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Sample records for acacia mangium willd

  1. Nitrogen fixation of Acacia mangium Willd. from two seed sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphorus (P) is required to facilitate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) by leguminous species such as Acacia mangium. We studied the N fixation of A. mangium trees grown from two seed sources. These consisted of bulk seedlots collected from seed orchards in Sumatra, one based on natural provenances from ...

  2. PROPAGACIÓN IN VITRO DE Acacia mangium Willd

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    LUZ ANGELA TORRES

    Full Text Available Acacia Acacia mangium Willd es una de las especies forestales más plantadas por la calidad de su madera y rápido crecimiento; sin embargo, los estudios de propagación clonal son pocos. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un protocolo de micropropagacion a partir de explantes con meristemos preexistentes. Los explantes consistieron de brotes de plantas de tres meses de edad mantenidas en invernadero. La desinfección se realizó con diferentes concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio y antibióticos, y fueron establecidos en medio MS con diferentes concentraciones (0; 0,44; 0,88 y 2,22 µM de BAP. Los brotes micropropagados fueron enraizados con diferentes dosis de ANA y AIB, finalmente los brotes, con o sin raíces, fueron transferidos a condiciones ex vitro para evaluar el porcentaje de supervivencia. Los datos mostraron que 1,0% NaOCl y cefalexina (2 mg L-1 permitieron obtener el mayor porcentaje de explantes libres de contaminación (67%. El mayor número promedio de brotes ocurrió con 2,22 µM de BAP y el mayor número promedio de raíces se observo al utilizar 2,69 µM de ANA. La adaptación de las plantas en condiciones ex vitro fue exitoso lográndose obtener un 87% de supervivencia

  3. The Effect of Sonic Bloom Fertilizing Technology on The Seed Germination and Growth of Acacia mangium Willd Seedling

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    Mulyadi A T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium Willd is one of the promising wood species, it is a fast growing species and can be used as raw materials for pulp, furniture and wood working. Musi Hutan Persada Company has planted Acacia mangium Willd in large scale for pulp processing raw materials and for wood working industry. The faculty of forestry of the Nusa Bangsa University in collaboration with the Musi Hutan Persada have examined  the effect of “Sonic Bloom” to the Acacia mangium Willd germination and seedling growth. The results of the research are the following : (1 The seed germination with “Sonic Bloom” provided percented of germination of 82%, better than those without “Sonic Bloom”, i.e. only 34%; (2 With Sonic Bloom,  the height of 80-days old seedling is 129.6 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom”of only 90.7 cm  ; (3 the diameter of 80-days old seedling with “Sonic Bloom” is 0,24 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom” harving diameters of only 0.19 cm.The study concludes that sonic bloom treatment is very useful for the seed germination and the growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedling Key Words : Sonic Bloom, persemaian, Acacia mangium, perkecambahan, bibit   Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  4. Studi Pembuatan Kelas Bonita pada Tegakan Acacia mangium Willd. di PT. Musi Hutan Persada, Sumatera Selatan

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    Heru Budi Santoso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on the Determination of  Site Quality Index for Acacia mangium Willd. in PT Musi Hutan Persada, South Sumatra Site index is required to estimate forest productivity. This study was conducted to generate a diameter-height model and use it to construct a direct site quality index for Acacia mangium Willd. stands without thinning by dominant height approach in PT. Musi Hutan Persada,South Sumatra. It comprises two phases, namely dominant height curve development and site index construction based on semi-permanent and permanent plots data. The regression analysis of maximum diameter was employed to estimate the dominant height. The accepted diameter-height model was used for modeling an anomorphic site index using Schumacher’s formula. Dominant height could be estimated using the equation: Ln h = 3.588 - (6.955/d  , (R2 = 0.91, sum of square error = 0.24, where h : dominant tree height and d: stem diameter. The equation was then used to modeling site index of A. mangium stands with age index of 6-years. The proposed model was :

  5. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

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    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da entomofauna associada aos galhos e fustes roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman é importante para conhecermos seus possíveis inimigos naturais. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo registrar os insetos associados aos galhos e fustes de Acacia mangium Willd. roletados por O. saga, em Coimbra-MG. Galhos e fustes roletados de A. mangium foram coletados de janeiro a abril de 2007. Este material foi vistoriado, armazenados em sacolas, feitas com tela plástica, e mantidos em sala com condições controladas (25,4±0,3°C e 66,7±1,4%. Constatou-se a presença de uma espécie, não determinada, de Scolytidae e a emergência de quatro espécies de Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus e Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. Isto posto, fica evidenciada a necessidade de estudos com o objetivo de verificar qual o comportamento destes insetos em relação ao serrador O. saga.Insects associated with branches of Acacia mangium Willd. girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: CerambycidaeAbstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of

  6. Natural and induced polyploidy in Acacia dealbata Link. and Acacia mangium Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakesley, David; Allen, Annabel; Pellny, Till K; Roberts, Andy V

    2002-09-01

    Seeds were obtained from seven natural populations of Acacia dealbata, three natural populations of A. mangium and a seed orchard of A. mangium, representing the natural range of the two species. Polyploids were discovered in two of the seven populations of A. dealbata. The 2C DNA amount for diploid A. dealbata (2n = 2x = 26) was 1.74 pg, and for diploid A. mangium (2n = 2x = 26) was 1.30 pg. A naturally occurring tetraploid of A. dealbata (2n = 4x = 52) had a 2C DNA amount of 3.41 pg and a naturally occurring triploid genotype had a 2C DNA amount of 2.53 pg. The use of colchicine and oryzalin was investigated as a means of producing higher frequencies of tetraploids of both A. mangium and A. dealbata for incorporation into breeding programmes. Colchicine treatment gave tetraploid frequencies up to 29% for A. dealbata seedlings, and up to 18% for A. mangium seedlings. In contrast, no tetraploid A. mangium was detected following oryzalin treatment, and the low frequencies of tetraploids observed in A. dealbata could be attributed to their natural occurrence.

  7. Pengaruh Suplementasi Acacia mangium Willd pada Pennisetum purpureum terhadap Karakteristik Fermentasi dan Produksi Gas Metana in Vitro

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    B. Santoso

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of Acacia mangium Willd supplementation to Pennisetum purpureum on fermentation characteristics, protozoal numbers, nutrients degradability and in vitro methane production. Treatments consisted of four composite substrates with P. purpureum and A. mangium Willd ratios at 100:0 (0%, 85:15 (15%, 70:30 (30%, and 55:45 (45%. Crude saponin and total tannin contents of A. mangium were 1.67% and 4.51%, respectively. Methane and gas productions decreased linearly (P<0.01 in response to acacia levels. Addition of A. mangium at 15%, 30% and 45% decreased CH4 production by 16.2%, 26.8% and 61.1%, respectively as compared to the control. There were linear decreases in total VFA and acetate concentrations (P<0.01, and propionate production (P<0.05 in response to increase in acacia addition. Total protozoal populations increased linearly (P<0.05 with added acacia. In vitro dry matter and organic matter degradabilities of substrate decreased linearly (P<0.01 with acacia addition. It is concluded that methane production is not essentially associated with protozoal population. A. mangium has a potential use for mitigation of enteric methane production.

  8. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

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    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of verify the behavior of these insects in relation with twig girdler O. saga.

  9. A COMPATIBLE ESTIMATION MODEL OF STEM VOLUME AND TAPER FOR Acacia mangium Willd. PLANTATIONS

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    Haruni Krisnawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the establishment of a compatible volume estimation model for Acacia mangium Willd on the basis of 279 felled sample trees collected from the A. mangium plantation stands in South Sumatra, Indonesia. The model comprises of a total volume model and a stem taper model, which is compatible in the sense of the total volume obtained by integration of the taper model being equal to that computed by the total volume model. Several well-known total volume functions were evaluated including constant form factor, combined variable, generalized combine variable, logarithmic, generalized logarithmic and Honer transformed variables. A logarithmic model was determined to be the best and was then used as the basis for deriving the taper model. Appropriate statistical procedures were used in model fitting to account for the problems of heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation that are associated with the construction of volume and taper functions. The simultaneous fitting method of the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR improved the parameter estimates and goodness-of-fit statistics while ensuring numeric consistency among the component models and reducing the total squared error obtained by an independent fitting method. The developed model can be used to estimate total stem volume, merchantable volume to any merchantability diameter limit at any height, and (possibly height of any diameter based on only easily measurable parameters such as diameter at breast height and total tree height for the species analysed.

  10. The roles of soil macrofauna on litter decomposition of Acacia mangium Willd

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    MUSYAFA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium has been widely planted in industrial forest plantation (HTI. High litter accumulation in floor of A. mangium (Acacia plantation due to slow process of decomposition, may disturb nutrient cycling process. It is also vulnerable to forest fire especially in dry season. The research was aimed to clarify the density of soil macrofauna in Acacia plantation and the roles of macrofauna in the decomposition of Acacia litter. The density of macrofauna was estimated by using pitfall traps and hand-sorting method in Acacia stand, at Wanagama Reaserch Center, Gadjah Mada University (GMU. In the laboratory, Spirobolus sp. (Diplopoda were fed with the litter of Acacia and the ingestion rate, defecation rate, and assimilatioan rate were determined. C and N content of the litter and feces were analyzed at Laboratory of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture GMU. The results showed that the density of soil macrofauna was low (74.6 individual/m2. The study in laboratory showed that Spirobolus did not est newly fallen leaves of Acacia. Ingestion rate, defecation rate, assimilation efficiency of millipede fed with partly decomposed Acacia leaves were 76.8 mg/g/day, 7.0 mg/g/day, 6.1 mg/g/day respectively. C/N ratio of feces was lower than that of partly decomposed Acacia leaves. It indicated significant change during gut passage of Spirobolus sp. This millipede should be introduced in Acacia plantation as a potential decomposer.

  11. Arsenic toxicity in Acacia mangium willd. and mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia benth. seedlings

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    Henrique Nery Cipriani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia are fast-growing woody fabaceous species that might be suitable for phytoremediation of arsenic (As-contaminated sites. To date, few studies on their tolerance to As toxicity have been published. Therefore, this study assessed As toxicity symptoms in A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia seedlings under As stress in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Acacia mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia were grown for 120 d in an Oxisol-sand mixture with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 As, in four replications in four randomized blocks. The plants were assessed for visible toxicity symptoms, dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, root anatomy and As uptake. Analyses of variance and regression showed that the growth of A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia was severely hindered by As, with a reduction in dry matter production of more than 80 % at the highest As rate. The root/shoot ratio increased with increasing As rates. At a rate of 400 mg kg-1 As, whitish chlorosis appeared on Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia seedlings. The root anatomy of both species was altered, resulting in cell collapse, death of root buds and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Arsenic concentration was several times greater in roots than in shoots, with more than 150 and 350 mg kg-1 in M. caesalpiniaefolia and A. mangium roots, respectively. These species could be suitable for phytostabilization of As-contaminated sites, but growth-stimulating measures should be used.

  12. Seletion of arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi for efficient symbiosis with Acacia mangium willd

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    Guilherme Augusto Robles Angelini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium forms two kinds of mycorrhizal symbiosis, a arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs type and another with ectomycorrhizal fungi (fECTOs. The present study aimed to select different AMFs species and fECTOs isolates for effective symbiosis with A. mangium, which provide seedlings well colonized, nodulated and developed. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at Embrapa Agrobiology, one for AMF species selection and another for fECTOs, using a randomized block design with five replicates. Treatments were species AMFs (Acaulospora laevis, Acaulospora morrowiae, Entrophospora colombiana, Entrophospora contigua, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus clarum, Scutellospora calospora, Scutellospora heterogama, Scutellospora gilmorei and Scutellospora pellucida or fECTOs isolated (UFSC Pt116; UFSC Pt24; UFSC Pt193; O 64–ITA6; UFSC Pt187 and O 40–ORS 7870. The AMFs species that promoted greater vegetative growth, mycorrhizal colonization and more effective symbioses were S. calospora, S. heterogama, S. gilmorei e A. morrowiae. The fECTOs not demonstrated effectiveness in promoting growth, but the isolate O64-ITA6 (Pisolithus tinctorius provided greater colonization. Seedlings of A. mangium have high responsiveness to inoculation with AMFs and depends on high root colonization, between 40 and 80%, to obtain relevant benefits from symbiose over nodule formation and growth.

  13. CASCA DE ARROZ CARBONIZADA NA COMPOSIÇÃO DE SUBSTRATOS PARA EMERGÊNCIA E PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Acacia mangium Willd

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    Katiane Alves Bezerra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of carbonized rice husk on initial growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedlings. The experiment was carried out in the forest of the Federal University of Tocantins, Campus of Gurupi-TO, conducted in a completely randomized design, with five treatments T1: 0% Carbonized Rice Peel (CAC + 100% Bioflora® Commercial Substrate, T2 : 25% CCS + 75% Commercial substrate; T3: 50% CAC + 50% Commercial substrate; T4: 75% CAC + 25% Commercial substrate; T5: 100% CAC + 0% Commercial substrate, with 4 replicates, each replicate with 18 seeds. The percentage of emergence (% E, shoot height (H, shoot diameter (DC, shoot dry matter weight (PMSPA, root dry weight (PMSR and dry matter weight Total (PMST. Theresults indicated that the use of carbonized rice husk added in different proportions to commercial Bioflora ® substrate presented significant results in the parameters analyzed in Acacia mangium Willd seedlings. It is suggested that 25% CAC + 75% of Bioflora® commercial substrate is used in the alternative DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20873/uft.2359-3652.2017v4n3p25Revista Desafios –v. 04,n. 03, 201726substrate formulation, considering that this treatment was the one that presented the best result in initial growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedlings.

  14. Modelling changes in leaf shape prior to phyllode acquisition in Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Céline; Heuret, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise changes in leaf shape prior to phyllode acquisition along the axes of Acacia mangium seedlings. The study area was located in North Lampung (South Sumatra, Indonesia), where these trees belong to a naturally regenerated stand. A total of 173 seedlings, less than three months old, were described node by node. Leaf shape and leaf length were recorded and the way in which one leaf type succeeded another was modelled using a hidden semi-Markov chain composed of seven states. The phyllotactical pattern was studied using another sample of forty 6-month-old seedlings. The results indicate (i) the existence of successive zones characterised by one or a combination of leaf types, and (ii) that phyllode acquisition seems to be accompanied by a change in the phyllotactical pattern. The concepts of juvenility and heteroblasty, as well as potential applications for taxonomy are discussed.

  15. Equações Hipsométricas e Volumétricas para Acacia mangium Willd em Roraima / Hypsometric And Volumetric Equations for Acacia mangium Willd In Roraima

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    Helio Tonini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A Acacia mangium é a espécie florestal mais plantada no Estado de Roraima, sendo necessários estudos que visem ao desenvolvimento de sistemas silviculturais adaptados às condições locais. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de selecionar equações de relação hipsométrica e de volume para A. mangium em área de savana no estado de Roraima. Foram utilizadas 701 árvores amostras localizadas em três fazendas e duas regiões. Foram testadas 8 equações hipsométricas e 5 volumétricas. Nas condições estudadas, a equação hipsométrica selecionada apresentou um R2aj = 0,62 e a equação logaritmizada de Spurr se mostrou a mais adequada para estimar a o volume total (R2aj =0,98 e comercial com casca (R2aj =0,58.

  16. Evaluación del potencial de mejoramiento genético en el crecimiento en altura de Acacia mangium Willd. Evaluation of the breeding potential in height growth for Acacia mangium Willd.

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    Iván Javier Pastrana-Vargas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el periodo 2009-2010, en Ayapel, Planeta Rica y Tierralta, departamento de Córdoba (Colombia se evaluó el desempeño en crecimiento en altura total de 90 familias de polinización abierta de Acacia mangium. En estos municipios el clima se clasifica, de acuerdo con Holdridge, como bosque seco tropical (Bs-T, excepto Tierralta que es bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T. Durante el primer año de crecimiento, las plantas en cada familia fueron evaluadas en ensayos de progenie mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con seis bloques en cada una de las tres localidades. La parcela o unidad experimental consistió en seis plantas de polinización abierta por familia, distribuidas aleatoriamente en tres parejas espacialmente separadas dentro de cada bloque. La predicción de parámetros genéticos individuales y de familias se efectuó por medio del procedimiento BLUP y los componentes de varianza por medio del procedimiento REML utilizando el software SELEGEN. Las estimaciones de heredabilidad variaron entre In 2009-10, in Ayapel, Planeta Rica and Tierralta, Córdoba department (Colombia the growth performance in overall height of 90 open-pollinated families of Acacia mangium was evaluated. In these municipalities the climate is classified, according to Holdridge, like tropical dry forest (TDF, except Tierralta that it is tropical moist forest (TMF. During the first year of growth, plants in each family were evaluated in progeny tests using a randomized experimental complete block design, with six blocks in each of the three locations. The experimental unit consisted of six open-pollinated plants per family, randomly distributed in three spatially separated pairs within each block. The prediction of genetic parameters individual and of families was conducted by the method BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction and the variance components by REML (restricted maximum likelihood procedure using the software SELEGEN. Heritability

  17. The breeding systems of diploid and neoautotetraploid clones of Acacia mangium Willd. in a synthetic sympatric population in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, A R; Vuong, T D; Vaillancourt, R E; Harbard, J L; Harwood, C E; Nghiem, C Q; Thinh, H H

    2012-12-01

    Colchicine-induced neoautotetraploid genotypes of Acacia mangium were cloned and planted in mixture with a set of diploid clones in an orchard in southern Vietnam. Following good general flowering, open-pollinated seed was collected from trees of both cytotypes and microsatellite markers were used to determine the breeding system as characterised by the proportion of outcrosses in young seedling progeny. As predicted from the literature, the progeny of diploid clones were predominantly outcrossed (t(m) = 0.97). In contrast, the progeny of the tetraploid clones were almost entirely selfs (t(m) = 0.02; 3 of 161 seedlings assayed were tetraploid outcrosses and there were no triploids). Segregation at loci heterozygous in the tetraploid mothers followed expected ratios, indicating sexual reproduction rather than apomixis. Post-zygotic factors are primarily responsible for divergence of the breeding systems. Commonly, less than 1 % of Acacia flowers mature as a pod, and after mixed pollination, diploid outcrossed seed normally develops at the expense of selfs. Selfs of the tetraploid trees appear to express less genetic load and have a higher probability of maturing. However, this does not fully explain the observed deficiency of outcross tetraploid progeny. Presumably, there are cytogenetic reasons which remain to be investigated. In nature, selfing would increase the probability of establishment of neotetraploids irrespective of cytotype frequency in the population. Breeders need to review their open-pollinated breeding and seed production strategies. It remains to be seen whether this is an ephemeral problem, with strong fertility selection restoring potential for outcrossing over generations.

  18. Respostas de Acacia mangium Willd e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nativos provenientes de áreas degradadas pela mineração de bauxita na Amazônia Responses of Acacia mangium Willd and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel to native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from remaining areas of bauxite mining in Amazon

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    Ney Freitas Marinho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A resposta de Acacia mangium Willd (mangium e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi à inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, oriundos de áreas em recuperação após a extração de bauxita, foi avaliada em experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 14 tratamentos (duas espécies leguminosas e sete tipos de solo e três repetições. Avaliou-se o número de esporos no solo, a colonização micorrízica, a matéria seca total, o P acumulado, a dependência micorrízica das mudas, e a abundância e a freqüência de espécies. O número de propágulos infectivos (NPI foi estudado em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito diluições de solo inóculo, cinco repetições e uma planta isca (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Utilizou-se substrato da mistura de um Planossolo mais areia lavada e fosfato de rocha araxá (0,60 g/kg. O número de esporos aumentou em função do tempo de cobertura das leguminosas. A colonização micorrízica foi mais intensa no tachi. Os valores de matéria seca dessa espécie foram inferiores aos de mangium, que por sua vez extraiu em torno de seis vezes mais P do substrato. Em geral, mangium, ao contrário do tachi, foi facultativa à presença dos FMA, sugerindo sua utilização na recuperação de áreas degradadas sem inoculação prévia. Dentre as 39 espécies de FMA identificadas, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. apresentou maior índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF e maior NPI, destacando-se entre as espécies pioneiras, ao passo que outras apareceram apenas em estádios sucessionais mais avançados das áreas em recuperação.The responses of Acacia mangium Willd (mangium and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation collected from areas under reclamation after bauxite mining, was evaluated in an completely randomized design distributed in 14 treatments (two legume, species and seven soil types, with three replicates. Evaluated

  19. Consideraciones y recomendaciones prácticas para mejorar la calidad de la madera seca de Acacia mangium Willd

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    Carolina Tenorio Monge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium, es actualmente, una de las especies más utilizadas en plantaciones comerciales en Costa Rica. Sin embargo, los usos de su madera han sido restringidos debido a que presenta algunos problemas durante el proceso de secado artificial, entre los que destaca la alta variabilidad del contenido de humedad final, la alta incidencia de defectos y la presencia de bolsas de humedad. Se han investigado las causas de esta variación y del desarrollo de estos defectos y se ha encontrado que los principales factores que influyen son: la alta variabilidad en el contenido de humedad inicial de la madera, la procedencia de la materia prima, la altura, la posición radial de la tabla al extraerla del árbol y el uso de programas de secado inadecuados para la especie. Asímismo se dan una serie de recomendaciones a considerar antes de iniciar el secado artificial con el fin de lograr una mejor calidad de madera en cuanto a la variabilidad del secado y lapresencia de defectos.

  20. Penggunaan Analisis Regresi Terboboti dalam Penyusunan Model Pertumbuhan Peninggi Acacia mangium Willd. (The Use of Weighted Regression Analysis for Constructing Top-height Growth Model of Acacia mangium Willd.

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    Muhdin .

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The compilation of growth stand model usually uses the regression analysis. Homoscedasticity or residual kind homogeneity is one assumption which underlying the use of this regression analysis.  Breaking this assumption causes the low of model accuracy which is shown by the low of determination coefficient and the height of error standard. The problem of heteroscedasticity can be solved by using weighted regression analysis.The Selected Raiser Growth Model equation in this research was transformed into a model equation: ln P = a + b/A, where there was a significant correlation between the growth and the age (R2  = 55.04%, sb0 = 0.041, and sb1 = 0.171.  From the use of weighted regression analysis with weightier wi = 1/”Xi, it can be concluded that there was no real correlation between the growth and the age (R2 = 0.55%, sb0 = 0.572, and sb1 = 2.560.  The use of weightier shows much lower accuracy than without weightier.  However, from the use of weighted regression analysis with weightier: wi = 1/si2, where  si2  = residual kinds at free variable group to I (X1 shows that there was significant correlation between the growth and the age (R2 = 45.46%;  sb0  = 0.084, and sb1 = 0.205.  There fore it can be said that the accuracy was much better than regression without weightier.  Furthermore,  the use of weighted regression analysis with weightier wi = 1/si2, where  si2 is residual kind at free variable to i (X which is estimated through second orde polynomial regression model shows a very significant correlation between the growth and the age (where R2 = 87.22%, sb0 = 0.029, and sb1  = 0.072. The last result shows a better accuracy than the preceding treatments.  From this research, it can be concluded that by using a suitable weightier, the use of weighted regression analysis in compiling raiser growth model can improve the model accuracy.  Keywords: growth model, weighted regression, acacia mangium,regression analysis

  1. A leaf phosphorus assay for seedlings of Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J S; Simpson, R J; Sands, R

    1992-10-01

    Concentrations of extractable and total phosphorus in leaves, stem, root and nodules of 12-week-old seedlings of two provenances of Acacia mangium Willd. were analyzed to identify the fraction of phosphorus and the plant part most suitable for predicting the phosphorus nutritional status of the seedlings.For both provenances, concentrations of extractable phosphorus were more sensitive to changes in soil phosphorus status and varied less among different plant parts than concentrations of total phosphorus. Concentrations of extractable phosphorus in the youngest fully expanded leaf (Leaf 3 from the apex) and the next two older leaves correlated closely with seedling dry mass and may be used to assess the phosphorus nutritional status of Acacia mangium seedlings.

  2. Acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea, na serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo e decomposição de filódios de Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Balieiro de C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient concentrations and contents in the shoot (leaves, branches, bark and wood in a five-years-old stand of Acacia mangium Willd. (mangium, decomposition rate of mangium phyllodies (modified leaves and nutrient efficiency use were evaluated in a forest stand in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The species presented a high nutrient use efficency and accumulated 135 t.ha-1 of above ground biomass, containing: 544.9 kg.ha-1 of N, 281.7 kg.ha-1 of Ca, 242.9 kg.ha-1 of K, 47 kg.ha-1 of Mg and 35.2 kg. ha-1 of P. There was an accumulation of 12.7 t.ha-1 of litter and this layer contained 251.0, 5.7, 14.6, 102.7 and 22.7 kg.ha-1, respectively, of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The decomposition constant (k estimated for the phyllodies decomposition was 0,00165 g.g-1.day-1 and the half-live was 421 days. The accumulation of litter on the ground may represent an advantage as nutrient supply for succeeding crops or disadvantage as fuel in areas subject to frequent fire.

  3. Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de Coffea arabica L. cv. "Oeiras" sob influência do sombreamento por Acacia mangium Willd Morphophysiological alterations in leaves of Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Oeiras' shaded by Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Angélica Cordeiro Gomes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças na disponibilidade de radiação podem causar modificações na estrutura e função das folhas do cafeeiro, que podem responder de maneira diferencial à radiação por alterações morfológicas, anatômicas, de crescimento e na taxa fotossintética. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características morfofisiológicas de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cv. "Oeiras" sombreados por acácia (Acacia mangium Willd. na época seca e chuvosa no sul de Minas Gerais. As maiores taxas fotossintéticas e maiores espessuras da epiderme adaxial foram observadas na estação chuvosa nas linhas de cafeeiros a pleno sol. O sombreamento influenciou em menor espessura das folhas e em espaços intercelulares maiores no tecido esponjoso. Foi também verificada mudança na forma dos cloroplastos, os quais apresentaram-se mais alongados em folhas de cafeeiros a pleno sol quando relacionados aos arborizados.Light availability is one of the most important environmental factors affecting leaf structure and functions in coffee plants that can respond differently to radiation by changes in leaf anatomy, morphology, growth and photosynthetic rate. The objective of this research was evaluate some morphophysiological aspects in leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Oeiras' cropped under shelter trees in the south of Minas Gerais during the rainy and dry season. The shade caused lower leaves thickness and higher intercellular spaces in spongious tissue. There was also verified a change in chloroplast shape, which showed more elongated in coffee tree kept at full sunlight in relation to that ones maintained on shading.

  4. PRODUCTION OF MANGIUM (Acacia mangium WOOD VINEGAR AND ITS UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjutju Nurhayati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Production  of  wood vinegar from mangium (Acacia  mangium wood bolts/pieces  with their diameter of 3  17 cm, length of 30  67 cm, moisture content of 84.4%, and specific gravity of 0.52 conducted in a dome-shaped kiln with 1.2 m'-capacity afforded a yield of 40.3%.   The mangium wood vinegar was produced  through condensation  (cooling of  smoke/gas fractions released during the charcoaling (carbonization process  of  mangium wood.    The  process  could be regarded  as an integrated production of wood vinegar and charcoal.  The yield of wood vinegar combined with the resulting charcoal was 73.9%  based on  the dry weight of  inputed  mangium wood.    Results of chromatography analysis on mangium wood vinegar as conducted in Japan revealed its organic acid content at 73.9 ppm, phenol content 8.09 ppm, methanol 3.34 ppm, acidity degree 4.91  ppm, and pH 3.89.   Similar analysis on the mangium wood vinegar was conducted in Indonesia's laboratories, and the results were comparable with  those  of  Japan.     Results of  inhibition  testings  on  particular microorganisms   (i.e.  Pseudomonas  aerogjnosa,  Stafi/ococms   attreus,  and  Candidi   albicans  fimgz indicated that the mangium wood vinegar could inflict antirnicrobe action on those microorganism with its effectiveness somewhat below that of  liquid betel soap which could be purchased  from drugstores.  The experimental use of mangium wood vinegar at 3-5% concentration on ginger (Zingiber officinale var. white ginger plants revealed significantly positive growth responses/  characteristics with respect to their height, leaf length, and sprout/ shoot development, in comparison with the untreated ginger plants (control.   Such responses/characteristics were not significantly different from those using atonik's growth hormone.  Likewise, the preliminary use of mangium wood vinegar at 2-percent concentration on teak

  5. Costos y rendimientos de ocho tipos de poda en plantaciones jóvenes de Acacia mangium Willd en la zona norte de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara-Bonilla, Mario; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica; Murillo-Gamboa, Olman; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluaron ocho tipos de operaciones de poda en plantaciones jóvenes de Acacia mangium, plantadas a 2,5 m x 2,5m. en la zona norte de Costa Rica. Mediante un estudio de tiempos y movimientos se determinó la productividad de todos los tipos de poda. Se encontró una relación inversamente proporcional entre la altura y el rendimiento de la poda. El rendimiento de la poda registró una variación desde 98 árboles/hora, en la poda baja de ramas delgadas, hasta poco más de 20 árboles/hora en la pod...

  6. Wood Quality of Acacia Hybrid and Second-Generation Acacia mangium

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Jusoh; Farawahida Abu Zaharin; Nur Syazni Adam

    2013-01-01

    Two new tree variants, namely Acacia hybrid and second-generation Acacia mangium, have been introduced in plantation forests in Sarawak, Malaysia, and their wood qualities were examined. The mean basic density of Acacia hybrid was comparable with Acacia mangium. However basic density and strength properties of second-generation A. mangium were significantly lower compared to Acacia hybrid. The mean fibre length and fibre wall thickness in the hybrid were found to be greater than that of secon...

  7. Evaluación del potencial de mejoramiento genético en el crecimiento en altura de Acacia mangium Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Javier Pastrana-Vargas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el periodo 2009-2010, en Ayapel, Planeta Rica y Tierralta, departamento de Córdoba (Colombia se evaluó el desempeño en crecimiento en altura total de 90 familias de polinización abierta de Acacia mangium. En estos municipios el clima se clasifica, de acuerdo con Holdridge, como bosque seco tropical (Bs-T, excepto Tierralta que es bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T. Durante el primer año de crecimiento, las plantas en cada familia fueron evaluadas en ensayos de progenie mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con seis bloques en cada una de las tres localidades. La parcela o unidad experimental consistió en seis plantas de polinización abierta por familia, distribuidas aleatoriamente en tres parejas espacialmente separadas dentro de cada bloque. La predicción de parámetros genéticos individuales y de familias se efectuó por medio del procedimiento BLUP y los componentes de varianza por medio del procedimiento REML utilizando el software SELEGEN. Las estimaciones de heredabilidad variaron entre <1 y 13%, y entre 6 y 68%, para heredabilidad individual en sentido estricto (h²a y heredabilidad media de familias (h²mp, respectivamente. El ranking genético en altura de las 15 mejores familias indica que las de mayor crecimiento fueron también las más estables y de mayor adaptabilidad a los ambientes. Los resultados sugieren un alto potencial de mejoramiento al nivel de familia en crecimiento y productividad de plantaciones de A. mangium en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Son necesarios nuevos estudios a fin de lograr una mejor selección genética.

  8. Evaluación del potencial de mejoramiento genético en el crecimiento en altura de Acacia mangium Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastrana Vargas Iván Javier

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En el periodo 2009-2010, en Ayapel, Planeta Rica y Tierralta, departamento de Córdoba (Colombia se evaluó el desempeño en crecimiento en altura total de 90 familias de polinización abierta de Acacia mangium. En estos municipios el clima se clasifica, de acuerdo con Holdridge, como bosque seco tro- pical (Bs-T, excepto Tierralta que es bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T. Durante el primer año de creci- miento, las plantas en cada familia fueron evaluadas en ensayos de progenie mediante un diseño expe- rimental de bloques completos al azar, con seis bloques en cada una de las tres localidades. La parcela o unidad experimental consistió en seis plantas de polinización abierta por familia, distribuidas aleato- riamente en tres parejas espacialmente separadas dentro de cada bloque. La predicción de parámetros genéticos individuales y de familias se efectuó por medio del procedimiento BLUP y los componentes de varianza por medio del procedimiento REML utilizando el software SELEGEN. Las estimaciones de he- redabilidad variaron entre <1 y 13%, y entre 6 y 68%, para heredabilidad individual en sentido estricto (h2a y heredabilidad media de familias (h2mp, respectivamente. El ranking genético en altura de las

    15 mejores familias indica que las de mayor crecimiento fueron también las más estables y de mayor adaptabilidad a los ambientes. Los resultados sugieren un alto potencial de mejoramiento al nivel de familia en crecimiento y productividad de plantaciones de A. mangium en el departamento de Córdoba,

    #olombia. $on necesarios nuevos estudios a fin de lograr una me%or selección genética

  9. ACÚMULO DE NUTRIENTES NA PARTE AÉREA, NA SERAPILHEIRA ACUMULADA SOBRE O SOLO E DECOMPOSIÇÃO DE FILÓDIOS DE Acacia mangium Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo F. C. Campello

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca e Mg nos tecidos da parte aérea e na serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo, bem como a velocidade de decomposição de filódios e a eficiência de uso de nutrientes (CUB da Acacia mangium Willd (mangium foram avaliados num povoamento localizado em Seropédica, RJ. A espécie apresentou elevada eficiência de uso dos nutrientes, acumulando, aos cinco anos, grande quantidade de biomassa em sua parte aérea (135 t.ha-1 e contendo: 544,9 kg.ha-1 de N; 281,7 kg.ha-1 de Ca; 242,9 kg.ha-1 de K; 47 kg.ha-1 de Mg e 35,2 kg.ha-1 de P. Na serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo (12,7 t.ha-1, foram encontradas reservas significativas dos nutrientes (251,0; 5,7; 14,6; 102,7 e 22,7 kg.ha-1 de N, P, K, Ca e Mg respectivamente. A constante de decomposição (k foi estimada em 0,00165 g.g-1.dia-1 e o tempo de meia vida dos filódios em 421 dias. A acumulação de serapilheira pode ser positiva no sentido de constituir reserva de nutrientes para cultivos em sucessão, mas também pode representar uma desvantagem, por servir como combustível em áreas sujeitas a queimadas.

  10. Photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes of phyllodes of Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu; Ong

    2000-10-16

    Physiological processes are influenced by environmental factors and plant characteristics. The distribution of photosynthetic capacity of phyllodes of Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings was studied in relation to the in vivo photosystem II (PSII) function, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) of phyllodes at different positions on seedlings. There was a vertical gradient in photosynthetic capacity of phyllodes along the shoot. Phyllode 1 (at the apex) showed negative carbon uptake at PPFD lower than 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1). High photosynthetic capacities, chlorophyll concentrations, DeltaF/F'(m), and q(P) were observed in phyllodes 4, 6 and 8. The high photosynthetic capacities of mature phyllodes could be attributed to the enhanced availability of CO(2) and the high efficiency of PSII in energy absorption and utilization. Total SOD and APX activities (on a dry weight basis) were highest at phyllode 1 and decreased as the phyllodes matured. The high photosynthetic capacity and low respiration loss in mature phyllodes could be important factors, responsible for the rapid establishment and fast growth of A. mangium in reforestation programs.

  11. Effets des jacheres a Acacia mangium, auriculiformis et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets des jacheres a Acacia mangium, auriculiformis et Chromolaena odorata sur la fertilite du sol et les redements de l'igname (Dioscorea SPP.) en zone forestiere de Côte d'Ivoire. GM Gnahoua, FY Kouassi, PKT Angup, P Balle, R Olivier, R Peltier ...

  12. Inisiasi Tunas Acacia Hibrid (Acacia Mangium X A.Auriculiformis) Secara in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarti, Sri; Putri, Asri Insiana

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary shoot groeth on acacia hybrids (Acacia mangium x A. Auriculiformis) was observed to assess their in- vitro shoot initiation. Explants were taken from 4 months old seedlings of A. Mangium, A. Auriculiformis and their hybrid. Murashige & Skoog's (MS) medium was used supplemented with various concentration of BAP, IBA,NAA, and GA4. Parameters measured were bud breaking, number average number of leaves of acacia hybrid was 7 and 1.9 cm and 5.2 respectively, found in medium Ak2 culture...

  13. Isolation and characterization of flower-specific transcripts in Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing Jun; Cao, Xiang Ling; Hong, Yan

    2005-02-01

    Acacia mangium Willd. is a legume tree species native to subtropical and tropical regions of Asia and Australia. Many features of its flower development are common to other legume tree species. To identify genes involved in its floral development, we constructed a subtractive flower cDNA library against vegetative tissues. The 1123 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) represented 576 unique genes. Macroarray analysis further identified 147 of these genes as specific to the early, late or whole flowering process. Eight percent of these flower-specific genes encode MADS-domain-containing transcription factors and MYB proteins. Four percent encode other transcription factors and 10% encode regulatory proteins such as G proteins, kinases and phosphatases. Flower-specific transcripts for gibberellic acid (GA) synthesis and GA-induced proteins, as well as other stress- and pathogenesis-related genes (9%), implicate their involvement in A. mangium flower development. Eighteen percent of the flower-specific genes encode hypothetical proteins and 18% encode proteins of unknown functions. The RNA blot hybridization confirmed and detailed the expression patterns of selected genes. Functions of the A. mangium flower-specific genes are discussed based on comparison with their Arabidopsis homologues, most of which have been implicated in Arabidopsis floral development. Our work suggests general conservation of floral development in A. mangium and Arabidopsis. Further characterization of the conserved and different flower-specific genes will delineate the flowering process of this important legume tree species and facilitate genetic modification of its reproduction.

  14. Nutrient management of contrasting Acacia mangium genotypes and weed management strategies in South Sumatra, Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendham, D. S; Hardiyanto, E. B; Wicaksono, A; Nurudin, M

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study, we explored the response of Acacia mangium plantations in South Sumatra, Indonesia, to fertiliser and their requirement for fertiliser, focusing on phosphorus (P) at establishment...

  15. Acacia mangium: Growing and utilization. MPTS monograph series No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, K.; Taylor, D.

    1993-01-01

    With deforestation in the Asia-Pacific region progressing at the rate of 4.4 million ha per year, many countries have adopted plantation forestry using fast-growing species as a way to sustain the commercial supply of tree products and reduce pressure on natural forests. Acacia mangium (A. mangium) is playing a large role in this development, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia, due to its versatility and its ability to recapture grasslands dominated by the noxious weed, Imperata cylindrica. This monograph consolidates information on A. mangium from published literature, unpublished reports and studies, and observations from those familiar with the species. Priorities for future research are included in each chapter and in the final summary.

  16. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-14

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  17. Phenolic Extracts from Acacia mangium Bark and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 °C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  18. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  19. The phosphorus requirement of N2 -fixing and urea-fed Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribet, J M; Drevon, J J

    1996-03-01

    The fast-growing leguminous tree Acacia mangium Willd, was grown for at least 22 wk in aerated solution culture either under N2 -fixing conditions or with 2 mmol urea per plant per wk. Inorganic phosphorus was supplied at between 1 and 100 μmol P(1) per plant per wk: the latter was determined to be the optimum P supply for growth. The external P requirement for growth and the efficiency of utilization of internal P were similar for both N sources. However, shoot growth and the concentrations of N and P in leaves were decreased by P deficiency to a slightly higher extent in N2 -fixing plants than in urea-fed plants. Even though P deficiency limited nodule growth more drastically than it did shoot growth, the fraction of P allocated to both nodules and nodule nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) increased with P deficiency. It is concluded that this increase in nitrogenase activity reflects a higher N requirement per unit nodule mass in P-deficient plants and that, once nodules are fully functional the efficiency of utilization of internal P in N2 -fixing A. mangium is high compared with that of other N2 -fixing legumes.

  20. In vitro propagation of Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteuuis, Olivier; Galiana, Antoine; Goh, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis hybrids have gained an increasing interest in reafforestation programs under the humid tropical conditions, mainly for pulpwood production. This is due to their impressive growth on acid and degraded soils, as well as their capability to restore soil fertility thanks to their natural nitrogen-fixing ability. It is crucial to develop efficient methods for improving the genetic quality and the mass production of the planting stocks of these species. In this regard, in vitro micropropagation is well suited to overcome the limitations of more conventional techniques for mass propagating vegetatively selected juvenile, mature, or even transgenic genotypes. Micropropagation of A. mangium either from seeds or from explants collected from outdoors is initiated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA. Microshoot cultures produced by axillary budding are further developed and maintained by regular subcultures every 60 days onto fresh MS culture medium added with 2.2 μM BA + 0.1 μM NAA. This procedure enhances the organogenic capacity for shoot multiplication by axillary budding, with average multiplication rates of 3-5 every 2 months, as well as for adventitious rooting. The rooting is initiated on Schenk and Hildebrandt culture medium containing 4 μM IAA. The maintenance of shoot cultures in total darkness for 3 weeks increases the rooting rates reaching more than 70%. The hybrid A. mangium × A. auriculiformis genotypes are subcultured at 2-month intervals with an average multiplication rate of 3 and rooting rates of 95-100% on a half-strength MS basal medium containing 1.1 μM NAA. The rooted microshoots are transferred to ex vitro controlled conditions for acclimatization and further growth, prior to transfer to the field, or use as stock plants for cost-effective and true-to-type mass production by rooted cuttings.

  1. Early growth performance of full-sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies at three different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Aimin, Atirah Abdullah; Abdullah, Mohd Zaki; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    Field trials of 14 full sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies were evaluated for growth performance at three sites (Bintulu, Mentakab and Segamat). Results indicated that there were significant differences (p> 0.05) for diameter breast height (Dbh) and total height (Ht) among the progenies and different sites. Superior progenies have been identified for future tree selection and improvement.

  2. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose from Acacia mangium and its reinforcement potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmani, Latifah; Adnan, Sharmiza

    2017-04-01

    Acacia mangium, a fast growing tree is widely planted in Malaysia. Converting Acacia wood into nanocellulose could create new value added products for forest-based industry. Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was prepared from Acacia mangium wood pulp via 64wt% sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Prior to acid hydrolysis, Acacia mangium was subjected to pulping followed by bleaching in order to remove non-cellulosic fragments. Acid hydrolysis was carried out on bleached pulp to produce the needle-like NCC with 79% crystallinity and aspect ratio of 26. The resulting NCC was mixed with PVA as a reinforcement material. Incorporation of 2% NCC improved the tensile of the NCC-PVA film by 30%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical Damages of Wood Fiber in Acacia Mangium due to Biopulping Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Yahya

    2016-05-01

    chrysosporium to Acacia mangium Willd can reduce lignin and improve holocellulose and cellulose content of the material. Fiber dimension recognized as other important factor for paper properties. The question is how the integrity and dimensions of the wood fiber that has been pretreated with the fungus. The objectives of present study were to know effect of pretreatment of P. chrysosporium to the integrity and dimensions of the fiber. The P. chrysosporium was cultured for 14 days in growth medium, and inoculated to wood chips 5% (w/v and incubated for 0, 15 and 30 days. The inoculated wood chips were chipped into 1 mm x 1 mm x 20 mm and macerated using franklin solution at 60 oC for 48 hours. Forty fibers from each incubated time were analized their physical damages using a light microscope at a 400 magnification. The inoculated fibers were measured theirs dimensions. The physical damage percentage of fibers pretreated using P. chrysosporium was 0%. Length and wall thickness of the pretreated fibers were can be categorized as middle class and thin fibers, respectively.

  4. Improving linkage analysis in outcrossed forest trees - an example from Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, A.; Williams, R.; Whitaker, D.; Ling, S.; Speed, P.; Moran, F.

    2002-05-01

    Mapping in forest trees generally relies on outbred pedigrees in which genetic segregation is the result of meiotic recombination from both parents. The currently available mapping packages are not optimal for outcrossed pedigrees as they either cannot order phase-ambiguous data or only use pairwise information when ordering loci within linkage groups. A new package, OUTMAP, has been developed for mapping codominant loci in outcrossed trees. A comparison of maps produced using linkage data from two pedigrees of Acacia mangium Willd demonstrated that the marker orders produced using OUTMAP were consistently of higher likelihood than those produced by JOINMAP. In addition, the maps were produced more efficiently, without the need for recoding data or the detailed investigation of pairwise recombination fractions which was necessary to select the optimal marker order using JOINMAP. Distances between markers often varied from those calculated by JOINMAP, resulting in an increase in the estimated genome length. OUTMAP can be used with all segregation types to determine phase and to calculate the likelihood of alternative marker orders, with a choice of three optimisation methods.

  5. Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

  6. Podridão-do-lenho em plantios homogêneos de Acacia mangium Heartrot in homogeneous stands of Acacia mangium

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    Bernardo de Almeida Halfeld-Vieira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência da podridão-do-lenho em plantios homogêneos de Acacia mangium no Estado de Roraima. A observação dos sintomas iniciais em ferimentos de poda indica que a desrama artificial é um fator de predisposição. Estimativas realizadas em dois talhões comerciais constataram cerca de 8 e 39% de incidência da doença em árvores de três anos. Isolamentos a partir de árvores sintomáticas e testes de patogenicidade demonstram que Lasiodiplodia theobromae pode contribuir no processo de podridão. Este é o primeiro relato da podridão-do-lenho em A. mangium no Brasil, o que pode limitar sua exploração comercial.The objective of this work was to report the occurrence of heartrot in homogeneous stands of Acacia mangium in the State of Roraima, Brazil. Observations of symptoms initiating from pruning wounds indicated that the artificial pruning is a predisposing factor. A survey carried out in two commercial stands showed 8 and 39% of disease incidence in three-year-old trees. Isolations performed from symptomatic trees and pathogenicity tests demonstrated that the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae can incite the rot development. This is the first record of A. mangium heartrot in Brazil. The disease can restrict its commercial exploration.

  7. MODEL PENDUGAAN POTENSI PRODUKSI BENIH ACACIA MANGIUM PADA BERBAGAI BENTUK SUMBER BENIH

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    Yulianti Bramasto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu jenis tanaman hutan yang banyak diminati untuk dijadikan bahan baku industri kehutanan, khususnya industri pulp dan paper adalah Acacia mangium, sehingga kebutuhan benih berkualitas jenis ini cukup tinggi. Untuk itu telah dibangun berbagai model sumber benih jenis Acacia mangium, khususnya oleh Balai Penelitian Teknologi Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan Bogor, diberbagai lokasi penanaman. Penanaman antara lain dilaksanakan di Kebun Benih Parungpanjang, Majalengka dan Gunung Kencana Banten. Bentuk sumber benih yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah: Tegakan Benih Provenan di Parungpanjang dan Tegakan Benih Uji Multilokasi di Gunung Kencana dan Majalengka. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui model pendugaan potensi produksi benih Acacia mangium pada berbagai tipe sumber benih.Metode yang digunakan adalah purposive sampling dengan menggunakan analisis regresi. Pendugaan potensi produksi berdasarkan peubah bebas yaitu diameter, tinggi, lebar tajuk dan jumlah cabang sedangkan peubah tetap adalah berat benih bersih dan berat benih kotor.Berdasarkan hasil uji t semua peubah bebas yang digunakan tidak berbeda nyata. Nilai korelasi pada setiap model sumber benih berkisar antara 0,179-0,409. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa kemampuan peubah tinggi, diameter, lebar tajuk dan jumlah cabang dalam menduga potensi produksi benih Acacia mangium di tegakan benih provenan Parung Panjang, tegakan uji multilokasi Majalengka dan Gunung Kencana adalah berkisar 17,9 - 40,9%.

  8. STRATEGI DIVERSIFIKASI PRODUK KAYU OLAHAN Acacia mangium (studi kasus : PT. Musi Hutan Persada

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    Hamzah Hamzah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objective of this study is to suggest  the best wood  products of Acacia mangium  that have  high value-added as an alternative business and to formulate the fitting  strategy. This study  is descriptive case study applying  purposive sampling method which involved wood product Experts and Senior PT. Musi Hutan Persada Management.  Data have been analyzed through Exponential Compare Method (MPE to select the best product alternative based on eleven set criteria, using AHP method, Hayami value-added Analysis, and Cost Analysis.  The study shows that there are five superior Acacia mangium based products, namely 1 Sawnwood and woodworking (KGKO, 2 Furniture, 3 Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF, 4 Tannin-glue of Acacia mangium  bark and 5 Wood Charcoal.  And  Sawnwood and Woodworking (KGKO, Furniture, and   Tannin-glue  have the best chance.  Best business strategy to be adhered by MHP, “related-diversification”, then is  to continue utilizing  Acacia mangium wood  as renewable resources,  integrated and sustainable business.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Acacia mangium Seed Orchard in Wonogiri Indonesia Using Microsatellite Markers

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    VIVI YUSKIANTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important in tree improvement programs. To evaluate levels of genetic diversity of first generation Acacia mangium seedling seed orchard in Wonogiri, Central Java, Indonesia, three populations from each region of Papua New Guinea (PNG and Queensland, Australia (QLD were selected and analyzed using 25 microsatellite markers. Statistical analysis showed that PNG populations have higher number of detected alleles and level of genetic diversity than QLD populations. This study provides a basic information about the genetic background of the populations used in the development of an A. mangium seed orchard in Indonesia.

  10. Comparison of antifungal and antioxidant activities of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis heartwood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Rie; Barry, Karen M; Mohammed, Caroline L; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2005-04-01

    The effect of heartwood extracts from Acacia mangium (heartrot-susceptible) and A. auriculiformis (heartrot-resistant) was examined on the growth of wood rotting fungi with in vitro assays. A. auriculiformis heartwood extracts had higher antifungal activity than A. mangium. The compounds 3,4',7,8-tetrahydroxyflavanone and teracacidin (the most abundant flavonoids in both species) showed antifungal activity. A. auriculiformis contained higher levels of these flavonoids (3.5- and 43-fold higher, respectively) than A. mangium. This suggests that higher levels of these compounds may contribute to heartrot resistance. Furthermore, both flavonoids had strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and laccase inhibition. This suggests that the antifungal mechanism of these compounds may involve inhibition of fungal growth by quenching of free radicals produced by the extracellular fungal enzyme laccase.

  11. Pirolisis Katalitik Kayu Akasia (Acacia Mangium) Menjadi Bio-oil dengan Katalis Mo/ Lempung

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Aulia; Bahri, Syaiful Bahri '; ', Khairat '

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing in fuel oil production capabilities and the increasing need for fuel oil will make Indonesia more addicted to fuel oil, thereby increasing the amoount of fuel imports. In Consequence, we need an innovation of energy conversion that does not rely on fossil resources, renewable and equal in value and function with fuel oil. One of that such innovation is the conversion of biomass derived from wood acacia (Acacia mangium) into bio-oil. Bio-oil can be produced through the pyrolysis pro...

  12. Gibberellin mediates the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined Acacia mangium seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2013-11-01

    Gibberellin stimulates negative gravitropism and the formation of tension wood in tilted Acacia mangium seedlings, while inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis strongly inhibit the return to vertical growth and suppress the formation of tension wood. To characterize the role of gibberellin in tension wood formation and gravitropism, this study investigated the role of gibberellin in the development of gelatinous fibres and in the changes in anatomical characteristics of woody elements in Acacia mangium seedlings exposed to a gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin, paclobutrazol and uniconazole-P were applied to the soil in which seedlings were growing, using distilled water as the control. Three days after the start of treatment, seedlings were inclined at 45 ° to the vertical and samples were harvested 2 months later. The effects of the treatments on wood fibres, vessel elements and ray parenchyma cells were analysed in tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems and in the opposite wood on the lower side of inclined stems. Application of paclobutrazol or uniconazole-P inhibited the increase in the thickness of gelatinous layers and prevented the elongation of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined stems. By contrast, gibberellin stimulated the elongation of these fibres. Application of gibberellin and inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis had only minor effects on the anatomical characteristics of vessel and ray parenchyma cells. The results suggest that gibberellin is important for the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of A. mangium seedlings and therefore in gravitropism.

  13. Pruning quality affects infection of Acacia mangium and A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pruning (singling) is a common silvicultural practice in commercial Acacia plantations because these trees tend to have multiple stems. The wounds resulting from pruning are susceptible to infection by pathogens. Ceratocystis acaciivora and Lasiodiplodia theobromae have been shown recently to be important pathogens ...

