across the four years. Using autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) models, we examined the synchronous relations between teacher-reported performance goal practices and teacher-reported student behavioral engagement. As expected, as students move into classrooms with a new teacher with less emphasis on performance goal practices, they become more behaviorally engaged in school. Gender did not moderate these results. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Burcu Ozge Özaslan Caliskan
Full Text Available Academic engagement used to refer to the extent to which students identify with and value schooling outcomes, and participate in academic and non-academic school activities. This study aims to investigate the academic engagement and satisfaction from the school among the university students. The data is taken from the undergraduate students in School of Transportation & Logistics in Istanbul University. We used a questionnaire that consisted of two parts. First part of the questionnaire is about to measure the students’ academic engagement that is improved by Schaufeli et al. Second part of the questionnaire is about to measure the students’ satisfaction from the school. K-means cluster analysis is used to determine two groups of students, group the students in to two clusters based on their school satisfaction scores. We named these two groups as “satisfied” and “unsatisfied” students. Secondly we investigate the relationships between the satisfaction scores and the academic engagement. By means of T Test we investigate whether the academic engagement differs between the clusters that are determined according to the students’ satisfaction scores. Finally we found that academic engagement differs according to the identified clusters.
Background Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging student engagement, being necessary to know how engaged are students at university and if this factor is involved in student success point and followed. To explore the association between academic engagement and achievement. Methods Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 304 students of Health Sciences. They were asked to fill out an on-line questionnaire. Academic achievements were calculated using three types of measurement. Results Positive correlations were found in all cases. Grade point average was the academic rate most strongly associated with engagement dimensions and this association is different for male and female students. The independent variables could explain between 18.9 and 23.9% of the variance (p < 0.05) in the population of university students being analyzed. Conclusions Engagement has been shown to be one of the many factors, which are positively involved, in the academic achievements of college students. PMID:23446005
Ure, Christine; Gray, Jan
The purpose of the Research and Mapping for MCEECDYA Project: Student Academic Engagement was to examine the characteristics of schools with a low Index of Community Socio-Educational Advantage (ICSEA) from all jurisdictions that were identified to be making a difference to student academic and to identify the key drivers and characteristics of…
This study evaluated the impact of anxiety reduction on academic engagement for eight students experiencing significant anxiety in grades three through five. All participating students showed high anxiety levels that appeared to be impacting performance on at least one academic task in the classroom, according to teacher report. Student…
Whitsed, Craig; Green, Wendy
One consequence of globalisation is the demand on academics to better prepare students for work and life in an interconnected world through curriculum internationalisation. Many academics are hesitant, resistant, or ill-prepared to engage with curriculum internationalisation. This paper explores how this can be addressed by reconfiguring the way…
Korobova, Nadia; Starobin, Soko S.
This study examines the relationship between student engagement, student satisfaction, and the academic success of international and American students using 2008 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) data. It was found that international students scored slightly higher than American students on enriching educational experiences and…
The author attempted to examine how Taiwanese junior high school students' perfectionistic tendencies and achievement goals were related to their academic burnout versus work engagement, and to determine differences in the indicators of burnout versus engagement among students with different subtypes of perfectionism. A total of 456 eighth-grade…
Weiss, Christopher C.; García, Emma
This paper investigates the relationship between student engagement--with teachers and schools--and academic performance in Mexico. It uses hierarchical linear models and data from the OECD 2003 PISA study to examine the relative importance of engagement in comparison to other educational inputs--school and family characteristics--as predictors of…
Al-Alwan, Ahmed F.
The author proposed a model to explain how parental involvement and school engagement related to academic performance. Participants were (671) 9th and 10th graders students who completed two scales of "parental involvement" and "school engagement" in their regular classrooms. Results of the path analysis suggested that the…
Research has shown social class differences in undergraduate engagement, yet we know little about the reasons for these differences. Drawing on interviews and participant observation with undergraduates at an urban, public comprehensive university, this ethnographic study investigates the academic engagement strategies of students from different…
Ludwig, Timothy D.; Frazier, Christopher B.
Engagement is a "buzz" word that has gained popularity in Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Based on a "Positive Psychology" approach, engagement is perceived as a valuable state for employees, because surveys on the construct have found it correlates with some organizational tactics (e.g., human resource policies, procedural justice) and…
Landau, Mark J; Oyserman, Daphna; Keefer, Lucas A; Smith, George C
People commonly talk about goals metaphorically as destinations on physical paths extending into the future or as contained in future periods. Does metaphor use have consequences for people's motivation to engage in goal-directed action? Three experiments examine the effect of metaphor use on students' engagement with their academic possible identity: their image of themselves as academically successful graduates. Students primed to frame their academic possible identity using the goal-as-journey metaphor reported stronger academic intention, and displayed increased effort on academic tasks, compared to students primed with a nonacademic possible identity, a different metaphoric framing (goal-as-contained-entity), and past academic achievements (Studies 1-2). This motivating effect persisted up to a week later as reflected in final exam performance (Study 3). Four experiments examine the cognitive processes underlying this effect. Conceptual metaphor theory posits that an accessible metaphor transfers knowledge between dissimilar concepts. As predicted in this paradigm, a journey-metaphoric framing of a possible academic identity transferred confidence in the procedure, or action sequence, required to attain that possible identity, which in turn led participants to perceive that possible identity as more connected to their current identity (Study 4). Drawing on identity-based motivation theory, we hypothesized that strengthened current/possible identity connection would mediate the journey framing's motivating effect. This mediational process predicted students' academic engagement (Study 5) and an online sample's engagement with possible identities in other domains (Study 6). Also as predicted, journey framing increased academic engagement particularly among students reporting a weak connection to their academic possible identity (Study 7).
Jaffar, Akram Abood; Eladl, Mohamed Ahmed
Only a few studies have investigated how students use and respond to social networks in the educational context as opposed to social use. In this study, the engagement of medical students on anatomy Facebook pages was evaluated in view of their academic performance. High performers contributed to most of the engagements. They also had a particular preference for higher levels of engagement. Although the students were deeply involved in the educational element of the pages, they continued to a...
Kilgus, Stephen P.; Bowman, Nicollette A.; Christ, Theodore J.; Taylor, Crystal N.
This study examined the extent to which teacher ratings of student behavior via the "Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener" (SAEBRS) predicted academic achievement in math and reading. A secondary purpose was to compare the predictive capacity of three SAEBRS subscales corresponding to social, academic, or emotional…
Full Text Available After experiencing library service failure, the user may directly or indirectly voice his/her complaint, which is the best prescription to improve library public services. The paper explores the academic librarians and users’ attitudes towards complaints. Through surveying six hundred students from twenty universities and applying descriptive and inferential statistical techniques, the study investigates student users’ complaint preference and behavior afterwards, and perception of complaint handling and outcome. The study reports and compares their attitudes and perspectives towards library complaints. It further examines the differences in attitudes and behavior intention among respondents who had prior experience in filing complaints at libraries, did not complain, and had no prior experience in service failure. An ultimate analysis was made to contrast the user’s perception towards complaint handling of the library and of for-profit organization. [Article content in Chinese
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the work engagement of academics in selected South African higher education institutions as well as the impact of job demands and job resources on their work engagement. Stratified random samples (N = 471 were drawn from academic staff in three higher education institutions in South Africa. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES and the Job Demands-Resources Scale (JDRS were administered. The results confirmed a two-factor structure of work engagement, consisting of vigour and dedication. Six reliable factors were extracted on the JDRS, namely organisational support, growth opportunities, social support, overload, advancement and job insecurity. Job resources (including organisational support and growth opportunities predicted 26% of the variance in vigour and 38% of the variance in dedication. Job demands (overload impacted on dedication of academics at low and moderate levels of organisational support.
Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris
Background: Integration of physical active academic lessons in the school curriculum may be an innovative way to improve academic outcomes. This study examined the effect of physically active academic lessons (Fit en Vaardig op school) on academic engagement of socially disadvantaged children and
Carroll, Conor; O'Loughlin, Deirdre
This research aims to uncover key motivations, barriers and outcomes associated with first-time users of peer observation of teaching within an Irish higher level academic context. Following preliminary research, a peer observation process was piloted on five self-selected peer observation faculty pairs involving peer observation training and…
van Doorn, J.; Lemon, K.N.; Mittal, V.; Nass, S.; Pick, D.; Pirner, P.; Verhoef, P.C.
This article develops and discusses the concept of customer engagement behaviors (CEB), which we define as the customers' behavioral manifestation toward a brand or firm, beyond purchase, resulting from motivational drivers. CEBs include a vast array of behaviors including word-of-mouth (WOM)
Schaffer, Marjorie A; Schoon, Patricia M; Brueshoff, Bonnie L
Public health clinical educators and practicing public health nurses (PHNs) are experiencing challenges in creating meaningful clinical learning experiences for nursing students due to an increase in nursing programs and greater workload responsibilities for both nursing faculty and PHNs. The Henry Street Consortium (HSC), a collaborative group of PHNs and nursing faculty, conducted a project to identify best practices for public health nursing student clinical learning experiences. Project leaders surveyed HSC members about preferences for teaching-learning strategies, facilitated development of resources and tools to guide learning, organized faculty/PHN pilot teams to test resources and tools with students, and evaluated the pilot team experiences through two focus groups. The analysis of the outcomes of the partnership engagement project led to the development of the Partnership Engagement Model (PEM), which may be used by nursing faculty and their public health practice partners to guide building relationships and sustainable partnerships for educating nursing students. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Akram Abood Jaffar
Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated how students use and respond to social networks in the educational context as opposed to social use. In this study, the engagement of medical students on anatomy Facebook pages was evaluated in view of their academic performance. High performers contributed to most of the engagements. They also had a particular preference for higher levels of engagement. Although the students were deeply involved in the educational element of the pages, they continued to appreciate the inherent social element. The profound engagement of the high performers indicated a consistency between Facebook use in the educational context and better student performance. At the same time, the deeper engagement of high performers refutes the opinion that Facebook use is a distractor. Instead, it supports the notion that Facebook could be a suitable platform to engage students in an educational context.
Jaffar, Akram Abood; Eladl, Mohamed Ahmed
Only a few studies have investigated how students use and respond to social networks in the educational context as opposed to social use. In this study, the engagement of medical students on anatomy Facebook pages was evaluated in view of their academic performance. High performers contributed to most of the engagements. They also had a particular preference for higher levels of engagement. Although the students were deeply involved in the educational element of the pages, they continued to appreciate the inherent social element. The profound engagement of the high performers indicated a consistency between Facebook use in the educational context and better student performance. At the same time, the deeper engagement of high performers refutes the opinion that Facebook use is a distractor. Instead, it supports the notion that Facebook could be a suitable platform to engage students in an educational context.
Wallon, Robert C; Jasti, Chandana; Hug, Barbara
The activity described in this article is designed to provide biology students with opportunities to engage in a range of academic language as they learn the discipline-specific meanings of the terms "drug," "poison," "toxicant," and "toxin." Although intended as part of an introductory lesson in a comprehensive unit for the high school level, this approach to teaching academic language can be adapted for use with older or younger students and can be modified to teach other terms.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential benefits of using gamification techniques to increase student engagement with library resources. It outlines the link between student use of library resources and academic achievement, and suggests that gamification has to potential to increase usage of resources, which may also increase academic achievement. Some early findings from an implementation of a gamification project, Lemontree, are also discussed in which students reported increased usage of library resources and their acceptance of gamification techniques in Higher Education.
Barkhuizen, Nicolene; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; van de Vijver, Fons J R
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among dispositional optimism, job demands and resources, burnout, work engagement, ill health and organizational commitment of South African academic staff in higher education institutions. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with stratified random samples (N = 595) taken of academics in South African higher education institutions. The results confirmed that job demands and a lack of job resources contributed to burnout, whereas job resources contributed to work engagement. Dispositional optimism had a strong direct effect on perceptions of job resources as well as strong indirect effects (via job resources) on burnout, work engagement, ill health and organizational commitment. The results of this study extend the dual-process model of burnout and engagement by demonstrating the strong effects of dispositional optimism on the constructs in the model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hill, T. M.; Palca, J.
Growing global concern over the impact of climate change places climate scientists at the forefront of communicating risks, impacts, and adaptation strategies to non-scientists. Academic institutions can play a leadership role in providing support, incentives, and structures that encourage scientific engagement on this, and other, complex societal and scientific issues. This presentation will focus on `best practices' in supporting university scientists in communicating their science and engaging in thoughtful dialogue with decision makers, managers, media, and public audiences. For example, institutions that can provide significant administrative support for science communication (press officers, training workshops) may decrease barriers between academic science and public knowledge. Additionally, financial (or similar) support in the form of teaching releases and institutional awards can be utilized to acknowledge the time and effort spent in engagement. This presentation will feature examples from universities, professional societies and other institutions where engagement on climate science is structurally encouraged and supported.
Xu, Sheng; Wang, Jie; Lee, Gabrielle T.; Luke, Nicole
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using self-monitoring with guided goal setting was effective in increasing academic engagement for a student with autism who frequently displayed disruptive behaviors in an inclusive classroom in China. A 9-year-old male student with autism participated in this study. A changing criterion…
Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work follow...
The argument that de-contextualized deficit approaches to academic literacies were ineffective (Lea, 2004; Northedge, 2003), has led to expectations that New Zealand Higher Education institutions embed academic literacies within programmes and courses (Tertiary Education Commission, 2010). This paper reports on the use of a teaching and learning…
Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of Youth at Risk Following a Pre-Eighth-Grade Summer Academic Enrichment Program and Participation in a School-Wide, School Year Long, Ownership, Mastery, and Grading Initiative
Alati, David K.
No significant differences in beginning eighth-grade pretest compared to ending eighth-grade posttest California Achievement Test Normal Curve Equivalent Scores were found for youth at risk who completed a pre-eighth-grade summer academic enrichment program where comparisons for reading vocabulary t(19) = 0.46, p = 0.33 (one-tailed), d = 0.107,…
Scheepers, Renée A; Lases, Lenny S S; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H
Physician work engagement is associated with better work performance and fewer medical errors; however, whether work-engaged physicians perform better from the patient perspective is unknown. Although availability of job resources (autonomy, colleague support, participation in decision making, opportunities for learning) bolster work engagement, this relationship is understudied among physicians. This study investigated associations of physician work engagement with patient care experience and job resources in an academic setting. The authors collected patient care experience evaluations, using nine validated items from the Dutch Consumer Quality index in two academic hospitals (April 2014 to April 2015). Physicians reported job resources and work engagement using, respectively, the validated Questionnaire on Experience and Evaluation of Work and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The authors conducted multivariate adjusted mixed linear model and linear regression analyses. Of the 9,802 eligible patients and 238 eligible physicians, respectively, 4,573 (47%) and 185 (78%) participated. Physician work engagement was not associated with patient care experience (B = 0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.02 to 0.03; P = .669). However, learning opportunities (B = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.52; P = .019) and autonomy (B = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.51; P = .004) were positively associated with work engagement. Higher physician work engagement did not translate into better patient care experience. Patient experience may benefit from physicians who deliver stable quality under varying levels of work engagement. From the physicians' perspective, autonomy and learning opportunities could safeguard their work engagement.
Sarkar, Sheila; Andreas, Marie
Data gathered from 1,430 teenage student drivers and 880 teenage traffic violators were used to examine the levels of exposure to risky driving behaviors and perceptions concerning the level of danger of such behaviors. For student drivers, 55% reported exposure to risky driving by being in a car with a driver engaging in such activities as drunk…
Full Text Available Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.Keywords: social marketing, customer engagement, behavioral influence, change, youth
Dotterer, Aryn M.; Wehrspann, Elizabeth
The present study examined the extent to which parent involvement in education was directly and indirectly (via school engagement) related to academic outcomes in an effort to more fully understand the school experiences of urban adolescents. Participants (80% racial/ethnic minority; n = 108) were in grades 6, 7 or 8. In the Fall and subsequent…
Mitchell, Brenda O.
A correlational explanatory research design examined the relationship between peer mentoring, academic success and social engagement of first year college students participating in a peer mentoring program at a research one university in the southeastern United States. One hundred thirty-eight participants from the peer mentoring program responded…
Carle, Adam C.; Jaffee, David; Miller, Deborah
Can modern, computer-based technology engage college students and improve their academic achievement in college? Although numerous examples detail technology's classroom uses, few studies empirically examine whether technologically oriented pedagogical changes factually lead to positive outcomes among college students. In this pilot study, we used…
Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad
The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…
Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza
This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…
Vehviläinen, Sanna; Löfström, Erika; Nevgi, Anne
This article deals with the demands that plagiarism places on academic communities, and with the resources staff possess in dealing with these demands. It is suggested that plagiarism ought to be placed in the context of network of intertwining communities (scholarly, pedagogical and administrative), to which participants are engaged to a…
Bertheussen, Bernt Arne; Myrland, Øystein
This study reports on the effect of student engagement in digital learning activities on academic performance for 120 students enrolled in an undergraduate finance course. Interactive practice and exam problem files were available to each student, and individual download activity was automatically recorded during the first 50 days of the course.…
Kulophas, Dhirapat; Hallinger, Philip; Ruengtrakul, Auyporn; Wongwanich, Suwimon
Purpose: In the context of Thailand's progress towards education reform, scholars have identified a lack of effective school-level leadership as an impeding factor. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a theoretical model of authentic leadership effects on teacher academic optimism and work engagement. Authentic leadership was…
Araque, Juan Carlos; Wietstock, Cathy; Cova, Heather M.; Zepeda, Steffanie
The current pilot study examines the impact of the "Ten Education Commandments for Parents" program on (1) new immigrant Latino parents' knowledge of the U.S. public education system, (2) parent engagement, and (3) their children's academic achievement. Utilizing a pre-experimental, pre- and post-test research design, four schools with…
Cole, James S.; Cole, Shu T.
There has been a great deal of debate regarding the value of program accreditation. Two research questions guided this study: 1) are students enrolled in accredited parks, recreation, and leisure programs more academically engaged than students enrolled in non-accredited programs, and 2) do students enrolled in accredited parks, recreation, and…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parenting practices, social engagement, academic competency, and high school dropout. The study revealed students whose parents practiced Reactive Communication along with students that exhibited Truancy and Disciplinary Issues were more likely to drop out. Conversely, students…
Harris, Paul C.; Hines, Erik M.; Kelly, Darren D.; Williams, Derick J.; Bagley, Bethany
The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative look at the factors associated with the academic engagement and success of Black male student-athletes in high school. The research team employed a thematic analysis to examine semi-structured interviews conducted with two successful Black male student-athletes, along with their principal,…
I. B. Ardashkin
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze and summarize the Russian best practices of using the publication activity as a criterion to assess the professional activity of the academic staff; to identify the role of motivational factors as a method to manage and control the publication activity of the academic staff.Methods. The authors address the methodology of comprehensive research based on the method of document analysis, comparative analysis, and method of secondary use of sociological and psychological data.Results and scientific novelty concludes in presenting Russian and international best practices generalized on using the publication activity to assess the engagement of HEI (Higher Educational Institution academic staff; the most appropriate formats of using the publication activity as a criterion to assess the research component of the academic staff engagement are defined. Degree of reliability of this criterion is shown – its strengths and shortcomings. The conclusion is drawn on need of the essential changes in management of publication activity affecting both professional and motivational spheres of scientific and pedagogical staff. The most acceptable options of measurement of staff work efficiency of this category are formulated.Practical significance. The research outcomes can be the corpus for designing the assessment method for the professional engagement of the academic staff.
Person, Sharina D.; Jordan, C. Greer; Allison, Jeroan J.; Fink Ogawa, Lisa M.; Castillo-Page, Laura; Conrad, Sarah; Nivet, Marc A.; Plummer, Deborah L.
Purpose To produce a physician and scientific workforce capable of delivering high quality, culturally competent health care and research, academic medical centers must assess their capacity for diversity and inclusion and respond to identified opportunities. Thus, the Diversity Engagement Survey (DES) is presented as a diagnostic and benchmarking tool. Method The 22-item DES connects workforce engagement theory with inclusion and diversity constructs. Face and content validity were established based on decades of previous work to promote institutional diversity. The survey was pilot tested at a single academic medical center and subsequently administered at 13 additional academic medical centers. Cronbach alphas assessed internal consistency and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) established construct validity. Criterion validity was assessed by observed separation in scores for groups traditionally recognized to have less workforce engagement. Results The sample consisted of 13,694 individuals at 14 medical schools from across the U.S. who responded to the survey administered between 2011– 2012. The Cronbach alphas for inclusion and engagement factors (range: 0.68 to 0.85), CFA fit indices, and item correlations with latent constructs, indicated an acceptable model fit and that questions measured the intended concepts. DES scores clearly distinguished higher and lower performing institutions. The DES detected important disparities for black, women, and those who did not have heterosexual orientation. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the DES is a reliable and valid instrument for internal assessment and evaluation or external benchmarking of institutional progress in building inclusion and engagement. PMID:26466376
Kim, Ha Yeon; Cappella, Elise
Understanding the social context of classrooms has been a central goal of research focused on the promotion of academic development. Building on the current literature on classroom social settings and guided by a risk and protection framework, this study examines the unique and combined contribution of individual relationships and quality of classroom interactions on behavioral engagement among low-income Latino students in kindergarten to fifth grade (N = 111). Findings indicate that individual relationships with teachers and peers and classroom quality, each independently predicted behavioral engagement. Moreover, high-quality classrooms buffered the negative influence of students' difficulties in individual relationships on behavioral engagement. Findings illuminate the need to consider multiple layers of social classroom relationships and interactions and suggest the potential benefit of targeting classroom quality as a mechanism for improving behavioral engagement in urban elementary schools. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Self-control affects, among other things, individuals' performance and criminal or deviant behavior. Herein, the construct of self-control is linked to rather specific criteria in an academic context, as derived from findings in the area of organizational psychology. Specifically, it is assumed...... that students' self-control impacts university citizenship behavior positively and counterproductive academic behavior negatively. Two correlative field studies, at which one is predictive, using different questionnaires to assess self-control support both hypotheses....
Hogan, Eileen A.; Bryant, Sarah K.; Overymyer-Day, Leslie E.
The acquisition of credit card debt by college students has long been a topic of concern. This study explores relationships among debt, undesirable academic behaviors and cognitions, and academic performance, through surveys of 338 students in a public university, replicating two past measures of credit card debt and creating new measures of…
Noltemeyer, Amity; Sansosti, Frank J.
This exploratory study examined (a) Integrated Systems Model (ISM) implementation levels, and (b) the effect of implementation of the academic and behavioral components of ISM on student academic outcomes. Participants included 2,660 students attending six suburban elementary schools. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted using a control…
Moussa, Wael Soheil
This dissertation examines the student academic achievement through various mechanisms, put in place by the public school district, classroom student behavior, and negative external shocks to the students' living environment. I examine the impacts of various treatments on student short and long run academic outcomes such as math and English test…
Wilkins, Julia; Bost, Loujeania Williams
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders have the highest dropout rates of any student group--about 40%. The outcomes for students who drop out of school are dire but are particularly bleak for students with poor academic, interpersonal, and decision-making skills. Helping students earn a high school diploma and gain the skills needed to…
Wang, Mingzhong; Deng, Xueli; Du, Xiuxiu
This study examined (a) the potential mediating roles of effortful control and classroom engagement in the association between harsh parenting and adolescent academic achievement, and (b) the potential moderating role of gender. Sixth through eighth graders in rural China (n=815, mean age=12.55years) reported on harsh parenting, effortful control, and classroom engagement. Parents also reported on each other's harsh parenting. Academic achievement was assessed by students' test scores and teacher-rated academic performance. Results of structural equation modeling revealed gender differences in patterns of association among the model variables. Harsh parenting was negatively and directly associated with academic achievement for both boys and girls. It was also negatively and indirectly associated with academic achievement via effortful control and classroom engagement sequentially, forming a common indirect "path" for boys and girls. The indirect negative effect of harsh parenting on boys' academic achievement was mainly realized through the mediator of effortful control, whereas this same indirect effect for girls was mainly realized through the mediator of classroom engagement. Jointly, effortful control and classroom engagement precipitates more indirect effects for boys than for girls in the association between harsh parenting and academic achievement. The discussion analyzes the potential "paths" from harsh parenting to adolescent academic achievement, as well as gender differences in these "paths." The current study has implications for teachers and parents eager to improve students' classroom engagement and academic achievement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sonti Zelma Mokobane
Full Text Available This paper reports on significant findings from research into facilitating the engagement of differently-abled learners in inclusive schools. The study was conducted at one of the schools considered to be a model of inclusive education in a semi-urban area located in the northern part of Tshwane, Gauteng Province, South Africa. The purpose of the study is to explore academic engagement of intellectually challenged learners in inclusive schools and to suggest strategies that can improve their effective engagement. The design type is a qualitative single case study. Data presented was obtained by means of focus group and one-on-one interviews with educators and learners. Data was analysed following the spiral method of Creswell. Findings revealed that even through their frustrations educators do make positive strides in engaging the intellectually challenged learners in inclusive classes, and the findings are relevant for developing strategies necessary for improving this. Teachers indicated that they use various strategies of engaging learners in academic activities, such as giving immediate feedback, but there was no consistency in using the strategy. There should be consistency when using strategies, so that they can yield positive results
It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.
It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281
GREGORY, ANNE; ALLEN, JOSEPH P.; MIKAMI, AMORI Y.; HAFEN, CHRISTOPHER A.; PIANTA, ROBERT C.
Student behavioral engagement is a key condition supporting academic achievement, yet student disengagement in middle and high schools is all too common. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the efficacy of the My Teaching Partner-Secondary program to increase behavioral engagement. The program offers teachers personalized coaching and systematic feedback on teachers’ interactions with students, based on systematic observation of videorecordings of teacher-student interactions in the classroom. The study found that intervention teachers had significantly higher increases, albeit to a modest degree, in student behavioral engagement in their classrooms after 1 year of involvement with the program compared to the teachers in the control group (explaining 4% of variance). In exploratory analyses, two dimensions of teachers’ interactions with students—their focus on analysis and problem solving during instruction and their use of diverse instructional learning formats—acted as mediators of increased student engagement. The findings offer implications for new directions in teacher professional development and for understanding the classroom as a setting for adolescent development. PMID:28232767
Ahmed, Syed M; Maurana, Cheryl; Nelson, David; Meister, Tim; Young, Sharon Neu; Lucey, Paula
This research effort includes a large scale study of 109 community-academic partnership projects funded by the Healthier Wisconsin Partnership Program (HWPP), a component of the Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin endowment at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The study provides an analysis unlike other studies, which have been smaller, and/or more narrowly focused in the type of community-academic partnership projects analyzed. To extract themes and insights for the benefit of future community-academic partnerships and the field of community-engaged research (CEnR). Content analysis of the final reports submitted by 109 community-academic partnership projects awards within the time frame of March 2005 to August 2011. Thirteen themes emerged from the report analysis: community involvement, health accomplishments, capacity building, sustainability, collaboration, communication, best practices, administration, relationship building, clarity, adjustment of plan, strategic planning, and time. Data supported previous studies in the importance of some themes, and provided insights regarding how these themes are impactful. The case analysis revealed new insights into the characteristics of these themes, which the authors then grouped into three categories: foundational attributes of successful community-academic partnership, potential challenges of community-academic partnerships, and outcomes of community-academic partnerships. The insights gained from these reports further supports previous research extolling the benefits of community-academic partnerships and provides valuable direction for future partners, funders and evaluators in how to deal with challenges and what they can anticipate and plan for in developing and managing community-academic partnership projects.
Howell, Lydia Pleotis; Lyons, Mary Lipscomb; Thor, Ann; Dandar, Valerie
There is attrition of women across professorial ranks in academic pathology. Women are underrepresented as leaders; 15.4% of academic pathology departments are chaired by women, according to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). To identify areas for targeted interventions that can advance academic and leadership development of women faculty by examining (1) sex differences in career satisfaction in US medical school pathology departments participating in the AAMC's Faculty Forward Engagement Survey, and (2) findings from a survey of the Association of Pathology Chairs (APC). The AAMC Faculty Forward Engagement Survey data are from 14 US medical schools participating in the 2011-2012 survey. Pathologists' response rate was 66% (461 of 697). To investigate sex differences, t tests and χ(2) analyses were used. The APC survey, administered to academic department chairs, had a 55% response rate (104 of 189). According to the Faculty Forward Engagement Survey, women report more time in patient care and less time in research. Women consider formal mentorship, feedback, and career advancement more important than men do and are less satisfied with communication and governance. The APC survey shows that 20% to 40% of nonchair department leaders are women. More than half of chairs report satisfaction with the sex diversity of their departmental leaders. Opportunities exist for department chairs and professional organizations to create targeted interventions to support career satisfaction, recruitment, retention, and career and leadership development for women in academic pathology. Although chairs report satisfaction with diversity within department leadership, responses of women faculty indicate there is work to be done to grow more women leaders.
No difference in the intention to engage others in academic transgression among medical students from neighboring countries: a cross-national study on medical students from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Macedonia.
Đogaš, Varja; Donev, Doncho M; Kukolja-Taradi, Sunčana; Đogaš, Zoran; Ilakovac, Vesna; Novak, Anita; Jerončić, Ana
To asses if the level of intention to engage others in academic transgressions was comparable among medical students from five schools from neighboring Southern-European countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia; and medical students from western EU studying at Split, Croatia. Five medical schools were surveyed in 2011, with ≥87% of the targeted population sampled and a response rate of ≥76%. Students' intention to engage a family member, friend, colleague, or a stranger in academic transgression was measured using a previously validated the Intention to Engage Others in Academic Transgression (IEOAT) questionnaire and compared with their intention to ask others for a non-academic, material favor. Data on students' motivation measured by Work Preference Inventory scale, and general data were also collected. Multiple linear regression models of the intention to engage others in a particular behavior were developed. The most important determinants of the intention to engage others in academic transgression were psychological factors, such as intention to ask others for a material favor, or students' motivation (median determinant's β of 0.18, P≤0.045 for all), whereas social and cultural factors associated with the country of origin were either weak (median β of 0.07, P≤0.031) or not relevant. A significant proportion of students were aware of the ethical violations in academic transgressions (P≤0.004 for all transgressions), but a large proportion of students also perceived academic cheating as a collective effort and were likely to engage people randomly (P≤0.001 for all, but the most severe transgression). This collective effort was more pronounced for academic than non-academic behavior. Culture differences among neighboring Southern-European countries were not an important determinant of the intention to engage others in academic cheating.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine academic dishonesty behaviors based on the opinions of pre-service elementary and social studies teachers. This study was designed using a student self-report survey questionnaire. The sample of this study consisted of 445 pre-service teachers. The research data was collected using “the academic dishonesty behaviors opinion survey” developed for this research. The research data was analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques and chi-square test. Results indicated 23 items that pre-service teachers agreed on were about academic dishonesty. Of these 10 items were about academic cheating and 13 items were about plagiarism in assignments. The top three academic dishonesty behaviors based on participants opinion were respectively having another person take the test on behalf, stealing exam materials and handing in someone else's essay with his/her name on it. Most pre-service teachers did not accept 4 items as an academic dishonest behavior. These items were using old exam questions in order to prepare an exam, using someone else's notes in order to prepare an exam, to give information to other class students after taking the exam, and taking an exam after receiving information from students who already took the exam. In this study, another important finding was about gender differences; female preservice teachers showed more concern than male pre-service teachers about academic dishonesty behaviors. There were also a few limited significant differences both in grade and class level in all academic dishonesty behaviors.