  14. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (ΔB(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔB(w)/ANPP and ΔB(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ΔB(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by

  15. Growth Responses of Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria Seedlings on Different Soil Origin under Nursery Condition

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    Tirtha Ayu Paramitha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine the growth responses of Acacia mangium (mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria (sengon seedlings growing on different soil origin under nursery condition. This study was started in September 2012 and terminated in March 2013.  The seedlings were grown from seeds sown in a plastic box filled with sterilized sands. One week after sowing, the seedlings were transplanted into polybags contained sterilized soils originated from secondary forest, Imperata cylindrica grassland and ex-coal mining. The number of all seedlings were 180 seedlings consisted of 3 different soils, 2 species of seedlings with 10 seedlings replicated 3 times. Assessment was conducted one week after transplanting, then subsequently monitored every 2 weeks, except dry weighing and counting nodules were performed at the end of the study. A completely randomized design was used in this study. The data was analyzed using Costat software. The study resulted that the different of soil origin influenced on all growth variables of mangium and sengon of 4.5 months old. The survival rate of seedlings, height and diameter increments, dry weight and root nodules were better in both species of seedlings growing on soil originated from secondary forest and Imperata grassland compared with the soil from ex-coal mining. But the survival rates of sengon seedlings were higher than that of mangium on these three soils. The highest dry weight of sengon seedlings was achieved on soil originated from secondary forest. In the present study, soil originated from secondary forest increased more in weight of shoot than root, so that the shoot-root ratio was unbalanced more than one. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that soil from secondary forest and Imperata grassland can be used as growing media for mangium and sengon seedlings in the nursery.

  16. Incidences and severity of vascular wilt in Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maid, Mandy; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidences and severity of vascular wilt disease associated with dieback in stands of commercial Acacia mangium plantations. The study revealed that the prevalence of the symptoms is high between 50 to 60% in two plantations, where it is found scattered in the plots that were surveyed. The incidence of the disease in each plot is low between 0 to 6%. The disease symptoms were more often found where the symptom syndrome in a chronic (level 3) or critical state (level 4). This suggests that the causal pathogen has the ability to penetrate into the tissues of the plants and only display symptoms at the latest stage.

  17. PERBANDINGAN VIGORITAS BENIH Acacia mangium HASIL PEMULIAAN DAN YANG BELUM DIMULIAKAN

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    Naning Yuniarti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds with high vigour are seeds that can germinate normally in sub-optimum conditions and above normal in optimum condition. To predict the performance of seedlings after planting and the storability of seeds, it is necessary to test the seed vigour. This study aims to investigate the growth and storage vigour of Acacia mangium breeding and unbreeding seeds. The experiment design was arranged in completely randomized design with each treatment being replicated four times with 100 seeds. Results obtained showed that breeding seeds had better growth and storage vigour. 

  18. [Effects of tree height on whole-tree water use of Acacia mangium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-jing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Quan; Cai, Xi-an; Zeng, Xiao-ping

    2009-01-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of 14 sample trees in a 22-year old Acacia mangium forest in hilly land of South China was continuously measured in 2004. Environmental factors including the photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, and air humidity above canopy and the water content in 0-30 cm soil layer were monitored simultaneously. Combining with the tree morphological features and sap flux density, the whole-tree transpiration, canopy stomatal conductance, and ratio of leaf area to sapwood area were calculated by simplified Whitehead and Jarvis equation, and the effects of tree height on these three parameters were analyzed. The results indicated that under sufficient soil water supply, the whole-tree transpiration increased in a quadratic polynomial way with tree height (P mangium trees had higher reference canopy stomatal conductance and higher sensitivity of canopy stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit, compared with the shorter ones. The ratio of leaf area to sapwood area was (1.837 +/- 0.048) m2 x cm(-2), and increased in power function with tree height. A. mangium had no obvious hydraulic limitation and

  19. MEKANISME PARASITISME TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM TERHADAP FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM PADA SEMAI ACACIA MANGIUM

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    Susanti Tasik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanism of parasitism of Trichoderma harzianum on Fusarium oxysporum on Acacia mangium seedlings. Fusarium oxysporum is one of the most important soil-borne fungi the causal agent of damping-off disease. Detailed information it needed to know how the pathogen can be inhibited by Trichoderma harzianum. The objective of this research was to investigate the inhibition mechanism of T. harzianum on F. oxysporum in vitro and in planta. Green Flourescent Protein (GFP T. harzianum was used as biocontrol agent of F. oxysporum. An in vitro inhibition test of T. harzianum was performed using dual culture method. In the in planta inhibition tests, seedlings of A. mangium were applied with GFP T. harzianum two days before inoculation of F. oxysporum; GFP T. harzianum was simultaneously applied with F. oxysporum and GFP T. harzianum was applied two days after inoculation of F. oxysporum. The inhibition effect of T. harzianum GFP was observed at seven days incubation, indicated by attachment of T. harzianum to F. oxysporum hyphae. GFP T. harzianum hyphae covered the colonies of F. oxysporum at 12 days after incubation. The highest life percentage of A. mangium seedlings was found on the treatment of GFP T. harzianum two days before inoculation of F. oxysporum (82.22%, whereas the lowest life percentage was found on seedling applied with GFP T. harzianum two days after inoculation of F. oxysporum (64.44%.

  20. Intercropping Acacia mangium stimulates AMF colonization and soil phosphatase activity in Eucalyptus grandis

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    Daniel Bini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are very important to plant nutrition, mostly in terms of acquisition of P and micronutrients. While Acacia mangium is closely associated with AMF throughout the whole cycle, Eucalyptus grandis presents this symbiosis primarily at the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of AMF in these two tree species in both pure and mixed plantations during the first 20 months after planting. We evaluated the abundance, richness and diversity of AMF spores, the rate of AMF mycorrhizal root colonization, enzymatic activity and soil and litter C, N and P. There was an increase in AMF root colonization of E. grandis when intercropped with A. mangium as well as an increase in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in the presence of leguminous trees. AMF colonization and phosphatase activities were both involved in improvements in P cycling and P nutrition in soil. In addition, P cycling was favored in the intercropped plantation, which showed negative correlation with litter C/N and C/P ratios and positive correlation with soil acid phosphatase activity and soil N and P concentrations. Intercropping A. mangium and E. grandis maximized AMF root colonization of E. grandis and phosphatase activity in the soil, both of which accelerate P cycling and forest performance.

  1. Lignin biodegradation and ligninolytic enzyme studies during biopulping of Acacia mangium wood chips by tropical white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, C Y; Husaini, A; Hussain, H; Muid, S; Liew, K C; Roslan, H A

    2011-06-01

    White rot fungi are good lignin degraders and have the potential to be used in industry. In the present work, Phellinus sp., Daedalea sp., Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus were selected due to their relatively high ligninolytic enzyme activity, and grown on Acacia mangium wood chips under solid state fermentation. Results obtained showed that manganese peroxidase produced is far more compared to lignin peroxidase, suggesting that MnP might be the predominating enzymes causing lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. Cellulase enzyme assays showed that no significant cellulase activity was detected in the enzyme preparation of T. versicolor and Phellinus sp. This low cellulolytic activity further suggests that these two white rot strains are of more interest in lignin degradation. The results on lignin losses showed 20-30% of lignin breakdown at 60 days of biodegradation. The highest lignin loss was found in Acacia mangium biotreated with T. versicolor after 60 days and recorded 26.9%, corresponding to the percentage of their wood weight loss recorded followed by P. coccineus. In general, lignin degradation was only significant from 20 days onwards. The overall percentage of lignin weight loss was within the range of 1.02-26.90% over the biodegradation periods. Microscopic observations conducted using scanning electron microscope showed that T. versicolor, P. coccineus, Daedalea sp. and Phellinus sp. had caused lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips.

  2. Genomic DNA methylation of juvenile and mature Acacia mangium micropropagated in vitro with reference to leaf morphology as a phase change marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Nicolleau, Joris; Legavre, Thierry; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Monteuuis, Olivier

    2004-04-01

    Genomic DNA methylation was analyzed in Acacia mangium Willd. microshoots micropropagated in vitro from juvenile and mature explants, and in relation to leaf morphology of the microshoots, which is considered a phase change indicator. Based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, we found more DNA methylation in microshoots exhibiting juvenile leaf morphology (22.4%) than in microshoots of the mature phyllode morphological type (20.7%), irrespective of the age of the source material. Overall, the degree of DNA methylation in A. mangium microshoots was consistent with values reported for other angiosperms. Complementary investigations based on methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) techniques established that, of 1204 fragments revealed by the different primer pairs used, 49 (i.e., 4.08%) were derived from C(5m)CGG methylated sites. Three of these C(5m)CGG sites were exclusive to the juvenile plant material, and three sites were exclusive to the mature source. No fragments were associated specifically with leaf morphology, rather than with plant age. Thus, although the two age classes could not be distinguished based on a quantitative HPLC measure of DNA methylation, qualitative differences existed, as demonstrated by the six age-specific markers identified by MSAP. The reliability of the MSAP data was confirmed on a larger sample of juvenile plant material, which suggested that the total of six methylation markers detected is probably an underestimation of the age-related differences in DNA methylation that may exist between juvenile and mature plant materials.

  3. Gibberellin is required for the formation of tension wood and stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Nakaba, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Shiori; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2012-09-01

    Angiosperm trees generally form tension wood on the upper sides of leaning stems. The formation of tension wood is an important response to gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin appears to be involved in the differentiation of secondary xylem, but it remains unclear whether gibberellin plays a key role in the formation of tension wood and plant gravitropism. Therefore, a study was designed to investigate the effects of gibberellin and of inhibitors of the synthesis of gibberellin, namely paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P, on the formation of tension wood and negative stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings. Gibberellic acid (GA(3)), paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P were applied to seedlings via the soil in which they were growing. Distilled water was applied similarly as a control. Three days after such treatment, seedlings were tilted at an angle of 45° from the vertical, and samples of stems were collected for analysis 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months after tilting. The effects of treatments on the stem recovery degree (Rº) were analysed as an index of the negative gravitropism of seedlings, together the width of the region of tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems. It was found that GA(3) stimulated the negative gravitropism of tilted seedling stems of A. mangium, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P inhibited recovery to vertical growth. Moreover, GA(3) stimulated the formation of tension wood in tilted A. mangium seedlings, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P strongly suppressed the formation of tension wood, as assessed 2 weeks after tilting. The results suggest that gibberellin plays an important role at the initial stages of formation of tension wood and in stem gravitropism in A. mangium seedlings in response to a gravitational stimulus.

  4. [Water use of re-vegetation pioneer tree species Schima superba and Acacia mangium in hilly land of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Zhao, Ping; Ni, Guang-Yan; Zhu, Li-Wei; Zhao, Xiu-Hua; Zhao, Pei-Qiang; Niu, Jun-Feng

    2014-04-01

    The xylem sap flows of two pioneer tree species, i.e., Acacia mangium and Schima superba, in degraded hill lands of South China, were continually monitored with Granier' s thermal dissipation probes during 2004-2007 and 2008-2012, respectively, and their seasonal transpiration changes at different tree age levels were compared. The results showed that the annual transpiration of both species increased with tree ages, and S. superba demonstrated a higher value than A. mangium. The average annual whole-tree transpiration of S. superba (7014.76 kg) was higher than that of A. mangium (3704.97 kg). A. mangium (511.46-1802.17 kg) had greater seasonal variation than S. superba (1346.48-2349.35 kg). The standard regression coefficients (beta) of transpiration (Eh), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) for both species increased with soil moisture, suggesting the increase of soil moisture generated a greater sensitivity of plants to environmental factors. Partial correlation analysis revealed that soil moisture played an important role in the seasonal variation of transpiration of both species. The optimum soil moistures of S. superba and A. mangium were 0.22-0.40 and 0.29-0.30 (V/V), respectively, indicating the native pioneer species S. superba better adapted to water deficit compared with exotic pioneer species A. mangium.

  5. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin-Hong; Lee, Soon-Leong; Ng, Kevin Kit-Siong; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2009-04-01

    The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean+/- s.e. t(m) = 0.86+/-0.01). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%-70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%-37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies.

  6. [Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Acacia mangium plantations established on degraded soils of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Barliza, Jeiner; León Peláez, Juan Diego

    2011-03-01

    Several factors control the decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as humidity, temperature, quality of litter and microbial activity. We investigated the effects of rainfall and soil plowing prior to the establishment of Acacia mangium plantations, using the litterbag technique, during a six month period, in forests plantations in Bajo Cauca region, Colombia. The annual decomposition constants (k) of simple exponential model, oscillated between 1.24 and 1.80, meanwhile k1 y k2 decomposition constants of double exponential model were 0.88-1.81 and 0.58-7.01. At the end of the study, the mean residual dry matter (RDM) was 47% of the initial value for the three sites. We found a slow N, Ca and Mg release pattern from the A. mangium leaf litter, meanwhile, phosphorus (P) showed a dominant immobilization phase, suggesting its low availability in soils. Chemical leaf litter quality parameters (e.g. N and P concentrations, C/N, N/P ratios and phenols content) showed an important influence on decomposition rates. The results of this study indicated that rainfall plays an important role on the decomposition process, but not soil plowing.

  7. Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved in secondary cell wall formation in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium via de novo transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melissa M L; Cannon, Charles H; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2011-07-05

    Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrids are commercially important trees for the timber and pulp industry in Southeast Asia. Increasing pulp yield while reducing pulping costs are major objectives of tree breeding programs. The general monolignol biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation pathways are well-characterized but genes in these pathways are poorly characterized in Acacia hybrids. RNA-seq on short-read platforms is a rapid approach for obtaining comprehensive transcriptomic data and to discover informative sequence variants. We sequenced transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium from non-normalized cDNA libraries synthesized from pooled young stem and inner bark tissues using paired-end libraries and a single lane of an Illumina GAII machine. De novo assembly produced a total of 42,217 and 35,759 contigs with an average length of 496 bp and 498 bp for A. auriculiformis and A. mangium respectively. The assemblies of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium had a total length of 21,022,649 bp and 17,838,260 bp, respectively, with the largest contig 15,262 bp long. We detected all ten monolignol biosynthetic genes using Blastx and further analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3-MYB proteins in other plant species that are involved in transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database and predicted the stem-loop structures of six highly conserved microRNA families (miR319, miR396, miR160, miR172, miR162 and miR168) and one legume-specific family (miR2086). Three microRNA target genes were predicted to be involved in wood formation and flavonoid biosynthesis. By using the assemblies as a reference, we discovered 16,648 and 9,335 high quality putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium, respectively, thus yielding useful markers for

  8. Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved in secondary cell wall formation in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium via de novo transcriptome sequencing

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    Cannon Charles H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrids are commercially important trees for the timber and pulp industry in Southeast Asia. Increasing pulp yield while reducing pulping costs are major objectives of tree breeding programs. The general monolignol biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation pathways are well-characterized but genes in these pathways are poorly characterized in Acacia hybrids. RNA-seq on short-read platforms is a rapid approach for obtaining comprehensive transcriptomic data and to discover informative sequence variants. Results We sequenced transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium from non-normalized cDNA libraries synthesized from pooled young stem and inner bark tissues using paired-end libraries and a single lane of an Illumina GAII machine. De novo assembly produced a total of 42,217 and 35,759 contigs with an average length of 496 bp and 498 bp for A. auriculiformis and A. mangium respectively. The assemblies of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium had a total length of 21,022,649 bp and 17,838,260 bp, respectively, with the largest contig 15,262 bp long. We detected all ten monolignol biosynthetic genes using Blastx and further analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3-MYB proteins in other plant species that are involved in transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database and predicted the stem-loop structures of six highly conserved microRNA families (miR319, miR396, miR160, miR172, miR162 and miR168 and one legume-specific family (miR2086. Three microRNA target genes were predicted to be involved in wood formation and flavonoid biosynthesis. By using the assemblies as a reference, we discovered 16,648 and 9,335 high quality putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium

  9. Isolation and characterization of CCoAOMT in interspecific hybrid of Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium--a key gene in lignin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, S L; Ong, S S; Lee, H H; Zamri, Z; Kandasamy, K I; Choong, C Y; Wickneswari, R

    2014-09-05

    This study was directed at the understanding of the function of CCoAOMT isolated from Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium. Full length cDNA of the Acacia hybrid CCoAOMT (AhCCoAOMT) was 1024-bp long, containing 750-bp coding regions, with one major open reading frame of 249 amino acids. On the other hand, full length genomic sequence of the CCoAOMT (AhgflCCoAOMT) was 2548 bp long, containing three introns and four exons with a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of 391 bp in length. The 5'UTR of the characterized CCoAOMT gene contains various regulatory elements. Southern analysis revealed that the Acacia hybrid has more than three copies of the CCoAOMT gene. Real-time PCR showed that this gene was expressed in root, inner bark, leaf, flower and seed pod of the Acacia hybrid. Downregulation of the homologous CCoAOMT gene in tobacco by antisense (AS) and intron-containing hairpin (IHP) constructs containing partial AhCCoAOMT led to reduction in lignin content. Expression of the CCoAOMT in AS line (pART-HAS78-03) and IHP line (pART-HIHP78-06) was reduced respectively by 37 and 75% compared to the control, resulting in a decrease in the estimated lignin content by 24 and 56%, respectively. AhCCoAOMT was found to have altered not only S and G units but also total lignin content, which is of economic value to the pulp industry. Subsequent polymorphism analysis of this gene across eight different genetic backgrounds each of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis revealed 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in A. auriculiformis CCoAOMT and 30 SNPs in A. mangium CCoAOMT.

  10. Carbono orgânico e biomassa microbiana do solo em plantios de Acacia mangium no Cerrado de Roraima Soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass in Acacia mangium plantation in the Savanna of Roraima

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    Sara Magda Oliveira Simões

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de plantios de Acacia mangium, localizados no cerrado em Roraima, sobre o carbono orgânico e biomassa microbiana do solo. Foram realizadas amostragens de solo nas profundidades de 0-20 cm e 20-40 cm em dois plantios de A. mangium com cerca de cinco anos de idade, e em duas áreas de Cerrado nativo consideradas referência. Um dos plantios de A. mangium (localizado na Fazenda Cigolina correspondeu a um plantio homogêneo (espa��amento de 3,6 m entre linhas e 2,0 m entre plantas enquanto que o outro (localizado no Campo Experimental Água Boa - CEAB correspondeu a um plantio em faixas com duas linhas de plantio (espaçamento de 6 m entre linhas, 2,5 m entre plantas e cerca de 30 m entre faixas. As amostras de solo foram analisadas quanto ao carbono orgânico, carbono da biomassa microbiana, respiração basal do solo e quociente metabólico, além de atributos químicos de fertilidade. Foi verificado que os plantios de A. mangium não proporcionaram aumentos significativos do carbono orgânico do solo em comparação às áreas de referência. Entretanto, na média geral, esses plantios proporcionaram aumento do carbono da biomassa microbiana do solo e redução do quociente metabólico, indicando a possibilidade de acúmulo de carbono orgânico no solo em longo prazo. Também foi observado que, em comparação ao plantio da fazenda Cigolina e às áreas de referência, o carbono microbiano do solo foi maior e acompanhado de menor quociente metabólico no plantio de A. mangium no CEAB, mostrando que a estrutura de plantio exerceu influência sobre a biomassa microbiana do solo.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Acacia mangium plantation in the Roraima's Savanna, on soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass. Soil samplings were collected on the depths of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm in two Acacia mangium plantation sites, about five years old, and in two sites of native savanna as

  11. REALIZED GENETIC GAIN AND SEED SOURCE X SITE INTERACTION ON STAND VOLUME PRODUCTIVITY OF ACACIA MANGIUM

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    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the results of the comprehensive tree improvement programs for Acacia mangium, it is necessary to estimate the real amount of genetic improvement and to develop an improved seed deployment strategy.  This study was aimed to verify realized genetic gain on stand volume productivity attained by the first-generation Seedling Seed Orchards (SSO of A. mangium and to identify the magnitude of seed sources x site interaction as a basis for improved seed deployment. Seeds from five SSOs were tested together with seeds from seed stand in genetic gain trials which were established in South Kalimantan and Central Java. Realized gains were calculated from the percentage improvement of respective SSOs compared with seed stand at two and four years of age. Seed source x site interaction was investigated through analysis across the two sites.  Results of the study showed that trees derived from the five SSOs produced better stand volume than those from seed stand. At four years of age, stand volume of the best SSO reached around 127 m3/ha in South Kalimantan and 84 m3/ha in Central Java.  Realized genetic gain were around 66% at two years and 59% at four years in South Kalimantan, and around 136% at two years and 81% at four years in Central Java.  Seed source x site interaction was not significantly different indicating superiority of improved seed were consistent across the two sites with the average realized gain ranging from 18% to 79% and 24% to 62%  at two and four years, respectively. The best three SSOs were SSO-1 located in Pleihari-South Kalimantan, SSO-2 in Pendopo-South Sumatra and SSO-5 in Wonogiri-Central Java, all of which  originated from Papua New Guinea provenances. Improved seed from the orchards could be used at plantation sites without any significant change of the order in their superiority for stand volume productivity.

  12. Fungal Succession and Decomposition of Acacia mangium Leaf Litters in Health and Ganoderma Attacked Standings

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    SAMINGAN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litters of Acacia mangium play an important functional role in ecosystem, producing sources of nutrients and giving diversity of microorganisms. Understanding the variation in fungal populations in A. mangium forest is important due to the roles of fungi in regulating populations of other organisms and ecosystem processes. For these purposes, the tests were conducted under two years old of health standing (2S and Ganoderma attacked standing (2G using litterbag method. Litter weight loss and lignin, cellulose, C, N contents were measured each month during eight months of decomposition, as well as fungal community involved was observed. Litter weight loss and lignin, cellulose, C, N contents were measured each month during eight months of decomposition, as well as fungal community involved was observed. After eight months of decomposition, litter weight losses were low up to 34.61% (k = 0.7/year in 2S and 30.64% (k = 0.51/year in 2G, as well as lignin weight losses were low up to 20.05% in 2S and 13.87% in 2G. However, cellulose weight losses were 16.34% in 2S and 14.71% in 2G. In both standings, the numbers of fungal species were 21 and 20 respectively, while the total of fungal populations tends to increase after one month of decomposition and tend to decrease in the last three months. In the first and second months of decomposition fungal species were dominated by genera of Penicillium and Aspergillus and the last three months by Trichoderma, Phialophora, and Pythium.

  13. Biological Activity of Tannins from Acacia mangium Bark Extracted by Different Solvents

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    E. Wina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium bark is abundant byproduct of wood industry in Indonesia. It is underutilized and mainly used as fire wood for the wood industry. The bark contains high level of tannin but the tannin has not been extracted or produced commercially. Tannin isolate can be used for several purposes such as tanning agent for leather, adhesive for plywood or particle board, etc. In ruminant, tannin can be detrimental but can also be beneficial. This experiment was aimed of getting the highest yield of tannin extract with the highest biological activity in rumen fermentation. Nine different solvents at different temperatures were used to extract tannin from A. mangium bark. The extracts were analyzed for their tannin contents and biological activities. Tannin content was analyzed using folin ciocalteau and butanol-HCl methods. Biological activity was described as a percentage of an increase in gas production in the in vitro rumen-buffer fermentation, with and without addition of PEG. The results show that Na2SO3 solution extracted more tannin than other solutions and the higher the concentration of Na2SO3 solution, the higher the yield of tannin extract. The solution of 6% sodium sulphite gave the highest yield of tannin extract (31.2% of original bark sample and the highest concentration of tannin (18.26% but produced a negative effect on in vitro fermentation (% increase of gas production = 2.70%. Extraction with 50% acetone gave a high yield of extract (22.28% of original bark which contained 12.98% of tannin and showed the highest biological response (% increase of gas production = 216%. In conclusion, sodium sulphite solution is not recommended for tannin extraction if the tannin will be used as feed additive in ruminant feed; on the other hand, the aqueous acetone (50% acetone solution is a better choice to be used.

  14. Seed handling practices: four fast-growing hardwoods for humid tropical plantations in the Eighties. [Acacia mangium, Albizia falcataria, E. deglupta, Gmelina arborea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, M.R.; Eusebio, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    Research in Sabah in 1981/82 is reported on the phenology, harvesting, cleaning, testing and storage of the seed of Acacia mangium, Albizia falcataria, Eucalyptus deglupta and Gmelina arborea. Seed handling practices were standardized for all except G. arborea. In A. mangium, branch lopping was the preferred harvesting method, and variation was observed in the fruiting season and seed funicle type (probably due to introgression with A. auriculiformis).

  15. Chemical composition and structural features of the macromolecular components of plantation Acacia mangium wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Paula C; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Pascoal Neto, Carlos

    2005-10-05

    The wood of Acacia mangium, a prominent fast-growing plantation species used in the pulp-and-paper industry and, so far, poorly investigated for its chemical structure, was submitted to a detailed characterization of its main macromolecular components. Lignin (28% wood weight) isolated by mild acidolysis and characterized by permanganate oxidation, 1H and 13C NMR, and GPC, showed a very low content of syringylpropane-derived units (S:G:H of 48:49:3), a high degree of condensation, a low content of beta-O-4 ( approximately 0.40-0.43 per C6) structures, and a Mw of 2230. Glucuronoxylan (14% wood weight) isolated by alkaline (KOH) or by dimethyl sulfoxide extraction was characterized by methylation analysis, 1H NMR, and GPC. About 10% of the xylopyranose (Xylp) units constituting the linear backbone were substituted at O-2 with 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues. Almost half of the Xylp units (45%) were O-2 (18%), O-3 (24%) or O-2,3 (3%) acetylated. X-ray diffraction analysis of cellulose (46% wood weight), isolated according to the Kürschner-Hoffer method, showed a degree of crystallinity of 67.6%.

  16. Tree sap flow and stand transpiration of two Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, E.; Kučera, J.; Malmer, A.

    2000-09-01

    Water use of Acacia mangium trees grown in plantations was measured by a heat balance method in two stands that largely differed in tree density. Tree sap flow was closely coupled to climatic drivers and responded with minimal time delay. Using no time shift, sap flow rate could be tightly fitted to a simple equation that combined a parabolic response to radiation and an inverse linear response to air humidity. On the contrary, the analysis of canopy conductance showed no meaningful response to either individual or combined microclimatic variables. No indication of water deficit was observed, though the measurement period was during the dry period of the year. The measurements indicate a minimal diurnal use of water stored in plant tissues. The difference in tree water use from the two studied stands was effectively scaled by tree sapwood area. Canopy transpiration of the densest stand reached in average 3.9 mm d -1 compared with 2.7 mm d -1 for the stand representing the average conditions in the catchment.

  17. [Responses of canopy stomatal conductance of Acacia mangium forest to environmental driving factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xingquan; Ma, Ling; Cai, Xi'an; Zeng, Xiaoping

    2006-07-01

    Employing Granierś probes, this paper measured the sap flow of 14 sample trees in an Acacia mangium forest on the Heshan hilly lands of Guangdong Province, and recorded the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), air relative humidity (RH) , and air temperature (T) above the forest canopy. The whole-tree transpiration (E), stand transpiration (Et), and mean canopy stomatal conductance (gc) were calculated, and the relationships between tree morphological characters and whole-tree water use as well as the responses of gc to PAR and vapor pressure deficit (D) were analyzed. The results showed that the whole-tree transpiration had logarithmical positive correlations with tree diameter at breast height (DBH) (P < 0.0001) , sapwood area (P < 0.0001) and canopy size (P = 0.0007), and an exponential positive correlation with tree height (P = 0. 014). The maximum gc (gc max) changed with PAR hyperbolically (P < 0.0001), and with D logarithmically (P < 0.0001). The sap flow measurement system used in this study was reliable and accurate in estimating the transpiration of whole-tree and stand and the canopy stomatal conductance, being an effective tool in studying the relationships between forest water use and environmental factors.

  18. Crescimento de mudas de Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata e Eucalytpus camaldulensis, inoculadas com fungos micorrízicos, em casa-de-vegetação e em cava-de-extração de argila = Growth of Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi, under green house conditions and in an area of clay extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolimar Antonio Schiavo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs no crescimento de mudas de acácia (Acacia mangium Willd., sesbânia (Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. e eucalipto (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. em casa-de-vegetação e ocomportamento dessas espécies, inoculadas ou não com FMAs, em monocultivo e/ou consórcio em áreas degradadas pela extração de argila. Aos 75 dias após a semeadura (DAS, mudas de acácia e sesbânia, inoculadas com FMAs, apresentaram incrementos de 21,5 e 6,5% na altura, respectivamente, em relação às não-inoculadas. Semelhantemente o acúmulo de matéria seca na parte aérea de acácia e sesbânia com FMAs foi de 50 e 52%, respectivamente, em relação às nãoinoculadas. Na cava-de-extração de argila, as espécies apresentaram elevada taxa de sobrevivência (> 80% e rápido crescimento, com altura média de 7 m para acácia e eucalipto e de 3,5 m para sesbânia, aos 600 dias após o plantio (DAPC. O efeito da inoculação com FMAs sobre o crescimento das espécies, na área de extração de argila, ocorreu marcadamente para a A. manguim,principalmente entre 45 e 220 DAPC. Pelos dados obtidos até a coleta do experimento (600 DAPC, não se observaram efeitos do consórcio entre as espécies. This work aimed to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the growth of Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The behavior of these plant species inoculated or not with AMF, cultivated in single and intercropping systems, in the field in an area of clay extraction, was also evaluated. Under greenhouse conditions, at 75 days of sown, the AMF inoculation increased the height of A. mangium and S. virgata in 21.5 and 6.5%, respectively. The AMF inoculation also increased the shoot dry mass of A. mangium and S. virgata by 50 and 52%, respectively. Under field conditions, the plants grown in theclay extraction area

  19. Inoculation of Acacia mangium with Alginate Beads Containing Selected Bradyrhizobium Strains under Field Conditions: Long-Term Effect on Plant Growth and Persistence of the Introduced Strains in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiana, A; Prin, Y; Mallet, B; Gnahoua, G M; Poitel, M; Diem, H G

    1994-11-01

    The growth response of Acacia mangium Willd. to inoculation with selected Bradyrhizobium strains was investigated in two field trials in the Ivory Coast (West Africa). In the first trial (Anguededou), four provenances (i.e., trees originating from seeds harvested in different geographical areas) of A. mangium were inoculated with four Bradyrhizobium strains from different origins. Six months after being transplanted in the field, the heights of all inoculated trees showed a statistically significant increase of 9 to 26% compared with those of uninoculated trees, with the most effective strain being Aust 13c. After 19 months, the positive effect of inoculation on tree growth was confirmed. The effect of A. mangium provenance on tree growth was also highly significant. Trees from the Oriomo provenance of Papua New Guinea had a mean height that was 25% greater than those of other provenances. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect of interaction between strain and host provenance factors. Thus, most effective strain x provenance combinations could be proposed. Immunological identification of strains clearly showed that 90 to 100% of nodules from trees inoculated with three of the four Bradyrhizobium strains or from uninoculated trees contained exclusively Aust 13c 23 months after tree transplantation. This predominance of Aust 13c in nodules was still observed 42 months after tree transplantation. The second experiment (Port-Bouët), performed with a different soil, confirmed the long-term positive effect of Aust 13c on plant growth, its high competitive ability against indigenous strains, and its persistence in soil. Strain Aust 13c should thus be of great interest for inoculating A. mangium under a wide range of field conditions.

  20. Initial Infection of Falcataria moluccana Leaves and Acacia mangium Phyllodes by Uromycladium tepperianum Fungi in a Laboratory Trial

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    Siti Muslimah Widyastuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sengon is a fast growing species that is cultivated widely in Indonesia. Lately, sengon is severely attacked by fungus Uromycladium tepperianum that causing gall rust disease. It is also known to attack various types of acacia. This study aims to determine the fungal infection process U. tepperianum on sengon leaves and the possibility of infection on Acacia mangium in the laboratory trial. Leave samples and fungal pathogen teliospores obtained from Cangkringan, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Several approach procedures conducted to achieve these objectives were: (1 identification of diseased trees, (2 collecting samples of diseased leaves, branches, twigs, and stems, and (3 artificial inoculation and investigating the infection process of U. tepperianum teliospores in the laboratory. The results showed that the process of infection in sengon started by teliospores germination and germ tube formation. Successive germ tube forming penetration pegs. In the plant tissue, the penetration peg formed hypha and further developed into intracellular and intercellular hyphae. The artificial inoculation on A. mangium leaf surface showed few spores can germinate. However, none of them managed to penetrate. Keywords: Uromycladium tepperianum, sengon, acacia, gall rust, infection DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.3.187

  1. Genetic diversity in Kenyan populations of Acacia senegal (L.) willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... multipurpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production, agroforestry and desertification control besides other multiple uses. ... Mutha hill in dry Acacia commiphora bush land in dry areas. High densities and ..... the world have identified many species with moderate to high levels of population ...

  2. Analysis of dendrometric characteristics of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study gives an analysis of the dendrometric parameters of a middle Sahelian species (Acacia senegal) in semi-arid environment to get better knowledge of its behavior. The research lays the principle that the species behaves differently according to the ecogeographical stations. So, its characteristics change from one ...

  3. Improvement of nutritive value of acacia mangium bark by alkali treatment

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    Elizabeth Wina

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bark, especially from Acacia mangium is a by-product from wood processing industries that commonly found in Indonesiaand in big amount will cause environmental problems. One of the alternatives to utilize bark is for animal feed. The aims of this experiment are to improve the nutritive value of bark by alkali treatments (urea and sodium hydroxide and to determine the level of substitution of elephant grass by bark. The experiment consisted of 3 in vitro studies and 1 in sacco study. In vitro studies consisted of 1 the use of urea or NaOH by wetting and incubation-method, 2 the use of different concentration of Na OH (0-4% by soaking method, 3 determination of substitution level of elephant grass by treated bark. In sacco study was conducted at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation to compare the degradation of treated bark to elephant grass. The results show that urea treatment did not improve DM or OM digestibilities of bark. Soaking bark in 4% NaOH solution was more effective than wetting and incubation-method in improving in vitro digestibility. (49.26% vs19.56% for soaking and dry-method, respectively. In sacco studyl shows that treated bark had a very high solubility at 0 hour incubation but the degradation at 72 hours incubation was not significantly different from that of 0 hour incubation. The gas produced at in vitro study of treated bark was very low indicated that there was no degradation of bark at all. The level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark up to 30% gave a non-significant digestibility value to that of 100% elephant grass. In conclusion, bark after tannin-extraction was a better feedstuff for animal feed. The soaking method in 4% NaOH solution improved the digestibility of bark significantly and the level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark was 30%.

  4. CAÍDA DE HOJARASCA Y DINÁMICA DE NUTRIENTESEN PLANTACIONES DE Acacia mangium (MIMOSACEAEDE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA. Litterfall and Nutrient Dynamics in Acacia mangium (MimosaceaeForest Plantations of Antioquia, Colombia

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    JEINER CASTELLANOS BARLIZA

    Full Text Available La producción de hojarasca, el retorno y la reabsorción de nutrientes, y la eficiencia en su uso, fueron estudiados durante un año en plantaciones de Acacia mangium estable-cidas en suelos degradados por minería aurífera en la región del Bajo Cauca colom-biano. La producción anual de hojarasca fina fue de 10,4 Mg ha-1 y estuvo dominada por la fracción foliar (54%, seguida del material reproductivo (24%, y en menor pro-porción por otros restos (6% y hojas de otras especies (1,5%. Los mayores retornos de materia orgánica y nutrientes se presentaron en los sitios clasificados como de calidad alta, en tanto que la práctica de subsolado del suelo, previo establecimiento de las plantaciones, no mostró efectos significativos sobre estos. La hojarasca foliar mostró una concentración alta de N y consecuentemente, dados los altos valores de producción de esta fracción, un retorno potencial alto de N. El P, con baja concentración foliar y un bajo retorno potencial, además de los altos valores de los índices de eficiencia en su uso y de reabsorción foliar, fue el nutriente más limitante. Los altos valores de producción de hojarasca fina y de retorno potencial de nutrientes determinados en este es-tudio, muestran que la especie Acacia mangium tiene un gran potencial para la recupera-ción de áreas degradadas, a partir del restablecimiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos.Fine litter production, nutrient return, nutrient resorption, and nutrient use efficiency were studied during one year in Acacia mangium forest plantations in mining gold degraded soils at the Bajo Cauca region of Colombia. Annual fine litter production was estimated at 10.4 Mg ha-1 and it was dominated by the leaf fraction (54%, followed by the reproduc-tive material (24% and to a lesser proportion by other debris (6% and other species leaves (1.5%. The highest organic matter and nutrients returns were found on sites classified as high quality. Soil plowing realized

  5. Effect of microbe as fertilizer on the growth of Acacia mangium on the sand sterile in green house

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    SRI PURWANINGSIH

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the effect of microbe as fertilizer on the growth of Acacia mangium on the sand sterile in greenhouse. The aim of the experiment the effect and potency of the microbe as fertilizer to increase the growth of A. mangium. The experiment was carried out in green house condition in Microbiology division, Research Center for Biology-LIPI with sterile sand medium. The Rhizobium strains used of: 1.Bio 199R, 2. Bio 203R, 3. Bio 205R, 4 Bio 238R, 5. Bio 251R, 6.Bio 7R, and 7. mixed strains (Bio 199R+Bio 203R+Bio 205R+Bio 238R+Bio 251R+Bio 7R The controls were uninoculated with Rhizobium strain and without urea fertilizer (K1, uninoculated and with urea fertilizer equal 100 kg/ha (K2. The research design was Completely Randomized Design with three replications for each treatment. The plants were harvested after 70 days; the parameters of investigation were the dry weight of canopy, roots, nodules root, total plants, number of nodules and “symbiotic capacity”. The results showed that all of experiment plant able to from nodule. Strain number of mixed strains has given the best results on the growth of A. mangium plant.

  6. Sporocarps of Pisolithus albus as an ecological niche for fluorescent pseudomonads involved in Acacia mangium Wild - Pisolithus albus ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponnois, Robin; Lesueur, Didier

    2004-09-01

    Fresh sporocarps and root and soil samples were collected under a monospecific forest plantation of Acacia mangium in Dagana in Northern Senegal and checked for the presence of fluorescent pseudomonads. No bacteria were detected except from sporocarps collected with adhering soil and hyphal strands. Pisolithus sporocarps were dried at 30 degrees C for 2 weeks, ground, passed through a 2-mm sieve and mixed together. This dry sporocarp powder (DSP) was used to inoculate and form mycorrhizas on A. mangium seedlings in a glasshouse experiment. After 3 months culture, plant growth was increased in the DSP treatment but no ectomycorrhizas were present on the A. mangium root systems; however fluorescent pseudomonads were recorded in the cultural soil. The stimulatory effects on the plant growth were maintained for 6 months. However, fluorescent pseudomonads were no longer detected and 35% of the short roots were ectomycorrhizal. Some of the fluorescent pseudomonad isolates detected after 3 months stimulated the radial fungal growth in axenic conditions. These observations suggest that these bacteria are closely associated with the Pisolithus fructifications and could interact with the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment.

  7. THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL SELECTION FOR GENETIC DIVERSITY OF Acacia mangium SEEDLING SEED ORCHARD USING AFLP MARKERS

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    A. Y.P.B.C. Widyatmoko

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of seed orchard is aimed at producing good quality seeds which is an important activity for breeding program. Seed orchard is also a base population, thus its genetic diversity is depending on its design and composition (provenance, family and individual tree. Selection of an individual tree in seed orchard is needed for the enhancement of  retaining good-character trees. However, selection of individual tree can change the genetic diversity of seed orchard, and the degrees to which the genetic diversity will change depend on the used selection methods. In order to investigate the effects of selection methods, 4 simulations of selection methods based on height, diameter and stem performance of individual trees were used. The differences among the 4 methods were the ranking of individual trees those selected, and families and provenances those have been represented. Seedling seed orchard of Acacia mangium in Wonogiri, Central Java was used as materials. Analysis of genetic diversity was carried out using AFLP markers. Nine primer combinations were used to produce 1025 AFLP banding patterns. Among those banding patterns, only 109 were polymorphic markers. No significant effect of individual tree selection was revealed in this study. Even though the selection was done intensively, only 7.1% of genetic diversity was reduced. In other words, the selection activity did not reduce the genetic diversity of seed orchard significantly. The result is important for developing future tree improvement of A. mangium, including development of hybrid between A. mangium and A. auriculiformis.

  8. Curva Característica de Secagem da Madeira de Tectona grandis e Acacia mangium ao Ar Livre

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    Rafael Leite Braz

    Full Text Available A secagem natural é uma alternativa que pode ser empregada como pré-secagem ou secagem definitiva para diversas madeiras com baixo custo e condições simples de trabalho. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento das curvas características de secagem ao ar livre de tábuas de Acacia mangium e Tectona grandis. Árvores de cada espécie com idade de 15 anos foram abatidas, com toras de aproximadamente 3 m. Essas foram desdobradas utilizando-se o sistema de cortes tangenciais para a obtenção das tábuas de 3,0 cm de espessura. Instalada a pilha de madeira para a secagem, a umidade inicial das amostras foi determinada e o acompanhamento foi realizado por meio de pesagens periódicas das amostras de controle. Observou-se que nas condições ambientais expostas, a madeira de Acacia mangium secou mais lentamente ao ar livre que a madeira de Tectona grandis. Recomenda-se a análise da curva de secagem para cada espécie separadamente.

  9. A novel symbiotic nitrogen-fixing member of the Ochrobactrum clade isolated from root nodules of Acacia mangium.

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    Ngom, Amy; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Tsukahara, Junzo; Wakabayashi, Shiro; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Nuntagij, Achara; Kotepong, Somsak; Suzuki, Akihiro; Higashi, Shiro; Abe, Mikiko

    2004-02-01

    Ten strains of root nodule bacteria were isolated from the nodules of Acacia mangium grown in the Philippines and Thailand. Partial sequences (approx. 300 bp) of the 16S rRNA gene of each isolate were analyzed. The nucleotide sequences of strain DASA 35030 indicated high homology (>99%) with members of the genus Ochrobactrum in Brucellaceae, although the sequences of other isolates were homologous to those of two distinct genera Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. The strain DASA 35030 was strongly suggested to be a strain of Ochrobactrum by full length sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, fatty acids composition, G+C contents of the DNA, and other physiological characteristics. Strain DASA 35030 induced root nodules on A. mangium, A. albida and Paraserianthes falcataria. The nodules formed by strain DASA 35030 fixed nitrogen and the morphology of the nodules is the same as those of nodules formed by the other isolates. This is the first report that the strain of Ochrobactrum possesses complete symbiotic ability with Acacia.

  10. Perdas de solo e água em plantio de Acacia mangium wild e savana em Roraima, norte da Amazônia Soil and water losses in Acacia mangium wild plantations and natural savanna in Roraima, northern Amazon

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    Luciana da Silva Barros

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Plantios florestais de Acacia mangium constituem uma alternativa cada vez mais adotada em áreas de savanas do norte da Amazônia (Roraima e podem causar alterações significativas de características do solo. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar perdas de solo e de água por erosão, que ocorrem em escoamento superficial (run off em savana nativa e plantios de acácia na região Amazônica. Para isso, foram instaladas em duas fazendas, Santa Rita e Araçá, localizadas no município de Bonfim, na região da Serra da Lua, calhas coletoras de sedimentos, acopladas a caixas d'água, em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram determinadas a granulometria, a densidade aparente (Dap, a resistência à penetração (RP e a velocidade de infiltração (VIB, bem como parâmetros físicos relacionados a perdas de solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos: cobertura natural de savana (SV, plantio de Acacia mangium com um ano de idade (P1 e plantio de Acacia mangium com quatro anos de idade (P4, em três repetições. O experimento teve a duração de 12 meses (setembro de 2006 a agosto de 2007. Os resultados indicaram maiores perdas de solo e de água no plantio mais recente de acácia (P1, de savana nativa e do plantio com 4 anos (P4. Os resultados foram atribuídos à exposição do solo no período inicial de desenvolvimento da planta, ao selamento superficial e à coesão do solo. O pico de perdas de solo ocorreu nos meses de abril a agosto, sendo o tipo de cobertura vegetal o fator determinante para redução das perdas de solo e de água por erosão, sendo que as práticas de plantio no sentido do declive provavelmente agravaram as perdas de solo nos plantios de Acácia. Neste trabalho, a densidade do solo e o teor de matéria orgânica não representaram bons indicadores do tipo de manejo adotado na área.As an alternative land use of savanna areas in Roraima, commercial forest stands of

  11. VARIASI GENETIK SIFAT-SIFAT KAYU UJI KETURUNAN ACACIA MANGIUM UMUR 5 TAHUN DI WONOGIRI, JAWA TENGAH (Genetic variation of wood properties in progeny trial of Acacia mangium on 5 years old in Wonogiri, Central Java

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    Mudji Susanto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Uji keturunan A. mangium generasi pertama dari Papua New Guinea and Queensland-Australia telah dibangun di Wonogiri - Jawa Tengah pada Desember 1993. Seleksi pohon di dalam famili telah dilakukan menggunakan variabel pertumbuhan, namun belum menggunakan variabel sifat-sifat kayu.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh provenans maupun famili terhadap keragaman diameter dan sifat-sifat kayu A. mangium tersebut pada umur 5 tahun. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berat jenis kayu tergolong sedang yaitu rata-rata sebesar 0,44 dan panjang serat tergolong serat pendek yaitu rata-rata sebesar 1,04 mm. Di uji keturunan A. mangium tersebut terdapat keragaman antar famili di dalam provenans dan keragaman antar provenans pada sifat prsentase kayu teras, berat jenis kayu, dan kadar air.  Heritabilitas individu untuk diameter batang dan persentase kayu teras sangat rendah (h2i=0,03 untuk diameter dan h2i=0,05 untuk persentase kayu teras, sementara sifat-sifat kayu mempunyai heritabilitas individu yang tergolong rendah  sampai tinggi yaitu h2i=0,10-0,56. Hasil dari penelitian tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa seleksi pohon menggunakan sifat-sifat kayu seharusnya dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kualitas kayu.    ABSTRACT First generation (F-1 of progeny trial of Acacia mangium originated from Papua New Guinea and Queensland-Australia was established in Wonogiri, Central Java on December 1993. The tree selection within family  were carried out base on growth characteristic, whereas the wood property traits were not included. The objective of this research is  to find the effect of provenance or family in variation of diameter and  wood properties  of`A. mangium in the trial in 5 years old. The results showed that mean of wood specific gravity was 0.44 (it was medium catagory  and mean of fiber length was 1.04 mm (it is short fiber category.  Variation of heartwood area, wood specific gravity, and moisture content showed

  12. Molecular characterization of a cellulose synthase gene (AaxmCesA1) isolated from an Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium hybrid.

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    Yong, Seok Yien Christina; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose is the major component of plant cell walls, providing mechanical strength to the structural framework of plants. In association with lignin, hemicellulose, protein and pectin, cellulose forms the strong yet flexible bio-composite tissue of wood. Wood formation is an essential biological process and is of significant importance to the cellulosic private sector industry. Cellulose synthase genes encode the catalytic subunits of a large protein complex responsible for the biogenesis of cellulose in higher plants. The hybrid Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium represents an important source of tree cellulose for forest-based product manufacturing, with enormous economic potential. In this work, we isolate the first cellulose synthase gene, designated AaxmCesA1, from this species. The isolated full-length AaxmCesA1 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 1,064 amino acids. Sequence analyses revealed that AaxmCesA1 cDNA possesses the key motif characteristics of a CesA protein. AaxmCesA1 shares more than 75 % amino acid sequence identity with CesA proteins from other plant species. Subsequently, the full-length AaxmCesA1 gene of 7,389 bp with partial regulatory and 13 intron regions was also isolated. Relative gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR in different tissues of the Acacia hybrid, suggests the involvement of the AaxmCesA1 gene in primary cell wall synthesis of rapidly dividing young root cells. Similarity analyses using Blast algorithms also suggests a role in primary cell wall deposition in the Acacia hybrid. Southern analysis predicts that AaxmCesA1 is a member of a multigene family with at least two isoforms in the genome of the Acacia hybrid.

  13. Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium

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    Shigehiro Ishizuka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O emissions. Here, we highlight substantially different N and phosphorus utilization and cycling at a plantation of Acacia mangium, which is N2-fixing and one of the major plantation species in tropical/subtropical Asia. The litterfall, fresh leaf quality and fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium were compared to those of non-N2-fixing Swietenia macrophylla and coniferous Araucaria cunninghamii in wet tropical climates in Borneo, Malaysia. The N and P concentrations of the A. mangium fresh leaves were higher than those of the other two species, whereas the P concentration in the leaf-litterfall of A. mangium was less than half that of the others; in contrast the N concentration was higher. The N:P ratio in the A. mangium leaf was markedly increased from fresh-leaf (29 to leaf-litterfall (81. Although the N flux in the total litterfall at the A. mangium plantation was large, the fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium significantly increased by applying both N and P. In conclusion, large quantities of N were accumulated and returned to the forest floor in A. mangium plantation, while its P resorption capacity was efficient. Such large N cycling and restricted P cycling in wide areas of monoculture A. mangium plantations may alter N and P cycling and their balance in the organic layer and soil on a stand level.

  14. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em estéril revegetado com Acacia mangium, após mineração de bauxita Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi in substrate, after bauxite mining, vegetated with Acacia mangium

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    Ana Lucy Caproni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição das comunidades de FMAs em áreas revegetadas com Acacia mangium após a mineração de bauxita na região de Porto Trombetas, PA. Foram coletadas amostras de solo compostas nos períodos seco e chuvoso, em áreas revegetadas com Acacia mangium, que receberam inóculos de Glomus clarum e Gigaspora margarita, com 1 e 5 anos de idade. Os solos foram revegetados sem a reposição do horizonte superficial orgânico. Os esporos dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs foram extraídos e identificados através de suas características morfológicas. Analisou-se a densidade de esporos e de espécies em cada amostra, a densidade relativa e a freqüência de ocorrência de cada espécie por período de amostragem, além do índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF. Sob o plantio de mudas de A. mangium, a densidade de esporos de FMAs foi elevada e aumentou com a idade, enquanto o número de espécies não variou. Glomus clarum produz alta densidade de esporos na fase inicial do plantio e declina com o tempo, e Gigaspora margarita não esporula nas condições edafoclimáticas locais. A maioria das espécies de FMA não apresenta o mesmo padrão de esporulação nos períodos seco e chuvoso.The objective of this work was to monitor the establishment of Gigaspora margarita and Glomus clarum in reclaimed areas after the bauxite mining in Porto Trombetas, PA, Brazil. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy periods under one and five-year-old Acacia mangium trees grown from seedlings that had been inoculated with Glomus clarum and Gigaspora margarita. The exposed subsoil was managed without replacing the organic soil layer. FMA spores were extracted and identified through their morphologic characteristics. Spore density and frequency of each species were determined in each sampling The index of abundance and frequency (IAF were estimated for all samples. Under A. mangium the arbuscular

  15. Avaliação nutricional de mudas de Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata e Eucalyptus camaldulensis inoculadas com fungos micorrízicos, em casade- vegetação e em cava de extração de argila = Nutritional evaluation of Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi, grown under greenhouse conditions and in an area of clay extraction

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    Jolimar Antonio Schiavo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs na nutrição de mudas de acácia (Acacia mangium Willd., sesbânia (Sesbania virgata (Cav.Pers. e eucalipto (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. em casa-de-vegetação, bem como a influência dos FMAs, do monocultivo e/ou consórcio sobre os teores dos nutrientes nas folhas das plantas em cava degradada pela extração de argila. Em casa-de-vegetação, mudas de acácia inoculadas com FMAs tiveram incrementos nos conteúdos de N, P e Zn de 22, 71 e 67%, respectivamente; as de sesbânia, de 39, 49, 56, 24, 105 e 54%, respectivamente para N, P, Ca, Mg, Mn e Zn. Na cava de extração de argila, plantas de acácia consorciadas com sesbânia apresentaram menor teor de Ca nas folhas. Ainda, no consórcio com eucalipto, plantas de acácia inoculadas com FMAs tiveram incrementos de 36% no teor de Mg, em relação às sem inoculação. Plantas de sesbâniaconsorciadas com acácia e/ou eucalipto apresentaram menor teor de Mg, em relação às do monocultivo. Por outro lado, plantas de eucalipto consorciadas com acácia e/ou sesbânia sem FMAs apresentaram menor teor de N, em relação às do monocultivo. Até o presente momento, não foram observadas melhorias nutricionais em plantas de eucalipto advindas do consórcio com acácia e/ou sesbânia.This work aimed to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the nutrient uptake of Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, as well as, the influence of these fungi on the shoot nutrient content of these plant species, when cultivated in single and intercropping systems, under field conditions in an area of clay extraction. Under greenhouse conditions, AMF inoculation increased N, P and Zn content of A. mangium by 22, 71 and 67%, respectively, and in S. virgata the increase of N, P, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn was of 39, 49, 56, 24, 105 and 54%, respectively. Under

  16. Genetic diversity of symbiotic Bradyrhizobium elkanii populations recovered from inoculated and non-inoculated Acacia mangium field trials in Brazil.

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    Perrineau, M M; Le Roux, C; de Faria, S M; de Carvalho Balieiro, F; Galiana, A; Prin, Y; Béna, G

    2011-07-01

    Acacia mangium is a legume tree native to Australasia. Since the eighties, it has been introduced into many tropical countries, especially in a context of industrial plantations. Many field trials have been set up to test the effects of controlled inoculation with selected symbiotic bacteria versus natural colonization with indigenous strains. In the introduction areas, A. mangium trees spontaneously nodulate with local and often ineffective bacteria. When inoculated, the persistence of inoculants and possible genetic recombination with local strains remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of bacteria spontaneously nodulating A. mangium in Brazil and to evaluate the persistence of selected strains used as inoculants. Three different sites, several hundred kilometers apart, were studied, with inoculated and non-inoculated plots in two of them. Seventy-nine strains were isolated from nodules and sequenced on three housekeeping genes (glnII, dnaK and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodA). All but one of the strains belonged to the Bradyrhizobium elkanii species. A single case of housekeeping gene transfer was detected among the 79 strains, suggesting an extremely low rate of recombination within B. elkanii, whereas the nodulation gene nodA was found to be frequently transferred. The fate of the inoculant strains varied depending on the site, with a complete disappearance in one case, and persistence in another. We compared our results with the sister species Bradyrhizobium japonicum, both in terms of population genetics and inoculant strain destiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Decomposition of lignin and holocellulose on Acacia mangium leaves and twigs by six fungal isolates from nature.

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    Djarwanto; Tachibana, S

    2010-06-15

    This research was conducted in the aim of preventing wild fire through reducing potential energy source to become in situ fertilizer. To prevent forest fires by reducing wood waste using lignocellulose-degrading fungi, six fungal isolates were tested for lignin and cellulose-degrading activity with Acacia mangium leaves and twigs over a period of 1 to 3 months. The fungi degraded 8.9-27.1% of the lignin and 14-31% of the holocellulose. The degradation rate varied depending on the fungal species. An increase in incubation time tended to decrease the amounts of holocellulose and lignin. However, the hot water soluble tended to increase following a longer incubation period. From the results obtained here, more time was needed to degrade lignin rather than other components in the sample.

  18. KERAGAMAN GENETIK TETUA DAN ANAKAN DARI KEBUN BENIH SEMAI Acacia mangium GRUP D (AM004 DI SUMATERA SELATAN, INDONESIA

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    Vivi Yuskianti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on genetic diversity from one generation to its next generation is an important factor for management and conservation in a seed orchard. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of genetic diversity of parental as the first generation (F1 and offspring (F2 of Acacia mangium in the A. mangium seed orchard Group D (AM004 in South Sumatera. Analysis was conducted on 251 parental trees and ± 200 seeds from 10 mother trees. Analysis using 12 microsatellite markers showed that mean number of detected allele (A for all the parents and offspring was 8.23 and 7.08, repectively. In general, the level of genetic diversity in parental and its offspring was not different (He=0.609 for parental and He=0.606 for offspring. The presence of new alleles that was detected from offspring indicated the possibility of pollen contamination from outside the seed orchard. Keywords: Genetic diversity, South Sumatera seedling seed orchard, parental, offspring, microsatellite markers

  19. [Time lag effect between stem sap flow and photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit of Acacia mangium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Zhao, Ping; Cai, Xi-An; Ma, Ling; Rao, Xing-Quan; Zeng, Xiao-Ping

    2008-02-01

    Based on the measurement of the stem sap flow of Acacia mangium with Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, and the cross-correlation and time serial analysis of the sap flow and corresponding photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit, this paper studied the time lag effect between the stem sap flow of A. mangium and the driving factors of the tree canopy transpiration. The results indicated that the main driving factors of the transpiration were photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Sap flux density (Js) was more dependent on PAR than on VPD, and the dependence was more significant in dry season than in wet season. Sap flow lagged behind PAR but advanced than VPD in both dry and wet seasons. The time lag did not show any significant variation across different size tree individuals, but showed significant variation in different seasons. Time lag effect was not correlated with tree height, diameter at the breast, and canopy size. The time lag between Js and VPD was significantly related to nighttime water recharge in dry season, but reversed in wet season.

  20. CAÍDA DE HOJARASCA Y DINÁMICA DE NUTRIENTES EN PLANTACIONES DE Acacia mangium (MIMOSACEAE DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA.

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    JEINER CASTELLANOS BARLIZA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de hojarasca, el retorno y la reabsorción de nutrientes, y la eficiencia en su uso, fueron estudiados durante un año en plantaciones de Acacia mangium establecidas en suelos degradados por minería aurífera en la región del Bajo Cauca colombiano. La producción anual de hojarasca fina fue de 10,4 Mg ha-1 y estuvo dominada por la fracción foliar (54%, seguida del material reproductivo (24%, y en menor proporción por otros restos (6% y hojas de otras especies (1,5%. Los mayores retornos de materia orgánica y nutrientes se presentaron en los sitios clasificados como de calidad alta, en tanto que la práctica de subsolado del suelo, previo establecimiento de las plantaciones, no mostró efectos significativos sobre estos. La hojarasca foliar mostró una concentración alta de N y consecuentemente, dados los altos valores de producción de esta fracción, un retorno potencial alto de N. El P, con baja concentración foliar y un bajo retorno potencial, además de los altos valores de los índices de eficiencia en suuso y de reabsorción foliar, fue el nutriente más limitante. Los altos valores de producción de hojarasca fina y de retorno potencial de nutrientes determinados en este estudio, muestran que la especie Acacia mangium tiene un gran potencial para la recuperación de áreas degradadas, a partir del restablecimiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos.

  1. Erodibilidade e suscetibilidade à erosão dos solos de cerrado com plantio de Acacia mangium em Roraima.= Erodibility and susceptibility to erosion of the savannah (cerrado soils planted with Acacia mangium in the State of Roraima.

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    José Frutuoso do Vale Júnior

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar erodibilidade e suscetibilidade à erosão de solos sob cerrados e plantios de Acácia mangium no estado de Roraima, foram realizadas visitas nas áreas objeto de estudo para identifi cação geomorfopedológica e feito coleta de solo representativo de 121 perfi s distribuídos nas áreas de plantio de Acacia mangium pertencentes ao projeto Ouro Verde Agrosilvopastoril Ltda. Os perfi s descritos e coletados foram georreferenciados através de GPS e plotados sobre mapas de declividades no software ARCMAPE 8.0 permitindo cruzar os valores de R com a declividade. Foi avaliada as relações do tipo de solo, sua posição na paisagem e suscetibilidade a erosão. Os resultados revelaram que as áreas de estudo estão inseridas em duas unidades geomorfopedológicas distintas: Jacitara/Mucajaí/Santa Cecília (JMSta e Serra da Lua (SL, apresentando suscetibilidade à erosão bem contrastantes; As unidades JMSta apresentam maiores valores de R, inseridas em relevo plano, com declividade entre 1% a 3%, os solos da unidade SL, apresentam menores valores de R e estão posicionados em relevo com declividade entre 3 a 13%, o que a torna mais vulneráveis a erosão; as classes de solos em ordem decrescente em valores de R são: Neossolos (RQo, Argissolos (PAd, Gleissolos (GXbd, Latossolos (LAd, LVd, LVAd, LVA Plintico, Plintossolos (FFCd, concluindo-se então, a necessidade da adoção de práticas simples de conservação de solos, tais como plantio em curva de nível e até terraceamento. = With the objective to evaluate the erodibility and susceptibility to erosion of the cerrado and plantations with Acacia mangium in the State of Roraima, visits to the areas were done for geomorfopedologic identifi cation and collection of soils representative of 121 profi les distributed in the areas pertaining to the plantation of Acacia mangium of the Ouro Verde Agrosilvopastoril Ltda project. The described and collected profiles were geo

  2. GANANCIA GENÉTICA ESPERADA E INTERACCIÓN GENOTIPO-AMBIENTE EN Acacia mangium EN LA ZONA NORTE DE COSTA RICA

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    Benjamín Pavlotzky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 2 ensayos de progenie de Acacia mangium Willd., con el objetivo de con - tribuir a aumentar su rentabilidad en plantaciones comerciales. Las 25 familias de polinización abierta fueron establecidas en el 2006 en los cantones de Los Chiles y San Carlos, zona norte de Costa Rica, y evaluados en 2007 y 2010. El material genético provino de selecciones de árbo - les plus realizadas por GENFORES, cooperativa costarricense de conservación y mejoramiento genético forestal. Cada accesión estuvo represen - tada por 48 progenies, divididas en 4 parejas de individuos, aleatoriamente distribuidas dentro de cada uno de 6 bloques del ensayo. En la medición del 2010 se evaluó el DAP, tasa de sobrevivencia, número de piezas comerciales por árbol, presen - cia de bifurcación, altura de bifurcación y cali - dad de las primeras 4 trozas. Con base en estas mediciones, se estimó el volumen comercial por árbol y por hectárea. Los datos fueron analizados mediante el software especializado SELEGEN de EMBRAPA, Brasil, con el fin de determinar todos los parámetros genéticos de la población de mejoramiento. Todos los caracteres evaluados exhibieron valores de heredabilidad familiar media superior a h 2 fM >0,46. La ganancia genética estimada en volumen comercial por hectárea fue de 55,8%, si se selecciona como progenitores los 2 mejores individuos dentro de las mejores 12 familias del ranking, lo que corresponde a una producción en volumen comercial de 78,93 m 3 .ha -1 a los 4 años (aproximadamente 20 m 3 .ha -1 .año -1 . Las 2 procedencias colombianas exhibieron un crecimiento significativamente superior a todo el resto de materiales evaluados. No se observó interacción genotipo-ambiente significativa entre ambos sitios. Las correlaciones genéticas entre los caracteres evaluados mostraron que la tasa de crecimiento del DAP se expresa tempranamente en esta especie, y por tanto, podría ser utilizada en una reducción a futuro del

  3. Development of high-throughput SNP-based genotyping in Acacia auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using short-read transcriptome data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Melissa ML

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next Generation Sequencing has provided comprehensive, affordable and high-throughput DNA sequences for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP discovery in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium. Like other non-model species, SNP detection and genotyping in Acacia are challenging due to lack of genome sequences. The main objective of this study is to develop the first high-throughput SNP genotyping assay for linkage map construction of A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids. Results We identified a total of 37,786 putative SNPs by aligning short read transcriptome data from four parents of two Acacia hybrid mapping populations using Bowtie against 7,839 de novo transcriptome contigs. Given a set of 10 validated SNPs from two lignin genes, our in silico SNP detection approach is highly accurate (100% compared to the traditional in vitro approach (44%. Further validation of 96 SNPs using Illumina GoldenGate Assay gave an overall assay success rate of 89.6% and conversion rate of 37.5%. We explored possible factors lowering assay success rate by predicting exon-intron boundaries and paralogous genes of Acacia contigs using Medicago truncatula genome as reference. This assessment revealed that presence of exon-intron boundary is the main cause (50% of assay failure. Subsequent SNPs filtering and improved assay design resulted in assay success and conversion rate of 92.4% and 57.4%, respectively based on 768 SNPs genotyping. Analysis of clustering patterns revealed that 27.6% of the assays were not reproducible and flanking sequence might play a role in determining cluster compression. In addition, we identified a total of 258 and 319 polymorphic SNPs in A. auriculiformis and A. mangium natural germplasms, respectively. Conclusion We have successfully discovered a large number of SNP markers in A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using next generation transcriptome sequencing. By using a reference genome from the most closely

  4. Development of high-throughput SNP-based genotyping in Acacia auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using short-read transcriptome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melissa M L; Cannon, Charles H; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2012-12-24

    Next Generation Sequencing has provided comprehensive, affordable and high-throughput DNA sequences for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) discovery in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium. Like other non-model species, SNP detection and genotyping in Acacia are challenging due to lack of genome sequences. The main objective of this study is to develop the first high-throughput SNP genotyping assay for linkage map construction of A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids. We identified a total of 37,786 putative SNPs by aligning short read transcriptome data from four parents of two Acacia hybrid mapping populations using Bowtie against 7,839 de novo transcriptome contigs. Given a set of 10 validated SNPs from two lignin genes, our in silico SNP detection approach is highly accurate (100%) compared to the traditional in vitro approach (44%). Further validation of 96 SNPs using Illumina GoldenGate Assay gave an overall assay success rate of 89.6% and conversion rate of 37.5%. We explored possible factors lowering assay success rate by predicting exon-intron boundaries and paralogous genes of Acacia contigs using Medicago truncatula genome as reference. This assessment revealed that presence of exon-intron boundary is the main cause (50%) of assay failure. Subsequent SNPs filtering and improved assay design resulted in assay success and conversion rate of 92.4% and 57.4%, respectively based on 768 SNPs genotyping. Analysis of clustering patterns revealed that 27.6% of the assays were not reproducible and flanking sequence might play a role in determining cluster compression. In addition, we identified a total of 258 and 319 polymorphic SNPs in A. auriculiformis and A. mangium natural germplasms, respectively. We have successfully discovered a large number of SNP markers in A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using next generation transcriptome sequencing. By using a reference genome from the most closely related species, we converted most SNPs to successful

  5. [Net CO2 exchange and carbon isotope flux in Acacia mangium plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lu-Liu; Sun, Gu-Chou; Zhao, Ping; Cai, Xi-An; Zeng, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Quan

    2009-11-01

    By using stable carbon isotope technique, the leaf-level 13C discrimination was integrated to canopy-scale photosynthetic discrimination (Deltacanopy) through weighted the net CO2 assimilation (Anet) of sunlit and shaded leaves and the stand leaf area index (L) in an A. mangium plantation, and the carbon isotope fluxes from photosynthesis and respiration as well as their net exchange flux were obtained. There was an obvious diurnal variation in Deltacanopy, being lower at dawn and at noon time (18.47 per thousand and 19.87 per thousand, respectively) and the highest (21.21 per thousand) at dusk. From the end of November to next May, the Deltacanopy had an increasing trend, with an annual average of (20.37 +/- 0.29) per thousand. The carbon isotope ratios of CO2 from autotrophic respiration (excluding daytime foliar respiration) and heterotrophic respiration were respectively (- 28.70 +/- 0.75) per thousand and (- 26.75 +/- 1.3) per thousand in average. The delta13 C of nighttime ecosystem-respired CO2 in May was the lowest (-30.14 per thousand), while that in November was the highest (-28.01 per thousand). The carbon isotope flux of CO2 between A. mangium forest and atmosphere showed a midday peak of 178.5 and 217 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) x per thousand in May and July, with the daily average of 638.4 and 873.2 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) x per thousand, respectively. The carbon isotope flux of CO2 absorbed by canopy leaves was 1.6-2.5 times higher than that of CO2 emitted from respiration, suggesting that a large sum of CO2 was absorbed by A. mangium, which decreased the atmospheric CO2 concentration and improved the environment.

  6. A cell-type-specific defect in border cell formation in the Acacia mangium root cap developing an extraordinary sheath of sloughed-off cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Izuki; Tange, Takeshi; Osawa, Hiroki

    2011-08-01

    Root caps release border cells, which play central roles in microbe interaction and root protection against soil stresses. However, the number and connectivity of border cells differ widely among plant species. Better understanding of key border-cell phenotype across species will help define the total function of border cells and associated genes. The spatio-temporal detachment of border cells in the leguminous tree Acacia mangium was investigated by using light and fluorescent microscopy with fluorescein diacetate, and their number and structural connectivity compared with that in soybean (Glycine max). Border-like cells with a sheet structure peeled bilaterally from the lateral root cap of A. mangium. Hydroponic root elongation partially facilitated acropetal peeling of border-like cells, which accumulate as a sheath that covers the 0- to 4-mm tip within 1 week. Although root elongation under friction caused basipetal peeling, lateral root caps were minimally trimmed as compared with hydroponic roots. In the meantime, A. mangium columella caps simultaneously released single border cells with a number similar to those in soybean. These results suggest that cell type-specific inhibitory factors induce a distinct defective phenotype in single border-cell formation in A. mangium lateral root caps.

  7. Ribotyping of rhizobia nodulating Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria from different geographical areas in Indonesia using PCR-RFLP-SSCP (PRS) and sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, J P; Mansur, I; Dodd, J C; Jeffries, P

    2001-04-01

    Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria are leguminous tree species widely grown for timber in Indonesia and other tropical countries, yet little is known about the identity of their rhizobial symbionts. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PRS) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene was used along with sequencing to assess the diversity of 57 rhizobia isolated from nodules of A. mangium and P. falctaria in Indonesia. In total, 26 rhizobia isolated from A. mangium were analysed by PRS and sequencing. The PRS patterns indicated that 12 (46%) clustered with Bradyrhizobium elkanii, 13 (50%) with B. lianoningense/japonicum and one (4%) with Mesorhizobium loti. Thirty-one isolates were analysed from P. falcataria: five (16%) clustered with B. elkanii and 26 (84%) with B. lianoningense/japonicum. These results were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of sequences. Intraspecific diversity of the 16S rRNA genes from rhizobia nodulating A. mangium and P. falcataria revealed by PRS was low, only one genotype was found within the isolates that clustered with B. elkanii and two within the B. liaoningense/japonicum group. These Bradyrhizobium species are apparently ubiquitous throughout the Indonesian archipelago and it is clear why the two tree species are able to successfully establish outside their native range without the need for inoculation with indigenous rhizobia.

  8. Sebaran tumbuhan bawah pada tumbuhan Acacia nilotica (L Willd. ex Del. di savana Bekol Taman Nasional Baluran

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    Suhadi Suhadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bekol savannah is places of reproduction for banteng (Bos javanicus d` Alton, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L, large deer(Cervus timorensis and green peafowl (Pavo mutiacus and for conservation of species, habitat and genetic. In sector recreation and tourism, Bekol Savannah is object for eco-tourism, that is very attractive for local tourist or foreign and to see biodiversity of flora and fauna. Set of problems are wildlife population very low result presence Acacia nilotica (L Willd. ex Del in savannah. This plantcompetitive with wildlife feeding grasslands result to descent plant diversity and biomass. The conclusion of the grassland dispersal atplant of A. nilotica (L Willd. ex Del. in Bekol savannah Baluran National Park are: (1 The grassland dispersal at plant of A. nilotica(L Willd. ex. Del.plot 1 ×1 m2 have 24 species`s with importance value of wildlife feeding grasslands = 40.49%, (2. The grassland dispersal at plant of A. nilotica (L Willd. ex Del.plot 1× 1 m2 (distance of plots 1 m from center point of stem have 27 species`s with importance value of wildlife feeding = 29.30% and (3. Productivity wild life feeding grasslands only of to fill 8.93% from wildlife in savannah if be found plant of A. nilotica (L Willd. ex Del.

  9. Differing courses of genetic evolution of Bradyrhizobium inoculants as revealed by long-term molecular tracing in Acacia mangium plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrineau, M M; Le Roux, C; Galiana, A; Faye, A; Duponnois, R; Goh, D; Prin, Y; Béna, G

    2014-09-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing bacteria as an inoculum in association with legume crops is a common practice in agriculture. However, the question of the evolution of these introduced microorganisms remains crucial, both in terms of microbial ecology and agronomy. We explored this question by analyzing the genetic and symbiotic evolution of two Bradyrhizobium strains inoculated on Acacia mangium in Malaysia and Senegal 15 and 5 years, respectively, after their introduction. Based on typing of several loci, we showed that these two strains, although closely related and originally sampled in Australia, evolved differently. One strain was recovered in soil with the same five loci as the original isolate, whereas the symbiotic cluster of the other strain was detected with no trace of the three housekeeping genes of the original inoculum. Moreover, the nitrogen fixation efficiency was variable among these isolates (either recombinant or not), with significantly high, low, or similar efficiencies compared to the two original strains and no significant difference between recombinant and nonrecombinant isolates. These data suggested that 15 years after their introduction, nitrogen-fixing bacteria remain in the soil but that closely related inoculant strains may not evolve in the same way, either genetically or symbiotically. In a context of increasing agronomical use of microbial inoculants (for biological control, nitrogen fixation, or plant growth promotion), this result feeds the debate on the consequences associated with such practices. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. EVALUATION FOR THE EFFICIENCY OF EARLY SELECTION IN Acacia mangium SEEDLING SEED ORCHARDS BASED ON AGE TRENDS IN GENETIC PARAMETER

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    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of early selection was evaluated based on age trend in genetic parameters using tree height data that was measured periodically repeatedly up to age 3 years of age in four seedling seed orchards of Acacia mangium at South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The four orchards were grouped into two populations based upon their provenances, namely: Papua New Guinea (PNG and Far North Queensland-Australia (FNQ. A model for time trend of genetic parameters was developed by fitting regression equation to the estimates of variances and correlations using tree height data as an independent variable. In both populations, genetic variances and total phenotypic variances increased along with the mean height. Trend of individual heritability along the rotation ages were almost stable at around 0.19 for PNG, and gradually increased from 0.36 to 0.40 for FNQ. Trend of genetic correlations between selection age and rotation age increased rapidly starting at around 0.5 for PNG and 0.6 for FNQ, then exceeding 0.9 at age four years in both populations. Genetic gains due to indirect selection increased with age, in which the gains in FNQ were generally larger than those in PNG. Selection efficiency based on gain per year as a ratio of the gains from indirect selection to direct selection may conclude resulted the optimum age for selection at age two years old in both of PNG and FNQ population.

  11. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium × A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mating system of A. hybrid has never been reported and the results from this study could enhance the understanding of the species in terms of inbreeding depression. Like the majority of Acacias, A. hybrid produces a sub- stantial number of seeds within a pod. Butcher and Moran. (2000) reported incidence of genetic ...

  12. Análise faunística de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera: Apidae em ambientes de floresta nativa e plantios de Acacia mangium no Estado de Roraima. = Faunal analysis of the Euglossina bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae within the native Forest and plantations of Acacia mangium in the Brazilian State of Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Fernandes Tavares Maia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho comparar a Fauna de abelhas Euglossina de mata nativa com plantios de Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae atraídas por iscas odoríferas. Foram utilizadas armadilhas de garrafas de politereftalato de etila (PET, contendo fragrâncias de salicilato de metila e eugenol. As abelhas foram retiradas das armadilhas em intervalos de 30 em 30 minutos a contar das 6 horas até as 12 horas de cada dia de coleta. Foram selecionados três locais em mata nativa (Ilha de Maracá, Serra Grande e Itã e três em plantios de Acacia mangium (Haras Cunhã-Pucá, Fazenda Jacitara e Fazenda Umirizal. Em cada local de coleta as abelhas foram capturadas em um único dia, perfazendo um total de 6 dias de coletas para todos os locais. Foram coletados 123indivíduos de 21 espécies. Nos pontos de coleta nos plantios de Acacia mangium foram coletados 35 indivíduos pertencentes a 12 espécies e em mata nativa foram coletados 88 indivíduos pertencentes a 17 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes foram Eulaema pseudocingulata (48 espécimes, Eul. meriana (12 espécimes, Eul. cingulata (11 espécimes, Euglossa augaspis (10 espécimes e Eug. amazonica (8 espécimes. Os pontos de coleta nos plantiosde Acacia mangium apresentaram baixa diversidade e abundância quando comparados com os pontos de coleta em mata nativa. = The objective of this study was to compare the Fauna of the Euglossina bees of native forest and plantings of Acacia mangium collected with odoriferous baits. Traps made from PET bottles were used, and contained fragrances of methyl salicilate and eugenol. The bees were removed from the traps in intervals of 30 in 30 minutes from 6 am to 12 pm every day during the period of collection. Three places were selected within the native forest (Island of Maracá, Serra Grande, and Itã, and from three plantations of Acacia mangium (Cunhã-Pucá farm, Jacitara farm and Umirizal farm. In each area of collection,the bees were captured on a

  13. Chemical characterization of lignin from kraft pulping black liquor of Acacia mangium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermiati, Euis; Risanto, Lucky; Lubis, M. Adly Rahandi; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Dewi, Aniva Rizkia

    2017-01-01

    In order to know the proper use of lignin derived from pulping process of A. mangium, it is important to study the characteristics of lignin obtained from this species. The objective of this research was to study the characteristics of lignin isolated from kraft pulping black liquor of A. mangium. Lignin was isolated from the black liquor by single step and two step acid precipitation. The lignins were characterized for their moisture, ash, acid soluble lignin (ASL), and acid insoluble lignin (AIL) contents. Elemental composition, FTIR spectra, UV spectra, and microscopic structure using SEM were also analyzed. The yield of lignin obtained through one step precipitation of black liquor (45.76%) was much higher than that through two step precipitation (7.38%), while ash contents of lignin from one step and two step precipitations were almost the same. Ultimate analysis shows that carbon content in lignin from one step precipitation was lower than that from two step precipitation, while hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur content were relatively the same. Two step precipitation could increase the AIL and decrease the ASL content of the lignin isolate. Results of UV analysis show that in neutral medium (dioxane-water) the two lignin isolates had strong absorbance at 240 nm, while in alkaline medium (NaOH pH 12) there were strong absorption at 210 nm, and weak absorption at 280 nm. The FT-IR spectra reveal that the two lignin isolates had similar functional groups. This means that the removal of sugar from lignin did not change the lignin structure. The SEM analysis shows that both lignin isolates still contain some dirts.

  14. [Seasonal differences in the leaf hydraulic conductance of mature Acacia mangium in response to its leaf water use and photosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Sun, Gu-Chou; Ni, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, measurements were made on the leaf water potential (psi1), stomatal conductance (g(s)), transpiration rate, leaf area index, and sapwood area of mature Acacia mangium, aimed to understand the relationships of the leaf hydraulic conductance (K1) with the leaf water use and photosynthetic characteristics of the A. mangium in wet season (May) and dry season (November). The ratio of sapwood area to leaf area (A(sp)/A(cl)) of the larger trees with an average height of 20 m and a diameter at breast height (DBH) of 0.26 m was 8.5% higher than that of the smaller trees with an average height of 14.5 m and a DBH of 0.19 m, suggesting that the larger trees had a higher water flux in their leaf xylem, which facilitated the water use of canopy leaf. The analysis on the vulnerability curve of the xylem showed that when the K1 decreased by 50%, the psi1 in wet season and dry season was -1.41 and -1.55 MPa, respectively, and the vulnerability of the xylem cavitation was higher in dry season than in wet season. The K1 peak value in wet season and dry season was 5.5 and 4.5 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1) x MPa(-1), and the maximum transpiration rate (T(r max)) was 3.6 and 1.8 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. Both the K1 and T(r max), were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Within a day, the K1 and T(r), fluctuated many times, reflecting the reciprocated cycle of the xylem cavitation and refilling. The leaf stomatal closure occurred when the K1 declined over 50% or the psi1 reached -1.6 MPa. The g(s) would be maintained at a high level till the K1 declined over 50%. The correlation between the hydraulic conductance and photosynthetic rate was more significant in dry season than in wet season. The loss of leaf hydraulic conductance induced by seasonal change could be the causes of the decrease of T(r) and CO2 gas exchange.

  15. Polyphenols From Cutch Tree (Acacia catechu Willd.: Normalize In Vitro Oxidative Stress and Exerts Antiproliferative Activity

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    Rakesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oxidative stress, being the main cause of most of the human diseases, has always been the highlight of research worldwide. This stress can be overcome by administration of natural polyphenols. The Acacia catechu Willd. has many refrences available in Ayurveda as important disease curative plant. Its leaves are investigated for ameliorating oxidative stress in present work. Leaves of A. catechu were extracted with 80% methanol to get methanol extract (AME. It was assessed for antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, ferric ion reducing, superoxide scavenging and peroxyl radical scavenging assays. DNA protective activity was also investigated using plasmid nicking assay. Further, antiproliferative activity was determined using MTT assay in various human cancer cell lines. The quantification of polyphenols was done by UHPLC analysis. Results confirmed that polyphenols of A. catechu were successful in normalizing oxidative stress. AME was found to be most effective in scavenging ABTS radicals while least effective in scavenging ferric ions. UHPLC analysis showed abundance of ellagic acid, rutin and quercetin in AME. Further, AME showed maximum antiproliferative activity against Hep G2 cancer cells. It is concluded that the polyphenols from A. catechu effectively remediates oxidative stress and hence can be used in curing numerous dreadful diseases.

  16. Investigation of Ethyl Acetate Extract/Fractions of Acacia nilotica willd. Ex Del as Potent Antioxidant

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    Rajbir Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extract/fractions of Acacia nilotica Willd. Ex. Del extracted with different solvents of increasing and decreasing order of solvent polarity. The antioxidative activities, including the 1’-1’ diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging effects, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, chelating ability, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition in rat tissue homogenate were studied in vitro. It was found that the antioxidative effect provided by extract/fractions was strongly concentration dependent and increased on fractionating the extract into water and ethyl acetate fractions. In general, the antioxidative activity increased with increasing extract/fractions concentration to a certain extent, and then leveled off with further increase in antioxidant activity. From a comparison of the antioxidant potential and IC 50 values for different antioxidative reactions, it seemed that extract/fractions were more effective in scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radicals than reducing, chelating heavy metals and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential.

  17. ESTOQUES DE CARBONO E NITROGÊNIO EM ARGISSOLO SUBMETIDO AO MONOCULTIVO DE Eucalyptus urograndis E EM ROTAÇÃO COM Acacia mangium

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    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of sustainable systems of soil management has led researchers to develop new techniques of cultivation. Among them, studies with forest species able to fix atmospheric N2 and increase C and N stocks in labile and stable soil organic matter (SOM stand out in Brazil. The study aimed to evaluate changes in stocks of C and N in fractions of humic substances, light fraction of SOM and microbial biomass in soils of short-rotation Eucalyptus “urograndis”, long rotation plantations and stands of Acacia mangium which succeeded short rotation eucalyptus monoculture, in comparison to the soil of native forest (Atlantic Forest. It was obtained the total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN stocks, C and N stocks in the fractions of humic substances (fulvic acid fraction-AF, humic acid fraction-HA and humin fraction-H, C and N in light fraction of SOM (C-LOM and N-LOM and C and N microbial biomass (CMB and N-MB. The results indicated that the short rotation eucalyptus cultivation reduced total organic carbon stocks, total nitrogen, C and N in the humic substances, and N storage in the microbial biomass compared to Acacia mangium soil. The cultivation of Acacia mangium and the increase of the eucalyptus rotation time increased stocks of C and N of the labile (C-LOM, N-LOM and C-MB and stable fractions (C and N in humic substances indicating a significant recovery of their stocks to levels approaching those original (native, and higher than stocks obtained in the soil of short rotation eucalypt.

  18. CAÍDA DE HOJARASCA Y DINÁMICA DE NUTRIENTES EN PLANTACIONES DE Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    castellanos jeiner jesus

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La producción de hojarasca, el retorno y la reabsorción de nutrientes, y la eficiencia en su uso, fueron estudiados durante un año en plantaciones de Acacia mangium establecidas en suelos degradados por minería aurífera en la región del Bajo Cauca Colombiano. La producción anual de hojarasca fina fue de 10,4 Mg ha-1 y estuvo dominada por la fracción foliar (54%, seguida del material reproductivo (24%, y en menor proporción por otros restos (6% y hojas de otras especies (1.5%. Los mayores retornos de materia orgánica y nutrientes se presentaron en los sitios clasificados como de calidad alta, en tanto que la práctica de subsolado del suelo, previo establecimiento de las plantaciones, no mostró efectos significativos sobre estos. La hojarasca foliar mostró una concentración alta de N y consecuentemente, dados los altos valores de producción de esta fracción, un retorno potencial alto de N. El P, con baja concentración foliar y un bajo retorno potencial, además de los altos valores de los índices de eficiencia en su uso y de reabsorción foliar, fue el nutriente más limitante. Los altos valores de producción de hojarasca fina y de retorno potencial de nutrientes determinados en este estudio, muestran que la especie Acacia

  19. Mechanical Properties of 3 Ply Plywood Made from Acacia Mangium Veneers and Green Starch-based Adhesives

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    Chiang Liew Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, starch has attracted great consideration as a raw material on wood adhesives in the wood industry. Cassava and sago starchbased adhesive are renewable, biodegradable and environmental friendly product when compared with other petroleum-based adhesives. In this study, different starches-based adhesive has been produced. Mechanical properties of plywood made from Acacia mangium veneers with different starches-based adhesives (cassava and sago as binder cured at different curing temperatures (100°C, 120°C and 140°C has been determined. All materials (starch, vinegar, water and glycerol were cooked and stirred until the mixture reached 70°C - 80°C which become sticky and whitish. After that, starch-based adhesives were applied on the veneers by using spreader, and the plywood were pre-pressed for 30 minutes with 20 kg load before hot-press. Cassava starch-based adhesive showed the highest Modulus of Elasticity which was 12410.56 N/mm2 than sago starch-based adhesive, while Modulus of Rupture of the cassava starch-based adhesive at 100°C showed highest mean value at 74.19 N/mm2. Sago-starch based adhesive at 140°C showed the highest shear strength with 1.11 N/mm2. In short, cassava and sago starch-based adhesives gave good performance in mechanical properties such as bending for pressed temperature (100°C and 120°C, and shear at 140°C pressed temperature.

  20. Crescimento inicial de mudas de Acacia mangium cultivadas em mantas de fibra de coco contendo substrato de lodo de esgoto

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    Rômulo Fredson Duarte

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de Acacia mangium semeadas em "manta" de fibra de coco contendo substrato de lodo de esgoto. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 13 tratamentos e três repetições, distribuídos em esquema fatorial (6 x 2 + 1 com seis proporções de fibra de coco e resíduo agregante, combinados com substratos com e sem lodo de esgoto, mais o tratamento-controle (terra de subsolo. Foram avaliados o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, a percentagem de emergência (EM e a altura das plantas aos 40 e 60 dias após a emergência. O tratamento- controle apresentou melhores resultados em relação ao IVE e EM quando comparado com os tratamentos utilizando "manta" de fibra de coco e resíduo agregante. Não houve diferença entre o controle e os tratamentos com "mantas" em altura das plantas aos 40 e 60 dias. Não foram observadas interações entre o tipo de substrato utilizado no semeio e as diferentes proporções de fibra de coco na "manta". A presença de lodo no substrato não influenciou o IVE e a EM, contudo verificou-se que o substrato sem lodo de esgoto proporcionou maior crescimento em altura das plantas. O uso de "mantas" contendo 50 e 100% de fibra de coco proporcionou maior crescimento às mudas de acácia em condições de campo.

  1. TREND OF REALIZED GENETIC GAIN OBSERVED IN SECOND-GENERATION SEEDLING SEED ORCHARDS OF ACACIA MANGIUM IN SOUTH KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA

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    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive  tree improvement  program for Acacia mangium has been started since 1992 by establishing  a  series  of  first generation  Seedling  Seed  Orchards  (SSO  in  Indonesia.  Selection procedures in the first-generation of SSO have completely finished, and subsequently it was continued for second-generation improvement. This paper examines a trend of realized genetic gain as a response of selection practiced in the first-generation SSO. The observation was carried out in three sub-lines of the second-generation SSO (namely Sub-line B, C and D. Parameters recorded included tree height, diameter at breast height (dbh and stem straightness that were recorded periodically up to 4 years growth. The realized genetic gain was calculated as a percentage of improved plus trees population in the first-generation of  SSO compared to those of  unimproved trees. The results showed that the improved population was consistently better that those of unimproved one until 4 years of age. There were variation in terms of realized genetic gain parameters recorded depending on the sub-lines and ages. The tree height varied from 1.1% to 5%, while dbh and stem straightness were in the ranges of 2.8% to 6.7% and from 1.8% to 8.4%, respectively. Across the three sub-lines, the tree height varied from 2.2% to 3.1%, while dbh and stem straightness were in the ranges of 4.3% to 5.2% and 4.3% to 6%, respectively.  In general, the trend of the realized genetic gains slightly decreased for dbh and tree height with the increasing of ages, while it slightly increased for stem straightness.

  2. Características físicas, químicas e conteúdo de água em solos convertidos de savana para plantio de Acacia mangium. = Physical and chemical characteristics and soil humidity by converting savanna to Acacia mangium crop, Roraima State, Brazil.

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    Maria Ivonilde Leitão de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os quarenta mil quilômetros quadrados de savana (cerrado em Roraima vêm sendo substituídos por agricultura, pecuária e florestamento, portanto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da conversão da savana nativa para plantios de Acacia mangium, com diferentes idades, em diferentes classes de solos e profundidades dos solos nas características químicas, físicas e no teor de água do solo. O trabalho foi conduzido em duas fazendas do Empreendimento Ouro Verde Agrosilvopastoril Ltda, no município do Cantá, RR, em plantios de Acacia mangium com até quatro anos de implantação comparado a condição natural (savana. As áreas situam-se em solos da classe Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Fazenda Tuquinha e Argissolo Amarelo distrófico (Fazenda Garimpeira e as variáveis foram avaliadas nas profundidades de 0 - 30; 30 - 60 e 60 - 90 cm. As variáveis analisadas foram: pH, bases trocáveis, alumínio trocável, H+ + Al3+, fósforo, sódio, Matéria Orgânica do Solo (MOS, granulometria, densidade do solo e teor de água no solo. Em geral, os solos são de baixa fertilidade natural, verificando-se que a implantação de Acaciamangium não apresentou alterações químicas positivas no solo, revelando uma tendência de aumento da umidade do solo coma idade de plantio de Acacia mangium. = The forty thousand square kilometers of savannah (cerrado in Roraima State, Brazil, are being replaced by agriculture and forestry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of native savanna conversion to plantationsof Acacia mangium at different ages, classes and soil depths on chemical and physical attribute and water content of soil. Thisresearch was done in two farms of Ouro Verde Agrossilvopastoril Ltda., in the city of Cantá – RR, with up to four year oldAcacia mangium crops at Tuquinha`s farm and at Garimpeira`s farm, and in natural savanna conditions. The collected samples were of dystrophic yellow Latosol (Tuquinha farm and dystrophic yellow

  3. Deposição e decomposição da serapilheira em povoamentos de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Acacia mangium e Acacia holosericea com quatro anos de idade em planossolo

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    A. G. Andrade

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Algumas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas, associadas a bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio e a fungos micorrízicos, têm apresentado bom desenvolvimento em solos degradados. Visando avaliar a influência dessas espécies na recuperação da fertilidade do solo, mediu-se a quantidade de matéria seca e nutrientes no material formador da serapilheira, durante o ano de 1995, e na serapilheira acumulada na superfície do solo, em 1995 e 1996, e estimou-se sua velocidade de decomposição. Estudaram-se povoamentos homogêneos de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (sabiá, Acacia mangium e Acacia holosericea, em espaçamento de 4 m²/planta, em Planossolo, no campo experimental da Embrapa Agrobiologia, município de Seropédica (RJ (22°49' S e 43°38' W, com altitude variando entre 18 e 33 m. A deposição média anual de material formador da serapilheira foi de 10 Mg ha-1, para o sabiá, e de 9 Mg ha-1, para as Acacias Em média, as folhas corresponderam a 64% do material formador da serapilheira produzido pelo sabiá e pela Acacia holosericea e 70% para Acacia mangium A parte mais rica em nutrientes do material formador da serapilheira foram as estruturas reprodutivas. A Acacia Mangium foi a espécie de maior capacidade de retranslocação interna de nutrientes, produzindo a serapilheira mais pobre em nutrientes e de menor velocidade de decomposição. A serapilheira produzida pelo sabiá foi a mais rica em nutrientes, com menor tempo de residência. As diferentes velocidades de decomposição da serapilheira dessas espécies podem ser utilizadas como estratégia para complementar necessidades nutricionais de culturas econômicas em sistemas agroflorestais e, ou, para auxiliar na recuperação de solos degradados.

  4. Anatomical study of Racosperma (ex-Acacia mangium tissues cultured in vitro

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    N. K. Takemori

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve adventitious shoot regeneration from young tissues of Racosperma mangium, several combinations of growth regulators were tested. Kinetin (KIN and a -naphthalenacetic acid (NAA, thidiazuron (TDZ and NAA or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 4-CPPU and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D were added to basic medium composed of MS salts, MS vitamins and 3% sucrose. Sections of hypocotyls and cotyledons of young seedlings were cultivated on these media. Calli developed on different media and, after two to three months, some of them regenerated organized structures. Histological studies revealed hypertrophy and hyperplasy of medular and cortical parenchyma cells of hypocotyl and cotyledon parenchyma. Formation of meristematic cells and traqueary elements from parenchyma was observed during in vitro culture. In some cases, nodules of traqueary elements were formed. The highest differentiation into meristematic cells was found in cotyledon tissues cultured on 4-CPPU (8.07 µM and 2,4-D (1.13 µM.Várias combinações de reguladores do crescimento foram aplicadas a tecidos jovens de Racosperma mangium com o propósito de induzir a regeneração de brotos adventícios. Cinetina (KIN e ácido naftalenoacético (NAA, tidiazuron (TDZ e NAA, N-(chloro-4-piridil-N´-fenilurea (4-CPPU e ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D foram adicionados a um meio de base composto por sais minerais, na metade da concentração do meio MS, vitaminas MS e sacarose 2%. Explantes de hipocótilos e cotilédones de plântulas semeadas in vitro foram cultivados nesses meios. A formação de calos foi observada em vários meios. Estruturas organizadas se desenvolveram na presença de diferentes combinações de KIN ou TDZ e NAA quando os calos permaneceram dois a três meses nos mesmos meios. Estudos histológicos mostraram a hypertrofia e hiperplasia das células do parênquima medular e cortical, nos calos formados a partir de hipocótilos como de cotilédones. A

  5. Relationship Between Wood Color Parameters Measured by the CIELab System and Extractive and Phenol Content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from Fast-Growth Plantations

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    Carolina Tenorio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b* of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*.

  6. Relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab system and extractive and phenol content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from fast-growth plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Soto Fallas, Roy; Jiménez Bonilla, Pablo; Tenorio, Carolina

    2012-03-26

    The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b*) of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*.

  7. Productivity and carbon allocation in pure and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellon, Y.; Laclau, J.; Epron, D.; Le Maire, G.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer inputs are required in fast growing eucalypt plantations to meet tree requirements, and to compensate for the large nitrogen outputs associated with wood exportation at the end of the short rotations. Due to the economic and potential environmental cost of fertilizers, mixed-species plantations (MSP) with N-fixing species (NFS) such as Acacia sp. might be an attractive option to improve the long-term soil N (and possibly soil carbon) status. In such MSP, increases in N availability may influence the productivity and C partitioning of the non-N fixing species. To investigate the effects of NFS on nutrient cycling, wood production, C sequestration, and soil fertility, a randomized block design including monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (100%E) and Acacia mangium (100%A), and mixtures of these species (50%E:50%A) was set up in southern Brazil. Our specific goals in the present study were to compare the production and C allocation patterns of these plantations, during the two last years of the 6-yr rotation. We hypothesized that 1) a large part of the differences in wood production between monospecific stands would be explained by differences in C allocation; and 2) the C allocation patterns of each species would be strongly modified in mixed- species plantations compared to mono-specific plantations due to inter-specific interactions and shifts in soil N status. Biomass increase (growth, G) in the different plant compartments was assessed by means of inventories and allometric relationships. Total aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and the productivity of each aboveground plant compartment were estimated from measurements of G and litterfall (L) (ANPP=G+L). Total belowground C allocations (TBCA) were estimated using a mass-balance approach as soil CO2 efflux C minus the C input from aboveground litter plus changes in the C stored in roots, in the forest floor litter layer, and in soil. Over this first rotation, mixing NFS with eucalypt

  8. Descomposición de hojarasca y liberación de nutrientes en plantaciones de Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae establecidas en suelos degradados de Colombia

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    Jeiner Castellanos-Barliza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La descomposición de hojarasca en los ecosistemas terrestres está regulada por varios factores, entre ellos, la humedad, temperatura, calidad de la hojarasca y la actividad de los microoganismos. Estudiamos el efecto de la precipitación y el tratamiento de subsolado del suelo previo establecimiento de plantaciones de Acacia mangium, usando la técnica de bolsas de descomposición durante seis meses en plantaciones del Bajo Cauca (Colombia. La constante de descomposición anual (k del modelo simple exponencial, osciló entre 1.24 y 1.80. Las constantes k1 y k2 del modelo doble exponencial fluctuaron entre 0.88-1.81 y 0.58-7.01. Al final del experimento la materia seca residual promedio (MSR fue del 47%. Las cantidades residuales de N, Ca y Mg en la hojarasca de A. mangium mostraron un patrón de liberación lento. La evolución del P en la MSR mostró un proceso dominante de inmovilización, dada su baja disponibilidad en el suelo. Algunos parámetros de calidad del sustrato (N, P, C/N, N/P y fenoles fueron buenos predictores del proceso, así como la precipitación, situación contraria a la del tratamiento de subsolado.Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Acacia mangium plantations established on degraded soils of Colombia. Several factors control the decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as humidity, temperature, quality of litter and microbial activity. We investigated the effects of rainfall and soil plowing prior to the establishment of Acacia mangium plantations, using the litterbag technique, during a six month period, in forests plantations in Bajo Cauca region, Colombia. The annual decomposition constants (k of simple exponential model, oscillated between 1.24 and 1.80, meanwhile k1 y k2 decomposition constants of double exponential model were 0.88-1.81 and 0.58-7.01. At the end of the study, the mean residual dry matter (RDM was 47% of the initial value for the three sites. We found a slow N, Ca and Mg release pattern

  9. Descomposición de hojarasca y liberación de nutrientes en plantaciones de Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae establecidas en suelos degradados de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeiner Castellanos-Barliza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La descomposición de hojarasca en los ecosistemas terrestres está regulada por varios factores, entre ellos, la humedad, temperatura, calidad de la hojarasca y la actividad de los microoganismos. Estudiamos el efecto de la precipitación y el tratamiento de subsolado del suelo previo establecimiento de plantaciones de Acacia mangium, usando la técnica de bolsas de descomposición durante seis meses en plantaciones del Bajo Cauca (Colombia. La constante de descomposición anual (k del modelo simple exponencial, osciló entre 1.24 y 1.80. Las constantes k1 y k2 del modelo doble exponencial fluctuaron entre 0.88-1.81 y 0.58-7.01. Al final del experimento la materia seca residual promedio (MSR fue del 47%. Las cantidades residuales de N, Ca y Mg en la hojarasca de A. mangium mostraron un patrón de liberación lento. La evolución del P en la MSR mostró un proceso dominante de inmovilización, dada su baja disponibilidad en el suelo. Algunos parámetros de calidad del sustrato (N, P, C/N, N/P y fenoles fueron buenos predictores del proceso, así como la precipitación, situación contraria a la del tratamiento de subsolado.

  10. Bradyrhizobia nodulating the Acacia mangium x A. auriculiformis interspecific hybrid are specific and differ from those associated with both parental species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Christine; Tentchev, Diana; Prin, Yves; Goh, Doreen; Japarudin, Yani; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Duponnois, Robin; Domergue, Odile; de Lajudie, Philippe; Galiana, Antoine

    2009-12-01

    In the context of an increasing utilization of the interspecific hybrid Acacia mangium x A. auriculiformis as a plantation tree in the tropical humid zone, its symbiotic characterization was carried out in comparison with that of its two parental species. Rhizobium strains of diverse geographical origins were isolated from root nodules of the hybrid and its parents. Almost all Acacia hybrid isolates were fast growing on yeast extract-mannitol medium, in contrast to those isolated from both parental species, which were mostly slow growing. The rhizobium strains were characterized through partial sequencing of the rRNA operon. In the phylogenetic tree, almost all strains isolated from the hybrid were grouped together in a clade close to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, while all strains isolated from both parental species were close to Bradyrhizobium elkanii. Inoculation experiments performed under in vitro or greenhouse conditions showed that all strains were infective with their original hosts but exhibited very variable degrees of effectivity according to the host plant tested. Thus, homologous strain-host associations were more effective than heterologous ones. This shows that there is still a high potential for isolating and testing new strains from hybrids to be used as inoculants in the context of large-scale afforestation programs.

  11. Bradyrhizobia Nodulating the Acacia mangium × A. auriculiformis Interspecific Hybrid Are Specific and Differ from Those Associated with Both Parental Species ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Christine; Tentchev, Diana; Prin, Yves; Goh, Doreen; Japarudin, Yani; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Duponnois, Robin; Domergue, Odile; de Lajudie, Philippe; Galiana, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    In the context of an increasing utilization of the interspecific hybrid Acacia mangium × A. auriculiformis as a plantation tree in the tropical humid zone, its symbiotic characterization was carried out in comparison with that of its two parental species. Rhizobium strains of diverse geographical origins were isolated from root nodules of the hybrid and its parents. Almost all Acacia hybrid isolates were fast growing on yeast extract-mannitol medium, in contrast to those isolated from both parental species, which were mostly slow growing. The rhizobium strains were characterized through partial sequencing of the rRNA operon. In the phylogenetic tree, almost all strains isolated from the hybrid were grouped together in a clade close to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, while all strains isolated from both parental species were close to Bradyrhizobium elkanii. Inoculation experiments performed under in vitro or greenhouse conditions showed that all strains were infective with their original hosts but exhibited very variable degrees of effectivity according to the host plant tested. Thus, homologous strain-host associations were more effective than heterologous ones. This shows that there is still a high potential for isolating and testing new strains from hybrids to be used as inoculants in the context of large-scale afforestation programs. PMID:19854923

  12. Shifts in the bacterial community composition along deep soil profiles in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Arthur Prudêncio de Araujo; Andrade, Pedro Avelino Maia de; Bini, Daniel; Durrer, Ademir; Robin, Agnès; Bouillet, Jean Pierre; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2017-01-01

    Our knowledge of the rhizosphere bacterial communities in deep soils and the role of Eucalyptus and Acacia on the structure of these communities remains very limited. In this study, we targeted the bacterial community along a depth profile (0 to 800 cm) and compared community structure in monospecific or mixed plantations of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis. We applied quantitative PCR (qPCR) and sequence the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize composition of bacterial communities. We identified a decrease in bacterial abundance with soil depth, and differences in community patterns between monospecific and mixed cultivations. Sequence analysis indicated a prevalent effect of soil depth on bacterial communities in the mixed plant cultivation system, and a remarkable differentiation of bacterial communities in areas solely cultivated with Eucalyptus. The groups most influenced by soil depth were Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria (more frequent in samples between 0 and 300 cm). The predominant bacterial groups differentially displayed in the monospecific stands of Eucalyptus were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Our results suggest that the addition of an N2-fixing tree in a monospecific cultivation system modulates bacterial community composition even at a great depth. We conclude that co-cultivation systems may represent a key strategy to improve soil resources and to establish more sustainable cultivation of Eucalyptus in Brazil.

  13. Changes in Land Use System and Environmental Factors Affect Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Density and Diversity, and Enzyme Activities in Rhizospheric Soils of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.

    OpenAIRE

    Ndoye, Fatou; Kane, Aboubacry; Ngonkeu Mangaptché, Eddy Léonard; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Sanon, Arsène; Diouf, Diégane; Sy, Mame Ourèye; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Noba, Kandioura; Prin, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The responses of the soil microbial community features associated to the legume tree Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. including both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) diversity and soil bacterial functions, were investigated under contrasting environmental conditions. Soil samples were collected during dry and rainy seasons in two contrasting rainfall sites of Senegal (Dahra and Goudiry, in arid and semiarid zone, resp.). Soils were taken from the rhizosphere of A. senegal both in plantation and ...