Gerard Francis Hoyne
Full Text Available Increasing student engagement within higher education academic support services is a constant challenge. Whilst engagement with support is positively associated with successful retention, and non-engagement connected to attrition, the most vulnerable students are often the least likely to engage. Our data has shown that Health Science students are reluctant to engage with academic support services despite being made aware of their academic deficiencies. The “psychology of seeking support” was used as a lens to identify some of the multifaceted issues around student engagement. The School of Health Sciences made attendance at support courses compulsory for those students who were below the benchmark score in a post entrance literacy test. Since the policy change was implemented, there has been a 50% reduction in the fail rate of “at risk” students in a core literacy unit. These findings are encouraging and will help reduce student attrition in the long term.
Gundersen, David E.; Capozzoli, Ernest A.; Rajamma, Rajasree K.
The authors analyzed the reactions of various academic-level respondent groups to 14 short scenarios reflecting ethical dilemmas in higher education and research. As the authors hypothesized, groups differed in their views of the dilemmas presented. The results did not support a 2nd hypothesis predicting a linear relationship between academic…
This research compared the relative impact of different preschool activities on the development of bilingual students' English-language skills. The study investigated whether bilingual preschool children would engage more, and use more of their second language (English), during free-play (non-academic) versus teacher-structured (academic)…
Lizandra, Jorge; Devís-Devís, José; Pérez-Gimeno, Esther; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; Peiró-Velert, Carmen
This study examined whether adolescents' time spent on sedentary behaviors (academic, technological-based and social-based activities) was a better predictor of academic performance than the reverse. A cohort of 755 adolescents participated in a three-year period study. Structural Equation Modeling techniques were used to test plausible causal hypotheses. Four competing models were analyzed to determine which model best fitted the data. The Best Model was separately tested by gender. The Best Model showed that academic performance was a better predictor of sedentary behaviors than the other way round. It also indicated that students who obtained excellent academic results were more likely to succeed academically three years later. Moreover, adolescents who spent more time in the three different types of sedentary behaviors were more likely to engage longer in those sedentary behaviors after the three-year period. The better the adolescents performed academically, the less time they devoted to social-based activities and more to academic activities. An inverse relationship emerged between time dedicated to technological-based activities and academic sedentary activities. A moderating auto-regressive effect by gender indicated that boys were more likely to spend more time on technological-based activities three years later than girls. To conclude, previous academic performance predicts better sedentary behaviors three years later than the reverse. The positive longitudinal auto-regressive effects on the four variables under study reinforce the 'success breeds success' hypothesis, with academic performance and social-based activities emerging as the strongest ones. Technological-based activities showed a moderating effect by gender and a negative longitudinal association with academic activities that supports a displacement hypothesis. Other longitudinal and covariate effects reflect the complex relationships among sedentary behaviors and academic performance and the
Valladares, Macarena; Durán, Elizabeth; Matheus, Alexis; Durán-Agüero, Samuel; Obregón, Ana María; Ramírez-Tagle, Rodrigo
To determine the association between academic performance and eating behavior in university students in Chile. A total of 680 college students, 409 (60%) women and 271 (40%) men, were randomly recruited and the mean age of the entire sample was 26. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), which evaluates 3 dimensions of eating behavior-cognitive restriction (limiting own intake), uncontrolled eating (inclination to eat), and emotional eating (control of food intake in the context of negative emotions)-was used. Academic performance was measured by the grade point average (GPA) and was associated with eating behavior. Women had significantly higher scores in the "emotional eating" dimension than men (p = 0.002). The eating behavior analysis showed that female students with higher GPAs (above 5.5) had statistically significantly lower uncontrolled eating scores (p = 0.03) and higher cognitive restriction scores (p = 0.05) than women with lower academic performance (below 5.5). There were no significant associations between eating behavior and academic performance in men. A positive association between eating behavior and academic performance was observed in female university students in Chile. Further studies are needed to explore the causes of this association and determine how to improve the nutritional habits of this population.
Dorothea Wahyu Ariani
Full Text Available Our research focuses on the impact of supportive leadership and employee engagement on the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB. The research study setting with the individual unit of analysis. A survey was conducted by using questionnaires from previous research. The questionnaires were sent to 300 employees in service organizations in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 252 completed surveys data were returned anonymously in sealed envelopes. Validity and reliability tests were used to test the questionnaires contents. The structural equation modeling (SEM was used to test the relationship among variables. The result proved that supportive leadership and employee engagement have direct positive relationship with OCB and employee engagement mediated the relationship between supportive leadership and OCB. A thorough discussion on the relationship among the variables as well as on self-rating is presented in this paper.
Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Forms' (UWES-SF) Adaptation to Turkish, Validity and Reliability Studies, and the Mediator Role of Work Engagement between Academic Procrastination and Academic Responsibility
Çapri, Burhan; Gündüz, Bülent; Akbay, Sinem Evin
The primary goal of this study is to complete the adaptation, validity and reliability studies of the long (17 items) and short (9 items) forms of UWES-SF. The secondary goal of this study is to study the mediating role of work engagement between academic procrastination and academic responsibility in high school students. The study group consists…
Kernodle, Thomas A.; Noble, Deborah
The purpose of this paper is to support Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) as an essential area of study in the field of business education that is often neglected. OCB has been defined as individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the…
LAY, CH; SCHOUWENBURG, HC
Fifty-five female and 10 male university students enrolled in a three-week Summer course completed a personality questionnaire. They also indicated their study and work intentions, completed a dilatory behavior scale concerning their non-task-related behavior on each of four course tasks, indicated
Krueger, Kathryne Kelley
Minimally verbal school aged children with autism (MVSACwA) receive the bulk of their behavioral and academic support in schools yet we know little about the environments to which they are exposed. This population of children has often been excluded from studies and thus, underrepresented in current data on autism. As increasing numbers of…
San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Clarissa Z.
This dissertation research focuses on assessing student behavior, academic emotions, and knowledge within a middle school online learning environment, and analyzing potential effects on students' interests and choices related to decisions about going to college. Using students' longitudinal data ranging from their middle school, to high school, to…
Malik, Gulzar; McKenna, Lisa; Griffiths, Debra
Integrating evidence-based practice (EBP) into undergraduate education and preparing future nurses to embrace EBP in clinical practice becomes paramount in today's complex and evolving healthcare environment. The role that EBP plays in the practical lives of nursing students will depend on the degree to which it is promoted by academics, how it is incorporated into courses and its application to clinical setting. Hence, nursing academics play a crucial role in influencing its integration into curricula. Drawn from a larger doctoral study, this paper presents findings discussing how nurse academics value and engage with EBP. Grounded theory was employed to explore processes used by nursing academics while incorporating EBP into teaching and learning practices. Twenty-three academics across Australian universities were interviewed. Nine were also observed while teaching undergraduate students. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation. In keeping with the tenets of grounded theory, data collection and analysis continued until theoretical saturation was reached. In total, four categories emerged. This paper focuses on the category conceptualised as Valuing and Engaging with EBP. How nursing academics valued and engaged with EBP was closely associated with meanings they constructed around understanding it, attitudes and commitment to implementation while teaching and working clinically. Different opinions also existed in regard to what actually constituted EBP. However, they engaged with and valued EBP by keeping themselves up-to-date, being involved in research activities, using evidence in teaching, therefore leading by example. Participants identified a number of barriers influencing their engagement with EBP including heavy workloads, limited time, lack of commitment within their schools, lack of confidence with teaching EBP, and complexity of EBP application. Faculty clinical practice, committed academics, workload
Full Text Available Introduction: A very important role in the protection of human health is their life style, their habits and patterns of conduct. Early adulthood is the best period to achieve long-term benefits from a selection of healthy living. However, the results of studies on health-related behavior of youth in Poland and in the world are not satisfactory. The purpose of the study: The purpose of the research was to assess the health behaviors of students of higher education in Bydgoszcz. Material: The study involved 272 students (124 women and 148 men Bydgoszcz higher education students in the following fields of study: physiotherapy, nutrition, logistics and national security. The Inventory of Health-Related Behavior by Zygfryd Juczyński has been used in the research. The statistical analysis was performed using the package PQ Stat 1.6.2. Results: Throughout the treatment group an average level of health-related behavior has been shown. The results of the different categories of health-related behavior were lower than the results of the standardization groups. A higher level of health behavior has been shown in a group of medical students compared to non-medical students. The results for women were higher than men's results. Conclusions: The results of personal research and the research findings of other authors demonstrate that there is a need for implementation of programs of health promotion and health education in all fields of study.
In the context of increased demands for excellence in all areas, academic promotion and tenure is now directly linked to achievement of measurable outputs in all areas of performance. In a work environment characterised by high workloads, competing expectations and reduced resources, academics must increasingly demonstrate active engagement with…
Bardin, Julie A.; Lewis, Sandra
English and language arts teachers of braille-reading students in general education classes rated these students' academic engagement and the academic achievement of low- and average-achieving sighted students in the same classrooms. The braille readers were found to be statistically similar to the low-achieving students with regard to effort,…
Martin, Andrew J.; Elliot, Andrew J.
This study assessed the role of prior personal best goals in predicting subsequent academic motivation and engagement. A total of 1160 high school students participated in a longitudinal survey study exploring the extent to which personal best and mastery and performance (dichotomous) achievement goals predict students' academic motivation and…
Jalongo, Mary Renck; McDevitt, Theresa
More and more modern academic libraries are turning to student engagement activities designed to welcome students into Academia, join a community of scholars, and avail themselves of the full range of resources and services that a university library can provide. One unusual, but inexpensive and highly effective method of engaging students is…
Nguyen, Quy; Klopper, Christopher; Smith, Calvin
The importance of academics undertaking research and publishing their research results is emphasised by universities. Engagement in research is recognised as an effective means to increase a university's profile. This study applied a qualitative approach to explore affordances, barriers, and motivations towards the engagement in research…
This study examines the relationship between work-related basic need satisfaction and work engagement. Data were obtained from a total of 203 academics who are employed in various universities of Turkey. In this research Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale and The Turkish Form of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were utilized. The data were…
This study explored the potential of classroom-based meditation practice as a tool to facilitate learning. Moreover, the impact of meditation on cognitive engagement, mindfulness and academic performance of undergraduate college students was investigated. Additionally, the relationships between mindfulness and cognitive engagement, and between…
Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Seog Ju
The present study investigated academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) and attempted to identify independent predictors of academic performance among BISS-related factors. A total of 51 students with BISS and 50 without BISS were recruited from high schools in South Korea based on self-reported weekday sleep durations, weekend oversleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants reported their academic performance in the form of class quartile ranking. The Korean version of the Composite Scale (KtCS) for morningness/eveningness, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-II (BIS-II) for impulsivity were administered. Adolescents with BISS reported poorer academic performance than adolescents without BISS (p = 0.02). Adolescents with BISS also exhibited greater levels of eveningness (p academic performance among adolescents with BISS even after controlling for ESS, KtCS, BDI, and BIS-II (β = 0.42, p academic performance and that sleep debt, as represented by weekend oversleep, predicts poorer academic performance independent of depression, impulsiveness, weekday sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and morningness/eveningness among adolescents with BISS. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Maulida, Juwita Dien; Kariyam
Utilization of data in an information system that can be used for decision making that utilizes existing data warehouse to help dig useful information to make decisions correctly and accurately. Experience API (xAPI) is one of the enabling technologies for collecting data, so xAPI can be used as a data warehouse that can be used for various needs. One software application whose data is collected in xAPI is LMS. LMS is a software used in an electronic learning process that can handle all aspects of learning, by using LMS can also be known how the learning process and the aspects that can affect learning achievement. One of the aspects that can affect the learning achievement is the background of each student, which is not necessarily the student with a good background is an outstanding student or vice versa. Therefore, an action is needed to anticipate this problem. Prediction of student academic performance using Naive Bayes algorithm obtained accuracy of 67.7983% and error 32.2917%.
Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J
The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions of their relationships with same-sex and opposite-sex peers in predicting their academic performance and general self-esteem and the potentially mediating role of school engagement in linking these perceived peer relationships with academic and non-academic outcomes. The sample comprised 1,436 high-school students (670 boys, 756 girls; 711 early adolescents, 723 later adolescents). Self-report measures and objective achievement tests were used. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothesized model and its invariance across gender and age groups. Perceived same-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with academic performance and general self-esteem. Perceived opposite-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with general self-esteem and an indirect positive link with academic performance, but mediation via school engagement was not as strong as that of perceived same-sex peer relationships. These findings generalized across gender and age groups. Adolescents' same-sex and opposite-sex peer relationships seem to positively impact their academic performance and general self-esteem in distinct ways. It appears that school engagement plays an important role in mediating these peer relationship effects, particularly those of same-sex peer relationships, on academic and non-academic functioning. Implications for psycho-educational theory, measurement, and practice are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane; Han, Wen-Jui
This study investigates the link between the frequency of family breakfasts and dinners and child academic and behavioral outcomes in a panel sample of 21,400 children aged 5-15. It complements previous work by examining younger and older children separately and by using information on a large number of controls and rigorous analytic methods to…
Solomon, Laura J.; Rothblum, Esther D.
Investigated the frequency of and reasons for college students' (N=342) procrastination on academic tasks. A high percentage of students reported problems with procrastination. Results indicated that procrastination is not solely a deficit in study habits or time management but involves a complex interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and affective…
Self-control affects, among other things, individuals' performance and criminal or deviant behavior. Herein, the construct of self-control is linked to rather specific criteria in an academic context, as derived from findings in the area of organizational psychology. Specifically, it is assumed that students' self-control impacts university…
Hill, Nancy E; Liang, Belle; Bravo, Diamond Y; Price, Maggi; Polk, Whitney; Perella, John; Savitz-Romer, Mandy
In the context of widespread media coverage of economic problems, un- and under-employment, and overwhelming student loan debt, youth are making sense of the prospects of getting a job and value of education. Further, they are assessing the implications of the job market in curtailing or enhancing their future success. School-based and familial relationships may support students in making sense of the job market. The current study focuses on how youth view the economy, its association with academic engagement, and how parental and school-based relationships shape views of the job market and their impact on academic engagement. With an ethnically diverse sample of high school students (N = 624; 54% female), perceptions of the job market were tested as mediators and moderators of the relations between school-based relationships and parenting on academic engagement. Using structural equation modeling, job market pessimism mediated the relation between school-based relationships and engagement. School-based relationships and parenting practices moderated the relation between job market pessimism and academic engagement. At high levels of parental and school support, interpreted as increased centrality and salience of academic success, there was a stronger negative association between job market pessimism and academic engagement. This set of findings indicates that high school students are thinking about the job market in ways that impact their engagement in school. These findings extend theories that have focused on the job market and the likelihood of dropping out of school or enrolling in post-secondary education. These findings are significant because just staying in school is not enough to succeed. With increased emphasis on college and career readiness, students are required to be more planful and purposeful during high school in order to succeed in the job market.
Molina, Rose; Boatin, Adeline; Farid, Huma; Luckett, Rebecca; Neo, Dayna; Ricciotti, Hope; Scott, Jennifer
To describe various work models for obstetrics and gynecology global health faculty affiliated with academic medical centers and to identify barriers and opportunities for pursuing global health work. A mixed-methods study was conducted in 2016 among obstetrics and gynecology faculty and leaders from seven academic medical institutions in Boston, Massachusetts. Global health faculty members were invited to complete an online survey about their work models and to participate in semistructured interviews about barriers and facilitators of these models. Department chairs and residency directors were asked to participate in interviews. The survey response rate among faculty was 65.6% (21/32), of which 76.2% (16/21) completed an interview. Five department leaders (45.5% [5/11]) participated in an interview. Faculty described a range of work models with varied time and compensation, but only one third reported contracted time for global health work. The most common barriers to global health work were financial constraints, time limitations, lack of mentorship, need for specialized training, and maintenance of clinical skills. Career satisfaction, creating value for the obstetrics and gynecology department, and work model flexibility were the most important facilitators of sustainable global health careers. The study identified challenges and opportunities to creating flexible and sustainable work models for academic obstetrics and gynecology clinicians engaged in global health work. Additional research and innovation are needed to identify work models that allow for sustainable careers in global women's health. There are opportunities to create professional standards and models for academic global health work in the obstetrics and gynecology specialty.
Larson, Susan C.
Academic language, discourse, vocabulary, motivation, and comprehension of complex texts and concepts are keys to learning subject-area content. The need for a disciplinary literacy approach in high school classrooms accelerates as students become increasing disengaged in school and as content complexity increases. In the present quasi-experimental mixed-method study, a ninth-grade biology unit was designed with an emphasis on promoting academic literacy skills, discourse, meaningful constructivist learning, interest development, and positive learning experiences in order to learn science content. Quantitative and qualitative analyses on a variety of measures completed by 222 students in two high schools revealed that those who received academic literacy instruction in science class performed at significantly higher levels of conceptual understanding of biology content, academic language and vocabulary use, reasoned thought, engagement, and quality of learning experience than control-group students receiving traditionally-organized instruction. Academic literacy was embedded into biology instruction to engage students in meaning-making discourses of science to promote learning. Academic literacy activities were organized according the phases of interest development to trigger and sustain interest and goal-oriented engagement throughout the unit. Specific methods included the Generative Vocabulary Matrix (GVM), scenario-based writing, and involvement in a variety of strategically-placed discourse activities to sustain or "boost" engagement for learning. Traditional instruction for the control group included teacher lecture, whole-group discussion, a conceptual organizer, and textbook reading. Theoretical foundations include flow theory, sociocultural learning theory, and interest theory. Qualitative data were obtained from field notes and participants' journals. Quantitative survey data were collected and analyzed using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to
Moutier, Christine; Wingard, Deborah; Gudea, Monica; Jeste, Dilip; Goodman, Seneca; Reznik, Vivian
The culture of academic medical institutions impacts trainee education, among many other faculty and patient outcomes. Disrespectful behavior by faculty is one of the most challenging and common problems that, left unattended, disrupts healthy work and learning environments. Conversely, a respectful environment facilitates learning, creates a sense of safety, and rewards professionalism. The authors developed surveys and an intervention in an effort to better understand and improve climate concerns among health sciences faculty at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), a research-intense, public, academic medical center. An online "climate survey" of all UC San Diego health sciences faculty was conducted in 2011-2012. A strategic campaign to address the behavioral issues identified in the initial survey was subsequently launched. In 2015, the climate was re-evaluated in order to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. A total of 478 faculty members (223 women, 235 men, 35 % of faculty) completed the baseline survey, reporting relatively low levels of observed sexual harassment (7 %). However, faculty reported concerning rates of other disruptive behaviors: derogatory comments (29 %), anger outbursts (25 %), and hostile communication (25 %). Women and mid-level faculty were more likely to report these behavioral concerns than men and junior or senior colleagues. Three years after an institutional strategy was initiated, 729 faculty members (50 % of the faculty) completed a follow-up survey. The 2015 survey results indicate significant improvement in numerous climate factors, including overall respectful behaviors, as well as behaviors related to gender. In order to enhance a culture of respect in the learning environment, institutions can effectively engage academic leaders and faculty at all levels to address disruptive behavior and enhance positive climate factors.
Bernardo, Allan B. I.
Filipino adolescents' perceptions regarding the legitimacy of parental control over academic behaviors was investigated. It was assumed that the adolescents would differentiate between the issues inherent in various types or domains of academic behaviors. The results revealed three domains of academic behaviors: learning processes, college major…
Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey
Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments.
Lyness, Jeffrey M; Lurie, Stephen J; Ward, Denham S; Mooney, Christopher J; Lambert, David R
Background Much of the work of teachers and leaders at academic health centers involves engaging learners and faculty members in shared goals. Strategies to do so, however, are seldom informed by empirically-supported theories of human motivation. Discussion This article summarizes a substantial body of motivational research that yields insights and approaches of importance to academic faculty leaders. After identification of key limitations of traditional rewards-based (i.e., incentives, or ...
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychological distress and its relationship with academic engagement (absorption, dedication and vigor, sex and degree among students from four public universities. Method: A non-experimental,comparative correlational, quantitative investigation without intervention. Study population: 1840 nursing and physical therapy students. The data collection tool used was a questionnaire. Results: A 32.2% prevalence of psychological distress was found in the subjects; a correlation between vigor and psychological distress was found for all of the subjects and also for women. High absorption and dedication scores and low psychological distress scores predicted higher vigor scores. Conclusion: The risk of psychological distress is high, especially for women. Women seem to have a higher level of psychological distress than men. Vigor, energy and mental resilience positively influence psychological distress and can be a vehicle for better results during the learning and studying process.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine to what extent engagement in easy political behaviors on social media occurs across the range of political interest, what predicts such engagement, and what effect such engagement may have on other political behaviors. It pits the idea that social media may activate the politically uninterested against the idea that social media is just another outlet for the politically interested to demonstrate their engagement. Analyzing survey data collected by the Pew Research Center, it concludes that many people, including the politically uninterested, do engage in easy political behaviors like liking and commenting on political content on social media. When they do, it can lead to greater political activity offline. However, those most likely to engage in easy political behaviors are also those who engage in harder political behaviors, offering support for both the interest and activation hypotheses.
Gavrin, Andy; Lindell, Rebecca
There are many reasons for an instructor to consider using social media, particularly in a large introductory course. Improved communications can lessen the sense of isolation some students feel in large classes, and students may be more likely to respond to faculty announce-ments in a form that is familiar and comfortable. Furthermore, many students currently establish social media sites for their classes, without the knowledge or participation of their instructors. Such "shadow" sites can be useful, but they can also become distributors of misinformation, or venues for inappropriate or disruptive discussions. CourseNetworking (CN) is a social media platform designed for the academic environment. It combines many features common among learning management systems (LMS's) with an interface that looks and feels more like Facebook than a typical academic system. We have recently begun using CN as a means to engage students in an introductory calculus-based mechanics class, with enrollments of 150-200 students per semester. This article presents basic features of CN, and details our initial experiences and observations.
Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit
This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…
Justice, Patricia J.
The concept of student engagement and its relationship to successful student performance and learning outcomes has a long history in higher education (Kuh, 2007). Attention to faculty and student engagement has only recently become of interest to the engineering education community. This interest can be attributed to long-standing research by George Kuh's, National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) at the Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research. In addition, research projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Academic Pathway Study (APS) at the Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education (CAEE) and the Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education (CASEE), Measuring Student and Faculty Engagement in Engineering Education, at the National Academy of Engineering. These research studies utilized the framework and data from the Engineering Change study by the Center for the Study of Higher Education, Pennsylvania State, that evaluated the impact of the new Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology (ABET) EC2000 "3a through k" criteria identify 11 learning outcomes expected of engineering graduates. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent selected engagement factors of 1. institution, 2. social, 3. cognitive, 4. finance, and 5. technology influence undergraduate engineering students and quality student learning outcomes. Through the descriptive statistical analysis indicates that there maybe problems in the engineering program. This researcher would have expected at least 50% of the students to fall in the Strongly Agree and Agree categories. The data indicated that the there maybe problems in the engineering program problems in the data. The problems found ranked in this order: 1). Dissatisfaction with faculty instruction methods and quality of instruction and not a clear understanding of engineering majors , 2). inadequate Engineering faculty and advisors availability especially applicable
Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Stroet, Kim; Bosker, Roel
This study investigates whether lesson structure (LS) matters and which components are important for academic engagement during the first grade of secondary education. Data from videoed lessons of 10 Dutch and 12 Indonesian teachers analyzed using an observation protocol show that six LS components are found, that between class and over…
Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Stroet, Kim; Bosker, Roel
This study investigates whether lesson structure (LS) matters and which components are important for academic engagement during the first grade of secondary education. Data from videoed lessons of 10 Dutch and 12 Indonesian teachers analyzed using an observation protocol show that six LS components
Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin
This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…
Bilge, Filiz; Tuzgol Dost, Meliha; Cetin, Bayram
This study examines high school students' levels of burnout and school engagement with respect to academic success, study habits, and self-efficacy beliefs. The data were gathered during the 2011-2012 school year from 633 students attending six high schools located in Ankara, Turkey. The analyses were conducted on responses from 605 students. The…
Thien, Lei Mee; Razak, Nordin Abd
This study aims to examine an untested research model that explains the direct- and indirect influences of Academic Coping, Friendship Quality, and Student Engagement on Student Quality of School Life. This study employed the quantitative-based cross-sectional survey method. The sample consisted of 2400 Malaysian secondary Form Four students…
Ouweneel, Else|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314006516; Le Blanc, Pascale M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125591225; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563
Despite the large amount of research attention to engagement as well as positive psychology in a general context, there have been few attempts to increase academic well-being by means of positive psychological interventions. This article tests the potential of positive psychological interventions to
Ouweneel, A.P.E.; Le Blanc, P.M.; Schaufeli, W.B.
Despite the large amount of research attention to engagement as well as positive psychology in a general context, there have been few attempts to increase academic well-being by means of positive psychological interventions. This article tests the potential of positive psychological interventions to
Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney
The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…
Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L; Winsler, Adam
This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior. Participants also completed youth report measures of parental religiosity and perceived maternal parenting style. Correlational analyses show authoritative parenting to be associated with high levels of academic performance and study skills. Additional correlations revealed that highly religious students tend to perform well academically, study better, and engage in fewer risk behaviors than youth less committed to religion. Although no direct relations were observed between parenting style and student religiosity, maternal parenting style was found to moderate relations between parental and student religiosity. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the population studied.
Carter, Erik W; Sisco, Lynn G; Brown, Lissa; Brickham, Dana; Al-Khabbaz, Zainab A
We examined the peer interactions and academic engagement of 23 middle and high school students with developmental disabilities within inclusive academic and elective classrooms. The extent to which students with and without disabilities interacted socially was highly variable and influenced by instructional format, the proximity of general and special educators, and curricular area. Peer interactions occurred more often within small group instructional formats, when students were not receiving direct support from a paraprofessional or special educator, and in elective courses. Academic engagement also varied, with higher levels evidenced during one-to-one or small group instruction and when in proximity of general or special educators. Implications for designing effective support strategies for students with autism and/or intellectual disability within general education classrooms are discussed.
Wilcox, Gabrielle; McQuay, Jocelyn; Blackstaffe, Anita; Perry, Rosemary; Hawe, Penelope
Understanding what contributes to academic engagement is important to effectively support students. This study examines the relationship between sociodemographic factors, anxiety, social support, and academic engagement in elementary and junior high school students. Students in grades 5-9 (N = 1,904) completed self-reports measuring academic…
Shek, D T L
The present study examined the prevalence, changes, and demographic as well as psychosocial correlates of sexual behavior and intention to engage in sexual behavior in early adolescents in Hong Kong, with sexual behavior indexed by sexual intercourse. Three waves of longitudinal data on sexual intercourse, intention to engage in sexual intercourse, family functioning, and positive youth development were collected from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. There were significant influences of grade and gender on adolescent sexual behavior or intention to engage in sexual behavior. Significant main effects of immigration status on sexual behavior were also found. While no effect of family economic background was found, effect of family intactness existed for sexual behavior. Family functioning and positive youth development at Grade 7 were negatively associated with students' sexual behavior and intention to engage in sexual behavior at Grade 9. Grade, gender, immigration status, and family intactness were related to sexual behavior and/or intention to engage in sexual behavior in junior secondary school students. Promoting positive youth development and family functioning could serve as protective factors to reduce sexual behavior and intention to engage in sexual behavior in Chinese early adolescents in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lane, Erin S.; Harris, Sara E.
The authors developed a classroom observation protocol for quantitatively measuring student engagement in large university classes. The Behavioral Engagement Related to instruction (BERI) protocol can be used to provide timely feedback to instructors as to how they can improve student engagement in their classrooms.
The role of emotion as moderator of the relationships between perceived autonomy supportive behavior and autonomous motivation and between motivation and behavioral engagement in physical education are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Health behavior change counseling in surgery for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Part II: patient activation mediates the effects of health behavior change counseling on rehabilitation engagement.
Skolasky, Richard L; Maggard, Anica M; Li, David; Riley, Lee H; Wegener, Stephen T
To determine the effect of health behavior change counseling (HBCC) on patient activation and the influence of patient activation on rehabilitation engagement, and to identify common barriers to engagement among individuals undergoing surgery for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Prospective clinical trial. Academic medical center. Consecutive lumbar spine surgery patients (N=122) defined in our companion article (Part I) were assigned to a control group (did not receive HBCC, n=59) or HBCC group (received HBCC, n=63). Brief motivational interviewing-based HBCC versus control (significance, Pgroup did not show improvement compared with the control group. Thematic analysis identified 3 common barriers to engagement: (1) low self-efficacy because of lack of knowledge and support (62%); (2) anxiety related to fear of movement (57%); and (3) concern about pain management (48%). The influence of HBCC on rehabilitation engagement was mediated by patient activation. Despite improvements in patient activation, one-third of patients reported low rehabilitation engagement. Addressing these barriers should lead to greater improvements in rehabilitation engagement. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris
Integration of physical active academic lessons in the school curriculum may be an innovative way to improve academic outcomes. This study examined the effect of physically active academic lessons (Fit en Vaardig op school) on academic engagement of socially disadvantaged children and children without this disadvantage. In addition, the relationship between lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and academic engagement was examined. From four elementary schools, 86 children who participated in the 22-weeks intervention were recruited (23 socially disadvantaged children). Academic engagement was determined by observing time-on-task during three classroom observation moments (start, midway and end observation). Every moment consisted of lesson observations after intervention lessons (post-intervention) and after regular classroom lessons (post-control). Differences in time-on-task between socially disadvantaged children and children without this disadvantage were analyzed using independent samples t-test. Differences between post-intervention and post-control observations were analyzed using multilevel analysis. Heart rate monitors measured the lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The relationship between percentage of moderate to vigorous physical activity during the intervention lessons and time-on-task was analyzed by calculation of partial correlations. Time-on-task of socially disadvantaged children was lower than that of children without this disadvantage, differences were significant at the start post-control (t(65) = 2.39, p < 0.05) and post-intervention (t(71) = 2.75, p < 0.05) observation and at the midway post-control (t(68) = 2.45, p < 0.05) observation. Multilevel analysis showed that the time-on-task of all children was significantly higher during post-intervention in comparison with post-control lessons (ES = 0.41). No significant difference was found at the start observation, but
Full Text Available We discuss traditional classroom, e-learning, behavioral engagement and difference between behavioral engagements in two kind of instruction environment. Results from variance analyses suggest that there is no significant difference between engagements of active learning in different classroom conditions, and there exist significant differences on higher-level learning of innovative and critical thinking. Our findings highlight students' behavioral engagements in two environments have no significant advantage over each other, but e-learning facilitates higher-level learning better.