  14. Impact of rhizobial inoculation on Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. growth in greenhouse and soil functioning in relation to seed provenance and soil origin

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhoum, N.; Ndoye, F.; Kane, A.; Assigbetse, Komi; Fall, D.; Sylla, S. N.; Noba, K.; Diouf, D.

    2012-01-01

    Rhizobial inoculation has a positive impact on plants growth; however, there is little information about its effect on soil microbial communities and their activity in the rhizosphere. It was therefore necessary to test the effect of inoculation of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. seedlings with selected rhizobia on plant growth, structure and diversity of soil bacterial communities and soil functioning in relation to plant provenance and soil origin. In order to carry out this experiment, three A....

  15. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  16. CO2 uptake of a mature Acacia mangium plantation estimated from sap flow measurements and stable carbon isotope discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Zhao, P.; Zou, L. L.; McCarthy, H. R.; Zeng, X. P.; Ni, G. Y.; Rao, X. Q.

    2014-03-01

    A simple, nondestructive method for the estimation of canopy CO2 uptake is important for understanding the CO2 exchange between forest and atmosphere. Canopy CO2 uptake (FCO2) of a subtropical mature A. mangium plantation was estimated by combining sap flow measurements and stable carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) in Southern China from 2004 to 2007. The mechanistic relationship linking FCO2, Δ in leaf sap, and sap flow-based canopy stomatal conductance (Gs) was applied in our study. No significant seasonal variations were observed in Δ or in the ratio of the intercellular and ambient CO2 concentrations (Ci/Ca), although diurnal Ci/Ca varied between sunlit and shaded leaves. A sensitivity analysis showed that estimates of FCO2 were more sensitive to dynamics in Gs than in Ca and Δ. By using seasonally and canopy averaged Ci/Ca values, we obtained an acceptable estimate of FCO2 compared to other estimates. FCO2 exhibited similar diurnal variation to that of Gs. Large seasonal variation in FCO2 was attributed to the responsiveness of Gs to vapor pressure deficit, photosynthetically active radiation, and soil moisture deficit. Our estimate of FCO2 for a mature A. mangium plantation (2.13 ± 0.40 gC m-2 d-1) approached the lower range of values for subtropical mixed forests, probably due to lower mean canopy stomatal conductance, higher Ci/Ca, and greater tree height than other measured forests. Our estimate was also lower than values determined by satellite-based modeling or carbon allocation studies, suggesting the necessity of stand level flux data for verification. Qualitatively, the sap flux/stable isotope results compared well with gas exchange results. Differences in results between the two approaches likely reflected variability due to leaf position and age, which should be reduced for the combined sap flux and isotope technique, as it uses canopy average values of Gs and Ci/Ca.

  17. Coexistence and performance of diploid and polyploid Acacia senegal (L.) Willd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diallo, Adja Madjiguene

    Polyploidy is defined as possession of more than two sets of chromosomes of an organism. It is known to play a major role in evolution of organisms, but few studies are available on Sahelian trees. In the case of Acacia senegal (distributed across the Sahel), it is important to clarify the potent......Polyploidy is defined as possession of more than two sets of chromosomes of an organism. It is known to play a major role in evolution of organisms, but few studies are available on Sahelian trees. In the case of Acacia senegal (distributed across the Sahel), it is important to clarify...... revealed polyploidy in A. senegal. Estimation of the frequency of polyploids were also made among four natural populations based on trees planted in a progeny trial located in dry and hot region of Senegal; Dahra: annual rainfall trees were observed...... in all tested populations. In this study the growth rate of each tree could be estimated very precisely, because the sampled trees were part of a research trial, and the comparison between cytotypes in the progeny trial showed significantly higher growth rate of polyploids compared to diploid...

  18. Comparação da matéria orgânica e de outros atributos do solo entre plantações de Acacia mangium e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garay I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de eucalipto e acácia são amplamente utilizadas em plantios agroflorestais e reflorestamentos. Com o intuito de comparar a reconstituição das camadas orgânicas do solo, i.e., dos horizontes húmicos, estabelecendo-se uma relação com propriedades edáficas, sob plantações de Acacia mangium e Eucalyptus grandis, foram feitas coletas dos horizontes holorgânicos e hemiorgânicos do solo. Os referidos plantios encontravam-se na região de Tabuleiros Terciários no norte do estado do Espírito Santo e pertenciam à Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce. As coletas foram feitas quando os plantios tinham sete anos de idade, em quatro estações. Acacia mangium apresentou maior estoque de folhiço (10 t ha-1, em média, tanto na camada L, de folhas inteiras, como na camada F, de folhas fragmentadas, do que Eucalyptus grandis (5 t ha-1, em média. O material foliar em acácia apresentou menor relação C/N que o de eucalipto, cerca da metade, decorrente dos maiores teores de nitrogênio. Quanto às análises químicas de carbono e nutrientes, no solo sob Acacia mangium, foram observadas, de modo geral, maiores quantidades destes elementos que no solo sob Eucalyptus grandis (e.g., carbono: 1,74 dag kg-1 vs 1,23 dag kg-1 e cálcio: 3,34 cmol c kg-1 vs 2,75 cmol c kg-1. O conjunto destes resultados evidencia que os aportes orgânicos sob Acacia mangium em relação a Eucalyptus grandis foram responsáveis pela maior incorporação de matéria orgânica e nutrientes ao solo. Estes dados, no entanto, comparados aos obtidos em estudos na floresta primária, mostraram que o carbono e os nutrientes do solo, em ambas as plantações, são menores que na floresta, evidenciando que, após sete anos de plantio, os teores de fertilidade e matéria orgânica do subhorizonte A11 não estavam restabelecidos.

  19. New Pharmacophore from the Stem Bark Fractions of Acacia decurrens (Willd, an Invasive South Africa Tree

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    Bamidele Joseph Okoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tolerance of Acacia decurrens, an invasive species, was exploited pharmacologically in this study. Phytochemical screening revealed important secondary metabolites. Importantly, the assay shows that ethyl acetate and methanol fractions are sources of phytochemicals compared to the hexane and chloroform fractions. A bioassay-guided in vitro assay of the extracts led to the eventual isolation of four bioactive compounds by column chromatography, identification, and characterisation with the aid of GCMS, UV-Vis, FTIR, and NMR. The antimicrobial screening by disc diffusion assay revealed 22.2%, 44.4%, 66.7%, and 77.8% microbial inhibition by 2-methyl-octahydro-indene-4-carboxylic acid (AD1, 6-methyldecahydro-1H-phenanthren-9-one (AD2, 8-hydroxytetradecahydro-chrysene-1-carb aldehyde (AD3, and 8,9-dihydroxy-7-(2-hydroxy-ethyl-9,9a-hexahydro-1H,3H-2-thia-5a-aza cyclopenta[b]anthracen-6-one (AD4, respectively. Compounds AD3 and AD4 are the most potent antibacterial compounds against Gram-positive bacteria with MIC 12.5–6.25 μg/ml. Antioxidant study of the compounds assayed with DPPH and ABTS•+ revealed that compound (AD4 is the most efficient DPPH radical scavenger with IC50 30.07 ± 0.31 and ABTS•+ scavenging activity of 4363.2 ± 452.4 μmol of TE/gDW. This provides scientific information on four pharmacophores with phyto-antioxidants and antimicrobial potential, despite the classification of A. decurrens as a Category 2 invasive plant by the National Water Act.

  20. Expression profile of small RNAs in Acacia mangium secondary xylem tissue with contrasting lignin content - potential regulatory sequences in monolignol biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Seong Siang; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2011-11-30

    . Differential expression of the small RNAs between secondary xylem tissues with contrasting lignin content suggests that a cascade of miRNAs play an interconnected role in regulating the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Acacia species. Our study critically demonstrated the roles of small RNAs during secondary wall formation. Comparison of the expression pattern of small RNAs between secondary xylem tissues with contrasting lignin content strongly indicated that small RNAs play a key regulatory role during lignin biosynthesis. Our analyses suggest an evolutionary mechanism for miRNA targets on the basis of the length of their 5' and 3' UTRs and their cellular roles. The results obtained can be used to better understand the roles of small RNAs during lignin biosynthesis and for the development of gene constructs for silencing of specific genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis with minimal effect on plant fitness and viability. For the first time, small RNAs were proven to play an important regulatory role during lignin biosynthesis in A. mangium.

  1. Crescimento e nodulação de Acacia mangium, Enterolobium contortisiliquum e Sesbania virgata em solo contaminado com metais pesados

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    I. C. B. Trannin

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Um dos desafios atuais da pesquisa é encontrar plantas e microssimbiontes tolerantes e que possibilitem a revegetação de áreas degradadas por excesso de metais pesados. Este experimento foi realizado no período de agosto a dezembro de 1998, em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da UFLA, Lavras (MG, com o objetivo de avaliar a tolerância a metais pesados e a capacidade de estabelecimento de simbiose de rizóbio de diferentes origens com Enterolobium contortisiliquum (tamboril, Acacia mangium (acácia e Sesbania virgata (sesbânia, em misturas de solos, que continham proporções de solo contaminado (PSC: (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60% v/v com Zn, Cd, Pb e Cu (18.600, 135, 600 e 596 mg dm-3, extraídos por aqua regia, respectivamente, diluído em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Estirpes recomendadas (E e isolados de solo contaminado (ISC e de solo não contaminado (ISNC, cuja tolerância a Cu, Cd e Zn foi determinada previamente "in vitro", foram inoculados. O aumento da PSC nas misturas inibiu o crescimento vegetativo, a produção de matéria seca e a nodulação das três espécies. A simbiose tamboril-BR4406 foi a mais tolerante e acácia-BR3617 a mais sensível à contaminação do solo. Os ISC que foram mais tolerantes "in vitro" formaram nódulos eficientes em solo sem contaminação, mas foram ineficientes em solos contaminados. Na PSC 15% (Zn = 750; Cd = 22,1; Pb = 65,1 e Cu = 111 mg dm-3 extraídos por DTPA a atividade específica da nitrogenase aumentou 5 e 10 vezes em relação ao solo sem contaminação para as simbioses sesbânia-BR5401 e tamboril-BR4406, respectivamente. A tolerância de rizóbio a metais "in vitro" não correspondeu à tolerância da simbiose em solo contaminado.

  2. Comparison of soil properties under tropical Acacia hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the common use of Acacia species in Vietnam, few studies have examined changes to total soil nitrogen (TN) and total soil carbon (TC) following the planting of Acacia mangium × Acacia auriculiformis (Acacia hybrid) plantations (AH) on formerly eroded and degraded soils. We compared the impact of AH with ...

  3. THE DIFFERENCE OF MACHINING PROPERTIES OF TIMO (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. And KABESAK WOOD (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. FROM EAST NUSA TENGGARA

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    Heny Rianawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Machining properties is one of the parameters to determine the quality of the wood. Tests on machining properties of wood are important to know the easiness level of workmanship as raw materials of furniture industry, construction wood and other wood products. This research was aimed at determining the difference of machining properties between timo wood (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. and kabesak wood (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. from the village of Reknamo, Kupang district, East Nusa Tenggara. Testing procedures were based on ASTM D1666 including: planning, shaping, sanding, drilling and turning. The observation of qualities of the machining were done visually by calculating the percentage of defects that arise on the surface of the samples after the machining process, then the qualities were classified into five quality classes. The results showed that the machining properties of timo wood and kabesak wood were very good and belonging to the quality of class I. The significant difference between the machining properties of both the timbers is in the sanding properties, where the average free defect of sanding timo wood is 85% while kabesak wood is 84.5%. Both timo and kabesak wood are suitable as raw material, for the variety of furniture and molding products.

  4. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

  5. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  6. Produção de mudas de acácia colonizadas com micorrizas e rizóbio em diferentes recipientes Production of acacia plants colonized with mycorrhizas and rhizobium in different recipients

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    Jolimar Antonio Schiavo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes métodos na produção de mudas de Acacia mangium Willd, colonizadas com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs e rizóbio. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado num esquema fatorial 4x2 (controle, FMAs, rizóbio e FMAs + rizóbio x blocos prensados e tubetes de plástico, com seis repetições. Os blocos prensados foram confeccionados com substratos orgânicos (bagaço de cana + torta de filtro de usina açucareira e vermiculita, colocados em fôrma metálica de 60x40x20 cm e prensados a 10 kgf cm-2, a fim de proporcionar agregação do material. A inoculação do rizóbio foi realizada com estirpe selecionada para a espécie (Br 3609, Br 6009. A inoculação de FMAs foi feita no momento da confecção dos blocos. Mudas de Acacia mangium que receberam inóculo de FMAs + rizóbio e produzidas em blocos prensados apresentaram maior produção de matéria seca e conteúdo de N na parte aérea. O conteúdo de P na parte aérea é significativamente maior somente nas mudas infectadas com os FMAs, independentemente do tipo de recipiente.A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to evaluate different methods to produce Acacia mangium Willd plant seedlings, inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and rhizobium. A completely randomized design in a factorial scheme 4x2 (control, AMF, rhizobium and AMF + rhizobium x pressed blocks and plastic tubes, with six repetitions was used. The pressed blocks used to produce Acacia mangium plants were made with organic residue from sugarcane (sugarcane bagasse + filter cake and vermiculite. The inoculation with rhizobium was done with selected strain (Br 3609, Br 6009. The inoculation with AMF was done at the time when pressed blocks were made. Acacia mangium plants inoculated with both AMF + rhizobium led to a significant increase in dry matter yield and N content of shoot plants, only in

  7. Impact of rhizobial inoculation on Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. growth in greenhouse and soil functioning in relation to seed provenance and soil origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Ndoye, Fatou; Kane, Aboubacry; Assigbetse, Komi; Fall, Dioumacor; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Noba, Kandioura; Diouf, Diégane

    2012-07-01

    Rhizobial inoculation has a positive impact on plants growth; however, there is little information about its effect on soil microbial communities and their activity in the rhizosphere. It was therefore necessary to test the effect of inoculation of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. seedlings with selected rhizobia on plant growth, structure and diversity of soil bacterial communities and soil functioning in relation to plant provenance and soil origin. In order to carry out this experiment, three A. senegal seeds provenance from Kenya, Niger, and Senegal were inoculated with selected rhizobial strains. They have been further grown during 4 months in greenhouse conditions in two non-disinfected soils, Dahra and Goudiry coming respectively from arid and semi-arid areas. The principal component analysis (ACP) showed an inoculation effect on plant growth, rhizospheric bacterial diversity and soil functioning. However, the performances of the rhizobial strains varied in relation to the seed provenance and the soil origin. The selected rhizobial strains, the A. senegal provenance and the soil origin have modified the structure and the diversity of soil bacterial communities as measured by principal component analysis/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses. It is interesting to note that bacterial communities of Dahra soil were highly structured according to A. senegal provenance, whereas they were structured in relation to rhizobial inoculation in Goudiry soil. Besides, the impact of inoculation on soil microbial activities measured by fluorescein diacetate analyses varied in relation to plant provenance and soil origin. Nevertheless, total microbial activity was about two times higher in Goudiry, arid soil than in Dahra, semi-arid soil. Our results suggest that the rhizobial inoculation is a suitable tool for improving plants growth and soil fertility. Yet, the impact is dependent on inoculants, plant provenance and soil origin. It will, therefore, be crucial to

  8. In-Vitro, Anti-Bacterial Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo Against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz; Khan, Saeed Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    Evaluations of the in-vitro anti-bacterial activities of aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and Shilajita mumiyo against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are reasonable since these ethnomedicinal plants have been used in Persian folk medicine for treating skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders for ages. The well diffusion method (KB testing) with a concentration of 250 μg/disc was used for evaluating the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Maximum synergistic effects of different combinations of components were also observed. A particular combination of Acacia catechu (L.F.) Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo extracts possesses an outstanding anti-bacterial activity. It's inhibiting effect on microorganisms is significant when compared to the control group (PCastanea sativa husk, Ephedra sp. and Mumiyo against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Synergistic effects in a combined formula, especially in formula number 2 (ASLAN(Ⓡ)) can lead to potential sources of new antiseptic agents for treatment of acute or chronic skin ulcers. These results considering the significant antibacterial effect of the present formulation, support ethno-pharmacological uses against diarrheal and venereal diseases and demonstrate use of these plants to treat infectious diseases.

  9. Effect of distance and depth on microbial biomass and mineral nitrogen content under Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Dioumacor; Diouf, Diegane; Zoubeirou, Alzouma Mayaki; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Faye, Aliou; Sall, Saidou Nourou

    2012-03-01

    The relations between plants and soil biota involve positive and negative feedbacks between soil organisms, their chemical environment, and plants. Then, characterization of microbial community functioning is important to understand these relations. An experiment was conducted in a field system in the north of Senegal for two years (2005 and 2006) in order to investigate the effect of depth and distance from Acacia senegal tree stem on soil microbial biomass and inorganic-N content. Soils were sampled during dry season (April, T(0)) and wet season (August, T(1)) along transects (R(0), foot tree; R(/2,) approximately 0.50 m distance from the stem; and R, approximately 1 m distance from the stem) and at different layers: 0-25 cm, 25-50 cm and 50-75 cm of A. senegal trees rhizosphere. Total microbial biomass and inorganic-N content were negatively correlated to the distance from tree stem and the depth. The highest values of microbial biomass and mineral nitrogen were found at the foot tree (R(0)) and at 0-25 cm layer. Inorganic-N was mostly in nitrate form (NO(3)(-)) during the dry season. In contrast, during the wet season, inorganic-N was dominated by ammoniac form (NH(4)(+)). Soil total microbial biomass and inorganic-N (NH(4)(+)+NO(3)(-)) were negatively correlated. Our results suggest a positive influence of A. senegal rhizosphere on soil microbial biomass and inorganic-N content. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In-Vitro, Anti-Bacterial Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo Against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashtdar Mehrab

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluations of the in-vitro anti-bacterial activities of aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and Shilajita mumiyo against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa are reasonable since these ethnomedicinal plants have been used in Persian folk medicine for treating skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders for ages. Methods: The well diffusion method (KB testing with a concentration of 250 μg/disc was used for evaluating the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC. Maximum synergistic effects of different combinations of components were also observed. Results: A particular combination of Acacia catechu (L.F. Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo extracts possesses an outstanding anti-bacterial activity. It's inhibiting effect on microorganisms is significant when compared to the control group (P < 0.05. Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive microorganism. The highest antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia or gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was exerted by formula number 2 (Table 1 Conclusion: The results reveal the presence of antibacterial activities of Acacia catechu, Castanea sativa husk, Ephedra sp. and Mumiyo against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Synergistic effects in a combined formula, especially in formula number 2 (ASLANⓇ can lead to potential sources of new antiseptic agents for treatment of acute or chronic skin ulcers. These results considering the significant antibacterial effect of the present formulation, support ethno-pharmacological uses against diarrheal and venereal diseases and demonstrate use of these plants

  11. Recovery of degraded areas revegeted with Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus with special reference to organic matter humification Ecuperação de áreas degradadas revegetadas com acácia e eucalipto enfocando a humificação da matéria orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolimar Antonio Schiavo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Humidified fractions of organic matter and soil microorganism populations are used as environmental quality indicators. This work aimed to study the changes in chemical and microbiological soil attributes, as well as in the humidified fractions, of the organic matter in a substrate from a clay extraction area cropped with Brachiaria mutica, Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus. In the Eucalyptus area, the P contents increased linearly with planting time. However, only at the twelfth year, differences between Eucalyptus and B. mutica areas have occurred. In the A. mangium area, such differences in the P content occurred at the third year with increment of 43%, at the 0-10 cm layer, in relation to B. mutica. Also, at the 0-10 cm layer, the total carbon contents were 98%, 78%, 70% and 40% higher than those found in Eucalyptus with three, five, twelve years of age and in the B. mutica area, respectively. Such increments also occurred in the humidified fractions, especially in the fulvic acids (C FA. The population of microorganisms was higher in the A. mangium area, mainly in the summer, where it was observed a positively correlation with total carbon (total bacteria, r = 0.96**, total fungi, r = 0.91*, and phosphate solubilizer microorganisms, r = 0.98** and with the C FA fraction (total bacteria r = 0.96**, total fungi, r = 0.90*, and phosphate solubilizer microorganisms, r = 0.98**. The use of A. mangium led to improvements in the chemical and microbiological soil attributes in the substrateFrações da matéria orgânica humificada e a população de microrganismos do solo são utilizadas como indicadores da qualidade ambiental. Objetivou-se verificar mudanças nos atributos químicos, microbiológicos e nas frações humificadas da matéria orgânica em substrato de cava de extração de argila com cobertura de Brachiaria mutica, Acacia mangium e Eucalyptus. Nas áreas de Eucalyptus os teores de P aumentaram linearmente em função do tempo de plantio

  12. Evaluation of the throughfall and stemflow nutrient contents in mixed and pure plantations of Acacia mangium, Pseudosamenea guachapele and Eucalyptus grandis Avaliação do conteúdo de nutrientes na água de precipitação interna e de escoamento pelo tronco em plantios de Acacia mangium, Pseudosamenea guachapele e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de Carvalho Balieiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The interception of the rainfall by the forest canopy has great relevance to the nutrient geochemistry cycle in low fertility tropical soils under native or cultivated forests. However, little is known about the modification of the rainfall water quality and hydrological balance after interception by the canopies of eucalyptus under pure and mixed plantations with leguminous species, in Brazil. Samples of rainfall (RF, throughfall (TF and stemflow (SF were collected and analyzed in pure plantations of mangium (nitrogen fixing tree -NFT, guachapele (NFT and eucalyptus (non-nitrogen fixing tree -NNFT and in a mixed stand of guachapele and eucalyptus in Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nine stemflow collectors (in selected trees and nine pluviometers were randomly disposed under each stand and three pluviometers were used to measure the incident rainfall during 5.5 months. Mangium conveyed 33.4% of the total rainfall for its stem. An estimative based on corrections for the average annual precipitation (1213 mm indicated that the rainfall's contribution to the nutrient input (kg ha-1 was about 8.42; 0.95; 19.04; 6.74; 4.72 and 8.71 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, P, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2 and Na+, respectively. Throughfall provided the largest contributions compared to the stemflow nutrient input. The largest inputs of N-NH4+ (15.03 kg ha-1 and K+ (179.43 kg ha-1 were observed under the guachapele crown. Large amounts of Na+ denote a high influence of the sea. Mangium was the most adapted species to water competitiveness. Comparatively to pure stand of eucalyptus, the mixed plantation intensifies the N, Ca and Mg leaching by the canopy, while the inputs of K and P were lower under these plantations.A interceptação da chuva pela copa das florestas tem grande relevância no ciclo biogeoquímico de nutrientes nos solos de baixa fertilidade sob florestas nativas e plantadas. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre as modificações na qualidade dessa água e no balan

  13. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  14. PERTUMBUHAN SEMAI SENGON DAN MANGIUM PADA TANAH PADAT

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    Juang Rata Matangaran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to examine the seedling of mangium (Acacia mangium and sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria on compacted soil. Soil was compacted with a proctor test at the different level of bulk density (0.9;1.0; 1.1; 1.2; 1.3 g/cm3 with 10 replications. The compacted soil was put into the plastic pot. After 6 month growth in pot the seedling growth response was measured.The result showed that the root penetration and seedling height linearly decrease with the increase of bulk density. The root of seedling of mangium (Acacia mangium and sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria could not penetrate deeply at the hardest soil (1.3 g/cm3. Roots needs space to grow. The space was occupied by soil particles and soil pores. Root may influence chemical and physical properties of soil. In related to the compacted soil the root penetration is the important variable which is affected by the soil hardness. Under the condition of decrease penetration, seedling can not grew well in lack of nutrient to be absorbed by the root. On the other hand the bulk density 1.3 g/cm3 showed difference for seedling height response. However, the growth response was significantly reduced at the level of 1.3 g/cm3. The bulk density 1,3 g/cm3 was the critical limit of soil hardness for the seedling of Mangium and Sengon growth

  15. Élaboration de modèles allométriques d'Acacia Sénéga l L. Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    élaboration de modèle spécifique reflète plus la réalité et permet de faire une quantification des stocks de carbone plus proche de la réalité que le modèle générique. Mots-clés : modèle allométrique, grande muraille verte, Acacia Sénégal, ...

  16. Study of quantitative genetics of gum arabic production complicated by variability in ploidy level of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diallo, Adja Madjiguene; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Hansen, Jon Kehlet

    2015-01-01

    that progenies consisted of both diploid and polyploid trees, and growth, gum yield, and gum quality varied substantially among ploidy level, populations, and progenies. Analysis of molecular variance and estimates of outcrossing rate supported that trees within open-pollinated families of diploids were half...... sibs, while the open-pollinated families of polyploids showed low variation within families. The difference in sibling relationship observed between ploidy levels complicated estimation of genetic parameters. However, based on the diploid trees, we conclude that heritability in gum arabic production......Gum arabic is an important international commodity produced by trees of Acacia senegal across Sahelian Africa, but documented results of breeding activities are limited. The objective of this study was to provide reliable estimates of quantitative genetic parameters in order to shed light...

  17. Cryptic speciation and host specificity among Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on Australian Acacia species grown as exotics in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Pongpanich, K.; Himaman, W.; Arzanlou, M.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Species of Mycosphaerella and their anamorphs represent serious pathogens of two phyllodenous species of Acacia, A. mangium and A. crassicarpa. In recent years, these fungi have been collected during surveys in South America and South-East Asia, where these trees are widely planted as exotics. In

  18. Mixing Eucalyptus and Acacia trees leads to fine root over-yielding and vertical segregation between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laclau, Jean-Paul; Nouvellon, Yann; Reine, Caroline; Gonçalves, José Leonardo de Moraes; Krushe, Alex Vladimir; Jourdan, Christophe; le Maire, Guerric; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-07-01

    The consequences of diversity on belowground processes are still poorly known in tropical forests. The distributions of very fine roots (diameter Acacia mangium (100A) stands and a mixture with the same stocking density and 50% of each species (50A:50E). The total fine root (FR) biomass down to a depth of 2 m was about 27% higher in 50A:50E than in 100A and 100E. Fine root over-yielding in 50A:50E resulted from a 72 % rise in E. grandis fine root biomass per tree relative to 100E, whereas A. mangium FR biomass per tree was 17% lower than in 100A. Mixing A. mangium with E. grandis trees led to a drop in A. mangium FR biomass in the upper 50 cm of soil relative to 100A, partially balanced by a rise in deep soil layers. Our results highlight similarities in the effects of directional resources on leaf and FR distributions in the mixture, with A. mangium leaves below the E. grandis canopy and a low density of A. mangium fine roots in the resource-rich soil layers relative to monospecific stands. The vertical segregation of resource-absorbing organs did not lead to niche complementarity expected to increase the total biomass production.

  19. Genetic diversity in Kenyan populations of Acacia senegal (L.) willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The dendrogram derived using the Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic averaging. (UPGMA) clustered the .... This study has utilized the advantages of the two molecular marker ... Tree sampling design. Sample ...

  20. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER DIMENSION OF PRICKLY ACACIA (Acacia nilotica L. FROM BALURAN NATIONAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Krisdianto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex. Delile growing in Baluran National Park has dramatically altered the ecological balance of grasslands and thereby threatens the existence of local biodiversity. Prickly acacia is able to spread rapidly and remains uncontrollable. Baluran National Park authorization has been struggling to control this prickly acacia trees. One possible action that can be taken to encounter this problem is allowing wood based industries, and local people take advantages of this nilotica timber utilization. This paper studies the anatomical properties and fiber dimensions of nilotica timber and discusses the possible utilization of  nilotica timber.   This timber is characterized by dark brown heartwood which is clearly distinct from reddish brown color of sapwood. The denser cell wall shows attractively streaked in tangential surfaces. The length of  wood fiber decreases from pith toward periphery portion. Longitudinally, higher stem has shorter fiber. Nilotica wood has second class quality of fiber, which means its fiber is moderately thick with narrow lumen diameter. Due to small log diameter and branches, the nilotica timber is not recommended for construction material. The timber is suitable for carved and turnery products. Nilotica timber is suitable for charcoal manufacture and fuel wood due to its high calorific value.

  1. A mycorrhiza helper bacterium enhances ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal symbiosis of Australian Acacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponnois, R; Plenchette, C

    2003-04-01

    The aims of this study were to test the effects of a mycorrhiza helper bacterium (MHB), Pseudomonas monteilii strain HR13 on the mycorrhization of (1) an Australian Acacia, A. holosericea, by several ectomycorrhizal fungi or one endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, and (2) several Australian Acacia species by Pisolithus alba strain IR100 under glasshouse conditions. Bacterial inoculant HR13 significantly promoted ectomycorrhizal colonization for all the Acacia species, from 45.8% ( A. mangium) to 70.3% ( A. auriculiformis). A stimulating effect of HR13 on the ectomycorrhizal establishment was recorded with all the fungal isolates (strains of Pisolithus and Scleroderma). The same effect of bacteria on the frequency of endomycorrhizal colonization of A. holosericea seedlings by G. intraradices with vesicles and hyphae frequencies was recorded. The stimulation of saprophytic fungal growth by MHB is usually the main mechanism that could explain this bacterial effect on mycorrhizal establishment. MHB could stimulate the production of phenolic compounds such as hypaphorine and increase the aggressiveness of the fungal symbiont. However, no significant effect of MHB on fungal growth was recorded with Scleroderma isolates under axenic conditions but positive bacterial effects were observed with Pisolithus strains. From a practical viewpoint, it appears that MHB could stimulate the mycorrhizal colonization of Australian Acacia species with ectomycorrhizal or endomycorrhizal fungi, and could also facilitate controlled mycorrhization in nursery practices where Acacia species are grown for forestation purposes.

  2. A novel strain D5 isolated from Acacia confusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baoling; Lv, Chengqun; Zhao, Yili; Huang, Rong

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a novel strain D5 from nodules of Acacia confusa. Under strict sterile conditions the strain could successfully nodulate Acacia confusa, A. crassicarpa and A. mangium, with nitrogenase activity ranging from 18.90 to 19.86 nmol·g(-1)·min(-1). In the phylogenetic tree based on a complete 16S rRNA gene sequence, the sequence of strain D5 shared 99% homology with that of four species of genus Pseudomonas. The 685 bp nodA fragment amplified from strain D5 shared 95% homology with the nodA sequence of 9 species of genus Bradyrhizobium, with a genetic distance of 0.01682. The 740 bp nifH gene fragment was amplified from strain D5. This strain D5 nifH gene and Bradyrhizobium spp. formed a branch, showing 98% homology and a genetic distance of 0. The homology between this branch and the Bradyrhizobium spp. DG in another branch was 99%, with a genetic distance of 0.007906. These results indicate that this strain D5 is a new type of nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

  3. The Acacia Senegal complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Ross

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of the present slate of knowledge of the species in the  Acacia senegal complex is given. A short description of each species is provided together with a key to the identification of the species. Attention is drawn to the taxonomic difficulties encountered within the complex.

  4. Artemisia sieversiana Willd.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    В настоящей работе исследованы содержание и состав биологически активных веществ вегетативной части Artemisia sieversiana Willd, произрастающей в Сибири, с целью ее использования в качестве пищевой растительной добавки. Полученные экспериментальные данные свидетельствуют о высоком содержании эфирного масла (0,65 % ), витамина С (25,31 % ), белка (1,75 % ), пектиновых веществ (3,42 % ), что обусловливает ценность данного растения для пищевых целей....

  5. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium× A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Chin-Hong Ng1 Soon-Leong Lee1 Kevin Kit-Siong Ng1 Norwati Muhammad1 Wickneswari Ratnam2. Genetic Unit, Forest Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Programme, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109 Kepong, Malaysia; School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of ...

  6. Characterization of microRNAs expressed during secondary wall biosynthesis in Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Seong Siang; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical regulatory roles by acting as sequence specific guide during secondary wall formation in woody and non-woody species. Although thousands of plant miRNAs have been sequenced, there is no comprehensive view of miRNA mediated gene regulatory network to provide profound biological insights into the regulation of xylem development. Herein, we report the involvement of six highly conserved amg-miRNA families (amg-miR166, amg-miR172, amg-miR168, amg-miR159, amg-miR394, and amg-miR156) as the potential regulatory sequences of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Within this highly conserved amg-miRNA family, only amg-miR166 exhibited strong differences in expression between phloem and xylem tissue. The functional characterization of amg-miR166 targets in various tissues revealed three groups of HD-ZIP III: ATHB8, ATHB15, and REVOLUTA which play pivotal roles in xylem development. Although these three groups vary in their functions, -psRNA target analysis indicated that miRNA target sequences of the nine different members of HD-ZIP III are always conserved. We found that precursor structures of amg-miR166 undergo exhaustive sequence variation even within members of the same family. Gene expression analysis showed three key lignin pathway genes: C4H, CAD, and CCoAOMT were upregulated in compression wood where a cascade of miRNAs was downregulated. This study offers a comprehensive analysis on the involvement of highly conserved miRNAs implicated in the secondary wall formation of woody plants.

  7. High Risk Posture on Motor-Manual Short Wood Logging System in Acacia mangium Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor-manual logging has been considered as the most dominant logging system in Java Island, Indonesia. The system-which consisted of felling, delimbing, bucking, hauling, and transporting activities- involves a combination of stress factors e.q. difficult work postures, generation of force, and lifting techniques. In the other hand, combination of the three is well associated with high risk of work-related musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs, including musculoskeletal disorders. This research aimed to assess difficult work posture on felling, delimbing, bucking, and manually short wood hauling by employing rapid entire body assessment (REBA technique and muscular pain scoring based on the worker's perceive. It was revealed that felling and manual hauling were scored 4 in the REBA action level, indicated very high MSIs risk level, and categorized as “necessary now” for an injury risk preventive action. The workers' pain scoring indicated that low back (spine in general disorders resulting in low back pain has been considered to be the one of the leading safety issues in the felling and manual hauling. Regardless to complex mechanism of how the personal risk and environmental factors associated with manual material handling injuries, job-related factors approach should be underlined in the MSIs prevention initiative in motor-manual logging. Keywords: motor-manual logging, difficult work posture, REBA, MSIs, low back pain

  8. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater.

  9. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science - Vol 77, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen fixation of Acacia mangium Willd. from two seed sources grown at different levels of phosphorus in an Ultisol, South Sumatra, Indonesia § · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Gunawan Wibisono, Erik Veneklaas, Daniel S Mendham, Eko B Hardiyanto, 59– ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veneklaas, Erik. Vol 77, No 1 (2015) - Articles Nitrogen fixation of Acacia mangium Willd. from two seed sources grown at different levels of phosphorus in an Ultisol, South Sumatra, Indonesia § Abstract. ISSN: 2070-2639. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  11. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  12. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  13. Equations for predicting the biomass of Acacia cyclops and Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A forest inventory was carried out in coastal areas infested by the alien tree species Acacia cyclops and A. saligna on the West Coast, Agulhas and Eastern Cape Plains. Sample trees were felled to construct prediction equations, which were subsequently used to obtain regression estimates of wood mass for knee height ...

  14. ACTIVITIES OF ACACIA NILOTICA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Recophin was used against Escherischia coli,. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Shigella dysenteriae. Ethanol and chloroform/water extracts of. Acacia nilotica stem bark appear to have the highest antibacterial activities on the bacterial isolates tested, followed by methanol and ethyl acetate extracts ...

  15. ( Dialium guineense willd), a multipurpose tree species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense Willd) is one of the key species for domestication in Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to help the sustainable management and conservation of this species, its structural characteristics and ethnobotanical traits were studied in the 4 vegetation types (typical dense forest, degraded dense ...

  16. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Acacia leucophloea bark in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sembian Suriyamoorthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing activity of the bark extracts of Acacia leucophloea Willd., Fabaceae, was investigated by excision and incision wound healing models in Wistar male rats. Ethanolic extract based ointment of A. leucophloea bark (2 and 5% (w/w was formulated and evaluated for its wound healing in Wistar male rats. In comparision with a standard wound healing ointment betadine. A. leucophloea ethanolic extract ointment exhibited marked wound healing activity and significantly enhanced the wound contraction and the period of epithelialization as assessed by wound contraction rate, tensile strength, increasing of DNA, collagen and protein synthesis and histopathological examination. The formulated ointment might well find use as skin repair agent without hazard to human health based on these results.

  17. Efeito de diferentes substratos sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de Acacia sp. Effect of different substrates on the development of Acacia sp. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexson de Mello Cunha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Os biossólidos têm sido estudados como fonte de matéria orgânica na agricultura. Objetivou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de Acacia mangium e Acacia auriculiformis em diferentes substratos: a horizonte Bw com areia lavada (1:1, v:v e adubação mineral de 160, 640 e 160 g m-3de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (HB; b horizonte Bw com areia lavada e esterco bovino (1:1:1, v:v (HBE; c horizonte Bw com areia lavada e lodo de esgoto (1:1:1, v:v (HBL; e d 100% de lodo de esgoto (LE. Aplicou-se 1 kg de CaCO3 p.a. por m³ de substrato. Foram utilizadas sementes inoculadas com rizóbio e não-inoculadas, determinando-se, aos 90 dias após a semeadura, a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do colo e o peso da matéria seca da raiz e da parte aérea, na qual se determinaram N, P, K, Ca e Mg. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (com ou sem inoculação x 4 substratos. No LE com inoculação, obteve-se melhor crescimento das mudas. O HBE produziu efeito superior no desenvolvimento das mudas em relação àquele com a mesma proporção de material orgânico na forma de lodo (HBL. Na maioria dos parâmetros avaliados não houve diferença devido à inoculação dos substratos HBE, HBL e HB, provavelmente devido à existência de bactérias nativas nesses substratos. As mudas desenvolvidas no substrato LE foram as que acumularam mais N e Ca, principalmente quando inoculadas. Houve tendência de maior acúmulo de P, K e Mg na parte aérea das mudas desenvolvidas no substrato HBE.Sewage sludge has been studied as source of organic matter on seedling production. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the development of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis seedlings in the following substrates: a oxic horizon + sand (1:1, v:v + 160, 640 e 160 g m-3 of N, P2O5 and K2O respectively (HB; b oxic horizon + sand + cattle manure (1:1:1, v:v (HBE; c oxic horizon + sand + sewage sludge (1:1:1, v:v (HBL and; d 100% sewage

  18. Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Ashraful; Thorstensen, Tage; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic engineering is an important tool for introducing desired genes into poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch). We describe in this chapter an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for poinsettia. A detailed description of genetic transformation, antibiotic selection, subsequent regeneration via somatic embryogenesis, and rooting as well as molecular and morphological analyses is included. The methodology described here could facilitate the future engineering of poinsettia for research purpose as well as commercial production of poinsettia plants with improved resistance or novel traits.

  19. Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will serve a dual purpose: to develop a process of learning and reflection on gender within IDRC's Acacia (Communities and the Information Society in Africa) program initiative; and to undertake an evaluation of Acacia's gender strategy. This will be accomplished in three phases. During the preparatory phase, ...

  20. Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will serve a dual purpose: to develop a process of learning and reflection on gender within IDRC's Acacia (Communities and the Information Society in Africa) program initiative; and to undertake an evaluation of Acacia's gender strategy. This will be accomplished in three phases. During the preparatory phase, ...

  1. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  2. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou Diouf

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal (L Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60% clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4. We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T, one in MSP1 (STM8789, MSP2 (ORS3359 and MSP3 (ORS3324. The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  3. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  4. Comparative anticancer and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of Acacia salicina, Acacia laeta, Acacia hamulosa and Acacia tortilis grown in Saudi Arabia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamed F. Alajmi; Perwez Alam; Saleh I. Alqasoumi; Nasir Ali Siddiqui; Omer A. Basudan; Afzal Hussain; Fohad Mabood Husain; Azmat Ali Khan

    2017-01-01

    The standardized ethanol extract (EE) of aerial parts of four Acacia species [A. salicina (ASEE), A. laeta (ALEE), A. hamulosa (AHEE), and A. tortilis (ATEE)] were examined in order to compare their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities...

  5. Short- and longterm impacts of Acacia longifolia invasion on belowground processes of a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten

    2008-01-01

    significantly higher within recent invasion sites when calculated relative to soil organic C. The results from this study show that invasions by A. longifolia have altered the original native ecosystem processes and that the impacts are more pronounced within long-term invaded sites. A positive feedback......Many coastal dune ecosystems in Portugal are invaded by the leguminous tree Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd. This exotic species was first introduced over one hundred years ago in an effort to mitigate dune erosion and loss of coastal landscapes. However, since then A. longifolia has spread...... to new areas, displacing the native vegetation. These invaded ecosystems contrast with the native dune ecosystems that are typically dominated by herb and shrub communities. This study characterizes belowground changes to the native environment as a result of recent (20 y...

  6. Utility of adzuki bean [ Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utility of adzuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi] simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in genetic analysis of mungbean and related Vigna spp. HK Dikshit, D Singh, Akanksha Singh, Neelu Jain, Jyoti Kumari, TR Sharma ...

  7. Structural units of shoot systems of Thymus marschallianus Willd. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Kolegova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural units of shoot systems of Thymus marschallianus Willd. (Lamiaceae in Western Siberia (Russia have been studied. It was allocated 5 hierarchical units combined into 3 modules.

  8. Acacia catechu Ethanolic Seed Extract Triggers Apoptosis of SCC-25 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Thangavelu; Ezhilarasan, Devaraj; Nagaich, Upendra; Vijayaragavan, Rajagopal

    2017-10-01

    Acacia catechu Willd (Fabaceae), commonly known as catechu, cachou, and black cutch, has been studied for its hepatoprotective, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. We evaluated the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of A. catechu seed (ACS) against SCC-25 human oral squamous carcinoma cell line. Cytotoxic effect of ACS extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, using concentrations of 0.1-1000 μg/mL for 24 h. A. catechu ethanol seed extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL. At the end of treatment period, apoptotic marker gene expressions such as caspase 8, 9, Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome c were evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Morphological changes of ACS treated SCC-25 cells was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by propidium iodide (PI) staining. A. catechu ethanol seed extract treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC50 value of 100 μg/mL. Apoptotic markers caspases 8 and 9, cytochrome c, Bax gene expressions were significantly increased upon ACS extract treatment indicate the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. This treatment also caused significant downregulation of Bcl-2 gene expression. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing, and nuclear membrane distortion further confirms the apoptosis induction by ACS treatment in SCC-25 cells. The ethanol seed extracts of A. catechu was found to be cytotoxic at lower concentrations and induced apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells. Acacia catechu ethanolic seed extract contains phytochemicals such as epicatechin, rutin, and quercetinAcacia catechu seed (ACS) extract significantly (P extract treatment to SCC-25 cells significantly modulated the gene

  9. Soil nutrient ecology associated with Acacia sieberana at different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Acacia sieberana; Ecosystems; Fertile islands; Mycorrhizas; Panicum maximum; Patchiness; Plant growth parameters; Savanna; Soil fertility; Soil mycorrhizal infectivity; Soil nutrients; Soil properties; Tree density; Trees; soil; ecology; paperbark acacia; botany; nutrients; mycorrhiza; kwazulu-natal; south africa; ...

  10. Photoperiod Adaptation of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    The global interest in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is rapidly increasing, both as a result of its nutritional qualities but also due to its potential as an alternative crop in regions, such as the Mediterranean and Western Australia, where increasing soil salinity and extended periods...... of drought are the major constraints on agricultural productivity. However, quinoa originates from the Andean region and the majority of available cultivars are facultative short day plants and exhibit severely reduced, or completely disrupted, seed production under day lengths longer than 12 hours....... The inherent photoperiod sensitivity poses a challenge to future success of quinoa in regions outside its centre of origin. The existence of day length neutral quinoa cultivars provide an attractive alternative for cultivation in regions outside the tropical zone, as well as a valuable tool to compare adaptive...

  11. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy...

  12. Germination strategy of the East African savanna tree Acacia tortilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loth, P.E.; Boer, de W.F.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2005-01-01

    Germination of Acacia tortilis seeds strongly depends on micro-site conditions. In Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania, Acacia tortilis occurs abundantly in recently abandoned arable fields and in elephant-mediated gaps in acacia woodland, but does not regenerate in grass swards or beneath

  13. Biobleaching of Acacia kraft pulp with extracellular enzymes secreted by Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 using low-cost media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrida, Sitompul; Tamai, Yutaka; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    The white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 have been shown in previous studies to have high biobleaching activity in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities and stabilities of extracellular enzymes, prepared from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus culture grown in three types of economical media of agricultural and forestry wastes, for biobleaching of Acacia oxygen-delignified kraft pulp using kappa number reduction as an indicator of delignification. After 3 days of incubation, the extracellular enzymes preparations from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus cultures in media of Acacia mangium wood powder supplemented with rice bran and addition 1 % glucose (WRBG), resulted in significant decrease of 4.4 and 6.7 %, respectively. A slightly higher kappa number reduction (7.4 %) was achieved with the combine extracellular enzymes from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus. One of the strategies for reducing the cost of enzyme production for treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry is the utilization of agricultural and forestry waste. Thus, WRBG has potential as a culture medium for producing stable lignolytic enzymes simply and economically.

  14. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  15. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  16. Evaluation of Acacia Networks | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... projects deliver the anticipated added value in terms of mentoring, peer-to-peer capacity building, transdisciplinarity, resource diversification, quality and impact. The primary users of the results will be the Acacia team and its partners, but the results will be shared with IDRC and made available in the public domain.

  17. Morphological and anatomical response of Acacia ehrenbergiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 3

    2012-02-20

    Feb 20, 2012 ... ehrenbergiana Hayne and Acacia tortilis (Forssk). Haynes subspp. raddiana seedlings to induced water stress. Hashim Ali El Atta*, Ibrahim Mohamed Aref, Abdalla Ismail Ahmed and Pervez Rasheed Khan. Department of Plant Production, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, ...

  18. A photographic guide to Acacia koa defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Betsy S. Porterfield

    2013-01-01

    Acacia koa (A. Gray), native to the Hawaiian Islands, has both cultural and economic significance. Koa wood is world-renowned for its extensive use in furniture, tone wood for musical instruments, and other items of cultural importance. Old-growth koa is decreasing in supply, yet dead and dying koa is still being harvested for manufacture of...

  19. Management options for Australian Blackwood ( Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australian Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) was actively introduced into the indigenous forests of the southern Cape until about 1930. On the perception that this exotic species constituted a threat to the indigenous forest, a policy of eradication was followed. This perception that Blackwood is capable of progressively ...

  20. Genetic improvement of tropical acacias: achievements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential for genetic improvement in form traits and wood properties has also been demonstrated. Genetic improvement objectives must now give heavy weighting to improving disease resistance and tolerance. Ganoderma root rot and Ceratocystis stem wilt have destroyed large areas of acacia plantations in Indonesia ...

  1. Koa (Acacia koa) ecology and silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Baker; Paul G. Scowcroft; John J. Ewel

    2009-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is a tree species endemic to Hawaii that is of immense ecological and economic importance. This species has been mined from local forests for its wood for more than 100 years, and extensive areas of koa-dominated forests have been converted to grazing lands. Today, in recognition of the great importance and value of koa and the...

  2. Kajian Ekonomi Biokraft Campuran Batang dan Limbah Cabang Mangium pada Berbagai Kondisi Pemasakan Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Silsia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pemberian jamur P. chrysosporium pada serpih campuran batang dan cabang mangium sebelum dipulping (biopulping mampu meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan bahan kimia pemasak, menghemat penggunaan energi serta memperbaiki kualitas dari limbah cair pulp yang dihasilkan. Sebelum diaplikasikan dalam industri pulp maka metode ini harus dikaji secara ekonomi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan proses biokraft yang menguntungkan untuk diaplikasikan pada industri pulp. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan perhitungan terhadap seluruh biaya yang dikeluarkan (capitalized cost per ton pulp yang dihasilkan dari metode biokraft dengan modifikasi pemasakan pengurangan bahan kimia, pengurangan energi dan kombinasi pengurangan bahan kimia dan energi. Hasil yang diperoleh dibandingkan dengan biaya yang dikeluarkan pada proses kraft konvensional. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa metode biokraft dengan modifikasi pengurangan energi layak diaplikasikan pada indusri pulp karena memiliki CC/ton pulp terkecil yaitu Rp. 50.952.915,15 /ton pulp sepanjang kenaikan biaya operasi biopulping dalam rentang 5-30%. Kata kunci: Biokraft, A. mangium, analisis ekonomi, pulp.  An Economic Study of Biokraft From Mixed  of Trunk and Branch Wastes of Mangium on Several Pulping Process Conditions Abstract Addition of P. chrysosporium fungus on chip mixture of mangium trunk and branch before pulping process could increase the efficiency of chemical used, save energy consumption and improve the quality of effluent. Before application in the pulp industry, it should be made sure that biokraft method of mangium trunk and branches mixture is economically feasible. This study aims to determine the proper biokraft process applied to the pulp industry. In this study, costs incurred from biokraft modified cooking methods (chemical reduction, energy reduction and the combination of chemicals and energy reduction were calculated, capitalized and then compared with the cost incurred from

  3. The naturalized and cultivated exotic Acacia species in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Ross

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available The first species of  Acacia from Australia are thought to have been brought to the Cape in 1845. Some of the factors which are believed to have contributed to the success of the exotic Acacia species are enumerated briefly. A key to the identification of the naturalized Acacia species is provided, together with descriptions of each species and an indication of their range of distribution in our area.

  4. Ethanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa willd. induction of apoptosis via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa) Willd. is known to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism of ... lates cell proliferation in part by the regulation of initiation of translation (Bjornsti et al., 2004; ..... Caspase family, aspartate-specific cysteine proteases, plays a central role in regulation of ...

  5. Genetic variability in Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) from Madhya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... 2Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, India. Accepted 3 April, 2009. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic diversity in. Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) an important medicinal plant collected from 7 different locations covering Madhya Pradesh.

  6. Genetic variability in Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) from Madhya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic diversity in Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) an important medicinal plant collected from 7 different locations covering Madhya Pradesh. High level of genetic similarity was observed in the collected accessions. 4 random primers generated a ...

  7. Genetic variability in Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) from Madhya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Genetic variability in Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) from Madhya Pradesh, India by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Neetu Vijay1* .... Young leaf tissue (300 mg) was used for extracting genomic DNA ... equal volume of the mixture of phenol:chloroform: Isoamyl alcohol.

  8. Breeding polyploid varieties of tropical acacias: Progress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other potential benefits such as wind and stress tolerance and disease resistance are under field evaluation. Trials demonstrate that colchicine-induced tetraploids, whether derived from pure A. mangium seeds or from commercial hybrid clones, are substantially slower growing than diploids. While not the sole determinant ...

  9. In vitro propagation of Acacia hybrid through alginate-encapsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed collected from Acacia hybrid trees yields highly variable and poorly performing offspring and are not commonly used in regeneration. The present study described the incapsulation of Acacia hybrid shoots and axillary buds in the calcium alginate gel. The aim of the study was to evaluate the germination of the buds in ...

  10. Antipyretic and analgesic activities of aqueous extract of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antipyretic and analgesic activities of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root. LA Alli, MO Nafiu, AA Adesokan, MA Akanji, AY Tijani, QA Salawu. Abstract. This study was designed to investigate the scientific basis for the use of Acacia nilotica root extract for treatment of fever and pain in traditional medical practice.

  11. Investigation into nanocellulosics versus acacia reinforced acrylic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunqiao Pu; Jianguo Zhang; Thomas Elder; Yulin Deng; Paul Gatenholm; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2007-01-01

    Three closely related cellulosic acrylic latex films were prepared employing acacia pulp fibers, cellulose whiskers and nonocellulose balls and their respective strength properties were determined. Cellulose whisker reinforced composites had enhanced strength properties compared to the acacia pulp and nanoball composites. AFM analysis indicated that the cellulose...

  12. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... < 0.05) and the texture parameter of energy showed significant increase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the cream containing 3 % Acacia nilotica bark extract possesses anti-aging effect and improves skin surface appearance.. Keywords: Acacia nilotica, Cream, Visioscan VC 98, Skin texture, Anti-aging ...

  13. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Bark of Acacia suma Roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mucilages, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins and flavonoids in the bark. Conclusion: The findings of this study will facilitate pharmacognostic standardization of the plant material and aid in the preparation of a herbal monograph for the species. Keywords: Acacia suma var. Acacia polyacantha, Bark, Pharmacognostic ...

  14. Acacia mearnsii sensitivity to the application of pre-emergent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five pre-emergent herbicides were applied either on their own or in various combinations to commercially planted Acacia mearnsii De Wild. seedlings in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Acacia mearnsii growth responses to the protected or unprotected application of these herbicides were compared to a weedfree and weedy ...

  15. Acacia plantations in Vietnam: Research and knowledge application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vietnam has established 1.1 million ha of acacia plantations for wood production, managed on 5- to 10-year rotation cycles. Nearly 50% of the resource is managed by small growers holding 1–5 ha woodlots. Acacia plantations have emerged as an important resource for supporting the rural economy and national export ...

  16. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream having strong antioxidant activity.

  17. Ecology and Conservation of Acacia senegal in the Rangelands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecology and conservation status of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of Luwero and Nakasongola Districts were assessed between November 2002 and February 2003. Sixty plots measuring 50 x 50 m were laid at 50 m intervals along six 1,000 m transects, and the diameter at breast height (DBH), of Acacia .fellegal trees ...

  18. Evaluation Support and Follow Up (Acacia) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The IDRC program initiative, Acacia (communities and the information society in Africa), seeks to integrate an evaluation process within its activities and those of its partners. This project aims to interest Acacia partners in a monitoring and evaluation system oriented toward learning. The project will be carried out in a ...

  19. Phylogenic analysis in Acacia senegal using AFLP molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA markers were used to characterize the genetic diversity and relationships in gum Arabic tree (Acacia senegal). Twenty eight samples of Acacia senegal collected from populations distributed throughout the Gum Arabic belt were tested in comparison with samples of ...

  20. Evaluation Support and Follow Up (Acacia) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The IDRC program initiative, Acacia (communities and the information society in Africa), seeks to integrate an evaluation process within its activities and those of its partners. This project aims to interest Acacia partners in a monitoring and evaluation system oriented toward learning. The project will be carried out in a ...

  1. Antimicrobial Effects of Acacia nilotica and Vitex doniana on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial Effects of Acacia nilotica and Vitex doniana on the Thermophilic Campylobacter Species. M.A Raji, J.O Adekeye, J.K.P Kwaga, J.O.O Bale. Abstract. This study was carried out to investigate the in vitro activity of the extracts of Acacia nilotica and Vitex doniana against Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. laridis ...

  2. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins and reducing sugar. Evaluation of pharmacological activities confirmed C. obliqua plant as antimicrobial, hypotensive, respiratory stimulant, diuretic and anti-inflammatory drug. A number of traditional activities of this plant still need scientific approval which will increase its medicinal potential. This review presents the Pharmacognostic properties, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and biological activities reported for the plant and it will be helpful to explore the knowledge about Cordia obliqua Willd. for the researchers.

  3. KARAKTERISASI DAN SKRINING FITOKIMIA DAUN SINGKIL (Premna corymbosa Rottl & Willd)

    OpenAIRE

    Risa Supriningrum; Fitri Handayani; Liya Liya

    2017-01-01

    Empirically, singkil leaves are used as uric acid medicine. Preliminary research data on the characterization of simplicia and singkil leaf extract (Premna corymbosa Rottl & Willd) have not been reported. The purpose of this research is to know the characteristics of simplicia and young and old leaf extracts and their chemical content. The simplisia extraction was done by maceration using 70% ethanol solvent. The research stages are starting from sampling, plant determination, simplisia ma...

  4. Nysius cymoides (Spinola on Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Family: Amaranthaceae – APG classification is an Andean grain recently introduced on the European market and cultivated in experimental fields. In one of these experimental fields, in San Giorgio Piacentino (Italy, a heavy bug infestation was observed. The species was identified as Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Heteroptera Lygaeidae, a polyphagous species known as a pest of different crops. It occurs in the Mediterranean area from the sea level to the alpine meadows.

  5. Neotropical mutualism between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex: phylogeny and divergence times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Acevedo, Sandra; Rico-Arce, Lourdes; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Magallón, Susana; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2010-07-01

    The interaction between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex is a textbook example of mutualism between ants and plants, nevertheless aspects of its evolutionary biology have not been formally explored. In this paper we analyze primarily the phylogenies of both New World Acacia and of their associated species of ants, and the geographic origin of this mutualism. Until now, there has been no molecular analysis of this relationship in terms of its origin and age. We analyzed three chloroplast markers (matK, psaB-rps14, and trnL-trnF) on a total of 70 taxa of legumes from the subfamily Mimosoideae, and two nuclear regions (long-wavelength rhodopsine and wingless) on a total of 43 taxa of ants from subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae. The monophyly of subgenus Acacia and within the New World lineages that of the myrmecophilous Acacia group was established. In addition, our results supported the monophyly of the genus Pseudomyrmex and of the associated acacia-ants P. ferrugineus group. Using Bayesian methods and calibration data, the estimated divergence times for the groups involved in the mutualism are: 5.44+/-1.93 My for the myrmecophilous acacias and 4.58+/-0.82 My for their associated ant species, implying that their relationship originated in Mesoamerica between the late Miocene to the middle Pliocene, with eventual diversification of both groups in Mexico. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Two invasive acacia species secure generalist pollinators in invaded communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Daniel; Castro, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Exotic entomophilous plants need to establish effective pollinator interactions in order to succeed after being introduced into a new community, particularly if they are obligatory outbreeders. By establishing these novel interactions in the new non-native range, invasive plants are hypothesised to drive changes in the composition and functioning of the native pollinator community, with potential impacts on the pollination biology of native co-flowering plants. We used two different sites in Portugal, each invaded by a different acacia species, to assess whether two native Australian trees, Acacia dealbata and Acacia longifolia, were able to recruit pollinators in Portugal, and whether the pollinator community visiting acacia trees differed from the pollinator communities interacting with native co-flowering plants. Our results indicate that in the invaded range of Portugal both acacia species were able to establish novel mutualistic interactions, predominantly with generalist pollinators. For each of the two studied sites, only two other co-occurring native plant species presented partially overlapping phenologies. We observed significant differences in pollinator richness and visitation rates among native and non-native plant species, although the study of β diversity indicated that only the native plant Lithodora fruticosa presented a differentiated set of pollinator species. Acacias experienced a large number of visits by numerous pollinator species, but massive acacia flowering resulted in flower visitation rates frequently lower than those of the native co-flowering species. We conclude that the establishment of mutualisms in Portugal likely contributes to the effective and profuse production of acacia seeds in Portugal. Despite the massive flowering of A. dealbata and A. longifolia, native plant species attained similar or higher visitation rates than acacias.

  7. Simulating browse production and response of Acacia karroo to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Evaluation of browse management systems and strategies. ... In comparison, cooler overall temperatures throughout the season reduce growth less markedly. ... Keywords: acacia karroo; browse production; browsing; defoliation; drought; eastern cape; goats; growth; management; management strategy; model; number of ...

  8. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  9. Host Plant Use by Competing Acacia-Ants: Mutualists Monopolize While Parasites Share Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Stefanie; Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kroiss, Johannes; Pauls, Steffen U.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Eilmus, Sascha; Strohm, Erhard; Heil, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers — regardless of the route to achieve this social structure — enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants. PMID:22662191

  10. Acacia polyphylla var. rhytidocarpa (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae, un nuevo taxon de Bolivia y Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Arce, María de Lourdes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia polyphylla var. rhytidocarpa, a new taxon for Bolivia and Brazil is described and illustrated.Se describe e ilustra Acacia polyphylla var. rhytidocarpa, taxon nuevo para Bolivia y Brasil.

  11. Estudio genecológico en prosopis laevigata, acacia farnesiana y acacia schaffneri (leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Luz Gómez Acevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se emplea una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire (splash para cromosomas vegetales a fin de analizar la posible respuesta genotipo-ambiente de tres especies de leguminosas típicas de las zonas áridas y semiáridas mexicanas, ubicadas en poblaciones con características climáticas diferentes. Las especies estudiadas fueron Prosopis laevigata y Acacia schaffneri del municipio de Santiago de Anaya, estado de Hidalgo (20o 16’ N y P. laevigata y Acacia farnesiana del municipio de Bermejillo, estado de Durango (25o 49’ N. Los parámetros evaluados fueron las longitudes cromosómicas totales, el cariotipo, la frecuencia de polisomatía y el peso de las semillas. En Prosopis laevigata se corrobora un 2n=28 y diferencias interpoblacionales estadísticamente significativas (a=0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales, sin modificación de la fórmula cariotípica (2m+10sm+2st con frecuencia de polisomatía que no rebasó el 10%. En las especies del género Acacia se registraron números cromosómicos diploides 2n=26 sin diferencias interespecíficas estadísticamente significativas (a= 0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales; no obstante se obtuvieron fórmulas cariotípicas diferentes, reportadas por primera vez empleando una técnica de extendido y secado al aire: 9m+4sm para A. schaffneri y 9m+2sm+2st para A. farnesiana. En ambas especies la polisomatía tuvo una frecuencia similar sin rebasar el 30%. Para Prosopis y Acacia no se encontraron diferencias significativas (a= 0,01 en relación al peso de la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos señalan una clase de adaptación en estrecha

  12. Comparative anticancer and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of Acacia salicina, Acacia laeta, Acacia hamulosa and Acacia tortilis grown in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Alajmi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The standardized ethanol extract (EE of aerial parts of four Acacia species [A. salicina (ASEE, A. laeta (ALEE, A. hamulosa (AHEE, and A. tortilis (ATEE] were examined in order to compare their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. All the extracts were standardized by UPLC- PDA method using rutin as standard compound. The extracts ALEE, AHEE and ATEE were found to contain rutin along with several other phytoconstituents while rutin was absent in ASEE. All the extracts showed varying level of antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition ranged from 11 to 21 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The ALEE and ATEE showed relatively high antimicrobial potency (MIC = 0.2 to 1.6 mg mL−1 in comparison to other extracts. All the extracts were found to reduce the biofilm of P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain significantly in comparison to the untreated control. The cytotoxic property of ASEE, ALEE, AHEE, ATEE were evaluated against HepG2 (Liver, HEK-293 (Kidney, MCF-7 (Breast and MDA-MB 231 (Breast cancer cells. Of these, ALEE, AHEE and ATEE exhibited moderate cytotoxic property against human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2; IC50 = 46.2, 39.2 and 42.3 μg mL−1, respectively and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7; IC50 = 57.2, 55.3 and 65.7 μg mL−1, respectively. The ATEE and ALEE showed moderate cytotoxicity against HEK-293 (kidney cells with IC50 = 49.1 and 53.5 μg mL−1, respectively. Since, Acacia species (A. laeta and A. hamulosa contains numerous polyphenols which might prove to be highly cytotoxic and antimicrobial agents, we suggest that these species can be further subjected to the isolation of more cytotoxic and antimicrobial compounds.

  13. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graf, Brittany L; Rojas‐Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E; Delatorre‐Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain‐like, stress‐tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years...

  14. 77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for Rate...

  15. 75 FR 27334 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 7, 2010. Take notice that on May 5, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a correction to its April... transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA). Any person...

  16. 75 FR 24940 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing April 29, 2010. Take notice that on April 27, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted its baseline... under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA). Any person desiring to participate...

  17. 75 FR 28599 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 13, 2010. Take notice that on May 11, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a corrected baseline... under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (``NGPA''). Any person desiring to...

  18. Acacia raddiana, un arbre des zones arides à usages multiples

    OpenAIRE

    Floc'h, Édouard Le; Grouzis, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ce n'est que depuis 1957 que la définition taxonomique et nomenclaturale de ce taxon est enfin stabilisée sous la combinaison Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne subsp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan. Il s'agit là, dans le genre Acacia, de l'un des taxons africains les plus étudiés, et ceci est probablement dû à sa très large distribution. Comme d'autres taxons africains du même genre, Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana présente en effet une aire très étendue englobant les zones arides du nord et du sud du ...

  19. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch James, Lilian E

    2009-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), which is considered a pseudocereal or pseudograin, has been recognized as a complete food due to its protein quality. It has remarkable nutritional properties; not only from its protein content (15%) but also from its great amino acid balance. It is an important source of minerals and vitamins, and has also been found to contain compounds like polyphenols, phytosterols, and flavonoids with possible nutraceutical benefits. It has some functional (technological) properties like solubility, water-holding capacity (WHC), gelation, emulsifying, and foaming that allow diversified uses. Besides, it has been considered an oil crop, with an interesting proportion of omega-6 and a notable vitamin E content. Quinoa starch has physicochemical properties (such as viscosity, freeze stability) which give it functional properties with novel uses. Quinoa has a high nutritional value and has recently been used as a novel functional food because of all these properties; it is a promising alternative cultivar.

  20. Assessment of the nutritional composition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Du, Juan; Charrondière, U Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an ancient crop which can play an important role for worldwide food security. The current review aimed at evaluating existing compositional data which were compiled according to international standards. A limited number of data were found that met the dataset quality criteria. In general, high variations in nutrient contents of quinoa were observed per 100g edible portion on fresh weight basis, for example: protein (9.1-15.7g), total fat (4.0-7.6g) and dietary fiber (8.8-14.1g). The variations of nutrient values among different varieties and among different data sources were considerable. The results show the nutritional potential of quinoa but they also demonstrate that more high-quality analytical data of quinoa are needed, especially for minerals and vitamins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Quality evaluation of signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha ensiled with forage as tannin source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Santoso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on examining the possibility of using three kinds of plant leaves i.e. Acacia mangium Willd, Persea americana Mill and Psidium guajava as tannin source to signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha silage. The silages were made from the first cut of signal grass harvested at 50 days. Four treatment silages were TA: grass ensiled without tannin as control, AM: grass ensiled with A. mangium (6 g tannin /kg fresh weight, PA: grass ensiled with P. americana (6 g tannin /kg fresh weight, and PG: grass ensiled with P. guajava (6 g tannin/kg fresh weight. After mixing, the materials were packed into glass bottle silos (225 g capacity, in triplicate, which were ensiled for 30 days. The results showed that dry matter, organic matter and crude protein concentrations in signal grass silage mixed with tannin of A. mangium were higher (P<0.01 compared to other silages. Degradations of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein during ensiling were the lowest in silage with A. mangium tannin additive. This data was supported by good fermentation quality of that silage e.g. low pH value, NH3-N and VFA concentrations, and high lactic acid concentration and Fleigh point as compared to other silages. It is concluded that addition of tannin from A. mangium leaf at rate of 6 g/kg fresh weight improved fermentation quality and has potential as protein protection agents during the ensilage of signal grass.

  2. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  3. FAUNA DO SOLO AO LONGO DO PROCESSO DE SUCESSÃO ECOLÓGICA EM VOÇOROCA REVEGETADA NO MUNICÍPIO DE PINHEIRAL – RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil de Menezes Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity, richness and composition of the soil epigeous fauna community were evaluated in a re- vegetated gully at the Instituto Federal de Educação (IFRJ campus Nilo Peçanha, in the municipality of Pinheiral, Rio de Janeiro state. Revegetation was performed in 2000, and consisted of four different strategies involving N-fixing trees: planting Acacia mangium Willd. (PA; planting Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth . (PM; on the outer edges of the gully head (PTS; and planting a mix of legume tree species into the gully (IVR2000. Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia were planted above the gully head. A nearby 20-year secondary forest remnant was used as a reference site. Ten pitfall traps were used for the sampling of epigeous fauna at each one of the five areas (MOLDENKE , 1994. Sampling was performe in May 2000, June 2006, and April 2008. Six years after revegetation has started, fauna group richness and diversity increased both into the gully and in Mimosa caesalpiniifolia plantation. For the 2000 and 2006 samplings a PCA showed that groups were mostly associated to 2006, and completely opposite to 2000. Acacia mangium plantation had the lowest group richness. In the 2008 sampling, pasture showed the lowest group richness, and according to the PCA groups into the gully were associated to 2008, and completely opposite to 2000 and 2006. Formicidae and Collembola (Entomobryomorpha were dominant in all sampled areas, both in 2000 and 2008, and into the gully in 2006 as well.

  4. Sprout selection and performance of goats fed Acacia karroo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia karroo Hayne is the dominant invading species in semi-arid savannas of South Africa and is an ecological threat of our modern era. This study investigated the preference and intake rates by goats when fed A. karroo coppice sprouts of different basal diameter sizes, viz. 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm. A study was also ...

  5. Antimicrobial activity analysis of extracts of Acacia modesta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of extracts of certain herbs including Acacia modesta (leaf and stem), Artimisia absinthium (leaf and stem), Nigella sativa (seeds) and i (root) was evaluated against three Gram positive and two Gram negative microorganisms. The Gram positive organisms included Bacillus subtalis (ATCC 6633), ...

  6. Ecophysiology of Acacia species in wet–dry tropical plantations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We explored leaf-level photosynthetic activity and leaf water potential (Ψleaf) of three field-grown Acacia tree species (aged between 7 and 18 months) in contrasting wet–dry tropical plantations in southern Vietnam and northern Australia. Light-saturated photosynthetic rate (A1500) declined throughout the morning and ...

  7. Antibacterial activity of six indigenous Indian plants: Acacia nilotica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants have been used as major source of active compounds with medicinal importance since human civilization. These naturally occurring pharmacologically active agents have least or no toxicity to the host. The antibacterial activity of extracts (water, acetone and methanol) from six indigenous Indian plants: Acacia ...

  8. Antimicrobial activity of pentacyclic triterpenes isolated from Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia mellifera has been used widely in traditional African medicines against various diseases. Among the Kipsigis community of Kenya, water extracts from the plant is used for the treatment of skin diseases, coughs and gastrointestinal ailments. The aim of the study was to provide scientific rationale for the use of the plant ...

  9. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Rami S. Habeballa*, Nada B. Hamza and Eisa I. El Gaali. Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan. P. O. Box.

  10. behavior of acacia plants installed on substrates based on compost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received: 28 December 2012 / Accepted: 29 April 2013 / Published online: 30 June 2013. ABSTRACT. The present study aims principally the evaluation of germination and of plant growth of. Acacia cyanophylla installed, on the one hand, on the gross forestry compost (CSB) in its purest form, produced in a forest nursery in ...

  11. Gum acacia coating with garlic and cinnamon as an alternate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gum acacia coating with garlic and cinnamon as an alternate, natural preservative for meat and fish. ... The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined by macrobroth dilution method against five spoilage and disease causing bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus ...

  12. Evaluation of Acacia Networks | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... projects deliver the anticipated added value in terms of mentoring, peer-to-peer capacity building, transdisciplinarity, resource diversification, quality and impact. The primary users of the results will be the Acacia team and its partners, but the results will be shared with IDRC and made available in the public domain.

  13. Fitness and its variation among populations of Acacia tortilis subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-07-23

    Jul 23, 2008 ... Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana (Fabaceae) plays an important role in the life of desert animals and is a major source of livestock feed and firewood for the native Bedouin people in Southern Sinai, Egypt. High mortality and low juvenile recruitment has been reported in recent years leading to decline in.

  14. Effects of substituting sunflower seed cake with Acacia tortilis pods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of substituting sunflower seed cake with Acacia tortilis pods as protein source in supplementary diets of Small East African goats. ... In the growth experiment the animals were divided into four groups, each with six animals, while for the digestibility experiment the animals were divided into four groups, each with three ...

  15. Acacia mearnsii industry overview: Current status, key research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia mearnsii De Wild (black wattle) is an important plantation species for tannin production and woodchip exports in South Africa and Brazil. This study provides an updated overview of the black wattle industries in both countries, including planted areas and land ownership, silviculture and management, bark extract ...

  16. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Bark of Acacia suma Roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To undertake the pharmacognostic evaluation of Acacia suma Roxb bark for the purpose of identification and differentiation from related species. Methods: The macroscopic and microscopic features of the bark were studied, including the use of powder microscopy with the aid of suitable tools and reagents.

  17. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the beetle Agrilus nubeculosus and gum arabic production by Acacia senegal. Some trees were tapped and left open to facilitate infestation by A. nubeculosus and others were covered with wire mesh as control. Gum yield, physical and chemical properties of ...

  18. An allometric equation for estimating stem biomass of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tree biomass plays an important role in sustainable management and in estimating forest carbon stocks. The objective of this study was to select the best model for measuring stem biomass of Acacia auriculiformis in the study area. Data from five hillocks and 120 individual trees from each hillock were used in this study.

  19. Behavior of Acacia Plants Installed on Substrates Based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims principally the evaluation of germination and of plant growth of Acacia cyanophylla installed, on the one hand, on the gross forestry compost (CSB) in its purest form, produced in a forest nursery in Tunisia, on the other hand, on the CSB mixed with poultry methacompost (MCA) refined (solid residue ...

  20. Fitness and its variation among populations of Acacia tortilis subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana (Fabaceae) plays an important role in the life of desert animals and is a major source of livestock feed and firewood for the native Bedouin people in Southern Sinai, Egypt. High mortality and low juvenile recruitment has been reported in recent years leading to decline in population size and ...

  1. The effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal preparation on consumer sensory scores of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goat breed. 18 castrated four-month-old Xhosa lop-eared kids were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm until slaughter. Sample ...

  2. Nutritive value of Acacia tree foliages growing in the Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia trees form the third largest woody plant family in southern Africa and are an important ecological component of the bushveld vegetation that is prevalent in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The purpose of the study was to determine types and amounts of tannins and also to evaluate the nutritive value of tree ...

  3. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... disease, changes in climate, changes in the economical development, or ... species of Acacia trees botanically, only two species, ... joined to the main chain by 1,6-linkages. Only a few plant species are cultivated at present to obtain gums used in the food industry as additives; most of them belong to the.

  4. Flavonoids from the aerial parts of Artemisia biennis Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mojarrab*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The genus Artemisia contains over 250 species all over the world. A. biennis Willd is one of the species which grows wildly in Iran. Camphor and (E-beta-farnesene have been reported as the major components of the essential oil from A. biennis. In spite of the presence of a rather wide range of reported bioactivities there is no previous phytochemical study on  A. biennis. Methods: The plant was collected from Zoshk (Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Extraction was done by maceration method using petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and equal amounts of water and ethanol (hydroethanolic extract, respectively. A combination of solid phase extraction (SPE and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC of the hydroethanolic extract was used to purify the compounds. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic means, including MS and 1HNMR. Results: Three known flavonoids, luteolin, kaempferol and apigenin were isolated and identified from the hydroethanolic extract. Conclusion: Our results are in good agreement with dominant presence of derivatives of the flavones luteolin and apigenin in the genus Artemisia which has been previously reported .

  5. Atividade Antimicrobiana da Uncaria Tomentosa (Willd D. C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva e Sá

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Uncaria tomentosa (Willd D. C. (unha de gato é uma planta amplamente utilizada na medicina popular, originária da Amazônia. Possui atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, antimutagênica e antioxidante. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de U. tomentosa, seco e hidroalcoólico, obtido comercialmente, utilizando-se 12 cepas de microrganismos (6 Gram-positvas e 6 Gramnegativas. Os testes antimicrobianos foram realizados em ágar BHI pela técnica de difusão em ágar. Também foram determinadas a Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e Concentração Microbicida Mínima (CMM. Os testes demonstraram que os extratos inibiram o crescimento de bactérias Gram-positivas e Gramnegativas, sendo o extrato hidroalcoólico mais eficiente que o extrato seco. Conclui-se que o extrato de U. tomentosa possui atividade antimicrobiana podendo ser utilizado como uma alternativa terapêutica de baixo custo.

  6. Anatomia da madeira de seis espécies exóticas do gênero Acacia Mill. (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Paulo Fernando dos Santos; Marchiori, José Newton Cardoso; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria; Siegloch, Anelise Marta

    2015-01-01

    As madeiras de Acacia acuminata A. Gray, Acacia cambagei R.T. Baker, Acacia harpophylla F. Muell. Ex Benth., Acacia koa A. Gray, Acacia rhodoxylon Maiden e Acacia richii A. Gray são anatomicamente descritas e ilustradas com fotomicrografias. Todas as seis espécies apresentam os seguintes caracteres de ampla ocorrência em Fabaceae: porosidade difusa; placas de perfuração simples; elementos vasculares com  pontoações ornamentadas; parênquima paratraqueal; raios homogêneos; e fibras libriformes ...

  7. Antidiabetic effects of Acacia tortilis seed extract in normal and Alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agrawal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Uma; Misra, Piyush; Singh, S.P; Verma, Rakesh C

    2013-01-01

    The concerned study reveals the first time experimental investigation of Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of seed extract of Acacia tortilis plant was in normoglycaemic and Alloxan-induced...

  8. Methods for Extraction and Charaterization of Tannins from Some Acacia Species of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05, 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins

  9. Production of local dadawa seasoning and condiment from Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of local dadawa seasoning and condiment from Acacia nilotica (linn) seeds. ... With the increase in the time of fermentation, the microbial growth was rapid, increasing from 10.05-56.87 log10 c.f.u.g-1 resulting in a rise in the fermentation temperature from 27.5 oC-31.7oC after 48 hours which dropped thereafter ...

  10. Antioxidant and sensorial properties of acacia honey supplemented with prunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in total phenol and flavonoid content, as well as antioxidant activity was monitored in acacia honey supplemented with prunes in 20, 30 and 40% mass concentrations. The total phenolic content increased by 2.5 times (from 16.18 to 41.64 mg GAE/100 g with increasing concentration of prunes in honey, while the increase in flavonoid content was even higher, approximately 11.5-fold (from 2.65 to 30.86 mg RE/100 g. The addition of prunes also improved the antioxidant activity of acacia honey. The honey samples with highest content of prunes, 40%, exhibited the best antioxidant activity measured by hydroxyl radical sacvenging assay (EC50 •OH=4.56 mg/ml, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay (EC50 DPPH=16.48 mg/ml, and reducing power (EC50 RP=81.17 mg/ml. Judging from the high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.771 to 0.947 for total phenolics, and from 0.862 to 0.993 for total flavonoids, it is obvious that these compounds were associated with the antioxidant mechanisms. On the other hand, sensorial properties of supplemented honeys were lower than that of pure acacia honey, where flavor of supplemented honey was the least affected. Our results indicate that the supplementation of honey with prunes improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition, with slight modifications in sensorial characteristics.

  11. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA DE Acacia nitidifolia Speg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae. Wood anatomy of Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Speg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfurações simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3 seriados e fibras libriformes septadas. A presença de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na série Vulgares Benth., que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  12. KARAKTERISASI DAN SKRINING FITOKIMIA DAUN SINGKIL (Premna corymbosa Rottl & Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Supriningrum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirically, singkil leaves are used as uric acid medicine. Preliminary research data on the characterization of simplicia and singkil leaf extract (Premna corymbosa Rottl & Willd have not been reported. The purpose of this research is to know the characteristics of simplicia and young and old leaf extracts and their chemical content. The simplisia extraction was done by maceration using 70% ethanol solvent. The research stages are starting from sampling, plant determination, simplisia making, maceration extraction, characteristic examination and phytochemical screening. Result of characterization of simplicia, macroscopic of singkil leaves have green color, tip of tapered leaf, root of blunt leaf, rompang, jagged leaf edge, round and round leaves shape, pinnate leaf bone, thin leaf meat, leaf length 10.9 to 15 cm. Leaf width 6.3 to 9.6 cm. Microscopic observations found fragments of stodata type identifiers of diasitik, parasitic, spiral vein formation, hair cover, glandular trichomes. Water content of young leaves 8%, 5.5% old leaves, 3% water soluble sari content, 1.5% old leaves, 2% ethanol soluble sugary leaves, 1.5% leaflets, young leaf ash content 4,86%, old leaf of 7.01%, ash content of young leaf acid 2,20% and old leaf 3,14%. Moisture content of young leaves 17,5%, 17% old leaves, 0% water soluble leaf extract, 1% old leaf, soluble ethanol extract 0,5%, old leaf 4%, young leaf ash content 38, 5%, 11.6% old leaves, ash content of young leaf acids 1.51%, old leaves 2.33%. Secondary metabolites of simplicia and extracts are known to contain flavonoids, tannins, saponins and steroids / terpenoids.

  13. Chemotherapeutical effects of the herbal medicine Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I V; Soares, L C; Lucio, F T; Cantagalli, L B; Reusing, A F; Vicentini, V E P

    2017-09-27

    The use of medicinal plants dates back to the beginning of humanity, and today their application as complementary therapy has been widely disseminated as an alternative to conventional therapy. The medicinal plant named Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (known as cat's claw) is a common woody vine of the Amazon forest that has traditionally been used in the treatment of arthritis because of its anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic potentials of this medicinal plant. The biological activities of U. tomentosa were determined on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats that were treated in vivo. For the cytotoxic and mutagenic analyses, aqueous plant extract solutions were administered by gavage (1, 2, or 3 mg/mL) for 24 h (an acute treatment) or 7 days (a subchronic treatment). For the antimutagenic analyses, aqueous plant extract solutions (1 mg/mL) were administered by gavage before (pretreatment), simultaneous to (simultaneous treatment), or after (post-treatment), the administration of cyclophosphamide (1.5 mg/mL). U. tomentosa did not show any cytotoxic or mutagenic effects in any of the cytological or chromosomal analyses. Besides, the antimutagenic tests showed that the plant extracts displayed antimutagenic activities, which significantly reduced the percentages of the chromosomal aberrations that were induced by cyclophosphamide at 53.91, 58.60, and 57.03%, respectively, for the simultaneous treatment, pretreatment, and post-treatment. The results suggested a safe use of this herbal medicine that is available free of charge from the Brazilian Public Health System for the treatment of arthritis. This medicinal plant can also effectively contribute to improving the quality of life and the recovery of people undergoing chemotherapeutical treatments.

  14. In vitro surface sterilization of the shoot tips of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Izhar Ahmad; Roshan Zamir; Syed Tariq Shah; Sher Wali

    2016-01-01

      In vitro studies were carried out to investigate the effects of different sterilants for the surface sterilization of the shoot tips of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. Three sterilints i.e. HgCl^sub 2^, NaOCl, CaOCl^sub 2...

  15. Simulation of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) response to soil salinity using the saltmed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a crop with high tolerance to salinity and drought and its response to varying soil moisture and salinity levels was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Quinoa (cv. Titicaca) was irrigated with different concentrations of saline water (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40...

  16. Water Relations and Transpiration of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Salinity and Soil Drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the two major factors limiting crop growth and production in arid and semi-arid regions. The separate and combined effects of salinity and progressive drought in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied in a greenhouse experiment. Stomatal conductance (gs), leaf...

  17. Second generation bioethanol production from Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Consentino; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    Saccharum (Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.), is a rapidly growing, wide ranging high-yield perennial, suitable for second generation bioethanol production. This study evaluated oxalic acid as a pretreatment for bioconversion. Overall sugar yields, sugar degradation products, enzymatic glucan hydrolysis and ethanol production were studied as...

  18. Additivity in tree biomass components of Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joao P. Carvalho; Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    In tree biomass estimations, it is important to consider the property of additivity, i.e., the total tree biomass should equal the sum of the components. This work presents functions that allow estimation of the stem and crown dry weight components of Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees. A procedure that considers additivity of tree biomass...

  19. A review of the Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus and Pseudomyrmex goeldii species groups: acacia-ants and relatives (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip S

    2017-02-06

    The Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group contains the Mesoamerican acacia-ants, an assemblage of species that inhabit and protect swollen-thorn acacias (Vachellia spp.). Recent phylogenetic studies have confirmed the existence of two generalist (dead twig-inhabiting) species that are embedded within the P. ferrugineus group. They are described here as P. evitus sp. nov. (occurring from Mexico to Costa Rica) and P. feralis sp. nov. (Guatemala). The morphological definition of the P. ferrugineus group is revised to incorporate additional variability in the worker and queen castes. The previous diagnosis of the males, based largely on features of the genitalia, requires little revision. Closely related to the P. ferrugineus group is a clade of five predominantly South American species, here designated and diagnosed as the P. goeldii group. The five species, P. goeldii (Forel), P. laevifrons Ward, P. micans sp. nov., P. obtusus sp. nov., and P. parvulus sp. nov., are characterized and illustrated. P. laevifrons and P. micans are closely related and difficult to distinguish, possibly reflecting incomplete isolation. Keys are provided for the identification of the species in both groups.

  20. OPTIMASI BIOKRAFT JAMUR Phanerochaete chrysosporium TERHADAP KOMPONEN KIMIA CAMPURAN BATANG DAN LIMBAH CABANG MANGIUM SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Silsia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimation biokraft of fungi P. Chrysosporium through elongated incubation time on mixed stem and branch waste mangium is a solution to solve the environmental pollution problem, low quality of pulp and limited raw material. Effect of P. Chrysosporium 10 % concentration and 45 days incubation time on pre research could not decrease lignin optimally and exstractive degradation had not occured yet. The aims of the study were to observe the effect of incubation time extension, and to determine the best incubation time of P. Chrysosporium applied at 10 % concentration based on the chemical component percentage, 45, 60 and 75 days on mixed stem and branch as raw material for pulp. Results showed that increasing incubation time decreased extractive and lignin content and increased holocelulosa and alpha celulosa content. Mixed stem and branch with 10% amount and 75 day incubation time of P. Chrysosporium gave the best results for raw material of pulp.

  1. PENGARUH TEGAKAN AKASIA (ACACIA NILOTICA (L. WILLD. EX. DEL. TERHADAP KOMPOSISI DAN KEANEKARAGAMAN TUMBUHAN BAWAH DI SAVANA BALANAN TAMAN NASIONAL BALURAN JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djufri Djufri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was done in Baluran National Park, Banyuwangi East Java in April to June 2004. The objectives of this research were :  to determine of species composition, importance value of species, diversity index and evenness index, similarity index, distribution pattern of species, and species association. This research used the quadrat method. The determination of the species distribution was calculated using Poisson distribution formula and the determination of association was calculated using contingency table. The results of this research indicated that,  there were 20 species of the plant belong to 8 familiy. The importance value was between 0,42-59,54, and species with high importance value is Oplismenus burmanii, Axonopus compressus, and Synedrella nudiflora. The diversity index was between 1,3329-2,5271, and evenness index was between 1,5364-1,9848. The distribution pattern of species indicated that 12  species were  clumped, 6 species were reguler  and 2 species were at random. The multi-plants tend to have a clumped distribution pattern, and single plant tend to have a reguler or random distribution pattern. The of association indicated that 2 species  association which the highest tindex.

  2. Testing plant barcoding in a sister species complex of pantropical Acacia (Mimosoideae, Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G, Newmaster; Subramanyam, Ragupathy

    2009-05-01

    Acacia species are quite difficult to differentiate using morphological characters. Routine identification of Acacia samples is important in order to distinguish invasive species from rare species or those of economic importance, particularly in the forest industry. The genus Acacia is quite abundant and diverse comprising approximately 1355 species, which is currently divided into three subgenera: subg. Acacia (c. 161 species), subg. Aculiferum (c. 235 species), and subg. Phyllodineae (c. 960 species). It would be prudent to utilize DNA barcoding in the accurate and efficient identification of acacias. The objective of this research is to test barcoding in discriminating multiple populations among a sister-species complex in pantropical Acacia subg. Acacia, across three continents. Based on previous research, we chose three cpDNA regions (rbcL, trnH-psbA and matK). Our results show that all three regions (rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA) can distinguish and support the newly proposed genera of Vachellia Wight & Arn. from Acacia Mill., discriminate sister species within either genera and differentiate biogeographical patterns among populations from India, Africa and Australia. A morphometric analysis confirmed the cryptic nature of these sister species and the limitations of a classification based on phenetic data. These results support the claim that DNA barcoding is a powerful tool for taxonomy and biogeography with utility for identifying cryptic species, biogeograhic patterns and resolving classifications at the rank of genera and species. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Effect of elephant browsing on selected species of Acacia along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elephant damage was assessed in 1,007 Acacia trees and responses between Acacia tortilis and A. kirkii in Ruaha National park were compared in 30 transects randomly placed in 38.8 km2 on the northern bank of Great Ruaha River (GRR) basing on six browsing categories and four debarking classes. There was no ...

  4. Intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gum exudates from Acacia senegal var. senegal and Acacia seyal var. fistula from Tanzania have been analyzed and their inter- and intra-species variation of their properties evaluated. The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only ...

  5. The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE BIRDS OF THE ALIEN ACACIA THICKETS. OF THE SOUTH WESTERN CAPE. 1. M. WINTERBOTTOM. Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town. About 1876, the Cape Superintendent of Plantations began using the Australian Acacia cyanophylla and A. cyclops on a large scale to fix ...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... denture adhesive. 872.3400 Section 872.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with or...

  7. Le potentiel fixateur d'azote d'Acacia raddiana comparé à celui d'Acacia senegal Acacia seyal et Faidherbia albida

    OpenAIRE

    Gueye, M.; Ndoye, I.

    2013-01-01

    Une expérience en pots a été conduite en serre pour estimer le potentiel fixateur d'azote d'Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana par la méthode de dilution isotopique l5N en utilisant Parkia biglobosa comme arbre de référence. Le pourcentage d'azote dérivé de la fixation (% Ndfa) mesuré cinq mois après transplantation était élevé (58,1 %) comparativement à celui de A. senegal (27,2 %) ou A. albida (Syn. Faidherbia albida) (30,4 %). A. raddiana peut donc, avec A. seyal (% Ndfa = 59,7) être classé p...

  8. Les jachères de légumineuses arborescentes : sources potentielles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats ont montré des hauteurs allant de 9,45 m chez Lebbeck (Albizia lebbeck) à 17,66 m chez Mangium (Acacia mangium), en seulement 6 ans. La production de bois la plus importante (138 t.ha-1 chez Acacia mangium), représentait une productivité de 23 t.ha-1an-1. Concernant les utilisations possibles, Acacia ...

  9. Colloids removal from water resources using natural coagulant: Acacia auriculiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Roslan, A.; Kamarulzaman, M. F. H.; Erat, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    All waters, especially surface waters contain dissolved, suspended particles and/or inorganic matter, as well as several biological organisms, such as bacteria, algae or viruses. This material must be removed because it can affect the water quality that can cause turbidity and colour. The objective of this study is to develop water treatment process from Seri Alam (Johor, Malaysia) lake water resources by using natural coagulant Acacia auriculiformis pods through a jar test experiment. Jar test is designed to show the effectiveness of the water treatment. This process is a laboratory procedure that will simulate coagulation/flocculation with several parameters selected namely contact time, coagulant dosage and agitation speed. The most optimum percentage of colloids removal for each parameter is determined at 0.2 g, 90 min and 80 rpm. FESEM (Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscope) observed the small structures of final floc particles for optimum parameter in this study to show that the colloids coagulated the coagulant. All result showed that the Acacia auriculiformis pods can be a very efficient coagulant in removing colloids from water.

  10. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, C. M.; Cangiano, M. A.; Alcaráz, L. E.; Sosa, A.; Escobar, F.; Sabini, C.; Sabini, L.; Laciar, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings. PMID:25530999

  11. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  12. Desarrollo de un producto de panadería con harina de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) / Bakery product development with quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Diana Paola

    2011-01-01

    Para este trabajo, se obtuvo harina de quinua de la variedad Nariño como materia prima en grano (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), para esto se adecuó la materia prima extrayendo las saponinas del grano y posterior secado con aire caliente. Se probó su uso en panificación utilizando mezclas de harina de quinua con harina de trigo, para conocer y aprovechar las ventajas a nivel nutricional de este grano tan poco conocido y comercializado, que puede ser fuente de proteína de calidad, utilizándose en p...

  13. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Akar Merah pada Akasia dengan Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Widyastuti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was aimed to measure the distribution and intensity of root rot disease of Acacia spp. in the urban forest at the campus of Gadjah Mada University, to isolate and identify the causal organism and to select Trichoderma sp. as biological agent for controlling the disease. The pathogenicity of the causal organism was tested using Crotalaria juncea L. and trunk of A. mangium Willd. (10 cm diameter, 8 cm length as indicator plant. The ability of Trichoderma sp. as antagonist was tested in vitro. It was concluded that the pathogen of the root rot disease was Ganoderma philippii. The pathogen attacked for species of Acacia spp. in the location namely A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. oraria, and A. crassicarpa. Of the total individual trees of those species in the campus, as much as 38.6%, 22.2%, and 66.7% were attacked by the root rot pathogen respectively. Of the 20 Trichoderma spp. isolate capable to inhibit the pathogen in vitro, three isolates were found as promising agents for biological control of the pathogen. The promising isolates were T. resei/T23, T. koningii/T1, and T. koningii/T16 with inhibition effectivity of 94.58%; 93.66%; and 91.76% respectively. Key words: biological control, red root-rot disease, Trichoderma, acacia

  14. Jurema-Preta (Mimosa tenuiflora [Willd.] Poir.: a review of its traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sampaio Octaviano de Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous plant species are used throughout the world to achieve the modified states of conscientiousness. Some of them have been used for the therapeutic purposes, such as Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd Poir. (family Mimosaceae known as "jurema-preta", an hallucinogenic plant traditionally used for curing and divination by the Indians of northeastern Brazil. In this review, several aspects of the use, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of this plant are considered.Numerosas espécies de plantas são usadas para alterar estados de consciência. Algumas são utilizadas para fins terapêuticos, como Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd Poir. (Mimosaceae conhecida como "jurema-preta", uma planta alucinógena, tradicionalmente utilizada pelos índios no nordeste do Brasil. Nesta revisão, são considerados diversos aspectos do uso, fitoquímica e farmacologia desta planta.

  15. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Brittany L.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E.; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical prod...

  16. Taxonomic and functional diversity of a Quercus pyrenaicaWilld. Rhizospheric microbiome in the Mediterranean mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo-Díaz, JF; Fernández-González, AJ; Villadas, PJ; Toro, N; Tringe, SG; Fernández-López, M

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 by the authors. Altitude significantly affects vegetation growth and distribution, including the developmental stages of a forest. We used shotgun Illumina sequencing to analyze microbial community composition and functional potential in melojo-oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) rhizospheric soil for three different development stages along an altitudinal gradient: (a) a low altitude, non-optimal site for forest maintenance; (b) an intermediate altitude, optimal site for a forest; and (c) ...

  17. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    OpenAIRE

    Giuditta De Santis; Carmen Maddaluno; Tiziana D’Ambrosio; Agata Rascio; Michele Rinaldi; Jacopo Troisi

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total sap...

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTIULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF MAYTENUS EMARGINATA (WILLD.) DING HOU LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Poonia Lalita; Singh Gajendra Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Dind Hou belongs to family Celastraceae, is an evergreen tree that tolerates various types of stresses of the desert, locally known as “Kankero”. Maytenus emarginata has been used for fever, asthama, rheumatism and gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Maytenus emarginata was investigated in rats to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity by using aspirin induced gastric ulcer pyloric ligation model. The parameters taken to as...

  19. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd.) as a source of dietary fiber and other functional components

    OpenAIRE

    Ritva Ann-Mari Repo-Carrasco-Valencia; Lesli Astuhuaman Serna

    2011-01-01

    Four varieties of an Andean indigenous crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), were evaluated as a source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the final products were analyzed to determine the dietary fiber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. There were no significant differences in the contents of total dietary fiber between varieties of quinoa. In all ...

  20. Assessing the impacts of Acacia mearnsii on grazing provision and livestock production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yapi, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ?Farrell, Luthando Dziba and Karen Esler Assessing the impacts of Acacia mearnsii on grazing provision and livestock production Invasive Alien plants (IAPs) transported across the globe for various reasons: IAPs forestry other horticulture agriculture...

  1. Growth patterns and annual growth cycle of Acacia karroo Hayne in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth patterns and annual growth cycle of Acacia karroo Hayne in relation to water stress. II. The annual use and replenishment of non-structural carbohydrates in relation to phenological development.

  2. Controlled dual release study of curcumin and a 4-aminoquinoline analog from gum acacia containing hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderibigbe, BA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of gum acacia containing hydrogels as controlled dual-drug delivery systems for antiprotozoal agents was investigated. 4-Aminoquinoline analog and curcumin were selected as model drugs because they exhibit antiprotozoal activity...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Acacia lignin-gelatin film for its possible application in food packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Barapatre, Anand; Jha, Harit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to develop Acacia lignin-gelatin (LG) blended films using glycerol as plasticizer and to establish correlation between lignin contents and structure, thermal and mechanical properties of the film...

  4. Numerical modeling of combustion of low-calorific-producer-gas from Mangium wood within a late mixing porous burner (LMPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokkarn Jirakulsomchok

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a numerical study of combustion of low-calorific-producer-gas from Mangium wood within a late mixing porous burner (LMPB. The LMPB consists of four main components, i.e., the fuel preheating porous (FP, the porous combustor (PC, the air jacket, and the mixing chamber. Interestingly, this LMPB was able to highly preheated and it still maintained high safety in operation. A single-step global reaction, steady state approach and a one-dimensional model were considered. The necessary information for burner characteristics, i.e., temperature profile, flame location and maximum temperature were also presented. The results indicated that stable combustion of a low-calorific-producer-gas within LMPB was possible achieved. Increasing equivalence ratio resulted in increasing in the flame temperature. Meanwhile, increasing the firing rate caused slightly decrease in flame temperature. The flame moved to downstream zone of the PC when the firing rate increased. Finally, it was found that the equivalence ratio did not affect the flame location.

  5. The Importance of Acacia Trees for Insectivorous Bats and Arthropods in the Arava Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Talya D.; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica) were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats. PMID:23441145

  6. The importance of Acacia trees for insectivorous bats and arthropods in the Arava desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Talya D; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica) were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats.

  7. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. Wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é a descrição anatômica da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. Hook. et Arn. A estrutura anatômica é comparada com outras espécies sul-brasileiras do mesmo gênero. A presença de raios multisseriados estreitos e fibras septadas permitem classificar a espécie na série Vulgares Bentham ou sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.The wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. is described and compared with other south-american Acacias. The presence of narrow multisseriate rays and libriform fibres, observed in the wood, are commonly found among species of the series Vulgares Benth. or sub-genus Aculeiferum Vassal.

  8. Etude de la germination des graines d'Acacia tortilis sous différentes contraintes abiotiques

    OpenAIRE

    Jaouadi, W; Hamrouni, L.; Souayeh, N.; Khouja, ML.

    2010-01-01

    Study of Acacia tortilis seed germination under different abiotic constraints. Since Tunisian acacia populations are threatened by regression, we analyzed as a preliminary study the germination behavior of the species in order to plan subsequently for a preservation and rehabilitation program. In this context and to optimize acacia seed germination and to overcome and remove the obstacle of tegumentary inhibition, we have in a first attempt tested several physical (scarification, boiled water...

  9. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 August 2010 - 30 September 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Allainguillaume, J.; Bajay, M.M.; Belder, den E.; Elderson, J.; Esselink, G.D.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera

  10. Fungal Planet description sheets: 320-370

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Sutton, D A; Acharya, K; Barber, P A; Boekhout, T; Dimitrov, R A; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Gené, J; Gouliamova, D E; Groenewald, M; Lombard, L; Morozova, O V; Sarkar, J; Smith, M Th; Stchigel, A M; Wiederhold, N P; Alexandrova, A V; Antelmi, I; Armengol, J; Barnes, I; Cano-Lira, J F; Castañeda Ruiz, R F; Contu, M; Courtecuisse, Pr R; da Silveira, A L; Decock, C A; de Goes, A; Edathodu, J; Ercole, E; Firmino, A C; Fourie, A; Fournier, J; Furtado, E L; Geering, A D W; Gershenzon, J; Giraldo, A; Gramaje, D; Hammerbacher, A; He, X-L; Haryadi, D; Khemmuk, W; Kovalenko, A E; Krawczynski, R; Laich, F; Lechat, C; Lopes, U P; Madrid, H; Malysheva, E F; Marín-Felix, Y; Martín, M P; Mostert, L; Nigro, F; Pereira, O L; Picillo, B; Pinho, D B; Popov, E S; Rodas Peláez, C A; Rooney-Latham, S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Shivas, R G; Silva, V; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Telleria, M T; Ullah, C; Unsicker, S B; van der Merwe, N A; Vizzini, A; Wagner, H-G; Wong, P T W; Wood, A R; Groenewald, J Z

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Malaysia: Castanediella eucalypti from Eucalyptus pellita, Codinaea acacia from Acacia mangium, Emarcea eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana, Myrtapenidiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus pellita, Pilidiella

  11. Fungal Planet description sheets: 320–370

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Guarro, J.; Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Sutton, D.A.; Acharya, K.; Barber, P.A.; Boekhout, T.; Dimitrov, R.A.; Dueñas, M.; Dutta, A.K.; Gené, J.; Gouliamova, D.E.; Groenewald, M.; Lombard, L.; Morozova, O.V.; Sarkar, J.; Smith, M.Th.; Stchigel, A.M.; Wiederhold, N.P.; Alexandrova, A.V.; Antelmi, I.; Armengol, J.; Barnes, I.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Castañeda Ruiz, R.F.; Contu, M.; Courtecuisse, Pr.R.; da Silveira, A.L.; Decock, C.A.; Goes, de A.; Edathodu, J.; Ercole, E.; Firmino, A.C.; Fourie, A.; Fournier, J.; Furtado, E.L.; Geering, A.D.W.; Gershenzon, J.; Giraldo, A.; Gramaje, D.; Hammerbacher, A.; He, X.-L.; Haryadi, D.; Khemmuk, W.; Kovalenko, A.E.; Krawczynski, R.; Laich, F.; Lechat, C.; Lopes, U.P.; Madrid, H.; Malysheva, E.F.; Marín-Felix, Y.; Martín, M.P.; Mostert, L.; Nigro, F.; Pereira, O.L.; Picillo, B.; Pinho, D.B.; Popov, E.S.; Rodas Peláez, C.A.; Rooney-Latham, S.; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Shivas, R.G.; Silva, V.; Stoilova-Disheva, M.M.; Telleria, M.T.; Ullah, C.; Unsicker, S.B.; Merwe, van der N.A.; Vizzini, A.; Wagner, H.-G.; Wong, P.T.W.; Wood, A.R.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Malaysia: Castanediella eucalypti from Eucalyptus pellita, Codinaea acacia from Acacia mangium, Emarcea eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana, Myrtapenidiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus pellita, Pilidiella

  12. Effects of Paclobutrazol on Growth and Flowering of Bougainvillea spectabilis WILLD

    OpenAIRE

    Karagüzel, Osman

    2014-01-01

    The effects of paclobutrazol were examined in respect to the growth and flowering of Bougainvillea spectabilis WILLD under conditions of long and short natural photoperiods. In the middle of July and at the beginning of November, doses of paclobutrazol; 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 50 mg a.e./pot soil drench, and 0 (control), 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm foliage spray, were applied to plants grown in 18 cm pots (h=16.5 cm). With the application of paclobutrazol in the form of soil drench and fol...

  13. Phytoremediation of synthetic wastewater by adsorption of lead and zinc onto Alpinia galanga Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanida Chairgulprasert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of Pb(II and Zn(II from aqueous solution onto a phytosorbent mixture of galangal (Alpinia galangaWilld leaves and pseudostem has been investigated in a batch system. Removal efficiency was optimized with respect topH, contact time, initial Pb(II and Zn(II concentration and phytosorbent dosage. Galangal exhibited a higher adsorptionefficiency for lead (95.2% than for zinc (66.9%. Both lead and zinc equilibrium sorption data were better represented by theFreundlich isotherm than the Langmuir isotherm and in each case followed second order kinetics.

  14. Effect of Linear Chain Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis, Acacia, (Acacia spp., and Oil Palm (Tinnera spp. Woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Afiq Mohtar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical properties of Rubber wood, Acacia wood, and Oil palm wood that reacted with acetic, propionic, and butyric anhydrides using a microwave heating for 4 minutes were investigated. A sample dimension of 300 mm × 100 mm × 25 mm (L×W×T was used for modification and they were cut into smaller specimens for different testing method. This study found that the density increment and void volume changes were not significantly different from anhydrides. The modification of wood with anhydrides was not significantly affected by the static bending properties, except for the Oil palm. The compression strength for any anhydrides shows an improvement for the Rubber wood and Acacia spp. but not Oil palm. The hardness was also not significantly different from anhydrides for all wood species. The impact strength of Rubber wood and Oil palm significantly increased compared to the untreated wood, but this was not the case for Acacia spp. Generally, the highest improvement in mechanical properties was obtained by modification of Rubber and Acacia woods with butyric anhydride.