Auerbach, Randy P.; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Goldfinger, Marc; Abela, John R. Z.; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao
The goals of the current study were to examine whether (a) negative events mediate the relationship between materialism and risky behavior engagement and (b) materialism moderates the relationship between stress and engagement in risky behaviors in Chinese youth. At Time 1, 406 adolescents (ages 14-19) from Yue Yang, China, completed measures…
Student engagement and appropriate behaviors are essential for effective instruction in secondary special education classrooms. Research suggests that proactive engagement strategies and interventions can have a greater effect on overall classroom behaviors than negative consequences. A single case experiment measured the effects of…
Chen, Lang; Bae, Se Ri; Battista, Christian; Qin, Shaozheng; Chen, Tianwen; Evans, Tanya M; Menon, Vinod
Positive attitude is thought to impact academic achievement and learning in children, but little is known about its underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. Using a large behavioral sample of 240 children, we found that positive attitude toward math uniquely predicted math achievement, even after we accounted for multiple other cognitive-affective factors. We then investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the link between positive attitude and academic achievement in two independent cohorts of children (discovery cohort: n = 47; replication cohort: n = 28) and tested competing hypotheses regarding the differential roles of affective-motivational and learning-memory systems. In both cohorts, we found that positive attitude was associated with increased engagement of the hippocampal learning-memory system. Structural equation modeling further revealed that, in both cohorts, increased hippocampal activity and more frequent use of efficient memory-based strategies mediated the relation between positive attitude and higher math achievement. Our study is the first to elucidate the neurocognitive mechanisms by which positive attitude influences learning and academic achievement.
Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney
The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
van Uden, Jolien M.; Ritzen, Henk; Pieters, Julius Marie
Student engagement is an important precursor for learning. In this study we used teacher (N = 200) and student (N = 2288) questionnaires to investigate whether perceived interpersonal teacher behavior and teacher beliefs concerning motives for being a teacher, attitudes toward teacher knowledge
Stumpf, S.A.; Tymon, W.G.; Dam, van N.H.M.
This research proposes a two-dimensional measure of engagement for professionals in technically-oriented workgroups. It examines the relationship of their engagement to five workgroup outcomes: innovation, performance, satisfaction with the organization, career success, and intentions to stay. Three
Research purpose: This research was conducted from a salutogenic paradigm, seeking to find ways of avoiding the negative consequences of burnout and contributing towards the positive experience of work engagement for the female academic. The research also explored the effect of the individual academic’s sense of coherence (SOC on her experience of burnout and work engagement. Research design, approach and method: The research was quantitative in nature. A psychometric instrument was sent to all the permanently employed female academics at Unisa and Tshwane University of Technology (TUT, measuring their levels of burnout, work engagement and SOC. The completed questionnaires were statistically analysed. Main findings: The findings included average levels of burnout, with definite signs that the experience of burnout is on the increase. The cynicism sub-dimension of burnout showed increased levels, work engagement scores were just above average and SOC scores were low. Practical/managerial implications: This article offers a psychological interpretation of the variables in the target group. The article contributes towards the body of research studies conducted from a positive psychological paradigm and, specifically, on the female gender. Contribution/value-add: The main recommendations are that university management needs to take cognisance of the alarming symptoms of burnout present in the population under discussion. Strategies are recommended to address these and to nurture work engagement.
Dumuid, Dorothea; Olds, Timothy; Martín-Fernández, Josep-Antoni; Lewis, Lucy K.; Cassidy, Leah; Maher, Carol
Poor academic performance has been linked with particular lifestyle behaviors, such as unhealthy diet, short sleep duration, high screen time, and low physical activity. However, little is known about how lifestyle behavior patterns (or combinations of behaviors) contribute to children's academic performance. We aimed to compare academic…
Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.
BACKGROUND Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy change to address insufficient sleep in this population and potentially to improve students’ academic performance, reduce engagement in risk behaviors, and improve health. METHODS This paper reviews 38 reports examining the association between school start times, sleep, and other outcomes among adolescent students. RESULTS Most studies reviewed provide evidence that delaying school start time increases weeknight sleep duration among adolescents, primarily by delaying rise times. Most of the studies saw a significant increase in sleep duration even with relatively small delays in start times of half an hour or so. Later start times also generally correspond to improved attendance, less tardiness, less falling asleep in class, better grades, and fewer motor vehicle crashes. CONCLUSIONS Although additional research is necessary, research results that are already available should be disseminated to stakeholders to enable the development of evidence-based school policies. PMID:27040474
Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B
Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy change to address insufficient sleep in this population and potentially to improve students' academic performance, reduce engagement in risk behaviors, and improve health. This article reviews 38 reports examining the association between school start times, sleep, and other outcomes among adolescent students. Most studies reviewed provide evidence that delaying school start time increases weeknight sleep duration among adolescents, primarily by delaying rise times. Most of the studies saw a significant increase in sleep duration even with relatively small delays in start times of half an hour or so. Later start times also generally correspond to improved attendance, less tardiness, less falling asleep in class, better grades, and fewer motor vehicle crashes. Although additional research is necessary, research results that are already available should be disseminated to stakeholders to enable the development of evidence-based school policies. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey
School climate has been linked to a variety of positive student outcomes, but there may be important within-school differences among students in their experiences of school climate. This study examined within-school heterogeneity among 47,631 high school student ratings of their school climate through multilevel latent class modeling. Student profiles across 323 schools were generated on the basis of multiple indicators of school climate: disciplinary structure, academic expectations, student willingness to seek help, respect for students, affective and cognitive engagement, prevalence of teasing and bullying, general victimization, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration. Analyses identified four meaningfully different student profile types that were labeled positive climate, medium climate-low bullying, medium climate-high bullying, and negative climate. Contrasts among these profile types on external criteria revealed meaningful differences for race, grade-level, parent education level, educational aspirations, and frequency of risk behaviors. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Shapiro, Steven D.
Academic libraries have reported long-term declines in circulation, reference transactions, reserves, and in-house library materials usage. Increasingly, libraries are perceived as being less critical to the academic enterprise. Are these trends irreversible? Perhaps public libraries and some innovative academic libraries can provide us with some…
Green, Jasmine; Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J; Colmar, Susan; Marsh, Herbert W; McInerney, Dennis
The study tested three theoretically/conceptually hypothesized longitudinal models of academic processes leading to academic performance. Based on a longitudinal sample of 1866 high-school students across two consecutive years of high school (Time 1 and Time 2), the model with the most superior heuristic value demonstrated: (a) academic motivation and self-concept positively predicted attitudes toward school; (b) attitudes toward school positively predicted class participation and homework completion and negatively predicted absenteeism; and (c) class participation and homework completion positively predicted test performance whilst absenteeism negatively predicted test performance. Taken together, these findings provide support for the relevance of the self-system model and, particularly, the importance of examining the dynamic relationships amongst engagement factors of the model. The study highlights implications for educational and psychological theory, measurement, and intervention. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lyness, Jeffrey M; Lurie, Stephen J; Ward, Denham S; Mooney, Christopher J; Lambert, David R
Much of the work of teachers and leaders at academic health centers involves engaging learners and faculty members in shared goals. Strategies to do so, however, are seldom informed by empirically-supported theories of human motivation. This article summarizes a substantial body of motivational research that yields insights and approaches of importance to academic faculty leaders. After identification of key limitations of traditional rewards-based (i.e., incentives, or 'carrots and sticks') approaches, key findings are summarized from the science of self-determination theory. These findings demonstrate the importance of fostering autonomous motivation by supporting the fundamental human needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. In turn, these considerations lead to specific recommendations about approaches to engaging autonomous motivation, using examples in academic health centers. Since supporting autonomous motivation maximizes both functioning and well-being (i.e., people are both happier and more productive), the approaches recommended will help academic health centers recruit, retain, and foster the success of learners and faculty members. Such goals are particularly important to address the multiple challenges confronting these institutions.
Noll, Christopher B.
This study examined the effect of course delivery mode on academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors, academic self-efficacy, and the levels of individual interest in biology of students in an entry-level General Education biology course. This intersection of online education, science courses, and academic success factors merits attention because…
Horstmanshof, Louise; Zimitat, Craig
Background: Enhancing student engagement is considered an important strategy for improving retention. Students' Time Perspective is an under-researched factor that may significantly influence student engagement. Aims: This study examines interrelationships between elements of student engagement and relationship with Time Perspective. We propose…
Jack, Anthony Abraham
How do undergraduates engage authority figures in college? Existing explanations predict class-based engagement strategies. Using in-depth interviews with 89 undergraduates at an elite university, I show how undergraduates with disparate precollege experiences differ in their orientations toward and strategies for engaging authority figures in…
Turney, Kristin; McLanahan, Sara
Social/emotional skills in early childhood are associated with education, labor market, and family formation outcomes throughout the life course. One explanation for these associations is that poor social/emotional skills in early childhood interfere with the development of cognitive skills. In this paper, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2302) to examine how the timing of social/emotional skills-measured as internalizing, externalizing, and attention problem behaviors in early childhood-is associated with cognitive test scores in middle childhood. Results show that externalizing problems at age 3 and attention problems at age 5, as well as externalizing and attention problems at both ages 3 and 5, are associated with poor cognitive development in middle childhood, net of a wide array of control variables and prior test scores. Surprisingly, maternal engagement at age five does not mediate these associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stoutjesdijk, Regina; Scholte, Evert M; Swaab, Hanna
Exploring differences in behavioral and academic progress between children displaying substantive ADHD behaviors (M age of 9.4 years) in special schools (n = 38) and in inclusive education (n = 26). The contribution of pedagogical strategies to positive outcomes was also examined. Measurements used were the Teachers' Report Form, the Social Emotional Questionnaire, assessments of academic achievement, and the Pedagogical Methods Questionnaire. Mixed-model ANOVAs and Pearson's correlations were used to analyze the data. Significant progress was found regarding disorder-specific problem behavior and in all academic areas, but no interaction effect was found between time and setting. Correlations indicated that positive behavior reinforcement and emotional support are the pedagogical strategies that contributed most to behavioral adaptation. Children displaying substantive ADHD behaviors in both groups develop equally well in the areas of behavioral and academic functioning where significant progress was found. © The Author(s) 2013.
Holdsworth, Emma; Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Howat, Douglas
Offender engagement in group offending behavior programs is poorly understood and under-theorized. In addition, there is no research on facilitators' engagement. This article presents the first ever theory to address this gap. A Program Engagement Theory (PET) was derived from a constructivist grounded theory analysis that accounts for both facilitators' and offenders' engagement in group offending behavior programs (GOBPs). Interviews and session observations were used to collect data from 23 program facilitators and 28 offenders (group members). The analysis revealed that group members' engagement involved shared identities and moving on as a group. In turn, this was dependent on facilitators personalising treatment frameworks and establishing a hook to help group members move on. The PET emphasizes the importance of considering change during treatment as a process rather than simply a program outcome. Solution-focused (SF) programs were more conducive to engagement and the change process than offence-focused programs.
Carlo, Gustavo; White, Rebecca M B; Streit, Cara; Knight, George P; Zeiders, Katharine H
This article examined parenting styles and prosocial behaviors as longitudinal predictors of academic outcomes in U.S. Mexican youth. Adolescents (N = 462; Wave 1 M age = 10.4 years; 48.1% girls), parents, and teachers completed parenting, prosocial behavior, and academic outcome measures at 5th, 10th, and 12th grades. Authoritative parents were more likely to have youth who exhibited high levels of prosocial behaviors than those who were moderately demanding and less involved. Fathers and mothers who were less involved and mothers who were moderately demanding were less likely than authoritative parents to have youth who exhibited high levels of prosocial behaviors. Prosocial behaviors were positively associated with academic outcomes. Discussion focuses on parenting, prosocial behaviors, and academic attitudes in understanding youth academic performance. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Patte, Karen A; Qian, Wei; Leatherdale, Scott T
The longitudinal relationship between binge drinking and academic engagement, performance, and future aspirations and expectations was examined among a cohort of secondary school students. In separate multinomial generalized estimating equations models, linked data from Year 1 (Y1: 2012-2013), Year 2 (Y2: 2013-2014), and Year 3 (Y3: 2014-2015) of the COMPASS study (N = 27 112) were used to test the relative likelihood of responses to seven academic indices when binge drinking was initiated in varying frequencies, adjusting for gender, grade, race/ethnicity, tobacco use, and the individual mean of the predictor and all time-varying covariates. Among students who had never engaged in binge drinking at baseline, those who reported regular binge drinking at follow-up were relatively less likely to complete their homework, attend class, and value and achieve high grades, with more frequent binge drinking at follow-up generally resulting in larger relative risk ratios. Interestingly, shifting from "never" to "rare/sporadic" binge drinking one to two years later resulted in an increased relative risk of wanting to pursue all levels of postsecondary education. Beginning binge drinking on a "monthly" basis also increased the likelihood of college/ trade or bachelor degree ambitions, relative to high school, but not graduate/professional pathways; while degree aspirations were not associated with initiating weekly binge drinking. Results suggest students who initiate binge drinking have poor school performance and engagement, which may interfere with achieving their future academic goals. This study reinforces the reasons substance use prevention should be considered an academic priority, as such efforts may also prove beneficial for educational achievement.
Karen A. Patte
Full Text Available Introduction: The longitudinal relationship between binge drinking and academic engagement, performance, and future aspirations and expectations was examined among a cohort of secondary school students. Methods: In separate multinomial generalized estimating equations models, linked data from Year 1 (Y1: 2012-2013, Year 2 (Y2: 2013-2014, and Year 3 (Y3: 2014-2015 of the COMPASS study (N = 27 112 were used to test the relative likelihood of responses to seven academic indices when binge drinking was initiated in varying frequencies, adjusting for gender, grade, race/ethnicity, tobacco use, and the individual mean of the predictor and all time-varying covariates. Results: Among students who had never engaged in binge drinking at baseline, those who reported regular binge drinking at follow-up were relatively less likely to complete their homework, attend class, and value and achieve high grades, with more frequent binge drinking at follow-up generally resulting in larger relative risk ratios. Interestingly, shifting from “never” to “rare/sporadic” binge drinking one to two years later resulted in an increased relative risk of wanting to pursue all levels of postsecondary education. Beginning binge drinking on a “monthly” basis also increased the likelihood of college/trade or bachelor degree ambitions, relative to high school, but not graduate/professional pathways; while degree aspirations were not associated with initiating weekly binge drinking. Conclusions: Results suggest students who initiate binge drinking have poor school performance and engagement, which may interfere with achieving their future academic goals. This study reinforces the reasons substance use prevention should be considered an academic priority, as such efforts may also prove beneficial for educational achievement.
Schroeder, Sascha; Richter, Tobias; McElvany, Nele; Hachfeld, Axinja; Baumert, Jurgen; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Horz, Holger; Ullrich, Mark
This study investigated the relations between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and students' self-reported engagement in learning from texts with instructional pictures. Participants were the biology, geography, and German teachers of 46 classes (Grades 5-8) and their students. Teachers' instructional behaviors and students' engagement in learning…
Gupta, Rahul; Bone, Daniel; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth
Child engagement is defined as the interaction of a child with his/her environment in a contextually appropriate manner. Engagement behavior in children is linked to socio-emotional and cognitive state assessment with enhanced engagement identified with improved skills. A vast majority of studies however rely solely, and often implicitly, on subjective perceptual measures of engagement. Access to automatic quantification could assist researchers/clinicians to objectively interpret engagement with respect to a target behavior or condition, and furthermore inform mechanisms for improving engagement in various settings. In this paper, we present an engagement prediction system based exclusively on vocal cues observed during structured interaction between a child and a psychologist involving several tasks. Specifically, we derive prosodic cues that capture engagement levels across the various tasks. Our experiments suggest that a child's engagement is reflected not only in the vocalizations, but also in the speech of the interacting psychologist. Moreover, we show that prosodic cues are informative of the engagement phenomena not only as characterized over the entire task (i.e., global cues), but also in short term patterns (i.e., local cues). We perform a classification experiment assigning the engagement of a child into three discrete levels achieving an unweighted average recall of 55.8% (chance is 33.3%). While the systems using global cues and local level cues are each statistically significant in predicting engagement, we obtain the best results after fusing these two components. We perform further analysis of the cues at local and global levels to achieve insights linking specific prosodic patterns to the engagement phenomenon. We observe that while the performance of our model varies with task setting and interacting psychologist, there exist universal prosodic patterns reflective of engagement.
Ovwigho, Pamela Caudill; Cole, Arnold
How often an individual reads or listens to scripture is one dimension of private spirituality rarely discussed in the literature. In this study, we use data from a random sample survey of 1009 American children (ages eight to 12) to explore children's engagement with the Christian Bible, their views of communicating with God, and their moral…
Glaria, Rocio; Carmona, Lorena; Perez, Cristhian; Parra, Paula
To relate engagement and academic burnout with curriculum evaluation among speech therapy students. This observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at the end of the first academic semester for each level and at the end of a theoretical class in order to ensure the maximum participation rate at the University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile, and comprised students of a speech and language therapy programme.Curriculum evaluation scale, academic engagement and academic burnout questionnaires were used. STATA SE 11 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 200 participants, 157(78.50%) were women and 43(21.50%) men. The overall mean age was 20.81±2.15 years (range: 18-30 years). Emotional burnout was inversely correlated with the evaluation of teaching and evaluation methods, distribution of fields, teaching team and achievement of objectives (pburnout and higher levels of academic engagement.
Stone, Thomas H.; Jawahar, I. M.; Kisamore, Jennifer L.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show that academic misconduct appears to be on the rise; some research has linked academic misconduct to unethical workplace behaviors. Unlike previous empirically-driven research, this theory-based study seeks to examine the usefulness of a modification of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior to predict…
Messick, Penelope Pope
This study examined the relationships among enabling school structures, academic optimism, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Additionally, it sought to determine if academic optimism served as a mediator between enabling school structures and organizational citizenship behaviors. Three existing survey instruments, previously tested for…
Meng, Chan Ling; Othman, Jamilah; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Omar, Zoharah
This conceptual paper studies the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) in academic dishonesty with the mediating variable of ethical ideologies. The study reviews literature on the Theory of Planned Behavior and past studies pertaining to academic dishonesty. The paper analyses the relationship of the variables of TPB on academic…
Full Text Available Nurse involvement in research is essential to the expansion of nursing science and improved care for patients. The research participation challenges encountered by nurses providing direct care (direct care nurses include balancing patient care demands with research, adjusting to fluctuating staff and patient volumes, working with interdisciplinary personnel, and feeling comfortable with their knowledge of the research process. The purpose of this paper is to describe efforts to engage nurses in research for the Stories and Music for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Transplant (SMART study. SMART was an NIH-funded, multisite, randomized, behavioral clinical trial of a music therapy intervention for adolescents/young adults (AYA undergoing stem cell transplant for an oncology condition. The study was conducted at 8 sites by a large multidisciplinary team that included direct care nurses, advanced practice nurses, and nurse researchers, as well as board-certified music therapists, clinical research coordinators, and physicians. Efforts to include direct care nurses in the conduct of this study fostered mutual respect across disciplines in both academic and clinical settings.
Michener, Lloyd; Cook, Jennifer; Ahmed, Syed M; Yonas, Michael A; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio
Community engagement (CE) and community-engaged research (CEnR) are increasingly viewed as the keystone to translational medicine and improving the health of the nation. In this article, the authors seek to assist academic health centers (AHCs) in learning how to better engage with their communities and build a CEnR agenda by suggesting five steps: defining community and identifying partners, learning the etiquette of CE, building a sustainable network of CEnR researchers, recognizing that CEnR will require the development of new methodologies, and improving translation and dissemination plans. Health disparities that lead to uneven access to and quality of care as well as high costs will persist without a CEnR agenda that finds answers to both medical and public health questions. One of the biggest barriers toward a national CEnR agenda, however, are the historical structures and processes of an AHC-including the complexities of how institutional review boards operate, accounting practices and indirect funding policies, and tenure and promotion paths. Changing institutional culture starts with the leadership and commitment of top decision makers in an institution. By aligning the motivations and goals of their researchers, clinicians, and community members into a vision of a healthier population, AHC leadership will not just improve their own institutions but also improve the health of the nation-starting with improving the health of their local communities, one community at a time.
Full Text Available Engagement in activities is of crucial importance for people with dementia. State of the art assessment techniques rely exclusively on behavior observation to measure engagement in dementia. These techniques are either too general to grasp how engagement is naturally expressed through behavior or too complex to be traced back to an overall engagement state. We carried out a longitudinal study to develop a coding system of engagement-related behavior that could tackle these issues and to create an evidence-based model of engagement to make meaning of such a coding system. Fourteen elderlies with mild to moderate dementia took part in the study. They were involved in two activities: a game-based cognitive stimulation and a robot-based free play. The coding system was developed with a mixed approach: ethographic and Laban-inspired. First, we developed two ethograms to describe the behavior of participants in the two activities in detail. Then, we used Laban Movement Analysis (LMA to identify a common structure to the behaviors in the two ethograms and unify them in a unique coding system. The inter-rater reliability (IRR of the coding system proved to be excellent for cognitive games (kappa = 0.78 and very good for robot play (kappa = 0.74. From the scoring of the videos, we developed an evidence-based model of engagement. This was based on the most frequent patterns of body part organization (i.e., the way body parts are connected in movement observed during activities. Each pattern was given a meaning in terms of engagement by making reference to the literature. The model was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM. It achieved an excellent goodness of fit and all the hypothesized relations between variables were significant. We called the coding system that we developed the Ethographic and Laban-Inspired Coding System of Engagement (ELICSE and the model the Evidence-based Model of Engagement-related Behavior (EMODEB. To the best of our
Chae, Soo Eun; Shin, Jae-Han
This study was aimed to find which tutoring styles significantly predict learners' satisfaction with an e-learning service, academic involvement, and academic achievement. The tutoring styles included subject expert, facilitator, guider, and administrator. In this study, 818 Korean sixth-grade students (ages 11-12 years), enrolled in the…
Walker, Christopher O.; Greene, Barbara A.; Mansell, Robert A.
Examined were several theoretically important relations among motivational characteristics of students that are malleable, or changeable with intervention. The motivational construct identification with academics, which includes perceptions of belonging and valuing within an academic context, was investigated along with intrinsic/extrinsic…
Cleary, Ann; Delahunt, Brid; Fox, Claire; Maguire, Moira; O'Connor, Lorna; Ward, Jamie
The transition to Higher Education, while often exciting, is demanding for many students. Successful transition necessitates learning the conventions of scholarly conversation, including how to read and create work in an academic context. Knowledge of academic literacy practices is an important part of this process but these discourses and…
A select group of academic officers and deans from institutions (all sectors) whose programs are primarily online and whose teaching faculty differ considerably from traditional faculty participated in the Academic Leadership Forum, October 26, 2011, held in conjunction with WCET's (WICHE Cooperative for Educational Technologies') Annual Meeting.…
San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Z.
This dissertation research focuses on assessing student behavior, academic emotions, and knowledge from a middle school online learning environment, and analyzing their potential effects on decisions about going to college. Using students' longitudinal data ranging from their middle school, to high school, to postsecondary years, I leverage…
Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D.; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther
The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and ...
A total of 418 adolescents completed the Revised Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student, the Basic Needs Satisfaction Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Based on self-determination theory, this study examines the relationship between academic autonomous motivation, basic psychological needs…
Asuman Seda SARACALOĞLU
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the variables predicting academic procrastination behavior of prospective primary school teachers and is conducted using the correlational survey model. The study group is composed of 294 undergraduate students studying primary school teaching programs in faculties of education at Adnan Menderes, Pamukkale, and Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Universities in Turkey. The data collection instruments used were the Procrastination Assessment Scale Students (PASS, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES, and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS. While analyzing the gathered data, descriptive analysis techniques were utilized. Moreover, while analyzing the data, power of variables namely reasons of academic procrastination, academic motivation, and academic efficacy to predict prospective primary school teachers’ academic procrastination tendencies were tested. For that purpose, stepwise regression analysis was employed. It was found that nearly half of the prospective primary school teachers displayed no academic procrastination behavior. Participants’ reasons for procrastination were fear of failure, laziness, taking risks, and rebellion against control. An average level significant correlation was found between participants’ academic procrastination and other variables. As a result, it was identified that prospective primary school teachers had less academic procrastination than reported in literature and laziness, fear of failure, academic motivation predicted academic procrastination.
Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Grossmeier, Jessica J; Whitmer, R William
To better understand the combined influence of employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health on job performance and absenteeism. Analyses were based on 20,114 employees who completed the Healthways Well-Being Assessment from 2008 to 2010. Employees represented three geographically dispersed companies in the United States. Employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health indices were simultaneously significantly associated with job performance and also with absenteeism. Employee engagement had a greater association with job performance than did the health behavior or physical health indices, whereas the physical health index was more strongly associated with absenteeism. Specific elements of the indices were evaluated for association with self-rated job performance and absenteeism. Efforts to improve worker productivity should take a holistic approach encompassing employee health improvement and engagement strategies.
Jordan, Katy; Weller, Martin
The web has had a profound effect on the ways people interact, with online social networks arguably playing an important role in changing or augmenting how we connect with others. However, uptake of online social networking by the academic community varies, and needs to be understood. This paper presents an independent, novel analysis of a large-scale dataset published by Nature Publishing Group detailing the results of a survey about academics use of online social networking services. An ope...
Full Text Available In Brief Liaison librarians are assuming a wide variety of new roles that serve their institutions’ students, staff, and faculty. An essential foundation of these new roles is the ability to engage with the liaison’s user community. These engagement skills are not necessarily natural or innate, nor are they skills that most liaison librarians have had an opportunity to learn and develop. This article adapts a practical selling framework for the liaison context with examples that demonstrate how this framework can lead to improved communication, engagement, and problem-solving with liaison user communities.
Ana I. Gil Lacruz; Marta Gil Lacruz; Juan Oliva
Sexually transmitted diseases pose an important public health problem around the world. Although many studies have explored the link between alcohol use and risky sexual practices, the unobserved differences among individuals make it difficult to assess whether the associations are casual in nature. In order to overcome these difficulties, we have obtained data from the Spanish Health and Sexual Behavior Survey (2003) in order to analyze risky sexual behaviors using four alternative methodolo...
Scheepers, Renée A.; Lases, Lenny S. S.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.
Purpose Physician work engagement is associated with better work performance and fewer medical errors; however, whether workengaged physicians perform better from the patient perspective is unknown. Although availability of job resources (autonomy, colleague support, participation in decision
Stegers-Jager, Karen M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P N
Not all students cope successfully with the demands of medical school, and students' struggles may result in study delay or dropout. To prevent these outcomes, medical schools need to identify students who are experiencing academic difficul ties and provide them with timely interventions through access to support programs. Although the importance of early identification and intervention is well recognized, less is known about successful strategies for identifying and supporting struggling students.Building on the literature and their own empirical findings, the authors propose an integrated, school-wide model for medical student success comprising a continuum of academic and behavioral support. This Four-Tier Continuum of Academic and Behavioral Support (4T-CABS) model focuses on improving both academic and behavioral outcomes by offering support for students at four levels, which range from adequate instruction for all, to targeted small-group interventions, to individualized support, and also include exit support for students who might be better off in another degree program. Additionally, medical schools should provide both academic and behavioral support; set high, yet realistic expectations and clearly communicate these to students; and intervene early, which requires timely identification of at-risk students who would benefit from the different types and tiers of support. Finally, interventions should be evidence based and fit the needs of the identified groups of students. The authors argue that adopting the core principles of the 4T-CABS model will enable medical schools to maximize academic engagement and performance for all students.
Sazak-Pinar, Elif; Guner-Yildiz, Nevin
The present study was designed to (a) investigate teachers' approval and disapproval behaviors towards academic and social behaviors of students in mainstreaming classrooms and (b) determine whether or not having special needs be a predictor of teachers' approval and disapproval behaviors. The study group consisted of 43 teachers who were working…
Wood, Laura; Smith, Jennifer; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel
Positive and supportive bystander behaviors have been associated with decreases in the frequency and negative impact of bullying. This article addresses the design, implementation, evaluation, and continuation of a classroom-based intervention that promotes positive bystander behaviors. The Engaging Upstanders curriculum was piloted with two…
Olafson, Lori; Schraw, Gregory; Kehrwald, Nicholas
Academic dishonesty, also known as academic misconduct, includes a variety of actions such as plagiarism, cheating on tests using text messaging or concealed notes, exchanging work with other students, buying essays from students or on the Internet, and having other students write examinations (Diekhoff, LaBeff, Shinohara, & Yasukawa, 1999;…
Dumuid, Dorothea; Olds, Timothy; Martín-Fernández, Josep-Antoni; Lewis, Lucy K; Cassidy, Leah; Maher, Carol
Poor academic performance has been linked with particular lifestyle behaviors, such as unhealthy diet, short sleep duration, high screen time, and low physical activity. However, little is known about how lifestyle behavior patterns (or combinations of behaviors) contribute to children's academic performance. We aimed to compare academic performance across clusters of children with common lifestyle behavior patterns. We clustered participants (Australian children aged 9-11 years, n = 284) into four mutually exclusive groups of distinct lifestyle behavior patterns, using the following lifestyle behaviors as cluster inputs: light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity; sedentary behavior and sleep, derived from 24-hour accelerometry; self-reported screen time and diet. Differences in academic performance (measured by a nationally administered standardized test) were detected across the clusters, with scores being lowest in the Junk Food Screenies cluster (unhealthy diet/high screen time) and highest in the Sitters cluster (high nonscreen sedentary behavior/low physical activity). These findings suggest that reduction in screen time and an improved diet may contribute positively to academic performance. While children with high nonscreen sedentary time performed better academically in this study, they also accumulated low levels of physical activity. This warrants further investigation, given the known physical and mental benefits of physical activity.
Poth, Cheryl-Anne; Shulha, Lyn
This chapter describes evaluator behaviors revealed by the case analysis of a participatory and developmental evaluation. The analysis revealed that the evaluator paid specific attention to individual stakeholder cues. These cues were related to three elements of the evaluation: negotiating the design, monitoring individual stakeholder needs, and…
This study focuses on the relationship between self-regulated learning behavior and their academic achievement of college students of art. The results show that for students of art, the involvements in self-efficacy, intrinsic value and cognitive strategies are closely tied to their performance in the examination. However, test anxiety, as a negative emotional factor is negatively correlated with academic performance. And among the five variables, self-efficacy has the strongest influence on students of art's academic performance.
Full Text Available Objective: Emotional creativity implies experiencing a complex emotional life, which is becoming increasingly necessary in societies that demand innovation and constant changes. This research studies the relation of emotional creativity as a dispositional trait with intrinsic motivation and academic engagement.Methods: A sample of 428 university Chilean students, 36.5% men and 63.5% women, with ages from 18 to 45 years old (M = 20,37 DT = 2,71. Additionally, the mediating function of class-related positive emotions in this relation is explored.Results: The obtained data indicate that developing high levels of dispositional emotional creativity enhances the activation of positive emotions, such as gratitude, love and hope, in the classroom. Furthermore, emotional creativity predicts intrinsic motivation and academic engagement of university students by the experience of positive emotions. Conclusion: These results compel us to be aware of the importance that university students in their early years can understand the complexity of the emotional processes they undergo. A greater control of these emotions would allow students to maintain higher levels of interest in their studies at the different educational stages and to avoid the risk of school failure.