  15. Antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of Acacia shaffneri and Acacia farnesiana pods extracts: in vitro and in vivo assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo Puga, Claudia; Cuchillo Hilario, Mario; Espinosa Mendoza, José Guillermo; Medina Campos, Omar; Molina Jijón, Eduardo; Díaz Martínez, Margarita; Álvarez Izazaga, Marsela Alejandra; Ledesma Solano, José Ángel; Pedraza Chaverri, José

    2015-12-15

    Obesity is a worldwide public health issue, reaching epidemic condition in developing countries associated to chronic diseases. Oxidative damage is another side effect of obesity. Antioxidant activity from plant components regulates at some extent this imbalance. Main goal of the present study was to determine the antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of Acacia shaffneri (AS) and Acacia farnesiana (AF) pods extracts. To evaluated antioxidant activity and radical scavenging capacity of AS and AF extracts, two experiments were performed: 1) pods extracts were challenged against H2O2 using kidney cells in an in vitro assay; and 2) (Meriones unguiculatus) was employed in an in vivo assay to observe the effect of pods extracts on scavenging properties in plasma. Both pods extracts presented an important protective effect on radical scavenging capacity against ABTS• + and DPPH(+), and also in TBARS formation in vitro. Vegetal pods extracts did not induce any pro-oxidative effect when added to kidney cells in DMEM. Cells damage in DMEM with addition of H2O2 was significantly higher than those when vegetal pods extracts were added at 50 (P extracts were administered. The antioxidant protection of the acacia pods extracts reported in this study suggests the possible transference of antioxidant components and protective effects to animal products (milk, meat, and by-products) from Acacia pods when this vegetation is included in the diet. In order to evaluate, the possible transference of theirs antioxidant components to animal products, the incorporation of these non-conventional resources to ruminant feeding is a good opportunity of study. Profiling of Acacia farnesiana pods extract is necessary to identify the responsible bioactive compounds of protective properties.

  16. Evaluation of tropical plants containing tannin on in vitro methanogenesis and fermentation parameters using rumen fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Bambang Tjahyono; Santoso, Budi

    2010-02-01

    Methane (CH(4)) produced during ruminal fermentation represents a loss of 10-11% of gross energy intake. The use of browse species containing tannin as feed supplement for ruminants tends to increase in order to reduce CH(4) production. The present study was conducted to evaluate some tropical plants containing tannin as feed supplement (200 g kg(-1)) on in vitro CH(4) production and fermentation parameters. The crude protein (CP) content ranged from 87 to 390 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM) and was highest in Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poiret. The neutral detergent fibre (NDF) concentration was highest in Pennisetum purpureum Schumach (725 g kg(-1) DM) and lowest in S. grandiflora (330 g kg(-1) DM). The ranking order of plants based on their total tannin content was Acacia mangium Willd. > Biophytum petersianum Klotzch > Jatropa curcas Linnaeus > Psidium guajava Linnaeus > Phaleria papuana > Persea americana Mill. > S. grandiflora. Methane gas production after 48 h of incubation was significantly (P mangium (PP + AM), B. petersianum (PP + BP), J. curcas (PP + JC) or P. guajava (PP + PG) as compared to control feed (PP). There was negative correlation between total tannin content and CH(4) production at 48 h of incubation (r = - 0.76). Concentration NH(3)-N was significantly (P mangium, B. petersianum, J. curcas and P. guajava have potential to be used as a feed supplement to reduce CH(4) production in ruminants.

  17. The soil bacterial communities of South African fynbos riparian ecosystems invaded by Australian Acacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbert, Etienne; Jacobs, Shayne Martin; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystem along rivers and streams are characterised by lateral and longitudinal ecological gradients and, as a result, harbour unique biodiversity. Riparian ecosystems in the fynbos of the Western Cape, South Africa, are characterised by seasonal dynamics, with summer droughts followed by high flows during winter. The unique hydrology and geomorphology of riparian ecosystems play an important role in shaping these ecosystems. The riparian vegetation in the Western Cape has, however, largely been degraded due to the invasion of non-indigenous plants, in particular Acacia mearnsii, A. saligna and A. dealbata. This study investigated the effect of hydrology and invasion on the bacterial communities associated with fynbos riparian ecosystems. Bacterial communities were characterised with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 454 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Chemical and physical properties of soil within sites were also determined and correlated with community data. Sectioning across the lateral zones revealed significant differences in community composition, and the specific bacterial taxa influenced. Results also showed that the bacterial community structure could be linked to Acacia invasion. The presence of invasive Acacia was correlated with specific bacterial phyla. However, high similarity between cleared and pristine sites suggests that the effect of Acacia on the soil bacterial community structure may not be permanent. This study demonstrates how soil bacterial communities are influenced by hydrological gradients associated with riparian ecosystems and the impact of Acacia invasion on these communities.

  18. Anthelmintic activity of Ziziphus nummularia (bark) and Acacia nilotica (fruit) against Trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachaya, Hafiz Allah; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Sindhu, Zia-ud-Din; Jabbar, Abdul

    2009-06-22

    Ziziphus nummularia (Rhamnaceae) and Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae) are being used as anthelmintics in ethnoveterinary medicinal system of Pakistan. Present study was conducted to determine the anthelmintic activity of Ziziphus nummularia (bark) and Acacia nilotica (fruit) in order to justify their traditional use in veterinary medicine. In vitro anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract (CME) of both the plants was determined against Haemonchus contortus by the adult motility assay, the egg hatch test and the larval development assay. In vivo anthelmintic activity was evaluated in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes by administering increasing doses of crude powder (CP) and CME (1.0-3.0 g/kg). Both the plants exhibited dose- and time-dependent anthelmintic effects by causing mortality of worms, and inhibiting egg hatching and larval development. Acacia nilotica (LC(50)=512.86 and 194.98 microg/ml) was found to be more potent than Ziziphus nummularia (LC(50)=676.08 and 398.11 microg/ml) in egg hatch test and larval development assay, respectively. In vivo, maximum fecal egg count reduction (84.7%) was recorded on day 13 post-treatment in sheep treated with Ziziphus nummularia CME (3.0 g/kg) followed by 78.5% on same day with Acacia nilotica CME (3.0 g/kg). These data show that both Ziziphus nummularia and Acacia nilotica possess anthelmintic activity in vitro and in vivo, justifying their use in traditional veterinary medicine in Pakistan.

  19. Polyphenols in red wine aged in acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) and oak (Quercus petraea) wood barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Cadahía, Estrella; Hernández, Ma Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Martinez, Juana

    2012-06-30

    Polyphenolic composition of two Syrah wines aged during 6 or 12 months in medium toasting acacia and oak 225L barrels was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS. A total of 43 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were found in all wines, and other 15 compounds only in the wines from acacia barrels. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify the wines aged in acacia barrels. Among all of them the dihydrorobinetin highlights because of its high levels, but also robinetin, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, a tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol, fustin, butin, a trihydroxymethoxydihydroflavonol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were detected at appreciable levels in wines during aging in acacia barrels, and could be used as phenolic markers for authenticity purposes. Although longer contact time with acacia wood mean higher concentrations of phenolic markers found in wines, the identification of these wines will also be easy after short aging times due the high levels reached by these compounds, even after only 2 months of aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heera Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels; atherogenic index (AI; cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO; planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34±0.72 and increased lumen volume (51.65±3.66, administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics.

  1. Cellulose nanocrystals from acacia bark-Influence of solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflick, Ticiane; Schwendler, Luana A; Rosa, Simone M L; Bica, Clara I D; Nachtigall, Sônia M B

    2017-08-01

    The isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from different lignocellulosic materials has shown increased interest in academic and technological research. These materials have excellent mechanical properties and can be used as nanofillers for polymer composites as well as transparent films for various applications. In this work, cellulose isolation was performed following an environmental friendly procedure without chlorine. Cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from the exhausted acacia bark (after the industrial process of extracting tannin) with the objective of evaluating the effect of the solvent extraction steps on the characteristics of cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals. It was also assessed the effect of acid hydrolysis time on the thermal stability, morphology and size of the nanocrystals, through TGA, TEM and light scattering analyses. It was concluded that the extraction step with solvents was important in the isolation of cellulose, but irrelevant in the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Light scattering experiments indicated that 30min of hydrolysis was long enough for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Low chitinase activity in Acacia myrmecophytes: a potential trade-off between biotic and chemical defences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, M.; Staehelin, Christian; McKey, D.

    We determined chitinase activity in leaves of four myrmecophytic and four non-myrmecophytic leguminous species at the plants' natural growing sites in Mexico. Myrmecophytic plants (or 'ant plants') have obligate mutualisms with ants protecting them against herbivores and pathogenic fungi. Plant chitinases can be considered a reliable measure of plant resistance to pathogenic fungi. The myrmecophytic Acacia species, which were colonised by mutualistic ants, exhibited at least six-fold lower levels of chitinase activity compared with the non-myrmecophytic Acacia farnesiana and three other non-myrmecophytes. Though belonging to different phylogenetic groups, the myrmecophytic Acacia species formed one distinct group in the data set, which was clearly separated from the non-myrmecophytic species. These findings allowed for comparison between two recent hypotheses that attempt to explain low chitinase activity in ant plants. Most probably, chitinases are reduced in myrmecophytic plant species because these are effectively defended indirectly due to their symbiosis with mutualistic ants.

  3. Effect of composite yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yang Won; Park, Sang Un; Jang, Yeon Sil; Kim, Young-Ho; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Ko, Seo Hyun; Joo, Nami; Kim, Sun Im; Kim, Cheol-Hyun; Chang, Dong Kyung

    2012-09-07

    To investigate whether composite yogurt with acacia dietary fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) has additive effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A total of 130 patients were randomly allocated to consume, twice daily for 8 wk, either the composite yogurt or the control product. The composite yogurt contained acacia dietary fiber and high-dose B. lactis together with two classic yogurt starter cultures. Patients were evaluated using the visual analog scale via a structured questionnaire administered at baseline and after treatment. Improvements in bowel habit satisfaction and overall IBS symptoms from baseline were significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (27.16 vs 15.51, P = 0.010, 64.2 ± 17.0 vs 50.4 ± 20.5, P yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and B. lactis has greater therapeutic effects in patients with IBS than standard yogurt.

  4. Acacia shrubs respond positively to high severity wildfire: Implications for conservation and fuel hazard management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher E; Price, Owen F; Tasker, Elizabeth M; Denham, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    High severity wildfires pose threats to human assets, but are also perceived to impact vegetation communities because a small number of species may become dominant immediately after fire. However there are considerable gaps in our knowledge about species-specific responses of plants to different fire severities, and how this influences fuel hazard in the short and long-term. Here we conduct a floristic survey at sites before and two years after a wildfire of unprecedented size and severity in the Warrumbungle National Park (Australia) to explore relationships between post-fire growth of a fire responsive shrub genera (Acacia), total mid-story vegetation cover, fire severity and fuel hazard. We then survey 129 plots surrounding the park to assess relationships between mid-story vegetation cover and time-since-fire. Acacia species richness and cover were 2.3 and 4.3 times greater at plots after than before the fire. However the same common dominant species were present throughout the study. Mid-story vegetation cover was 1.5 times greater after than before the wildfire, and Acacia species contribution to mid-story cover increased from 10 to 40%. Acacia species richness was not affected by fire severity, however strong positive associations were observed between Acacia and total mid-story vegetation cover and severity. Our analysis of mid-story vegetation recovery showed that cover was similarly high between 2 and 30years post-fire, then decreased until 52years. Collectively, our results suggest that Acacia species are extremely resilient to high severity wildfire and drive short to mid-term increases in fuel hazard. Our results are discussed in relation to fire regime management from the twin perspectives of conserving biodiversity and mitigating human losses due to wildfire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Delayed colonisation of Acacia by thrips and the timing of host-conservatism and behavioural specialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Repeated colonisation of novel host-plants is believed to be an essential component of the evolutionary success of phytophagous insects. The relative timing between the origin of an insect lineage and the plant clade they eat or reproduce on is important for understanding how host-range expansion can lead to resource specialisation and speciation. Path and stepping-stone sampling are used in a Bayesian approach to test divergence timing between the origin of Acacia and colonisation by thrips. The evolution of host-plant conservatism and ecological specialisation is discussed. Results Results indicated very strong support for a model describing the origin of the common ancestor of Acacia thrips subsequent to that of Acacia. A current estimate puts the origin of Acacia at approximately 6 million years before the common ancestor of Acacia thrips, and 15 million years before the origin of a gall-inducing clade. The evolution of host conservatism and resource specialisation resulted in a phylogenetically under-dispersed pattern of host-use by several thrips lineages. Conclusions Thrips colonised a diversity of Acacia species over a protracted period as Australia experienced aridification. Host conservatism evolved on phenotypically and environmentally suitable host lineages. Ecological specialisation resulted from habitat selection and selection on thrips behavior that promoted primary and secondary host associations. These findings suggest that delayed and repeated colonisation is characterised by cycles of oligo- or poly-phagy. This results in a cumulation of lineages that each evolve host conservatism on different and potentially transient host-related traits, and facilitates both ecological and resource specialisation. PMID:24010723

  6. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp 25-31 Research Article. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium × A. auriculiformis) · Chin-Hong Ng Soon-Leong Lee Kevin Kit-Siong Ng Norwati Muhammad Wickneswari Ratnam · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium × A.

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tjahjono, B. Vol 73, No 3&4 (2011) - Articles A single dominant Ganoderma species is responsible for root rot of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus in Sumatra Abstract · Vol 73, No 3&4 (2011) - Articles Pruning quality affects infection of Acacia mangium and A. crassicarpa by Ceratocystis acaciivora and Lasiodiplodia ...

  8. EVALUACIÓN DEL EFECTO DEL PROCESO DE EXTRUSIÓN EN HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) NORMAL Y GERMINADA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CRISTHIAN EMILIO TOVAR HERNÁNDEZ; EDGAR ALBERTO PERAFÁN GIL; MARIO GERMAN ENRÍQUEZ COLLAZOS; YAMID PISMAG PORTILLA; LORENA CERON FERNANDEZ

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinua Willd) germinated seeds shows nutritional value and body assimilation differences respect to normal seeds, therefore, sought to identify the extrusion process effect over flour from normal and germinated quinoa...

  9. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Lan; Zhang, Jiali; Min, Dong; Hongyan, Zhou; Lin, Niu; Li, Qing-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ) with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (pEthyl acetate fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd showed potential anticancer effects. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action may involve mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways.

  10. Cambios provocados en el suelo por la invasión de acacias australianas

    OpenAIRE

    P. Lorenzo; S. Rodríguez-Echeverría

    2015-01-01

    La invasión por acacias australianas altera profundamente tanto las características abióticas del suelo como la estructura de las comunidades microbianas edáficas, modificando los procesos y servicios de los ecosistemas invadidos. En general, las acacias invasoras conllevan un gran aumento del contenido de hojarasca, carbono y nitrógeno, así como modificaciones en los ciclos biogeoquímicos de estos elementos y una disminución de la disponibilidad hídrica en los ecosistemas invadidos. Producen...

  11. Toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Lukman Adewale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute and of repeated doses (sub-acute administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity.

  12. Biologia reprodutiva de Acacia mearnsii De Wild.: receptividade de estigmas Reproductive biology of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.: stigma receptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudes Maria Stiehl-Alves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a receptividade de estigmas de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. em 20 árvores da Área de Produção de Sementes (APS da Fazenda Locatelli, da empresa SETA S.A., no município de Butiá (RS e comparar os períodos de receptividade de estigmas e de viabilidade polínica em diversas fases da abertura floral. Foi utilizado como método de colorimetria o reagente de Baker para indicar a receptividade e a viabilidade. As análises foram conduzidas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e a estatística χ2 foi utilizada para verificar a significância dos eventos estudados. Foi observada receptividade no início da abertura floral (71%, alcançando a total receptividade (100% em plena antese. A viabilidade polínica foi detectada no início da antese (77% e em total abertura floral (88%. Na fase de senescência foram observados estigmas receptivos (50% e políades viáveis (23%. Há sobreposição da fase de viabilidade masculina e de receptividade feminina, aumentando as chances de autopolinização. Na maioria das árvores analisadas (85% foi observada a total receptividade (100% nos estigmas amostrados. Em três árvores (15% observou-se uma média inferior a 95% de estigmas receptivos. Não foi observada diferença significativa pelo teste do χ2 na receptividade dos estigmas no germoplasma analisado, sugerindo que o genótipo não interfere diretamente para a receptividade dos estigmas.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stigma receptivity of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in 20 trees of the Seed Production Area on the Fazenda Locatelli of the company SETA S.A., in the county of Butiá, state of Rio Grande do Sul, and to compare the periods of stigma receptivity and pollen viability at different stages of flower opening. The colorimetry method of the Baker reagent was used to determine receptivity and viability. The analyses were evaluated in a completely randomized design and the χ2 statistics were used to

  13. A ninety-day oral toxicity study of a new type of processed gum arabic, from Acacia tree (Acacia senegal) exudates, in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Y; Ichihara, T; Hagiwara, A; Imai, N; Tamano, S; Orikoshi, H; Ogasawara, K; Sasaki, Y; Nakamura, M; Shirai, T

    2006-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate and characterize any subchronic toxicity of a new type of gum arabic (SUPER GUM [Acacia(sen)SUPER GUM]), a naturally processed polysaccharide exudate from gum acacia trees (Acacia senegal), when administered to both sexes of F344 rats at dietary levels of 0 (control), 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (10 rats/sex/group). During the study, the treatment had no effects on clinical signs, survival, body weights, and food and water consumption, or on findings of urinalysis, ophthalmology, hematology, or blood biochemistry. Gross pathology and histopathology exhibited no differences of toxicological significance between control and treated rats. Increased relative cecum (filled) weights, evident in both sexes of 5.0% group and females of 1.25% and 2.5% groups, were considered to be a physiological adaptation. Thus, the results indicated the toxic level of SUPER GUM to be more than 5.0%, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was concluded to be 5.0% (3,117 mg/kg body weights/day for males, and 3,296 mg/kg body weights/day for males) from the present study.

  14. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical products and processes have been developed from quinoa. Furthermore, 4 clinical studies have demonstrated that quinoa supplementation exerts significant, positive effects on metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal health in humans. However, vast challenges and opportunities remain within the scientific, agricultural, and development sectors to optimize quinoa's role in the promotion of global human health and nutrition.

  15. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Andrea B; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V; de Jong, Erna V

    2010-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cysteine, tyrosine and methionine increased by 104, 72, 70%, respectively in chocolate containing 20% quinoa. The amino acid pattern was as per WHO standards, which was adequate to human needs. The chocolate with quinoa was approved by 92% of the sensory panel. All the samples showed an index of acceptance above 70%. Quinoa could be used at the levels evaluated in this study adding its potential health benefit to the dark chocolate.

  16. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah S. B. S. Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the decoction of Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, were investigated using the root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., Amaryllidaceae. Ten concentrations of the aqueous extract (0.125 to 1.25% of this medicinal plant were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. All concentrations showed root growth inhibition after 96 h treatment. Although there were no significant differences between the mitotic indexes of any concentration and the control, there were changes in the frequencies of cell stages at three different concentrations. Additionally, the presence of five different cells abnormalities was recorded: chromosome bridging, lagging chromosomes, chromosome fragments, disturbed metaphase and disturbed anaphase. These results suggest inhibitory and genotoxic activity of the decoction of E. velutina on Allium cepa.

  17. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu

    2011-01-01

    or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment......Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0–500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted...

  18. The effect of drought on water regime and growth of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stikić Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. is a highly nutritious Andean seed crop which shows great potential to grow under a range of different stress environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of drought on water regime and the growth of quinoa variety KVL52 in controlled conditions. The results of the present experiment indicate that the reaction of quinoa plants to drought are based on drought avoidance mechanisms: reduced transpiration and sustained water uptake. Transpiration was reduced due to the decrease of stomatal conductance and leaf area development. These results could be of practical importance for testing the possibility of growing quinoa as a new drought resistant crop in Serbia.

  19. Characterisation of phenolics, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aspects of the seed ecology of Acacia karroo in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed ecology may play a role in the widespread increase of Acacia karroo in savanna and grassland. Accordingly, fecundity, predation, mortality by fire, dispersal by livestock, and seed longevity were studied. Seed production per tree (P of pod production, pods per tree) was positively related to tree height, negatively ...

  1. Preparation and Evaluation of Pellets Using Acacia and Tragacanth by Extrusion-Spheronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pirmoradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Extrusion-spheronization is an established technique for the production of pellets for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, the feasibility and influence of the incorporation of acacia, by itself and in combination with tragacanth, on the ability of formulations containing 2 model of drugs (ibuprofen and theophylline to form spherical pellets by extrusion-spheronization was investigated.Material and Methods: Formulations containing different ratios of acacia and tragacanth (8:2, 9:1, and 10:0 and different drug concentrations (20%, 40%, and 60% were prepared, on the basis of a 32 full factorial design. Pellet properties, such as aspect ratio, sphericity (image analysis, crushing strength and elastic modulus (mechanical tests, mean dissolution time, and dissolution profiles were evaluated. The effect of particular factors on responses was determined by linear regression analysis.Results: The sphericity, drug release rate, and the mechanical properties of the pellets were affected by the amounts and types of the drugs, and the ratio of the gums. Acacia, relative to tragacanth, produced pellets with higher mechanical strength and a faster drug release rate. Addition of small amounts of tragacanth to ibuprofen formulations resulted in matrix pellets with slow drug release.Conclusion: The results showed that acacia and tragacanth can be used successfully as 2 natural binders in the pellet formulations.

  2. In vitro biological activity of tannins from Acacia and other tree fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate impact of tannins on in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters as well as relationships between concentration and in vitro biological activity of tannins present in tree fruits. Dry and mature fruits of known phenolic content harvested from Acacia nilotica, A. erubescens, A. erioloba, ...

  3. Nursery response of Acacia koa seedlings to container size, irrigation method, and fertilization rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Planting koa (Acacia koa A. Gray) in Hawai'i, USA aids in restoration of disturbed sites essential to conservation of endemic species. Survival and growth of planted seedlings under vegetative competition typically increases with initial plant size. Increasing container size and fertilizer rate may produce larger seedlings, but high fertilization can lead to...

  4. Applied genetic conservation of Hawaiian Acacia koa: an eco-regional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick Dudley; Tyler Jones; Robert James; Richard Sniezko; Jessica Wright; Christina Liang; Paul F. Gugger; Phil. Cannon

    2017-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is a valuable tree species economically, ecologically, and culturally in Hawaii. A vascular wilt disease of koa, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae (FOXY), causes high rates of mortality in field plantings and threatens native koa forests in Hawaii. Producing seeds with genetic resistance to FOXY is vital...

  5. In vivo and in vitro effect of Acacia nilotica seed proteinase inhibitors ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Acacia nilotica proteinase inhibitor (AnPI) was isolated by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and resulted in a purification of 10.68-fold with a 19.5% yield. Electrophoretic analysis of purified AnPI protein resolved into a single band with molecular weight of ...

  6. Effect of toasting intensity at cooperage on phenolic compounds in acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) heartwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Ángel Ma; Cadahía, Estrella; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Pinto, Ernani

    2011-04-13

    The phenolic composition of heartwood from Robinia pseudoacacia, commonly known as false acacia, before and after toasting in cooperage was studied by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS/MS. A total of 41 flavonoid and nonflavonoid compounds were identified, some tentatively, and quantified. Seasoned acacia wood showed high concentrations of flavonoid and low levels of nonflavonoid compounds, the main compounds being the dihydroflavonols dihydrorobinetin, fustin, tetrahydroxy, and trihydroxymethoxy dihydroflavonol, the flavonol robinetin, the flavanones robtin and butin, and a leucorobinetinidin, none of which are found in oak wood. The low molecular weight (LMW) phenolic compounds present also differed from those found in oak, since compounds with a β-resorcylic structure, gallic related compounds, protocatechuic aldehyde, and some hydroxycinnamic compounds are included, but only a little gallic and ellagic acid. Toasting changed the chromatographic profiles of extracts spectacularly. Thus, the toasted acacia wood contributed flavonoids and condensed tannins (prorobinetin type) in inverse proportion to toasting intensity, while LMW phenolic compounds were directly proportional to toasting intensity, except for gallic and ellagic acid and related compounds. Even though toasting reduced differences between oak and acacia, particular characteristics of this wood must be taken into account when considering its use in cooperage: the presence of flavonoids and compounds with β-resorcylic structure and the absence of hydrolyzable tannins.

  7. Earleaf acacia, a fast growing, brittle exotic weed tree in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of Acacia auriculiformis, together with a warning against its use for ornamental landscaping in Florida (a hurricane area). The tree grows very fast, reaching 30-55 ft in 8 years, lacks wind resistance, produces much persistent litter, seeds itself freely and is now a common weed species in Florida. The wood is of value for handicrafts. 3 references.

  8. Kinetic release studies of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate from gum acacia crosslinked hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderibigbe, B A; Varaprasad, K; Sadiku, E R; Ray, S S; Mbianda, X Y; Fotsing, M C; Owonubi, S J; Agwuncha, S C

    2015-02-01

    Natural polymer hydrogels are useful for controlling release of drugs. In this study, hydrogels containing gum acacia were synthesized by free-radical polymerization of acrylamide with gum acacia. The effect of gum acacia in the hydrogels on the release mechanism of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) was studied at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The hydrogels exhibited high swelling ratios at pH 7.4 and low swelling ratios at pH 1.2. The release study was performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy via complex formation with Fe(III) ions. At pH 1.2, the release profile was found to be anomalous while at pH 7.4, the release kinetic of BP was a perfect zero-order release mechanism. The hydrogels were found to be pH-sensitive and the release profiles of the BP were found to be influenced by the degree of crosslinking of the hydrogel network with gum acacia. The preliminary results suggest that these hydrogels are promising devices for controlled delivery of bisphosphonate to the gastrointestinal region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Operational disease screening program for resistance to wilt in Acacia koa in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick Dudley; Robert James; Richard Sniezko; Phil Cannon; Aileen Yeh; Tyler Jones; Michael Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    In Hawaii, koa (Acacia koa A. Gray) is a valuable tree species economically, ecologically, and culturally. With significant land use change and declines in sugarcane, pineapple, and cattle production, there is an opportunity and keen interest in utilizing native koa in reforestation and restoration efforts. However, moderate to high mortality rates...

  10. The economic value of Acacia karroo in small-scale farming systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Abstract. The purpose of the investigation was to examine current knowledge, by local people, of the agroforestry roles and the economic importance that the Acacia karroo tree plays in the farming systems of small-scale farmers and game farming in the Dundee district in the ...

  11. Acacia saligna: an invasive species on the coast of Molise (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calabrese V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the European countries most affected by biological invasions. In this study, we focused on the impact of Acacia saligna, an Australian invasive plant species, on the coastal ecosystem’s ecology and biodiversity along the sandy coasts of Molise (southern Italy. We analyzed data from 61 vegetation plots recorded in coastal pine forest and Mediterranean scrub habitats of Molise throughout the preparatory actions of the “LIFE Maestrale” project (NAT/IT/000262. In order to study the ecological impact of Acacia saligna comparing invaded and non-invaded areas, we first assigned the Ellenberg’s indicator values to each plant species, which were then used to relate the presence of Acacia saligna with ecological characteristics of sites through a generalized linear model (GLM. Our results showed a significant positive relationship between the presence of Acacia saligna and high levels of soil nutrients and, on the contrary, a negative relationship with the presence of mesophilic species, which are typical of the community interest habitats of pine forest (2270*. The use of ecological indicators is effective to pinpoint the ecological effects of biological invasions, as well as to evaluate habitat conservation state and to identify vulnerable native species.

  12. Effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajitha; Shetty, Manjunath; Parida, Amrita; Adiga, Shalini; Kamath, Shobha; Sowjanya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effects and benefits of Acacia auriculiformis on health are not well established. This study was planned to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats. Materials and Methods: Learning and memory were evaluated using passive avoidance paradigm and rewarded alternation test (T-maze) after the oral administration of two doses (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis with rivastigmine as positive control. Forty eight rats were divided into 4 groups in each study model. Estimation of brain cholinesterase activity was done to substantiate the results of the above mentioned tests. Data was analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test using GraphPad InStat software, version 3.06. Results: The extract produced a dose-dependent improvement in the memory score namely the step through latency in passive avoidance model (P < 0.001) and the percentage of correct responses in rewarded alternation test (P < 0.05). Dose-dependent inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity (P < 0.001) was also noted. Conclusion: The acetylcholinesterase inhibiting property of Acacia auriculiformis contributes to its memory enhancing potential. Further large scale studies are required to elucidate its benefits on cognitive function. This may offer a promising new option for the treatment of dementia and other cognitive deficits. PMID:25002806

  13. The anti-viral effect of Acacia mellifera, Melia azedarach and Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extracts from the stem barks of Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkm, Acacia mellifera (Vahl.) Benth. and Melia azedarach L. were evaluated for in vivo antiviral activity in Balb/C mice following a cutaneous wild type strain 7401H herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. A significant therapeutic effect was observed ...

  14. Antioxidant capacities of extracts in relation to toasting oak and acacia wood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Híc, P.; Soural, I.; Balík, J.; Kulichová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 129-137 ISSN 1336-8672 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : oak * acacia * toasting wood * barrique extract * antioxidant capacity * weight loss Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2016

  15. The response of Acacia karroo plants to defoliation of the upper or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Acacia karroo trees to defoliation of either the upper or lower canopy only, was compared experimentally with that of plants whose whole canopies had been defoliated at a range of defoliation levels. These plants were very sensitive to defoliation of the upper canopy. A 100% defoliation of the upper canopy ...

  16. The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This leaves 37 species which can be regarded as forming the avifauna of the .... unexpected since the litter below the trees is much richer in small arthropods than the litter below indigenous vegetation .... The bird fauna of the thickets of the alien Acacia cyanophylla and A. cyclops in the South- western Cape Province was ...

  17. Pollination ecology of Acacia gerrardii Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae under extremely hot-dry conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Saad Alqarni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth. are acacias that are native to the arid and semiarid Africa and west Asia. We investigated the flowering biology, pod set and flower visitors of Talh and discussed the role of these visitors in pollen transfer. The Talh trees blossomed laterally on the nodes of one-year-old twigs. Each node produced 21 flower buds seasonally. Each flower bud opened to a flower head (FH of 60 florets. The bagged FHs podded significantly (p ⩽ 0.05 less than did the unbagged FHs. The FHs were visited by 31 insect species (25 genera, 16 families and 5 orders. The major taxa were honeybees, megachilids, butterflies, ants, beetles and thrips. Each of honeybees, megachilids and beetles showed a significant (p ⩽ 0.05 hourly pattern, while each of butterflies, ants and thrips had no hourly pattern (p > 0.05. Furthermore, some birds and mammals touched the Talh FHs. Talh trees evolved a mass flowering behavior to face pre- and post-flowering obstacles. Megachilids seemed to play the major effort of zoophily because of their relatively high numbers of individuals and species and their effective movement behavior on the FH surface. Nevertheless, honeybees and other insects and vertebrate taxa also contributed to the pollen transfer. These results greatly contribute to our understanding of the pollination ecology of acacias, especially Arabian acacias.

  18. Early field performance of Acacia koa seedlings grown under subirrigation and overhead irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray [Fabaceae]) seedlings were grown with subirrigation and overhead irrigation systems in an effort to characterize post-nursery field performance. One year following outplanting, we found no differences in seedling height or survival, but root-collar diameter was significantly larger for subirrigated seedlings. This indicates that koa seedlings,...

  19. Olifantinvloed op Acacia Nigrescens-bome in 'n gedeelte van die Punda Milia- Sandveld van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H Engelbrecht

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Olifantinvloed op groot Acacia nigrescens (knop- piesdoring borne in die Punda Milia-Sandveld van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin, is in Desernber 1978 ondersoek. 'n Monster van 951 borne toon dat die voortbestaan van die boornpopulasie bedreig word. Elephant impact on Acacia nigrescens trees in a section of the Punda Milia-Sandveld of the Kruger National Park. An investigation of elephant impact on tall Acacia nigrescens trees in the Punda Milia- Sandveld of the Kruger National Park was conducted during December 1978. A sample of 951 trees showed that the tree population is endangered.

  20. Cryptophlebia Walsingham, 1900, Thaumatotibia Zacher, 1915, and Archiphlebia Komai & Horak, 2006, in Australia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae: Grapholitini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Marianne; Komai, Furumi

    2016-10-31

    The Australian species of the grapholitine genera Cryptophlebia Walsingham, 1900, Thaumatotibia Zacher, 1915 and Archiphlebia Komai & Horak, 2006, are revised, described and illustrated. A key to species is provided. Five named species of Cryptophlebia, C. ombrodelta (Lower), C. iridosoma (Meyrick), C. rhynchias (Meyrick) and C. pallifimbriana Bradley, are redescribed and three new species, C. wraggae, sp. nov., C. stigmata, sp. nov., and C. caulicola, sp. nov., are described. Cryptophlebia amblyopa Clarke, described from Micronesia, is synonymised with C. iridosoma. Cryptophlebia caulicola, sp. nov., is a borer in twigs of Acacia mangium Willd. in northern Queensland. Thaumatotibia aclyta (Turner) and T. zophophanes (Turner) are redescribed and the new species T. maculata, sp. nov., is described. Fruit of Acronychia spp. (Rutaceae) have been identified as native hosts of T. zophophanes, a pest species which damages macadamia (Proteaceae) and avocado (Lauraceae) on the Atherton Tableland. Archiphlebia endophaga (Meyrick) and A. rutilescens (Turner) are redescribed, and the new species A. gilva, sp. nov., is described.

  1. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  2. Nutrient content in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in an agroforestry system/Teores de nutrientes em povoamentos monoespecificos e mistos de Eucalyptus urograndis e Acacia mearnsii em sistema agrossilvicultural

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viera, Marcio; Schumacher, Mauro Valdir; Caldeira, Marcos Vinicius Winckler; Watzlawick, Luciano Farinha

    2013-01-01

    The study had as objective compare the nutrients content in the different species involved in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii and in a consortium with Zea mays...

  3. In vitro Antidiabetic Activity of Polar and Nonpolar Solvent Extracts from Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapandian, V. M.; Sundaram, R. Shanmuga

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic illness, and the management of diabetes is a global problem. Successful treatment is required to prevent complications and organ damages. Herbal medicines are having minimal adverse effects when compared to the available synthetic drugs to treat such chronic diseases and disorders. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of polar and nonpolar solvent extracts of Leucas aspera (Willd.) link leaves under in vitro models. Materials and Methods: The in vitro antidiabetic activity of petroleum ether (nonpolar) and ethanol (polar) extracts were evaluated in C2C12 cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (cell viability method) and glucose uptake assay. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method used for the evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity. Results: Both the polar and nonpolar solvent extracts of L. aspera had shown better antioxidant activity compared to standard (IC50 = 18.96 and 19.90 μg/mL, respectively). Petroleum ether extract exhibited better cytotoxic activity in C2C12 cell line compared to ethanol extract (concentration of test drug needed to inhibit cell growth by 50% 110.75 ± 5.5 vs. 415.25 ± 8.0 μg/mL) whereas ethanol extract showed enhanced glucose uptake activity than petroleum ether extract in C2C12 cell line at same concentrations. Conclusion: From our study results, we concluded that L. aspera (Willd.) link leaves had shown better antidiabetic activity and antioxidant activity under in vitro models. Nonpolar solvent extract produced slightly better activity than polar solvent extract. This study warrants further research and experiments on animal models. SUMMARY Petroleum ether extract of Leucas aspera (PELA) exhibited slightly higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity compared to ethanol extract of L. aspera (EELA)PELA exhibited better cytotoxic activity in C

  4. Acacia tortilis subsp. heteracantha productivity in the Tugela Dry Valley Bushveld: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Milton

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia tortilis Hayne subsp.  heteracantha (Burch. Brenan dominates secondary succession in the Tugela Dry Valley Bushveld of the Natal midlands. The parts of KwaZulu in this veld type are impoverished, overpopulated and over-grazed. Preliminary results indicate that at a density of 2 700 ± 600 trees/ha there is a standing crop of c.2,87 t/ha (DM of acacia twigs suitable for hand pruning and milling into fodder, but that this is a costly process. Herbage biomass peaked at 0,73 t/ha (DM. Veld condition assessments suggested a stocking rate of|0,l AU/ha (grazers, but actual grazer stocking rates may be many times this density. It is recommended that the browser/grazer ratio be altered to make use of the c. 1,05 t/ha (DM of shoot growth produced annually by A. tortilis subsp.  heteracantha.

  5. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Puri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl, and sucrose, on water absorption (WA, water absorption index (WAI, and water solubility index (WSI of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM. Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure.

  6. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Jiménez-Alemán, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-10-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new partner, in addition to mutualistic ants and their bacteria inhabitants, involved in the protection from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the asymptomatic leaves of A. hindsii plants for further molecular identification of 18S rRNA gene. Inhibitory effects of fungal endophytes were tested against Pseudomonas plant pathogens. Our findings support a potential role of fungal endophytes in pathogen the protection mechanisms against pathogens in myrmecophytic plants and provide the evidence of novel fungal endophytes capable of biosynthesizing bioactive metabolites.

  7. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants

    OpenAIRE

    González-Teuber, M.; Jimenez-Aleman, G.; Boland, W.

    2014-01-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new part...

  8. A preliminary report on the effect of Acacia karoo competition on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a large-scale experiment a dense stand of A. karoo was effectively killed by a basal bark application of 2,4,5-T at a concentration of 1.5 per cent acid equivalent in paraffin. There was no correlation between density of Acacia and either composition or basal cover of the grass component. After three years there was still no ...

  9. Precipitation of Calcium, Magnesium, Strontium and Barium in Tissues of Four Acacia Species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Honghua He; Timothy M Bleby; ERIK J. VENEKLAAS; Hans Lambers; John Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glass...

  10. Stripping of Acacia koa bark by rats on Hawaii and Maui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Howard F. Sakai

    1984-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is the most valuable native timber species in Hawaii. Bark stripping of young trees by rats, a common but unstudied phenomenon, may affect survival, growth, and quality of koa. Up to 54% of the trees sampled in 4- to 6-year-old stands in the Laupahoehoe and Waiakea areas on Hawaii were wounded by rats; only 5% of trees sampled in a l-year-old stand on...

  11. Simulation of morphological plasticity of Acacia tortilis in response to herbivore attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Amélie; Letort, Véronique; Gosset, Renaud; Gignoux, Jacques; Cournède, Paul-Henry

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Understanding tree architectural plasticity is a major challenge. Functional-structural models can be of great interest to quantify the allocation patterns and their changes according to environment. In this paper, we focus on Acacia tortilis trees in savanna to understand their responses to herbivore attacks both in terms of architecture and allocation pattern. Measurements were carried out in Hwange National Park (Zimbabwe) in 2008. Architectural and biomass data wer...

  12. Neem Gum as a Binder in a Formulated Paracetamol Tablet with Reference to Acacia Gum BP

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing ...

  13. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  14. Climate trends in the wood anatomy of Acacia sensu stricto (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Nigel W M; Hailey, Luke; Clarke, Kerri L; Gasson, Peter E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis. The wood usually has thick-walled vessels and fibres, paratracheal parenchyma and uniseriate and biseriate rays, occasionally up to four cells wide. The greater abundance of gelatinous fibres in arid and semi-arid species may have ecological significance. Prismatic crystals in chambered fibres and axial parenchyma increased in abundance in semi-arid and arid species. Whereas vessel diameter showed only a small decrease from the sub-tropical to the arid region, there was a significant 2-fold increase in vessel frequency and a consequent 3-fold decrease in the vulnerability index. Although the underlying phylogeny determines the qualitative wood structure, climate has a significant influence on the functional wood anatomy of Acacia s.s. , which is an ideal genus to study the effect of these factors.

  15. Productivity of Local Goats Supplemented with Acacia villosa and Coripha gebanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fuah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most feed for goats in the villages of West Timor, Indonesia, came from communal grazing areas, consist of native grass during wet season, crop residues and tree leaves (Sesbania and Acacia species in dry season. This study was aiming at examining the growth of goat supplemented with local feed. Twenty four goats were used, the average initial live weight was 12.5 kg. Four feeding treatments were applied: T1-200 g cut grass; T2–200 g Acacia villosa; T3–200 g Coripha gebanga; T4–100 g A. villosa + 100 g C. gebanga. Live weights and feed consumption were analyzed using repeated measures, analysis of variance. The average live weight showed a small increase, as well as daily weight gain of goats of which different significantly (P<0.05 amongst treatments (17, 36, 42, and 43 g/d/head, during the first 6 wk, followed by a sharp drop after 8 wk. The average supplemented feed consumption was 52, 35, 85, and 75 g/d/animal, for cut grass, A. villosa, C. gebanga, and A. villosa plus C. gebanga, respectively. Goats given C. gebanga and mixed Acacia and C. gebanga gave higher average weight gain, but also consumed more feed than those given cut grass or A.villosa (P<0.01. Supplementing feed to maintain growth of goats during dry seasons was better on A. villosa than on palm pith and its combination.

  16. Minor lipid components of some Acacia species: potential dietary health benefits of the unexploited seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Nizar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oilseed samples from four Acacia species ( A. cyclops, A. ligulata, A. salicina and A. cyanophylla were analyzed in order to evaluate the potential nutritional value of their unexploited seeds. Methods Samples were collected from different Tunisian geographic locations. Seed oils were extracted and carotenoids, tocopherols and sterols were analyzed using chromatographic methods. Results The studied Acacia seeds seem to be quite rich in lipids (from 6% to 12%. All Acacia species contain mainly the xanthophylls zeaxanthin and lutein compounds: from ca. 38 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 113 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyanophylla. Total tocopherols varied from ca. 221 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 808 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. ligulata. Sterols are highly present and their contents ranged between ca. 7 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. salicina and 11 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops. Conclusion This study highlights that these unexploited seeds might have a potential nutritional value and encourages researchers to more explore and find developments for these plants for healthy purposes.

  17. Precipitation of Calcium, Magnesium, Strontium and Barium in Tissues of Four Acacia Species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M.; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory. PMID:22848528

  18. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghua He

    Full Text Available Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells, pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  19. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  20. Flavonoids profiles, antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of extract from Dryoathyrium boryanum (Willd.) Ching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianguo; Xia, Xian; Dai, Xiling; Xiao, Jianbo; Wang, Quanxi; Andrae-Marobela, K; Okatch, H

    2013-05-01

    The profiles and bioactivities of flavonoids extracted from Dryoathyrium boryanum (Willd.) Ching were investigated. The total flavonoids content in extract from D. boryanum is about 145.8mg/g. By means of HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, the main flavonoids in D. boryanum were tentatively identified as 3-hydroxyphloretin 6'-O-hexoside, quercetin-7-hexoside, apigenin7-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, apigenin 7-O-galactoside, acacetin 7-O-(α-D-apio-furanosyl) (1→6)-β-d-glucoside, 3-hydroxy phloretin 6-O-hexoside, luteolin-6-C-glucoside. 0.21mg/ml flavonoids extract from D. boryanum showed very strong superoxide anion radical scavenging potential, which is higher than that of rutin (0.25mg/ml). The extract (0.21mg/ml of flavonoids) from D. boryanum exhibited similar DPPH scavenging potential with that of rutin (0.25mg/ml). However, rutin (0.25mg/ml) showed a significantly higher reducing power and ABTS scavenging potential than that of 0.21mg/ml flavonoids extract from D. boryanum. It had no effect on acetylcholinesterase. D. boryanum can be considered as a medicinal plant and the flavonoids from D. boryanum are excellent antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological effects of hydrolyzed quinoa extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguetti, Quele Adriana; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Batista, Marcia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício

    2011-06-01

    An extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), termed hydrolyzed quinoa (HQ), was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from seeds of the quinoa variety BRS-Piabiru. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of quinoa and HQ showed that the hydrolyzed extract is rich in essential amino acids, particularly those with branched chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). In addition, we evaluated the biological effects of HQ, particularly the toxicological potential. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to four groups: (1) sedentary supplemented group, which received HQ (2,000 mg/kg); (2) sedentary control group, non-supplemented; (3) exercised supplemented group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise that received HQ [2,000 mg/kg]); and (4) exercised control group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise, non-supplemented). After 30 days, all groups were analyzed for levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and urea and activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Body weight gain, dietary intake, and lipid deposition were also analyzed. The results showed no hepatic and renal toxicity of HQ. Moreover, decreased food intake, body weight, fat deposition, and blood triacylglycerol level were observed in the supplemented groups (sedentary and exercised supplemented groups). These results suggest a potential use of HQ in human nutrition.

  2. Chromosomal localization of two novel repetitive sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, B; Gardunia, B W; Michalska, M; Bonifacio, A; Fairbanks, D; Maughan, P J; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Jellen, E N; Maluszynska, J

    2011-09-01

    The chromosomal organization of two novel repetitive DNA sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome was analyzed across the genomes of selected Chenopodium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with the repetitive DNA clone 18-24J in the closely related allotetraploids C. quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. (2n = 4x = 36) evidenced hybridization signals that were mainly present on 18 chromosomes; however, in the allohexaploid Chenopodium album L. (2n = 6x = 54), cross-hybridization was observed on all of the chromosomes. In situ hybridization with rRNA gene probes indicated that during the evolution of polyploidy, the chenopods lost some of their rDNA loci. Reprobing with rDNA indicated that in the subgenome labeled with 18-24J, one 35S rRNA locus and at least half of the 5S rDNA loci were present. A second analyzed sequence, 12-13P, localized exclusively in pericentromeric regions of each chromosome of C. quinoa and related species. The intensity of the FISH signals differed considerably among chromosomes. The pattern observed on C. quinoa chromosomes after FISH with 12-13P was very similar to GISH results, suggesting that the 12-13P sequence constitutes a major part of the repetitive DNA of C. quinoa.

  3. Development of Betalain Producing Callus Lines from Colored Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henarejos-Escudero, Paula; Guadarrama-Flores, Berenice; Guerrero-Rubio, M Alejandra; Gómez-Pando, Luz Rayda; García-Carmona, Francisco; Gandía-Herrero, Fernando

    2018-01-17

    Betalains are water-soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work, callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8.88 μM) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (6.79 μM) with a reduction of the nitrogen source to 5.91 mM. Pigment analysis by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS fully describes the content of individual pigments in the cell lines and allows the first report on the pigments present in quinoa seedlings. Phyllocactin and vulgaxanthin I are described as novel pigments in the species and show the potential of C. quinoa culture lines in the production of compounds of nutritional value.

  4. Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Vergara, Judith; Uribe, Elsa; Puente, Luis; Martínez, Enrique A

    2010-12-01

    Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd., is an Amaranthacean, stress-tolerant plant cultivated along the Andes for the last 7000 years, challenging highly different environmental conditions ranging from Bolivia, up to 4.500 m of altitude, to sea level, in Chile. Its grains have higher nutritive value than traditional cereals and it is a promising worldwide cultivar for human consumption and nutrition. The quinoa has been called a pseudo-cereal for botanical reasons but also because of its unusual composition and exceptional balance between oil, protein and fat. The quinoa is an excellent example of 'functional food' that aims at lowering the risk of various diseases. Functional properties are given also by minerals, vitamins, fatty acids and antioxidants that can make a strong contribution to human nutrition, particularly to protect cell membranes, with proven good results in brain neuronal functions. Its minerals work as cofactors in antioxidant enzymes, adding higher value to its rich proteins. Quinoa also contains phytohormones, which offer an advantage over other plant foods for human nutrition. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Water deficit stress-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen partitioning in Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán-Godoy, Luisa; Reguera, Maria; Abdel-Tawab, Yasser M; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Water deficit stress followed by re-watering during grain filling resulted in the induction of the ornithine pathway and in changes in Quinoa grain quality. The genetic diversity of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Quinoa) is accompanied by an outstanding environmental adaptability and high nutritional properties of the grains. However, little is known about the biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with the abiotic stress tolerance of Quinoa. Here, we characterized carbon and nitrogen metabolic changes in Quinoa leaves and grains in response to water deficit stress analyzing their impact on the grain quality of two lowland ecotypes (Faro and BO78). Differences in the stress recovery response were found between genotypes including changes in the activity of nitrogen assimilation-associated enzymes that resulted in differences in grain quality. Both genotypes showed a common strategy to overcome water stress including the stress-induced synthesis of reactive oxygen species scavengers and osmolytes. Particularly, water deficit stress induced the stimulation of the ornithine and raffinose pathways. Our results would suggest that the regulation of C- and N partitioning in Quinoa during grain filling could be used for the improvement of the grain quality without altering grain yields.

  6. Taxonomic and Functional Diversity of a Quercus pyrenaica Willd. Rhizospheric Microbiome in the Mediterranean Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Cobo-Díaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Altitude significantly affects vegetation growth and distribution, including the developmental stages of a forest. We used shotgun Illumina sequencing to analyze microbial community composition and functional potential in melojo-oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd. rhizospheric soil for three different development stages along an altitudinal gradient: (a a low altitude, non-optimal site for forest maintenance; (b an intermediate altitude, optimal site for a forest; and (c a high altitude, expansion site with isolated trees but without a real forest canopy. We observed that, at each altitude, the same microbial taxa appear both in the taxonomic analysis of the whole metagenome and in the functional analysis of the methane, sulfur and nitrogen metabolisms. Although there were no major differences at the functional level, there were significant differences in the abundance of each taxon at the phylogenetic level between the rhizospheres of the forest (low and intermediate altitudes and the expansion site. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most differentially abundant phyla in forest soils compared to the expansion site rhizosphere. Moreover, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes and Nitrospirae phyla were more highly represented in the non-forest rhizosphere. Our study suggests that rhizospheric microbial communities of the same tree species may be affected by development stage and forest canopy cover via changes in soil pH and the C/N ratio.

  7. Chemical Profiles and Protective Effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Inflammation Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian-Hong; Liu, Meng-Hua; Zhang, Xu-Lin; He, Jing-Yu

    2015-11-13

    Protective effect of Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa) Willd against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by the productions of cytokines and chemokine, and the bioactive constituents of H. diffusa were detected by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method. As the results showed, water extract of H. diffusa (equal to 5.0 g/kg body weight) obviously protected renal tissues, significantly suppressed the productions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as significantly promoted the production of IL-10 in serum and renal tissues. According the chemical profiles of H. diffusa, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones were greatly detected in serum from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. Two main chemotypes, including eight flavonoids and four iridoid glycosides were found in renal tissues from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. The results demonstrated that water extract of H. diffusa had protective effect on renal inflammation, which possibly resulted from the bioactive constituents consisting of flavonoids, iridoids and anthraquinones.

  8. Chemical Profiles and Protective Effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Inflammation Mice

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    Jian-Hong Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Protective effect of Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa Willd against lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by the productions of cytokines and chemokine, and the bioactive constituents of H. diffusa were detected by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography -diode array detector-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS method. As the results showed, water extract of H. diffusa (equal to 5.0 g/kg body weight obviously protected renal tissues, significantly suppressed the productions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, as well as significantly promoted the production of IL-10 in serum and renal tissues. According the chemical profiles of H. diffusa, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones were greatly detected in serum from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. Two main chemotypes, including eight flavonoids and four iridoid glycosides were found in renal tissues from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. The results demonstrated that water extract of H. diffusa had protective effect on renal inflammation, which possibly resulted from the bioactive constituents consisting of flavonoids, iridoids and anthraquinones.

  9. Morphological and molecular differentiation of the croatian populations of Ouercus pubescens Willd. (Fagaceae

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    Josip Franjić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy of the genus Quercus L. is very complicated and often controversial because of its great variability and intense gene flow among the related species. The purpose of this research was to determine morphological and molecular variation, relationships and taxonomic status of the Croatian populations of Quercus pubescens Willd. using morphological analysis of the leaves and RAPD-PCR technique. The results of the morphological and molecular analyses were very similar, both showing differentiation of the southern (Mediterranean from the northern (Continental pubescent oak populations. These two groups were clearly separated and the estimated gene flow among the populations that belong to different groups (Nm=1.38 is significantly less than among the populations that belong to the same group (Nm=3.70. The obtained results were compared to the available studies. This study confirms a high variability of the Q. pubescens populations, but differences were not so big to confirm the opinion of existence of several species in this area. The conclusion is that the southern Croatian populations could be pure Q. pubescens populations, while the peculiarities of the northern Croatian populations originate probably from the Q. petraea introgression.

  10. Parietaria pensylvanicu Mühlenb. ex Willd. - potentialities of migration from park habitats to segetal communities

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    Anna K. Sawilska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Parietaria pensvlvanica Mühlenb ex. Willd is a species native to North America, whose occurrence in Poland was first reported in Bydgoszcz in 1991. Its biology and ecology has been researched since 1996. The present paper discusses measurements and phenological observations carried out on four selected populations during the vegetation season in 1997. The aim of the research was to determine potentialities of the migration of P. pensylvanica from park habitats to segetal communities, on the basis of a defined life strategy of the examined populations. The analysis focused on the dynamics of density and biomass as well as on the weight of 1000 nucules, against the habitat conditions. The findings demonstrated that the investigated species was characterised by a set of life strategy properties referred to as C-S-R or S-R, and was subject to the "r"-type selection. P. pensylvanica has become an integral part of the Bydgoszcz flora and is likely to expand into segetal communities of agricultural and vegetable crops.

  11. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Ambrosia peruviana Willd. from Venezuelan plains

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    Carlos A. Yánez C.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, are currently exploring new sources of natural antibacterial agents, due to increased bacterial resistance, including essential oils derived from plants. For this reason in the present study we determined the chemical composition of essential oil obtained from leaves collected on Ambrosia peruviana Willd Guasdualito, Apure State, Venezuela. The volatile compounds were isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger trap and then subjected to qualitative analysis and quantitative by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC / MS on an HP GC-MS System, model 5973, finding as the major compound gamma-curcumeno (23.99% followed by curcumeno-ar (14.08%, bornyl acetate (10.35%, camphor (5.03% and epoxide oximene (4.79%. The antibacterial activity of essential oil by the agar diffusion method with discs against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed activity against S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli and S. Typhi, with MIC values of 350-500 micrograms/ mL. This research represents the first report of antibacterial activity of A. peruviana.

  12. Antidiabetic and antiplatelet aggregation study of various methanol fractions of Nymphaea stellata Willd. leaves

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    Raja Mohan Maruga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Nymphaeaceae is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Alcohol extract of N. stellata leaves has been reported for hypoglycaemic activity. Objective: The aim of this study was to further investigate the different methanol fractions of N. stellata leaves for anti-diabetic activity and anti-platelet aggregation activity. Methods: Methanol extract was fractioned in to unsaponified petroleum ether fraction of methanol extract (UPFME, chloroform fraction of methanol extract (CFME and residual fraction of methanol extract (RFME. All fractions were evaluated for in vivo anti-diabetic activity (STZ-NAD-induced rat model, in vitro anti-diabetic activity (PTP1B inhibition study and anti-platelet aggregation activity. Results: UPFME showed significant changes in all studied parameters, compared to the diabetic control. UPFME also showed an IC50 value of 19.30±1.1 mg/ml and 13.11±0.7 μg/ml in PTP1B inhibition study and anti-platelet aggregation study, respectively. Conclusion: The study indicates that UPFME of N. stellata leaves exhibit anti-diabetic and anti-platelet aggregation activity.

  13. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruits of Vernonia anthelmintica (L Willd.

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    Alok Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruits of Vernonia anthelmintica (L Willd. (V. anthelmintica. Method: Hot plate method in mice, acetic acid induced writhing response in mice, tail immersion test and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats method were used for screening analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruit of V. anthelmintica (family: Asteraceae. Results: The result of the study showed that the ethanolic extract of V. anthelmintica (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. fruits possed peripheral and central analgesic activity in animal model. The V. anthelmintica fruits extract showed in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity models in rats. Conclusions: On the basis of result it can be concluded that saponins, steroids, tannins and flavonoids are the major constituents that are present in the fruits of V. anthelmintica which may be responsible for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  14. Clinical efficacy of Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. (Makandi) in hypertension of geriatric population.

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    Jagtap, Madhavi; Chandola, H M; Ravishankar, B

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide. The present clinical study deals with the effect of Makandi (Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq.) Ghana vati and tablets of its powder in hypertension found in the geriatric age group (50-80 years). A total of 49 hypertensive patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria were registered in two groups-Group I (Ghana vati) and Group II (Churna tablet). Out of 27 enrolled patients of group I, 21 patients completed the treatment. In Group II, out of 22 registered patients, a total of 20 patients completed the treatment. The effect of the therapy was assessed on the basis of changes in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, in both sitting and supine positions; with Manasa Bhava Pariksha, Manasa Vibhrama Pariksha, symptomatology, geriatric signs and symptoms, and a brief psychiatric rating scale. Analysis of the results showed that the treatment in both the groups had been found to be good. It can be stated that Makandi, either in Ghana vati form or in churna tablet form, is an effective remedy for the treatment of hypertension. On analyzing the overall effect, 76.19% patients in Group I and 75.00% patients in Group II were mildly improved. Comparatively the overall treatment with group I was found to be better.

  15. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

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    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  16. Evaluation of growth and flowering of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions

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    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The material presented refers to the estimation of growth and the flowering (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions. The species has been a South-American pseudocereal cultivated in the traditional form in the Andean region for over 5 thousand years. Its advantage, apart from low soil and climate requirements, is that it shows high nutritive value. The Chenopodium quinoa protein is especially valuable with its amino acid composition which is better balanced than that of wheat or maize. It shows a better share of egzogenic aminoacids. Field examinations were carried out in 1999-2001 at the Experiment Station of Cultivar Testing at Chrząstowo. The experiment involved two cultivars from two various growing regions: America and Europe. Analyses were made to include development stages, plant growth dynamics, inflorescences development dynamics, inflorescence habit and flowering. Differences were recorded in the growth and development models of the cultivars researched. The European cultivar had a short compact inflorescence with a short flowering period, reaching 120 cm. American cultivar plants were high (160 cm; they showed a slower continuous growth, loose big-in-size inflorescence, and a long period of flowering. The plants ended their growing season over the flowering stage or seed formation. The adequate growth, the course of flowering and, as a result, a stable yielding of the European cultivar make the group suitable for the cultivation under Polish conditions. This breeding group should also be the parent material for the cultivation of the Polish cultivar of Chenopodium quinoa.

  17. Ecophysiological Analysis of Drought and Salinity Stress Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.

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    Bosque Sanchez, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the relative influence of drought and salinity stress, with similar soil water potentials on growth, water relations and photosynthetic rate of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., testing at the same time certain techniques of stress physiology studies. As treatments, we have imposed two levels of salinity stress (S1 = 3852, 8 mg. V-1 NaCI and S2 = 8051.2 mg. V-1 NaCI and two of levels of drought stress with-0.159 MPa (D1 and -0, 279 MPa (D2 of soil water potentials (f^, and the control (c treatment without stress (65 % of volumetric soil water content, i. e. ¥m = -0.059 MPa. Our results of the greenhouse experiment have shown that quinoa has better relative and absolute growth rate in saline conditions, and the plant have developed adaptations mechanisms to drought through higher water use efficiency and high root/shoot ratio. The stomatal resistance and leaf water potential were higher as higher were the stress conditions. The variable chlorophyll fluoresence to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence-ratio (Fv/Fm and the fluorescence quenching analysis (photochemical : qP and non-photochemical : qN have shown the plants under drought stress are less protected against photoinhibition. Finally the use of Dynamic Diffusion Porometer has limitations for studies of plants species with salt bladders as quinoa.

  18. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxic Effect of Ventilago denticulata Willd Leaves Extracts.

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    Pongjanta, Anursara; Pangjit, Kanjana; Srichairatanakool, Somdet

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is characterized by an imbalance between the antioxidant defense systems and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The excess of ROS can damage biomolecules and leading to several chronic conditions and diseases such as diabetes, antherosclerosis, ischemic injury, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Plant extracts and their constituents as a natural source of antioxidants have been extensively studied. The study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic Rhang Dang (entilago denticulata Willd) leaves extract. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Rhang Dang leaves were preliminary analyzed for their phenolic profile (total phenolics and total flavonoids). These extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant properties by different methods such as DPPH radical scavenging andperoxyl radical scavenging activity generated by AAPH (2,2'-Azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride). Their cytotoxic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were determined by MTT assay. Anti-hemolytic activity was examined using spectrophotometrical method. The ethanolic extract from Rhang Dang leaves exhibited a strong antioxidant activity and prevented hemolysis. It showed the highest amount of phenolics (91.03 ± 12.43 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g extract) and flavonoid compound (69.76 ± 10.84 mg of catechin equivalents/g). Interestingly, this extract was more cytotoxic to HepG2 cells than PBMC. The ethanolic extract from Rhang Dang leaves had strong antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect on cancer cells.

  19. SOMBREAMENTO E SUBSTRATOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Erythrina velutina Willd.

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    Laércio Wanderley dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd. (Fabaceae is used in traditional medicine in northeastern Brazil for its sudorific properties, soothing, emollient, pectoral and local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substrate and shading on seedlings of Erythrina velutina. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 5 x 2 (five substrates and two shades, with four replications and 10 plants in each plot. The substrates were arisco, arisco + cattle manure 2:1 v/v, arisco + cattle manure 3:1 v/v, sand + cattle manure 2:1 v/v, sand + cattle manure 3:1 v/v. The shadings were 0% shading (full sunlight and 50% shading. The characteristics evaluated were stem diameter, height, leaf area, green and dry biomass of roots and shoots, height/diameter and Dickson quality index.There was no significant difference in diameter between the different substrates. The environment in full sun favored the diameter and the root biomass whereas the height was favored by shade. The substrates with cattle manure in its composition favors the development of plants of Erythrina velutina and higher seedling quality are produced in full sun and substrate arisco + cattle manure in the ratio 2:1.

  20. Three new isoflavones from the Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) and their bioactivities.

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    Cui, Tinghui; Tang, Shiyun; Liu, Chunbo; Li, Zhenjie; Zhu, Qin; You, Junheng; Si, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Fengmei; He, Pei; Liu, Zhihua; Miao, Mingming; Yang, Guangyu; Shen, Qinpeng; Jiang, Lihong

    2017-10-12

    Three new isoflavones, 7-acetyl-4',6-dimethoxy-isoflavone (1), 7-acetyl-4'-hydroxy-6-methoxy-isoflavone (2) and 7-acetyl-6,8-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-isoflavone (3), together with five known flavones (4-8), were isolated from the Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activities. The results showed that compounds 1 and 2 exhibited high anti-TMV activities with inhibition rates of 36.8 and 33.6%, respectively. The inhibition rates are higher than that of positive control. The other compounds also showed potential anti-TMV activities with inhibition rates in the range of 21.8~28.4%, respectively. The cytotoxicities of compounds 1-3 against five human tumour cell lines (NB4, A549, SHSY5Y, PC3 and MCF7) were also tested. The results revealed that compounds 1-3 showed weak inhibitory activities against some tested human tumour cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 1.2-3.6 μM.

  1. Cytotoxic Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Turnera diffusa Willd on Breast Cancer Cells

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    Avelino-Flores, María del Carmen; Cruz-López, María del Carmen; Jiménez-Montejo, Fabiola E.; Reyes-Leyva, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Turnera diffusa Willd, commonly known as Damiana, is employed in traditional medicine as a stimulant, aphrodisiac, and diuretic. Its leaves and stems are used for flavoring and infusion. Damiana is considered to be safe for medicinal use by the FDA. Pharmacological studies have established the hypoglycemic, antiaromatase, prosexual, estrogenic, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of T. diffusa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible cytotoxic effect of extracts and organic fractions of this plant on five tumor cell lines (SiHa, C-33, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D) and normal human fibroblasts. The results show that the methanolic extract (TdM) displayed greater activity on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (with an IC50 of 30.67 μg/mL) than on the other cancer cell lines. Four organic fractions of this extract exhibited activity on this cancer cell line. In the most active fraction (F4), two active compounds were isolated, arbutin (1) and apigenin (2). This is the first report of a cytotoxic effect by T. diffusa on cancer cells. The IC50 values suggest that the methanolic extract of T. diffusa has potential as an anticancer therapy. PMID:25299247

  2. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Launaea sarmentosa (Willd.) schultz-bip.ex Kuntze root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Yusriyya; Harisha, C R; Shukla, Vinay J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2013-01-01

    Launaea sarmentosa (Willd) Schultz-Bip.ex Kuntze (Asteraceae), locally known as Kulhafila in the Maldives, is a creeping herb, native to tropical Indian coastlines. According to anecdotal evidence from locals in the Maldives, the roots of this plant are used as an ingredient of a popular medicinal preparation (Hilibeys) taken by mothers after childbirth. It is also used in various other ailments in different parts of the Maldives, as well as in India. So far, there has been no scientific documentation of this plant. The only source of information available is held by natives and traditional medical practitioners. The present study was conducted on the root of L. sarmentosa for its pharmacognostical and phytochemical characteristics as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoea of India (API) parameters. The microscopic characteristics of the root show prismatic crystals, multiseriate medullary rays, laticiferous cells, and pitted parenchyma. Qualitative analyses, such as loss on drying, ash value, pH, etc., were conducted. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloids, tannin, steroids, etc.

  3. The Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Rubiaceae): A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Quality Control and Pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; He, Jingyu; Tong, Xueli; Tang, Lan; Liu, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    Hedyotis diffusa Willd (H. diffusa) is a well-known Chinese medicine with a variety of activities, especially its anti-cancer effect in the clinic. Up to now, 171 compounds have been reported from H. diffusa, including 32 iridoids, 26 flavonoids, 24 anthraquinones, 26 phenolics and their derivatives, 50 volatile oils and 13 miscellaneous compounds. In vitro and in vivo studies show these phytochemicals and plant extracts to exhibit a range of pharmacological activities of anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibroblast, immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects. Although a series of methods have been established for the quality control of H. diffusa, a feasible and reliable approach is still needed in consideration of its botanical origin, collecting time and bioactive effects. Meanwhile, more pharmacokinetics researches are needed to illustrate the characteristics of H. diffusa in vivo. The present review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and pharmacokinetic characteristics of H. diffusa for its clinical use and further development.

  4. Effects of extracts from Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd. DC. on iron bioavailability in rats

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    Chih-Chung Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd. DC. is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. This study investigates the effects of G. bicolor extracts with different polarities of 80 mg/kg body weight (BW G. bicolor alcohol extract, 80 mg/kg BW G. bicolor water extract, and 80 mg/kg BW G. bicolor ether extract on Fe bioavailability using the hemoglobin repletion efficiency assay. Wistar rats were assigned to five groups: a group receiving an iron-deficient (ID diet; a group receiving an ID diet supplemented with ferrous sulfate (20 mg Fe/kg BW; and three groups receiving ID diets supplemented with ferrous sulfate and one of G. bicolor alcohol extract, G. bicolor water extract, or G. bicolor water extract. The results indicated that the levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, liver ferritin, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, relative biological value, and hepcidin all were significantly higher than those of the ID diet group. Besides, the iron transporter divalent metal transporter-1 was significantly reduced, but iron release protein expression of ferroportin was significantly increased. It was concluded that G. bicolor extracts may promote iron bioavailability and regulate the expressions of divalent metal transporter-1 and ferroportin.

  5. Phytochemical and analytical evaluation of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd.) leaf extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Monojit; Biswas, Moulisha; Shukla, Vinay J.; Nishteswar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd.) is a woody climber belongs to the family Celastraceae; a well known herbal nootropic, distributed through the tropical and subtropical regions of India. Its leaves are used in eye disease and headache. Very low qualitative and quantitative information about leaves have been documented to establish its quality and purity. Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate physicochemical, phyto-chemical and HPTLC analysis of different solvent extracts of the C. paniculatus leaves. Results: Physico-chemical analysis revealed loss on drying 13.05% w/w, total ash value 16.08% w/w, acid insoluble ash 0.386% w/w, water-soluble extractive 14.22% w/w, alcohol-soluble extractive 9.91% w/w, chloroform-soluble extractive 7.75% w/w and ether-soluble extractive 4.74% w/w. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroid and terpenoid in the both pet. ether and ethyl acetate extracts while methanol extract possessed steroid, terpenoid, carbohydrate, alkaloid, saponin, and phenolic compounds. Conclusion: The observations made in this study may help to develop the standards of qualitative and quantitative parameters with regards to identification, quality and purity of C. paniculatus leaf. PMID:25364201

  6. SHADING AND SUBSTRATE ON THE PRODUCTION OF SEEDLINGS OF Erythrina velutina Willd.

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    Laércio Wanderley dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812341Erythrina velutina Willd. (Fabaceae is used in traditional medicine in northeastern Brazil for its sudorificproperties, soothing, emollient, pectoral and local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to evaluate theeffect of substrate and shading on seedlings of Erythrina velutina. The experimental design was completelyrandomized in factorial scheme 5 x 2 (five substrates and two shades, with four replications and 10 plantsin each plot. The substrates were arisco, arisco + cattle manure 2:1 v/v, arisco + cattle manure 3:1 v/v, sand+ cattle manure 2:1 v/v, sand + cattle manure 3:1 v/v. The shadings were 0% shading (full sunlight and50% shading. The characteristics evaluated were stem diameter, height, leaf area, green and dry biomass ofroots and shoots, height/diameter and Dickson quality index.There was no significant difference in diameterbetween the different substrates. The environment in full sun favored the diameter and the root biomasswhereas the height was favored by shade. The substrates with cattle manure in its composition favorsthe development of plants of Erythrina velutina and higher seedling quality are produced in full sun andsubstrate arisco + cattle manure in the ratio 2:1

  7. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd. as a source of dietary fiber and other functional components

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    Ritva Ann-Mari Repo-Carrasco-Valencia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Four varieties of an Andean indigenous crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., were evaluated as a source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the final products were analyzed to determine the dietary fiber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. There were no significant differences in the contents of total dietary fiber between varieties of quinoa. In all cases, the contents of total and insoluble dietary fiber decreased during the extrusion process. At the same time, the content of soluble dietary fiber increased. The content of total phenolic compounds and the radical scavenging activity increased during the extrusion process in the case of all 4 varieties. There were significant differences between the varieties and the content of total polyphenols. The in vitro protein digestibility of quinoa varieties was between 76.3 and 80.5% and the in vitro starch digestibility was between 65.1 and 68.7%. Our study demonstrates that quinoa can be considered a good source of dietary fiber, polyphenols and other antioxidant compounds and that extrusion improves the nutritional value.

  8. Performance of Azolla caroliniana Willd. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. on fish farming effluent

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    JJ. Toledo

    Full Text Available The increasing release of untreated fish farming effluents into water courses that flow to the Pantanal wetlands in Mato Grosso (Brazil may drive this ecosystem to eutrophication. Therefore, the growth of Azolla caroliniana Willd. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. in fish farming effluent and their effect on its quality were evaluated for 48 days in a greenhouse. The results were compared to those obtained in a nutrient rich solution (Hoagland ½ medium. Azolla caroliniana showed lower relative growth rate in fish farming effluent (0.020 d-1 than in Hoagland ½ medium (0.029 d-1. However, S. auriculata grew slightly better in fish farming effluent (0.030 d-1 than in Hoagland ½ medium (0.025 d-1. The species apparently contributed to reduce nitrate and phosphate concentration in Hoagland ½ medium. However, in fish farming effluent, only electrical conductivity and pH were reduced by plants compared to the control without plants. Thus, A. caroliniana and S. auriculata show low potential for improving effluent quality.

  9. Performance of Azolla caroliniana Willd. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. on fish farming effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, J J; Penha, J

    2011-02-01

    The increasing release of untreated fish farming effluents into water courses that flow to the Pantanal wetlands in Mato Grosso (Brazil) may drive this ecosystem to eutrophication. Therefore, the growth of Azolla caroliniana Willd. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. in fish farming effluent and their effect on its quality were evaluated for 48 days in a greenhouse. The results were compared to those obtained in a nutrient rich solution (Hoagland ½ medium). Azolla caroliniana showed lower relative growth rate in fish farming effluent (0.020 d-1) than in Hoagland ½ medium (0.029 d-1). However, S. auriculata grew slightly better in fish farming effluent (0.030 d-1) than in Hoagland ½ medium (0.025 d-1). The species apparently contributed to reduce nitrate and phosphate concentration in Hoagland ½ medium. However, in fish farming effluent, only electrical conductivity and pH were reduced by plants compared to the control without plants. Thus, A. caroliniana and S. auriculata show low potential for improving effluent quality.

  10. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk assessment, eradication, and biological control: global efforts to limit Australian acacia invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R.U.; Gairifo, Carla; Gibson, Michelle R.; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bakar, Baki B.; Baret, Stephane; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Dufour-Dror, Jean-Marc; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A.; Hoffman, John H.; Impson, Fiona A.C.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Marchante, Elizabete; Harchante, Helia; Moore, Joslin L.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Tassin, Jacques; Witt, Arne; Zenni, Rafael D.; Richardson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new

  12. Enraizaimento de estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. com o uso de ácido indolbutírico

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Mendes Costa; Arcângelo Loss; Heitor Paulo Nascimento Pereira; Jander Ferreira Almeida

    2015-01-01

    O uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA) como estimulador do enraizamento em estacas de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. pode propiciar aumento de raízes para a formação de mudas comercializáveis. Objetivou-se avaliar o enraizamento, a formação de brotos e a sobrevivência de estacas herbáceas, lenhosas e semi-lenhosas de Bougainvillea com o uso de ácido indolbutírico (IBA). As estacas foram coletadas e tratadas com o IBA (1000 e 2000 mg/l). Aos 56 dias avaliaram-se a porcentagem de estacas vivas, e...

  13. [Chemical and biological evaluation of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Effect of the extraction of saponins by heat treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería Rios, M L; Sgarbieri, V C; Amaya, J

    1978-09-01

    The changes in proximate composition, amino acid content and protein efficiency ratio (PER) caused by hot-water extraction of the saponins were studied in four Bolivian varieties of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd). Detectable saponin was eliminated with an extraction at 70 degrees C. Extraction at 87 degrees C also eliminated the saponins but, in addition, had the tendency of slightly increasing the protein amino acid content. The maximum PER obtained was 2.99 for the Blanca variety, followed by 2.72 for the Sajama variety, also extracted at 87 degrees C (casein gave a PER value of 3.21).

  14. The effects of passage through the gut of goats and cattle, and the application of dung as a fertiliser on seedling establishment of Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tjelele, TJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed pods of Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica have higher nutritive value than grasses and other browse plants during the dry season and form an important part of the diet of livestock. Seeds of Acacia may be destroyed during passage...

  15. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive

  16. Characterization of Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene homoeologs in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, P J; Turner, T B; Coleman, C E; Elzinga, D B; Jellen, E N; Morales, J A; Udall, J A; Fairbanks, D J; Bonifacio, A

    2009-07-01

    Salt tolerance is an agronomically important trait that affects plant species around the globe. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in germination and growth of plants in saline environments. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic, allotetraploid grain crop of the family Amaranthaceae with impressive nutritional content and an increasing worldwide market. Many quinoa varieties have considerable salt tolerance, and research suggests quinoa may utilize novel mechanisms to confer salt tolerance. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two homoeologous SOS1 loci (cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B) from C. quinoa, including full-length cDNA sequences, genomic sequences, relative expression levels, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and a phylogenetic analysis of SOS1 genes from 13 plant taxa. The cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B genes each span 23 exons spread over 3477 bp and 3486 bp of coding sequence, respectively. These sequences share a high level of similarity with SOS1 homologs of other species and contain two conserved domains, a Nhap cation-antiporter domain and a cyclic-nucleotide binding domain. Genomic sequence analysis of two BAC clones (98 357 bp and 132 770 bp) containing the homoeologous SOS1 genes suggests possible conservation of synteny across the C. quinoa sub-genomes. This report represents the first molecular characterization of salt-tolerance genes in a halophytic species in the Amaranthaceae as well as the first comparative analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the two homoeologous genomes of C. quinoa.

  17. "Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of essential oil, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum Willd leaves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamal-Herrera, Isabel O; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi M; Escalante-Réndiz, Diana Y; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Azamar-Barrios, José A

    2018-02-08

    Ocimum micranthum Willd is a plant used in traditional medicine practiced in the region of the Yucatan peninsula. In particular, it is used for the treatment of cutaneous infections and wound healing, however there are currently no existing scientific studies that support these applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and the in vitro proliferative activity (on healthy mammalian cell lines) of the essential oil and extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of this plant. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans was determined using the microdilution technique. The in vitro proliferative activity of human fibroblast (hFB) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells treated with these extracts was evaluated using the MTT test. The hFB cell line was also evaluated using Trypan Blue assay. Candida albicans was more susceptible to the ethanolic extract and the aqueous extract (MIC value of 5 μL/mL and 80 μL/mL respectively). In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the MIC of the aqueous and ethanolic extract was 125 μL/mL. The aqueous extract showed a significant (p essential oil and extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves are sufficient to cause an antiproliferative effect on the hFB cell line but do not produce an antimicrobial effect against the microorganisms evaluated. More studies are necessary to improve understanding of the mechanism of action of the compounds implicated in the bioactivities shown by the crude extracts.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of berries and leaves essential oils of Macedonian Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves and berries essential oils from Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae grown in R. Macedonia (RM was investigated. GC/FID/MS analysis was carried out and 93 components were identified, representing 89.7-96.5% of the oils. The major components of the berries essential oil were α-pinene (19.2%, limonene (24.9% and cedrol (23.1%, followed by smaller amounts of b-funebrene, trans-caryophyllene, germacrene D and d-cadinene. The composition of the leaves essential oil was variable depending on the region of collection. Accordingly, samples originated from southeastern RM contained essential oil with α-pinene (67.6% and limonene (10.0%, from central part of RM with limonene (17.9-27.1% and cedrol (28.8-33.9%, while samples from southwestern RM contained oil with terpinen-4-ol (19.1%, cis-thujone (8.3%, germacrene D (11.0% and d-cadinene (6.3% as predominant components in the oil. Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The leaves essential oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml and moderate activity against Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml. Other investigated bacterial strains and Candida albicans were completely resistant to the antimicrobial activity of J. foetidissima essential oils.

  19. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of the leaves of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B Gandagule

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fruit decoction of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz Willd. is used toward increase sterility in woman intended birth control in some parts of Rajasthan, India. This plant is widely used in Turkish medicines as a potent sedative. One to two inches of the fresh stem bark of this species are chewed with 1-2 peppers, and the sap swallowed once a day for 5 days in the treatment of cough. Standardization is one of the challenges in herbal medicine. It is essential to evaluate the herbal plants scientifically and proper documentation should be made to know their medicinal properties. Materials and Methods: Leaf samples of Z. xylopyrus were studied as recommended by World Health Organization for morphological, microscopic, physicochemical, phytochemical, powder characteristics and other methods for standardization. Results: Morphologically the leaves are obovate or orbicular in shape, pinnate venation having aromatic odour and pungent taste. Microscopically leaves showed the presence of ground tissue, vascular strand, xylem and phloem. The crystals are mostly rosette type. Microscopic examination of powder showed the presence of stomata, covering trichomes, sclerenchyma, collenchyma, epidermal cells and vascular strands. Phytochemical screening of the plant part with various solvents revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids and sterol, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids in it. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value extractive values were also determined and results showed that water soluble extractive value to be higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Conclusion: Results may be helpful for further confirmation of selected species and in future these characters may be compared with the new batch of the same plant materials.

  20. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of the leaves of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz) Willd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandagule, Upendra B.; Duraiswamy, B.; Zalke, Ashish S.; Qureshi, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The fruit decoction of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz) Willd. is used toward increase sterility in woman intended birth control in some parts of Rajasthan, India. This plant is widely used in Turkish medicines as a potent sedative. One to two inches of the fresh stem bark of this species are chewed with 1-2 peppers, and the sap swallowed once a day for 5 days in the treatment of cough. Standardization is one of the challenges in herbal medicine. It is essential to evaluate the herbal plants scientifically and proper documentation should be made to know their medicinal properties. Materials and Methods: Leaf samples of Z. xylopyrus were studied as recommended by World Health Organization for morphological, microscopic, physicochemical, phytochemical, powder characteristics and other methods for standardization. Results: Morphologically the leaves are obovate or orbicular in shape, pinnate venation having aromatic odour and pungent taste. Microscopically leaves showed the presence of ground tissue, vascular strand, xylem and phloem. The crystals are mostly rosette type. Microscopic examination of powder showed the presence of stomata, covering trichomes, sclerenchyma, collenchyma, epidermal cells and vascular strands. Phytochemical screening of the plant part with various solvents revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids and sterol, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids in it. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value extractive values were also determined and results showed that water soluble extractive value to be higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Conclusion: Results may be helpful for further confirmation of selected species and in future these characters may be compared with the new batch of the same plant materials. PMID:24991075

  1. Genetic and chemical diversity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex. Schult.) DC. in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honório, Isabela Cristina Gomes; Bertoni, Bianca Waleria; Telles, Mariana Pires de Campos; Braga, Ramilla Dos Santos; França, Suzelei de Castro; Coppede, Juliana da Silva; Correa, Valéria Siero Conde; Diniz Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares

    2017-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC., a plant native to the Amazon region, is used widely in popular medicine and by the pharmaceutical industry because of its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the survival of this species is endangered by deforestation and indiscriminate collection, and a preservation plan is urgently required. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic and chemical variability between and within eight populations of U. tomentosa from the Brazilian states of Acre, Pará and Amapá, and to investigate possible correlations between genetic and geographical distances, and between geographical distances or altitude and the accumulation of bioactive oxindole alkaloids. Three sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were employed to fingerprint genomic DNA, and the amounts of mitraphylline and isomitraphylline in leaf samples were established by high-performance liquid chromatography. Although significant divergence existed between the tested populations (FST = 0.246), the largest genetic diversity and the highest percentage of polymorphism (95.68%) was found within the population from Mâncio Lima, Acre. Gene flow was considered rather limited (Nm = 1.57), and no correlations between genetic and geographical distances were detected, suggesting that population structure followed an island model. Accumulations of mitraphylline and isomitraphylline varied in the range 32.94 to 0.57 and 3.75 to 0.36 mg g-1 dry weight, respectively. The concentration of isomitraphylline was positively influenced by altitude, such that the population collected at the site with the highest elevation (Tarauacá, Acre) exhibited the greatest alkaloid content. SRAP markers were very efficient in fingerprinting genomic DNA from U. tomentosa populations and clearly showed that genetic variability within populations was greater than between populations. A conservation and management plan should prioritize the creation of germplasm banks to

  2. Analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Roy, Jayanti Datta; Buragohain, Bhaben; Barua, Acheenta Gohain; Borah, Prabodh; Lahkar, Mangala

    2011-04-01

    To study the analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata Willd. Wistar rats and Swiss albino mice were used for studying analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of Drymaria cordata hydroethanolic extract (DCHE) at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. Various models viz. acetic acid induced writhing model (female mice), Eddy's hot plate (mice) and tail flick model (rat) for analgesic study and formalin-induced paw licking model (mice) were used for anti-nociceptive study. In acetic acid induced writhing model, effect of DCHE was better than the standard drug- indomethacin 10 mg/kg (p.o.). In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 60 min at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o., which was higher than the standard drug morphine sulfate (1.5 mg/kg i.p.), whereas in the tail flick model, effect was comparable with morphine sulfate. In formalin-induced paw licking model, administration of DCHE completely abolished the early phase at 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. and in the late phase, the effect of DCHE (200 mg/kg p.o.) was higher than indomethacin (10 mg/kg p.o.). DCHE was effective in both non-narcotic and narcotic models of nociception, suggesting its possible action via peripheral and central mechanism. It also abolished the early phase in formalin-induced paw licking model, suggesting complete inactivation of C-fiber at higher dose. The activity can be attributed to the phyto-constituents viz tannins, diterpenes, triterpenes and steroids present in the DCHE extract. In conclusion, DCHE can be developed as a potent analgesic and anti-nociceptive agent in future.

  3. Gastroprotective activities of Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. revisited: Role of arbutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Salga, Muhammad Saleh; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2012-05-07

    Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. has been used for the treatment of several human disorders including peptic ulcer. The current study is an attempt to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activities of arbutin, a major constituent of Turnera diffusa on two ulcer models. The possible involvement of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and mucus barrier mechanism has been investigated. Effects of arbutin on ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content and histochemistry, gross and histological gastric lesions, nitric oxide, cytokines levels (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), were evaluated in aspirin or ethanol-induced ulcer in vivo. Acute toxicity of arbutin was also examined in rodent model. MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the compound on normal liver cells (WRL-68). Pre-treatment with arbutin or omeprazole protected the gastric mucosa as seen by reduction in ulcer area and mucosal content, reduced or absence of edema, inflammation and leucocytes infiltration on both models. Arbutin significantly (PArbutin did not produce significant inhibition of NO. This natural compound has modulated the levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and TNF-α. No in vitro or in vivo toxicities for arbutin were observed. Thus it can be concluded that Turnera diffusa possesses anti-ulcer activity, which could be attributed to lipid peroxidation inhibitory, immuno modulatory and anti-oxidant mechanisms of arbutin but not to the intervention with nitric oxide inflammation pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic and chemical diversity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex. Schult. DC. in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina Gomes Honório

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult. DC., a plant native to the Amazon region, is used widely in popular medicine and by the pharmaceutical industry because of its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the survival of this species is endangered by deforestation and indiscriminate collection, and a preservation plan is urgently required. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic and chemical variability between and within eight populations of U. tomentosa from the Brazilian states of Acre, Pará and Amapá, and to investigate possible correlations between genetic and geographical distances, and between geographical distances or altitude and the accumulation of bioactive oxindole alkaloids. Three sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers were employed to fingerprint genomic DNA, and the amounts of mitraphylline and isomitraphylline in leaf samples were established by high-performance liquid chromatography. Although significant divergence existed between the tested populations (FST = 0.246, the largest genetic diversity and the highest percentage of polymorphism (95.68% was found within the population from Mâncio Lima, Acre. Gene flow was considered rather limited (Nm = 1.57, and no correlations between genetic and geographical distances were detected, suggesting that population structure followed an island model. Accumulations of mitraphylline and isomitraphylline varied in the range 32.94 to 0.57 and 3.75 to 0.36 mg g-1 dry weight, respectively. The concentration of isomitraphylline was positively influenced by altitude, such that the population collected at the site with the highest elevation (Tarauacá, Acre exhibited the greatest alkaloid content. SRAP markers were very efficient in fingerprinting genomic DNA from U. tomentosa populations and clearly showed that genetic variability within populations was greater than between populations. A conservation and management plan should prioritize the creation of germplasm

  5. Spatial and temporal seed dispersal of squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata Lam. ssp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler) in west central Utah, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Jensen; Stephen B. Monsen; Pat Fosse

    2008-01-01

    This case study documents temporal and spatial squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata Lam. spp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler) seed dispersal from study sites in central Utah. Felt seed traps were placed along transects extending from sites occupied by squarrose knapweed into adjacent plant communities. Seed dispersal from knapweed...

  6. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8

  7. Effects of salinity and soil-drying on radiation use efficiency, water productivity, seed set and final yield of field-grown quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, S. H.; Jacobsen, S.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Drought and salinity reduce crop productivity especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and finding a crop which produces yield under these adverse conditions is therefore very important. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is such a crop. Hence, a study was conducted in field lysimeters...

  8. Citrate-release-mediated aluminum resistance is coupled to the inducible expression of mitochondrial citrate synthase gene in Paraserianthes falcataria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Hiroki; Kojima, Katsumi

    2006-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) resistance in some leguminous plants is achieved by enhanced citrate release from roots. Enhancement requires several hours for complete activation and is postulated to involve Al-responsive genes or components. We examined the mechanism of Al-induced citrate release by studying the relationship between citrate release and expression of the mitochondrial citrate synthase (mCS) gene in three leguminous trees. Root elongation in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit was arrested within 24 h by 30 microM Al, whereas root elongation in Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Neilson and Acacia mangium Willd. was inhibited mangium maintained enhanced release and accumulation of citrate for at least 28 days in response to Al treatment. Aluminum increased the accumulation of mCS transcripts in P. falcataria roots, but not in L. leucocephala roots, and thus up-regulation decreased following removal of Al. Lanthanum did not alter the expression level of mCS. Aluminum increased mCS activity concomitantly with enhanced mCS gene expression in P. falcataria, whereas it did not affect mCS activity in L. leucocephala. Aluminum content in root apices of P. falcataria was increased by cycloheximide, supporting the idea that de novo synthesis of proteins is a prerequisite for Al resistance. Our findings suggest that Al-inducible expression of mCS coupled with enhanced citrate release mediates Al resistance in P. falcataria.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE QUANTITY OF ACACIA AND LIME HONEY HARVESTED IN 2008 IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BEEHIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA PĂTRUICĂ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paperwork present the results of a comparative study regarding the production of acacia (Robinia pseudacacia and lime honey harvested in 2008 in flat, vertical and multi-frame hives. A total of 45 bee families (Apis mellifica carpatica, Banatica ecotipe, divided in three experimental groups, with 15 families on each hive, were examined for every type of hive. During the experiment there were tracked the number of honeycombs with larvae starting from 7th to 10th of April and from 1st to 5th of May, the acacia and lime honey yield.

  10. The effect of saturated steam vapor temperature on heat consumption in the process of color modification of acacia wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurenda, Ladislav

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the heat consumption on the process of colour modification of acacia timber with measures 30 x 55 x 500 mm in pressure autoclaves AZ 240 using saturated water steam with temperatures from t = 110 to 140 °C following the regimes of colour homogenisation of I., II. and III. degree. The dependance of the heat consumption normative QTFS on the temparature of saturated water steam in the process of colour homogenisation of acacia timber following these regimes describes the equation: QTFS = 1.1122.t -13.903 kWh.m-3.

  11. The influence of heartwood on the pulping properties of Acacia melanoxylon wood

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Ana; Baptista, Isabel; Gominho, Jorge; Pereira, Helena

    2008-01-01

    The pulping wood quality of Acacia melanoxylon was evaluated in relation to the presence of heartwood. The sapwood and heartwood from 20 trees from four sites in Portugal were evaluated separately at 5% stem height level in terms of chemical composition and kraft pulping aptitude. Heartwood had more extractives than sapwood ranging from 7.4% to 9.5% and from 4.0% to 4.2%, respectively, and with a heartwood-to-sapwood ratio for extractives ranging from 1.9 to 2.3. The m...

  12. Bradyrhizobium populations occur in deep soil under the leguminous tree Acacia albida

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy, Nicolas C.; Dreyfus, Bernard L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil cores were drilled under the leguminous tree Acacia albida growing in two different ecoclimatic zones of West Africa: the Sahelian area (100 to 500 mm of annual rainfall) and the Sudano-Guinean area (1,000 to 1,500 mm of annual rainfall). Soil samples were collected at different depths from the surface down to the water table level and analyzed for the presence of rhizobia able to nodulate A. albida. In both areas, population densities of rhizobia were substantially greater near the wate...

  13. Influence of neighboring plants on the dynamics of an ant-acacia protection mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Todd M; Riginos, Corinna; Damiani, Rachel E; Morgan, Natalya; Lemboi, John S; Lengingiro, James; Ruiz-Guajardo, Juan C; Pringle, Robert M

    2017-12-01

    Ant-plant protection symbioses, in which plants provide food and/or shelter for ants in exchange for protection from herbivory, are model systems for understanding the ecology of mutualism. While interactions between ants, host plants, and herbivores have been intensively studied, we know little about how plant-plant interactions influence the dynamics of these mutualisms, despite strong evidence that plants compete for resources, that hosting ants can be costly, and that host-plant provisioning to ants can therefore be constrained by resource availability. We used field experiments in a semiarid Kenyan savanna to examine interactions between the ant-plant Acacia drepanolobium, neighboring grasses, and two species of symbiotic acacia-ants with divergent behaviors: Crematogaster mimosae, an aggressive symbiont that imposes high costs to host trees via consumption of extrafloral nectar, and Tetraponera penzigi, a less-protective symbiont that imposes lower costs because it does not consume nectar. We hypothesized that by competing with acacias for resources, neighboring grasses (1) reduce hosts' ability to support costly C. mimosae, while having little or no effect on the ability of hosts to support low-cost T. penzigi, and (2) reduce sapling growth rates irrespective of ant occupant. We factorially manipulated the presence/absence of grasses and the identity of ant occupants on saplings and evaluated effects on colony survivorship and sapling growth rates over 40 weeks. Contrary to prediction, the high-cost/high-reward nectar-dependent mutualist C. mimosae had higher colony-survival rates on saplings with grass neighbors present. Grasses appear to have indirectly facilitated the survival of C. mimosae by reducing water stress on host plants; soils under saplings shaded by grasses had higher moisture content, and these saplings produced more active nectaries than grass-removal saplings. Consistent with prediction, survival of low-cost/low-reward T. penzigi did

  14. Free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of Acacia nilotica wood lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Barapatre, Anand; Sahu, Sudha; Jha, Harit; Tiwary, Bhupendra Nath

    2014-06-01

    Nine different fractions of lignin extracted by alkali, hot water and organosolv methods from Acacia wood powder were assessed for antioxidants activity. Results indicated that methanolic lignin fraction had highest polyphenol content of 393.30±9.2μg/ml (GAE). The oraganosolv lignin with total phenols and phenolic hydroxyl group content exhibited significant antioxidant activity as compared to other lignin fractions. Antioxidant properties of acetone fractions revealed a high antiradical scavenging activity (products for cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fire disturbance disrupts an acacia ant-plant mutualism in favor of a subordinate ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Ryan L; Kimuyu, Duncan K; Ruiz Guajardo, Juan C; Veblen, Kari E; Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2017-05-01

    Although disturbance theory has been recognized as a useful framework in examining the stability of ant-plant mutualisms, very few studies have examined the effects of fire disturbance on these mutualisms. In myrmecophyte-dominated savannas, fire and herbivory are key drivers that could influence ant-plant mutualisms by causing complete colony mortality and/or decreasing colony size, which potentially could alter dominance hierarchies if subordinate species are more fire resilient. We used a large-scale, replicated fire experiment to examine long-term effects of fire on acacia-ant community composition. To determine if fire shifted ant occupancy from a competitive dominant to a subordinate ant species, we surveyed the acacia-ant community in 6-7 yr old burn sites and examined how the spatial scale of these burns influenced ant community responses. We then used two short-term fire experiments to explore possible mechanisms for the shifts in community patterns observed. Because survival of ant colonies is largely dependent on their ability to detect and escape an approaching fire, we first tested the evacuation response of all four ant species when exposed to smoke (fire signal). Then to better understand how fire and its interaction with large mammal herbivory affect the density of ants per tree, we quantified ant worker density in small prescribed burns within herbivore exclusion plots. We found clear evidence suggesting that fire disturbance favored the subordinate ant Crematogaster nigriceps more than the dominant and strong mutualist ant C. mimosae, whereby C. nigriceps (1) was the only species to occupy a greater proportion of trees in 6-7 yr old burn sites compared to unburned sites, (2) had higher burn/unburn tree ratios with increasing burn size, and (3) evacuated significantly faster than C. mimosae in the presence of smoke. Fire and herbivory had opposite effects on ant density per meter of branch for both C. nigriceps and C. mimosae, with fire

  16. Anti-dyslipidemic activity of acacia tortilis seed extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Kumar Agrawal; Suyog Sindhu; Nitin Kothari; Shruti Chandra; Gini Garima; Uma Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-dyslipidemic activities of seed extract of acacia tortilis (ATE) in alloxan inducd diabetic rats. Methods: The Rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Groups I and II received normal saline, group III received ATE in dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, group IV received ATE in dose of 200 mg/kg b.w.; and group V received standard drug pioglitazone dose 3 mg/kg b.w. Drugs were administered orally once a day for 30...

  17. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  18. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0-500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment in old leaves and between 80% and 85% of osmotic adjustment in young leaves was achieved by means of accumulation of inorganic ions (Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)) at these NaCl levels, whilst the contribution of organic osmolytes was very limited. Consistently higher K(+) and lower Na(+) levels were found in young, as compared with old leaves, for all salinity treatments. The shoot sap K(+) progressively increased with increased salinity in old leaves; this is interpreted as evidence for the important role of free K(+) in leaf osmotic adjustment under saline conditions. A 5-fold increase in salinity level (from 100 mM to 500 mM) resulted in only a 50% increase in the sap Na(+) content, suggesting either a very strict control of xylem Na(+) loading or an efficient Na(+) removal from leaves. A very strong correlation between NaCl-induced K(+) and H(+) fluxes was observed in quinoa root, suggesting that a rapid NaCl-induced activation of H(+)-ATPase is needed to restore otherwise depolarized membrane potential and prevent further K(+) leak from the cytosol. Taken together, this work emphasizes the role of inorganic ions for osmotic adjustment in halophytes and calls for more in-depth studies of the mechanisms of vacuolar Na(+) sequestration, control of Na(+) and K(+) xylem loading, and their transport to the shoot.

  19. Physico-mechanical properties of plywood bonded with ecological adhesives from Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhazi, Naima; Oumam, Mina; Sesbou, Abdessadek; Hannache, Hassan; Charrier-El Bouhtoury, Fatima

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this research was to develop ecological adhesives for bonding plywood panels using lignosulfonates, a common waste product of the wood pulp industry, and natural tannin extracted from Moroccan bark of Acacia mollissima using different process. Natural tannin and lignin were used in wood adhesives formulation to substitute resins based on phenol and formaldehyde. To achieve this, the lignosulfonates were glyoxalated to enhance their reactivity and the used tannins obtained by three different extraction methods were compared with commercial mimosa tannin. The proportion of Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates, the pressing time, the pressing temperature, and the pressure used were studied to improve mechanical properties, and bonding quality of plywood panel. The properties of plywood panels produced with these adhesives were tested in accordance with normative tests. Thus, the tensile strength, and the shear strength were measured. The results showed that the performance of the plywood panels made using biobased tannin adhesives was influenced by physical conditions such as pressure, press temperature as well as by chemical conditions, such as the tannin-lignin ratio. It exhibited excellent mechanical properties comparable to commercially available phenol-formaldehyde plywood adhesives. This study showed that biobased adhesives formulations presented good and higher mechanical performance and no formaldehyde emission. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  20. Three-dimensional xylem networks and phyllode properties of co-occurring Acacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Gerald F M; Liu, Jie; Grierson, Pauline F

    2011-12-01

    Reduced leaf size is often correlated to increased aridity, where smaller leaves demand less water via xylem conduits. However, it is unknown if differences in three-dimensional (3D) xylem connectivity reflect leaf-level adaptations. We used X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) to quantify 3D xylem connectivity in ∼5 mm diameter branch sections of co-occurring semi-arid Acacia species of varied phyllode size. We compared 3D connectivity to minimum branch water potential and two-dimensional (2D) vessel attributes derived from sections produced by micro-CT. 2D attributes included vessel area, density, vessel size to number ratio (S) and vessel lumen fraction (F). Trees with terete phyllodes had less negative water potentials than broad phyllode variants. 3D xylem connectivity was conserved across all trees regardless of phyllode type or minimum water potential. We also found that xylem connectivity was sensitive to vessel lumen fraction (F) and not the size to number ratio (S) even though F was consistent among species and phyllode variants. Our results demonstrate that differences in phyllode anatomy, and not xylem connectivity, likely explain diversity of drought tolerance among closely related Acacia species. Further analysis using our approach across a broader range of species will improve understanding of adaptations in the xylem networks of arid zone species. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Anatomical characters of the phyllode and stem of Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Duarte

    Full Text Available The Acacia genus has presented various secondary metabolites, such as tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and gums. Preparations from different species have been applied for diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory diseases in the traditional medicine and have demonstrated cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae is a small wood, indigenous to Australia and cultivated worldwide for its ornamental feature. This work aimed to characterize the anatomy of the phyllode and stem, in order to contribute to the species identification. The botanical material was fixed, sectioned and prepared according to usual light and scanning microtechniques. The epidermal cells, in surface view, are polygonal and coated with striate and thick cuticle, and filaments of epicuticular wax. Paracytic stomata and unicellular non-glandular trichomes are seen. Palisade and ground parenchymas, and minor collateral bundles with xylem directed alternately to upper and lower sides occur in the blade. The midrib shows two collateral bundles facing each other. The stem, in incipient secondary growth, exhibits epidermis, annular collenchyma, sclerenchymatic sheath and collateral vascular organization. Cells containing phenolic compounds and prisms of calcium oxalate are observed.

  2. Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects that feed on plants contribute greatly to the generation of biodiversity. Hypotheses explaining rate increases in phytophagous insect diversification and mechanisms driving speciation in such specialists remain vexing despite considerable attention. The proliferation of plant-feeding insects and their hosts are expected to broadly parallel one another where climate change over geological timescales imposes consequences for the diversification of flora and fauna via habitat modification. This work uses a phylogenetic approach to investigate the premise that the aridification of Australia, and subsequent expansion and modification of arid-adapted host flora, has implications for the diversification of insects that specialise on them. Results Likelihood ratio tests indicated the possibility of hard molecular polytomies within two co-radiating gall-inducing species complexes specialising on the same set of host species. Significant tree asymmetry is indicated at a branch adjacent to an inferred transition to a Plurinerves ancestral host species. Lineage by time diversification plots indicate gall-thrips that specialise on Plurinerves hosts differentially experienced an explosive period of speciation contemporaneous with climatic cycling during the Quaternary period. Chronological analyses indicated that the approximate age of origin of gall-inducing thrips on Acacia might be as recent as 10 million years ago during the Miocene, as truly arid landscapes first developed in Australia. Conclusion Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia.

  3. Economic assessment and comparison of acacia energy crop with annual traditional crops in Southern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasol, Carles M.; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier [SosteniPrA UAB-IRTA, Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals ICTA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Brun, Filippo; Mosso, Angela [Dipartimento di Economia e Ingegneria Agraria Forestale e Ambientale, University of Torino (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    In several policy documents bioenergy is recognized as an important renewable energy source in Italy. The increase in energy prices represents an opportunity for lignocellulosic energy crops such as acacia and poplar. However, for Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) to be adopted by farmers, these crops must be perceived to be at least as profitable as crops that normally compete with these plantations for land use. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the economic feasibility of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) as an energy crop in a low input production regime in Italy and, in particular, to consider its competitiveness with wheat. Our results show that neither SRC and SRF techniques using assumed production costs (EUR3820 and EUR5285 ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) nor biomass productions are able to obtain a positive profit (-EUR184 and -EUR172 ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) that can convince farmers to invest in biomass plantations on their land. The results demonstrate that wheat is a more economically secure option than SRC or SRF. The viability of local biomass production in Italy and Southern Europe depends on the active support of the governments; without them, biomass is not economically competitive for the farmers when compared to crops such as wheat. (author)

  4. The acacia ants revisited: convergent evolution and biogeographic context in an iconic ant/plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip S; Branstetter, Michael G

    2017-03-15

    Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses can enhance our understanding of multispecies interactions by placing the origin and evolution of such interactions in a temporal and geographical context. We use a phylogenomic approach-ultraconserved element sequence capture-to investigate the evolutionary history of an iconic multispecies mutualism: Neotropical acacia ants (Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group) and their associated Vachellia hostplants. In this system, the ants receive shelter and food from the host plant, and they aggressively defend the plant against herbivores and competing plants. We confirm the existence of two separate lineages of obligate acacia ants that convergently occupied Vachellia and evolved plant-protecting behaviour, from timid ancestors inhabiting dead twigs in rainforest. The more diverse of the two clades is inferred to have arisen in the Late Miocene in northern Mesoamerica, and subsequently expanded its range throughout much of Central America. The other lineage is estimated to have originated in southern Mesoamerica about 3 Myr later, apparently piggy-backing on the pre-existing mutualism. Initiation of the Pseudomyrmex/Vachellia interaction involved a shift in the ants from closed to open habitats, into an environment with more intense plant herbivory. Comparative studies of the two lineages of mutualists should provide insight into the essential features binding this mutualism. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Chemoprotective and immunomodulatory effect of Acacia nilotica during cyclophosphamide induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sabrina; Mika, Denish; Guruvayoorappan, C

    2012-01-01

    Most of the synthetic chemotherapeutic agents used today are immunosuppressant and lead to numerous side effects. Plant based immunomodulators are employed as supportive therapy to counteract the undesirable side effects of chemotherapy. In the present study, the immunomodulatory and chemoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica was investigated in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of the extract was found to significantly increase the Total WBC count, bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase positive cells. Cyclophosphamide is a chemotherapeutic drug and induces acute myelosuppression but treatment with the extract was beneficial in ameliorating chemically induced toxicity. The administration of the extract considerably increased the Total WBC count (6800 +/- 733.9 cells/cm2), bone marrow cellularity (43.6 x 10(5) +/- 14.33 cells/femur) and alpha-esterase positive cells (808.6 +/- 8.57 cells/4000 cells) in CTX treated mice when compared to CTX alone treated control mice. Weight of lymphoid organs such as spleen and thymus reduced by CTX were enhanced by treatment with Acacia nilotica extract. It can be concluded that the extract possess immunostimulatory properties.