Smith, Patrick O; Grigsby, R Kevin
The Association of American Medical Colleges plays a leading role in supporting the expansion and evolution of academic medicine and medical science in North America, which are undergoing high-velocity change. Behavioral and social science concepts have great practical value when applied to the leadership practices and administrative structures that guide and support the rapid evolution of academic medicine and medical sciences. The authors are two behavioral and social science professionals who serve as academic administrators in academic medical centers. They outline their career development and describe the many ways activities have been shaped by their work with the Association of American Medical Colleges. Behavioral and social science professionals are encouraged to become change agents in the ongoing transformation of academic medicine.
Full Text Available A decrease in student attendance at lectures both nationally and internationally, has prompted educators to re-evaluate their teaching methods and investigate strategies which promote student engagement. The flipped classroom model, grounded in active learning pedagogy, transforms the face-to-face classroom. Students prepare for the flipped classroom in their own time by watching short online videos and completing readings. Face-to-face time is used to apply learning through problem-solving with peers. To improve the engagement and learning outcomes of our second year cohort, lectures were replaced with short online videos and face-to-face time was spent in a flipped classroom. The impact of the flipped classroom was analysed through surveys, attendance records, learning analytics and exam data before and after the implementation of the flipped classroom. Results suggest an increase in student engagement and a positive attitude towards the learning method. However, there were no measurable increases in student learning outcomes.
Eriksson Hallberg, Ulrika
The overall address of the present thesis is the relationship between being ‘on fire’ and burning out. More specifically, the thesis focused largely on two representations of involvement in work (work engagement and Type A behavior) and their respective relationships to burnout. Another pervasive theme was construct validity in assessing burnout and work engagement. These themes were addressed in four empirical studies, conducted in a sample of health-care workers (Study I) and a sample of in...
Zacherman, Avi; Foubert, John
The effects of time spent in cocurricular activities on academic performance was tested. A curvilinear relationship between hours per week spent involved in cocurricular activities and grade point average was discovered such that a low amount of cocurricular involvement was beneficial to grades, while a high amount can potentially hurt academic…
While recreational reading material was once an integral part of the academic library collection and librarians were seen as guides in reading development for students, this has not been the case in the last 50 years. Fiscal constraints have forced library professionals to make choices so that leisure reading material has not been viewed as a high…
Jordan, Katy; Weller, Martin
The web has had a profound effect on the ways people interact, with online social networks arguably playing an important role in changing or augmenting how we connect with others. However, uptake of online social networking by the academic community varies, and needs to be understood. This paper presents an independent, novel analysis of a…
Northey, Gavin; Govind, Rahul; Bucic, Tania; Chylinski, Mathew; Dolan, Rebecca; van Esch, Patrick
Commitment, persistence and effort have long been considered critical components for an individual's academic success. Yet, according to the old proverb, two heads are better than one and collaborative learning may yield greater benefits than what might be achieved by an individual. Because of this, collaborative learning has been labelled a…
Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Doran, Jeffrey W.; Newell, Stephanie B.; Morrison, Elizabeth M.; Barbetti, Victor; Robbins, Brent Dean
This study examined relationships among eight teacher-reported problem behavior syndromes and standardized measures of academic achievement among 58 adolescents in an alternative school. Analysis suggested association between attention problems and academic achievement was primarily due to inattention component of the syndrome rather than the…
Athayde, Simone; Stepp, John Richard; Ballester, Wemerson C
This paper contributes to the development of theoretical and methodological approaches that aim to engage indigenous, technical and academic knowledge for environmental management. We present an exploratory analysis of a transdisciplinary project carried out to identify and contrast indigenous and academic perspectives on the relationship between the Africanized honey bee and stingless bee species in the Brazilian Amazon. The project was developed by practitioners and researchers of the Instituto Socioambiental (ISA, a Brazilian NGO), responding to a concern raised by a funding agency, regarding the potential impact of apiculture development by indigenous peoples, on the diversity of stingless bee species in the Xingu Park, southern Brazilian Amazon. Research and educational activities were carried out among four indigenous peoples: Kawaiwete or Kaiabi, Yudja or Juruna, Kīsêdjê or Suyá and Ikpeng or Txicão. A constructivist qualitative approach was developed, which included academic literature review, conduction of semi-structured interviews with elders and leaders, community focus groups, field walks and workshops in schools in four villages. Semi-structured interviews and on-line surveys were carried out among academic experts and practitioners. We found that in both indigenous and scientific perspectives, diversity is a key aspect in keeping exotic and native species in balance and thus avoiding heightened competition and extinction. The Africanized honey bee was compared to the non-indigenous westerners who colonized the Americas, with whom indigenous peoples had to learn to coexist. We identify challenges and opportunities for engagement of indigenous and scientific knowledge for research and management of bee species in the Amazon. A combination of small-scale apiculture and meliponiculture is viewed as an approach that might help to maintain biological and cultural diversity in Amazonian landscapes. The articulation of knowledge from non
Weis, Robert; Cerankosky, Brittany C
Young boys who did not own video games were promised a video-game system and child-appropriate games in exchange for participating in an "ongoing study of child development." After baseline assessment of boys' academic achievement and parent- and teacher-reported behavior, boys were randomly assigned to receive the video-game system immediately or to receive the video-game system after follow-up assessment, 4 months later. Boys who received the system immediately spent more time playing video games and less time engaged in after-school academic activities than comparison children. Boys who received the system immediately also had lower reading and writing scores and greater teacher-reported academic problems at follow-up than comparison children. Amount of video-game play mediated the relationship between video-game ownership and academic outcomes. Results provide experimental evidence that video games may displace after-school activities that have educational value and may interfere with the development of reading and writing skills in some children.
Konold, Timothy R.; Shukla, Kathan D.
Discrepancies among informants' ratings of a given child's behavior complicate the study of linkages between child behavior and academic achievement. In the current study, we examined the potential moderating effect of informant type on associations between behavior and two types of achievement in a longitudinal growth model that…
Inglés, Cándido J.; Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche; Martínez-González, Agustin E.; Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche; Valle, Antonio; Universidad de A Coruña; García-Fernández, José M.; Universidad de Alicante; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; Universidad de Murcia
This study analyzed the relationship between prosocial behaviour and academic goals in a sample of 2,022 Spanish compulsory secondary education students. The prosocial behaviour was measured with the Prosocial Behaviour scale of the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS) and academic goals were measured with the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ). The results revealed that students with high prosocial behaviour presented higher significantly scores in learning and performance...
van de Werfhorst, H.G.
It is hardly disputed that educational institutions carry responsibility for the education of democratic citizens through the enhancement of civic and political engagement. Despite the wealth of studies on civic and citizenship education, scholars have not yet examined the relevance of national
Stoeber, Joachim; Childs, Julian H.; Hayward, Jennifer A.; Feast, Alexandra R.
Research on the dualistic model of passion has investigated harmonious and obsessive passion in many domains. However, few studies have investigated passion for studying and the role passion for studying plays in student engagement and well-being. The present study investigated the relationships between harmonious and obsessive passion for…
van de Werfhorst, Herman G.
It is hardly disputed that educational institutions carry responsibility for the education of democratic citizens through the enhancement of civic and political engagement. Despite the wealth of studies on civic and citizenship education, scholars have not yet examined the relevance of national educational institutional factors. This study…
Wang, Jenny; Lin, Chun-Fu C.; Yu, Wei-Chieh W.; Wu, Emily
This study compared the effectiveness of different learning environments between interactive Facebook instructional method and non-Facebook instructional method for undergraduate students. Two outcome dimensions were measured: student grades and learning engagement. A pre-test-posttest control group experimental design was used. The experimental…
Donovan, Owen M.
Situated in the larger questions of how to support the educational engagement and positive psychosocial development of young people with cancer, the purpose of this exploratory study was to address gaps in the literature and build understanding of how young people use digital and Internet-connected technologies in ways that support their social…
Nwachukwu, Bethel C.
There has been a push towards the education of students with Learning Disabilities in inclusive educational settings with their non-disabled peers. Zigmond (2003) stated that it is not the placement of students with disabilities in general education setting alone that would guarantee their successes; instead, the strategies teachers use to ensure that these children are being engaged and learning will enable them become successful. Despite the fact that there are several bodies of research on effective teaching of students with learning disabilities, special education teachers continue to have difficulties concerning the appropriate strategies for promoting student engagement and improving learning for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive educational settings (Zigmond, 2003). This qualitative study interviewed and collected data from fifteen high performing special education teachers who were employed in a Southern state elementary school district to uncover the strategies they have found useful in their attempts to promote student engagement and attempts to improve student achievement for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive educational settings. The study uncovered strategies for promoting engagement and improving learning outcomes for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive classrooms. The findings showed that in order to actually reach the students with learning disabilities, special education teachers must go the extra miles by building rapport with the school communities, possess good classroom management skills, and become student advocates.
VanSickle, Jennifer; Schaumleffel, Nathan A.
The goal of many universities is to prepare students for professional careers, especially in the applied field of recreation, leisure, and sport (Smith, O'Dell, & Schaumleffel, 2002). While some universities continue to use traditional knowledge-transfer methods to accomplish this goal, others have developed service engagement projects that…
Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; ?stergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette
Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gende...
Carlo, Gustavo; White, Rebecca M. B.; Streit, Cara; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.
This article examined parenting styles and prosocial behaviors as longitudinal predictors of academic outcomes in U.S. Mexican youth. Adolescents (N = 462; Wave 1 M[subscript age] = 10.4 years; 48.1% girls), parents, and teachers completed parenting, prosocial behavior, and academic outcome measures at 5th, 10th, and 12th grades.…
Hill, Nancy E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Nowlin, Patrick; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
A longitudinal model of parent academic involvement, behavioral problems, achievement, and aspirations was examined for 463 adolescents, followed from 7th (approximately 12 years old) through 11th (approximately 16 years old) grades. Parent academic involvement in 7th grade was negatively related to 8th-grade behavioral problems and positively related to 11th-grade aspirations. There were variations across parental education levels and ethnicity: Among the higher parental education group, par...
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-regulated factors and academic procrastination behavior in college students. The factors examined were Locus of control(LOC) on belief level and Reformative and Redressive Self-control and external self-control on behavioral levels. 298 college students were asked to respond to 3 scales, which were LOC scale, RRS scale, and academic procrastination scale. Main results was as follows: 1. There were significant negative rela...
Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan
Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy® (BSFT®) model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents’ problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented. PMID:23731415
Pines, Jesse M; Farmer, Steven A; Akman, Jeffrey S
In the next decade, the biggest change in medicine in the United States will be the organizational transformation of the delivery system. Organizations-including academic health centers-able to achieve better outcomes for less will be the financial winners as new payment models become more prevalent. For medical educators, the question is how to prepare the next generation of physicians for these changes. One solution is the development of new "innovation" or "value" institutes. Around the nation, many of these new institutes are focused on surmounting barriers to value-based care in academic health centers, educating faculty, house staff, and medical students in discussions of cost-conscious care. Innovation institutes can also lead discussions about how value-based care may impact education in environments where there may be less autonomy and more standardization. Quality metrics will play a larger role at academic health centers as metrics focus more on outcomes than processes. Optimizing outcomes will require that medical educators both learn and teach the principles of patient safety and quality improvement. Innovation institutes can also facilitate cross-institutional discussions to compare data on utilization and outcomes, and share best practices that maximize value. Another barrier to cost-conscious care is defensive medicine, which is highly engrained in U.S. medicine and culture. Innovation institutes may not be able to overcome all the barriers to making medical care more cost-conscious, but they can be critical in enabling academic health centers to optimize their teaching and research missions while remaining financially competitive.
Iji, Clement Onwu; Abah, Joshua Abah; Anyor, Joseph Wuave
This study investigated the impact of cloud services on mathematics education students' mathematics confidence, affective engagement, and behavioral engagement in public universities in Benue State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The instrument for the study was the researcher-developed Cloud Services Mathematics…
A decrease in student attendance at lectures both nationally and internationally, has prompted educators to re-evaluate their teaching methods and investigate strategies which promote student engagement. The flipped classroom model, grounded in active learning pedagogy, transforms the face-to-face classroom. Students prepare for the flipped classroom in their own time by watching short online videos and completing readings. Face-to-face time is used to apply learning through problem-solving w...
Kilgus, Stephen P.; Taylor, Crystal N.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.
The purpose of this study was to support the identification of Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS) cut scores that could be used to detect high-risk students. Teachers rated students across two time points (Time 1 n = 1,242 students; Time 2 n = 704) using the SAEBRS and the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System…
This study is based on retrospective accounts of a stratified sample of about 1,100 academic scien-tists in India on the criteria actually used by them in the choice of research projects. A basic objective is to examine the effects of contextual factors such as academic rank, institutional and disciplinary setting, and sources of research funds on the choice of research projects. A struc-tured questionnaire was used to tap the criteria for project selection. The items were factor-analyzed and...
Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B
Using job demands-resources (JD-R) theory, the present study integrates the challenge stressor-hindrance stressor framework and leadership theory to investigate the relationship between daily transformational leadership behavior and employee work engagement. We hypothesized that daily transformational leadership behavior (a) sustains employee work engagement on days characterized by high challenge job demands, and (b) protects work engagement on days characterized by high hindrance job demands. Teachers filled out a short online questionnaire at the end of each workday during a 2-week period (N = 271 × 5.68 days = 1539). Results of latent moderated structural equation modeling showed that teachers' daily challenge demands (workload and cognitive demands) had a positive relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was high (vs. low). In addition, teachers' daily hindrance demands (role-conflict, but not family to work conflict) had a negative relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was low (vs. high). These findings show that the function of transformational leadership behavior changes from day to day, and depends on the type of job demand. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Mattison, Richard E.; Blader, Joseph C.
Concern is growing over the limited academic progress in special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD). We know little about how academic and behavioral factors interact in these students to affect their academic functioning. Therefore, potential associations were investigated over the course of one school year for…
Kiuru, Noona; Pakarinen, Eija; Vasalampi, Kati; Silinskas, Gintautas; Aunola, Kaisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
In the longitudinal study presented here, we tested the theoretical assumption that children's task-focused behavior in learning situations mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,137 Finnish-speaking children. Data on supportive interpersonal environments (characterized by authoritative parenting, positive teacher affect toward the child, and peer acceptance) were gathered in Grade 1. The children's task-focused behavior was measured in Grades 2 and 3, and academic performance was measured in Grades 1 and 4. The results supported our assumption by showing that all three supportive environments were positively associated with children's subsequent academic performance via increased task-focused behavior in learning situations. These findings suggest that students' academic performance can be promoted by increasing the support they receive from peers, parents, and teachers because such increased support leads to better task focus in learning tasks.
Rofcanin, Yasin; Las Heras, Mireia; Bakker, Arnold B
Informed by social information processing (SIP) theory, in this study, we assessed the associations among family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSBs) as perceived by subordinates, subordinate work engagement, and supervisor-rated work performance. Moreover, we explored the role of family supportive organizational culture as a contextual variable influencing our proposed associations. Our findings using matched supervisor-subordinate data collected from a financial credit company in Mexico (654 subordinates; 134 supervisors) showed that FSSBs influenced work performance through subordinate work engagement. Moreover, the positive association between subordinates' perceptions of FSSBs and work engagement was moderated by family supportive organizational culture. Our results contribute to emerging theories on flexible work arrangements, particularly on family supportive work policies. Moreover, our findings carry practical implications for improving employee work engagement and work performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Cook, David C; Nelson, Eve-Lynn; Ast, Cori; Lillis, Teresa
A growing number of academic health centers (AHCs) are considering approaches to expand collaboration with their communities in order to address complex and multisystem health concerns. In 2010, internal leaders at the University of Kansas Medical Center undertook a strategic planning process to enhance both community engagement activities and the scholarship resulting from these engagement activities. The authors describe the strategic planning process, recommendations, and actions associated with elevating community engagement within the AHC's mission and priorities. The strategic planning process included conducting an inventory of community engagement activities within the AHC; analyzing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for community engagement work; and identifying goals and strategies to improve future community engagement activities and scholarship. The resulting road map for enhancing community engagement at their institution through 2015 consists of four main strategies: emphasize scholarship in community engagement, revise organizational structures to better facilitate community engagement, prioritize current engagement activities to ensure appropriate use of resources, and enhance communication of engagement initiatives to further develop stakeholder relationships.The authors also discuss implementation of the plan to date and highlight lessons learned that may inform other AHCs as they enhance and expand similar endeavors.
Waterman, Emily A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.
Although parenting is clearly linked to academic engagement in adolescence, less is known about links between parenting and academic engagement in emerging adulthood. A diverse sample of college students (N = 633; 53.1% female, 45.7% White/European American, 28.3% Asian American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 26.4% Hispanic/Latino American, 21.6% Black/African American, and 2.8% Native American/American Indian) answered surveys about mothers��� and fathers��� parenting style,...
Gottfredson, Nisha C; Hussong, Andrea M; Ennett, Susan T; Rothenberg, W Andrew
Prior research has found that the protective effect of parental engagement on adolescent smoking behaviors may be weaker if parents smoke. We examine parental influence on adolescent smoking using a social learning theory framework. We hypothesize that adolescents are more likely to mimic parental smoking behavior if they perceive parents as being more engaged and if the parent is the same gender of the adolescent. Hypotheses were tested using a diverse sample of 6,998 adolescents who were followed for seven waves (grades 6-12). Adolescent gender, time-stable and time-varying effects of parental engagement, adolescent perceptions of parental smoking, and interactions among the effects of these variables are tested using multilevel mediation models. We use a traditional measure of past 3-month adolescent smoking and a novel measure of smoking identity. Parental smoking was associated with a developmental increase in adolescent smoking and time-stable and time-varying parental engagement protected against adolescent smoking, whereas maternal engagement and smoking exerted independent and opposite effects with no moderation and time-stable paternal engagement moderated the effects of perceived paternal smoking on adolescent smoking outcomes. Parental smoking was more strongly associated with adolescent smoking outcomes when adolescent gender was congruent with parent gender. Even when parents smoke, parental engagement confers protection. Protective effects of engagement may be enhanced among parents who smoke through increased antismoking communication, particularly as adolescents reach the legal smoking age. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matell, Michael S.; Smith, Ronald E.
Testing of college students in differing conditions as to performance being relevant to academic achievement goals revealed that under hgih relevance conditions scores on the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale were unrelated to test performance. Under low relevant conditions, the need for approval was highly related to performance in high…
The study examined estimated effects of school mobility on students' academic and behaviouiral outcomes. Based on data for 2,560 public schools from the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) 2007-2008, the findings indicate that high schools, urban schools, and schools serving a total student population of more than 50 percent minority…
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai
The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…
O'Sullivan, Íde; Cleary, Lawrence
non-peer-reviewed Students often struggle with writing as they are unaware of the process of writing and of strategies and skills to help them write well. They often focus on the product of writing rather than engaging with the process of writing. However, it is in the process of writing, and in the discovery of that process, that learning happens (Murray 1973, Emig 1977, Berlin 1982). It is thought that the inductive, non-intrusive model of student peer-tutoring practiced at the Regional ...
Moss, Katie Marie
This study examined the relationship of family characteristics (i.e., SES and race), parent-child engagement, and interactive reading behaviors on preschooler's emergent literacy scores. This study used a structural equation model to examine variables that impact emergent literacy development by evaluating data from the Early Childhood…
Micheletto, Melinda J.
The purpose of this study was to use an audience response system (ARS) to engage students in classroom discussions concerning sensitive and controversial topics (e.g., business ethics), assess student's ethical orientation and conduct in unethical behaviors, and encourage reflection on their personal level of ethicality. Students used ARS devices…
Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.
In this study, we examined trajectories of symptom reduction and family engagement during the modular treatment phase of a clinical trial for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders that was applied either in community settings or a clinic. Participants (N = 139) were 6-11 year-old children with diagnoses of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)…
Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.
Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…
Rozendaal, M.C.; Keyson, D.V.; Ridder, de H.
This study examines how digital products can be designed towards increased levels of experienced engagement. An experiment was conducted in which 24 participants were asked to interact with a videogame that varied in behavior and appearance aspects during experiential and goal-directed tasks.
Park, Yu Kyoung; Song, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Seung Won; Kim, Jungwoo
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating effect of work engagement on the relationship between learning organization and innovative behavior. Design/methodology/approach: This study used surveys as a data collection tool and implemented structural equation modeling for empirically testing the proposed research model.…
Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Gevers, J.M.P.
This study investigates whether crafting of job demands and resources relates positively to extra-role behavior (i.e. contextual performance and creativity) through work engagement and flourishing. We collected data from 294 employees and their supervisors regarding employees' contextual performance
DiGiovanna, J.; Dominici, N.; Friedli, L.; Rigosa, J.; Duis, S.; Kreider, J.; Beauparlant, J.; van den Brand, R.; Schieppati, M.; Micera, S.; Courtine, G.
Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral
Full Text Available This study examined the phenomenon of academic dishonesty among university students. It was based on Pavela’s (1997 framework of types of academic dishonesty (cheating, plagiarism, fabrication, and facilitation and distinguished between digital and “traditional”- analog dishonesty. The study analyzed cases of academic dishonesty offenses committed by students, as well as the reasons for academic dishonesty behaviors, and the severity of penalties for violations of academic integrity. The motivational framework for committing an act of academic dishonesty (Murdock & Anderman, 2006 and the Self-Concept Maintenance model (Mazar, Amir, & Ariely, 2008 were employed to analyze the reasons for students’ dishonest behaviors. We analyzed 315 protocols of the Disciplinary Committee, at The Open University of Israel, from 2012-2013 that represent all of the offenses examined by the Committee during one and a half years. The findings showed that analog dishonesty was more prevalent than digital dishonesty. According to the students, the most prevalent reason for their academic dishonesty was the need to maintain a positive view of self as an honest person despite violating ethical codes. Interestingly, penalties for analog dishonesty were found to be more severe than those imposed for digital dishonesty. Surprisingly, women were penalized more severely than men, despite no significant gender differences in dishonesty types or in any other parameter explored in the study. Findings of this study shed light on the scope and roots of academic dishonesty and may assist institutions in coping effectively with this phenomenon.
Gill, Tracy R.; Gattuso, Kelly J.
The X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge, currently in its sixth year of execution, provides university students with the opportunity to be on the forefront of innovation. The X-Hab Challenge, for short, is designed to engage and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM). NASA identifies necessary technologies and studies for deep space missions and invites universities from around the country to develop concepts, prototypes, and lessons learned that will help shape future space missions and awards seed funds to design and produce functional products of interest as proposed by university teams according to their interests and expertise. Universities propose on a variety of projects suggested by NASA and are then judged on technical merit, academic integration, leveraged funding, and outreach. The universities assemble a multi-discipline team of students and advisors that invest months working together, developing concepts, and frequently producing working prototypes. Not only are students able to gain quality experience, working real world problems that have the possibility of be implemented, but they work closely with subject matter experts from NASA who guide them through an official engineering development process.
This study investigates the influences of the antecedent factors on the complaints and resulting behaviors of 582 university library users in South Korea. There were statistically significant relationships between personal norms and negative word of mouth and indirect voice behaviors, between service importance and negative word-of-mouth behavior,…
DiGiovanna, Jack; Dominici, Nadia; Friedli, Lucia; Rigosa, Jacopo; Duis, Simone; Kreider, Julie; Beauparlant, Janine; van den Brand, Rubia; Schieppati, Marco; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire
Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral context. To investigate this possibility, we recorded whole-body kinematics, muscle synergies, and hindlimb motor cortex modulation in freely moving rats performing a range of natural locomotor procedures. We found that the activation of hindlimb motor cortex preceded gait initiation. During overground locomotion, the motor cortex exhibited consistent neuronal population responses that were synchronized with the spatiotemporal activation of hindlimb motoneurons. Behaviors requiring enhanced muscle activity or skilled paw placement correlated with substantial adjustment in neuronal population responses. In contrast, all rats exhibited a reduction of cortical activity during more automated behavior, such as stepping on a treadmill. Despite the facultative role of the motor cortex in the production of locomotion in rats, these results show that the encoding of hindlimb features in motor cortex dynamics is comparable in rats and cats. However, the extent of motor cortex modulations appears linked to the degree of volitional engagement and complexity of the task, reemphasizing the importance of goal-directed behaviors for motor control studies, rehabilitation, and neuroprosthetics. We mapped the neuronal population responses in the hindlimb motor cortex to hindlimb kinematics and hindlimb muscle synergies across a spectrum of natural locomotion behaviors. Robust task-specific neuronal population responses revealed that the rat motor cortex displays similar modulation as other mammals during locomotion. However, the reduced motor cortex activity during more automated behaviors suggests a relationship between the degree of engagement and task complexity. This relationship
Schindler, Kerry Andrew
The primary purpose of the present study was to determine if a relationship existed between perceived instructional leadership behaviors of high school principals and student academic achievement. A total of 124 principals and 410 teachers representing 75 high school campuses completed the School Leadership Behaviors Survey (SLBS), an instrument…
von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Scott, Emma-Catherine; Kilgus, Stephen P.
Multitiered frameworks of service delivery have traditionally underserved students with mental health needs. Whereas research has supported the assessment and intervention of social and academic behavior across tiers, evidence is limited with regard to mental health concerns including internalizing behaviors (e.g., anxiety and depression). In…
Full Text Available High school students have known as Gen Y or Z and their media using can be understand on their information-seeking behavior. This research’s purposes were: 1 to analyze the students’ motivation; 2 to analyze the critical thinking and academic verification; 3 to analyze the information-seeking behavior. This study used quantitative approach through survey among 1125 respondents in nine clusters, i.e. Central, East, North, West, and South of Jakarta, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok, and Bogor. Schools sampling based on "the best schools rank" by the government, while respondents have taken by accidental in each school. Construct of questionnaire included measurement of motivation, critical thinking and academic verification, and the information-seeking behavior at all. The results showed that the motivations of the use of Internet were dominated by habit to interact and be entertained while on the academic needs are still relatively small but increasing significantly. Students’ self-efficacy, performance and achievement goals tend to be high motives, however the science learning value, and learning environment stimulation were average low motives. High school students indicated that they think critically about the various things that become content primarily in social media but less critical of the academic information subjects. Unfortunately, high school students did not conducted academic verification on the data and information but students tend to do plagiarism. Key words: Student motivation, critical thinking, academic verification, information-seeking behavior, digital generation.
Cándido J. Inglés
Full Text Available This study analyzed the relationship between prosocial behaviour and academic goals in a sample of 2,022 Spanish compulsory secondary education students. The prosocial behaviour was measured with the Prosocial Behaviour scale of the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS and academic goals were measured with the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ. The results revealed that students with high prosocial behaviour presented higher significantly scores in learning and performance goals. The prosocial behaviour was a positive and statistically significant predictor of learning and performance goals. Furthermore, learning and performance goals were positive and statistically significant predictors of the prosocial behaviour, whereas social reinforcement goals were a negative and statisticallysignificant predictor of prosocial behaviour.
van Gunsteren, Wilfred F
"Seven deadly sins" in modern academic research and publishing can be condensed into a list ranging from poorly described experimental or computational setups to falsification of data. This Essay describes these sins and their ramifications, and serves as a code of best practice for researchers in their quest for scientific truth. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Askildson, Lance R.; Kelly, Annie Cahill; Mick, Connie Snyder
Research on service-learning offers compelling evidence of the advances student learners make in moral development, orientation to prosocial behavior, and curricular content retention. But who are those student learners? Most studies focus on native, dominant-culture, dominant-language students serving marginalized populations. Studies of the…
Yeo, Sun Kyung; Lee, Woo Kyeong
Skin picking behavior involves an individual picking or biting their skin repeatedly. Although this behavior commonly occurs at a young age, little research has addressed its harmful effects among the Korean population. Therefore, we examined the characteristics of South Korean adolescents who reported skin picking behavior. South Korean students aged 12-16 years participated (N=410, females=52.2%). They completed questionnaires that addressed skin picking behavior, academic stress, impulsivity, and anxiety. The survey was conducted in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do from February-March 2016. Among participants, 66.8% reported that they had picked their skin and 15.4% did so currently. Skin picking was positively correlated with academic stress, impulsivity, and anxiety. Students who picked their skin more often displayed more anxiety, academic stress, and impulsivity. Future studies should address skin picking adolescents' characteristics, especially regarding anxiety and academic stress. Educational programs should be implemented to help adolescents decrease their anxiety and academic stress and prevent the worsening of skin picking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ramayah, T; Yeap, Jasmine A L; Ignatius, Joshua
There is a belief that academics tend to hold on tightly to their knowledge and intellectual resources. However, not much effort has been put into the creation of a valid and reliable instrument to measure knowledge sharing behavior among the academics. To apply and validate the Knowledge Sharing Behavior Scale (KSBS) as a measure of knowledge sharing behavior within the academic community. Respondents (N = 447) were academics from arts and science streams in 10 local, public universities in Malaysia. Data were collected using the 28-item KSBS that assessed four dimensions of knowledge sharing behavior namely written contributions, organizational communications, personal interactions, and communities of practice. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the items loaded on the dimension constructs that they were supposed to represent, thus proving construct validity. A within-factor analysis revealed that each set of items representing their intended dimension loaded on only one construct, therefore establishing convergent validity. All four dimensions were not perfectly correlated with each other or organizational citizenship behavior, thereby proving discriminant validity. However, all four dimensions correlated with organizational commitment, thus confirming predictive validity. Furthermore, all four factors correlated with both tacit and explicit sharing, which confirmed their concurrent validity. All measures also possessed sufficient reliability (α > .70). The KSBS is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to formally assess the types of knowledge artifacts residing among academics and the degree of knowledge sharing in relation to those artifacts. © The Author(s) 2014.
Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Dias, Paulo; Vaz, Filipa Machado; Vaz, Joao Machado
There is a growing need for the integration of various theoretical perspectives on academic performance, especially the theories on educational persistence, and motivational theories. Recent models of students' engagement with school incorporate different dimensions of students, family and school. However, some authors are arguing that academic…
Davidson, Ann Locke
This book focuses on the relationship between ethnic and racial identity and academic engagement, examining in particular the role that schools and classrooms play in shaping this relationship. It examines the lives of students to ask how they conceptualize and assert their ethnic and racial identities across varied curricular settings. The case…
Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko
Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grignol, Valerie P; Gans, Alyssa; Booth, Branyan A; Markert, Ronald; Termuhlen, Paula M
A correlation exists between people who engage in academic dishonesty as students and unethical behaviors later as professionals. Academic dishonesty has been assessed among medical students, but not among general surgery residents. We sought to describe the attitudes of general surgery residents with regard to ethical practices in test taking. A survey with 4 scenarios describing activities related to examination taking that may or may not be considered unethical was administered. Participants were asked about participation in the activities-either personally or any knowledge of others-and whether the activities were unethical. Fifty-seven of 62 residents (92%) participated. For each scenario, >70% indicated that neither they nor anyone else they knew had participated in the activities. Behaviors deemed unethical included memorizing or using memorized questions to prepare for future tests (52%), selling questions for financial gain (90%), and purchasing previously used questions (57%). No difference in attitudes was seen among incoming interns, junior-level (postgraduate year [PGY]1-3), or senior-level (PGY4-6) residents. Overall, general surgery residents indicated that they had not participated in activities they felt to be unethical. Defining what is unethical was less clear. This represents an area for further education. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rahm-Knigge, Ryan L; Prince, Mark A; Conner, Bradley T
Individuals with social interaction anxiety, a facet of social anxiety disorder, withdraw from or avoid social encounters and generally avoid risks. However, a subset engages in health risk sexual behavior (HRSB). Because sensation seeking, emotion dysregulation, and impulsivity predict engagement in HRSB among adolescents and young adults, the present study hypothesized that latent classes of social interaction anxiety and these personality traits would differentially predict likelihood of engagement in HRSB. Finite mixture modeling was used to discern four classes: two low social interaction anxiety classes distinguished by facets of emotion dysregulation, positive urgency, and negative urgency (Low SIAS High Urgency and Low SIAS Low Urgency) and two high social interaction anxiety classes distinguished by positive urgency, negative urgency, risk seeking, and facets of emotion dysregulation (High SIAS High Urgency and High SIAS Low Urgency). HRSB were entered into the model as auxiliary distal outcomes. Of importance to this study were findings that the High SIAS High Urgency class was more likely to engage in most identified HRSB than the High SIAS Low Urgency class. This study extends previous findings on the heterogeneity of social interaction anxiety by identifying the effects of social interaction anxiety and personality on engagement in HRSB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aims: As an important intervening factor to enhance educational and motivational performance of the students, understating the effective factors on behavioral enthusiasm plays a very important role. The aim of this study was to explain the role of motivational self-regulation and procrastination in predicting the students’ behavioral enthusiasm. Instrument & Methods: In the correlational descriptive cross-sectional study, 311 students of Arak University of Medical Sciences were selected via Available Sampling using Cochran’s Formula in 2014-15 academic year. Data was collected, using Students’ Educational Procrastination Scale, Motivational Self-regulating Scale, and Behavioral Enthusiasm Scale. Data was analyzed in SPSS 19 software using Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and Multiple Regression Analysis. Findings: The highest and the lowest correlations were between procrastination and behavioral enthusiasm and between environmental control and behavioral enthusiasm, respectively (p<0.05. There was a positive and significant correlation between self-regulation and behavioral enthusiasm. In addition, there was a negative and significant correlation between procrastination and behavioral enthusiasm (p<0.001. Totally, procrastination (β=-0.233 and motivational self-regulation (β=0.238 explained 10% of the students’ behavioral enthusiasm variance (p<0.001; R²=0.102. Conclusion: Any reduction in procrastination and any enhancement in motivational self-regulation can enhance the students’ behavioral enthusiasm.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-handicapping, academic procrastination, the locus of control and academic success. The aim was also to determine whether these variables predicted self-handicapping behavior. The population of the study consisted of 263 undergraduates studying in different departments of the…
A variety of theoretical perspectives describe the crucial behavioral roles of motivation and emotion, but how these interact with perceptions of social contexts and behaviors is less well understood. This study examined whether autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between perceived autonomy support and behavioral engagement in physical education and whether this mediating process was moderated by positive emotion. A sample of 592 Korean middle-school students (304 boys, 288 girls; M age = 14.0 yr., SD = 0.8) completed questionnaires. Autonomous motivation partially mediated the positive association between perceived autonomy support and behavioral engagement. Positive emotion moderated the relationship between autonomous motivation and behavioral engagement. This indirect link was stronger as positive emotion increased. These findings suggest the importance of integrating emotion into motivational processes to understand how and when perceived autonomy support is associated with behavioral engagement in physical education.
Rofcanin, Yasin; Heras , Mireia Las; Bakker, Arnold B
Informed by social information processing (SIP) theory, in this study, we assessed the associations among family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSBs) as perceived by subordinates, subordinate work engagement, and supervisor-rated work performance. Moreover, we explored the role of family supportive organizational culture as a contextual variable influencing our proposed associations. Our findings using matched supervisor-subordinate data collected from a financial credit company in Mexico ...
DiGiovanna, J.; Dominici, N.; Friedli, L.; Rigosa, J.; Duis, S.; Kreider, J.; Beauparlant, J.; van den Brand, R.; Schieppati, M.; Micera, S.; Courtine, G.
Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral context. To investigate this possibility, we recorded whole-body kinematics, muscle synergies, and hindlimb motor cortex modulation in freely moving rats performing a range of natural locomotor pr...
Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther
The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen et al., 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and one of their foster parents. Attendance, engagement, and clinical outcomes were assessed 1 month into treatment, end of treatment, and 3 months post-treatment. Youth and foster parents who received TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies were more likely to be retained in treatment through four sessions and were less likely to drop out of treatment prematurely. The engagement strategies did not appear to have an effect on the number of canceled or no-show sessions or on treatment satisfaction. Clinical outcomes did not differ by study condition, but exploratory analyses suggest that youth had significant improvements with treatment. Strategies that specifically target engagement may hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and for increasing likelihood of treatment completion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Tucker, Dawn; Bayer, Jordana; Romaniuk, Helena; Sawyer, Susan; Lietz, Petra; Redmond, Gerry; Proimos, Jenny; Allen, Nicholas; Patton, George
Many emotional and behavioral problems first emerge in primary school and are the forerunners of mental health problems occurring in adolescence. However, the extent that these problems may be associated with academic failure has been explored less. We aimed to quantify the association between emotional and behavioral problems with academic performance. A stratified random sample of 8- to 9-year-olds (N = 1239) were recruited from schools in Australia. Data linkage was performed with a national assessment of academic performance to assess reading and numeracy. Parent report assessed emotional and behavioral problems with students dichotomized into "borderline/abnormal" and "normal" categories. One in 5 grade 3 students fell in the "borderline/abnormal" category. Boys with total difficulties (β = -47.8, 95% CI: -62.8 to -32.8), conduct problems, and peer problems scored lower on reading. Numeracy scores were lower in boys with total difficulties (β = -37.7, 95% CI: -53.9 to -21.5) and emotional symptoms. Children with hyperactivity/inattention scored lower in numeracy. Girls with peer problems scored lower in numeracy. Boys with emotional and behavioral problems in mid-primary school were 12 months behind their peers. Children with emotional and behavioral problems are at high risk for academic failure, and this risk is evident in mid-primary school. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Fujii, Chieko; Okahisa, Reiko; Matsushita, Yasuko; Tada, Toshiko
The aim of this study is to clarify the health behavior of elderly people engaged in agriculture and information communication technology (ICT). The participants were 61 people engaged in agriculture in conjunction with ICT systems (group A), and 49 people not engaged in this (group B) from among the people aged 65 years or over in village C, both living located in a mountain areas. Data were collected from August 2009 to June 2011 in two stages: interviews to members of group A through home visits, and a group survey of groups A and B through questionnaires. The results of the study were as follows: 1) members of group A lived with feelings of attachment to the land to which they were accustomed and showed gratitude to their ancestors; 2) in group A, the desire of participants to continue their life was sufficient motivation to look after their own health and maintain independence; and 3) they provided a new challenge and a sense of achievement. The results suggest that the health behavior in group A was behavior adopted voluntarily in order to maintain an independent lifestyle supported by working, and it is likely to be linked to the preservation of health.
Llano, Joseph Anthony
It is well established that universities encourage the acquisition and dissemination of new knowledge among university community members and beyond. However, what is less well understood is how universities encourage entrepreneurial (opportunity discovery, evaluation, and exploiting) behavior. This research investigated a multilevel model of the…
Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe
This article reports the findings of a bibliometric study of the measurable effects of experience and prestige on researchers' citing behavior. All single authors from two econometrics journals over a 10-year time period form the basis of the analysis of how experience and prestige affect...
Full Text Available High school students have known as Gen Y or Z and their media using can be understand on their information-seeking behavior. This research’s purposes were: 1 to analyze the students’ motivation; 2 to analyze the critical thinking and academic verification; 3 to analyze the information-seeking behavior. This study used quantitative approach through survey among 1125 respondents in nine clusters, i.e. Central, East, North, West, and South of Jakarta, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok, and Bogor. Schools sampling based on "the best schools rank" by the government, while respondents have taken by accidental in each school. Construct of questionnaire included measurement of motivation, critical thinking and academic verification, and the information-seeking behavior at all. The results showed that the motivations of the use of Internet were dominated by habit to interact and be entertained while on the academic needs are still relatively small but increasing significantly. Students’ self-efficacy, performance and achievement goals tend to be high motives, however the science learning value, and learning environment stimulation were average low motives. High school students indicated that they think critically about the various things that become content primarily in social media but less critical of the academic information subjects. Unfortunately, high school students did not conducted academic verification on the data and information but students tend to do plagiarism.
Gone, Joseph P
In a 2014 presentation at an academic conference featuring an American Indian community audience, I critically engaged the assumptions and commitments of Indigenous Research Methodologies. These methodologies have been described as approaches and procedures for conducting research that stem from long-subjugated Indigenous epistemologies (or "ways of knowing"). In my presentation, I described a Crow Indian religious tradition known as a skull medicine as an example of an indigenous way of knowing, referring to a historical photograph of a skull medicine bundle depicted on an accompanying slide. This occasioned consternation among many in attendance, some of whom later asserted that it was unethical for me to have presented this information because of Indigenous cultural proscriptions against publicizing sacred knowledge and photographing sacred objects. This ethical challenge depends on enduring religious sensibilities in Northern Plains Indian communities, as embedded within a postcolonial political critique concerning the accession of sacred objects by Euro-American collectors during the early 20th century. I complicate these ethical claims by considering competing goods that are valued by community psychologists, ultimately acknowledging that the associated ethical challenge resists resolution in terms that would be acceptable to diverse constituencies. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Oriol, Xavier; Amutio, Alberto; Mendoza, Michelle; Da Costa, Silvia; Miranda, Rafael
Emotional creativity (EC) implies experiencing a complex emotional life, which is becoming increasingly necessary in societies that demand innovation and constant changes. This research studies the relation of EC as a dispositional trait with intrinsic motivation (IM) and academic engagement (AE). A sample of 428 university Chilean students, 36.5% men and 63.5% women, with ages from 18 to 45 years-old (M = 20.37; DT = 2.71). Additionally, the mediating function of class-related positive emotions in this relation is explored. The obtained data indicate that developing high levels of dispositional EC enhances the activation of positive emotions, such as gratitude, love and hope, in the classroom. Furthermore, EC predicts IM and AE of university students by the experience of positive emotions. These results compel us to be aware of the importance that university students can understand the complexity of the emotional processes they undergo. A greater control of these emotions would allow students to maintain higher levels of interest in their studies at the different educational stages and to avoid the risk of school failure.
Cole-Lewis, Heather; Perotte, Adler; Galica, Kasia; Dreyer, Lindy; Griffith, Christopher; Schwarz, Mary; Yun, Christopher; Patrick, Heather; Coa, Kisha; Augustson, Erik
Social media platforms are increasingly being used to support individuals in behavior change attempts, including smoking cessation. Examining the interactions of participants in health-related social media groups can help inform our understanding of how these groups can best be leveraged to facilitate behavior change. The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of participation, self-reported smoking cessation length, and interactions within the National Cancer Institutes' Facebook community for smoking cessation support. Our sample consisted of approximately 4243 individuals who interacted (eg, posted, commented) on the public Smokefree Women Facebook page during the time of data collection. In Phase 1, social network visualizations and centrality measures were used to evaluate network structure and engagement. In Phase 2, an inductive, thematic qualitative content analysis was conducted with a subsample of 500 individuals, and correlational analysis was used to determine how participant engagement was associated with self-reported session length. Between February 2013 and March 2014, there were 875 posts and 4088 comments from approximately 4243 participants. Social network visualizations revealed the moderator's role in keeping the community together and distributing the most active participants. Correlation analyses suggest that engagement in the network was significantly inversely associated with cessation status (Spearman correlation coefficient = -0.14, P=.03, N=243). The content analysis of 1698 posts from 500 randomly selected participants identified the most frequent interactions in the community as providing support (43%, n=721) and announcing number of days smoke free (41%, n=689). These findings highlight the importance of the moderator for network engagement and provide helpful insights into the patterns and types of interactions participants are engaging in. This study adds knowledge of how the social network of a smoking cessation community
Harold Germán Rodríguez Celis
Full Text Available This study was designed to identify the relationship between video and computergames use on attention, memory, academic performance and problemsbehavior in school children in Bogotá. Memory and attention were assessedusing a set of different scales of ENI Battery (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky-Solís, 2007. For Academic performance, school newsletters were used.Behavioral problems were assessed through the CBCL / 6 -18 questionnaire(Child Behavior Checklist of (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983. 123 children and99 parents were enrolled in 2 factorial design experimental studies. The resultsdid not support the hypothesis of a significant change in memory tests, orintra-subject selective visual and hearing attention. However, these variablesshowed significant differences among children exposed to habitual videogamesconsumption. No differences were found between the level of regular videogames consumption in school children and academic performance variables orbehavioral problems.
Glick, Debra M; Orsillo, Susan M
Procrastination among college students is both prevalent and troublesome, harming both academic performance and physical health. Unfortunately, no "gold standard" intervention exists. Research suggests that psychological inflexibility may drive procrastination. Accordingly, interventions using acceptance and mindfulness methods to increase psychological flexibility may decrease procrastination. This study compared time management and acceptance-based behavioral interventions. College students' predictions of how much assigned reading they should complete were compared to what they did complete. Procrastination, anxiety, psychological flexibility, and academic values were also measured. Although a trend suggested that time management intervention participants completed more reading, no group differences in procrastination were revealed. The acceptance-based behavioral intervention was most effective for participants who highly valued academics. Clinical implications and future research are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Won, Samantha G. L.; Evans, Michael A.; Huang, Lixiao
Social networking sites (SNSs) are popular technologies used frequently among youth for recreational purposes. Increasing attention has been paid to the use of SNSs in educational settings as a way to engage youth interest and encourage academically productive discussion. Potential affordances of using SNSs for education include knowledge…
Full Text Available The level of environmental pollution is influenced by the knowledge, behavior and ecological engagement of both the individual and society. The mineral fertilizer industry represents a potential source of pollution. The issue examined in this study is the level of eco-chemical knowledge, behavior and ecological engagement of the workers employed in the mineral fertilizer industry in Novi Sad. We have concluded that the workers hover low level of knowledge, behavior and engagement. The results obtained could be used for the selection of methods to enhance the eco-chemical knowledge of the employees.
Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS), which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this pur...
Cappella, Elise; Hwang, Sophia H. J.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Yates, Miranda
Given the potential of afterschool programs to support youth in urban, low-income communities, we examined the role of afterschool classroom ecology in the academic outcomes of Latino and African American youth with and without social-behavioral risk. Using multireporter methods and multilevel analysis, we find that positive classroom ecology…
Lubbers, Miranda J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.; Kuyper, Hans; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn
Past research has consistently shown that there is a relation between personality and academic performance, but much less work has focused on explaining this relation. The present study examined whether three aspects of homework behavior, namely homework time, procrastination, and learning
Lubbers, Miranda J.; Van Der Werf, Margaretha P. C.; Kuyper, Hans; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn
Past research has consistently shown that there is a relation between personality and academic performance, but much less work has focused on explaining this relation. The present study examined whether three aspects of homework behavior, namely homework time, procrastination, and learning strategies, mediate the relation between personality and…
Briesch DuBois, Jacquelyn M.; Briesch, Amy M.; Hoffman, Jessica A.; Struzziero, Joan; Toback, Robin
Self-management interventions have been adapted to serve as targeted interventions to increase academic enabling behaviors in groups of students. However, a trade-off exists between adapting these interventions to feasibly fit group contexts and maintaining theoretical intervention components. This study examines the use of self-management within…
Hughes, Diane; Del Toro, Juan; Harding, Jessica F.; Way, Niobe; Rarick, Jason R. D.
The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample…
Moya, Soledad; Prior, Diego; Rodríguez-Pérez, Gonzalo
When laws change the rules of the game, it is important to observe the effects on the players' behavior. Some effects can be anticipated while others are difficult to enunciate before the law comes into force. In this paper we have analyzed articles authored by Spanish accounting academics between 1996 and 2005 to assess the impact of a change in…
Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan
Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…
Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine
This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…
Sullivan, Rachel A.; Kuzel, AnnMarie H.; Vaandering, Michael E.; Chen, Weiyun
Background: In this systematic review, we assessed the existing research describing the effects of physical activity (PA) on academic behavior, with a special focus on the effectiveness of the treatments applied, study designs, outcome measures, and results. Methods: We obtained data from various journal search engines and 218 journal articles…
Full Text Available Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS, which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this purpose, the participating students’ online learning behaviors in LMS were examined by using learning analytics for 14 weeks, and the relationship between students’ behaviors and their academic achievements was analyzed, followed by an analysis of their views about the influence of LMS on their academic achievement. The present study, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected, was carried out with the explanatory mixed method. A total of 71 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results revealed that the students used LMSs as a support to face-to-face education more intensively on course days (at the beginning of the related lessons and at nights on course days and that they activated the content elements the most. Lastly, almost all the students agreed that LMSs helped increase their academic achievement only when LMSs included such features as effectiveness, interaction, reinforcement, attractive design, social media support, and accessibility.
Bae, Hyo; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Lavigne, John V.
Background: Most research on the relation between parenting behaviors and child outcomes has not focused on cross-ethnic variation in these relations. Objective: This study examined if ethnicity moderates associations between parenting, child agency/persistence, and child academic achievement and social competence. Design: Participants included…
Jeynes, William H.
This study assessed the relationship between Bible literacy among secondary school students and their academic achievement and school behavior. One hundred and forty students in the 7th to 12th grade were randomly selected from a Christian school. Four measures of Bible knowledge were combined to obtain an overall measure of Bible literacy. They…
Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia M.
Total group contingencies, a variation of interdependent group contingencies, provide educators with an efficient and effective mechanism to improve social behavior and increase academic skills. Their utility has not been examined in small educational groups. This is unfortunate as supplemental instruction frequently is delivered in small group…
Black, Kathryn C.; Hynd, George W.
Children with epilepsy frequently display cognitive sequelae that are overlooked or misunderstood by educational personnel, yet may adversely impact academic performance. Reviews common cognitive-behavioral characteristics of children with epilepsy, typical effects of anticonvulsant medications, and various periictal phenomena and their relative…
Perry, Raymond C. W.; Braun, Rebecca A.; Cantu, Michelle; Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Sheoran, Bhupendra; Chung, Paul J.
Background: Text messaging is an increasingly common mode of communication, especially among adolescents, and frequency of texting may be a measure of one's sociability. This study examined how text messaging ("texting") frequency and academic performance are associated with adolescent sexual behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey…
Wheaton, Anne G.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.
Background: Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy…
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic optimism, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs), and student achievement in college preparatory charter schools. A purposeful sample of elementary school teachers from college preparatory charter schools (N = 226) in southeast Texas was solicited to complete the…
Bowen, Gary L.; Hopson, Laura M.; Rose, Roderick A.; Glennie, Elizabeth J.
Self-report data from 2,088 sixth-grade students in 11 middle schools in North Carolina were combined with administrative data on their eighth-grade end-of-the-year achievement scores in math and reading to examine the influence of students' perceived parental school behavior expectations on their academic performance. Through use of multilevel…
Chesmore, Ashley A.; Winston, Willie, III; Brady, Sonya S.
A social support and coping framework informed the present research on children's academic behavior and performance. Forty-six African American children aged 8-12 years were recruited from the 2011/2012 enrollment list of a partnering school. Data on children's resources for resilience (e.g., coping skills, perceived support from caregivers) were…
Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Saxena, Shubhada; Jillapalli, Regina; Jang, Yuri; Kim, Miyong
Purpose To identify barriers to and facilitators of older South Asian Indian-Americans’ (SAIAs’) engagement in behaviors associated with advance care planning (ACP). Methods Using a descriptive qualitative design guided by the transcultural nursing assessment model, data were collected in focus groups of community-dwelling older SAIA participants, SAIA family caregivers, and SAIA physicians. A directed approach using predetermined coding categories derived from the Transcultural Nursing Assessment model and aided by NVivo 10 software (Melbourne, Australia) facilitated the qualitative data analysis. Results Eleven focus groups with 36 older SAIAs (61% female, 83% 70+ years old), 10 SAIA family caregivers, and 4 SAIA physicians indicated prior lack of awareness of ACP, good health status, lack of access to linguistically and health literacy–tailored materials, healthcare provider hesitation to initiate discussions on ACP, trust in healthcare providers’ or oldest sons’ decision making, busy family caregiver work routines, and cultural assumptions about filial piety and after-death rituals as major barriers to engaging in ACP. Introducing ACP using personal anecdotes in a neutral, group-based community setting and incentivizing ACP discussions by including long-term care planning were suggested as facilitators to engage in ACP. Clinical Relevance The study’s findings will guide development of culturally sensitive interventions to raise awareness about ACP among SAIAs and encourage SAIA older adults to engage in ACP. PMID:28388828
Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Saxena, Shubhada; Jillapalli, Regina; Jang, Yuri; Kim, Miyong
To identify barriers to and facilitators of older South Asian Indian-Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in behaviors associated with advance care planning (ACP). Using a descriptive qualitative design guided by the transcultural nursing assessment model, data were collected in focus groups of community-dwelling older SAIA participants, SAIA family caregivers, and SAIA physicians. A directed approach using predetermined coding categories derived from the Transcultural Nursing Assessment model and aided by NVivo 10 software (Melbourne, Australia) facilitated the qualitative data analysis. Eleven focus groups with 36 older SAIAs (61% female, 83% 70+ years old), 10 SAIA family caregivers, and 4 SAIA physicians indicated prior lack of awareness of ACP, good health status, lack of access to linguistically and health literacy-tailored materials, healthcare provider hesitation to initiate discussions on ACP, trust in healthcare providers' or oldest sons' decision making, busy family caregiver work routines, and cultural assumptions about filial piety and after-death rituals as major barriers to engaging in ACP. Introducing ACP using personal anecdotes in a neutral, group-based community setting and incentivizing ACP discussions by including long-term care planning were suggested as facilitators to engage in ACP. The study's findings will guide development of culturally sensitive interventions to raise awareness about ACP among SAIAs and encourage SAIA older adults to engage in ACP. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony
Preliminary studies with homeless youth find surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest youths’ online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical first step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media especially as it relates to whom they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of Social Networking Sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult to reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N=1046) were recruited through three drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether or not they engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed. PMID:27337044
...) provide services during the academic school day? Behavioral health professional(s) must average at least... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May behavioral health professional(s) provide services during the academic school day? 36.82 Section 36.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...
Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning
Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muhammad Irfan Syaebani
Full Text Available Deviant workplace behavior is not something unusual and is prevalent in organizational dynamics. It is found in all types of organizations and in all levels of positions. This deviance is costly not only in financial, but also in social and psychological terms. This research aims to reveal whether there is any association between organizational justice perception and engagement in deviant workplace behavior since so many scholars argue that organizational injustice can serve as one of the causes to workplace deviance. Three forms of organizational justice are used in this research; they are: distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Additionally, two dimensions are used to classify deviant workplace behavior, which are severity and target. Putting these two dimensions into low-high continuum, it helps to develop a typology of deviant workplace behavior into four classifications: production, political, property, and personal aggression. Result findings show us that organizational justice perception play important role in the occurrence of deviant workplace behavior. However, it is not the sole predictor since only one deviant workplace behavior (out of twelve which correlates significantly with one form of organizational justice.Keywords: Deviant workplace behavior, organizational justice, distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice, production deviance, political deviance, property deviance, personal aggression
Lawler, Jamie M; Hostinar, Camelia E; Mliner, Shanna B; Gunnar, Megan R
The most commonly reported socially aberrant behavior in postinstitutionalized (PI) children is disinhibited social engagement (DSE; also known as indiscriminate friendliness). There is no gold standard for measurement of this phenomenon nor agreement on how to differentiate it from normative behavior. We adopted a developmental psychopathology approach (Cicchetti, 1984) to study this phenomenon by comparing it to normative social development and by studying its patterns over time in 50 newly adopted PI children (16-36 months at adoption) compared with 41 children adopted early from foster care overseas and 47 nonadopted (NA) controls. Using coded behavioral observations of the child's interaction with an unfamiliar adult, atypical behaviors were differentiated from normative behaviors. Principal components analysis identified two dimensions of social disinhibition. The nonphysical social dimension (e.g., initiations, proximity) showed wide variation in NA children and is therefore considered a typical form of sociability. Displays of physical contact and intimacy were rare in NA children, suggesting that they represent an atypical pattern of behavior. Both adopted groups demonstrated more physical DSE behavior than NA children. There were no group differences on the nonphysical factor, and it increased over time in all groups. Implications for understanding the etiology of DSE and future directions are discussed.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (a to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children (n = 48,118 reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th and high school years. Academic burden was cited as the primary reason for not having sufficient physical activity (76.6%. Compared to those citing academic burden, students who did not report academic burden were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.74–6.11, but less likely to meet screen time guidelines (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72–0.84, controlling for body mass index, gender, and grade level. Additionally, children who reported academic burdens had significantly longer average daily homework time than those who did not (p<0.01. Policy makers should promote physical activity and help children find a balance between homework and physical activity time particularly among the educational transition grades.
Ledford, Jennifer R.; Lane, Justin D.; Shepley, Collin; Kroll, Sarah M.
Children with autism have deficits in social communication and may engage in less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than children without disabilities. In this study, a classroom teacher implemented two interventions in the context of an alternating treatments design. Physical activity, engagement, and social behaviors were monitored…
The purpose of this study is to understand predictors of different learning outcomes among various student background characteristics, types of learning motivation and engagement behaviors. 178 junior students were surveyed at a 4-year research university in Taiwan. The scales of motivation, engagement and perceived learning outcomes were adapted…
Davis, Heather A.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Andrzejewski, Carey E.; Poirier, Ryan R.
The purpose of this project was to examine the impact of Smaller Learning Community reform on students' behavioral, relational, and cognitive engagement in a suburban school district experiencing urbanization. We describe a project in which we evaluated the engagement of a cohort of 8th grade students as they transitioned to high school (n = 605).…
Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Wenjing; Cheng, Hercy N. H.; Sun, Jianwen; Liu, Sannyuya
As an overt expression of internal mental processes, discourses have become one main data source for the research of interactive learning. To deeply explore behavioral regularities among interactions, this article firstly adopts the content analysis method to summarize students' engagement patterns within a course forum in a small private online…
Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Anme, Tokie
Previous research has established links between corporal punishment and children's developmental problems, but few studies have investigated the moderating effect of positive parenting between corporal punishment and children's developmental difficulties in detail. This study investigated the buffering effect of parental engagement on the association between corporal punishment and children's emotional/behavioral problems. The main caregivers completed the Evaluation of Environmental Stimulation Scale (EES), which is an evaluation of daily parenting behaviors, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which evaluates children's developmental problems. Corporal punishment was associated with worse emotional and behavioral problems in children, whereas parental engagement in games or sports was associated with fewer emotional symptoms. Similarly, parental engagement in homework or housework significantly moderated the association between corporal punishment and children's behavioral problems. Parental engagement positively moderated the association between parental corporal punishment and children's developmental difficulties. This association varied with child gender. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Knaus, Megan; Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig; Heisler, Michele
Many employers use screenings to identify and recommend modification of employees' risk factors for type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about how often employees then engage in recommended behaviors and what factors influence engagement. We examined the frequency of, facilitators of, and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors among employees found to have pre-diabetes during a workplace screening. We surveyed 82 University of Michigan employees who were found to have pre-diabetes during a 2014 workplace screening and compared the characteristics of employees who 3 months later were and were not engaged in recommended behaviors. We interviewed 40 of these employees to identify the facilitators of and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors. 3 months after screening, 54% of employees with pre-diabetes reported attempting to lose weight and getting recommended levels of physical activity, had asked their primary care provider about metformin for diabetes prevention, or had attended a Diabetes Prevention Program. These employees had higher median levels of motivation to prevent type 2 diabetes (9/10 vs 7/10, pmotivation and social and external supports. Key barriers were lack of motivation and resources, and competing demands. Most employees found to have pre-diabetes through a workplace screening were engaged in a recommended preventive behavior 3 months after the screening. This engagement could be enhanced by optimizing motivation and risk perception as well as leveraging social networks and external supports.
Muhammad Irfan Syaebani
Full Text Available Deviant workplace behavior is not something unusual and is prevalent in organizational dynamics. It is found in all types of organizations and in all levels of positions. This deviance is costly not only in financial, but also in social and psychological terms. This research aims to reveal whether there is any association between organizational justice perception and engagement in deviant workplace behavior since so many scholars argue that organizational injustice can serve as one of the causes to workplace deviance. Three forms of organizational justice are used in this research; they are: distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Additionally, two dimensions are used to classify deviant workplace behavior, which are severity and target. Putting these two dimensions into low-high continuum, it helps to develop a typology of deviant workplace behavior into four classifications: production, political, property, and personal aggression. Result findings show us that organizational justice perception play important role in the occurrence of deviant workplace behavior. However, it is not the sole predictor since only one deviant workplace behavior (out of twelve which correlates significantly with one form of organizational justice.
This study explores how different motivation categories influence college students’ learning engagement behaviors and outcomes under the context of eastern culture. 178 junior college students were surveyed at a four-year research university in Taiwan. The study addressed two research questions: 1. Are there subgroups of students with significantly different motivation profiles? 2. If so, do these subgroups of students differ significantly in terms of their engagement behaviors and learning o...
Cyberspace * Cyber Attack on Critical Private Infrastructure * Leveraging Counter Threat Network * Defense Ideology Countering Criminal and Drug Trafficking Organizations in the Cyber Domain Dark Web Narcotics in the Cyber Domain Drug / Counter-Drug * Center of Gravity Analysis of Drug Trafficking
Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel
This brief report describes dating violence victimization among adolescents in Flanders, Belgium, and focuses on how dating violence is related to adolescents' well-being and engagement in risk behaviors, such as substance use, sexual behaviors, and engagement in vandalism or fighting. A survey was conducted in Flanders, Belgium among 1187 adolescents (61.3% female, n = 728). A total of 466 respondents between 16 and 22 years old (M = 17.82 years, SD = 0.92) were in a relationship (71.0% female, n = 331), and, therefore, formed the subsample of the present study. The results show that adolescents, who consume alcohol at a younger age, have ever used marihuana, or were involved in vandalism have a higher probability to become victim of dating violence than adolescents who are not involved in these behaviors. Dating violence victimization was also linked with symptoms of depression and a lower self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skinner, Ellen A; Pitzer, Jennifer R; Steele, Joel S
How children and youth deal with academic challenges and setbacks can make a material difference to their learning and school success. Hence, it is important to investigate the factors that allow students to cope constructively. A process model focused on students' motivational resources was used to frame a study examining whether engagement in the classroom shapes students' academic coping, and whether coping in turn contributes to subsequent persistence on challenging tasks and learning, which then feed back into ongoing engagement. In fall and spring of the same school year, 880 children in 4th through 6th grades and their teachers completed measures of students' engagement and disaffection in the classroom, and of their re-engagement in the face of obstacles and difficulties; students also reported on 5 adaptive and 6 maladaptive ways of academic coping; and information on a subset of students' classroom grades was collected. Structural analyses, incorporating student-reports, teacher-reports, and their combination, indicated that the model of motivational processes was a good fit for time-ordered data from fall to spring. Multiple regressions examining each step in the process model also indicated that it was the profile of coping responses, rather than any specific individual way of coping, that was most centrally connected to changes in engagement and persistence. Taken together, findings suggest that these internal dynamics may form self-perpetuating cycles that could cement or augment the development of children's motivational resilience and vulnerability across time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Rasberry, Catherine N; Tiu, Georgianne F; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Michael, Shannon L; Merlo, Caitlin L; Lee, Sarah M; Bohm, Michele K; Annor, Francis; Ethier, Kathleen A
Studies have shown links between educational outcomes such as letter grades, test scores, or other measures of academic achievement, and health-related behaviors (1-4). However, as reported in a 2013 systematic review, many of these studies have used samples that are not nationally representative, and quite a few studies are now at least 2 decades old (1). To update the relevant data, CDC analyzed results from the 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a biennial, cross-sectional, school-based survey measuring health-related behaviors among U.S. students in grades 9-12. Analyses assessed relationships between academic achievement (i.e., self-reported letter grades in school) and 30 health-related behaviors (categorized as dietary behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, substance use, sexual risk behaviors, violence-related behaviors, and suicide-related behaviors) that contribute to leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents in the United States (5). Logistic regression models controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school found that students who earned mostly A's, mostly B's, or mostly C's had statistically significantly higher prevalence estimates for most protective health-related behaviors and significantly lower prevalence estimates for most health-related risk behaviors than did students with mostly D's/F's. These findings highlight the link between health-related behaviors and education outcomes, suggesting that education and public health professionals can find their respective education and health improvement goals to be mutually beneficial. Education and public health professionals might benefit from collaborating to achieve both improved education and health outcomes for youths.
Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Connell, Arin; Dishion, Thomas J
This study examined the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in public schools on academic outcomes from age 11 to 17. Students were randomly assigned to the three-session Family Check-Up (FCU), which is designed to motivate change in parenting practices by using an assessment-driven approach and strengths-based feedback. All services were voluntary, and approximately 25% of the families engaged in the FCU. Compared with matched controls, adolescents whose parents received the FCU maintained a satisfactory GPA into high school, and intervention engagement was associated with improved attendance. The highest-risk families were the most likely to engage in the family-centered intervention, suggesting the efficacy of integrating supportive services to families in the context of other schoolwide approaches to promote the success and achievement of vulnerable students.
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise
Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children's academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class.
Record, Rachael A; Silberman, Will R; Santiago, Joshua E; Ham, Taewook
Given the wide use of social media, these platforms have become important channels for understanding health-related information engagement processes. Reddit is a social media platform dedicated to user-generated content and discourse around the world. However, little research exists regarding use of the platform. Guided by the diffusion of innovation theory, the purpose of this study was to analyze Reddit users' behaviors on the platform related to perceptions of information credibility, health information seeking, and behavioral enactment of information found. Data were collected via survey from Reddit users around the world (n = 389). Data suggest that although Reddit use and perceived information credibility are unrelated to acting on the information found on Reddit, users who are specifically seeking health-related information are more likely to enact the information in their lives. Implications from the findings suggest important considerations for communication scholars, media advocates, and health promotion practitioners.
Halliday, Simone E; Calkins, Susan D; Leerkes, Esther M
Learning engagement is a critical factor for academic achievement and successful school transitioning. However, current methods of assessing learning engagement in young children are limited to teacher report or classroom observation, which may limit the types of research questions one could assess about this construct. The current study investigated the validity of a novel assessment designed to measure behavioral learning engagement among young children in a standardized laboratory setting and examined how learning engagement in the laboratory relates to future classroom adjustment. Preschool-aged children (N = 278) participated in a learning-based Tangrams task and Story sequencing task and were observed based on seven behavioral indicators of engagement. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity for a behavioral engagement factor composed of six of the original behavioral indicators: attention to instructions, on-task behavior, enthusiasm/energy, persistence, monitoring progress/strategy use, and negative affect. Concurrent validity for this behavioral engagement factor was established through its associations with parent-reported mastery motivation and pre-academic skills in math and literacy measured in the laboratory, and predictive validity was demonstrated through its associations with teacher-reported classroom learning behaviors and performance in math and reading in kindergarten. These associations were found when behavioral engagement was observed during both the nonverbal task and the verbal story sequencing tasks and persisted even after controlling for child minority status, gender, and maternal education. Learning engagement in preschool appears to be successfully measurable in a laboratory setting. This finding has implications for future research on the mechanisms that support successful academic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramey, Heather L; Lawford, Heather L; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
Youth contributions to others (e.g., volunteering) have been connected to indicators of successful development, including self-esteem, optimism, social support, and identity development. Youth-adult partnerships, which involve youth and adults working together towards a shared goal in activity settings, such as youth-serving agencies or recreation organizations, provide a unique opportunity for examining youth contributions. We examined associations between measures of youth's participation in youth-adult partnerships (psychological engagement and degree of partnering) in activity settings and youth contributing behaviors, in two Canadian samples: (a) community-involved youth (N = 153, mean age = 17.1 years, 65% female) and (b) undergraduates (N = 128, mean age = 20.1 years, 92.2% female). We found that degree of partnering and psychological engagement were related to each other yet independently predicted contributing behaviors. Our findings suggest that youth-adult partnerships might be one potentially rich context for the promotion of youth's contributions to others. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whitley, Cameron T.; Yoder, Scot D.
Universities have become increasingly interested in incorporating civic engagement into undergraduate education with the goal of enhancing leadership skills and creating socially responsible global citizens. What is unclear is which educational experiences are most effective in achieving this goal. In this study, we seek to determine the impact of…
Aimee K. Dollman
Full Text Available Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds.Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI.Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH, SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices.Results: The descriptive results show that (1 more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2 the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3 two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4 there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5 more than half (n = 16 of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L.; Dye, Louise
Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic perf...
Alimoglu, Mustafa K.; Sarac, Didar B.; Alparslan, Derya; Karakas, Ayse A.; Altintas, Levent
Background Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2) with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6) and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4) with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL) sessions (~7 hours) with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM)’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48). Results Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (κ=0.87) and 80.6% (κ=0.71), respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689). Conclusions This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types. PMID:25308966
Adam Robert Nicholls
Full Text Available The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012 infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes’ scores in these constructs.
Nicholls, Adam R; Morley, David; Perry, John L
The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012) infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years) completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes' scores in these constructs.
Hidding, Lisan M; Altenburg, Teatske M; van Ekris, Evi; Chinapaw, Mai J M
Todays children spend a large amount of their time sedentary. There is limited evidence on the determinants of sedentary behavior in children, and qualitative studies are especially lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore determinants of children's sedentary behavior from the child- and parent perspective. Qualitative data were collected during concept mapping sessions with four groups of 11-13 years old children ( n = 38) and two online sessions with parents ( n = 21). Children and parents generated sedentary behavior motives, sorted related motives, and rated their importance in influencing children's sedentary time. Next, multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to create clusters of motives resulting in a concept map. Finally, the researchers named the clusters in the concept map. Concept maps of children yielded eight to ten perceived determinants, and concept maps of parents six to seven. Children and parents identified six similar potential determinants, and both rated as important: Sitting because… "it is the norm (I have to)", and "I can work/play better that way". In addition, children rated "there is nobody to play with" as an important potential determinant for engaging in sedentary behavior. The most important child- and parent perceived determinants were related to the social/cultural and physical environment, indicating that these are promising targets for future interventions.
Lisan M. Hidding
Full Text Available Todays children spend a large amount of their time sedentary. There is limited evidence on the determinants of sedentary behavior in children, and qualitative studies are especially lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore determinants of children’s sedentary behavior from the child- and parent perspective. Qualitative data were collected during concept mapping sessions with four groups of 11–13 years old children (n = 38 and two online sessions with parents (n = 21. Children and parents generated sedentary behavior motives, sorted related motives, and rated their importance in influencing children’s sedentary time. Next, multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to create clusters of motives resulting in a concept map. Finally, the researchers named the clusters in the concept map. Concept maps of children yielded eight to ten perceived determinants, and concept maps of parents six to seven. Children and parents identified six similar potential determinants, and both rated as important: Sitting because… “it is the norm (I have to”, and “I can work/play better that way”. In addition, children rated “there is nobody to play with” as an important potential determinant for engaging in sedentary behavior. The most important child- and parent perceived determinants were related to the social/cultural and physical environment, indicating that these are promising targets for future interventions.
Full Text Available Screen time is negatively associated with markers of health in western youth, but very little is known about these relationships in Chinese youth. Middle-school and high-school students (n = 2625 in Wuhan, China, completed questionnaires assessing demographics, health behaviors, and self-perceptions in spring/summer 2016. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether, after adjustment for covariates, screen time was associated with body mass index (BMI, eating behaviors, average nightly hours of sleep, physical activity (PA, academic performance, and psychological states. Watching television on school days was negatively associated with academic performance, PA, anxiety, and life satisfaction. Television viewing on non-school days was positively associated with sleep duration. Playing electronic games was positively associated with snacking at night and less frequently eating breakfast, and negatively associated with sleep duration and self-esteem. Receiving electronic news and study materials on non-school days was negatively associated with PA, but on school days, was positively associated with anxiety. Using social networking sites was negatively associated with academic performance, but positively associated with BMI z-score, PA and anxiety. Screen time in adolescents is associated with unhealthy behaviors and undesirable psychological states that can contribute to poor quality of life.
Yan, Hanyi; Zhang, Rui; Oniffrey, Theresa M; Chen, Guoxun; Wang, Yueqiao; Wu, Yingru; Zhang, Xinge; Wang, Quan; Ma, Lu; Li, Rui; Moore, Justin B
Screen time is negatively associated with markers of health in western youth, but very little is known about these relationships in Chinese youth. Middle-school and high-school students ( n = 2625) in Wuhan, China, completed questionnaires assessing demographics, health behaviors, and self-perceptions in spring/summer 2016. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether, after adjustment for covariates, screen time was associated with body mass index (BMI), eating behaviors, average nightly hours of sleep, physical activity (PA), academic performance, and psychological states. Watching television on school days was negatively associated with academic performance, PA, anxiety, and life satisfaction. Television viewing on non-school days was positively associated with sleep duration. Playing electronic games was positively associated with snacking at night and less frequently eating breakfast, and negatively associated with sleep duration and self-esteem. Receiving electronic news and study materials on non-school days was negatively associated with PA, but on school days, was positively associated with anxiety. Using social networking sites was negatively associated with academic performance, but positively associated with BMI z-score, PA and anxiety. Screen time in adolescents is associated with unhealthy behaviors and undesirable psychological states that can contribute to poor quality of life.
Kremer, Kristen P.; Flower, Andrea; Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G.
The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between externalizing and internalizing behavior and children’s academic achievement, particularly in terms of whether these variables varied as a function of gender and race. Data pertaining to externalizing and internalizing behavior, academic achievement, gender, and race from three waves of the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 2028) were used. Results indicate that behavior problems had a negative relationship with academic performance and some of these associations endured over time. Externalizing behavior impacted reading scores more negatively for females compared to males at baseline, but the impact of externalizing behavior on long-term reading outcomes did not vary by gender. Externalizing behavior impacted reading scores more negatively for Black children than White children at multiple points in time. Differences between males, females, Black, and White children concerning behavior and achievement are explained. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future research are also presented. PMID:28529397
Pardo, Abelardo; Han, Feifei; Ellis, Robert A.
Self-regulated learning theories are used to understand the reasons for different levels of university student academic performance. Similarly, learning analytics research proposes the combination of detailed data traces derived from technology-mediated tasks with a variety of algorithms to predict student academic performance. The former approach…
A meta-analysis is undertaken, including 11 studies, to determine whether there is a relationship between Bible knowledge on one hand and academic and behavioral outcomes on the other among those living in urban areas. The results indicate that increased Bible knowledge is associated with higher levels of student academic achievement and positive…
Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei
Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…
Collins, Tai A.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Flowers, Emily M.; Kalra, Hilary D.; Richard, Jessie; Haas, Lauren E.
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) have difficulty with academic engagement during independent seatwork tasks. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Behavior Bingo, a novel interdependent group contingency intervention, on the academic engagement, off-task, and disruptive behavior of students with…
Ting, Hua; Wong, Ruey-Hong; Yang, Hao-Jan; Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Wang, Lee
The behaviors of children may be affected by sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). This study adopts a cross-sectional approach to investigate the relationship between the sleep apneas-hypopneas index during sleep and the behavioral and academic performance of schoolchildren in Taiwan. A total of 138 children (85 boys and 53 girls), ages 6-11, were recruited from two elementary schools to participate in this study. Overnight polysomnographic examinations in hospital were performed to assess sleep quality, including total sleep time, arousal index, apneas-hypopneas index, desaturation index, and lowest oxygen saturation, as well as the percentage of total sleep time spent in rapid eye movement, stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, and stage 4. The children's parents and teachers were required to complete a Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form to assess child behavior and academic achievement. Compared with children without SDB (apneas-hypopneas index ≤1), those with severe SDB (apneas-hypopneas index >15) exhibited more irregular behavioral performance in somatic complaints (odds ratio (OR) = 9.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-85.71) and attention (OR = 9.95; 95% CI = 1.02-97.00). However, different severities of SDB groups did not show significant associations in academic performance. Our study suggests that children with severe SDB may predispose to somatic complaints and attention problems so that sleep examination or medical intervention might be provided at an early age in these children.
Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scheer, Richard [Scheer Ventures, Takoma Park, MD (United States)
One of the most important aspects for the successful implementation of customer-facing programs is to better understand how to engage and communicate with consumers. Customer-facing programs include time-based rates, information and feedback, load management, and energy efficiency. This report presents lessons learned by utilities through consumer behavior studies (CBS) conducted as part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program. The SGIG CBS effort presents a unique opportunity to advance the understanding of consumer behaviors in terms of customer acceptance and retention, and electricity consumption and peak demand impacts. The effort includes eleven comprehensive studies with the aim of evaluating the response of residential and small commercial customers to time-based rate programs implemented in conjunction with advanced metering infrastructure and customer systems such as in-home displays, programmable communicating thermostats, and web portals. DOE set guidelines and protocols that sought to help the utilities design studies that would rigorously test and more precisely estimate the impact of time-based rates on customers’ energy usage patterns, as well as identify the key drivers that motivate behavioral changes.
Nolan, Sarah E M; Tucker, Carolyn M; Flenar, Delphia J; Arthur, Tya M; Smith, Tasia M
The objective of this study was to determine if non-Hispanic Black adults' levels of endorsement of motivators and barriers related to healthy eating are significantly associated with their level of engagement in healthy eating and their perceived importance of healthy eating and if these investigated variables differ by gender, income, and/or age. An assessment battery was completed by a cross-sectional sample of 207 non-Hispanic Black adults in Bronx, NY (54.1 % female; age: M = 38, SD = 14.12). Participants were recruited by culturally diverse data collectors at community-based locations within Bronx. Building healthy eating into a routine was a significant motivator of healthy eating (p motivators to engaging in healthy eating (routine: p motivators and barriers. Intervention programs to increase healthy eating among adults similar to those in this study may benefit from including a focus on increasing self-control of eating behaviors and incorporating healthy eating into one's routine.
Stout, Karen E.; Christenson, Sandra L.
Students' engagement at school has emerged as a critical factor across hundreds of dropout prevention and recovery programs in the United States. By supporting and improving academic, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional engagement, we can mitigate the risk of dropping out. This article describes the history of school dropout, predictors of…
Xiao, Han; Li, Shiyue; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Gao, Mengting; Yan, Hong; Okafor, Chukwuemeka N
Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection. The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM) method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs. Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions. The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis intervention
Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Gao, Mengting; Yan, Hong; Okafor, Chukwuemeka N.
Background Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection. Methods The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM) method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs. Principal Findings Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions. Conclusions The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against
Full Text Available Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection.The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs.Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions.The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis
SARI, Ihsan; CETIN, Mehmet; KAYA, Erdi; GULLE, Mahmut; KAHRAMANOĞLU, Recep
The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between leisure time motivation and academic motivation among the students who studied at the Faculty of Education of Mustafa Kemal University. 260 students (Xyears: 21.29±2.11) constituted the sample of the study. For the analyses of the data; Leisure Motivation Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were employed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis. According to the ...
Auerbach, Randy P; Gardiner, Casey K
Past research has largely focused on examining self-esteem as an independent as opposed to a dependent variable. At the same time, research suggests that during adolescence, self-esteem is subject to yearly, monthly, as well as daily change, and consequently, it is important to identify underlying vulnerability factors and behaviors, which shape self-esteem lability. In the current multi-wave, longitudinal study, 142 adolescents between the ages of 12-18 completed monthly assessments across 4 months. At the initial assessment, adolescents provided self-report data pertaining to impulsiveness, maladaptive coping, risky behavior engagement, and self-esteem. At each of the follow-up assessments, adolescents provided information about risky behavior engagement and self-esteem. Results of time-lagged, idiographic multilevel mediation analyzes indicated that risky behavior engagement mediated the relationship between impulsiveness/maladaptive coping and subsequent low self-esteem. Critically, when included in the same model, impulsiveness was significant above and beyond maladaptive coping. Additionally, the reverse model with self-esteem as the predictor and risky behavior included as the dependent variable was not significant suggesting that our effect was unidirectional. As a whole, these findings suggest that impulsive youth may engage in behaviors, which ultimately precipitate negative self-evaluations and transient declines in self-esteem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Despite the importance of the human/social dimension of organizational sustainability, this area of scholastic endeavor has received relatively little attention when compared to the economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability. On the basis of social exchange theory, this study posited the important role that employee work engagement is a key component for improving human performance for organizational sustainability. In order to do so, it suggests the important role that employee work engagement has on the relationships among various factors in the organization, including organizational procedural justice, knowledge sharing, and innovative work behaviors. A total of 400 complete responses from full-time employees in Korean organizations were used for the purpose of data analysis with structural equation modeling (SEM. The results demonstrated that organizational procedural justice is positively related with employee work engagement, knowledge sharing, and innovative work behavior. In addition, work engagement enhances employee knowledge sharing and innovative work behavior, and knowledge sharing enhances innovative work behavior. With regard to the mechanisms of these relationships, work engagement and knowledge sharing acted as significant mediators. Based on the findings, we suggested relevant research implications and recommendations for future research on sustainable organizations.
Behavioral disengagement from school is a proximal predictor of dropout. Therefore, the enhancement of behavioral engagement is a useful point of entry for dropout prevention. In this study, we examine the behavioral engagement of at-risk and non-at-risk students in Dutch senior vocational education
Ginsburg, Liane; Berta, Whitney; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Rohit Dass, Adrian; Laporte, Audrey; Reid, R Colin; Squires, Janet; Taylor, Deanne
Health care aides (HCAs) provide most direct care in long-term care (LTC) and home and community care (HCC) settings but are understudied. We validate three key work attitude measures to better understand HCAs' work experiences: work engagement (WEng), psychological empowerment (PE), and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB-O). Data were collected from 306 HCAs working in LTC and HCC, using survey items for WEng, PE, and OCB-O adapted for HCAs. Psychometric evaluation involved confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Predictive validity (correlations with measures of job satisfaction and turnover intention) and internal consistency reliability were examined. CFA supported a one-factor model of WEng, a four-factor model of PE, and a one-factor model of OCB-O. HCC workers scored higher than LTC workers on Self-determination (PE) and lower on Impact, demonstrating concurrent validity. WEng and PE correlated with worker outcomes (job satisfaction, turnover intention, and OCB-O), demonstrating predictive validity. Reliability and validity analyses indicated sound psychometric properties overall. Study results support psychometric properties of measures of WEng, PE, and OCB-O for HCAs. Knowledge of HCAs' work attitudes and behaviors can inform recruitment programs, incentive systems, and retention/training strategies for this vital group of care providers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Academic researchers often need and re-use relevant information found after a period of time. This preliminary study used various methods, including experiments, interviews, search log analysis, sequential analysis, and observation to investigate characteristics of academic information finding and re-finding behavior. Overall, the participants in this study entered short queries either in finding or re-finding phases. Comparatively speaking, the participants entered greater number of queries, modified more queries, browsed more web pages, and stayed longer on web pages in the finding phase. On the other hand, in the re-finding phase, they utilized personal information management tools to re-find instead of finding again using search engine, such as checking browsing history; moreover, they tend to input less number of queries and stayed shorter on web pages. In short, the participants interacted more with the retrieval system during the finding phase, while they increased the use of personal information management tools in the re-finding phase. As to the contextual clues used in re-finding phase, the participants used less clues from the target itself, instead, they used indirect clues more often, especially location-related information. Based on the results of sequential analysis, the transition states in the re-finding phase was found to be more complex than those in the finding phase. Web information finding and re-finding behavior is an important and novel area of research. The preliminary results would benefit research on Web information re-finding behavior, and provide useful suggestions for developing personal academic information management systems. [Article content in Chinese
Xie, Hongling; Dawes, Molly; Wurster, Tabitha J; Shi, Bing
The transition to middle school often presents behavioral and academic challenges to youths. Boys of color (i.e., African American and Hispanic in this study) may be especially vulnerable. In this study, peer nominations of aggressive and academic behaviors as well as youths' perceptions of how these behaviors were related to popularity in peer networks were obtained from the spring semester of fifth grade through the spring semester of seventh grade, with the transition occurring as the students entered the sixth grade. The sample included 188 boys (71 Caucasian, 90 African American, and 27 Hispanic) from an urban school district in the northeastern United States. Trajectory analyses showed that African American boys scored lower in studentship and higher in rule-breaking and aggressive (both physical and social) behaviors prior to the transition, and such differences among ethnic groups were largely maintained during the transition. Hispanic boys displayed decreases in their studentship during the transition. African American boys' perception of how studentship affects popularity was more positive than other boys prior to the transition, but it decreased during the transition. African American boys also endorsed rule breaking and physical and social aggression more positively for popularity prior to the transition, whereas Caucasian and Hispanic boys' endorsement increased during the transition and eventually caught up with those of African American boys in seventh grade. A positive within-individual association was found between youths' popularity perception and their behavior for studentship, rule breaking, and physical aggression, which did not differ by ethnicity. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Baggett, Kathleen; Davis, Betsy; Feil, Edward; Sheeber, Lisa; Landry, Susan; Leve, Craig; Johnson, Ursula
Technology advances increasingly allow for access to remotely delivered interventions designed to promote early parenting practices that protect against child maltreatment. Among low-income families, at somewhat elevated risk for child maltreatment, there is some evidence that parents do engage in and benefit from remote-coaching interventions. However, little is known about the effectiveness of such programs to engage and benefit families at high risk for child maltreatment due to multiple stressors associated with poverty. To address this limitation, we examined engagement and outcomes among mothers at heightened risk for child abuse, who were enrolled in a randomized controlled, intent-to-treat trial of an Internet adaptation of an evidence-based infant parenting intervention. We found that engagement patterns were similar between higher and lower risk groups. Moreover, an intervention dose by condition effect was found for increased positive parent behavior and reduced child abuse potential.
Furnham, Adrian; Monsen, Jeremy; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan
Background: Both ability (measured by power tests) and non-ability (measured by preference tests) individual difference measures predict academic school outcomes. These include fluid as well as crystalized intelligence, personality traits, and learning styles. This paper examines the incremental validity of five psychometric tests and the sex and…
Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula
Girls presently outperform boys in overall academic success. Corresponding gender stereotypes portray male students as lazy and troublesome and female students as diligent and compliant. The present study investigated whether these stereotypes impact teachers' perceptions of students and whether students' visible enactment of their gender at…
Herrera, Socorro G.; Kavimandan, Shabina K.; Perez, Della R.; Wessels, Stephanie
Research indicates that the culturally responsive teaching strategies outlined in this book accelerate literacy, language development, and academic growth for students in grades K-8, particularly for English language learners. Completely revised and updated, this bestselling resource speaks to the social-emotional needs of learners and helps…
Eow, Yee Leng; Wan Ali, Wan Zah bte; Mahmud, Rosnaini bt.; Baki, Roselan
The main purpose of the study was to address the association between computer games and students' academic achievement. The exceptional growth in numbers of children playing computer games, the uneasiness and incomplete understanding foundation when starting the discussion on computer games have stimulated this study to be conducted. From a survey…
Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya
The present study tested the model minority and inferior minority assumptions by examining the relationship between academic performance and measures of behavioral health in a subsample of 3,008 (22%) participants in a nationally representative, multicultural sample of 13,601 students in the 2001 Youth Risk Behavioral Survey, comparing Asian…
Yzer, MC; Fisher, JD; Bakker, AB; Siero, FW; Misovich, SJ
Female college students' perceived vulnerability to AIDS and their perceived self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behavior (APB), were manipulated in a 2 x 2 design. Consistent with protection motivation theory (e.g.. Rogers, 1983), the results showed that intention to engage in APE was highest
Umam, K.; Mardi, S. N. S.; Hariadi, M.
The recent popularity of internet messenger based smartphone technologies has motivated some university lecturers to use them for educational activities. These technologies have enormous potential to enhance the teaching and ubiquitous learning experience for smart campus development. However, the design ubiquitous learning model using interactive internet messenger group (IIMG) and empirical evidence that would favor a broad application of mobile and ubiquitous learning in smart campus settings to improve engagement and behavior is still limited. In addition, the expectation that mobile learning could improve engagement and behavior on smart campus cannot be confirmed because the majority of the reviewed studies followed instructions paradigms. This article aims to present ubiquitous learning model design and showing learners’ experiences in improved engagement and behavior using IIMG for learner-learner and learner-lecturer interactions. The method applied in this paper includes design process and quantitative analysis techniques, with the purpose of identifying scenarios of ubiquitous learning and realize the impressions of learners and lecturers about engagement and behavior aspect, and its contribution to learning.
Shapka, Jennifer D.; Law, Danielle M.
Cyberbullying has become a growing concern for adolescents. This study examined differences in cyber-aggression for 518 Canadian adolescents of either East Asian or European descent (61% female; M age = 15.24; SD = 1.68). Associations between parenting behaviors (parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure) and engagement in…
Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine
Background: Research on the extent to which cyberbullying affects sexual minority youth is limited. This study examined associations between experiencing cyber and school bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors among sexual minority youth. We also explored whether feeling connected to an adult at school moderated these…
Hardy, Sam A; Dollahite, David C; Johnson, Natalie; Christensen, Justin B
The present study used self-determination theory to examine adolescents' motivations to engage in charitable donating and community volunteering and to abstain from sexual intercourse and marijuana use. The sample consisted of 419 late adolescents recruited from across the country through an online survey panel. Participants completed online measures of motivations to engage in donating and volunteering, motivations to abstain from sex and marijuana, and single-item indexes of the four behaviors. Variable-centered analyses (correlation and regression) found evidence for a general motivational factor, motivational specificity by behavioral domain (positive and negative behaviors), motivational specificity by particular behavior (charitable donating, volunteering, sexual risk-taking, and marijuana use), and a stronger relative role for autonomous motivations than controlled motivations. Person-centered analyses (cluster analysis) found four motivation profiles (low motivation, medium motivation, high motivation, and mixed motivation) for all four behaviors and suggested that level of autonomous motivation was a key factor differentiating the groups on levels of behavior. The findings suggest different levels of motivational specificity and highlight the importance of autonomous motivations in predicting behaviors as compared to controlled motivations. Further, similar patterns were found for motivations to engage and to abstain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hagedorn, Rebecca L; Olfert, Melissa D
In order to investigate the impact of food insecurity on college students in a highly health disparate region we (1) assessed the prevalence of food insecurity among young adults at a large, rural university in Appalachia, and (2) investigated the relationship between food insecurity and behavioral characteristics including academic performance, coping strategies, and money expenditure. A cross-sectional design was used to capture a representative sample of young adults attending a large, central Appalachian university in Fall 2016. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Adult Food Security Survey was used to measure food insecurity. Independent variables include money expenditure (MES), coping strategies (CSS), academic performance (APS), and demographic, health, economic and culinary variables. Participant responses ( n = 692) showed one third (36.6%) of respondents were food-insecure. Students with higher scores for MES and CSS had significantly higher odds of being food-insecure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.81 to 2.38 and OR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.23, respectively). The odds of high APS scores (OR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.86) were inversely related to food insecurity. Results of the logistic regression showed MES, CSS, health, and school year remained a significant predictor of food insecurity in college students. These findings suggest behavioral differences in terms of coping strategies, money expenditure, and academic progress among food-insecure students and can be used to identify and target at-risk students to promote student food security and well-being.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. RESULTS: Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.
Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Mata, Jutta
This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.
Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.; Rajalingam, Preman; Hao, Joey Wong Ying; Canning, Claire Ann; Ferenczi, Michael A.; Low-Beer, Naomi
The objective of the paper is to report findings of two studies that attempted to find answers to the following questions: (1) What are the levels of cognitive engagement in TBL?; (2) Are there differences between students who were more exposed to TBL than students who were less exposed to TBL?; (3) To which extent does cognitive engagement…
Heiland, Donna; Huber, Mary Taylor
American higher education has always articulated a civic mission as part of its purpose: colleges and universities educate students for life in a democratic society and provide that society with citizens who ensure that it thrives in turn. This essay maps the development of a national infrastructure for civic learning and engagement in American…
Durber, Chelsea M; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L
This study examined how the family environment predicts long-term academic and behavioral functioning in school following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood. Using a concurrent cohort, prospective design, 15 children with severe TBI, 39 with moderate TBI, and 70 with orthopedic injury (OI) who were injured when they were 3-7 years of age were compared on tests of academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of school performance and behavior on average 6.83 years postinjury. Soon after injury and at the longer term follow-up, families completed measures of parental psychological distress, family functioning, and quality of the home environment. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined group differences in academic outcomes and their associations with measures of the early and later family environment. The severe TBI group, but not the moderate TBI group, performed worse than did the OI group on all achievement tests, parent ratings of academic performance, and teacher ratings of internalizing problems. Higher quality early and late home environments predicted stronger academic skills and better classroom behavior for children with both TBI and OI. The early family environment more consistently predicted academic achievement, whereas the later family environment more consistently predicted classroom functioning. The quality of the home environment predicted academic outcomes more strongly than did parental psychological distress or family functioning. TBI in early childhood has long-term consequences for academic achievement and school performance and behavior. Higher quality early and later home environments predict better school outcomes for both children with TBI and children with OI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; Östergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette
Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gender affects this relationship among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1,954 students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda (72% response rate). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis. 1,179 (60.3%) students in our study sample reported having debuted sexually. Of these 440 (42.2%) used condoms inconsistently with new sexual partners, and 344 (33.6%) had had multiple sexual partners. We found a statistically significant association between poor academic performance and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner and this association remained significant even after adjusting for all the potential confounders. There was no such association detected regarding multiple sexual partners. We also found that gender modified the effect of poor academic performance on inconsistent condom use. Females, who were poor academic performers, were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use than their male counterparts. Interventions should be designed to provide extra support to poor academic performers, which may improve their performance and self-esteem, which in turn might reduce their risky sexual behaviors. PMID:24999121
Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette
Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gender affects this relationship among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1,954 students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda (72% response rate). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis. 1,179 (60.3%) students in our study sample reported having debuted sexually. Of these 440 (42.2%) used condoms inconsistently with new sexual partners, and 344 (33.6%) had had multiple sexual partners. We found a statistically significant association between poor academic performance and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner and this association remained significant even after adjusting for all the potential confounders. There was no such association detected regarding multiple sexual partners. We also found that gender modified the effect of poor academic performance on inconsistent condom use. Females, who were poor academic performers, were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use than their male counterparts. Interventions should be designed to provide extra support to poor academic performers, which may improve their performance and self-esteem, which in turn might reduce their risky sexual behaviors.
Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine
Research on the extent to which cyberbullying affects sexual minority youth is limited. This study examined associations between experiencing cyber and school bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors among sexual minority youth. We also explored whether feeling connected to an adult at school moderated these associations. Data came from 951 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, who completed the New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey during fall 2009. We used multiple logistic regression to examine the hypothesized associations and test for effect modification. Cyber and school bullying were associated with engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors among LGB youth. Youth experiencing both cyber and school bullying had the greatest odds of engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors. However, feeling connected to an adult at school moderated these associations such that bullied youth who felt connected were not more likely to report aggressive and suicidal behaviors. The findings highlight the challenges faced by bullied LGB youth. Practitioners should work with school administrators to establish supportive environments for sexual minority youth. Helping victimized LGB youth develop meaningful connections with adults at school can minimize the negative impacts of cyber and school bullying. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Kalil, Ariel; Dunifon, Rachel E.
Using data from five waves of the Women’s Employment Survey (WES; 1997–2003), we examine the links between low-income mothers’ employment patterns and the emotional behavior and academic progress of their children. We find robust and substantively important linkages between several different dimensions of mothers’ employment experiences and child outcomes. The pattern of results is similar across empirical approaches—including ordinary least squares and child fixed-effect models, with and without an extensive set of controls. Children exhibit fewer behavior problems when mothers work and experience job stability (relative to children whose mothers do not work). In contrast, maternal work accompanied by job instability is associated with significantly higher child behavior problems (relative to employment in a stable job). Children whose mothers work full-time and/or have fluctuating work schedules also exhibit significantly higher levels of behavior problems. However, full-time work has negative consequences for children only when it is in jobs that do not require cognitive skills. Such negative consequences are completely offset when this work experience is in jobs that require the cognitive skills that lead to higher wage growth prospects. Finally, fluctuating work schedules and full-time work in non-cognitively demanding jobs are each strongly associated with the probability that the child will repeat a grade or be placed in special education. PMID:22246798
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A; Kim, Hye Kyung
Reducing rates of obesity will require interventions that influence both individual decisions and environmental factors through changes in public policy. Previous work indicates that messages emphasizing environmental determinants increases support for public policies, but some suspect this strategy may undermine motivation to engage in diet and exercise. Study 1 involved 485 adults recruited from a shopping mall in New York. Study 2 involved 718 adult members of a Web-based national panel of US adults. Respondents in both studies were randomly assigned to read a story that emphasized environmental determinants of health or a control condition. The stories varied in the extent to which they described the story character as taking personal responsibility for weight management. Logistic regression and ordered logit models were used to test for differences in intentions to engage in diet and exercise behaviors based on which story the participant read. Analyses were also performed separately by participants' weight status. In both studies, messages that acknowledged personal responsibility while emphasizing environmental causes of obesity increased intentions to engage in healthy behavior for at least 1 weight status group. Emphasizing factors outside of personal control appears to enhance rather than undermine motivations to engage in healthy diet and exercise behavior.
June J. Pilcher
Full Text Available There is growing interest in using activity workstations as a method of increasing light physical activity in normally sedentary environments. The current study (N = 117 compared the effects of studying in college students while slowly pedaling a stationary bike with a desktop with studying at traditional desks across 10 weeks in an academic semester. The students were assigned to study either on the stationary bike or at a traditional desk located in the campus library for a minimum of 2 h a week. During the 10 weeks, the students studied for tests or worked on other required academic activities while working at their assigned desk. In addition, the participants completed a pre survey, weekly surveys, and a post survey. We found that although students studying at the traditional desks reported more ease of studying and more effective studying than those using the stationary bikes, the two groups performed equally well on tests in an introductory psychology course. Moreover, the students using the traditional desks reported a decrease in sleep quality later in the semester while those using the activity workstation reported stable levels of sleep quality. The current results indicate that activity workstations could be implemented in university settings to encourage light physical activity without negatively affecting academic performance while providing possible long-term health and well-being benefits. Furthermore, the results suggests that activity workstations could be a means of combating sedentary behavior in environments where individuals are expected to sit either while waiting (e.g., doctor's waiting rooms, airports or when completing a necessary task (e.g., the workplace, educational settings.
Pilcher, June J; Morris, Drew M; Bryant, Stewart A; Merritt, Paul A; Feigl, Hayley B
There is growing interest in using activity workstations as a method of increasing light physical activity in normally sedentary environments. The current study ( N = 117) compared the effects of studying in college students while slowly pedaling a stationary bike with a desktop with studying at traditional desks across 10 weeks in an academic semester. The students were assigned to study either on the stationary bike or at a traditional desk located in the campus library for a minimum of 2 h a week. During the 10 weeks, the students studied for tests or worked on other required academic activities while working at their assigned desk. In addition, the participants completed a pre survey, weekly surveys, and a post survey. We found that although students studying at the traditional desks reported more ease of studying and more effective studying than those using the stationary bikes, the two groups performed equally well on tests in an introductory psychology course. Moreover, the students using the traditional desks reported a decrease in sleep quality later in the semester while those using the activity workstation reported stable levels of sleep quality. The current results indicate that activity workstations could be implemented in university settings to encourage light physical activity without negatively affecting academic performance while providing possible long-term health and well-being benefits. Furthermore, the results suggests that activity workstations could be a means of combating sedentary behavior in environments where individuals are expected to sit either while waiting (e.g., doctor's waiting rooms, airports) or when completing a necessary task (e.g., the workplace, educational settings).
Tartari, Valentina; Salter, Ammon
Recently, debate on women in academic science has been extended to academics' engagement with industry. We suggest that women tend to engage less in industry collaboration than their male colleagues of similar status. We argue that differences are mitigated by the presence of other women and by s...
Sawers, Kimberly M.; Wicks, David; Mvududu, Nyaradzo; Seeley, Lane; Copeland, Raedene
This study investigates how instructor teaching philosophy (traditional vs. constructivist) and type of learning space (traditional vs. active) influence instructor perceptions of student engagement. In a quasi-experimental study, we found that instructors perceived that students were more engaged in the active learning classroom (ALC) than in the…
Milošević Nikoleta M.
Full Text Available Cooperation between a family and school makes provisions for solving problems students face in their interpersonal relations and academic achievement. We are singling out a view of the effects of a micro-system on child's development, which states that immediate interrelations in a micro-system - a family - can effect interrelations in another micro-system -peer groups - or can effect academic achievement. The majority of authors agree that modes and spheres of influences that family exerts are numerous and diverse and that they depend on characteristics of a broader social and cultural community where a child is growing up as well as on parents' abilities and preparations. How successful the family-school cooperation will be is largely determined by teacher's personality and the way he/she is communicating with parents. A joint planning and implementation of decisions reached, identical norms of behavior, commonly adopted goals are a prerequisite for a child's normal development. It is pointed out that school should plan and organize its activities (courses, seminars, forums lectures, discussions, so as to popularize knowledge of pedagogy and psychology among parents as well as teacher training in communication competence.
Alireza Karimpour Vazifehkhorani
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: This study aimed to compare Gary Behavioral Systems (behavioral activation system and behavioral inhibition system in normal couples and those engaged in marital infidelity. Material and Methods: The research was descriptive and causal-comparative. Study population consisted of normal couples and couples who were betrayed in the cities of Tehran, Karaj and Tabriz that were referred to counseling clinics. Study sample consisted of 100 clients; 50 normal couples and 50 couples who were involved in marital infidelity. Sampling was targeted. To collect data, Grey-Wilson's and wife infidelity questionnaires were used. Results: Inhibition of behavior in normal couples was higher than couples involved in marital infidelity which was significant at P Conclusion: Couples who have activation system of high sensitivity are more involved in the phenomenon of marital infidelity compared to the couples who are at high behavioral inhibition system.
Cloutier, Michelle M; Wiley, James F; Trapp, Christine; Haile, Jennifer; Gorin, Amy A
Obesity rates in preschool children are high and disproportionately affect low-income children of color in the USA. Since 80% of preschool children spend ∼40 h/week in out-of-the home childcare, childcare centers are promising sites for obesity prevention interventions. Mixed methods were used to develop, implement, and assess the feasibility of an obesity prevention program for children 2-5 years. The intervention which consisted of brief (1-3 min), interactive, educational modules was developed by content experts and parents (n = 20) and targeted four areas (milk, sugar sweetened beverages, screen time, and physical activity). The modules were delivered by community health workers in the childcare center during pick-up and drop-off times, in small groups and home visits upon request. Focus groups with childcare center staff (n = 28) assessed satisfaction and interest in incorporating the intervention into care. Between February 2013 and March 2014, 354 caregivers (∼73%) at six centers participated in one or more educational sessions. Of children, 37.4% in 2013 and 35.9% in 2014 were overweight or obese. Children entering preschool in 2014 were more likely to be overweight/obese than children who had been in the center since 2013 (36.2 vs 23.2%, p < 0.05). Childcare staff endorsed the intervention and received training to continue the program. Brief, interactive health-related behavior-change interventions engaged large numbers of low-income caregivers at childcare centers and resonated with center staff. Childcare center staff represent an underutilized resource to combat the childhood obesity epidemic.
Glenn, Daniel; Golinelli, Daniela; Rose, Raphael D; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritksy, Alexander; Sherbourne, Cathy; Craske, Michelle G
The present study explored treatment dose and patient engagement as predictors of treatment outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. Measures of high versus low treatment dose and high versus low patient engagement in CBT were compared as predictors of 12- and 18-month outcomes for patients being treated for anxiety disorders with CBT (with or without concurrent pharmacotherapy) in primary care settings as part of a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) intervention. Measures of dose (attendance, exposure completion) and engagement in CBT (homework adherence, commitment) were collected throughout treatment, and blinded follow-up phone assessments of outcome measures (12-item Brief Symptom Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire 8, Sheehan Disability Scale) were completed at 12 and 18 months. Propensity score weighting controlled for baseline differences in demographics and symptom severity between patients with high and low dose and engagement. These analyses included the 439 patients who selected CBT as treatment modality. Completing exposures, having high attendance, and being more adherent to completing homework predicted better outcomes across all measures at 12 and 18 months, and high CBT commitment predicted better outcomes on all measures at 18 months. This study found that higher treatment dose and patient engagement in CBT for anxiety disorders were stable and robust predictors of greater reductions in anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and functional disability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full text: National safeguards on nuclear materials (NM) non-proliferation in any country are provided by a system of special measures on NM management (legal regulation, organizing, scientific and technical measures and tools) as well as by a professional culture of people working with NM (non-proliferation culture). The fundamental attribute of any culture, and the non-proliferation culture also, is an availability of a system for reproduction of the specialists - carriers of this culture. Saying about national safeguards systems, one of the key components for existence and development of such a system in Russia is a creation and advancement of the system for specialists training in areas of NM non-proliferation and NM safe management. Unfortunately, when developing and improving the special measures of national safeguards, the specialists reproduction system is often forgotten. A lack of well-skilled specialists is retarding development of national safeguards now. Under today's conditions in Russia, this lack of specialists can become a serious obstacle for resolving the non-proliferation problem in the nearest future. Establishing the fact is a necessary and important step towards definition of long-term strategy for development of nuclear power industry in Russia. The specialists reproduction is a complex multi-level problem. Solution of the problem as applied to nuclear non-proliferation safeguards can be found through creating the academic system of training, re-training and qualification upgrade of appropriate specialists basing upon the training principles, traditions and approaches established in our country. Today we have only the first successful results in resolving aforementioned problems. The present paper is devoted to discussion of general problems for MPC and A specialists training in Russia as well as to discussion on development of the MPC and A Engineering Degree Program at MEPhI. Main attention in the present paper is focused at discussing the
Muralidharan, Sidharth; Men, Linjuan Rita
Based on consumer socialization theory, this study proposes and tests a conceptual model of social media shopping behavior, which links the antecedents of user motivations of engagement and peer communication about products to shopping behavior through social media. A cross-cultural survey was conducted with social media users in two culturally distinct markets with the largest Internet population: China (n=304) and the United States (n=328). Findings showed that social interaction, information, and remuneration were positive antecedents of peer communication for users from both countries. Peer communication positively impacted social media shopping behavior, and cultural differences were observed, with social interaction being important to Chinese users' shopping behavior, while remuneration was more important to American users. Implications are discussed.
Pask, Elizabeth B; Rawlins, Sarah T
Guided by the risk perception attitude framework (RPA), this study examined men's perceptions of risk and efficacy beliefs as predictors of their intentions to engage in self-protective behaviors. The results of multiple regression analyses did not provide support for the RPA prediction that efficacy beliefs moderate the relationship between risk perceptions and self-protective behavior. However, the results provide support for the main effects of risk and efficacy on all four behavioral intentions examined (i.e., Internet information seeking, communication with a health provider, HPV vaccination, and condom use). Risk and efficacy were positively related to (and significant individual predictors of) all four behavioral intentions. Scholarly and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Gage, Nicholas A.; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Prykanowski, Debra; Coyne, Michael; Scott, Terrance M.
Effective behavior management is necessary to ensure students are engaged with instruction. Students cannot learn if they are not engaged. Although the relationship between effective behavior management and positive student behavior is well established, the relationship between behavior management and increased academic achievement, including…
Maretić Edita; Sindik Joško
The aim of the study was to determine the differences between the aspects of aggressive behavior, their strengths (protective factors) in the prevention of behavioral disorders and academic achievement, in children within and out of institutional forms of education. The study was conducted on a sample of 264 students in seventh and eighth class of elementary school, of whom 134 were in institutional care, while 130 were outside the institutional forms of education. Data were collected by a qu...
Newman, Je-Nata Kennedy
The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between principals' perceptions of their transformational leadership behaviors and academic achievement in the areas of reading, math, science, and social studies in South Carolina public elementary schools. The theoretical framework for this research was provided…
Jabagchourian, John J.; Sorkhabi, Nadia; Quach, Wendy; Strage, Amy
A vast literature documents a host of advantages conferred upon middle class European American children whose parents employ an authoritative style of parenting, including enhanced academic achievement and positive behavioral outcomes. The literature is much less clear about the relationship between parental authority style and child outcomes in…
Mancil, G. Richmond; Haydon, Todd; Boman, Marty
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sensory activities used as antecedent interventions on the percentage correct on academic tasks and rate of aberrant behavior in three elementary aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Study activities were conducted in an after school program for children with ASD where…
Zach, Sima; Yazdi-Ugav, Orly; Zeev, Aviva
This study aimed to examine to what extent academic achievements, learning disorders, behavior problems and loneliness explain the variance of students' social skills. The differences between students diagnosed with learning disorders and students without learning disorders in all four variables were examined. Participants were 733 elementary…
Roland, Nathalie; Mierop, Adrien; Frenay, Mariane; Corneille, Olivier
Ajzen and Dasgupta (2015) recently invited complementing Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) measures with measures borrowed from implicit cognition research. In this study, we examined for the first time such combination, and we did so to predict academic persistence. Specifically, 169 first-year college students answered a TPB questionnaire and…
Johnson, Kaprea; Hannon, Michael D.
This study investigates the relationship between academic achievement and reports of student problem behavior from teachers, parents, and child self-reports. Participants included 108 teachers, 113 parents/caregivers, and 129 students from an urban school in the Northeast region of the United States. Results suggest parent and child reports were…
Edossa, Ashenafi Kassahun; Schroeders, Ulrich; Weinert, Sabine; Artelt, Cordula
Self-regulation is an essential ability of children to cope with various developmental challenges. This study examines the developmental interplay between emotional and behavioral self-regulation during childhood and the relationship with academic achievement using data from the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Using cross-lagged panel…
Lowinger, Robert Jay; He, Zhaomin; Lin, Miranda; Chang, Mei
This study examined the role of academic self-efficacy, acculturation difficulties, and language abilities on procrastination behavior using a convenience sample of 264 Chinese international students studying at three public universities in the United States. While there were no significant mean gender differences on any of the measures, results…
Rubin, Rosalyn; And Others
Scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were related to scores on achievement and intelligence tests, and to socioeconomic level and to teachers' ratings of student behavior, in order to test the hypothesis that student self esteem would have a positive effect on academic achievement. There was a small but statistically significant…
N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)
textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem
Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Gibson, Suzanne Semivan; Wilkins, Jonathan
African American adolescents disproportionately perform poorly compared to peers in both behavioral and academic aspects of their educational experience. In this study, African American male students participated in an after-school program involving tutoring, group counseling, and various enrichment activities. All students were assessed regarding their behavioral changes using attendance, discipline referrals, suspensions, and expulsions reports. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT) and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA) were used to assess the adolescents' improvement in their skills in reading and mathematics. After the end of the two-year program, initial results showed that the adolescents had increased their daily attendance, decreased discipline referrals, and had no suspensions or expulsions. These results also indicated that although the students entered the program at different skill levels, they were assessed to have the ability to function at their appropriate grade level. Their average improvement in basic skills was at least two grade levels. Implications drawn from the findings include: (a) there is a need to emphasize appropriate assessment prior to beginning a skill improvement program; (b) a need to emphasize the use of individualized learning plans and tutors; and (c) a need to further investigate the role of assessment and intervention in after-school programming in order to close the achievement gap.
Hastings, Richard P.; Remington, Bob
This article reviews literature on the responses of direct care staff to challenging behaviors of individuals with mental retardation. The paper constructs a behavior analytic description of the functions of care staff behavior in relation to their clients' challenging behaviors, draws a distinction between contingency-shaped and rule-governed…
Tan, Kevin; Oe, Jin Shin; Hoang Le, Minh Dung
Boys struggle academically and behaviorally more than girls and are more likely to have difficulty with social skills. It seems likely that boys and girls do not perceive social skills in the same light. Past research has not investigated this or its relationship to academic and behavioral performance. Using data from a cohort of 9th-grade…
Friedman, Adi; Blau,Ina; Eshet-Alkalai, Yoram
This study examined the phenomenon of academic dishonesty among university students. It was based on Pavela's (1997) framework of types of academic dishonesty (cheating, plagiarism, fabrication, and facilitation) and distinguished between digital and "traditional"- analog dishonesty. The study analyzed cases of academic dishonesty…
Paige, Samantha R; Alber, Julia M; Stellefson, Michael L; Krieger, Janice L
To examine how Transtheoretical Model (TTM)'s processes of change and mHealth literacy strategies are employed in mobile smoking cessation apps. A purposive sample of 100 iTunes apps were coded to assess descriptive (price, type, developer, user-rating) and engagement metrics, including processes of change and mHealth literacy strategies (plain language, usability, interactivity). One-way ANOVAs and independent samples t-tests examined associations between descriptive and engagement metrics. Over half of the apps included 7 (78%) processes of change. Fewer included self-liberation (36%) and reinforcement management (34%). Most apps incorporated plain language, but few integrated usability and interactivity strategies. Hypnotherapy and informational apps included more behavioral processes of change than apps incorporating a combination of features, including gaming, cigarette trackers, and motivational coaching (pbehavior change processes but rarely incorporated usability and interactivity features to promote patient engagement. Engagement metrics did not vary by app user-ratings, price-to-download, or developer, including for-profit organizations or government and educational institutions. Providers should acknowledge the popularity of smoking cessation apps as potential cessation aids and communicate their benefits and drawbacks to patients. Future efforts to improve smoking cessation apps should focus on enhancing the quality of tailored and interactive content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony
Preliminary studies with homeless youth have found surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest that youth's online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical 1st step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media, especially as it relates to who they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of social networking sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult-to-reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N = 1,046) were recruited through 3 drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether youth engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed.
Nix, Robert L; Bierman, Karen L; Domitrovich, Celene E; Gill, Sukhdeep
This study examined processes of change associated with the positive preschool and kindergarten outcomes of children who received the Head Start REDI intervention, compared to "usual practice" Head Start. In a large-scale randomized-controlled trial (N = 356 children, 42% African American or Latino, all from low-income families), this study tests the logic model that improving preschool social-emotional skills (e.g., emotion understanding, social problem solving, and positive social behavior) as well as language/emergent literacy skills will promote cross-domain academic and behavioral adjustment after children transition into kindergarten. Validating this logic model, the present study finds that intervention effects on three important kindergarten outcomes (e.g., reading achievement, learning engagement, and positive social behavior) were mediated by preschool gains in the proximal social-emotional and language/emergent literacy skills targeted by the REDI intervention. Importantly, preschool gains in social-emotional skills made unique contributions to kindergarten outcomes in reading achievement and learning engagement, even after accounting for the concurrent preschool gains in vocabulary and emergent literacy skills. These findings highlight the importance of fostering at-risk children's social-emotional skills during preschool as a means of promoting school readiness. The REDI (Research-Based, Developmentally-Informed) enrichment intervention was designed to complement and strengthen the impact of existing Head Start programs in the dual domains of language/emergent literacy skills and social-emotional competencies. REDI was one of several projects funded by the Interagency School Readiness Consortium, a partnership of four federal agencies (the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Administration for Children and Families, the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the Department of Health and Human Services, and the
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Metindogan, Aysegul; Evans, Melanie
This study examined the influence of parenting styles, parent-child academic involvement at home, and parent-school contact on academic skills and social behaviors among kindergarten-age children of Caribbean immigrants. Seventy immigrant mothers and fathers participated in the study. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that fathers'…
Parenting interventions are a promising strategy to prevent antisocial behavior in society. Evidence accumulates that parenting interventions can reduce disruptive child behavior, and insight rapidly increases into which families they benefit most. At the same time, however, several high risk
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between work engagement and perceived organizational support and organizational climate. The present study, in which quantitative methods have been used, is carried out in the relational screening model. Perceived organizational support scale, organizational climate scale, and work…
Coley, Richard J.; Sum, Andrew
As the 21st century unfolds, the United States faces historic challenges, including a struggling economy, an aging infrastructure and global terrorism. Solutions will have to come from educated, skilled citizens who understand and believe in our democratic system and are civically engaged. This incisive new report examines these fault lines and…
Snyder, Susan M.; Smith, Rachel E.
This article describes a study that investigated whether child welfare-involved youths' school engagement affected delinquency after controlling for peer deviance, caregiver closeness, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study used data from 461 11- to 17-year-olds who had substantiated child maltreatment investigations and…
Schmitt, A.; den Hartog, D.N.; Belschak, F.D.
This study explores the role of work engagement as an affective–motivational mechanism through which transformational leadership may relate to proactive behaviour. In line with a resource-based approach (Hobfoll, 1989), we hypothesize that employees only invest resources provided through work
McElwain, Alyssa D.; Bub, Kristen L.
The present study investigated how changes in specific dimensions of the parent-adolescent relationship predict adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse and oral sex. Longitudinal data from 1,364 participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were gathered at…
Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan J W; Schaufeli, Wilmar|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563; Burdorf, Alex
Objective: To investigate whether work engagement influences self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related characteristics. Methods: Employees of two organizations participated in a 6-month longitudinal study (n = 733). Using questionnaires,
Coyne, Sarah M; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Rasmussen, Eric E; Nelson, David A; Birkbeck, Victoria
This study examined level of engagement with Disney Princess media/products as it relates to gender-stereotypical behavior, body esteem (i.e. body image), and prosocial behavior during early childhood. Participants consisted of 198 children (M age = 58 months), who were tested at two time points (approximately 1 year apart). Data consisted of parent and teacher reports, and child observations in a toy preference task. Longitudinal results revealed that Disney Princess engagement was associated with more female gender-stereotypical behavior 1 year later, even after controlling for initial levels of gender-stereotypical behavior. Parental mediation strengthened associations between princess engagement and adherence to female gender-stereotypical behavior for both girls and boys, and for body esteem and prosocial behavior for boys only. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Full Text Available Parental behaviors involve complex social recognition and memory processes and interactive behavior with children that can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. Fathers play a substantial role in child care in a small but significant number of mammals, including humans. However, the brain mechanism that controls male parental behavior is much less understood than that controlling female parental behavior. Fathers of non-monogamous laboratory ICR mice are an interesting model for examining the factors that influence paternal responsiveness because sires can exhibit maternal-like parental care (retrieval of pups when separated from their pups along with their pairmates because of olfactory and auditory signals from the dams. Here we tested whether paternal behavior is related to femininity by the aromatization of testosterone. For this purpose, we measured the immunoreactivity of aromatase (cytochrome P450 family 19 (CYP19, which synthesizes estrogen from androgen, in nine brain regions of the sire. We observed higher levels of aromatase expression in these areas of the sire brain when they engaged in communicative interactions with dams in separate cages. The capacity of sires to retrieve pups was increased following a period of five days spent with the pups as a whole family after parturition, whereas the acquisition of this ability was suppressed in sires treated daily with an aromatase inhibitor. These results suggest that brain aromatization regulates the initiation, development, and maintenance of paternal behavior in the ICR mice.
Helfinstein, Sarah M; Mumford, Jeanette A; Poldrack, Russell A
There is a large gap between the types of risky behavior we recommend to others and those we engage in ourselves. In this study, we hypothesized that a source of this gap is greater reliance on information about others' behavior when deciding whether to take a risk oneself than when deciding whether to recommend it to others. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants either to report their willingness to engage in a series of risky behaviors themselves; their willingness to recommend those behaviors to a loved one; or, how good of an idea it would be for either them or a loved one to engage in the behaviors. We then asked them to evaluate those behaviors on criteria related to the expected utility of the risk (benefits, costs, and likelihood of costs), and on engagement in the activity by people they knew. We found that, after accounting for effects of perceived benefit, cost, and likelihood of cost, perceptions of others' behavior had a dramatically larger impact on participants' willingness to engage in a risk than on their willingness to recommend the risk or their prescriptive evaluation of the risk. These findings indicate that the influence of others' choices on risk-taking behavior is large, direct, cannot be explained by an economic utility model of risky decision-making, and goes against one's own better judgment.
Full Text Available The growing sense of insecurity in the Western world due to home-grown Islamist terrorism prompts further research on the topic. Based on previous literature, the current paper attempts to determine whether factors can be identified which contribute to Western individuals joining Islamic extremist organizations and engaging in terrorist behavior in the West. Four factors are discussed: While extensive scientific literature supports the view that identity crises and relative deprivation play a crucial role in turning Western individuals to terrorism, evidence on the role of personal characteristics and empathy, on the other hand, is still too scarce to allow any clear scientific judgment.
QUARTIROLI, ALESSANDRO; MAEDA, HOTAKA
Although the importance of promoting physical activity is well established, researchers have recently considered ?sedentary behaviors? as another key risk factor for chronic disease. However, little is known about the motivational processes regulating sedentary behavior on a daily basis. A substantial amount of research has been based on the self-determination theory to examine the motivational processes regulating physical activity behaviors. However, only limited attention has been paid to ...
Griggs, Stephanie; Crawford, Sybil L
The purpose of the current online cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between hope, core self-evaluations (CSE), emotional well-being, health-risk behaviors, and academic performance in students enrolled in their first year of college. Freshmen (N = 495) attending a large public university in the Northeastern United States completed an online survey between February 1 and 13, 2017. Linear regression, path analysis, and structural equation modeling procedures were performed. CSE mediated the relationship between hope and emotional well-being and academic performance. Contrary to the hypotheses, higher hope predicted more sexual risk-taking behaviors and alcohol use. CSE is an important component of Hope Theory, which is useful for predicting emotional well-being and academic performance, but not as useful for predicting drug use, alcohol use, and sexual risk taking. Hope and CSE interventions are needed to improve academic performance and emotional well-being in university freshmen. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(9), 33-42.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Riehman, Kara S; Kakietek, Jakub; Manteuffel, Brigitte A; Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Godoy-Garraza, Lucas; Orago, Alloys; Murithi, Patrick; Fruh, Joseph
International donors have increasingly shifted AIDS funding directly to community-based organizations (CBOs) with the assumption that responding to the epidemic is best achieved at the community level. The World Bank, ICF Macro, and the National Council for Population and Development in Kenya, conducted a study to evaluate the community response in Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing seven study communities and seven comparison communities in Nyanza Province and Western Province. We examined the impact of CBO activity on individual and community-level outcomes, including HIV knowledge, awareness and perceptions, sexual risk behavior, and social transformation (gender ideology and social capital). The study consisted of two components: a household survey conducted in all 14 communities, and qualitative data collected in a subset of communities. Individuals in communities with higher CBO engagement were significantly more likely to have reported consistent condom use. Higher CBO engagement was associated with some measures of social capital, including participation in local and national elections, and participation in electoral campaigns. CBOs provide added value in addressing the HIV and AIDS epidemic in very targeted and specific ways that are closely tied to the services they provide (e.g., prevention education); thus, increasing CBO engagement can be an effective measure in scaling up prevention efforts in those areas.
Schroeder, Steven A; Clark, Brian; Cheng, Christine; Saucedo, Catherine B
Smoking is much more common among persons with behavioral health conditions (mental illnesses and/or substance use disorders). Persons with these disorders are more likely to die from smoking-related causes than any other reason. Studies have shown that stopping smoking can improve mental health function, as well as improve outcomes for substance use disorders. Yet, for a variety of reasons, smoking cessation has not been integrated into the treatment of behavioral health conditions, and in many instances tobacco use was not only condoned but encouraged. Beginning in 2007, the Smoking Cessation Leadership Center (SCLC) began engaging relevant agencies in an attempt to stimulate more vigorous smoking cessation activities. Partners included the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, advocacy organizations such as the National Alliance on Mental Illness and Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America, and clinical groups such as the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, National Council on Behavioral Health, and National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors. A signature program featured 16 individual state summits involving agencies and groups from multiple sectors, all aiming to lower smoking rates in behavioral health populations. These activities mark an evolving culture change within behavioral health.
Rothblum, Esther D.; And Others
Previous research has shown that college students often report problems with procrastination on academic tasks. A study was conducted to investigate factors related to academic procrastination. Subjects (N=379) completed the Procrastination Assessment Scale on measures of test anxiety, attributions, and self-control. A subset of subjects (N=125)…
Aslan Efe, Hülya; Efe, Rifat
In this study, the relationship between study preservice science teachers' academic procrastination and their attitudes toward social media was investigated. The study was carried out with the participation of 511 preservice science teachers (F: 346, M:165) on teacher education course at Dicle University during 2014-2015 academic year. The date…
Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.
Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital
Matthew L Dixon
Full Text Available Cognitive control is a fundamental skill reflecting the active use of task-rules to guide behavior and suppress inappropriate automatic responses. Prior work has traditionally used paradigms in which subjects are told when to engage cognitive control. Thus, surprisingly little is known about the factors that influence individuals' initial decision of whether or not to act in a reflective, rule-based manner. To examine this, we took three classic cognitive control tasks (Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Go/No-Go task and created novel 'free-choice' versions in which human subjects were free to select an automatic, pre-potent action, or an action requiring rule-based cognitive control, and earned varying amounts of money based on their choices. Our findings demonstrated that subjects' decision to engage cognitive control was driven by an explicit representation of monetary rewards expected to be obtained from rule-use. Subjects rarely engaged cognitive control when the expected outcome was of equal or lesser value as compared to the value of the automatic response, but frequently engaged cognitive control when it was expected to yield a larger monetary outcome. Additionally, we exploited fMRI-adaptation to show that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC represents associations between rules and expected reward outcomes. Together, these findings suggest that individuals are more likely to act in a reflective, rule-based manner when they expect that it will result in a desired outcome. Thus, choosing to exert cognitive control is not simply a matter of reason and willpower, but rather, conforms to standard mechanisms of value-based decision making. Finally, in contrast to current models of LPFC function, our results suggest that the LPFC plays a direct role in representing motivational incentives.
Bennett, Allyson J; Perkins, Chaney M; Tenpas, Parker D; Reinebach, Alma L; Pierre, Peter J
Environmental enrichment plans for captive nonhuman primates often include provision of foraging devices. The rationale for using foraging devices is to promote species-typical activity patterns that encourage physical engagement and provide multi-sensory stimulation. However, these devices have been shown to be ineffective at sustaining manipulation over long periods of time, and often produce minimal cognitive engagement. Here we use an evidence-based approach to directly compare the amount of object-directed behavior with a foraging device and a computer-based videogame system. We recorded 11 adult male rhesus monkeys' interactions with a foraging device and two tasks within a joystick videogame cognitive test battery. Both techniques successfully produced high levels of engagement during the initial 20 min of observation. After 1 hr the monkeys manipulated the foraging device significantly less than the joystick, F(2,10) = 43.93, P videogame play for the majority of a 5 hr period, provided that they received a 94 mg chow pellet upon successful completion of trials. Using a model approach, we developed previously as a basis for standardized cost:benefit analysis to inform facility decisions, we calculated the comprehensive cost of incorporating a videogame system as an enrichment strategy. The videogame system has a higher initial cost compared to widely-used foraging devices, however, the ongoing labor and supply costs are relatively low. Our findings add to two decades of empirical studies by a number of laboratories that have demonstrated the successful use of videogame-based systems to promote sustained non-social cognitive engagement for macaques. The broader significance of the work lies in the application of a systematic approach to compare and contrast enrichment strategies and encourage evidence-based decision making when choosing an enrichment strategy in a manner that promotes meaningful cognitive enrichment to the animals. © 2016 Wiley
Bennett, Allyson J.; Perkins, Chaney M.; Tenpas, Parker D.; Reinebach, Alma L.; Pierre, Peter J.
Environmental enrichment plans for captive nonhuman primates often include provision of foraging devices. The rationale for using foraging devices is to promote species-typical activity patterns that encourage physical engagement and provide multi-sensory stimulation. However, these devices have been shown to be ineffective at sustaining manipulation over long periods of time, and often produce minimal cognitive engagement. Here we use an evidence-based approach to directly compare the amount of object-directed behavior with a foraging device and a computer-based videogame system. We recorded 11adult male rhesus monkeys’ interactions with a foraging device and two tasks within a joystick videogame cognitive test battery. Both techniques successfully produced high levels of engagement during the initial 20-min of observation. After 1-hr the monkeys manipulated the foraging device significantly less than the joystick, F(2,10)= 43.93, p videogame play for the majority of a 5-hr period, provided that they received a 94mg chow pellet upon successful completion of trials. Using a model approach we developed previously as a basis for standardized cost:benefit analysis to inform facility decisions, we calculated the comprehensive cost of incorporating a videogame system as an enrichment strategy. The videogame system has a higher initial cost compared to widely-used foraging devices however, the ongoing labor and supply costs are relatively low. Our findings add to two decades of empirical studies by a number of laboratories that have demonstrated the successful use of videogame-based systems to promote sustained non-social cognitive engagement for macaques. The broader significance of the work lies in the application of a systematic approach to compare and contrast enrichment strategies and encourage evidence-based decision making when choosing an enrichment strategy in a manner that promotes meaningful cognitive enrichment to the animals. PMID:27404766
Kunie, Keiko; Kawakami, Norito; Shimazu, Akihito; Yonekura, Yuki; Miyamoto, Yuki
Communication between nurse managers and nurses is important for mental health of hospital nurses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between managers' communication behaviors toward nurses, and work engagement and psychological distress among hospital nurses using a multilevel model. The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The participants were nurses working at three hospitals in Japan. A total of 906 nurses from 38 units participated in the present study. The units with small staff sizes and participants with missing entries in the questionnaire were excluded. The data for 789 nurses from 36 questionnaire survey units were analyzed. A survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. The questionnaire asked staff nurses about communication behaviors of their immediate manager and their own levels of work engagement, psychological distress, and other covariates. Three types of manager communication behaviors (i.e., direction-giving, empathetic, and meaning-making language) were assessed using the Motivating Language scale; and the scores of the respondents were averaged for each unit to calculate unit-level scores. Work engagement and psychological distress were measured using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the K6 scale, respectively. The association of communication behaviors by unit-level managers with work engagement and psychological distress among nurses was analyzed using two-level hierarchical linear modeling. The unit-level scores for all three of the manager communication behaviors were significantly and positively associated with work engagement among nurses (pwork environment. The individual levels of all three of the manager communication behaviors were also significantly and positively associated with work engagement (p0.05). Motivating language by unit-level managers might be positively associated with work engagement among hospital nurses, which is mediated through the better
Shollen, S Lynn; Bland, Carole J; Center, Bruce A; Finstad, Deborah A; Taylor, Anne L
To examine relationships among having formal and informal mentors, mentoring behaviors, and satisfaction and productivity for academic medicine faculty. In 2005, the authors surveyed full-time faculty at the University of Minnesota Medical School to assess their perceptions of variables associated with job satisfaction and productivity. This analysis focused on perceptions of mentoring as related to satisfaction with current position and productivity (articles published in peer-reviewed journals [article production] and role as a primary investigator [PI] or a co-PI on a grant/contract). Of 615 faculty, 354 (58%) responded. Satisfied faculty were not necessarily productive, and vice versa. Outcomes differed somewhat for mentor types: Informal mentoring was more important for satisfaction, and formal mentoring was more important for productivity. Regardless of mentor type, the 14 mentoring behaviors examined related more to satisfaction than productivity. Only one behavior-serves as a role model-was significantly, positively related to article production. Although participants reported that formal and informal mentors performed the same mentoring behaviors, mentees were more satisfied or productive when some behaviors were performed by formal mentors. The results emphasize the importance of having both formal and informal mentors who perform mentoring behaviors associated with satisfaction and productivity. The results provide a preliminary indication that mentor types and specific mentoring behaviors may have different effects on satisfaction and productivity. Despite the differences found for some behaviors, it seems that it is more essential that mentoring behaviors be performed by any mentor than by a specific type of mentor.
Nilsson, Danielle; Gramotnev, Galina; Baxter, Greg; Butler, James R A; Wich, Serge A; McAlpine, Clive A
Community-based conservation programs in developing countries are often based on the assumption that heteronomous motivation (e.g., extrinsic incentives such as economic rewards and pressure or coercion to act) will incite local communities to adopt conservation behaviors. However, this may not be as effective or sustainable as autonomous motivations (e.g., an intrinsic desire to act due to inherent enjoyment or self-identification with a behavior and through freedom of choice). We analyzed the comparative effectiveness of heteronomous versus autonomous approaches to community-based conservation programs through a case study of Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) conservation in 3 villages in Indonesia. Each village had a different conservation program design. We surveyed people (n = 240) to determine their motivations for and behavior changes relative to orangutan and orangutan habitat (forest) protection. Heteronomous motivations (e.g., income from tourism) led to greater self-reporting of behavior change toward orangutan protection. However, they did not change self-reported behavior toward forest (i.e., orangutan habitat) protection. The most effective approach to creating self-reported behavior change throughout the community was a combination of autonomous and heteronomous motivations. Individuals who were heteronomously motivated to protect the orangutan were more likely to have changed attitudes than to have changed their self-reported behavior. These findings demonstrate that the current paradigm of motivating communities in developing countries to adopt conservation behaviors primarily through monetary incentives and rewards should consider integrating autonomous motivational techniques that promote the intrinsic values of conservation. Such a combination has a greater potential to achieve sustainable and cost-effective conservation outcomes. Our results highlight the importance of using in-depth sociopsychological analyses to inform the design and
Cornil, C A; Dalla, C; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Baillien, M; Dejace, C; Ball, G F; Balthazart, J
In Japanese quail, as in rats, the expression of male sexual behavior over relatively long time periods (days to weeks) is dependent on the local production of estradiol in the preoptic area via the aromatization of testosterone. On a short-term basis (minutes to hours), central actions of dopamine as well as locally produced estrogens modulate behavioral expression. In rats, a view of and sexual interaction with a female increase dopamine release in the preoptic area. In quail, in vitro brain aromatase activity (AA) is rapidly modulated by calcium-dependent phosphorylations that are likely to occur in vivo as a result of changes in neurotransmitter activity. Furthermore, an acute estradiol injection rapidly stimulates copulation in quail, whereas a single injection of the aromatase inhibitor vorozole rapidly inhibits this behavior. We hypothesized that brain aromatase and dopaminergic activities are regulated in quail in association with the expression of male sexual behavior. Visual access as well as sexual interactions with a female produced a significant decrease in brain AA, which was maximal after 5 min. This expression of sexual behavior also resulted in a significant decrease in dopaminergic as well as serotonergic activity after 1 min, which returned to basal levels after 5 min. These results demonstrate for the first time that AA is rapidly modulated in vivo in parallel with changes in dopamine activity. Sexual interactions with the female decreased aromatase and dopamine activities. These data challenge established views about the causal relationships among dopamine, estrogen action, and male sexual behavior.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
Educational tracking based on academic ability accounts for different school dynamics between vocational versus academically-oriented high schools in Taiwan. Many educational practitioners predict that the settings of vocational schools and academic schools mediate school violence in different ways. Alternatively, some researchers argue the actual…
Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L.; Winsler, Adam
This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic…
Kulics, Jennifer M.; Kornspan, Alan S.; Kretovics, Mark
The purpose of the present study was to assess the academic decision making beliefs of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Bowl Championship Series (FBS) student-athletes and to determine if the variables of gender and type of sport related to academic decision making behavior of student-athletes. Participants…
In this research, it is aimed to examine the effect of organizational justice behaviors on organizational silence and cynicism based on the opinions of academics who serve in Schools of Physical Education and Sports, and Faculties of Sports Sciences. Research group consisted of academics from 22 different universities in Turkey. There are 320…
Lin, Hsiu-Chuan; Lee, Yuan-Duen
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of organizational learning on employee's innovative behavior, and further proposed the mediation effect of work engagement between the relationship of organizational learning and employee's innovative behavior. The study targets on executives and their subordinates by paired samples within the…
Coyne, Sarah M.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Nelson, David A.; Birkbeck, Victoria
This study examined level of engagement with Disney Princess media/products as it relates to gender-stereotypical behavior, body esteem (i.e. body image), and prosocial behavior during early childhood. Participants consisted of 198 children (M[subscript age] = 58 months), who were tested at two time points (approximately 1 year apart). Data…
V Siva Kalyan
Full Text Available Introduction: Employees are regularly offered opportunities to make their work more appealing and rewarding. These opportunities might be as simple as making fine changes to their daily tasks to boost happiness and to connect with more people at vocation. Hence, an attempt is made to assess job-crafting behavior among the dental academic faculty. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental academic faculty from five dental colleges. Job Crafting Questionnaire (JCQ was used to assess the job-crafting behavior. Mean scores were calculated for different domains of JCQ. Gender differences were analyzed using Student's “t-” test and one-way ANOVA to test the difference between different academic positions of the faculty members. Results: A total of 228 dental faculty members with a mean age of 34.43 ± 6.13 years participated in the study. The mean value of job-crafting behavior was found to be highest among female faculty (60.07 ± 8.38 and professors (61.35 ± 8.30. Male faculty scored higher in task-crafting domain and female faculty scored higher in both cognitive- and relational-crafting domains. The professors scored highest in all the three domains of job-crafting behavior as compared to that of senior lecturers and readers. Conclusion: Job crafting is an effectual workplace intervention, where employees assume an active role in shaping their work experience to enhance their job satisfaction and well-being. The overall score of job-crafting behavior was found to be highest among both professors and female faculty members. Male faculty members scored higher in task-crafting domain. With regard to individual domains, the participants scored highest in cognitive crafting followed by task and relational crafting.
Jiang, Lixin; Tripp, Thomas M; Hong, Phan Y
The vast majority of today's college students are millennials, who have traits of confidence, tolerance, but also of entitlement and narcissism (Twenge, 2006). Therefore, college instructors face a unique challenge: dealing with the requests from academically entitled students, who have unreasonable expectations of receiving academic success, regardless of performance (Chowning & Campbell, 2009). We conducted two studies to examine whether student academic entitlement would increase instructors' strain and burnout via uncivil behaviors. A qualitative inquiry asked 136 instructors with college-teaching experience to describe types of behaviors entitled students display, their responses to entitled students, and the influence of these interactions on instructors' well-being. Next, a quantitative study with data from 857 college students nested in 34 instructors tested a multilevel mediation model where students' academic entitlement was related to instructor-reported uncivil behaviors, which in turn related to instructors' strain and burnout. Both studies largely support our hypothesis that uncivil behaviors fully mediate the relationship between students' academic entitlement and instructors' strain and burnout. We recommend employing behavioral modification strategies to decrease uncivil behaviors (e.g., class rules regarding uncivil behaviors might be specified in the course syllabus and consistently enforced) because academic entitlement attitudes are largely stable beliefs and thus may be less amenable to modification. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Akther, Shirin; Huang, Zhiqi; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Fakhrul, Azam A K M; Yuhi, Teruko; Lopatina, Olga; Salmina, Alla B; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Matsuo, Mie; Higashida, Haruhiro
Parental behaviors involve complex social recognition and memory processes and interactive behavior with children that can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. Fathers play a substantial role in child care in a small but significant number of mammals, including humans. However, the brain mechanism that controls male parental behavior is much less understood than that controlling female parental behavior. Fathers of non-monogamous laboratory ICR mice are an interesting model for examining the factors that influence paternal responsiveness because sires can exhibit maternal-like parental care (retrieval of pups) when separated from their pups along with their pairmates because of olfactory and auditory signals from the dams. Here we tested whether paternal behavior is related to femininity by the aromatization of testosterone. For this purpose, we measured the immunoreactivity of aromatase [cytochrome P450 family 19 (CYP19)], which synthesizes estrogen from androgen, in nine brain regions of the sire. We observed higher levels of aromatase expression in these areas of the sire brain when they engaged in communicative interactions with dams in separate cages. Interestingly, the number of nuclei with aromatase immunoreactivity in sires left together with maternal mates in the home cage after pup-removing was significantly larger than that in sires housed with a whole family. The capacity of sires to retrieve pups was increased following a period of 5 days spent with the pups as a whole family after parturition, whereas the acquisition of this ability was suppressed in sires treated daily with an aromatase inhibitor. The results demonstrate that the dam significantly stimulates aromatase in the male brain and that the presence of the pups has an inhibitory effect on this increase. These results also suggest that brain aromatization regulates the initiation, development, and maintenance of paternal behavior in the ICR male mice.
Korpershoek, Hanke; Harms, Truus; de Boer, Hester; van Kuijk, Mechteld; Doolaard, Simone
This meta-analysis examined which classroom management strategies and programs enhanced students’ academic, behavioral, social-emotional, and motivational outcomes in primary education. The analysis included 54 random and nonrandom controlled intervention studies published in the past decade
DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee; Belk, Georgia; Custer, Beth; Hatfield, Andrea; Daffner, Molly; Peek, Daniel
The most efficacious psychosocial intervention for reducing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in young children is behavioral parent training (BPT). Potential benefits are hindered by limited accessibility, low session attendance, and poor implementation of prescribed strategies. As a result, only approximately half of…
Palmer-Bacon, Jessica; Miles-McLean, Haley; Welsh, Christopher; Rugle, Loreen; Medoff, Deborah; Potts, Wendy; Himelhoch, Seth
This study examined gambling behavior in the context of a newly opening casino, comparing disordered gamblers to non-disordered gamblers, in a population of individuals involved in methadone maintenance treatment. Disordered gamblers (N = 50) and non-disordered gamblers (N = 50) were surveyed before and after the opening of a new casino on gambling behaviors, substance use, and psychological symptoms. No statistically significant changes in gambling behaviors were observed for disordered gamblers or non-disordered gamblers across time points; however, non-disordered gamblers demonstrated non-significant increases in horse and dog race betting, electronic games, and casino table games. As expected, disordered gamblers were found to spend significantly more money on electronic games and casino table games (p casino did not appear to have a major impact on gambling behaviors of individuals attending methadone maintenance treatment, though the non-significant increases in gambling among non-disordered gamblers may indicate that this population is preferentially impacted by the opening of a new casino. Future investigation into the longer term effects of opening a new casino on this population may be warranted.
Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.
The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…
Metzger, Aaron; Smetana, Judith G.
Judgments and justifications for different forms of civic involvement and their associations with organized and civic behavior were examined in 312 middle-class primarily White adolescents (M = 17.01 years). Adolescents applied moral, conventional, and personal criteria to distinguish involvement in community service, standard political, social…
Guerrero, Anthony P S; Hishinuma, Earl S; Andrade, Naleen N; Nishimura, Stephanie T; Cunanan, Vanessa L
Because of socioeconomic and acculturative challenges faced by immigrant families, Filipino adolescents in Hawai'i may be at risk for academic, behavioral and emotional difficulties. To determine, among Filipino adolescents in Hawai'i, whether measures of economic hardship and lower socioeconomic status (SES) correlate positively with poor school performance, aggressive behavior, substance use, anxiety, and depression; and whether family support and cultural identification correlate negatively with these difficulties. 216 Filipino adolescents from four public high schools in Hawai'i (1993-1994) were given surveys that assessed basic demographic information, measures of family support and other social variables, and measures of school performance, depression, anxiety, aggression and substance use. In the total sample, low SES seemed to correlate with poor school performance and behavioral and emotional difficulties. In both the total sample and the sub-sample of adolescents with lower SES, family support was a universally strong protective factor. Learning genealogy was positively correlated with school performance, and speaking a language other than English was inversely correlated with substance use (in the whole sample) and depression (in the lower SES sub-sample). For Filipino adolescents (in both the whole and lower-SES samples), family support was an important protective factor against academic, behavioral and emotional difficulties. The role of cultural identification as a risk or protective factor among Filipino adolescents deserves further investigation.
Grignol, Valerie P; Grannan, Kevin; Sabra, John; Cromer, Robert M; Jarman, Benjamin; Dent, Daniel; Sticca, Robert P; Nelson, Timothy M; Kukora, John S; Daley, Brian J; Treat, Robert W; Termuhlen, Paula M
Correlation exists between people who engage in academic dishonesty as students and unethical behavior once in practice. Previously, we assessed the attitudes of general surgery residents and ethical practices in test taking at a single institution. Most residents had not participated in activities they felt were unethical, yet what constituted unethical behavior was unclear. We sought to verify these results in a multi-institutional study. A scenario-based survey describing potentially unethical activities related to the American Board of Surgery In-training Examination (ABSITE) was administered. Participants were asked about their knowledge of or participation in the activities and whether the activity was unethical. Program directors were surveyed about the use of ABSITE results for resident evaluation and promotion. Ten programs participated in the study. The resident response rate was 67% (186/277). Of the respondents, 43% felt that memorizing questions to study for future examinations was unethical and 50% felt that using questions another resident memorized was unethical. Most felt that buying (86%) or selling (79%) questions was unethical. Significantly more senior than junior residents have memorized (30% vs 16%; p = 0.04) or used questions others memorized (33% vs 12%; p = 0.002) to study for future ABSITE examinations and know of other residents who have done so (42% vs 20%; p = 0.004). Most programs used results of the ABSITE in promotion (80%) and set minimum score expectations and consequences (70%). Similar to our single-institution study, residents had not participated in activities they felt to be unethical; however the definition of what constitutes cheating remains unclear. Differences were identified between senior and junior residents with regard to memorizing questions for study. Cheating and unethical behavior is not always clear to the learner and represents an area for further education. © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery
Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…
Preeti Tabitha LOUIS
Full Text Available The present study adopts a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of a father-mediated therapy to improve the play skills, affect, language, social skills and behavior among 30 clinically diagnosed autistic children at the age of 3-5 years. Standardized inventories such as, The Play Based Observation (PBO, The Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS, The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and the Rendel Shorts Questionnaire were administered pre and post intervention. A special program that involved fathers in the caregiving and nurturing processes of these children was designed and implemented for 6 months after which the children were reassessed. Prior to the intervention, deficits in play skills and developmental delays across expressive and receptive language were observed Scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Rendel Shorts revealed behavioral markers. Post intervention, we noticed significant differences in the play, language acquisition, social engagement and behavior in the treatment group in comparison to the control group. The results suggested that father-mediated therapeutic involvement significantly has proven to positively foster development in young autistic children and this is an important implication for practitioners in developing early intervention programs.
Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L
The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization’s culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence. PMID:26835016
Shelley R Oberlin
Full Text Available The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill, we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1 Build a foundation of trust; (2 Employ multiple interventions; (3 Stratify the population; (4 Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5 Embed medication adherence into the organization’s culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence.
Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L
The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization's culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence.
Haapala, Eero A.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Laaksonen, David E.; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A.
Background There are no prospective studies that would have compared the relationships of different types of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with academic skills among children. We therefore investigated the associations of different types of PA and SB with reading and arithmetic skills in a follow-up study among children. Methods The participants were 186 children (107 boys, 79 girls, 6–8 yr) who were followed-up in Grades 1–3. PA and SB were assessed using a questionnaire in Grade 1. Reading fluency, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills were assessed using standardized tests at the end of Grades 1–3. Results Among all children more recess PA and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across Grades 1–3. In boys, higher levels of total PA, physically active school transportation and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across the Grades 1–3. Among girls, higher levels of total PA were related to worse arithmetic skills across Grades 1–3. Moreover, total PA was directly associated with reading fluency and arithmetic skills in Grades 1–3 among girls whose parents had a university degree, whereas these relationships were inverse in girls of less educated parents. Conclusions Total PA, physically active school transportation and SB related to academic skills may be beneficial for the development of reading skills in boys, whereas factors that are independent of PA or SB may be more important for academic skills in girls. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776 PMID:25207813
Eero A Haapala
Full Text Available There are no prospective studies that would have compared the relationships of different types of physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB with academic skills among children. We therefore investigated the associations of different types of PA and SB with reading and arithmetic skills in a follow-up study among children.The participants were 186 children (107 boys, 79 girls, 6-8 yr who were followed-up in Grades 1-3. PA and SB were assessed using a questionnaire in Grade 1. Reading fluency, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills were assessed using standardized tests at the end of Grades 1-3.Among all children more recess PA and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across Grades 1-3. In boys, higher levels of total PA, physically active school transportation and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across the Grades 1-3. Among girls, higher levels of total PA were related to worse arithmetic skills across Grades 1-3. Moreover, total PA was directly associated with reading fluency and arithmetic skills in Grades 1-3 among girls whose parents had a university degree, whereas these relationships were inverse in girls of less educated parents.Total PA, physically active school transportation and SB related to academic skills may be beneficial for the development of reading skills in boys, whereas factors that are independent of PA or SB may be more important for academic skills in girls.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776.
Mazzone, C M; Pati, D; Michaelides, M; DiBerto, J; Fox, J H; Tipton, G; Anderson, C; Duffy, K; McKlveen, J M; Hardaway, J A; Magness, S T; Falls, W A; Hammack, S E; McElligott, Z A; Hurd, Y L; Kash, T L
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a brain region important for regulating anxiety-related behavior in both humans and rodents. Here we used a chemogenetic strategy to investigate how engagement of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling cascades in genetically defined GABAergic BNST neurons modulates anxiety-related behavior and downstream circuit function. We saw that stimulation of vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT)-expressing BNST neurons using hM3Dq, but neither hM4Di nor rM3Ds designer receptors exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD), promotes anxiety-like behavior. Further, we identified that activation of hM3Dq receptors in BNST VGAT neurons can induce a long-term depression-like state of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, indicating DREADD-induced changes in synaptic plasticity. Further, we used DREADD-assisted metabolic mapping to profile brain-wide network activity following activation of G q -mediated signaling in BNST VGAT neurons and saw increased activity within ventral midbrain structures, including the ventral tegmental area and hindbrain structures such as the locus coeruleus and parabrachial nucleus. These results highlight that G q -mediated signaling in BNST VGAT neurons can drive downstream network activity that correlates with anxiety-like behavior and points to the importance of identifying endogenous GPCRs within genetically defined cell populations. We next used a microfluidics approach to profile the receptorome of single BNST VGAT neurons. This approach yielded multiple G q -coupled receptors that are associated with anxiety-like behavior and several potential novel candidates for regulation of anxiety-like behavior. From this, we identified that stimulation of the G q -coupled receptor 5-HT 2C R in the BNST is sufficient to elevate anxiety-like behavior in an acoustic startle task. Together, these results provide a novel profile of receptors within genetically defined BNST VGAT
Baron, Paula; Corbin, Lillian
Recently, there has been much interest in higher education literature and policy on the concepts of student engagement and disengagement. While most academic writings recognise the significance of student engagement, they have tended to concentrate on it in relation to academic activities. Increasingly, universities are "cascading" down…
Badri Gargari, Rahim; Sabouri, Hossein; Norzad, Fatemeh
This research was conducted to study the relationship between attribution and academic procrastination in University Students. The subjects were 203 undergraduate students, 55 males and 148 females, selected from English and French language and literature students of Tabriz University. Data were gathered through Procrastination Assessment Scale-student (PASS) and Causal Dimension Scale (CDA) and were analyzed by multiple regression analysis (stepwise). The results showed that there was a meaningful and negative relation between the locus of control and controllability in success context and academic procrastination. Besides, a meaningful and positive relation was observed between the locus of control and stability in failure context and procrastination. It was also found that 17% of the variance of procrastination was accounted by linear combination of attributions. We believe that causal attribution is a key in understanding procrastination in academic settings and is used by those who have the knowledge of Causal Attribution styles to organize their learning.
Chrysochou, Polymeros; Malciute, Justina
delivers a thorough investigation of the concept and proposes a conceptual model of customer brand engagement on online social media platforms. The study suggests that customer brand relationship related factors will influence the level of customer engagement, which in turn will affect the levels......The aim of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge of a newly emerged concept of customer engagement with brands in the context of online social media platforms. Drawing on the overview of currently available academic literature and the results of a quantitative consumer study, the paper...... of behavioral loyalty and intention to recommend the brand. Hence, this paper is an important contribution to the academic marketing literature in the field of customer engagement, which also provides useful managerial insights for marketing practitioners....
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the differences between the aspects of aggressive behavior, their strengths (protective factors in the prevention of behavioral disorders and academic achievement, in children within and out of institutional forms of education. The study was conducted on a sample of 264 students in seventh and eighth class of elementary school, of whom 134 were in institutional care, while 130 were outside the institutional forms of education. Data were collected by a questionnaire, which included two measuring instruments: Check-list of advantages and Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ. The children who live in institutional care showed a higher incidence of aggressive behavior, compared with children who are out of institutional care. Children placed in institutional care have less protective factors for the prevention of behavioral disorders, worse general school success, as well as poorer success in Nature/ Biology, compared to non-institutional children. A negative and statistically significant relationship was found between the incidence of aggressive behaviors and protective factors in the prevention of conduct disorder, as well as between the incidence of aggressive behavior and overall school success. A significant positive correlation was found between the protective factors and success in the English language. The results indicate the necessity to consider alternative forms of care for children without parental care, in close cooperation of all relevant institutions and individuals who take care for children.
Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank
Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…
McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.
Previous research shows inconsistent relationships between parent involvement and academic achievement and often asks why such inconsistencies occur. The research proposes a theoretical model that separates parent involvement into those practices linking parents to children and those practices linking parents to other adults in the school…
Miller, Kim; Danner, Fred; Staten, Ruth
Approximately 57% of college students work while attending school. Health risks related to working while in college have not been widely studied. Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine associations between hours worked, binge drinking, sleep habits, and academic performance among a college student cohort. Participants and…
Wang, Yi; Cullen, Kristin L.; Yao, Xiang; Li, Yixuan
When transitioning to college freshmen must behave proactively in order to strive for success in their collegiate careers and their future life. Past research has mainly focused on the academic strategies of freshmen when investigating the predictors of successful college transition and has paid little attention to students' social strategies. The…
McKenney, Elizabeth L. W.; Stachniak, Catherine; Albright, Jordan; Jewell, Jeremy D.; Dorencz, Julie M.
An exploratory, observation-based study sought to strengthen understanding of the development of social communication skills that facilitate academic success, particularly within general education settings. Sixteen middle and high school students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), all of whom participated in at least one period per day of core…
Rousseau, Cécile; Mustafa, Sally; Beauregard, Caroline
The literature emphasizes that the school environment is a key factor for the mental health and academic achievement of immigrant and refugee children. However, few studies examined the role of school environment and peer relationships for these youth attending a special education class. The aim of this paper is to study the association between…
Jiang, Tingting; Chi, Yu; Gao, Huiqin
Chinese academic libraries have been devoting great effort into introducing next-generation online public access catalogs (OPACs) in order to provide a better user experience. However, there is a lack of empirical research on their usage. In this study, a transaction log file from a typical
Full Text Available Concerns about the appropriate use of EBP with ethnic minority clients and the ability of community agencies to implement and sustain EBP persist and emphasize the need for community-academic research partnerships that can be used to develop, adapt, and test culturally responsive EBP in community settings. In this paper, we describe the processes of developing a community-academic partnership that implemented and pilot tested an evidence-based telephone cognitive behavioral therapy program. Originally demonstrated to be effective for urban, middle-income, English-speaking primary care patients with major depression, the program was adapted and pilot tested for use with rural, uninsured, low-income, Latino (primarily Spanish-speaking primary care patients with major depressive disorder in a primary care site in a community health center in rural Eastern Washington. The values of community-based participatory research and community-partnered participatory research informed each phase of this randomized clinical trial and the development of a community-academic partnership. Information regarding this partnership may guide future community practice, research, implementation, and workforce development efforts to address mental health disparities by implementing culturally tailored EBP in underserved communities.
Unhealthy behaviors contribute to the development of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders. Most often these behaviors develop in the teenage years. This thesis addresses the following topics: (1) How do health-related behaviors cluster and affect health in
Comparison of 31 elementary grade boys with learning disabilities and 52 boys with behavior disorders who either did or did not also display hyperactive behavior found significant differences between groups on the Classroom Behavior Inventory in three areas: Hostility versus Consideration, Extroversion versus Introversion, and Independence versus…
DiNapoli, Joan B.
The research question for this dissertation study was: Do behavioral outcomes identified in people who commit suicide exist in people who publicly exhibit productive behavioral outcomes and have not attempted suicide? More specifically, do selective affective and physiological behavioral outcomes identified in people who kill themselves exist is…
Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward
Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…