  6. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of the seeds of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Hassan E; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2016-06-01

    Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation as well as physicochemical and functional properties of seed flour of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 5.30% moisture, 3.99% ash, 9.19% fat, 14.31% fiber, 27.21% protein and 45.30% carbohydrates. Potassium was the predominant element followed by calcium and then phosphorous. Phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor as antinutrients were detected. The amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cystine/methionine, isoleucine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, lysine and threonine. Also, the first limiting amino acid was lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidic acids. The seed oil showed absorbance in the ultraviolet ranges, thus it can be used as a broad spectrum UV protectant. For physicochemical and functional properties, acacia seeds flour had excellent water holding index, swelling index, foaming capacity and foam stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variation in oil content and fatty acid composition of the seed oil of Acacia species collected from the northwest zone of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Riyazuddeen; Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Mather Ali; Alam, Pravej; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Mahmooduzzafar

    2012-08-30

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of the mature seeds of Acacia species collected from natural habitat of the northwest zone of the Indian subcontinent (Rajasthan) were analyzed in order to determine their potential for human or animal consumption. Oil content varied between 40 and 102 g kg⁻¹. The highest oil content was obtained in Acacia bivenosa DC. (102 g kg⁻¹) among the nine Acacia species. The fatty acid composition showed higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (~757.7 g kg⁻¹ in A. bivenosa), oleic acid (~525.0 g kg⁻¹ in A. nubica) and dominant saturated fatty acids were found to be 192.5 g kg⁻¹ palmitic acid and 275.6 g kg⁻¹ stearic acid in A. leucophloea and A. nubica respectively. Seed oils of Acacia species can thus be classified in the linoleic-oleic acid group. Significant variations were observed in oil content and fatty acid composition of Acacia species. The present study revealed that the seed oil of Acacia species could be a new source of high linoleic-oleic acid-rich edible oil and its full potential should be exploited. The use of oil from Acacia seed is of potential economic benefit to the poor native population of the areas where it is cultivated. The fatty acid composition of Acacia seed oils is very similar to that reported for commercially available edible vegetable oils like soybean, mustard, sunflower, groundnut and olive. Hence the seed oil of Acacia species could be a new source of edible vegetable oil after toxicological studies. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Mixing of acacia bark and palm shells to increase caloric value of palm shells white charcoal briquette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Edy Wibowo; Amirta, Rudianto; Budiarso, Edy; Arung, Enos Tangke

    2017-06-01

    Indonesia is greatly rich in biomass resources. Acacia bark waste utilization as a source of biomass is still very low, where as 10-20% of the potential of the wood. On the other hand waste palm shells have been partly utilized as boiler fuel oil plant as much as 62.4%, but the rest is still a waste pile or to the hardening of the estate path. This study aims to determine the effect of mixing an acacia bark with palm shells to increase the calorific value of palm shell white charcoal briquettes. The study was conducted by making white charcoal briquettes mixing 7% the acacia bark against of palm shells. As well as white charcoal briquettes control without any acacia bark. Then molds the briquettes in pyrolysis temperature at 600 ° C, 700 ° C and 800 ° C for pyrolysis time within 2 hours, 4 hours, and 6 hours. And the results of briquettes analysis in calorific value. The results showed that the caloric value of palm shell white charcoal briquettes increased from 29691.14 Kcal / kg to 31941.50 Kcal / kg.

  9. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... in the minds of competent scientists that the substance is not harmful under the intended conditions... reviewing the safety of substances used in the production of meat and poultry products. Under the MOU, FDA... did not find any published articles directly addressing the allergenicity or toxicity of acacia that...

  10. Kinmoonosides A−C, three new cytotoxic saponins from the fruits of Acacia concinna, a medicinal plant collected in Myanmar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Honda, Kazuyuki; Banskota, Arjun Hari; Thet, Maung Maung; Kadota, Shigetoshi

    2000-01-01

    ...), from a methanolic extract of the fruits of Acacia concinna. The structures of kinmoonosides A−C were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis as 3-O-{α-l-arabinopyranosyl(1→6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl}-21-O-{(6R,2E...

  11. Effect of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii on milk production and prolactin release in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lompo, Z.; Heide, van der D.; Beek, van der E.M.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Mattheij, J.A.M.; Sawadogo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In view of the traditional belief that Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii (AN) can stimulate milk production in lactating women, experiments were performed to determine the effect of an aqueous extract of AN on milk production in rats. Female rats that received oral doses of aqueous extract of this plant

  12. The Tracing of VOC Composition of Acacia Honey During Ripening Stages by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyviurska, Olga; Chlebo, Róbert; Pysarevska, Solomiya; Špánik, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, VOC profiles of acacia flowers and honey samples at different processing stages and related comb wax samples were studied using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It was found that some monoterpene compounds like α-pinene, myrcene, cis-β-ocimene, and 4-terpineol were common for acacia flower and all acacia honey samples, and the presence of verbenone and ocimene was first established in acacia honey. The most enriched VOC profile was obtained for raw honey before cell capping, where the final composition of lactones was achieved. On the contrary, number of alcohols, esters, and variety of terpenes, as well as their concentration in the honey samples decrease through ripening processes. Strained honey was characterized by the absence of camphor, α-bisabolol, and 3-carene, while isophorone and hexanoic acid were identified only in this type of honey. The composition of final VOC profile of honey was also influenced by the age of comb wax. The additional aromatic and lactone compounds, e.g., phenol, 1-phenylethanol, δ-hexalactone, and γ-heptalactone were observed for honey maturated in old dark comb wax. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  13. Parent tree effects on reestablishment of Acacia koa in abandoned pasture and the influence of initial density on stand development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly private landholders in Hawaii are considering native forest restoration for their lands, and some public agencies have already started such work. Initial efforts have focused on reestablishing Acacia koa to recover alien-grass-dominated sites. This study was done in Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of Hawaii, to...

  14. Predicting Acacia invasive success in South Africa on the basis of functional traits, native climatic niche, and human use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Diëz, P.; Langendoen, T.; Poorter, L.; Saldaña-Lopez, A.

    2011-01-01

    Australian Acacia species have been widely planted worldwide for different purposes. Some of them have spread and altered the native ecosystem functions to the extent of being considered economic and ecologic threats. Understanding factors that allow these species to become invasive is an important

  15. Inoculating Acacia koa with Bradyrhizobium and applying fertilizer in the nursery: effects on nodule formation and seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Douglass F. Jacobs; Anthony S. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Restoration of Acacia koa A. Gray (koa) forests on degraded sites in Hawaii is important for conservation of rare, endemic plants and animals and is often accomplished by planting nursery-grown seedlings. To be successful after outplanting, koa seedlings must access sufficient nutrients from the soil and outcompete other vegetation. Forming symbiotic...

  16. Estrutura anatômica da madeira e qualidade do carvão de Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir Anatonical structure and charcoal quality of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas características anatômicas e dimensões de fibras, elementos dos vasos, células do parênquima e dos raios da madeira da Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. Determinaram-se, ainda, a fração parede das fibras e o porcentual das fibras, dos vasos, dos raios e das células parenquimatosas, bem como a densidade, rendimento e propriedades do carvão vegetal. Conclui-se que a madeira de Mimosa tenuiflora possui poros predominantemente solitários, geminados e múltiplos em agrupamento radial; poros distribuídos em porosidade difusa uniforme; parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico, vasicêntrico confluente, aliforme e aliforme confluente; raios multisseriados, bisseriados e, menos freqüentemente, unisseriados; e fibras de parede espessa e muito curtas. Obteve-se um rendimento de 39,68% em carvão vegetal, com teor de carbono fixo de 71,70%, densidade igual a 0,51g/cm³, carbono fixo de 71,79 e poder calórico de 6.866 cal/g.The objective of this work was to determine anatomical characteristics, and dimensions of fibers, vessels and parenchyma and ray cells of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir wood. Fibers wall fraction, the percentage of fibers, vessels and ray and parenchyma cells, as well as density and charcoal production and properties were determined. The wood of Mimosa teniflora presents predominantly solitary, geminated and multiple porous in radial groups; porous distributed in uniform diffuse porosity; axial parenchyma paratracheal vasicentric, confluent vasicentric, aliform and confluent aliform; multiseriate, biseiat rays and, less frequently, uniseriate ones; very short fibers with thick walls. Charcoal yield was 39.68% with a 0.51g/cm³ density, 71.79% carbon content and 6886cal/g calorific value.

  17. Mapping invasive alien Acacia dealbata Link using ASTER multispectral imagery: a case study in central-eastern of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Martins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Acacia dealbata is an alien invasive species that is widely spread in Portugal. The main goal of this study was to produce an accurate and detailed map for this invasive species using ASTER multispectral imagery. Area of study: The central-eastern zone of Portugal was used as study area. This whole area is represented in an ASTER scene covering about 321.1 x 103 ha. Material and methods: ASTER imagery of two dates (flowering season and dry season were classified by applying three supervised classifiers (Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Networks to five different land cover classifications (from most generic to most detailed land cover categories. The spectral separability of the land cover categories was analyzed and the accuracy of the 30 produced maps compared. Main results: The highest classification accuracy for acacia mapping was obtained using the flowering season imagery, the Maximum Likelihood classifier and the most detailed land cover classification (overall accuracy of 86%; Kappa statistics of 85%; acacia class Kappa statistics of 100%. As a result, the area occupied by acacia was estimated to be approximated 24,770 ha (i.e. 8% of the study area. Research highlights: The methodology explored proved to be a cost-effective solution for acacia mapping in central-eastern of Portugal. The obtained map enables a more accurate and detailed identification of this species’ invaded areas due to its spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 0.02 ha providing a substantial improvement comparably to the existent national land cover maps to support monitoring and control activities. Keywords: remote sensing; invasive alien species; land cover mapping; vegetation mapping.

  18. Mapping invasive alien Acacia dealbata Link using ASTER multispectral imagery: a case study in central-eastern of Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Alegria, C.; Artur, G.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Acacia dealbata is an alien invasive species that is widely spread in Portugal. The main goal of this study was to produce an accurate and detailed map for this invasive species using ASTER multispectral imagery. Area of study: The central-eastern zone of Portugal was used as study area. This whole area is represented in an ASTER scene covering about 321.1 x 103 ha. Material and methods: ASTER imagery of two dates (flowering season and dry season) were classified by applying three supervised classifiers (Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Networks) to five different land cover classifications (from most generic to most detailed land cover categories). The spectral separability of the land cover categories was analyzed and the accuracy of the 30 produced maps compared. Main results: The highest classification accuracy for acacia mapping was obtained using the flowering season imagery, the Maximum Likelihood classifier and the most detailed land cover classification (overall accuracy of 86%; Kappa statistics of 85%; acacia class Kappa statistics of 100%). As a result, the area occupied by acacia was estimated to be approximated 24,770 ha (i.e. 8% of the study area). Research highlights: The methodology explored proved to be a cost-effective solution for acacia mapping in central-eastern of Portugal. The obtained map enables a more accurate and detailed identification of this species’ invaded areas due to its spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 0.02 ha) providing a substantial improvement comparably to the existent national land cover maps to support monitoring and control activities. (Author)

  19. Nutrient retranslocation in forest species in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Rezende Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal retranslocation is an important mechanism for nutrient conservation in plants, which depends on different factors. However, there are little data about this subject, especially on tropical forest species. This study aimed to evaluate the macronutrient retranslocation dynamic and the influence of ecological (P: pioneer x NP: non-pioneer and phenological (ND: non-deciduous x D: semideciduous / deciduous characteristics on the macronutrient content of leaves of five tree species on monospecific plantations in the Brazilian Amazon: Acacia mangium Willd., Parkia decussata Ducke, Dipteryx odorata (Aublet Willd., Jacaranda copaia (Aubl. D. Don and Swietenia macrophylla King. Photosynthetically active green leaves and senescent leaves (leaf litter were collected. Retranslocation was estimated through an equation proposed by Attiwill, Guthrie and Leuning (1978. The pioneer species presented higher foliar contents of N; the non-pioneer species presented higher contents of K, Ca and S; and the results were inconclusive for P and Mg. The deciduous species presented higher foliar contents of K and of P, whereas the foliar contents of N, Ca, Mg and S were virtually identical between the phenological groups. The internal retranslocation of foliar nutrients in pioneer and non-deciduous species was higher than that of non-pioneer and deciduous species.

  20. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C.: cat's claw, uña de gato, or savéntaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, K H

    1999-04-01

    Recently, Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C. has become known as a healing plant with an ethnomedicinal background. There have been several reports on its constituents, in particular, oxindole alkaloids. It was found that 2 chemotypes of Uncaria tomentosa with different alkaloid patterns occur in nature. The roots of one type contain pentacyclic oxindoles and the other contains tetracyclic oxindoles. This difference should be considered when the plant is to be used for medicinal applications. Tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids act on the central nervous system, whereas pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids affect the cellular immune system. Recent studies have shown that the tetracyclic alkaloids exert antagonistic effects on the action of the pentacyclic alkaloids. Mixtures of these 2 types of drugs are therefore unsuitable for medicinal uses.

  1. Enhancement of the stability of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Diospyros discolor Willd. leaves using polyvinyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardani, H. K.; Imawan, C.; Handayani, W.; Djuhana, D.; Harmoko, A.; Fauzia, V.

    2017-04-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention because of it reduces the environmental impact and already used in numerous applications. However, the disadvantages such as easy aggregation and instability properties, prevent its’ application. In this papers, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Diospyros discolor Willd. leaves have been prepared. The effect of biosynthesis variables, like ratio of reactants and reduction time on the particle size distribution, stability, and morphology of the silver nanoparticles were investigated. The resulted silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Particles Size Analyzer. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used to enhance the stability of the silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles modification with 1% PVA concentration has produced a better characteristic of particle size distribution compared to the original silver nanoparticles, from highly polydisperse into moderately disperse. The results of the Zetta potential measurement also confirmed the increase stability of cluster distribution in the colloidal Ag/PVA compared to the original Ag.

  2. The combined effect of deficit irrigation by treated wastewater and organic amendment on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    to compensate the negative effect of water deficit through the improvement of soil water-holding capacity. This research was conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir) between October 2011 and January 2012. The mean objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of organic matter...... and deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) productivity. Three organic matter levels (0, 5, and 10 t ha−1) have been supplied as compost amendment combined with two deficit irrigation levels (50 and 100% of full irrigation). Statistical analysis revealed very highly...... and received 10 t ha−1 of compost; however, the lowest yields were obtained by treatments receiving 50% of full irrigation without organic matter supply. From the findings, it can be concluded that reducing irrigation requirement by half affected negatively quinoa growth and productivity and reduced grain...

  3. Differentiation of photoperiod-induced ABA and soluble sugar responses of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to new regions demands acclimation to day-length, in addition to a host of other abiotic factors. To further elucidate the effects of photoperiod on development of quinoa, two differently adapted cultivars, Achachino (short day) from Bolivia...... and Titicaca (day-length neutral), were subjected to continuous long (17.5 h) and short (10 h) photoperiod conditions as well as a shift between the two to trigger possible adaptive mechanisms initiated by changes in leaf soluble sugar and ABA concentration. Our findings show both cultivars responding...... to an increase in photoperiod with significant increases in soluble sugar concentrations and a simultaneous increase in ABA. However, Titicaca exhibited a much stronger ABA response to increase in photoperiod, whereas the increase for Achachino falls within the range of natural diurnal variation. Achachino also...

  4. Pengujian Kompos dan Inokulan Mikroba terhadap Pertumbuhan Tanaman Sengon Buto (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Willd Pada Lahan Bekas Tailing Pond di Cikotok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Imamuddin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution has been so attracting considerable public attentions over the last decades. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to clean up pollutant soils. The study was carried out in gold mining Cikotok, Banten. Sengon buto (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, (Willd which is used as cyanogenic plant, compost and microbes inoculant is as stimulator to growththis plant. The experiment consist of K0 as control (plant without compost, K1 as plant + compost and K2 as plant+compost + microbe inoculant, with 3 replicated. The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the potential for phytoremediation of cyanide contaminated soils using hyperaccumulator/cyanogenic plants and to assess the fate and transport of cyanide compounds in soils.The results showed that compost and microbe were able to stimulate growth of Sengon Buto after 7 months planting and to reduce cyanide until 66% Total bacteria in the study was relatively stable but NFB bacteria was decline.

  5. Antimicrobial activity and a comparative essential oil analysis of Centaurea pulcherrima Willd. var. pulcherrima extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahriman, N; Tosun, G; İskender, N Yılmaz; Alpay Karaoğlu, Ş; Yayli, N

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of Centaurea pulcherrima Willd. var. pulcherrima (Asteraceae) were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and a microwave distillation (MD), than characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 58 and 57 compounds were identified, constituting over 93.7%, and 91.6% of volatile oil composition of C. pulcherrima var. pulcherrima, respectively. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents (HD: 42.4% versus MD: 51.5%). The major component of the oils of C. pulcherrima var. pulcherrima was germacrene D (HD, 17.8% versus MD, 23.2%). The antimicrobial activity of the isolated essential oils of the plant was also investigated, and they showed good antibacterial activity against to tested gram-positive bacteria, especially to M. smegmatis and a yeast-like fungus C. albicans.

  6. Emergy and Eco-exergy Evaluation of Four Forest Restoration Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four different forest restoration modes (Acacia mangium plantation, mixed-native species plantation, conifer plantation and Eucalyptus plantation) were evaluated using Energy System Theory and the emergy synthesis method. In addition, the eco-exergies of the four forest restorati...

  7. Influence of Acacia trees on soil nutrient levels in arid lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boever, Maarten; Gabriels, Donald; Ouessar, Mohamed; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    The potential of scattered trees as keystone structures in restoring degraded environments is gaining importance. Scattered trees have strong influence on their abiotic environment, mainly causing changes in microclimate, water budget and soil properties. They often function as 'nursing trees', facilitating the recruitment of other plants. Acacia raddiana is such a keystone species which persists on the edge of the Sahara desert. The study was conducted in a forest-steppe ecosystem in central Tunisia where several reforestation campaigns with Acacia took place. To indentify the impact of those trees on soil nutrients, changes in nutrient levels under scattered trees of three age stages were examined for the upper soil layer (0-10 cm) at five microsites with increasing distance from the trunk. In addition, changes in soil nutrient levels with depth underneath and outside the canopy were determined for the 0-30 cm soil layer. Higher concentrations of organic matter (OM) were found along the gradient from underneath to outside the canopy for large trees compared to medium and small trees, especially at microsites close to the trunk. Levels of soluble K, electrical conductivity (EC), available P, OM, total C and N decreased whereas pH and levels of soluble Mg increased with increasing distance from tree. Levels of soluble Ca and Na remained unchanged along the gradient. At the microsite closest to the trunk a significant decrease in levels of soluble K, EC, OM, available P, total C and N, while a significant increase in pH was found with increasing depth. The concentration of other nutrients remained unchanged or declined not differently underneath compared to outside the canopy with increasing depth. Differences in nutrient levels were largely driven by greater inputs of organic matter under trees. Hence, Acacia trees can affect the productivity and reproduction of understory species with the latter in term an important source of organic matter. This positive feedback

  8. Geoecosystem-related dynamics of Acacia populations in the Israeli hyper-arid Arava Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavi, Ilan; Avni, Yoav; Yizhaq, Hezi; Bel, Golan; Ginat, Hanan

    2017-04-01

    Similar to other Middle-Eastern and North-African drylands, Acacia populations across the hyper-arid Arava Valley of Israel have experienced dramatic phonological changes during the last few decades. These changes have been expressed with high mortality rates and low recruitment rates. Species of the Acacia trees across the region include the A. pachyceras, A. raddiana, and A. tortilis. We studied the recruitment and decay rate of seedlings. Data obtained revealed that during a whole year after germination, overall survival rate of seedlings was 2%. Also, data showed that the main impediment to recruitment and survival of seedlings was insufficient access to soil-water, resulting in their mortality due to drying. Another, secondary impediment was imposed by erosional and depositional processes under heavy floods, resulting in the elimination or burial of seedlings. Modeling of results revealed that the drying of seedlings is defined with a constant mortality rate, which fits an exponential decay function. At the same time, seedling mortality due to fluvial processes is defined with a mortality rate that grows with time, which fits a Gaussian decay function. Also, we investigated the effect of latitude, basin size, and microhabitat on vitality of existing trees. Results showed negative effect of latitude on tree mortality, fitting with the generally greater precipitation rates in the northern- than in the southern- Arava Valley. At the same time, no effect on tree mortality was recorded for basin size, proposing that in such extreme drylands, runoff ratio becomes more non-linear with increasing watershed size because of the greater dominance of ephemeral stream transmission losses, as well as due to the partial storm area coverage. Nor did the location in microhabitat across the valley floor affect tree mortality rate, highlighting the bimodal effect of greater access to flood water, potentially increasing survivability of old trees, but at the same time, imposing

  9. Acacia concinna Saponins. I. Structures of Prosapogenols, Concinnosides A-F, Isolated from the Alkaline Hydrolysate of the Highly Polar Saponin Fraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GAFUR, Mohammod Abdul; OBATA, Tohoru; KIUCHI, Fumiyuki; TSUDA, Yoshisuke

    1997-01-01

    A highly polar saponin mixture from pods of Acacia concinna (Leguminosae) was hydrolyzed with alkali to yield five new triterpenoidal prosapogenols named concinnosides A (6), B (3), C (7), D (4), and E (8...

  10. Inhibitory effect of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract on IgE/Ag-induced mast cell and atopic dermatitis-like mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hae-Sim; Kim, Wan-Joong; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-05-01

    Pterocarpus indicus Willd has been widely used as a traditional medicine to treat edema, cancer, and hyperlipidemia, but its antiallergic properties and underlying mechanisms have not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiallergic activity of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract (PIW) using activated mast cells and an atopic dermatitis (AD)-like mouse model. PIW decreased IgE/Ag-induced mast cell degranulation and the phosphorylation of Syk and downstream signaling molecules such as PLC-γ, Akt, Erk 1/2, JNK compared to stimulated mast cells. In DNCB-induced AD-like mice, PIW reduced IgE level in serum, as well as AD-associated scratching behavior and skin severity score. These results indicate that PIW inhibits the allergic response by reducing mast cell activation and may have clinical potential as an antiallergic agent for disorders such as AD.

  11. Influence of Capparis spinosa and Acacia arabica on certain biochemical haemolymph parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantawy, Mona M; Hamed, Manal A; Sammour, Elham M; Sanad, Mahmoud

    2004-08-01

    The work investigated the molluscicidal potency of dried Capparis spinosa and Acacia arabica leaves on selected biochemical parameters of Bionimphalaria alexandrina, in order to render them, physiologically, unsuitable for S. mansoni infection or at least disturb the life-cycle of the parasite within its respective snail host. The effect of the two plants on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 5'-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase (AP), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose content were studied. This work was extended to evaluate the effect of these two plants on protein profile as well as total protein (TP) content of snail's in haemolymph after 24 hours and one week of snails plants feeding. The study revealed that both plants induced marked alteration in all the measured parameters, where LC50 of C. spinosa after fed one week showed the most potent effect.

  12. Propolis with high flavonoid content collected by honey bees from Acacia paradoxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van H; Duke, Rujee K; Abu-Mellal, Abdallah; Duke, Colin C

    2012-09-01

    Honey bees, Apis mellifera var ligustica, on Kangaroo Island, Australia, were found to collect propolis from the sticky exudate on the stem shoots and seed pods of an Australian endemic plant, Acacia paradoxa. Extracts of the plant stem shoots and seed pods, the propolis carried on the legs of bees and freshly collected propolis in hives contained major flavonoid components consisting of 2',3',4'-trimethoxychalcone, 2'-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxychalcone, 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone, 5,7-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol 3-acetate (pinobanksin 3-acetate) and 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol 3-acetate, a substance not previously characterized. HPLC and (1)H NMR analyses of the propolis and plant extracts indicated smaller amounts of other flavonoids. A survey of propolis samples from 47 apiary sites widely distributed on Kangaroo Island showed that 15 samples from 6 sites were largely sourced from A. paradoxa. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Soil recovery after removal of the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia: consequences for ecosystem restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise Helene; Struwe, Sten

    2009-01-01

    were collected once a year for four and half years and analysed for chemical and microbial properties. In general, microbial parameters responded faster than C and N pools. In long-invaded areas, two and half years after removal of plants and litter, basal respiration and microbial biomass had already......Invasion by Acacia longifolia alters soil characteristics and processes. The present study was conducted to determine if the changes in soil C and N pools and processes induced by A. longifolia persist after its removal, at the São Jacinto Dunes Nature Reserve (Portugal). Some areas had been...... invaded for a long time (>20 years) and others more recently (Soil samples...

  14. Spatial and molecular aspects of hemiparasites parasitising Acacia spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Bjørn

    shrubs neighbouring the root hemiparasites. The hemiparasites may further impair reproduction of the host and impact other trophic levels associated with the host. Traits of Acacia ligulata were therefore investigated further in terms of seeds per seedpods, seed mass and phyllode C/N ratios. Indications...... not result in differences of larval mass. Finally, to further investigate the belowground-aboveground link, phyllodes from A. acuminata were used for an RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) experiment to investigate gene expression in individuals, non-parasitised or parasitised by Santalum spicatum. Two transcriptomes....... The annotated transcriptomes together with identified markers enable further relational and gene expression studies with either shoot or root hemiparasites in either natural communities or plantations....

  15. Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of silver nanoparticles using pods extract of Acacia auriculiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalawade, Pradnya; Mukherjee, Poulomi; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2014-08-14

    The present study reports an environmental friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an aqueous extract of Acacia auriculiformis that acts as reducing agent as well as capping agent. The obtained NPs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and showed a sharp surface plasmon absorption band at ∼400 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the particles were spherical in nature with diameter ranging from 20 to 150 nm depending on the pH of the solution. The as-synthesized Ag NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The soil my coflora of an Acacia karroo Community in the Western Transvaal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Papendorf

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the composition and distribution of the soil mycoflora of an  Acacia karroo Community in the Potchefstroom area was undertaken. A total of 858 sporulating cultures representing 76 genera and 144 species was recovered from this soil. The majority belong in the Fungi Imperfecti and only a limited number of Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes and no Oomycetes or Basidiomycetes were recorded. Members of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most abundant. The greatest concentration of individuals and species occurred in the surface layers and a rapid decrease in numbers was noticeable with increasing depth. The nature of this flora suggests a close correlation with the natural plant cover and the existing ecological conditions.

  17. Algunas propiedades físico-mecánicas y de trabajabilidad de la Acacia melanoxylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Correcha R.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos de las propiedades físicas como: gravedad especifica anhidra, seca al aire y en estado verde; densidad verde, seca al aire, anhidra y básica; y contracciones radial, tangencial y volumétrica. Propiedades mecánicas tales como: flexión estática en estado verde y seca al aire, compresión paralela al grano en estado verde y seca al aire. Además ensayos de trabajabilidad de cepillado, moldurado, taladrado y torneado de la Acacia melanoxylon. Se usaron metodologías establecidas por ASTM, ICONTEC y COPANT. Estos ensayos se realizaron en los laboratorios del Instituto de Ensayos e Investigación (IEI de la facultad de Ingenleria, Universidad Nacional de Bogotá.

  18. The impact of Acacia saligna invasion on Italian coastal dune EC habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Acosta, Alicia; Stanisci, Angela

    2013-07-01

    Alien species can represent a threat to several ecosystems because they can alter species relationships and ecosystem function. In Italy, Acacia saligna is a major invader and it forms dense stands in coastal environments. We analyze the impact of A. saligna in Italian Mediterranean dune systems. We randomly sampled coastal dune vegetation and investigated its floristic composition with ordination techniques. We compared species richness in invaded and non-invaded plots with rarefaction curves and analyzed the frequency of focal and ruderal species. A. saligna invaded Mediterranean scrub (habitats 2250* and 2260) and coastal Pinus dune wood (habitat 2270*) and it is particularly prevalent in sunny areas of habitat 2270*. We observed an increase in ruderal species and a decrease in focal species in the invaded plots of habitat 2270*. We suggest that more open and disturbed areas are more prone to A. saligna invasion. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Algunas propiedades físico-mecánicas y de trabajabilidad de la Acacia melanoxylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Correcha R.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos de las propiedades físicas como: gravedad especifica anhidra, seca al aire y en estado verde; densidad verde, seca al aire, anhidra y básica; y contracciones radial, tangencial y volumétrica. Propiedades mecánicas tales como: flexión estática en estado verde y seca al aire, compresión paralela al grano en estado verde y seca al aire. Además ensayos de trabajabilidad de cepillado, moldurado, taladrado y torneado de la Acacia melanoxylon. Se usaron metodologías establecidas por ASTM, ICONTEC y COPANT. Estos ensayos se realizaron en los laboratorios del Instituto de Ensayos e Investigación (IEI de la facultad de Ingenleria, Universidad Nacional de Bogotá.

  20. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mattana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

  1. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and phytotoxic potential of non-polar and polar fractions of seeds of Dioteryx odorata (Aubl.) Willd. from Venezuelan regions

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros-Bastidas,Alberto de J.; Demuner, Antonio J.; Luiz Claudio Almeida Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Dipteryx odorata (Aubl.) Willd. is a tall arboreal species native to Central and Northern South America. This paper describes the chemical characterization and phytotoxic potential of polar and non-polar extracts from D. odorata seeds. Structural determinations were accomplished by chemical derivatization and analyzed by GC/MS. The chemical composition of the non-polar fraction (hexane and dichloromethane) presented fatty acids as major constituent. Medium polar and polar fractions (ethyl ace...

  2. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Isabelle L.; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga,Marta Suely; Yamashita,Fábio; Magnani,Marciane

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the m...

  3. Canker and decline caused by Neofusiccocum parvum on Acacia melanoxylon in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidoti A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2012, in reforested areas of Peloritani Mountains (Sicily, Italy a severe dieback of Acacia melanoxylon R. Brown was observed. The main symptoms on both young and adults plants consisted of elongated cankers on the trunks and epicormic shoots, wilt of the canopy and dieback interested mostly aged trees. The woody tissues showed browning beyond the cankers. Sapwood and heartwood appeared decayed with a brown to gray-greenish discoloration. One fungal species was consistently isolated from infected woody tissues, which was morphologically attributed to Neofusiccocum sp. The sequencing of the ITS regions of a representative isolate allowed to identify (99% similarity the species Neofusiccocum parvum (Pennycook & Samuels Crous, Slippers and Phillips, teleomorph Botryosphaeria parva Pennycook & Samuels. The pathogenicity tests have reproduced symptoms similar to those observed in the field. N. parvum is the aetiologic agent of mortality of australian blackwood observed in Sicily and to our knowledge this is the first report of this fungus on Acacia melanoxylon. It is a generalist pathogen, cosmopolitan, present in many temperate areas, Mediterranean and subtropical. The older Peloritani Mountains populations of australian blackwood seem particularly susceptible to the pathogen, the latter favored by the lack of silvicultural interventions that generate interspecific and intraspecific competition, as well as the increase and spread of the fungus. To minimize the consequential damage is necessary to adopt sanitation measures that would lower the fungal inoculum and program substitutions of this exotic species with others that have multiple functions suited to environments (e.g., Chestnut or encouraging the establishment and development of native species, such as the holm oak and shrub.

  4. Salt tolerance traits increase the invasive success of Acacia longifolia in Portuguese coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Maria Cristina; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Muscolo, Adele; Freitas, Helena

    2012-06-01

    Salt tolerance of two co-occurring legumes in coastal areas of Portugal, a native species--Ulex europaeus, and an invasive species--Acacia longifolia, was evaluated in relation to plant growth, ion content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Plants were submitted to four concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) for three months, under controlled conditions. The results showed that NaCl affects the growth of both species in different ways. Salt stress significantly reduced the plant height and the dry weight in Acacia longifolia whereas in U. europaeus the effect was not significant. Under salt stress, the root:shoot ratio (W(R):W(S)) and root mass ratio (W(R):W(RS)) increased as a result of increasing salinity in A. longifolia but the same was not observed in U. europaeus. In addition, salt stress caused a significant accumulation of Na+, especially in U. europaeus, and a decrease in K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in A. longifolia compared to U. europaeus. In A. longifolia, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2.) activities increased significantly, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activities remained unchanged in comparison with the control. In U. europaeus, NaCl concentration significantly reduced APX activity but did not significantly affect CAT, GR and POX activities. Our results suggest that the invasive species copes better with salinity stress in part due to a higher rates of CAT and GR activities and a higher K+/Na+ ratio, which may represent an additional advantage when competing with native species in co-occurring salty habitats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Shelterbelt plantations in arid regions. [Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora, Cassia siamea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthana, K.D.; Mahander, S.; Mertia, R.S.; Arora, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Three shelterbelts were planted on sandy soils at the Jodhpur Research Farm in 1973. Belts had 3 rows of trees each and spacing between and within rows was 3 m; they were laid out perpendicular to the wind direction. The length of each belt was 300 m and they were spaced 165 m apart centre to centre. The outside rows were made up of 33 plants each of (a) Acacia tortilis, (b) Prosopis juliflora (Israel variety) and (c) Cassia siamea planted on either side of the belts randomly in the paterns abc, bca and cab. The centre rows were planted with Azadirachta indica, Albizzia (Albizia) lebbek and Eucalyptus camaldulensis respectively in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd shelterbelts. The shelterbelts were easily established and grew well. Grain yield of bajra sown between the belts increased with distance from them reaching a maximum at 25 X belt height and then declining. Average yield between the belts was higher than in control plots. Consumptive water use and water use efficiencies were less near the 1st shelterbelt (leeward side) and increased away from it, again reaching maximum at 25 X belt height. Mean air temperature 1-2m above ground level was 0.1-0.2 degrees C higher on leeward than on windward sides of shelterbelts in the summer months, and 0-0.1 degrees higher in the monsoon months. Pan evaporation on the leeward side was reduced by 8% in the summer and 6% in the monsoon months. Belts of C. siamea and Acacia tortilis were more effective in reducing wind speed than those of P. juliflora (which grew least of all species).

  6. Chemical composition and allelopathic potential of essential oils obtained from Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2015-04-01

    Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (Fabaceae), synonym Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. L.Wendl., native to West Australia and naturalized in North Africa and South Europe, was introduced in Tunisia for rangeland rehabilitation, particularly in the semiarid zones. In addition, this evergreen tree represents a potential forage resource, particularly during periods of drought. A. cyanophylla is abundant in Tunisia and some other Mediterranean countries. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant parts, viz., roots, stems, phyllodes, flowers, and pods (fully mature fruits without seeds), was characterized for the first time here. According to GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, the principal compound in the phyllode and flower oils was dodecanoic acid (4), representing 22.8 and 66.5% of the total oil, respectively. Phenylethyl salicylate (8; 34.9%), heptyl valerate (3; 17.3%), and nonadecane (36%) were the main compounds in the root, stem, and pod oils, respectively. The phyllode and flower oils were very similar, containing almost the same compounds. Nevertheless, the phyllode oil differed from the flower oil for its higher contents of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (6), linalool (1), pentadecanal, α-terpineol, and benzyl benzoate (5) and its lower content of 4. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into four groups, each characterized by its main constituents. Furthermore, the allelopathic activity of each oil was evaluated using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as a plant model. The phyllode, flower, and pod oils exhibited a strong allelopathic activity against lettuce. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. Morpho-physiological response of Acacia auriculiformis as influenced by seawater induced salinity stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, A.; Rahman, M.; Nihad, S.A.I.; Howlader, R.A.; Akand, M.H.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To evaluate the morpho-physiological changes of Acacia auriculiformis in response to seawater induced salinity stress along with its tolerance limit. Area of study: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Material and methods: Three saline treatments (4, 8, 12 dS m-1) were applied to six-month aged Acacia auriculiformis seedlings from January 2014 to June 2014 and the tap water was used as control treatment. To observe salinity effects, the following parameters were measured by using various established techniques: plant height and leaf number, plant biomass, shoot and root distribution as well as shoot and root density, water uptake capacity (WUC), water saturation deficit (WSD) and water retention capacity (WRC), exudation rate, and cell membrane stability. Main results: Diluted seawater caused a notable reduction in shoot and root distribution in addition to shoot and root density, though plant height, leaf number and plant biomass were found to be decreased to some extent compared to control plants. Water status of the plant also altered when plants were subjected to salinity stress. Nevertheless, membrane stability revealed good findings towards salinity tolerance. Research highlights: Considering the above facts, despite salinity exerts some negative effects on overall plant performance, interestingly the percent reduction value doesn’t exceed 50% as compared to control plants, and the plants were successful to tolerate salinity stress till the end of the experiment (150 days) through adopting some tolerance mechanisms. Abbreviations used: BSMRAU (Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University); RCBD (randomized complete block design); DATI (days after treatment imposition); RWC (relative water content); WUC (water uptake capacity); WSD (water saturation deficit); WRC (water retention capacity); FW (fresh weight); DW (dry weight); TW (turgid weight); ROS (reactive oxygen species). (Author)

  8. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for the supplemented groups. CP digestibility was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for goats supplemented with Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P < 0.05) for the goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P < 0.01) in supplemented groups. The hot carcass weight was higher in the group supplemented with A. senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  9. Seed oil composition of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile from Iran / Skład oleju z nasion Acacia nilotica (L. Delile rosnącej w Iranie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasian Karim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp: Acacia nilotica (L. Delile należy do rodziny Fabaceae, podrodziny Mimosoideae; otrzymuje się z niej gumę arabską. W południowym Iranie są spożywane pieczone młode strąki i nasiona tej rośliny Cel: Badano skład oleju z dojrzałych nasion A. nilotica zebranych z naturalnych stanowisk na południu Iranu w celu określenia jego przydatności do spożycia przez ludzi i zwierzęta. Metody: Wyekstrahowany olej analizowano metodą chromatografii gazowej sprzężonej ze spektrometrią mas (GC/MS. Wyniki: Zawartość oleju w jadalnych nasionach wynosiła 3.4% (v/w świeżej masy. Olej zawierał rzadko spotykany fitosterol, sześć kwasów tłuszczowych, dziewięć węgolwodorów i jeden diterpenoid; związki te stanowiły łącznie około 83.5% oleju. Głównymi składnikami oleju były: fitosterol, 26-ethylcholesta-5,25(Z-dien-3.β-ol (20.8% oraz nasycone i nienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe. Zawartość pozostałych składników nie przekroczyła 5%. Wniosek: Olej z nasion omawianego gatunku może być nowym naturalnym środkiem odżywczym dla ludzi.

  10. Scavenging remazol brilliant blue R dye using microwave-assisted activated carbon from acacia sawdust: Equilibrium and kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, M. F. M.; Aziz, H. A.; Ahmad, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    This work explores the feasibility of microwave-assisted acacia wood based activated carbon (AWAC) for remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) dye removal from synthetic wastewater. Acacia wood (AW) was impregnated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and heated using microwave, resulting tremendously high fixed carbon content, surface area, total pore volume and adsorption capacity of 81.14%, 1045.56m2/g, 0.535cm3/g and 263.16mg/g respectively. Batch study conducted divulged an increasing trend in RBBR uptake when initial RBBR concentration and contact time were increased. pH study revealed that RBBR adsorption was best at acidic condition. Langmuir isotherm model fitted well the adsorption equilibrium data while the adsorption kinetic was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  11. Formulation and conservation of a pharmaceutical form with leaf extracts from Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook et Arn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E Arias

    Full Text Available Leaf fluid extracts of Acacia aroma GILL. ex Hook et Arn showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic multiresistant bacteria isolated from clinical samples, antioxidant and ant-inflammatory activities. Toxicological studies carried out on Artemia salina and Allium cepa attested none toxicity potential. The aim of this work was to elaborate a formulation of topical antibacterial hydrogel with Carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing an A. aroma fluid extract in order to compare with a hydrogel containing commercial antibiotic. The optimal extract concentration in this formulation was determined according to the values of minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration for Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant (F7 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (F352. Physical, chemical, rheological and microbiological stability was observed at least during one year. The hydrogel containing Acacia leaves fluid extract shows remarkable antibacterial effect with a broadspectrum efficacy against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at low concentration.

  12. Etude de la germination des graines d'Acacia tortilis sous différentes contraintes abiotiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaouadi, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of Acacia tortilis seed germination under different abiotic constraints. Since Tunisian acacia populations are threatened by regression, we analyzed as a preliminary study the germination behavior of the species in order to plan subsequently for a preservation and rehabilitation program. In this context and to optimize acacia seed germination and to overcome and remove the obstacle of tegumentary inhibition, we have in a first attempt tested several physical (scarification, boiled water and chemical (sulfuric acid pretreatments under different temperatures. Thus, we could determine the optimal germination conditions that have been used afterwards for evaluating the germination capacity of the species under different osmotic constraints. Several concentrations of NaCl (0 to 22 g.l-1 and PEG (0 to -8 bars were applied on seeds. Parameters related to germination capacity and kinetic were assessed and analyzed. Thus, soaking seeds in concentrated sulfuric acid for one hour allowed us to improve the germination rate and its speed. When studying the effect of the temperature on the germination process, we showed that 25°C could improve the rate and average time of germination. Under osmotic stress, we found a highly significant treatment effect (PEG concentrations on the germination rate and average time of germination, and the species did not display a high drought tolerance behavior (since germination is totally inhibited under -8 bars. Moreover, the study of the effect of salt stress on germination revealed a highly significant effect of NaCl concentrations on the germination rate and average time of germination, and a good level of salt tolerance since it succeeded to germinate under high salt concentrations (21% of germination rate under 22 g.l-1NaCl. In conclusion, our study clearly showed that germination capacity of Acacia tortilis under the environmental constraints and factors is sufficiently assured to consider this species for a

  13. Volatile compounds in acacia, chestnut, cherry, ash, and oak woods, with a view to their use in cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Simón, Brígida Fernández; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel M; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam

    2009-04-22

    Extracts of wood from acacia, European ash, American ash, chestnut, cherry, and three oak species (Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus alba and Quercus petraea) before and after toasting in cooperage were studied by GC-MS. 110 compounds were detected, and 97 of them were identified. In general, all studied woods showed more lignin derivatives than lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, with a higher variety of compounds detected and abundance of them. The toasting led to an increase in the concentrations of most of these compounds, and this increase is especially important in acacia, chestnut and ash woods. The cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and isobutyrovanillone were only detected in oak wood, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde only in acacia wood, and p-anisaldehyde and benzylsalicylate only in cherry wood, before and after toasting, and these compounds could be considered chemical markers for each one of these woods. Moreover, each wood has a characteristic volatile composition, from a quantitative point of view, and therefore we can expect a characteristic sensorial profile. The oak wood turned out to be the most balanced, since although it provides a lot of volatile compounds to the aroma and flavor of aged wine, it can do so without masking their primary and secondary aroma. On the whole, toasted acacia and chestnut woods showed a very high richness of studied compounds, as lignin as lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, while cherry and ash were much richer than toasted oak wood in lignin derivatives, but much poorer in lipid and carbohydrate derivatives.

  14. Acacia trees pattern distribution as an indicator for changes in flow spatial distributions in a hyper-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Maman, Shimrit; Blumberg, Dan G.

    2017-04-01

    Arid regions are characterized by high spatial and temporal variability of precipitation, resulting in high spatial and temporal variation of vegetation cover. Because of low rainfall, the acacia trees in southern Israel are usually restricted to ephemeral stream (Wadi) beds, which possess higher soil moisture content than the surrounding landscape. Spatial analyses of tree distribution at the drainage basin scale contributes to a better understanding of the geo-hydrologic regime because water is the main limiting factor in such areas. That is, the spatial distribution of trees and their characteristics within the Wadi may reflect the spatial variance of water availability within different segments of the Wadi. The main objective of this study was to use the spatial distribution of different parameters of acacia trees as an indicator of past and present hydrological regimes within different segments of the Wadi. Tree size distribution was used as an indicator of long-term (decades) geo-hydrologic spatial processes affecting the acacia population. The tree health (NDVI) distribution was used as an indicator of short-term (months to a few years) geo-hydrologic spatial processes, such as the paths of recent flashfloods events. The distribution of the trees in the Wadi (ephemeral river) was divided into three distinct categories: (1) large trees with high NDVI values, (2) large trees with low NDVI values and (3) small trees with medium NDVI values. Using the resulting classification, we divided the Wadi into three sections, each representing a unique combination of long- and short-term geo-hydrologic processes affecting the acacia trees. We suggest that the lack of spatial correlation between tree size and health status is a result of spatio-temporal changes in the water supply. Our main conclusion is that past and current alterations of the runoff path can be detected by the spatial analysis of trees in hyper-arid regions

  15. Effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis amendment on soil chemical properties, enzymatic activity, Acacia species growth and roots symbioses

    OpenAIRE

    Soumare, A.; Manga, A.; Fall, S.; Hafidi, M.; Ndoye, I.; Duponnois, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to test the effect of Eucalyptus litter on growth, roots symbioses status and nutrition of Sahelian acacia's seedlings. Sangalkam sandy soil was amended with two levels (1 and 5 %) of Eucalyptus litter. As control of the effect of litter addition, sandy soil was amended with 1 and 5 % of maize litter. In addition, a control without amendment was established to highlight any changes caused by amendments. Eucalyptus litter impact on A. senegal, A. seyal and A. albida was determ...

  16. Formulation and conservation of a pharmaceutical form with leaf extracts from Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook et Arn

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, M. E.; Gomez, J. D.; Vatuone,M.; M. I. Isla

    2004-01-01

    Leaf fluid extracts of Acacia aroma GILL. ex Hook et Arn showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic multiresistant bacteria isolated from clinical samples, antioxidant and ant-inflammatory activities. Toxicological studies carried out on Artemia salina and Allium cepa attested none toxicity potential. The aim of this work was to elaborate a formulation of topical antibacterial hydrogel with Carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing an A. aroma fluid extract in order to compare with a hyd...

  17. Sodium alginate and gum acacia hydrogels of ZnO nanoparticles show wound healing effect on fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguvaran, R; Manuja, Balvinder K; Chopra, Meenu; Thakur, Rajesh; Anand, Taruna; Kalia, Anu; Manuja, Anju

    2017-03-01

    An ideal biomaterial for wound dressing applications should possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties without any toxicity to the host cells while providing the maximum healing activity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) possess antimicrobial activity and enhance wound healing, but the questions regarding their safety arise before application to the biological systems. We synthesized ZnONPs-loaded-sodium alginate-gum acacia hydrogels (SAGA-ZnONPs) by cross linking hydroxyl groups of the polymers sodium alginate and gum acacia with the aldehyde group of gluteradehyde. Here, we report the wound healing properties of sodium alginate/gum acacia/ZnONPs, circumventing the toxicity of ZnONPs simultaneously. We demonstrated the concentration-dependent zones of inhibition in treated cultures of Pseudomonas aerigunosa and Bacillus cereus and biocompatability on peripheral blood mononuclear/fibroblast cells. SAGA-ZnONPs hydrogels showed a healing effect at a low concentration of ZnONPs using sheep fibroblast cells. Our findings suggest that high concentrations of ZnONPs were toxic to cells but SAGA-ZnONPs hydrogels significantly reduced the toxicity and preserved the beneficial antibacterial and healing effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of Nosema and Virus in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Colonies on Flowering Period of Acacia in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, In-Pyo; Woo, Soon-Ok; Choi, Yong-Soo; Han, Sang-Mi; Kim, Nam-Suk; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Han, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Man-Young; Lee, Myeong-Lyeol; Byeon, Kyu-Ho

    2011-12-01

    Honey production from approximately 1.6 million colonies owned by about 199,000 Korean beekeepers was almost 23,000 metric tons in 2009. Nosema causes significant losses in honey production and the virus decreases population size. We initiated a survey of honey bee colonies on the blooming period of Acacia to determine the prevalence of Nosema and virus in 2011. Most Korean beekeepers have moved from the south to north of Korea to get Acacia nectar for 2 mon. This provided a valuable opportunity to sample bees originating from diverse areas in one location. Twenty hives owned by 18 beekeepers were sampled in this year. Nosema spore counts ranged from zero to 1,710,000 spores per bee. The average number of nosema spores per bee was 580,000. Approximately 95% of the colonies were infected with Nosema, based on the presence of spores in the flowering period of Acacia. This indicates that Nosema is the predominant species affecting honeybee colonies. Also, the seven most important honeybee viruses were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR. Among them, four different viruses were detected in samples. Black queen cell virus was present in all samples. Chronic bee paralysis virus was detected in 10% of samples. Deformed wing virus was present in only 5% of the samples. Prevalence of Sacbrood virus was 15%. However, Cloudy wing virus, Israel acute paralysis virus and kashmir bee virus were not detected in any of samples.

  19. Mediterranean savanna of Acacia caven (Mol) is still a sink of CO2 in spite of severe hydrological drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Martínez, F.; Meza, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    An eddy covariance tower was set up to monitor net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on a mediterranean shrubland of Acacia caven (Mol) in October 2010. This ecosystem (commonly referred as "espinal") is one of the most abundant land covers of Chile's central valley (2.000.000 ha). The last two years (2010-2011) were characterized by the occurrence of a severe drought (rainfall deficit 56%) and a small increase in temperature evaluated using a climatic change index (Peterson, 2005). We also detected a strong reduction in vegetation index during this period (evaluated using MODIS imagery). The historical analysis of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and leaf area index (LAI) showed that water status of the acacia savanna were at a minimum during this period (record of 14 years of data). The annual balance of NEE of 2011 was -54gC m-2 y-1, which means that the espinal is a sink of atmospheric CO2 notwithstanding the many stressors on photosynthesis. Monthly analysis of NEE shows the strong dependence of ecosystem fluxes on phenological state. Maximum rates of assimilation are a consequence of grassland activity, whereas secondary picks during the year (late spring and early autumn) are attributed to the semideciduos leaf of A. caven. Climatic conditions during the study season, confirm the tremendous plasticity of Acacia caven and its role as a colonizer of degraded sclerophyll forest because it adaptation to water and thermal stress.

  20. Acacia karroo invasion of grassland: environmental and biotic effects influencing seedling emergence and establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, T G

    1995-08-01

    Acacia karroo Hayne is the most important woody invader of grassland in South Africa, and can greatly reduce the productivity of grassland. A field experiment was conducted to test the hypotheses that emergence, growth and the 1st year's survival of Acacia karroo would be enhanced by (1) defoliation of the grass sward, (2) increased irradiance, (3) increased moisture availability and (4) its germination within cattle dung pats. The study was conducted on one site above and one below the natural altitudinal treeline of this species in grassland of the eastern Cape, South Africa. Not one seedling emerged from dung pats. Neither location nor the other treatments affected the density of emerging seedlings, although only 40.4 seedlings m-2 emerged of the 200 seeds m-2 planted. Shading dramatically increased the density of surviving seedlings. In the open, only 3 and 1.5 seedlings m-2 remained respectively at the end of the growing season or the beginning of the next, compared to 23.3 and 19.5 seedlings m-2 under shading for these respective times. This was attributed to the effect of shade on moisture availability in a season which received only 54% of average rainfall. Seedling survival until the end of the growing season was enhanced (30%) by shade at both sites, but also by supplemental water (24%) and defoliation of the sward (7%) at the site above the treeline. Across sites and treatments, seedling survival was related to moisture availability, with no or poor survival for < 500 mm rainfall, indicating this species can only establish in certain rainfall years. Seedling survival over winter was not influenced by treatment, but was greater for larger seedlings. Treatments affected seedling size, in particular seedlings growing under shade and within a dense grass canopy were etiolated. A. karroo seedlings are capable of establishing and surviving within a dense grass sward for at least a year, tolerant of low irradiance and of interference, which, because most seeds